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1

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission produced the most complete, highest-resolution digital elevation model of the Earth. The project was a joint endeavor of NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, and the German and Italian Space Agencies and flew in February 2000. It used dual radar antennas to acquire interferometric radar data, processed to digital topographic data at 1 arc sec resolution.

Tom G. Farr; Paul A. Rosen; Edward Caro; Robert Crippen; Riley Duren; Scott Hensley; Michael Kobrick; Mimi Paller; Ernesto Rodriguez; Ladislav Roth; David Seal; Scott Shaffer; Joanne Shimada; Jeffrey Umland; Marian Werner; Michael Oskin; Douglas Burbank; Douglas Alsdorf

2007-01-01

2

The shuttle radar topography mission—a new class of digital elevation models acquired by spaceborne radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

For 11 days in February 2000, the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) successfully recorded by interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data of the entire land mass of the earth between 60°N and 57°S. The data acquired in C- and X-bands are processed into the first global digital elevation models (DEMs) at 1 arc sec resolution, by NASA-JPL and German aerospace

Bernhard Rabus; Michael Eineder; Achim Roth; Richard Bamler

2003-01-01

3

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), which flew successfully aboard Endeavour in February 2000, is a cooperative project between NASA and the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA). The mission was designed to use a single-pass radar interferometer to produce a digital elevation model of the Earth's land surface between about 60 degrees north and 56 degrees south latitude. The

T. G. Farr; M. Kobrick

2001-01-01

4

Structural analysis of the central Columbia Plateau utilizing radar, digital topography, and magnetic data bases  

SciTech Connect

Interest in the Hanford site (Washington) as a nuclear production, power, and waste disposal site has led to generation of a vast quantity of geophysical and remote sensing data sets of the central Columbia Plateau. To data, these various studies, including at least 13 independent magnetic linear and image lineament studies, have not been adequately correlated. Therefore, these studies provide a unique opportunity to compare and contrast the viability of the different geophysical and remote sensing techniques. The geology of the central Columbia Plateau is characterized by subdued topography and limited outcrop, with most of the exposure concentrated in localized folded/faulted mountains (the Yakima folds) and along river canyons. In order to efficiently compare lineament data bases, we have written an automated computer routine that correlated lineaments that are within a user specified distance of each other. The angle between their trends has to be less than an input maximum separation angle. If more than two lineament maps exist for the area, the analyst may also specify the minimum number of times each structure must be seen. The lineament correlation routine was applied to data bases of all aeromagnetic linears as well as lineaments seen on radar and a digital elevation model DEM image. Geologic structures align with a set of three-dimensional planar structures identified with our Geologic Spatial Analysis (GSA) system. The GSA analysis is based upon computer automated detection of valley bottoms as defined by a DEM.

Thiessen, R.L.; Eliason, J.R.; Johnson, L.K.; Brougher, C.W. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Geology; Foley, M.G.; Beaver, D.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1991-08-01

5

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On February 22, 2000 Space Shuttle Endeavour landed at Kennedy Space Center, completing the highly successful 11-day flight of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Onboard were over 300 high-density tapes containing data for the highest resolution, most complete digital topographic map of Earth ever made. SRTM is a cooperative project between NASA and the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense. The mission was designed to use a single-pass radar interferometer to produce a digital elevation model (DEM) of the Earth's land surface between about 60 deg north and 56 deg south latitude. When completed, the DEM will have 30 m pixel spacing and about 15 m vertical accuracy. Two orthorectified image mosaics (one from the ascending passes with illumination from the southeast and one from descending passes with illumination from the southwest) will also be produced.

Farr, Tom G.; Kobrick, Mike

2000-01-01

6

RADAR Reveals Titan Topography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cassini Titan RADAR Mapper is a K(sub u)-band (13.78 GHz, lambda = 2.17 cm) linear polarized RADAR instrument capable of operating in synthetic aperture (SAR), scatterometer, altimeter and radiometer modes. During the first targeted flyby of Titan on 26 October, 2004 (referred to as Ta) observations were made in all modes. Evidence for topographic relief based on the Ta altimetry and SAR data are presented here. Additional SAR and altimetry observations are planned for the T3 encounter on 15 February, 2005, but have not been carried out at this writing. Results from the T3 encounter relevant to topography will be included in our presentation. Data obtained in the Ta encounter include a SAR image swath

Kirk, R. L.; Callahan, P.; Seu, R.; Lorenz, R. D.; Paganelli, F.; Lopes, R.; Elachi, C.

2005-01-01

7

Water slope and discharge in the Amazon River estimated using the shuttle radar topography mission digital elevation model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We find that the standard deviation, hence error, of the water surface elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) is 5.51 m for basin-wide, regional and local Amazon mainstem reaches. This error implies a minimum reach length of 733km in order to calculate a reliable water-surface slope. Resulting slopes are 1.92 +\\/- 0.19 cm\\/km for Manacapuru, 2.86 +\\/-

Gina LeFavour; Doug Alsdorf

2005-01-01

8

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission: Introduction to Special Session  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), which flew successfully aboard Endeavour in February 2000, is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency, and the German and Italian Space Agencies. The mission was designed to use a single-pass radar interferometer to produce a digital elevation model of the Earth's land surface between about 60^o north and 56^o

T. G. Farr; M. Werner; M. Kobrick

2003-01-01

9

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM): a breakthrough in remote sensing of topography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), flown on the Space Shuttle Endeavour on Flight STS-99 and launched on 11 February 2000, will produce digital elevation data of the Earth's land mass between 60 degrees north latitude and 54 degrees south latitude. This data will be at least one order of magnitude more precise in the elevation resolution, and will have

Jakob J. van Zyl

2001-01-01

10

Shuttle radar topography mission produces a wealth of data  

Microsoft Academic Search

On February 22, 2000, the Space Shuttle Endeavour landed at Kennedy Space Center, completing the highly successful 11-day flight of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Onboard were over 300 high-density tapes containing data for the highest resolution digital topographic map of Earth ever made.SRTM is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National

Tom G. Farr; Mike Kobrick

2000-01-01

11

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission: A Global DEM  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digital topographic data are critical for a variety of civilian, commercial, and military applications. Scientists use Digital Elevation Models (DEM) to map drainage patterns and ecosystems, and to monitor land surface changes over time. The mountain-building effects of tectonics and the climatic effects of erosion can also be modeled with DEW The data's military applications include mission planning and rehearsal, modeling and simulation. Commercial applications include determining locations for cellular phone towers, enhanced ground proximity warning systems for aircraft, and improved maps for backpackers. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) (Fig. 1), is a cooperative project between NASA and the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense. The mission is designed to use a single-pass radar interferometer to produce a digital elevation model of the Earth's land surface between about 60 degrees north and south latitude. The DEM will have 30 m pixel spacing and about 15 m vertical errors.

Farr, Tom G.; Kobrick, Mike

2000-01-01

12

Radar interferometry studies of the earth's topography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digital elevation models (DEMs) which have been acquired using the TOPSAR interferometric radar sensor are directly applicable to geological and geophysical studies. Attention is presently given to three illustrative examples of the use of DEMs: the correction of remote-sensing observations for local slope and topographic effects, topographic expressions of erosion and uplift in alluvial fans, and volcanology. The greatest advantages of TOPSAR over conventional photogrammetry include rapidity of data collection, high spatial and vertical resolution, and the ability to obtain contiguous data independent of cloud cover.

Evans, Diane L.; Farr, Tom G.; Zebker, Howard A.; Van Zyl, Jakob J.; Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.

1992-01-01

13

Shuttle Radar Topography Mission - New Products in 2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In February 2000, the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) successfully collected Interferometric C-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar data over 80 percent of the Earth's land surface, for most of the area between 60?N and 56?S latitude. NASA and the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), formerly known as the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA), co-sponsored the mission. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) performed preliminary processing of SRTM data and forwarded partially finished data directly to NGA for finishing by NGA contractors and subsequent monthly deliveries to the NGA Digital Products Data Warehouse (DPDW). All data products delivered by the contractors conform to NGA SRTM Data Products and NGA Digital Terrain Elevation Data? (DTED?) specifications. The DPDW ingests the SRTM data products, checks them for formatting errors, loads the public SRTM DTED? into the NGA data distribution system, and ships them to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS). In addition to NGA's SRTM DTED? format, USGS EROS has reformatted the data into a non-proprietary, generic raster binary SRTM format that is readable by most remote sensing software packages. The SRTM format is also publicly available from USGS EROS.

U.S. Geological Survey

2007-01-01

14

All-digital radar architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All digital radar architecture requires exclude mechanical scan system. The phase antenna array is necessarily large because the array elements must be co-located with very precise dimensions and will need high accuracy phase processing system for aggregate and distribute T/R modules data to/from antenna elements. Even phase array cannot provide wide field of view. New nature inspired all digital radar architecture proposed. The fly's eye consists of multiple angularly spaced sensors giving the fly simultaneously thee wide-area visual coverage it needs to detect and avoid the threats around him. Fly eye radar antenna array consist multiple directional antennas loose distributed along perimeter of ground vehicle or aircraft and coupled with receiving/transmitting front end modules connected by digital interface to central processor. Non-steering antenna array allows creating all-digital radar with extreme flexible architecture. Fly eye radar architecture provides wide possibility of digital modulation and different waveform generation. Simultaneous correlation and integration of thousands signals per second from each point of surveillance area allows not only detecting of low level signals ((low profile targets), but help to recognize and classify signals (targets) by using diversity signals, polarization modulation and intelligent processing. Proposed all digital radar architecture with distributed directional antenna array can provide a 3D space vector to the jammer by verification direction of arrival for signals sources and as result jam/spoof protection not only for radar systems, but for communication systems and any navigation constellation system, for both encrypted or unencrypted signals, for not limited number or close positioned jammers.

Molchanov, Pavlo A.

2014-10-01

15

Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry to Measure Earth's Surface Topography and Its Deformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) from Earth-orbiting spacecraft provides a new tool to map global topography and deformation of the Earth's surface. Radar images taken from slightly different viewing directions allow the construction of digital elevation models of meter-scale accuracy. These data sets aid in the analysis and interpretation of tectonic and volcanic landscapes. If the Earth's surface deformed between two radar image acquisitions, a map of the surface displacement with tens-of-meters resolution and subcentimeter accuracy can be constructed. This review gives a basic overview of InSAR for Earth scientists and presents a selection of geologic applications that demonstrate the unique capabilities of InSAR for mapping the topography and deformation of the Earth.

Bürgmann, Roland; Rosen, Paul A.; Fielding, Eric J.

16

Customizable Digital Receivers for Radar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compact, highly customizable digital receivers are being developed for the system described in 'Radar Interferometer for Topographic Mapping of Glaciers and Ice Sheets' (NPO-43962), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 7 (August 2007), page 72. The receivers are required to operate in unison, sampling radar returns received by the antenna elements in a digital beam-forming (DBF) mode. The design of these receivers could also be adapted to commercial radar systems. At the time of reporting the information for this article, there were no commercially available digital receivers capable of satisfying all of the operational requirements and compact enough to be mounted directly on the antenna elements. A provided figure depicts the overall system of which the digital receivers are parts. Each digital receiver includes an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), a demultiplexer (DMUX), and a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The ADC effects 10-bit band-pass sampling of input signals having frequencies up to 3.5 GHz. The input samples are demultiplexed at a user-selectable rate of 1:2 or 1:4, then buffered in part of the FPGA that functions as a first-in/first-out (FIFO) memory. Another part of the FPGA serves as a controller for the ADC, DMUX, and FIFO memory and as an interface between (1) the rest of the receiver and (2) a front-panel data port (FPDP) bus, which is an industry-standard parallel data bus that has a high data-rate capability and multichannel configuration suitable for DBF. Still other parts of the FPGA in each receiver perform signal-processing functions. The digital receivers can be configured to operate in a stand-alone mode, or in a multichannel mode as needed for DBF. The customizability of the receiver makes it applicable to a broad range of system architectures. The capability for operation of receivers in either a stand-alone or a DBF mode enables the use of the receivers in an unprecedentedly wide variety of radar systems.

Moller, Delwyn; Heavey, Brandon; Sadowy, Gregory

2008-01-01

17

Satellite remote sensing of landscape freeze/thaw state dynamics for complex Topography and Fire Disturbance Areas Using multi-sensor radar and SRTM digital elevation models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We characterize differences in radar-derived freeze/thaw state, examining transitions over complex terrain and landscape disturbance regimes. In areas of complex terrain, we explore freezekhaw dynamics related to elevation, slope aspect and varying landcover. In the burned regions, we explore the timing of seasonal freeze/thaw transition as related to the recovering landscape, relative to that of a nearby control site. We apply in situ biophysical measurements, including flux tower measurements to validate and interpret the remotely sensed parameters. A multi-scale analysis is performed relating high-resolution SAR backscatter and moderate resolution scatterometer measurements to assess trade-offs in spatial and temporal resolution in the remotely sensed fields.

Podest, Erika; McDonald, Kyle; Kimball, John; Randerson, James

2003-01-01

18

New Orleans Topography, Radar Image with Colored Height  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for the animation

About the animation: This simulated view of the potential effects of storm surge flooding on Lake Pontchartrain and the New Orleans area was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. Although it is protected by levees and sea walls against storm surges of 18 to 20 feet, much of the city is below sea level, and flooding due to storm surges caused by major hurricanes is a concern. The animation shows regions that, if unprotected, would be inundated with water. The animation depicts flooding in one-meter increments.

About the image: The city of New Orleans, situated on the southern shore of Lake Pontchartrain, is shown in this radar image from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). In this image bright areas show regions of high radar reflectivity, such as from urban areas, and elevations have been coded in color using height data also from the SRTM mission. Dark green colors indicate low elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

New Orleans is near the center of this scene, between the lake and the Mississippi River. The line spanning the lake is the Lake Pontchartrain Causeway, the world's longest overwater highway bridge. Major portions of the city of New Orleans are actually below sea level, and although it is protected by levees and sea walls that are designed to protect against storm surges of 18 to 20 feet, flooding during storm surges associated with major hurricanes is a significant concern.

Data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C.

Location: 30.2 degrees North latitude, 90.1 degrees East longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Size: 80.3 by 68.0 kilometers (49.9 by 42.3 miles) Image Data: Radar image and colored Shuttle Radar Topography Mission elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

2005-01-01

19

Interferometric aligment of the X-SAR antenna system on the space shuttle radar topography mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The on-orbit alignment of the antenna beams of both the X-band and C-band radar systems during operations of the shuttle radar topography mission/X-band synthetic aperture radar (SRTM/X-SAR)was a key requirement for achieving best interferometric performance.

Geudtner, D.; Zink, M.; Gierull, C.; Shaffer, S.

2002-01-01

20

Architecture for a 1-GHz Digital RADAR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An architecture for a Direct RF-digitization Type Digital Mode RADAR was developed at GSFC in 2008. Two variations of a basic architecture were developed for use on RADAR imaging missions using aircraft and spacecraft. Both systems can operate with a pulse repetition rate up to 10 MHz with 8 received RF samples per pulse repetition interval, or at up to 19 kHz with 4K received RF samples per pulse repetition interval. The first design describes a computer architecture for a Continuous Mode RADAR transceiver with a real-time signal processing and display architecture. The architecture can operate at a high pulse repetition rate without interruption for an infinite amount of time. The second design describes a smaller and less costly burst mode RADAR that can transceive high pulse repetition rate RF signals without interruption for up to 37 seconds. The burst-mode RADAR was designed to operate on an off-line signal processing paradigm. The temporal distribution of RF samples acquired and reported to the RADAR processor remains uniform and free of distortion in both proposed architectures. The majority of the RADAR's electronics is implemented in digital CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor), and analog circuits are restricted to signal amplification operations and analog to digital conversion. An implementation of the proposed systems will create a 1-GHz, Direct RF-digitization Type, L-Band Digital RADAR--the highest band achievable for Nyquist Rate, Direct RF-digitization Systems that do not implement an electronic IF downsample stage (after the receiver signal amplification stage), using commercially available off-the-shelf integrated circuits.

Mallik, Udayan

2011-01-01

21

A new, earth-based radar technique for the measurement of lunar topography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio interferometry is a new technique for the measurement of the surface topography of the Moon. Elevation data may be obtained directly without regard for unambiguously-identified features, for any lunar surface element that yields a recognizable radar echo.

S. H. Zisk

1972-01-01

22

STS-99 Shuttle Radar Topography Mission Stability and Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) flew aboard Space Shuttle Endeavor February 2000 and used interferometry to map 80% of the Earth's landmass. SRTM employed a 200-foot deployable mast structure to extend a second antenna away from the main antenna located in the Shuttle payload bay. Mapping requirements demanded precision pointing and orbital trajectories from the Shuttle on-orbit Flight Control System (PCS). Mast structural dynamics interaction with the FCS impacted stability and performance of the autopilot for attitude maneuvers and pointing during mapping operations. A damper system added to ensure that mast tip motion remained with in the limits of the outboard antenna tracking system while mapping also helped to mitigate structural dynamic interaction with the FCS autopilot. Late changes made to the payload damper system, which actually failed on-orbit, required a redesign and verification of the FCS autopilot filtering schemes necessary to ensure rotational control stability. In-flight measurements using three sensors were used to validate models and gauge the accuracy and robustness of the pre-mission notch filter design.

Hamelin, Jennifer L.; Jackson, Mark C.; Kirchwey, Christopher B.; Pileggi, Roberto A.

2001-01-01

23

Characterization and quantification of data voids in the shuttle Radar topography mission data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to characterize and quantify the occurrence of data voids in data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) for the conterminous United States. For this purpose, SRTM data and corresponding data from the national elevation data were downloaded in 21 samples spatially organized to cover the main topography of the U.S. Void locations in

Ola Hall; Giacomo Falorni; Rafael L. Bras

2005-01-01

24

(abstract) Large-Scale Topography on Main-Belt Asteroids: Evidence from Arecibo Radar Spectra  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Arecibo lambda 13 cm radar spectra of the main belt asteroids 7 Iris, 9 Metis, 12 Victoria, 216 Kleopatra, and 654 Zelinda exhibit evidence for large-scale topography. These asteroids range in diameter from 113 to 200 km and include members of the S,C, and M classes. Radar.

Mitchell, D. L.; Ostro, S. J.; Rosma, K. D.; Campbell, D. B.; Chandler, J. F.; Shapiro, I. I.; Hudson, R. S.

1994-01-01

25

Topography adjacent to Signal Corps Radar (S.C.R.) 296 Station 5, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Topography adjacent to Signal Corps Radar (S.C.R.) 296 Station 5, showing conditions before construction, May 28, 1943, this drawing shows the Bonita Ridge access road retaining wall and general conditions at Bonita Ridge before the construction of Signal Corps Radar (S.C.R.) 296 Station 5 - Fort Barry, Signal Corps Radar 296, Station 5, Transmitter Building Foundation, Point Bonita, Marin Headlands, Sausalito, Marin County, CA

26

Digital Earth Workbench: 3D Topography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Digital Earth Workbench is an interactive application that runs on a SGI Onyx Infinite Reality system and is controlled by an Immersive Workbench, tracked stereo glasses, and a tracked wand. The application allows an unprecedented freedom to roam georeferenced datasets at multiple resolutions and timescales. This animation is one of a series of direct creen captures of the application in operation. The occasional menu appearance denotes direct intervention by the operator to add or delete data or to activate a new control option.

Maher, Steve

1999-11-12

27

Cassini RADAR observations of Ligeia Mare : Radiometric Properties and Stereo Topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ligeia Mare is the best-mapped of Titan’s three seas, and has attracted particular interest as the target of the proposed TiME (Titan Mare Explorer) mission. Here we summarize radar observations of this 400km wide feature and its environs from Cassini flybys T25, T28, T29 and T65. As noted in studies of Ontario Lacus (Hayes ref), radar reflectivity can be used with assumptions to assess liquid depth in shallow areas. Most of Ligeia is well below the noise floor of our observations (which varies across the scene - we use the most sensitive central beam where available to pose the tightest sigma-0 constraint) indicating depths likely > 10m, although we delineate some possibly shallow margins to aid in future modeling of tidal currents. In addition, the brightness temperature measured by passive radiometry (Janssen et al., 2009) places a joint constraint on the surface temperature and the emissivity, suggesting an upper limit of 10% on suspended solid material. Combination of SAR imaging from the flybys permits construction of a stereo Digital Elevation Model. This stereo topography is compared with SARtopo measurements and shows a number of 1km high mountains in the surrounding terrain: the peaks of these mountains would be above the horizon as seen from much of Ligeia. The model also places constraints on the watershed of Ligeia and thus on the hydrological balance of precipitation and evaporation. We will also report on further observations of Ligeia planned in the T86 flyby, shortly before the DPS meeting.

Lorenz, Ralph; Kirk, R.; Stofan, E.; Lunine, J.; Hayes, A.; Stiles, B.; Mitchell, K.; Le Gall, A.; Zebker, H.; Wye, L.; Encrenaz, P.; Aharonson, O.; Lucas, A.; Janssen, M.; Notarnicola, C.; Casarano, D.; Ventura, B.; Cassini RADAR Team

2012-10-01

28

Monitoring thickness and volume changes of the Dongkemadi Ice Field on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (1969–2000) using Shuttle Radar Topography Mission and map data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the first measurement of multi-decadal thickness and volume changes (1969–2000) of the Dongkemadi Ice Field (DIF) in the Tanggula Mountains, central Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China, using multi-source remote sensing data. These include the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) acquired in February, 2000, a DEM generated by digitising analogue topographic maps from 1969, and Landsat

Zhen Li; Qiang Xing; Shiyin Liu; Jianmin Zhou; Lei Huang

2011-01-01

29

Generation of coastal marsh topography with radar and ground-based measurements  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A topographic surface of a low lying coastal marsh was created by using three flood extent vectors digitized from ERS-1 SAR images and two elevation contours from U.S. Geological Survey topographic quadrangles. Point measurement of water depth at the times of the SAR collections allowed conversion of the radar measured flood extent vectors to topographic contours. Generation of the topographic surface was accomplished with a surface gridding algorithm. SAR and on-site measures. Errors in the generated topography were mainly associated with the lack of input contours covering narrow to broad plateaus and topographic highs and lows. The misplacement of SAR derived flood extent vectors also caused errors in sparsely vegetated high marsh at convoluted marsh-forest boundaries, and at topographic depressions. Overall, the standard deviation of differences between measured and predicted elevations at 747 points was 19 cm. Excluding the above mentioned abrupt boundaries and topographic highs and lows outside the range of available contours, standard deviation differences averaged about 14 cm, but most often averaged about 8 cm. This suggested a 5 to 9 factor improvement over the 150 cm topographic resolution currently available for this area.

Ramsey, Elijah W., III; Nelson, G.A.; Laine, S.C.; Kirkman, R.G.; Topham, W.

1997-01-01

30

Generation of coastal marsh topography with radar and ground-based measurements  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A topographic surface of a low lying coastal marsh was created by using three flood extent vectors digitized from ERS-1 SAR images and two elevation contours from U.S. Geological Survey topographic quadrangles. Point measurement of water depth at the times of the SAR collections allowed conversion of the radar measured flood extent vectors to topographic contours. Generation of the topographic surface was accomplished with a surface gridding algorithm, SAR and on-site measures. Errors in the generated topography were mainly associated with the lack of input contours covering narrow to broad plateaus and topographic highs and lows. The misplacement of SAR derived flood extent vectors also caused errors in sparsely vegetated high marsh, at convoluted marsh-forest boundaries, and at topographic depressions. Overall, the standard deviation of differences between measured and predicted elevations at 747 points was 19 cm. Excluding the above mentioned abrupt boundaries and topographic highs and lows outside the range of available contours, standard deviation differences averaged about 14 cm, but most often averaged about 8 cm. This suggested a 5 to 9 factor improvement over the 150 cm topographic resolution currently available for this area.

Ramsey, Elijah W., III; Nelson, G.A.; Laine, S.C.; Kirkman, R.G.; Topham, W.

1998-01-01

31

APQ-102 imaging radar digital image quality study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A modified APQ-102 sidelooking radar collected synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data which was digitized and recorded on wideband magnetic tape. These tapes were then ground processed into computer compatible tapes (CCT's). The CCT's may then be processed into high resolution radar images by software on the CYBER computer.

Griffin, C. R.; Estes, J. M.

1982-01-01

32

Weighting in digital synthetic aperture radar processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Weighting is employed in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) processing to reduce the sidelobe response at the expense of peak center response height and mainlobe resolution. The weighting effectiveness in digital processing depends not only on the choice of weighting function, but on the fineness of sampling and quantization, on the time bandwidth product, on the quadratic phase error, and on the azimuth antenna pattern. The results of simulations conducted to uncover the effect of these parameters on azimuth weighting effectiveness are presented. In particular, it is shown that multilook capabilities of future SAR systems may obviate the need for consideration of the antenna pattern, and that azimuth time-bandwidth products of over 200 are probably required before the digital results begin to approach the ideal results.

Dicenzo, A.

1979-01-01

33

Space Radar Image of Long Valley, California -Interferometry/Topography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These four images of the Long Valley region of east-central California illustrate the steps required to produced three dimensional data and topographics maps from radar interferometry. All data displayed in these images were acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour during its two flights in April and October, 1994. The image in the upper left shows L-band (horizontally transmitted and received) SIR-C radar image data for an area 34 by 59 kilometers (21 by 37 miles). North is toward the upper right; the radar illumination is from the top of the image. The bright areas are hilly regions that contain exposed bedrock and pine forest. The darker gray areas are the relatively smooth, sparsely vegetated valley floors. The dark irregular patch near the lower left is Lake Crowley. The curving ridge that runs across the center of the image from top to bottom is the northeast rim of the Long Valley Caldera, a remnant crater from a massive volcanic eruption that occurred about 750,000 years ago. The image in the upper right is an interferogram of the same area, made by combining SIR-C L-band data from the April and October flights. The colors in this image represent the difference in the phase of the radar echoes obtained on the two flights. Variations in the phase difference are caused by elevation differences. Formation of continuous bands of phase differences, known as interferometric 'fringes', is only possible if the two observations were acquired from nearly the same position in space. For these April and October data takes, the shuttle tracks were less than 100 meters (328 feet) apart. The image in the lower left shows a topographic map derived from the interferometric data. The colors represent increments of elevation, as do the thin black contour lines, which are spaced at 50-meter (164-foot) elevation intervals. Heavy contour lines show 250-meter intervals (820-foot). Total relief in this area is about 1,320 meters (4,330 feet). Brightness variations come from the radar image, which has been geometrically corrected to remove radar distortions and rotated to have north toward the top. The image in the lower right is a three-dimensional perspective view of the northeast rim of the Long Valley caldera, looking toward the northwest. SIR-C C-band radar image data are draped over topographic data derived from the interferometry processing. No vertical exaggeration has been applied. Combining topographic and radar image data allows scientists to examine relationships between geologic structures and landforms, and other properties of the land cover, such as soil type, vegetation distribution and hydrologic characteristics. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

1994-01-01

34

Digital Beamforming Synthetic Aperture Radar (DBSAR) Polarimetric Upgrade  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Digital Beamforming Synthetic Aperture Radar (DBSAR) is a state-of-the-art radar system developed at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center for the development and implementation of digital beamforming radar techniques. DBSAR was recently upgraded to polarimetric operation in order to enhance its capability as a science instrument. Two polarimetric approaches were carried out which will be demonstrated in upcoming flight campaigns.

Rincon, Rafael F.; Perrine, Martin; McLinden, Matthew; Valett, Susan

2011-01-01

35

Modeling of fluidized ejecta emplacement over digital topography on Venus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The FLOW computer model of McEwen and Malin (1989) modified for application to the study of Venus fluidized ejecta blankets (FEBs) demonstrates that relatively low viscosities, yield strengths, and initial velocities are required to duplicate the observed flow paths of the outflow materials. The model calculates the velocities and simulated flow paths of gravity flows over Magellan topography. The model is formulated to determine flow movements from initial conditions, gravitational acceleration, and resistance to motion as described by Coulomb, viscous, and turbulent resistance forces. Successful duplication of observed FEB flow paths has been achieved for the FEB craters Addams, Isabella, and Cochran. When used as a simple energy-line model, the model requires low coefficients of friction to extend FEBs to near their observed termini in the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery, although the resulting straight flow lines do not follow the observed flow paths well. For Bingham flow, the model requires low values of viscosity and yield strength which are more similar to pyroclastic or debris flows than basaltic lavas. Flows of 100-m depth require 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher values of both viscosity and yield strength than 10-m-deep flows. The complicated nature of the flow lines for the low velocity model suggests that FEBs were probably emplaced under variably laminar and turbulent flow conditions, where underlying topography influenced both the direction and energy of flow materials.

Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Gaddis, Lisa

36

Analysis of radar images by means of digital terrain models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is pointed out that the importance of digital terrain models in the processing, analysis, and interpretation of remote sensing data is increasing. In investigations related to the study of radar images, digital terrain models can have a particular significance, because radar reflection is a function of the terrain characteristics. A procedure for the analysis and interpretation of radar images is discussed. The procedure is based on a utilization of computer simulation which makes it possible to produce simulated radar images on the basis of a digital terrain model. The simulated radar images are used for the geometric and radiometric rectification of real radar images. A description of the employed procedures is provided, and the obtained results are discussed, taking into account a test area in Northern California.

Domik, G.; Leberl, F.; Kobrick, M.

1984-01-01

37

Developing tools for digital radar image data evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The refinement of radar image analysis methods has led to a need for a systems approach to radar image processing software. Developments stimulated through satellite radar are combined with standard image processing techniques to create a user environment to manipulate and analyze airborne and satellite radar images. One aim is to create radar products for the user from the original data to enhance the ease of understanding the contents. The results are called secondary image products and derive from the original digital images. Another aim is to support interactive SAR image analysis. Software methods permit use of a digital height model to create ortho images, synthetic images, stereo-ortho images, radar maps or color combinations of different component products. Efforts are ongoing to integrate individual tools into a combined hardware/software environment for interactive radar image analysis.

Domik, G.; Leberl, F.; Raggam, J.

1986-01-01

38

Digital image transformation and rectification of spacecraft and radar images  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Digital image transformation and rectification can be described in three categories: (1) digital rectification of spacecraft pictures on workable stereoplotters; (2) digital correction of radar image geometry; and (3) digital reconstruction of shaded relief maps and perspective views including stereograms. Digital rectification can make high-oblique pictures workable on stereoplotters that would otherwise not accommodate such extreme tilt angles. It also enables panoramic line-scan geometry to be used to compile contour maps with photogrammetric plotters. Rectifications were digitally processed on both Viking Orbiter and Lander pictures of Mars as well as radar images taken by various radar systems. By merging digital terrain data with image data, perspective and three-dimensional views of Olympus Mons and Tithonium Chasma, also of Mars, are reconstructed through digital image processing. ?? 1985.

Wu, S.S.C.

1985-01-01

39

Global Land Topography and Ocean Bathymetry from Radar Altimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new Digital Elevation Model was compiled for ENVISAT with a 5*5' grid spacing. This Global Model was achieved by integrating a Bathymetry model built by Walter Smith from NOAA and David Sandwell from Scripps Institution of Oceanography, USA, with the Altimetry Corrected Elevations (ACE) produced by Philippa Berry of De Montfort University, UK. Both models present the advantage of

D. Defrenne; J. Benveniste

2004-01-01

40

Mapping Ocean Surface Topography with a Synthetic-Aperture Interferometry Radar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We propose to apply the technique of synthetic aperture radar interferometry to the measurement of ocean surface topography at spatial resolution approaching 1 km. The measurement will have wide ranging applications in oceanography, hydrology. and marine geophysics. The oceanographic and related societal applications are briefly discussed in the paper. To meet the requirements for oceanographic applications, the instrument must be flown in an orbit with proper sampling of ocean tides.

Fu, Lee-Lueng; Rodriguez, Ernesto

2006-01-01

41

Mare Crisium area topography - A comparison of earth-based radar and Apollo mapping camera results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An earth-based radar topography (ERT) map has been constructed of the Mare Crisium area. Systematic and random sources of error are discussed. A comparison between the ERT map and Lunar Topographic Orthophotomaps shows a random mean discrepancy of less than 100 m between the two maps, except for small-scale (20 km or less in diameter) features, where systematic smoothing reduces the ERT elevation contrast

Zisk, S.

1978-01-01

42

Structural analysis of three extensional detachment faults with data from the 2000 Space-Shuttle Radar Topography Mission  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Space-Shuttle Radar Topography Mission provided geologists with a detailed digital elevation model of most of Earth's land surface. This new database is used here for structural analysis of grooved surfaces interpreted to be the exhumed footwalls of three active or recently active extensional detachment faults. Exhumed fault footwalls, each with an areal extent of one hundred to several hundred square kilometers, make up much of Dayman dome in eastern Papua New Guinea, the western Gurla Mandhata massif in the central Himalaya, and the northern Tokorondo Mountains in central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Footwall curvature in profile varies from planar to slightly convex upward at Gurla Mandhata to strongly convex upward at northwestern Dayman dome. Fault curvature decreases away from the trace of the bounding detachment fault in western Dayman dome and in the Tokorondo massif, suggesting footwall flattening (reduction in curvature) following exhumation. Grooves of highly variable wavelength and amplitude reveal extension direction, although structural processes of groove genesis may be diverse.

Spencer, J.E.

2010-01-01

43

Digital orthogonal receiver for wideband radar based on compressed sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital orthogonal receiver is one of the key techniques in digital receiver of soft radar, and compressed sensing is attracting more and more attention in radar signal processing. In this paper, we propose a CS digital orthogonal receiver for wideband radar which utilizes compressed sampling in the acquisition of radar raw data. In order to reconstruct complex signal from sub-sampled raw data, a novel sparse dictionary is proposed to represent the real-valued radar raw signal sparsely. Using our dictionary and CS algorithm, we can reconstruct the complex-valued radar signal from sub-sampled echoes. Compared with conventional digital orthogonal radar receiver, the architecture of receiver in this paper is more simplified and the sampling frequency of ADC is reduced sharply. At the same time, the range profile can be obtained during the reconstruction, so the matched filtering can be eliminated in the receiver. Some experiments on ISAR imaging based on simulated data prove that the phase information of radar echoes is well reserved in our orthogonal receiver and the whole design is effective for wideband radar.

Hou, Qingkai; Liu, Yang; Chen, Zengping; Su, Shaoying

2014-10-01

44

Digital Beamforming Synthetic Aperture Radar (DBSAR): Performance Analysis During the Eco-3D 2011 and Summer 2012 Flight Campaigns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Digital Beamforming Synthetic Aperture radar (DBSAR) is a state-of-the-art airborne radar developed at NASA/Goddard for the implementation, and testing of digital beamforming techniques applicable to Earth and planetary sciences. The DBSAR measurements have been employed to study: The estimation of vegetation biomass and structure - critical parameters in the study of the carbon cycle; The measurement of geological features - to explore its applicability to planetary science by measuring planetary analogue targets. The instrument flew two test campaigns over the East coast of the United States in 2011, and 2012. During the campaigns the instrument operated in full polarimetric mode collecting data from vegetation and topography features.

Rincon, Rafael F.; Fatoyinbo, Temilola; Carter, Lynn; Ranson, K. Jon; Vega, Manuel; Osmanoglu, Batuhan; Lee, SeungKuk; Sun, Guoqing

2014-01-01

45

DIGITAL VISION he advent of phased array radars and space-time adaptive processing has given radar  

E-print Network

© DIGITAL VISION T he advent of phased array radars and space-time adaptive processing has given radar designers the ability make radars adaptable on receive. The current state of radar technolo- gy of pairs of complementary sequences. Shortly thereafter, Welti proposed to use Golay sequences in radar

Nehorai, Arye

46

60-m delay-stabilized microwave fiber optic link for the STS99 Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The STS-99 Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) employed radar interferometry to gather high resolution imagery used to generate the most detailed 3D map of the earth's surface ever produced. Such a map has a broad range of both military and commercial uses. This 11-day mission of the Space Shuttle Endeavour took place from February 11 to 22, 2000, and covered

Dennis N. Horwitz

2001-01-01

47

Low-cost, panelized digital array radar antennas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design challenges associated with the development of the antenna array for a highly-integrated, low-cost, panelized radar system have been presented, and the methodology for the development of a digital array radar (DAR) antenna panel has been detailed. Now that a solution for the maximization of scan range in in the DAR antenna panel has been identified, the next step

C. Fulton; W. Chappell

2008-01-01

48

Geological Interpretations of the Topography of Selected Regions of Venus from Arecibo to Goldstone Radar Interferometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radar interferometry using Arecibo to transmit and three antennas at the Goldstone to receive was conducted on 14 dates in Spring, 2001. This data has been used so far to generate DEMs (digital elevation models) for several of the dates with pixel resolution of 0.5-1.0 km. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Jurgens, R. F.; Margot, J-L.; Simons, M.; Pritchard, M. E.; Slade, M. A.

2002-01-01

49

Digital methods of the optimum processing of radar signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In book questions of use\\/application of digital computers for optimum processing of radar signals are examined. Primary attention is given to the detection of signals from the targets, hidden by interferences, and to the determination of the target coordinates. Is described the work of the simplest diagrams of working\\/treatment, their operating principle, and also work of some nodes of digital

S. V. Samsonenko

1985-01-01

50

Extraction of Martian valley networks from digital topography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have developed a novel method for delineating valley networks on Mars. The valleys are inferred from digital topography by an autonomous computer algorithm as drainage networks, instead of being manually mapped from images. Individual drainage basins are precisely defined and reconstructed to restore flow continuity disrupted by craters. Drainage networks are extracted from their underlying basins using the contributing area threshold method. We demonstrate that such drainage networks coincide with mapped valley networks verifying that valley networks are indeed drainage systems. Our procedure is capable of delineating and analyzing valley networks with unparalleled speed and consistency. We have applied this method to 28 Noachian locations on Mars exhibiting prominent valley networks. All extracted networks have a planar morphology similar to that of terrestrial river networks. They are characterized by a drainage density of approx.0.1/km, low in comparison to the drainage density of terrestrial river networks. Slopes of "streams" in Martian valley networks decrease downstream at a slower rate than slopes of streams in terrestrial river networks. This analysis, based on a sizable data set of valley networks, reveals that although valley networks have some features pointing to their origin by precipitation-fed runoff erosion, their quantitative characteristics suggest that precipitation intensity and/or longevity of past pluvial climate were inadequate to develop mature drainage basins on Mars.

Stepinski, T. F.; Collier, M. L.

2004-01-01

51

Crater Detection from Venus Digital Topography and Comparison with Martian and Lunar Craters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used a crater detection algorithm (CDA) for detection of craters from Venus digital topography and computation of the depth/diameter ratio. The results were compared with the accompanying results for martian and lunar craters.

Salamuni?car, G.; Lon?ari?, S.

2012-03-01

52

Topographic Map Generation from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission C-band SCANSAR Interferometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A highly accurate global topographic map of the Earth's surface has been an elusive goal for at least three decades that may soon be achieved with the newly acquired Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) data. SRTM collected data for 99.97% of the Earth's landmass between -57 degrees and 60 degrees latitude during a 11 day mission in February, 2000. A modified version of the SIR-C radar that previously flew on the shuttle in 1994 augmented with a radar mounted on a 62 m boom was used to collect radar interferometric data at C (5.6 cm wavelength) and X (3 cm wavelength) bands. The C-band radar was operated in the SCANSAR mode in order to extend the swath width to 225 km the minimal amount required to achieve contiguous coverage at the equator. This paper presents an overview of the new algorithms and techniques used to process the SCANSAR data to digital elevation maps. First results of topographic maps generated from the SRTM data are used to illustrate the techniques described in this paper.

Hensley, Scott; Rosen, Paul; Gurrola, Eric

2000-01-01

53

SRTM Data on Cyber-ShARE The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data collected by NASA represents the  

E-print Network

SRTM Data on Cyber-ShARE The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data collected by NASA substantially mis-located in existing databases. Cyber-ShARE hosts two versions of the SRTM dataset, stored Centre for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), available from http://srtm.csi.cgiar.org." On the CyberShARE site

Smith-Konter, Bridget

54

The Glacier and Land Ice Surface Topography Interferometer (GLISTIN): A Novel Ka-band Digitally Beamformed Interferometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The estimation of the mass balance of ice sheets and glaciers on Earth is a problem of considerable scientific and societal importance. A key measurement to understanding, monitoring and forecasting these changes is ice-surface topography, both for ice-sheet and glacial regions. As such NASA identified 'ice topographic mapping instruments capable of providing precise elevation and detailed imagery data for measurements on glacial scales for detailed monitoring of ice sheet, and glacier changes' as a science priority for the most recent Instrument Incubator Program (IIP) opportunities. Funded under this opportunity is the technological development for a Ka-Band (35GHz) single-pass digitally beamformed interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR). Unique to this concept is the ability to map a significant swath impervious of cloud cover with measurement accuracies comparable to laser altimeters but with variable resolution as appropriate to the differing scales-of-interest over ice-sheets and glaciers.

Moller, Delwyn K.; Heavey, Brandon; Hodges, Richard; Rengarajan, Sembiam; Rignot, Eric; Rogez, Francois; Sadowy, Gregory; Simard, Marc; Zawadzki, Mark

2006-01-01

55

Three-Frequency Nonlinear Heterodyne Detection. 2: Digital Communications and Pulsed Radar  

E-print Network

Three-Frequency Nonlinear Heterodyne Detection. 2: Digital Communications and Pulsed Radar Malvin Carl Teich and Rainfield Y. Yen Part 1 of this paper [Appl. Opt. 14,666 (1975)]dealt with the cw radar the technique for a number of specificpulsed radar and digital communications applications. Both the vacuum

Teich, Malvin C.

56

Synthetic aperture radar and digital processing: An introduction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A tutorial on synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is presented with emphasis on digital data collection and processing. Background information on waveform frequency and phase notation, mixing, Q conversion, sampling and cross correlation operations is included for clarity. The fate of a SAR signal from transmission to processed image is traced in detail, using the model of a single bright point target against a dark background. Some of the principal problems connected with SAR processing are also discussed.

Dicenzo, A.

1981-01-01

57

Tree height estimation using Shuttle Radar Topography Mission and ancillary data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this dissertation, two methods for estimating tree height using Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and ancillary data are developed and tested. Since the SRTM data set is near-global, the methods developed could be applied to large portions of the world, although the scale-up process is beyond the scope of this work. Previous tree height estimation algorithms have been confined to much smaller data sets. Development of the methods began with validation of the SRTM height data for selected test areas in Southeastern Michigan. Validation statistically characterized the noise in the SRTM height data. The next stage in the development of the first tree height estimation algorithm was the construction of a simplified forward model to relate the observed SRTM data to tree heights, which model relied on a forward model specific to the red pine tree structure. The simplified model was inverted using standard methods to yield tree height as a function of SRTM data. The second algorithm was much more general, not requiring a structure-specific forward model. The resulting tree height estimation algorithm were tested on actual and simulated SRTM data. The simulated data was produced by a simulator from the literature. Two SAR/INSAR simulators, one high-resolution and the other low-resolution, were also developed as a part of this work. Simulated images from the low-resolution simulator were used as an input to further test the first tree height estimation algorithm.

Brown, Charles Gordon

58

A digital beamforming radar profiler for imaging turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital beamforming techniques with adaptive processing have been used for several decades in high performance radar systems to track targets in the presence of jamming. With the availability of inexpensive microwave and digital componentry, these techniques are now practical for non-military applications. The authors have recently developed a 915 MHz digital beamforming radar system, termed the Turbulent Eddy Profiler, designed

James B. Mead; Geoffrey Hopcraft; Brian Pollard; Robert G. McIntosh

1996-01-01

59

First Results of Digital Topography Applied to Macromolecular Crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An inexpensive digital CCD camera was used to record X-ray topographs directly from large imperfect crystals of cubic insulin. The topographs recorded were not as detailed as those which can be measured with film or emulsion plates but do show great promise. Six reflections were recorded using a set of finely spaced stills encompassing the rocking curve of each reflection. A complete topographic reflection profile could be digitally imaged in minutes. Interesting and complex internal structure was observed by this technique.The CCD chip used in the camera has anti-blooming circuitry and produced good data quality even when pixels became overloaded.

Lovelace, J.; Soares, A. S.; Bellamy, H.; Sweet, R. M.; Snell, E. H.; Borgstahl, G.

2004-01-01

60

Interference-Detection Module in a Digital Radar Receiver  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A digital receiver in a 1.26-GHz spaceborne radar scatterometer now undergoing development includes a module for detecting radio-frequency interference (RFI) that could contaminate scientific data intended to be acquired by the scatterometer. The role of the RFI-detection module is to identify time intervals during which the received signal is likely to be contaminated by RFI and thereby to enable exclusion, from further scientific data processing, of signal data acquired during those intervals. The underlying concepts of detection of RFI and rejection of RFI-contaminated signal data are also potentially applicable in advanced terrestrial radio receivers, including software-defined radio receivers in general, receivers in cellular telephones and other wireless consumer electronic devices, and receivers in automotive collision-avoidance radar systems.

Fischman, Mark; Berkun, Andrew; Chu, Anhua; Freedman, Adam; Jourdan, Michael; McWatters, Dalia; Paller, Mimi

2009-01-01

61

The Development of a Radar Digital Unit for the SASARII Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This dissertation describes the design, implementation and testing of the Radar Digital Unit (RDU), a subsystem for the South African Synthetic Aperture Radar II (SASARII). The SASARII is an airborne demonstrator SAR system for a spaceborne SAR and Un- manned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) imaging radar. The demonstrator system parameters, such as bandwidth, reflect the desired spaceborne SAR parameters .

Justin Mark Webster

2004-01-01

62

Elliptical storm cell modeling of digital radar data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model for spatial distributions of reflectivity in storm cells was fitted to digital radar data. The data were taken with a modified WSR-57 weather radar with 2.6-km resolution. The data consisted of modified B-scan records on magnetic tape of storm cells tracked at 0 deg elevation for several hours. The MIT L-band radar with 0.8-km resolution produced cross-section data on several cells at 1/2 deg elevation intervals. The model developed uses ellipses for contours of constant effective-reflectivity factor Z with constant orientation and eccentricity within a horizontal cell cross section at a given time and elevation. The centers of the ellipses are assumed to be uniformly spaced on a straight line, with areas linearly related to log Z. All cross sections are similar at different heights (except for cell tops, bottoms, and splitting cells), especially for the highest reflectivities; wind shear causes some translation and rotation between levels. Goodness-of-fit measures and parameters of interest for 204 ellipses are considered.

Altman, F. J.

1972-01-01

63

Effects of digital elevation model map scale and data resolution on a topography-based watershed model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of digital elevation model (DEM) map scale and data resolution on watershed model predictions of hydrologic characteristics were determined for TOPMODEL, a topography-based watershed model. The effects of topography on watershed hydrology are represented in TOPMODEL as the distribution of ln (a\\/tan B), where ln is the Napierian logarithm, a is the upslope area per unit contour length,

David M. Wolock; Curtis V. Price

1994-01-01

64

Advanced ground-penetrating radar for digital soil mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sustainable and optimal agricultural and environmental management of water and land resources particularly relies on the description and understanding of soil water distribution and dynamics at different scales. We present an advanced ground penetrating radar (GPR) method for mapping the shallow soil water content and unsaturated hydraulic properties at the field scale. The radar system is based on vector network analyzer technology, for which calibration is simple and constitutes an international standard. A directive horn antenna is used as both transmitter and receiver and operates off the ground. A full-waveform model describes accurately the radar signal, and is based on a linear system of complex transfer functions for efficiently describing electromagnetic phenomena within the antenna and its interaction with soil, and a specific solution of the three-dimensional Maxwell's equations for wave propagation in multilayered media. The soil electromagnetic properties and their vertical distribution are estimated by resorting to full-waveform inverse modeling using iterative global optimization methods. The proposed methodology has been validated for a series of model configurations of increasing complexity. The method is now routinely used for real-time mapping of soil surface water content and reconstruct a few number of shallow soil layers. For more complex configurations, it is necessary to regularize the inverse problem. We have shown that constraining radar data inversion using soil hydrodynamic modeling has the potential to reconstruct time-lapse, continuously variable, vertical soil water content profiles and identify the shallow unsaturated hydraulic properties. The proposed approach shows great promise for quantitative imaging of the soil properties at the field scale. The technique will be combined with electromagnetic induction in a mechanistic data fusion framework to further extend its capabilities in a digital soil mapping context.

Lambot, S.; Minet, J.; Jadoon, K. Z.; Slob, E.; Vereecken, H.

2009-04-01

65

A Digital Array Radar with a Hierarchical System Architecture Caleb Fulton, Patrick Clough, Vijay Pai, and William Chappell  

E-print Network

A Digital Array Radar with a Hierarchical System Architecture Caleb Fulton, Patrick Clough, Vijay -- A digital array radar system prototype is pre sented that makes use of a hierarchical digital backend for future radars that fully embrace the concept of lowcost inte gration in a panelized platform

66

IF digitization receiver of wideband digital array radar test-bed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, an X-band, 8-element wideband digital array radar (DAR) test-bed is presented, which makes use of a novel digital backend coupled with highly-integrated, multi-channel intermediate frequency (IF) digital receiver. Radar returns are received by the broadband antenna and then down-converted to the IF of 0.6GHz-3.0GHz. Four band-pass filters are applied in the front-end to divide the IF returns into four frequency bands with the instantaneous bandwidth of 500MHz. Every four array elements utilize a digital receiver, which is focused in this paper. The digital receivers are designed in a compact and flexible manner to meet the demands of DAR system. Each receiver consists of a fourchannel ADC, a high-performance FPGA, four DDR3 chips and two optical transceivers. With the sampling rate of up to 1.2GHz each channel, the ADC is capable of directly sampling the IF returns of four array elements at 10bits. In addition to serving as FIFO and controller, the onboard FPGA is also utilized for the implementation of various real-time algorithms such as DDC and channel calibration. Data is converted to bit stream and transferred through two low overhead, high data rate and multi-channel optical transceivers. Key technologies such as channel calibration and wideband DOA are studied with the measured data which is obtained in the experiments to illustrate the functionality of the system.

Li, Weixing; Zhang, Yue; Lin, Jianzhi; Chen, Zengping

2014-10-01

67

Very high-frequency digital ultrasound evaluation of topography-wavefront-guided repair after radial keratotomy.  

PubMed

We report a topography-wavefront-guided repair procedure in a patient with a decentered optical zone and significant higher-order aberrations (HOAs) following radial keratotomy 14 years previously. The CRS-Master custom ablation software was used to generate a topography-wavefront-guided ablation profile based on Atlas front corneal surface topography data, and the MEL 80 excimer laser was used to treat the patient. Very high-frequency digital ultrasound scanning (Artemis) was performed before and after surgery to measure epithelial and stromal thickness changes to evaluate the anatomical congruity of the planned and achieved irregular ablation. Nine months postoperatively, the optical zone centration was topographically improved and HOAs were significantly lower, with a 90% reduction in spherical aberration. The stromal thickness change map demonstrated that the profile of stromal tissue removed matched the irregular ablation profile. However, the measured stromal thickness change at the maximum point was 33% higher than the predicted ablation depth. The epithelial thickness change measured in this case indicates that topography-guided treatments could be improved by taking epithelial thickness changes into account. PMID:21333882

Reinstein, Dan Z; Archer, Timothy J; Gobbe, Marine

2011-03-01

68

Digital hf radar observations of equatorial spread-F  

SciTech Connect

Modern digital ionosondes, with both direction finding and doppler capabilities can provide large scale pictures of the Spread-F irregularity regions. A morphological framework has been developed that allows interpretation of the hf radar data. A large scale irregularity structure is found to be nightward of the dusk terminator, stationary in the solar reference frame. As the plasma moves through this foehn-wall-like structure it descends, and irregularities may be generated. Localized upwellings, or bubbles, may be produced, and they drift with the background plasma. The spread-F irregularity region is found to be best characterized as a partly cloudy sky, due to the patchiness of the substructures. 13 references, 16 figures.

Argo, P.E.

1984-01-01

69

Classification of Martian Terrain Using Automated Discovery of Structure Algorithm Applied to Digital Topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The morphology of Martian landscape is of great interest because it helps to identify physical processes responsible for the observable topography. Traditionally, the descriptive method, applied to imagery data, has been used to study and categorize different types of Martian landscapes. We are developing a complementary approach, wherein a landscape is classified by a computer algorithm on the basis of digital topography provided by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter data. We have adopted the automatic discovery of structure (ADOS) methodology, an unsupervised learning technique that classifies the data by grouping together similar cases. We use probabilistic algorithm that groups cases into classes by modeling each class through probability density function. Each case has a probability of class membership and is assigned to the class with highest posterior probability. The optimal number of classes is determined by cross-validation. The ADOS algorithm is applied to group pixels in a digital elevation model (DEM) of Tisia Valles, a typical Noachian Martian surface located at 46.13E, 11.83S. This terrain is heavily cratered, and shows presence of channels. An auxiliary DEM of the same size is calculated to contain an elevation field modified to make the landscape drainable. The DEM has 163240 pixels, each pixel carries its local topographical information encapsulated in a list of six quantities (h, ? h, s1, s2, a1, a2) which we call a topography descriptor. The components are: elevation, elevation difference between drainable and original DEMs, slopes in original and drainable DEMs, and contributing areas in original and drainable DEMs, respectively. Euclidean metric in space of topography descriptors is used to measure the ``closeness'' between pixels. The algorithm partitioned the pixels into 12 well-separated classes. Comparison of spatial distribution of these classes with visual rendering of digital topography reveals a geomorphic significance of obtained classification. Interiors of craters, ridges, inter-crater planes and channels are separated into different classes. Some subtle differences between otherwise similar terrain are picked up by our classification. Four classes represent crater interiors; they discriminate between different crater depths. Four classes represent inter-crater plains, they differ by actual elevation. Three classes represent ridges, they discriminate between different slopes. Finally, a single class represents channels. Using this classification we have constructed a thematic map of the Tisia Valles region that portrays spatial relations between various geomorphic features.

Vilalta, R.; Stepinski, T. F.

2003-12-01

70

Ground-based weather radar compatibility with digital radio-relay microwave systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential for ground-based weather radar (meteorological radar) interference to digital microwave systems in the common carrier bands of 3700 to 4200 MHz and 5925 to 6425 MHz is examined. Reported cases of interference to microwave common carrier systems from ground-based weather radar systems have increased due to the trend towards digital modulations. Because of this interference, the National Telecommunications and Information Administration, the Federal Communications Commission and the National Spectrum Managers Association formed an informal working group to investigate and document the potential problems. The existing and planned spectrum uses by ground-based weather radars and digital microwave systems are addressed as well as regulations and policy pertaining to their electromagnetic compatibility. Methods to mitigate the interference in both the radar transmitter and microwave receiver are also provided.

Gawthrop, P. E.; Patrick, G. M.

1990-03-01

71

Digital elevation models of the Moon from Earth-based radar interferometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-dimensional (3D) maps of the nearside and polar regions of the Moon can be obtained with an Earth-based radar interferometer. This paper describes the theoretical background, experimental setup, and processing techniques for a sequence of observations performed with the Goldstone Solar System Radar in 1997. These data provide radar imagery and digital elevation models of the polar areas and other

Jean-Luc Margot; Donald B. Campbell; Raymond F. Jurgens; Martin A. Slade

2000-01-01

72

A High Resolution Radar Altimeter to Measure the Topography of Ice Sheets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This thesis is a reference for the Advanced Application Flight Experiment (AAFE) altimeter. The transmitter and receiver subsections are described and measurements of their current state is provided. During the 1994 NASA Greenland Experiment, the altimeter experienced several hardware malfunctions. The process of returning the radar to its fully operational state is presented in detail and necessary design modifications are explained. An updated radar user's manual is included along with various circuit designs which need to be implemented. The thesis is intended to provide an incoming graduate student with a solid foundation of the fundamentals of AAFE altimeter operation.

Pawul, Rudolf A.

1997-01-01

73

A digital elevation model of the Greenland Ice Sheet derived from combined laser and radar altimetry data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When estimating elevation changes of ice-covered surfaces from radar altimetry, it is important to correct for slope-induced errors. They cause the reflecting point of the pulse to move up-slope and thus return estimates in the wrong coordinates. Slope-induced errors can be corrected for by introducing a Digital Elevation Model (DEM). In this work, such a DEM is developed for the Greenland Ice Sheet using a combination of Envisat radar and ICESat laser altimetry. If time permits, CryoSat radar altimetry will be included as well. The reference year is 2010 and the spatial resolution 2.5 x 2.5 km. This is in accordance with the results obtained in the ESA Ice Sheets CCI project showing that a 5 x 5 km grid spacing is reasonable for ice sheet-wide change detection (Levinsen et al., 2013). Separate DEMs will be created for the given data sets, and the geostatistical spatial interpolation method collocation will be used to merge them, thus adjusting for potential inter-satellite biases. The final DEM is validated with temporally and spatially agreeing airborne lidar data acquired in the NASA IceBridge and ESA CryoVex campaigns. The motivation for developing a new DEM is based on 1) large surface changes presently being observed, and mainly in margin regions, hence necessitating updated topography maps for accurately deriving and correcting surface elevation changes, and 2) although radar altimetry is subject to surface penetration of the signal into the snowpack, data is acquired continuously in time. This is not the case with e.g. ICESat, where laser altimetry data were obtained in periods of active lasers, i.e. three times a year with a 35-day repeat track. Previous DEMs e.g. have 2007 as the nominal reference year, or they are built merely from ICESat data. These have elevation errors as small as 10 cm, which is lower than for Envisat and CryoSat. The advantage of an updated DEM consisting of combined radar and laser altimetry therefore is the possibility of achieving a high spatial and temporal coverage, as well as the opportunity to continuously map surface changes relative to an updated topography and slopes. References: Levinsen, J. F., Khvorostovsky, K., Ticconi, F., Shepherd, A., Forsberg, R., Sørensen, L. S., Muir, A., Pie, N., Felikson, D., Flament, T., Hurkmans, R., Moholdt, G., Gunter, B., Lindenbergh, R. C., and Kleinherenbrink, M.: ESA's Ice Sheets CCI: validation and inter-comparison of surface elevation changes derived from laser and radar altimetry over Jakobshavn Isbræ, Greenland - Round Robin results, The Cryosphere Discuss., 7, 5433-5460, 2013.

Fredenslund Levinsen, Joanna; Smith, Ben; Sørensen, Louise S.; Forsberg, René

2014-05-01

74

Sesso Temtica: Aplicaes Geolgicas e Geomorfolgicas de Anlise Digital de Terreno (Geological and Geomorphological Applications of Digital Terrain Analysis)  

E-print Network

growth in the availability of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) such as the Shuttle Radar Topography orbital imagery (ALOS, ASTER, SPOT) or from Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and laser altimetry Elevation Models and their Applications: From the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission to TanDEM-X and Beyond Dr

75

Development of a ground signal processor for digital synthetic array radar data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A modified APQ-102 sidelooking array radar (SLAR) in a B-57 aircraft test bed is used, with other optical and infrared sensors, in remote sensing of Earth surface features for various users at NASA Johnson Space Center. The video from the radar is normally recorded on photographic film and subsequently processed photographically into high resolution radar images. Using a high speed sampling (digitizing) system, the two receiver channels of cross-and co-polarized video are recorded on wideband magnetic tape along with radar and platform parameters. These data are subsequently reformatted and processed into digital synthetic aperture radar images with the image data available on magnetic tape for subsequent analysis by investigators. The system design and results obtained are described.

Griffin, C. R.; Estes, J. M.

1981-01-01

76

Metrology, attitude, and orbit determination for spaceborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), scheduled for an 11 day Space Shuttle flight in 1999, will use an Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar instrument to produce a near-global digital elevation map of the earth's land surface with 16 m absolute vertical height accuracy at 30 meter postings. SRTM will achieve the required interferometric baseline by extending a receive-only radar antenna

Riley M. Duren; Ed Wong; Bill Breckenridge; Scott Shaffer; Courtney Duncan; Eldred F. Tubbs; Phil M. Salomon

1998-01-01

77

Digitally tunable physicochemical coding of material composition and topography in continuous microfibres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heterotypic functional materials with compositional and topographical properties that vary spatiotemporally on the micro- or nanoscale are common in nature. However, fabricating such complex materials in the laboratory remains challenging. Here we describe a method to continuously create microfibres with tunable morphological, structural and chemical features using a microfluidic system consisting of a digital, programmable flow control that mimics the silk-spinning process of spiders. With this method we fabricated hydrogel microfibres coded with varying chemical composition and topography along the fibre, including gas micro-bubbles as well as nanoporous spindle-knots and joints that enabled directional water collection. We also explored the potential use of the coded microfibres for tissue engineering applications by creating multifunctional microfibres with a spatially controlled co-culture of encapsulated cells.

Kang, Edward; Jeong, Gi Seok; Choi, Yoon Young; Lee, Kwang Ho; Khademhosseini, Ali; Lee, Sang-Hoon

2011-11-01

78

Arecibo to Goldstone Radar Interferometric Topography of Selected Regions of Venus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New high resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) of the equatorial region of Venus will be merged with Magellan imagery in order to investigate the relationship between the emplacement of the plains and the tesserae, and rifting in Phoebe Region. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Slade, M. A.; Simons, M.; Pritchard, M. E.; Jurgens, R. F.

2001-01-01

79

GEOS-3 ocean current investigation using radar altimeter profiling. [Gulf Stream surface topography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Both quasi-stationary and dynamic departures from the marine geoid were successfully detected using altitude measurements from the GEOS-3 radar altimeter. The quasi-stationary departures are observed either as elevation changes in single pass profiles across the Gulf Stream or at the crowding of contour lines at the western and northern areas of topographic maps generated using altimeter data spanning one month or longer. Dynamic features such as current meandering and spawned eddies can be monitored by comparing monthly mean maps. Comparison of altimeter inferred eddies with IR detected thermal rings indicates agreement of the two techniques. Estimates of current velocity are made using derived slope estimates in conjunction with the geostrophic equation.

Leitao, C. D.; Huang, N. E.; Parra, C. G.

1978-01-01

80

Hybrid Optical/Digital Processor for Radar Imaging  

E-print Network

2003 #12;HEPC 2003 September 23, 2003 2 Problem Statement and Solution · Problem: ­ Projected BMD for Packaging AMS, FPGA based VMIC SBC Windows 2000 C++, Labview, Java #12;HEPC 2003 September 23, 2003 9 Radar

Kepner, Jeremy

81

A comparison of U.S. geological survey seamless elevation models with shuttle radar topography mission data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Elevation models produced from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data will be the most comprehensive, consistently processed, highest resolution topographic dataset ever produced for the Earth's land surface. Many applications that currently use elevation data will benefit from the increased availability of data with higher accuracy, quality, and resolution, especially in poorly mapped areas of the globe. SRTM data will be produced as seamless data, thereby avoiding many of the problems inherent in existing multi-source topographic databases. Serving as precursors to SRTM datasets, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has produced and is distributing seamless elevation datasets that facilitate scientific use of elevation data over large areas. GTOPO30 is a global elevation model with a 30 arc-second resolution (approximately 1-kilometer). The National Elevation Dataset (NED) covers the United States at a resolution of 1 arc-second (approximately 30-meters). Due to their seamless format and broad area coverage, both GTOPO30 and NED represent an advance in the usability of elevation data, but each still includes artifacts from the highly variable source data used to produce them. The consistent source data and processing approach for SRTM data will result in elevation products that will be a significant addition to the current availability of seamless datasets, specifically for many areas outside the U.S. One application that demonstrates some advantages that may be realized with SRTM data is delineation of land surface drainage features (watersheds and stream channels). Seamless distribution of elevation data in which a user interactively specifies the area of interest and order parameters via a map server is already being successfully demonstrated with existing USGS datasets. Such an approach for distributing SRTM data is ideal for a dataset that undoubtedly will be of very high interest to the spatial data user community.

Gesch, D.; Williams, J.; Miller, W.

2001-01-01

82

Design and implementation of a digital impulse generator for a 24GHz UWB radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we design and implement a digital impulse generator using a DCM block and an OSERDES block for a 24GHz UWB impulse-Doppler radar. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has confirmed the spectrum from 22 to 29GHz for UWB radar with a limit power of -41.3dBm/MHz. UWB signal possesses an absolute bandwidth larger than 500MHz or a relative bandwidth up to 20%. The vehicle radar is the key technology with the inherent advantage detected the distance and the velocity regardless of weather. Radar has a role to measure the distance and the velocity of long-distance vehicle. But, the radar with 1m resolution is difficult to satisfy the detection performance in the blind spot zone because the blind spot zone needs high resolution. So, UWB impulse-Doppler radar with 30cm resolution is suitable for the blind spot zone. The designed impulse generator has a 2ns pulse width and 100us PRI. We perform simulations through Xilinx ISE; experiments use a spectrum analyzer and a digital oscilloscope. For UWB radar, we use an AD9779 DAC module with a 1Gsps maximum sampling rate. For equipment, we use a TDS5104B oscilloscope of Tektronix with 3dB bandwidth at 1GHz for the analysis of the time domain and an E4448A spectrum analyzer of Agilent with a 50GHz spectrum for the analysis of the frequency domain. The results of the digital impulse measurement show a 2ns pulse width in the time domain, a 500MHz bandwidth, and a 10KHz spectrum peak in the frequency domain.

Kim, Sang-Dong; Lee, Jong-Hun

2011-06-01

83

An atlas of November 1978 synthetic aperture radar digitized imagery for oil spill studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A data set is described which consists of digitized synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery plus correlative data and some preliminary analysis results. This data set should be of value to experimenters who are interested in the SAR instrument and its application to the detection and monitoring of oil on water and other distributed targets.

Maurer, H. E.; Oderman, W.; Crosswell, W. F.

1982-01-01

84

The application of digital signal processing techniques to a teleoperator radar system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A digital signal processing system was studied for the determination of the spectral frequency distribution of echo signals from a teleoperator radar system. The system consisted of a sample and hold circuit, an analog to digital converter, a digital filter, and a Fast Fourier Transform. The system is interfaced to a 16 bit microprocessor. The microprocessor is programmed to control the complete digital signal processing. The digital filtering and Fast Fourier Transform functions are implemented by a S2815 digital filter/utility peripheral chip and a S2814A Fast Fourier Transform chip. The S2815 initially simulates a low-pass Butterworth filter with later expansion to complete filter circuit (bandpass and highpass) synthesizing.

Pujol, A.

1982-01-01

85

Monitoring of Ground Movement and Generation of Digital Elevation Models Using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) has the potential for measuring deformation of the earth's surface with very high accuracy and for the development of digital elevation models. Both capabilities are of high relevance for ground movement assessment. In addition, when archived raw data is available (post 1992), recent historic movement may be quantifiable. InSAR utilizes satellite-based data acquired at two different times along orbits of a similar trajectory to detect changes in the ground surface elevation. This technique can be used to monitor ground movement for rectangular areas as large as 100 kilometers on a side. Knowledge of topography, geology, trends and mechanics of existing ground movement is required for successful interpretation of InSAR data. The detection of ground surface deformation in terrain of high slope relief terrain is difficult. For ground deformation mapping by means of InSAR it is necessary to separate the motion-related and the topographic phase contributions. This is achieved by using a low resolution digital elevation model (DEM) during the processing of InSAR data. The application of InSAR technology to mining areas provides monitoring of not only the active mine areas but also the adjacent regions that has been affected by mining. Thus InSAR technique proves to be an essential ground monitoring methods in future for mining areas. The results from the InSAR analysis are compared with data from a ground-based monitoring system comprised of measured survey prisms for an open pit mine in Canada. InSAR analysis provided the location of the stable site for relocating the crusher which was affected by movement of pit slope. The presentation will show the application of InSAR technology to various mines in USA and Canada. Besides subsidence evaluation, InSAR data is also used to generate digital elevation models (DEM) and digital terrain models (DTM). The DEM and DTM derived from InSAR data for a mine in Canada is compared with the survey and LIDAR data to demonstrate the applicability of InSAR data to model surface topography.

Panda, B. B.

2013-12-01

86

Data processing of Martian topographic information obtained from ground-based radar and spectroscopy and from Mariners 6 and 7. Martian topography elevations: Data processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Papers are presented which were published as a result of a project involving the preparation of a topographical elevation contour map of Mars from all data sources available through 1969, as well as the observation of Mars by spectroscopic methods in 1971 to provide additional pressure data for topographic information. Topics of the papers include: the analysis of large-scale Martian topography variations - data preparation from earth based radar, earth based CO2 spectroscopy, and Mariners 6 and 7 CO2 spectroscopy; the analysis of water content in observed Martian white clouds; and Martian, lunar, and terrestrial crusts - a three-dimensional exercise in comparative geophysics.

Anderson, K. A.

1974-01-01

87

Shuttle Radar Topography Mission  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 2000 the Space Shuttle Endeavour was able to conserve enough fuel to complete its mission and create the world's most accurate topographic maps. With this site, users can track the mission and view some samples of the extraordinary images being produced. At the SRTM homepage, users will find news updates, background information, some quick facts, related links, an overview of the mission's equipment, and a list of acronyms used at the site.

88

Using Digital Topography to Differentiate Erosionally Exhumed and Tectonically Active Mountains Fronts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mountain ranges in the southern Rocky Mountains have departed on unique landscape evolutionary pathways in the late Cenozoic that are directly dependent upon the degree of post-orogenic tectonic activity they have experienced. The topography of Sierra Nacimiento, a Laramide uplift in west-central New Mexico lacking an active range-front fault, is shaped primarily by erosional exhumation that is continuous, but not steady, being driven by distal base level fall from Rio Grande incision and resultant south to north knickpoint migration. In contrast, the topography of the Taos Range, a rift flank uplift in north-central New Mexico is shaped by contrasting active stream incision and aggradation astride an active range front normal fault. The distinction between exhumation-dominated and tectonically-dominated mountain fronts is best quantified by analyses of a new metric we call the drainage basin volume to drainage basin area ratio (V-A ratio) as well as the gradients of first-order streams. Drainage basin volume and area are calculated by constructing topographic envelope maps from 10 m resolution digital elevation models (DEM). The envelope maps are pinned by the watershed divide and cover the maximum elevations in each drainage basin. Subtracting the original DEM from the maximum elevation envelope map produces a topographic residual map from which area and volume data can be obtained. The erosionally exhumed Sierra Nacimiento has a mean V-A ratio of 88 m while the tectonically active Taos Range has a mean V-A ratio of 140 m. Similarly, there are systematic differences in the gradients of first order streams measured both in the range block and approximately 5 km of adjacent piedmont. Streams were defined and subsequently Strahler ordered by a flow accumulation threshold of 250 water-equivalent grid cell units. First order stream channel long profiles were extracted from the DEM at 30 meter increments and gradients were calculated by a FORTRAN program. Gradients of first order streams in the exhumation-dominated Sierra Nacimiento have a mode of 6.8 degrees, significantly less than the 17.7 degrees for Taos Range first order streams. Furthermore, in the Taos Range first-order stream gradients steepen with increasing activity on the range-front fault. The distinct V-A ratio and stream gradient populations hint at an important change in the processes shaping hillslopes and low-order channels that is supported by the lack of slope-clearing landslides in the Sierra Nacimiento landscape and the presence of such landslides in the Taos Range. Slopes on Sierra Nacimiento are not steep enough to landslide and here, creep processes following a linear diffusion law dominate. In contrast, landsliding is present in the Taos Range where creep processes following a non-linear diffusion law are dominant. The signatures of distal base level fall are low V-A ratios accompanied by low modal channel gradients. Tectonically active mountain fronts have both high V-A ratios and high modal channel gradients.

Frankel, K. L.; Pazzaglia, F. J.

2003-12-01

89

A general interactive system for compositing digital radar and satellite data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reynolds and Smith (1979) have considered the combined use of digital weather radar and satellite data in interactive systems for case study analysis and forecasting. Satellites view the top of clouds, whereas radar is capable of observing the detailed internal structure of clouds. The considered approach requires the use of a common coordinate system. In the present investigation, it was decided to use the satellite coordinate system as the base system in order to maintain the fullest resolution of the satellite data. The investigation is concerned with the development of a general interactive software system called RADPAK for remapping and analyzing conventional and Doppler radar data. RADPAK is implemented as a part of a minicomputer-based image processing system, called Atmospheric and Oceanographic Image Processing System. Attention is given to a general description of the RADPAK system, remapping methodology, and an example of satellite remapping.

Ghosh, K. K.; Chen, L. C.; Faghmous, M.; Heymsfield, G. M.

1981-01-01

90

Spectral analysis, digital integration, and measurement of low backscatter in coherent laser radar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of surface acoustic wave (SAW) spectral analysis and digital integration that has been used previously in coherent CW laser work with CO2 lasers at 10.6 microns is described. Expressions are derived for the signal to noise ratio in the measured voltage spectrum with an approximation for the general case and rigorous treatment for the low signal case. The atmospheric backscatter data accumulated by the airborne LATAS (laser true airspeed) coherent laser radar system are analyzed.

Vaughan, J. M.; Callan, R. D.; Bowdle, D. A.; Rothermel, J.

1989-01-01

91

A digital signal processing system for coherent laser radar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A data processing system for use with continuous-wave lidar is described in terms of its configuration and performance during the second survey mission of NASA'a Global Backscatter Experiment. The system is designed to estimate a complete lidar spectrum in real time, record the data from two lidars, and monitor variables related to the lidar operating environment. The PC-based system includes a transient capture board, a digital-signal processing (DSP) board, and a low-speed data-acquisition board. Both unprocessed and processed lidar spectrum data are monitored in real time, and the results are compared to those of a previous non-DSP-based system. Because the DSP-based system is digital it is slower than the surface-acoustic-wave signal processor and collects 2500 spectra/s. However, the DSP-based system provides complete data sets at two wavelengths from the continuous-wave lidars.

Hampton, Diana M.; Jones, William D.; Rothermel, Jeffry

1991-01-01

92

Digital tapped delay lines for HWIL testing of matched filter radar receivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Matched filter processing for pulse compression of phase coded waveforms is a classic method for increasing radar range measurement resolution. A generic approach for simulating high resolution range extended radar scenes in a Hardware in the Loop (HWIL) test environment is to pass the phase coded radar transmit pulse through an RF tapped delay line comprised of individually amplitude- and phase-weighted output taps. In the generic approach, the taps are closely spaced relative to time intervals equivalent to the range resolution of the compressed radar pulse. For a range-extended high resolution clutter scene, the increased number of these taps can make an analog implementation of an RF tapped delay system impractical. Engineers at the U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) have addressed this problem by transferring RF tapped delay line signal operations to the digital domain. New digital tapped delay line (DTDL) systems have been designed and demonstrated which are physically compact compared to analog RF TDLs, leverage low cost FPGA and data converter technology, and may be readily expanded using open slots in a VME card cage. In initial HWIL applications, the new DTDLs have been shown to produce better dynamic range in pulse compressed range profiles than their analog TDL predecessors. This paper describes the signal requirements and system architecture for digital tapped delay lines. Implementation, performance, and HWIL simulation integration issues for AMRDEC's first generation DTDLs are addressed. The paper concludes with future requirements and plans for ongoing DTDL technology development at AMRDEC.

Olson, Richard F.; Braselton, William J.; Mohlere, Richard D.

2009-05-01

93

Complementary code and digital filtering for detection of weak VHF radar signals from the mesoscale. [SOUSY-VHF radar, Harz Mountains, Germany  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The SOUSY-VHF-Radar operates at a frequency of 53.5 MHz in a valley in the Harz mountains, Germany, 90 km from Hanover. The radar controller, which is programmed by a 16-bit computer holds 1024 program steps in core and controls, via 8 channels, the whole radar system: in particular the master oscillator, the transmitter, the transmit-receive-switch, the receiver, the analog to digital converter, and the hardware adder. The high-sensitivity receiver has a dynamic range of 70 dB and a video bandwidth of 1 MHz. Phase coding schemes are applied, in particular for investigations at mesospheric heights, in order to carry out measurements with the maximum duty cycle and the maximum height resolution. The computer takes the data from the adder to store it in magnetic tape or disc. The radar controller is programmed by the computer using simple FORTRAN IV statements. After the program has been loaded and the computer has started the radar controller, it runs automatically, stopping at the program end. In case of errors or failures occurring during the radar operation, the radar controller is shut off caused either by a safety circuit or by a power failure circuit or by a parity check system.

Schmidt, G.; Ruster, R.; Czechowsky, P.

1983-01-01

94

Gently dipping normal faults identified with Space Shuttle radar topography data in central Sulawesi, Indonesia, and some implications for fault mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space-shuttle radar topography data from central Sulawesi, Indonesia, reveal two corrugated, domal landforms, covering hundreds to thousands of square kilometers, that are bounded to the north by an abrupt transition to typical hilly to mountainous topography. These domal landforms are readily interpreted as metamorphic core complexes, an interpretation consistent with a single previous field study, and the abrupt northward transition in topographic style is interpreted as marking the trace of two extensional detachment faults that are active or were recently active. Fault dip, as determined by the slope of exhumed fault footwalls, ranges from 4° to 18°. Application of critical-taper theory to fault dip and hanging-wall surface slope, and to similar data from several other active or recently active core complexes, suggests a theoretical limit of three degrees for detachment-fault dip. This result appears to conflict with the dearth of seismological evidence for slip on faults dipping less than ~ 30°. The convex-upward form of the gently dipping fault footwalls, however, allows for greater fault dip at depths of earthquake initiation and dominant energy release. Thus, there may be no conflict between seismological and mapping studies for this class of faults.

Spencer, Jon E.

2011-08-01

95

We analyze Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) water surface elevation data to assess the capacity of interferometric  

E-print Network

radar (SAR) antennae attached to opposite ends of a 63 m boom to form an interferometric system Ka-band SAR antennae at opposite ends of a 10 m boom operating at very near nadir with a maximum 4-band relative height errors of 5.5 m (90 percent level) reported by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) SRTM

Howat, Ian M.

96

Model-Based Estimation of Forest Canopy Height in Red and Austrian Pine Stands Using Shuttle Radar Topography Mission and Ancillary Data: a Proof-of-Concept Study  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, accurate tree stand height retrieval is demonstrated using C-band Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) height and ancillary data. The tree height retrieval algorithm is based on modeling uniform tree stands with a single layer of randomly oriented vegetation particles. For such scattering media, the scattering phase center height, as measured by SRTM, is a function of tree height, incidence angle, and the extinction coefficient of the medium. The extinction coefficient for uniform tree stands is calculated as a function of tree height and density using allometric equations and a fractal tree model. The accuracy of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated using SRTM and TOPSAR data for 15 red pine and Austrian pine stands (TOPSAR is an airborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar). The algorithm yields root-mean-square (rms) errors of 2.5-3.6 m, which is a substantial improvement over the 6.8-8.3-m rms errors from the raw SRTM minus National Elevation Dataset Heights.

Brown Jr., C G; Sarabandi, K; Pierce, L E

2007-04-06

97

Digital processing of orbital radar data to enhance geologic structure - Examples from the Canadian Shield  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various digital enhancement techniques for SAR are compared using SIR-B and Seasat images of the Canadian Shield. The three best methods for enhancing geological structure were found to be: (1) a simple linear contrast stretch; (2) a mean or median low-pass filter to reduce speckle prior to edge enhancement or a K nearest-neighbor average to cosmetically reduce speckle; and (3) a modification of the Moore-Waltz (1983) technique. Three look directions were coregistered and several means of data display were investigated as means of compensating for radar azimuth biasing.

Masuoka, Penny M.; Harris, Jeff; Lowman, Paul D., Jr.; Blodget, Herbert W.

1988-01-01

98

Combined flatland ST radar and digital-barometer network observations of mesoscale processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper describes a six-station digital-barometer network centered on the Flatland ST radar to support observational studies of gravity waves and other mesoscale features at the Flatland Atmospheric Observatory in central Illinois. The network's current mode of operation is examined, and a preliminary example of an apparent group of waves evident throughout the network as well as throughout the troposphere is presented. Preliminary results demonstrate the capabilities of the current operational system to study wave convection, wave-front, and other coherent mesoscale interactions and processes throughout the troposphere. Unfiltered traces for the pressure and horizontal zonal wind, for days 351 to 353 UT, 1990, are illustrated.

Clark, W. L.; Vanzandt, T. E.; Gage, K. S.; Einaudi, F. E.; Rottman, J. W.; Hollinger, S. E.

1991-01-01

99

Digital Terrestrial Video Broadcast Interference Suppression in Forward-Looking Ground Penetrating Radar Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we show how radio frequency interference (RFI) generated by digital video broadcasting terrestrial and digital audio broadcasting transmitters can be an important noise source for forward-looking ground penetrating radar (FLGPR) systems. Even in remote locations the average interference power sometimes exceeds ultra-wideband signals by many dB, becoming the limiting factor in the system sensitivity. The overall problem of RFI and its impact in GPR systems is briefly described and several signal processing approaches to removal of RFI are discussed. These include spectral estimation and coherent subtraction algorithms and various filter approaches which have been developed and applied by the research community in similar contexts. We evaluate the performance of these methods by simulating two different scenarios submitted to real RFI acquired with a FLGPR system developed at the Fraunhofer Institute for High Frequency Physics and Radar Techniques (FHR), (GER). The effectiveness of these algorithms in removing RFI is presented using some performance indices after suppression.

Rial, F. I.; Mendez-Rial, Roi; Lawadka, Lukasz; Gonzalez-Huici, Maria A.

2014-11-01

100

Lunar Topography and Basins Mapped Using a Clementine Stereo Digital Elevation Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planet-wide (1 km/pixel and 5 km/pixel) Digital Elevation Models (DEM) of the Moon have been produced using Clementine UVVIS (Ultraviolet-Visible) stereo. Six new basins have been discovered, two suspected basins have been confirmed, and the dimensions of existing basins better defined. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Cook, A. C.; Spudis, P. D.; Robinson, M. S.; Watters, T. R.

2002-01-01

101

Topography of valley networks on Mars from Mars Express High Resolution Stereo Camera digital elevation models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Martian valley networks have been identified mainly in the Noachian heavily cratered uplands. The geometry of valley networks can be studied using Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) altimetry, which is sufficient to map large valleys without a detailed 3-D shape of valley networks. Imaging from the Mars Express High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) is used to generate digital elevation models

Véronique Ansan; Nicolas Mangold; Philippe Masson; Evelyne Gailhardis; Gerhard Neukum

2008-01-01

102

A Model for Radar Images and Its Application to Adaptive Digital Filtering of Multiplicative Noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standard image processing techniques which are used to enhance noncoherent optically produced images are not applicable to radar images due to the coherent nature of the radar imaging process. A model for the radar imaging process is derived in this paper and a method for smoothing noisy radar images is also presented. The imaging model shows that the radar image

Victor S. Frost; Josephine Abbott Stiles; K. S. Shanmugan; Julian C. Holtzman

1982-01-01

103

Spatial Distribution of Potential Erosion Rates at Hillslope scale in Prespa Lake Basin (Albania) using Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Albania experiences high soil erosion rates (between 20-30 tons ha-1 year-1) due to its mountainous terrain, rainfall patterns related to its Mediterranean climate, and land use practices such as deforestation and over-grazing. Over the last two decades, land degradation has become a major problem, including soil degradation, soil loss, and accelerated soil erosion of up to 150 tons ha-1 year-1 due to land management decisions, salinization, water logging and pollution. Previous studies on erosion rates based on the hydrology, vegetation and topography of Albania have generated maps of potential erosion rates at 1km2 resolution. Based on Universal Soil Loss Equation it is estimated that soil erosion rates for Prespa Lake Basin (PLB) is about 27 tons ha-1 year-1. Currently, Albania has a predicted annual and monthly erosion rate map a national soil map and more detailed soil maps for limited coastal areas at scales 1:1,600,000, 1:250,000, and 1:50,000, respectively. However, the relatively small farm size in Albania (0.01-0.05 km2) and the hillslope scale at which the erosion rates can be measured and mitigated require erosion rates assessments at finer scales. The average farm size in PLB is only 1.3 ha. The mountainous terrain in Albania and in particular PLB is ideal for assessing potential soil erosion rates based on terrain attributes derived from elevation data. The objective of this research was to develop a new approach for generating a more detailed potential soil erosion rate map for PLB (0.0081 km2 resolution) based on landscape models using terrain attributes and landform classification schemes derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation data and Climate Models.

Jorgji, Fiorentina; Libohova, Zamir; Grazhdani, Spiro

2013-04-01

104

Integration of radar altimeter, precision navigation, and digital terrain data for low-altitude flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Avionic systems that depend on digitized terrain elevation data for guidance generation or navigational reference require accurate absolute and relative distance measurements to the terrain, especially as they approach lower altitudes. This is particularly exacting in low-altitude helicopter missions, where aggressive terrain hugging maneuvers create minimal horizontal and vertical clearances and demand precise terrain positioning. Sole reliance on airborne precision navigation and stored terrain elevation data for above-ground-level (AGL) positioning severely limits the operational altitude of such systems. A Kalman filter is presented which blends radar altimeter returns, precision navigation, and stored terrain elevation data for AGL positioning. The filter is evaluated using low-altitude helicopter flight test data acquired over moderately rugged terrain. The proposed Kalman filter is found to remove large disparities in predicted AGL altitude (i.e., from airborne navigation and terrain elevation data) in the presence of measurement anomalies and dropouts. Previous work suggested a minimum clearance altitude of 220 ft AGL for a near-terrain guidance system; integration of a radar altimeter allows for operation of that system below 50 ft, subject to obstacle-avoidance limitations.

Zelenka, Richard E.

1992-01-01

105

Landscape-scale extent, height, biomass, and carbon estimation of Mozambique's mangrove forests with Landsat ETM+ and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission elevation data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mangroves are salt tolerant plants that grow within the intertidal zone along tropical and subtropical coasts. They are important barriers for mitigating coastal disturbances, provide habitat for over 1300 animal species and are one of the most productive ecosystems. Mozambique's mangroves extend along 2700 km and cover one of the largest areas in Africa. The purpose of this study was to determine the countrywide mean tree height spatial distribution and biomass of Mozambique's mangrove forests using Landsat ETM+ and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data. The SRTM data were calibrated using the Landsat derived land-cover map and height calibration equations. Stand-specific canopy height-biomass allometric equations developed from field measurements and published height-biomass equations were used to calculate aboveground biomass of the mangrove forests on a landscape scale. The results showed that mangrove forests covered a total of 2909 km2 in Mozambique, a 27% smaller area than previously estimated. The SRTM calibration indicated that average tree heights changed with geographical settings. Even though the coast of Mozambique spans across 16 degrees latitude, we did not find a relationship between latitude and biomass. These results confirm that geological setting has a greater influence than latitude alone on mangrove production. The total mangrove dry aboveground biomass in Mozambique was 23.6 million tons and the total carbon was 11.8 million tons.

Fatoyinbo, Temilola E.; Simard, Marc; Washington-Allen, Robert A.; Shugart, Herman H.

2008-06-01

106

Method for orthorectification of terrestrial radar maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vehicle-based PELICAN radar system is used in the context of mobile mapping. The R-SLAM algorithm allows simultaneous retrieval of the vehicle trajectory and of the map of the environment. As the purpose of PELICAN is to provide a means for gathering spatial information, the impact of distortion caused by the topography is not negligible. This article proposes an orthorectification process to correct panoramic radar images and the consequent R-SLAM trajectory and radar map. The a priori knowledge of the area topography is provided by a digital elevation model. By applying the method to the data obtained from a path with large variations in altitude it is shown that the corrected panoramic radar images are contracted by the orthorectification process. The efficiency of the orthorectification process is assessed firstly by comparing R-SLAM trajectories to a GPS trajectory and secondly by comparing the position of Ground Control Points on the radar map with their GPS position. The RMS positioning error moves from 5.56 m for the raw radar map to 0.75 m for the orthorectified radar map.

Jaud, Marion; Rouveure, Raphaël; Faure, Patrice; Moiroux-Arvis, Laure; Monod, Marie-Odile

2014-11-01

107

The application of the ADSP-21020 40-bit floating point DSP microprocessor in a digital Doppler radar  

SciTech Connect

A continuous wave doppler radar system has been designed which is portable, easily deployable and can be remotely controlled. The system is immune to ground clutter and is used for wind speed detection and direction determination. Nearly real time digital signal processing is performed by an Analog Devices ADSP-21020, a 40-bit floating point Digital Signal Processing (DSP) microprocessor. This paper provides an overview of the design of the system including the radio frequency (RF) to digital interface. The various DSP detection algorithms are discussed and compared to system performance and sensitivity. Finally, DSP performance is compared to the performance of an earlier system using Analog Device's ADSP-2100. 6 refs.

Robinson, S.H.; Morrison, R.E.

1991-08-26

108

The application of the ADSP-21020 40-bit floating point DSP microprocessor in a digital Doppler radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A continuous wave Doppler radar system has been designed which is portable, easily deployable and can be remotely controlled. The system is immune to ground clutter and is used for wind speed detection and direction determination. Nearly real time digital signal processing is performed by an Analog Devices ADSP-21020, a 40-bit floating point Digital Signal Processing (DSP) microprocessor. This paper provides an overview of the design of the system including the radio frequency (RF) to digital interface. The various DSP detection algorithms are discussed and compared to system performance and sensitivity. Finally, DSP performance is compared to the performance of an earlier system using Analog Device's ADSP-2100.

Robinson, S. H.; Morrison, R. E.

1991-08-01

109

High resolution bed topography beneath the trunk and tributaries of Pine Island Glacier from ice-penetrating radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pine Island Glacier (PIG)in West Antarctica is currently losing ice at a rate equivalent to ~7% of current sea-level rise, and predicting its future is therefore an important scientific goal. Though the glacier has now been the focus of several modelling studies, the different models disagree on the likely future pace of loss and its spread inland. Significantly, all models depend critically on the form of the subglacial conditions used, and though the general form of the bed has been mapped from surveys over the last decade, the resolution of bed required for modelling to be improved, i.e. at the sub-km scale, has hitherto been unavailable. Addressing this dearth of detailed bed information was therefore a key objective for the 2013/14 UK iSTAR (Ice-Sheet Stability and Response) traverse across PIG. We deployed the British Antarctic Survey's DEep-LOoking Radio Echo Sounder (DELORES) to sound 10 x 15 km patches of the bed in six locations across PIG. Each patch was surveyed in 22 parallel transects lying 500 m apart and which were each 15 km long.Along each radar transect, the bed was sounded approximately every 5 m. The patches sample the main trunk of the ice stream, the beds of four of the main tributaries, and as a control site, an inter-tributary ridge. We show that the nature of the bed varies significantly between sites.

Bingham, Rob; Cornford, Stephen; Davies, Damon; De Rydt, Jan; King, Edward; Smith, Andrew; Spagnolo, Matteo; Vaughan, David

2014-05-01

110

Digital processing considerations for extraction of ocean wave image spectra from raw synthetic aperture radar data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The digital processing requirements of several algorithms for extracting the spectrum of a detected synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image from the raw SAR data are described and compared. The most efficient algorithms for image spectrum extraction from raw SAR data appear to be those containing an intermediate image formation step. It is shown that a recently developed compact formulation of the image spectrum in terms of the raw data is computationally inefficient when evaluated directly, in comparison with the classical method where matched-filter image formation is an intermediate result. It is also shown that a proposed indirect procedure for digitally implementing the same compact formulation is somewhat more efficient than the classical matched-filtering approach. However, this indirect procedure includes the image formation process as part of the total algorithm. Indeed, the computational savings afforded by the indirect implementation are identical to those obtained in SAR image formation processing when the matched-filtering algorithm is replaced by the well-known 'dechirp-Fourier transform' technique. Furthermore, corrections to account for slant-to-ground range conversion, spherical earth, etc., are often best implemented in the image domain, making intermediate image formation a valuable processing feature.

Lahaie, I. J.; Dias, A. R.; Darling, G. D.

1984-01-01

111

Frequency diversity wideband digital receiver and signal processor for solid-state dual-polarimetric weather radars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent spate in the use of solid-state transmitters for weather radar systems has unexceptionably revolutionized the research in meteorology. The solid-state transmitters allow transmission of low peak powers without losing the radar range resolution by allowing the use of pulse compression waveforms. In this research, a novel frequency-diversity wideband waveform is proposed and realized to extenuate the low sensitivity of solid-state radars and mitigate the blind range problem tied with the longer pulse compression waveforms. The latest developments in the computing landscape have permitted the design of wideband digital receivers which can process this novel waveform on Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) chips. In terms of signal processing, wideband systems are generally characterized by the fact that the bandwidth of the signal of interest is comparable to the sampled bandwidth; that is, a band of frequencies must be selected and filtered out from a comparable spectral window in which the signal might occur. The development of such a wideband digital receiver opens a window for exciting research opportunities for improved estimation of precipitation measurements for higher frequency systems such as X, Ku and Ka bands, satellite-borne radars and other solid-state ground-based radars. This research describes various unique challenges associated with the design of a multi-channel wideband receiver. The receiver consists of twelve channels which simultaneously downconvert and filter the digitized intermediate-frequency (IF) signal for radar data processing. The product processing for the multi-channel digital receiver mandates a software and network architecture which provides for generating and archiving a single meteorological product profile culled from multi-pulse profiles at an increased data date. The multi-channel digital receiver also continuously samples the transmit pulse for calibration of radar receiver gain and transmit power. The multi-channel digital receiver has been successfully deployed as a key component in the recently developed National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Dual-Frequency Dual-Polarization Doppler Radar (D3R). The D3R is the principal ground validation instrument for the precipitation measurements of the Dual Precipitation Radar (DPR) onboard the GPM Core Observatory satellite scheduled for launch in 2014. The D3R system employs two broadly separated frequencies at Ku- and Ka-bands that together make measurements for precipitation types which need higher sensitivity such as light rain, drizzle and snow. This research describes unique design space to configure the digital receiver for D3R at several processing levels. At length, this research presents analysis and results obtained by employing the multi-carrier waveforms for D3R during the 2012 GPM Cold-Season Precipitation Experiment (GCPEx) campaign in Canada.

Mishra, Kumar Vijay

112

Hardware description ADSP-21020 40-bit floating point DSP as designed in a remotely controlled digital CW Doppler radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A continuous wave Doppler radar system has been designed which is portable, easily deployed, and remotely controlled. The heart of this system is a DSP/control board using Analog Devices ADSP-21020 40-bit floating point digital signal processor (DSP) microprocessor. Two 18-bit audio A/D converters provide digital input to the DSP/controller board for near real time target detection. Program memory for the DSP is dual ported with an Intel 87C51 microcontroller allowing DSP code to be up-loaded or down-loaded from a central controlling computer. The 87C51 provides overall system control for the remote radar and includes a time-of-day/day-of-year real time clock, system identification (ID) switches, and input/output (I/O) expansion by an Intel 82C55 I/O expander.

Morrison, R. E.; Robinson, S. H.

113

Synthetic aperture radar interferometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic aperture radar interferometry is an imaging technique for measuring the topography of a surface, its changes over time, and other changes in the detailed characteristic of the surface. By exploiting the phase of the coherent radar signal, interferometry has transformed radar remote sensing from a largely interpretive science to a quantitative tool, with applications in cartography, geodesy, land cover

PAUL A. ROSEN; SCOTT HENSLEY; IAN R. JOUGHIN; FUK K. LI; SØREN N. MADSEN; ERNESTO RODRÍGUEZ; RICHARD M. GOLDSTEIN

2000-01-01

114

Topography of Mars from global mapping by HRSC high-resolution digital terrain models and orthoimages: Characteristics and performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the results of the Mars Express High-Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) experiment pertaining to one of its major aims, mapping the surface of Mars by high-resolution digital terrain models (DTM, up to 50 m grid spacing) and orthoimages (up to 12.5 m resolution). We introduce the specifications and characteristics of these data products and give an overview of the procedures that have been developed and are applied for their derivation. We also address the performance characteristics of the mapping project related to different aspects of internal accuracy, accuracy with respect to the global reference system, and regional aspects. Using adaptive processing techniques for terrain reconstruction and a revised approach to the improvement of orientation data, a mean precision of the resulting 3D points of about 12 m is obtained, exceeding the mean ground resolution of the stereo images. Using Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data, the HRSC models are firmly tied to the global reference system at the scale of the HRSC DTM grid spacing in the lateral dimension, and to within few meters vertically. HRSC high-resolution DTMs are typically generated using a grid size of about 2 times the mean ground resolution, but usually not larger than 3 times the mean ground resolution, and not smaller than 3 times the precision of the integrated 3D points derived from stereo image analysis. Statistically, every grid cell is based on at least one measured 3D point. Thus, horizontal DTM resolution is well established with regard to the precision and density of the derived 3D points, while the concurrent aim of a detailed terrain representation at maximum possible resolution is pursued. Comparison with the DTM derived from MOLA data allows us to identify specific advancements related to this updated view of Martian topography. We also address the mapping performance of HRSC in comparison to MOLA with respect to latitude and to different surface types and morphologies. Finally, comparison with MOLA highlights typical complementarities of the two different approaches for mapping planetary surfaces.

Gwinner, K.; Scholten, F.; Preusker, F.; Elgner, S.; Roatsch, T.; Spiegel, M.; Schmidt, R.; Oberst, J.; Jaumann, R.; Heipke, C.

2010-06-01

115

An improved composite surface model for the radar backscattering cross section of the ocean surface 2. Model response to surface roughness variations and the radar imaging of underwater bottom topography  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the companion paper we have presented an improved composite surface model for the calculation of normalized radar backscattering cross sections (NRCS) of the ocean surface. The proposed model accounts for the impact of the full two-dimensional ocean wave spectrum on the radar backscatter and was shown to reproduce measured absolute NRCS values for a variety of radar configurations and

Roland Romeiser; Werner Alpers

1997-01-01

116

Experimental investigations of digital signal processing techniques in an FMCW radar for naval application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently we have observed increased interest in frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radars, mainly because of their low probability of intercept (LPI) properties. In such radars the information on range of targets appears in the frequency domain and it is obtained on the basis of spectrum analysis carried out for a so called beat signal. The beat signal is a

A. Grzywacz

2002-01-01

117

A digital beamforming processor for the joint DoD/NASA space based radar mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Based Radar (SBR) program includes a joint technology demonstration between NASA and the Air Force to design a low-earth orbiting, 2x50 m L-band radar system for both Earth science and intelligence related observations.

Fischman, Mark A.; Le, Charles; Rosen, Paul A.

2004-01-01

118

In-flight detection of errors for enhanced aircraft flight safety and vertical accuracy improvement using digital terrain elevation data with an inertial navigation system, global positioning system and radar altimeter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation discusses integration architectures using digital terrain elevation data (DTED) with an inertial navigation system (INS), a global positioning system (GPS) and a radar altimeter. Two integration architectures are considered: DTED with INS, GPS and radar altimeter for aircraft vertical accuracy improvement during the final approach; and DTED with kinematic GPS (KGPS) and a radar altimeter for enhanced aircraft

Robert Anthony Gray

1999-01-01

119

Radar Imaging Systems Joseph Charpentier  

E-print Network

Radar Imaging Systems Joseph Charpentier Department of Computing Sciences Villanova University types of radar imaging systems; synthetic aperture radar (SAR), through-the-wall radar, and digital holographic near field radar. Each system surveyed experiments that improved the quality of the resulting

120

LPI radar: fact or fiction  

Microsoft Academic Search

LPI radar is a system that consists of a radar and ES system. Its performance depends on both components. An LPI performance factor is derived and applied to several examples. Operational LPI radars are described. A digital LPI radar detector is described and test results presented. A recent book on LPI radar received a number of somewhat critical reviews that

D. C. Schleher

2006-01-01

121

Low Altitude Wind Simulation over Mount Saint Helens Using NASA SRTM Digital Terrain Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

On February 11, 2000, the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) was launched into space as part of one of the pay load of the Shuttle Endeavor. Using a new radar sweeping technique most of the Earth's surfaces was digitized in 3D in approximately 10 days. SRTM acquired enough data during its mission to obtain a near-global high-resolution database of the

Manuel Garcia; Pierre Boulanger

2006-01-01

122

High resolution vertical profiles of wind, temperature and humidity obtained by computer processing and digital filtering of radiosonde and radar tracking data from the ITCZ experiment of 1977  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented from computer processing and digital filtering of radiosonde and radar tracking data obtained during the ITCZ experiment when coordinated measurements were taken daily over a 16 day period across the Panama Canal Zone. The temperature relative humidity and wind velocity profiles are discussed.

Danielson, E. F.; Hipskind, R. S.; Gaines, S. E.

1980-01-01

123

Low resolution radar digital interface. [with data recorder for precipitation measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document describes the design and operation of a low resolution radar data recording system for precipitation measurements. This system records a full azimuth scan on seven track magnetic tapes every five minutes. It is designed to operate on a continuous basis with operator intervention required only for changing tape reels and calibration.

1973-01-01

124

space Radar Image of Long Valley, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An area near Long Valley, California, was mapped by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavor on April 13, 1994, during the first flight of the radar instrument, and on October 4, 1994, during the second flight of the radar instrument. The orbital configurations of the two data sets were ideal for interferometric combination -- that is overlaying the data from one image onto a second image of the same area to create an elevation map and obtain estimates of topography. Once the topography is known, any radar-induced distortions can be removed and the radar data can be geometrically projected directly onto a standard map grid for use in a geographical information system. The 50 kilometer by 50 kilometer (31 miles by 31 miles) map shown here is entirely derived from SIR-C L-band radar (horizontally transmitted and received) results. The color shown in this image is produced from the interferometrically determined elevations, while the brightness is determined by the radar backscatter. The map is in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) coordinates. Elevation contour lines are shown every 50 meters (164 feet). Crowley Lake is the dark feature near the south edge of the map. The Adobe Valley in the north and the Long Valley in the south are separated by the Glass Mountain Ridge, which runs through the center of the image. The height accuracy of the interferometrically derived digital elevation model is estimated to be 20 meters (66 feet) in this image. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

1994-01-01

125

Ka-band Digitally Beamformed Airborne Radar Using SweepSAR Technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A paper describes a frequency-scaled SweepSAR demonstration that operates at Ka-Band (35.6 GHz), and closely approximates the DESDynl mission antenna geometry, scaled by 28. The concept relies on the SweepSAR measurement technique. An array of digital receivers captures waveforms from a multiplicity of elements. These are combined using digital beamforming in elevation and SAR processing to produce imagery. Ka-band (35.6 GHz) airborne SweepSAR using array-fed reflector and digital beamforming features eight simultaneous receive beams generated by a 40-cm offset-fed reflector and eight-element active array feed, and eight digital receiver channels with all raw data recorded and later used for beamforming. Illumination of the swath is accomplished using a slotted-waveguide antenna radiating 250 W peak power. This experiment has been used to demonstrate digital beamforming SweepSAR systems.

Sadowy, Gregory A.; Chuang, Chung-Lun; Ghaemi, Hirad; Heavey, Brandon A.; Lin, Lung-Sheng S.; Quaddus, Momin

2012-01-01

126

Topography of Mars from global mapping by HRSC high-resolution digital terrain models and orthoimages: Characteristics and performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

article i nfo Article history: Accepted 2 November 2009 Available online xxxx We report on the results of the Mars Express High-Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) experiment pertaining to one of its major aims, mapping the surface of Mars by high-resolution digital terrain models (DTM, up to 50 m grid spacing) and orthoimages (up to 12.5 m resolution). We introduce the

K. Gwinner; F. Scholten; F. Preusker; S. Elgner; T. Roatsch; M. Spiegel; R. Schmidt; J. Oberst; R. Jaumann; C. Heipke

2009-01-01

127

Topography of Mars from global mapping by HRSC high-resolution digital terrain models and orthoimages: Characteristics and performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the results of the Mars Express High-Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) experiment pertaining to one of its major aims, mapping the surface of Mars by high-resolution digital terrain models (DTM, up to 50m grid spacing) and orthoimages (up to 12.5m resolution). We introduce the specifications and characteristics of these data products and give an overview of the procedures

K. Gwinner; F. Scholten; F. Preusker; S. Elgner; T. Roatsch; M. Spiegel; R. Schmidt; J. Oberst; R. Jaumann; C. Heipke

2010-01-01

128

Global Topography and Tectonic Plates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of this activity is to investigate global topographic and tectonic features, especially the tectonic plates and their boundaries. Using a double-page size digital topographic map of the Earth that includes both land and sea floor topography, students are asked to draw plate boundaries, deduce plate motions and interactions, and explore the connections between topography and tectonic processes at the global scale.

David Greene

129

Space Radar Image of Saline Valley, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a three-dimensional perspective view of Saline Valley, about 30 km (19 miles) east of the town of Independence, California created by combining two spaceborne radar images using a technique known as interferometry. Visualizations like this one are helpful to scientists because they clarify the relationships of the different types of surfaces detected by the radar and the shapes of the topographic features such as mountains and valleys. The view is looking southwest across Saline Valley. The high peaks in the background are the Inyo Mountains, which rise more than 3,000 meters (10,000 feet) above the valley floor. The dark blue patch near the center of the image is an area of sand dunes. The brighter patches to the left of the dunes are the dry, salty lake beds of Saline Valley. The brown and orange areas are deposits of boulders, gravel and sand known as alluvial fans. The image was constructed by overlaying a color composite radar image on top of a digital elevation map. The radar image was taken by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-bandSynthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on board the space shuttleEndeavour in October 1994. The digital elevation map was producedusing radar interferometry, a process in which radar data are acquired on different passes of the space shuttle. The two data passes are compared to obtain elevation information. The elevation data were derived from a 1,500-km-long (930-mile) digital topographic map processed at JPL. Radar image data are draped over the topography to provide the color with the following assignments: red is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; green is C-band vertically transmitted, vetically received; and blue is the ratio of C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received to L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. This image is centered near 36.8 degrees north latitude and 117.7 degrees west longitude. No vertical exaggeration factor has been applied to the data. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

1999-01-01

130

Space Radar Image of Owens Valley, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a three-dimensional perspective view of Owens Valley, near the town of Bishop, California that was created by combining two spaceborne radar images using a technique known as interferometry. Visualizations like this one are helpful to scientists because they clarify the relationships of the different types of surfaces detected by the radar and the shapes of the topographic features such as mountains and valleys. The view is looking southeast along the eastern edge of Owens Valley. The White Mountains are in the center of the image, and the Inyo Mountains loom in the background. The high peaks of the White Mountains rise more than 3,000 meters (10,000 feet) above the valley floor. The runways of the Bishop airport are visible at the right edge of the image. The meandering course of the Owens River and its tributaries appear light blue on the valley floor. Blue areas in the image are smooth, yellow areas are rock outcrops, and brown areas near the mountains are deposits of boulders, gravel and sand known as alluvial fans. The image was constructed by overlaying a color composite radar image on top of a digital elevation map. The radar data were taken by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on board the space shuttle Endeavour in October 1994. The digital elevation map was produced using radar interferometry, a process in which radar data are acquired on different passes of the space shuttle. The two data passes are compared to obtain elevation information. The elevation data were derived from a 1,500-km-long (930-mile) digital topographic map processed at JPL. Radar image data are draped over the topography to provide the color with the following assignments: red is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; green is C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; and blue is the ratio of C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received to L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. This image is centered near 37.4 degrees north latitude and 118.3 degrees west longitude. No vertical exaggeration factor has been applied to the data. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

1999-01-01

131

The MST Radar Technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The coherent radar technique is reviewed with special emphasis to mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radars operating in the VHF band. Some basic introduction to Doppler radar measurements and the radar equation is followed by an outline of the characteristics of atmospheric turbulence, viewed from the scattering and reflection processes of radar signals. Radar signal acquisition and preprocessing, namely coherent detection, digital sampling, pre-integration and coding, is briefly discussed. The data analysis is represented in terms of the correlation and spectrum analysis, yielding the essential parameters: power, signal-to-noise ratio, average and fluctuating velocity and persistency. The techniques to measure wind velocities, viz. the different modes of the Doppler method as well as the space antenna method are surveyed and the feasibilities of the MST radar interferometer technique are elucidated. A general view on the criteria to design phased array antennas is given. An outline of the hardware of a typical MST radar system is presented.

Roettger, J.

1984-01-01

132

Application of Radar Data to Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The field of synthetic aperture radar changed dramatically over the past decade with the operational introduction of advance radar techniques such as polarimetry and interferometry. Radar polarimetry became an operational research tool with the introduction of the NASA/JPL AIRSAR system in the early 1980's, and reached a climax with the two SIR-C/X-SAR flights on board the space shuttle Endeavour in April and October 1994. Radar interferometry received a tremendous boost when the airborne TOPSAR system was introduced in 1991 by NASA/JPL, and further when data from the European Space Agency ERS-1 radar satellite became routinely available in 1991. Several airborne interferometric SAR systems are either currently operational, or are about to be introduced. Radar interferometry is a technique that allows one to map the topography of an area automatically under all weather conditions, day or night. The real power of radar interferometry is that the images and digital elevation models are automatically geometrically resampled, and could be imported into GIS systems directly after suitable reformatting. When combined with polarimetry, a technique that uses polarization diversity to gather more information about the geophysical properties of the terrain, a very rich multi-layer data set is available to the remote sensing scientist. This talk will discuss the principles of radar interferometry and polarimetry with specific application to the automatic categorization of land cover. Examples will include images acquired with the NASA/JPL AIRSAR/TOPSAR system in Australia and elsewhere.

vanZyl, Jakob J.

2000-01-01

133

SPace Radar Image of Fort Irwin, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image of Fort Irwin in California's Mojave Desert compares interferometric radar signatures topography -- data that were obtained by multiple imaging of the same region to produce three-dimensional elevation maps -- as it was obtained on October 7-8, 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. Data were acquired using the L-band (24 centimeter wavelength) and C-band (6 centimeter wavelength). The image covers an area about 25 kilometers by 70 kilometers (15.5 miles by 43 miles). North is to the lower right of the image. The color contours shown are proportional to the topographic elevation. With a wavelength one-fourth that of the L-band, the results from the C-band cycle through the color contours four times faster for a given elevation change. Detailed comparisons of these multiple frequency data over different terrain types will provide insights in the future into wavelength-dependent effects of penetration and scattering on the topography measurement accuracy. Fort Irwin is an ideal site for such detailed digital elevation model comparisons because a number of high precision digital models of the area already exist from conventional measurements as well as from airborne interferometric SAR data. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

1994-01-01

134

Gallery of Virtual Topography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Gallery of Virtual Topography features virtual depictions of topography, including 3D perspectives and QuickTime Virtual Reality (QTVR) movies, created from Digital Elevation Models (DEM's). The site showcases QTVR object movies where the user can spin a 3D terrain to view it from different perspectives. It also includes static 3D-perspective images (JPEG files) of the 3D terrains for those users with slower Internet connections. Some movies and images depict only the form of the landscape, but in others topographic contours are draped over the landscape to better illustrate how contours portray different types of topography (cliffs versus badlands, for example). Some animations illustrate the significance of contours, by allowing the user to progressively fill the landscape up with water to see the water interact with different topographic features. The site also contains a topographic contour map for each 3D terrain, so that instructors can develop student exercises, such as locating points on a map and constructing topographic profiles. Some QTVR movies contain numbered topographic features just for this purpose.

Stephen Reynolds

135

The Dawn Topography Investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the Dawn topography investigation is to derive the detailed shapes of 4 Vesta and 1 Ceres in order to create orthorectified image mosaics for geologic interpretation, as well as to study the asteroids' landforms, interior structure, and the processes that have modified their surfaces over geologic time. In this paper we describe our approaches for producing shape models, plans for acquiring the needed image data for Vesta, and the results of a numerical simulation of the Vesta mapping campaign that quantify the expected accuracy of our results. Multi-angle images obtained by Dawn's framing camera will be used to create topographic models with 100 m/pixel horizontal resolution and 10 m height accuracy at Vesta, and 200 m/pixel horizontal resolution and 20 m height accuracy at Ceres. Two different techniques, stereophotogrammetry and stereophotoclinometry, are employed to model the shape; these models will be merged with the asteroidal gravity fields obtained by Dawn to produce geodetically controlled topographic models for each body. The resulting digital topography models, together with the gravity data, will reveal the tectonic, volcanic and impact history of Vesta, and enable co-registration of data sets to determine Vesta's geologic history. At Ceres, the topography will likely reveal much about processes of surface modification as well as the internal structure and evolution of this dwarf planet.

Raymond, C. A.; Jaumann, R.; Nathues, A.; Sierks, H.; Roatsch, T.; Preusker, E; Scholten, F.; Gaskell, R. W.; Jorda, L.; Keller, H.-U.; Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.; Mastrodemos, N.; Mottola, S.

2011-01-01

136

Decoders for MST radars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Decoding techniques and equipment used by MST radars are described and some recommendations for new systems are presented. Decoding can be done either by software in special-purpose (array processors, etc.) or general-purpose computers or in specially designed digital decoders. Both software and hardware decoders are discussed and the special case of decoding for bistatic radars is examined.

Woodman, R. F.

1983-01-01

137

Evaluating POLinSAR Tree Height and Topography Retrievals in Glen Affric  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we summarise recent results from the Glen Affric radar project aimed at evaluating polarimetric radar interferometry for providing vegetation canopy height and bald-earth topography. We present a comparison of results from L-band repeat pass SAR imagery with detailed in-situ measurements of forest height and topography.

Woodhouse, I. H.; Cloude, S.; Papathanassiou, K.; Hutchinson, C.

2003-04-01

138

Gravity and Topography of Moon and Planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planetology serves the understanding on the one hand of the solar system and on the other hand, for investigating similarities and differences, of our own planet. While observational evidence about the outer planets is very limited, substantial datasets exist for the terrestrial planets. Radar and optical images and detailed models of gravity and topography give an impressive insight into the

R. Rummel

2004-01-01

139

Current status and future developments in radar remote sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some of the major initiatives and directions of remote sensing using SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) data alone and in conjunction with other sensors for Earth science investigations are outlined. Specific emphasis is on areas key to global monitoring using SAR data from spaceborne platforms: calibration, geophysical processing, and generation of digital elevation models. Calibration as used here encompasses end to end system characterization over the life of a sensor and characterization of data products relative to past and future sensors. Geophysical processing is defined here to include any processing which results in derived geophysical units. An additional data type, topography, which is required to complete the three dimensional view of surface properties and correct for distortions inherent in SAR is discussed. Future challenges in radar remote sensing include development of strategies to extrapolate from regional to global scale models and development of new sensor technology.

Evans, Diane L.

1991-01-01

140

Current status and future developments in radar remote sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some of the major initiatives and directions of remote sensing using SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) data alone and in conjunction with other sensors for earth science investigations are outlined. Specific emphasis is on areas key to global monitoring using SAR data from spaceborne platforms: calibration, geophysical processing, and generation of digital elevation models. Calibration as used here encompasses end-to-end system characterization over the life of a sensor and characterization of data products relative to past and future sensors. Geophysical processing is defined here to include any processing which results in derived geophysical units. An additional data type, topography, which is required to complete the three-dimensional view of surface properties and correct for distortions inherent in SAR is discussed. Future challenges in radar remote sensing include development of strategies to extrapolate from regional to global scale models and development of new sensor technology.

Evans, Diane L.

1992-01-01

141

Radar in transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is pointed out that radar engineers, at the end of 1984, find their field in transition between the conventional designs of the post War II era and the digitally controlled, solid-state systems which will be in place for the year 2000. The U.S. Navy has two major phased array radar systems in operation, including the rotating three-dimensional (3D) AN/SPS-48, and the phased-scanned AN/SPY-1 (Aegis) radars. The Aegis represents a major step beyond the conventional 3D and mechanical fire-control radars. However, it requires a special ship, dedicated to its use. Attention is given to questions regarding an extension of the application of Aegis technology to other U.S. Navy applications and to other navies, an ambitious solid-state radar program in the UK, and Army radars.

Barton, D. K.

1984-12-01

142

Radar Investigations of Asteroids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radar investigations of asteroids, including observations during 1984 to 1985 of at least 8 potential targets and continued analyses of radar data obtained during 1980 to 1984 for 30 other asteroids is proposed. The primary scientific objectives include estimation of echo strength, polarization, spectral shape, spectral bandwidth, and Doppler shift. These measurements yield estimates of target size, shape, and spin vector; place constraints on topography, morphology, density, and composition of the planetary surface; yield refined estimates of target orbital parameters; and reveals the presence of asteroidal satellites.

Ostro, S. J.

1984-01-01

143

Temperate Ice Depth-Sounding Radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glaciers in several parts of the world are reported to be retreating and thinning rapidly over the last decade. Radar instruments can be used to provide a wealth of information regarding the internal and basal conditions of large and small ice masses. These instruments typically operate in the VHF and UHF regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. For temperate-ice sounding, however, the high water content produces scattering and attenuation in propagating radar waves at VHF and UHF frequencies, which significantly reduce the penetration depths. Radars operating in the HF band are better suited for systematic surveys of the thickness and sub-glacial topography of temperate-ice regions. We are developing a dual-frequency Temperate-Ice-Depth Sounding Radar (TIDSoR) that can penetrate through water pockets, thus providing more accurate measurements of temperate ice properties such as thickness and basal conditions. The radar is a light-weight, low power consumption portable system for surface-based observations in mountainous terrain or aerial surveys. TIDSoR operates at two different center frequencies: 7.7 MHz and 14 MHz, with a maximum output peak power of 20 W. The transmit waveform is a digitally generated linear frequency-modulated chirp with 1 MHz bandwidth. The radar can be installed on aircrafts such as the CReSIS UAV [1], DCH-6 (Twin Otter), or P-3 Orion for aerial surveys, where it could be supported by the airplane power system. For surface based experiments, TIDSoR can operate in a backpack configuration powered by a compact battery system. The system can also be installed on a sled towed by a motorized vehicle, in which case the power supply can be replaced by a diesel generator. The radar consists of three functional blocks: the digital section, the radio-frequency (RF) section, and the antenna, and is designed to weigh less than 2 kg, excluding the power supply. The digital section generates the transmit waveforms as well as timing and control signals. It also digitizes the output signal from the receiver and stores the data in binary format using a portable computer. The RF-section consists of a high- power transmitter and a low-noise receiver with digitally controlled variable gain. The antenna is time-shared between the transmitter and receiver by means of a transmit/receive (T/R) switch. In regards to the antenna, we have made a survey study of various electrically small antennas (ESA) to choose the most suitable radiating structure for this application. Among the different alternatives that provide a good trade-off between electrical performance and small size, we have adopted an ESA dipole configuration for airborne platforms and a half-wavelength radiator for the surface-based version. The airborne antenna solution is given after studying the geometry of the aerial vehicle and its fuselage contribution to the antenna radiation pattern. Dipoles are made of 11.6 mm diameter cables (AWG 0000) or printed patches embedded into the aircraft fuselage, wings, or both. The system is currently being integrated and tested. TIDSoR is expected to be deployed during the spring 2008 either in Alaska or Greenland for surface based observations. In this paper, we will discuss our design considerations and current progress towards the development of this radar system. [1] Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (Cresis), Sept 2008, [Online]. Available: http://www.cresis.ku.edu

Jara-Olivares, V. A.; Player, K.; Rodriguez-Morales, F.; Gogineni, P.

2008-12-01

144

Shuttle imaging radar experiment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The shuttle imaging radar (SIR-A) acquired images of a variety of the earth's geologic areas covering about 10 million square kilometers. Structural and geomorphic features such as faults, folds, outcrops, and dunes are clearly visible in both tropical and arid regions. The combination of SIR-A and Seasat images provides additional information about the surface physical properties: topography and roughness. Ocean features were also observed, including large internal waves in the Andaman Sea. Copyright ?? 1982 AAAS.

Elachi, C.; Brown, W.E.; Cimino, J.B.; Dixon, T.; Evans, D.L.; Ford, J.P.; Saunders, R.S.; Breed, C.; Masursky, H.; McCauley, J.F.; Schaber, G.; Dellwig, L.; England, A.; MacDonald, H.; Martin-Kaye, P.; Sabins, F.

1982-01-01

145

Synthetic aperture radar and interferometry development at Sandia National Laboratories  

SciTech Connect

Environmental monitoring, earth-resource mapping, and military systems require broad-area imaging at high resolutions. Many times the imagery must be acquired in inclement weather or during night as well as day. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) provides such a capability. SAR systems take advantage of the long-range propagation characteristics of radar signals and the complex information processing capability of modern digital electronics to provide high resolution imagery. SAR complements photographic and other optical imaging capabilities because of the minimum constrains on time-of-day and atmospheric conditions and because of the unique responses of terrain and cultural targets to radar frequencies. Interferometry is a method for generating a three-dimensional image of terrain. The height projection is obtained by acquiring two SAR images from two slightly differing locations. It is different from the common method of stereoscopic imaging for topography. The latter relies on differing geometric projections for triangulation to define the surface geometry whereas interferometry relies on differences in radar propagation times between the two SAR locations. This paper presents the capabilities of SAR, explains how SAR works, describes a few SAR applications, provides an overview of SAR development at Sandia, and briefly describes the motion compensation subsystem.

NONE

1993-04-01

146

Density Isostasy and Topography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Density, Isostasy, and Topography Anne Egger, Stanford University The original activity Density, Isostasy, and Topography already exists within the SERC website. This page describes how this activity can be used ...

147

Mars topography harmonics and geophysical implications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper describes an improved model of Martian global topography which has been obtained by fitting a sixteenth-degree harmonic series to occultation, radar, spectral, and photogrammetric measurements. Empirical elevation data based on photographic data are used to supplement the observations in areas without data. Values for the mean radius, the mean density, and the displacement of the center of the figure from the center of mass are presented. The reported geometric flattening is too great and the reported dynamic flattening is too small for Mars to be homogeneous and hydrostatic. Maps of the data distribution, global topography, and Bouguer gravity anomaly are interpreted in terms of a crustal thickness map which is consistent with gravity, topography, and recent preliminary Viking seismic results.

Bills, B. G.; Ferrari, A. J.

1978-01-01

148

Crater topography on Titan: Implications for landscape evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unique among the icy satellites, Titan’s surface shows evidence for extensive modification by fluvial and aeolian erosion, which act to change the topography of its surface over time. Quantifying the extent of this landscape evolution is difficult, since the original, ‘non-eroded’ surface topography is generally unknown. However, fresh craters on icy satellites have a well-known shape and morphology, which has been determined from extensive studies on the airless worlds of the outer solar system (Schenk et al., 2004). By comparing the topography of craters on Titan to similarly sized, pristine analogues on airless bodies, we can obtain one of the few direct measures of the amount of erosion that has occurred on Titan. Cassini RADAR has imaged >30% of the surface of Titan, and more than 60 potential craters have been identified in this data set (Wood et al., 2010; Neish and Lorenz, 2012). Topographic information for these craters can be obtained from a technique known as ‘SARTopo’, which estimates surface heights by comparing the calibration of overlapping synthetic aperture radar (SAR) beams (Stiles et al., 2009). We present topography data for several craters on Titan, and compare the data to similarly sized craters on Ganymede, for which topography has been extracted from stereo-derived digital elevation models (Bray et al., 2012). We find that the depths of craters on Titan are generally within the range of depths observed on Ganymede, but several hundreds of meters shallower than the average (Fig. 1). A statistical comparison between the two data sets suggests that it is extremely unlikely that Titan’s craters were selected from the depth distribution of fresh craters on Ganymede, and that is it much more probable that the relative depths of Titan are uniformly distributed between ‘fresh’ and ‘completely infilled’. This is consistent with an infilling process that varies linearly with time, such as aeolian infilling. Figure 1: Depth of craters on Titan (gray diamonds) compared to similarly sized, fresh craters on Ganymede (central peaks, +; central pits, *) and a handful of relaxed craters (black squares) from Bray et al. (2012). References: Bray, V., et al.: "Ganymede crater dimensions - implications for central peak and central pit formation and development". Icarus, Vol. 217, pp. 115-129, 2012. Neish, C.D., Lorenz, R.D.: "Titan’s global crater population: A new assessment". Planetary and Space Science, Vol. 60, pp. 26-33, 2012. Schenk, P.M., et al.: "Ages and interiors: the cratering record of the Galilean satellites". In: Bagenal, F., McKinnon, W.B. (Eds.), Jupiter: The Planet, Satellites, and Magnetosphere, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 427-456, 2004. Stiles, B.W., et al.: "Determining Titan surface topography from Cassini SAR data". Icarus, Vol. 202, pp. 584-598, 2009. Wood, C.A., et al.: "Impact craters on Titan". Icarus, Vol. 206, pp. 334-344, 2010.

Neish, C.; Kirk, R.; Lorenz, R.; Bray, V.; Schenk, P.; Stiles, B.; Turtle, E.; Cassini Radar Team

2012-04-01

149

Advances in ice radar studies of a temperate alpine glacier, South Cascade Glacier, Washington, U.S.A.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

South Cascade Glacier, Washington, U.S.A., is one of the most extensively studied glaciers in the Western Hemisphere. In addition to mass-balance measurements, which date to 1958, numerous hydrological investigations have been carried out during the last three decades, and repeated ice-thickness determinations have been made using a variety of techniques. In the late 1960s, the basal topography was initially determined by gravitimetric methods. In the mid-1970s some of the first depth measurements using radar on temperate ice were made. The basal topography was remapped soon after from a series of point radar measurements and boreholes drilled to the glacier bottom. During the 1990s, the ice thickness was remapped using digital recording of continuous profiles that obtained over 5000 ice-thickness measurements. Profiles have been corrected for the finite beamwidth of the antenna radiation pattern and reflections in steep terrain, resulting in a significantly improved depiction of the basal surface and internal structures. The map based on our recent radar profiles confirms the large-scale features of the basal topography previously depicted and reveals more structural detail. A bright reflector was detected at the base of the glacier and could be traced in adjacent profiles. Comparison with results from water-level measurements in boreholes drilled to the bed indicates that the reflector is a subglacial conduit.

Fountain, A.G.; Jacobel, R.W.

1997-01-01

150

Video Animation of Ocean Topography From TOPEX/POSEIDON  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three video loops showing various aspects of the dynamic ocean topography obtained from the TOPEX/POSEIDON radar altimetry data will be presented. The first shows the temporal change of the global ocean topography during the first year of the mission. The time-averaged mean is removed to reveal the temporal variabilities. Temporal interpolation is performed to create daily maps for the animation. A spatial smoothing is also performed to retain only the large-sale features. Gyre-scale seasonal changes are the main features. The second shows the temporal evolution of the Gulf Stream. The high resolution gravimetric geoid of Rapp is used to obtain the absolute ocean topography. Simulated drifters are used to visualize the flow pattern of the current. Meanders and rings of the current are the main features. The third is an animation of the global ocean topography on a spherical earth. The JGM-2 geoid is used to obtain the ocean topography...

Fu, Lee-Lueng; Leconte, Denis; Pihos, Greg; Davidson, Roger; Kruizinga, Gerhard; Tapley, Byron

1993-01-01

151

Digital Base Band Converter As Radar Vlbi Backend / Dbbc K? Ciparošanas Sist?ma Radara Vlbi Nov?rojumiem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A digital base band converter (DBBC) system has been developed by the Istituto di Radioastronomia (Noto, Italy) for increasing the sensitivity of European VLBI Network (EVN) by expanding the full observed bandwidth using numerical methods. The output data rate of this VLBI-backend is raised from 1 to 4 Gbps for each radiotelescope. All operations related to the signal processing (frequency translation, amplification, frequency generation with local oscillators, etc.) are transferred to the digital domain, which allows - in addition to well-known advantages coming from digital technologies - achieving better repeatability, precision, simplicity, etc. The maximum input band of DBBC system is 3.5 GHz, and the instantaneous bandwidth is up to 1 GHz for each radio frequency/intermediate frequency (RF/IF) out of the eight possible. This backend is a highly powerful platform for other radioastronomy applications, and a number of additional so-called personalities have been developed and used. This includes PFB (polyphase filter bank) receivers and Spectra for high resolution spectroscopy. An additional new development with the same aim - to use the DBBC system as a multi-purpose backend - is related to the bi-static radar observations including Radar VLBI. In such observations it is possible to study the population of space debris, with detection of even centimetre class fragments. A powerful transmitter is used to illuminate the sky region to be analyzed, and the echoes coming from known or unknown objects are reflected to one or more groundbased telescopes thus producing a single-dish or interferometric detection. The DBBC Radar VLBI personality is able to realize a high-resolution spectrum analysis, maintaining in the central area the echo signal at the expected frequency including the Doppler shift of frequency. For extremely weak signals a very large integration time is needed, so for this personality different input parameters are provided. The realtime information can then allow exploring easily the desired range of search for unknown or not fully determined orbit objects. These features make Radar VLBI personality most useful in the space debris measurements. DBBC sist?ma izstr?d?ta Noto Radioastronomijas instit?t?. Sist?mas galvenaisuzdevums - palielin?t visa Eiropas VLBI t?kla jut?bu - realiz?ts, palielinotvisas nov?rojam?s joslas platumu un pielietojot ciparu sign?lu apstr?des metodes.Izejas datu pl?sma palielin?ta no 1 l?dz 4 Gbps katram radioteleskopam un visasoper?cijas, kas saist?tas ar sign?lu apstr?di (frekvences p?rveidošana, pastiprin?jums,iekš?jie ?eneratori, utt.), realiz?tas digit?l? form?, kas ?auj ieg?t noz?m?gusuzlabojumus atk?rtojam?b?, precizit?t?, vienk?rš?b?, nemaz neminot visp?rzin?m?spriekšroc?bas, ko nodrošina digit?lo tehnolo?iju izmantošana. Maksim?l? ieejassign?la frekven?u josla ir 3.5 GHz, un moment?nais joslas platums ir l?dz 1 GHz uzkatru no asto?iem iesp?jamajiem RF/IF kan?liem. Š? datu re?istr?cijas sist?ma ir?oti veiktsp?j?ga platforma ne tikai EVN, bet ar? citiem radioastronomijas pielietojumiem,un papildus tiek izstr?d?ta vesela virkne programmat?ras pakot?u, kasv?l vair?k paplašina sist?mas funkcionalit?ti. Tas ietver PFB (Polif?zes FiltruBanka) uztv?r?jus "Spectra”, kas piem?roti augstas izš?irtsp?jas spektroskopijasvajadz?b?m. Papildus realiz?ts jaunas programmat?ras risin?jums, ar m?r?iizmantot DBBC sist?mu k? daudzfunkcion?lu datu ciparošanas iek?rtu, kasizmantojama bistatiskiem radara nov?rojumiem, tai skait? ar? rad

Tuccari, G.; Bezrukovs, Vl.; Nechaeva, M.

2012-12-01

152

Aircraft radar antennas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many changes have taken place in airborne radar antennas since their beginnings over forty years ago. A brief historical review of the advances in technology is presented, from mechanically scanned reflectors to modern multiple function phased arrays. However, emphasis is not on history but on the state-of-the-art technology and trends for future airborne radar systems. The status of rotating surveillance antennas is illustrated by the AN/APY-1 Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) slotted waveguide array, which achieved a significant breakthrough in sidelobe suppression. Gimballed flat plate arrays in nose radomes are typified by the AN/APG-66 (F-16) antenna. Multifunction phased arrays are presented by the Electronically Agile Radar (EAR) antenna, which has achieved significant advances in performance versatility and reliability. Trends toward active aperture, adaptive, and digital beamforming arrays are briefly discussed. Antennas for future aircraft radar systems must provide multiple functions in less aperture space, and must perform more reliably.

Schrank, Helmut E.

1987-04-01

153

Radar sector blanker  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A radar sector blanker comprises in analog-to-digital converter and a sector controller unit. The analog-to-digital converter receives the analog synchro voltages describing the positioning of a radar antenna and changes these voltages into binary-coded decimal (BCD) information. The sector controller unit comprises a portable housing, a controller system, and a power supply. The controller system includes an OFF comparator circuit, an ON comparator circuit, an S-R latch, and a solid-state switch. Each comparator circuit comprises three cascaded transistor-transistor logic (TTL) integrated chips. The power supply gives a direct-current voltage to the solid-state switch and the TTL chips. The sector blanker blocks transmission for a predetermined rotational region or sector of a radar system.

Hall, Roger B.

1994-03-01

154

Application of ground-penetrating radar, digital optical borehole images, and cores for characterization of porosity hydraulic conductivity and paleokarst in the Biscayne aquifer, southeastern Florida, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper presents examples of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data from two study sites in southeastern Florida where karstic Pleistocene platform carbonates that comprise the unconfined Biscayne aquifer were imaged. Important features shown on resultant GPR profiles include: (1) upward and lateral qualitative interpretative distribution of porosity and hydraulic conductivity; (2) paleotopographic relief on karstic subaerial exposure surfaces; and (3) vertical stacking of chronostratigraphic high-frequency cycles (HFCs). These characteristics were verified by comparison to rock properties observed and measured in core samples, and identified in digital optical borehole images. Results demonstrate that an empirical relation exists between measured whole-core porosity and hydraulic conductivity, observed porosity on digital optical borehole images, formation conductivity, and GPR reflection amplitudes-as porosity and hydraulic conductivity determined from core and borehole images increases, formation conductivity increases, and GPR reflection amplitude decreases. This relation allows for qualitative interpretation of the vertical and lateral distribution of porosity and hydraulic conductivity within HFCs. Two subtidal HFCs in the uppermost Biscayne aquifer have significantly unique populations of whole-core porosity values and vertical hydraulic conductivity values. Porosity measurements from one cycle has a median value about two to three times greater than the values from the other HFC, and median values of vertical hydraulic-conductivity about three orders of magnitude higher than the other HFC. The HFC with the higher porosity and hydraulic conductivity values is shown as a discrete package of relatively low-amplitude reflections, whereas the HFC characterized by lower porosity and hydraulic-conductivity measurements is expressed by higher amplitude reflections. Porosity and hydraulic-conductivity values measured from whole-core samples, and vuggy porosity identified on digital borehole images from shallowing-upward, peritidal HFCs show that the highest porosity occurs at the base of the cycles, moderate porosity at the middle of the cycles, and lowest porosity occurs at the top of cycles. Hydraulic conductivity is also highest at the base of the peritidal cycles and lowest in the middle to upper parts of cycles. This change in porosity and hydraulic conductivity from bottom to top is visible as an upward variation in reflection amplitude on GPR profiles-lowest amplitudes at the base and highest at the cycle tops. This study demonstrates that GPR can be used to show the qualitative distribution of porosity and hydraulic conductivity within a cycle-stratigraphic framework composed of carbonate HFCs. The distribution of porosity and hydraulic conductivity within HFCs is related to depositional textures. The upward and lateral patterns of the rock facies within the HFCs can be translated to geophysical-log properties and radar facies configurations that could aid in interpretation and prediction of ground-water flow through a carbonate aquifer. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Cunningham, K.J.

2004-01-01

155

Topography measurements and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on auto- and cross-correlation functions (ACF and CCF), a new surface parameter called profile (or topography) difference, D s, has been developed for quantifying differences between 2D profiles or between 3D topographies with a single number. When D s = 0, the two compared 2D profiles or 3D topographies must be exactly the same (point by point). A 2D and 3D topography measurement system was established at NIST. This system includes data acquisition stations using a stylus instrument and a confocal microscope, and a correlation program using the proposed parameters D s and the cross-correlation function maximum CCF max. Applications in forensic science and surface metrology are described; those include profile signature measurements for 40 NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 2460 standard bullets, and comparisons of profile measurements with four different techniques. An approach to optimizing the Gaussian filter long wavelength cutoff, ?c, is proposed for topography measurements.

Song, Junfeng; Vorburger, Theodore

2006-11-01

156

Gulf of Mexico satellite radar altimetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dynamic topography of the sea surface was measured. The radar altimeter measurements yield average ocean topographic data which are mapped. Seasonal deviations from a 3 year mean topography are presented. The altimeters are also instrumented with sample and hold gates which provide information about the shape and amplitude of the return waveform. Parameters including ocean surface wind speed and the significant wave height are determined. One hundred eighty six wind speed and significant wave height histograms are presented.

Parra, C. G.; Forsythe, R. G.; Parsons, C. L.

1981-01-01

157

Radar Entomology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Radar tracking used to profile insect migration, mating and flight patterns. Many links to various pages include current workers in radar entomology, historical uses of the technology, and many images.

0000-00-00

158

Radar principles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discussed here is a kind of radar called atmospheric radar, which has as its target clear air echoes from the earth's atmosphere produced by fluctuations of the atmospheric index of refraction. Topics reviewed include the vertical structure of the atmosphere, the radio refractive index and its fluctuations, the radar equation (a relation between transmitted and received power), radar equations for distributed targets and spectral echoes, near field correction, pulsed waveforms, the Doppler principle, and velocity field measurements.

Sato, Toru

1989-01-01

159

Radar Studies in the Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We aid in a study of the solar system by means of ground-based radar. We have concentrated on (1) developing the ephemerides needed to acquire radar data at Arecibo Observatory and (2) analyzing the resultant data to: test fundamental laws of gravitation; determine the size, shape, topography, and spin vectors of the targets; and study the surface properties of these objects, through their scattering law and polarization characteristics.

Shapiro, Irwin I.

1996-01-01

160

Atmospheric limitations to repeat-track radar interferometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In its recent radar imaging mission, the Shuttle Imaging Radar satellite (SIR-C) devoted three days to repeat-track interferometry. We have analyzed the data from a test site in the Mojave desert of California. Although good topography (+\\/-10 m on 21 m postings) was obtained, most of the error was caused by turbulent water vapor in the lower atmosphere. Spatial structure

Richard Goldstein

1995-01-01

161

Radar Images of the Earth and the World Wide Web  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A perspective of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory as a center of planetary exploration, and its involvement in studying the earth from space is given. Remote sensing, radar maps, land topography, snow cover properties, vegetation type, biomass content, moisture levels, and ocean data are items discussed related to earth orbiting satellite imaging radar. World Wide Web viewing of this content is discussed.

Chapman, B.; Freeman, A.

1995-01-01

162

Using 3D Printers to Model Earth Surface Topography for Increased Student Understanding and Retention  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In February 2000, the Space Shuttle Endeavour flew a specially modified radar system during an 11-day mission. The purpose of the multinational Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) was to "obtain elevation data on a near-global scale to generate the most complete high-resolution digital topographic database of Earth" by using radar interferometry. The data and resulting products are now publicly available for download and give a view of the landscape removed of vegetation, buildings, and other structures. This new view of the Earth's topography allows us to see previously unmapped or poorly mapped regions of the Earth as well as providing a level of detail that was previously unknown using traditional topographic mapping techniques. Understanding and appreciating the geographic terrain is a complex but necessary requirement for middle school aged (11-14yo) students. Abstract in nature, topographic maps and other 2D renderings of the Earth's surface and features do not address the inherent spatial challenges of a concrete-learner and traditional methods of teaching can at times exacerbate the problem. Technological solutions such as 3D-imaging in programs like Google Earth are effective but lack the tactile realness that can make a large difference in learning comprehension and retention for these young students. First developed in the 1980's, 3D printers were not commercial reality until recently and the rapid rise in interest has driven down the cost. With the advent of sub US1500 3D printers, this technology has moved out of the high-end marketplace and into the local office supply store. Schools across the US and elsewhere in the world are adding 3D printers to their technological workspaces and students have begun rapid-prototyping and manufacturing a variety of projects. This project attempted to streamline the process of transforming SRTM data from a GeoTIFF format by way of Python code. The resulting data was then inputted into a CAD-based program for visualization and exporting as a .stl file for 3D printing. A proposal for improving the method and making it more accessible to middle school aged students is provided. Using the SRTM data to print a hand-held visual representation of a portion of the Earth's surface would utilize existing technology in the school and alter how topography can be taught in the classroom. Combining methods of 2D paper representations, on-screen 3D visualizations, and 3D hand-held models, give students the opportunity to truly grasp and retain the information being provided.

Thesenga, David; Town, James

2014-05-01

163

Onboard Interferometric SAR Processor for the Ka-Band Radar Interferometer (KaRIn)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An interferometric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) onboard processor concept and algorithm has been developed for the Ka-band radar interferometer (KaRIn) instrument on the Surface and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission. This is a mission- critical subsystem that will perform interferometric SAR processing and multi-look averaging over the oceans to decrease the data rate by three orders of magnitude, and therefore enable the downlink of the radar data to the ground. The onboard processor performs demodulation, range compression, coregistration, and re-sampling, and forms nine azimuth squinted beams. For each of them, an interferogram is generated, including common-band spectral filtering to improve correlation, followed by averaging to the final 1 1-km ground resolution pixel. The onboard processor has been prototyped on a custom FPGA-based cPCI board, which will be part of the radar s digital subsystem. The level of complexity of this technology, dictated by the implementation of interferometric SAR processing at high resolution, the extremely tight level of accuracy required, and its implementation on FPGAs are unprecedented at the time of this reporting for an onboard processor for flight applications.

Esteban-Fernandez, Daniel; Rodriquez, Ernesto; Peral, Eva; Clark, Duane I.; Wu, Xiaoqing

2011-01-01

164

Space Radar Image Isla Isabela in 3-D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a three-dimensional view of Isabela, one of the Galapagos Islands located off the western coast of Ecuador, South America. This view was constructed by overlaying a Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) image on a digital elevation map produced by TOPSAR, a prototype airborne interferometric radar which produces simultaneous image and elevation data. The vertical scale in this image is exaggerated by a factor of 1.87. The SIR-C/X-SAR image was taken on the 40th orbit of space shuttle Endeavour. The image is centered at about 0.5 degree south latitude and 91 degrees west longitude and covers an area of 75 by 60 kilometers (47 by 37 miles). The radar incidence angle at the center of the image is about 20 degrees. The western Galapagos Islands, which lie about 1,200 kilometers (750 miles)west of Ecuador in the eastern Pacific, have six active volcanoes similar to the volcanoes found in Hawaii and reflect the volcanic processes that occur where the ocean floor is created. Since the time of Charles Darwin's visit to the area in 1835, there have been more than 60 recorded eruptions on these volcanoes. This SIR-C/X-SAR image of Alcedo and Sierra Negra volcanoes shows the rougher lava flows as bright features, while ash deposits and smooth pahoehoe lava flows appear dark. Vertical exaggeration of relief is a common tool scientists use to detect relationships between structure (for example, faults, and fractures) and topography. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI).

1999-01-01

165

Classification of topography using DEM data and its correlation with the geology of Greece  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous topography from Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data is frequently segmented into terrain classes based on local morphological characteristics of terrain elevation, e.g., local slope gradient and convexity. The resulting classes are often used as proxies for the average shear wave velocity up to 30 m, and the determination of ground types as required by the Eurocode (EC8) for computing elastic design spectra. In this work, we investigate the links between terrain related variables, particularly slope gradient, extracted for the area of Greece from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 30 arc second global topographic data available from the United States Geological Survey (USGS), with: (a) the global terrain classification product of Iwahashi and Pike (2007) in which 16 terrain types are identified for the same spatial resolution, and (b) information on geological units extracted at the same resolution from the geological map of Greece at a scale of 1/500000 as published from the Institute of Geology and Mineral Exploration (IGME). An interpretation of these links is presented within the context of understanding the reliability of using geology, slope and terrain classes for site characterizations of earthquake risk in a high seismicity area like Greece. Our results indicate that slope is a somewhat biased proxy for solid rocks, whereas in Alluvial deposits the distance to and type of the nearest geological formation appears to provide qualitative information on the size of the sedimentary deposit.

Zargli, Eleni; Liodakis, Stelios; Kyriakidis, Phaedon; Savvaidis, Alexandros

2013-08-01

166

SRTM Radar Image, Wrapped Color as Height/EarthKam Optical Honolulu, Hawaii  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These two images of the eastern part of the island of Oahu, Hawaii provide information on regional topography and show the relationship between urban development and sensitive ecosystems. On the left is a topographic radar image collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM.) On the right is an optical image acquired by a digital camera on the Space Shuttle Endeavour, which carried SRTM. Features of interest in this scene include Diamond Head (an extinct volcano at the lower center), Waikiki Beach (just left of Diamond Head), the Punchbowl National Cemetery (another extinct volcano, at the foot of the Koolau Mountains), downtown Honolulu and Honolulu airport (lower left of center), and Pearl Harbor (at the left edge.)

The topography shows the steep, high central part of the island surrounded by flatter coastal areas. The optical image shows the urban areas and a darker, forested region on the mountain slopes. The clouds in the optical image and the black areas on the topographic image are both a result of the steep topography. In this tropical region, high mountain peaks are usually covered in clouds. These steep peaks also cause shadows in the radar data, resulting in missing data 'holes.' A second pass over the island was obtained by SRTM and will be used to fill in the holes.

The left image combines two types of SRTM data. Brightness corresponds to the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground, while colors show the elevation. Each color cycle (from pink through blue and back to pink) represents 400 meters (1,300 feet) of elevation difference, like the contour lines on a topographic map. This image contains about 2,400 meters (8,000 feet) of total relief. The optical image was acquired by the Shuttle Electronic Still Camera with a lens focal length of 64 millimeters (2.5 inches) for the Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle school students (EarthKAM) project. EarthKAM has flown on five space shuttle missions since 1996. Additional information about EarthKAM is available at http://Earthkam.sdsc.edu/geo/ .

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) was carried onboard the Space Shuttle Endeavor, which launched on February 11,2000. It uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar(SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI)space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, DC.

Size: 35 by 35 kilometers (22 by 22 miles) Location: 21.4 degrees North latitude, 157.8 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Original Data Resolution: SRTM, 30 meters (99 feet), EarthKAM Electronic Still Camera, 40 meters (132 feet) Date Acquired: SRTM, February 18, 2000; EarthKAM, February 12, 2000 Image: NASA/JPL/NIMA

2000-01-01

167

Radar Imagery of Mercury  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radar observations of Mercury have yielded important results including the discovery of the 3:2 spin:orbit resonance [1] discovery of distinct large surface roughness features [2] measurement of the perihelion advance (as a test of general relativity) [3] ephemeris improvements [4] information on shape [5] topography [6] and more recent constraints on the spin and orbit state [7]. But perhaps the most stunning discoveries have come from mapping experiments made possible by the Goldstone/VLA radarand improvements in the Random Long Code techniques in monostatic experiments [8]. These experiments provide maps of radar reflectivity across most of the visible disk of the planet and have been used to infer the presence of polar ices and large fresh impact craters among other features [9]. We will present a summary of the knowledge gained from these radar mapping observations recent results and plans for future experiments. [1] Dyce et al. 1967. [2] Zohar & Goldstein 1974. [3] Anderson et al. 1991. [4] Jurgens et al. 1998. [5] Anderson et al. 1996. [6] Harmon et al. 1986; Slade et al. 1997. [7] Margot et al. 2002. [8] Muhleman et al. 1995; Harmon 2002. [9] Butler et al. 1993; Harmon et al. 2001; Harmon 1997.

Butler, Bryan J.; Harmon, John K.; Slade, Martin A.

168

Radar Interferometer for Topographic Mapping of Glaciers and Ice Sheets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A report discusses Ka-band (35-GHz) radar for mapping the surface topography of glaciers and ice sheets at high spatial resolution and high vertical accuracy, independent of cloud cover, with a swath-width of 70 km. The system is a single- pass, single-platform interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) with an 8-mm wavelength, which minimizes snow penetration while remaining relatively impervious to atmospheric attenuation. As exhibited by the lower frequency SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) AirSAR and GeoSAR systems, an InSAR measures topography using two antennas separated by a baseline in the cross-track direction, to view the same region on the ground. The interferometric combination of data received allows the system to resolve the pathlength difference from the illuminated area to the antennas to a fraction of a wavelength. From the interferometric phase, the height of the target area can be estimated. This means an InSAR system is capable of providing not only the position of each image point in along-track and slant range as with a traditional SAR but also the height of that point through interferometry. Although the evolution of InSAR to a millimeter-wave center frequency maximizes the interferometric accuracy from a given baseline length, the high frequency also creates a fundamental problem of swath coverage versus signal-to-noise ratio. While the length of SAR antennas is typically fixed by mass and stowage or deployment constraints, the width is constrained by the desired illuminated swath width. As the across-track beam width which sets the swath size is proportional to the wavelength, a fixed swath size equates to a smaller antenna as the frequency is increased. This loss of antenna size reduces the two-way antenna gain to the second power, drastically reducing the signal-to-noise ratio of the SAR system. This fundamental constraint of high-frequency SAR systems is addressed by applying digital beam-forming (DBF) techniques to synthesize multiple simultaneous receive beams in elevation while maintaining a broad transmit illumination. Through this technique, a high antenna gain on receive is preserved, thereby reducing the required transmit power and thus enabling high-frequency SARs and high-precision InSAR from a single spacecraft.

Moller, Delwyn K.; Sadowy, Gregory A.; Rignot, Eric J.; Madsen, Soren N.

2007-01-01

169

Restoration Of MEX SRC Images For Improved Topography: A New Image Product  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface topography is an important constraint when investigating the evolution of solar system bodies. Topography is typically obtained from stereo photogrammetric or photometric (shape from shading) analyses of overlapping / stereo images and from laser / radar altimetry data. The ESA Mars Express Mission [1] carries a Super Resolution Channel (SRC) as part of the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) [2]. The SRC can build up overlapping / stereo coverage of Mars, Phobos and Deimos by viewing the surfaces from different orbits. The derivation of high precision topography data from the SRC raw images is degraded because the camera is out of focus. The point spread function (PSF) is multi-peaked, covering tens of pixels. After registering and co-adding hundreds of star images, an accurate SRC PSF was reconstructed and is being used to restore the SRC images to near blur free quality. The restored images offer a factor of about 3 in improved geometric accuracy as well as identifying the smallest of features to significantly improve the stereo photogrammetric accuracy in producing digital elevation models. The difference between blurred and restored images provides a new derived image product that can provide improved feature recognition to increase spatial resolution and topographic accuracy of derived elevation models. Acknowledgements: This research was funded by the NASA Mars Express Participating Scientist Program. [1] Chicarro, et al., ESA SP 1291(2009) [2] Neukum, et al., ESA SP 1291 (2009). A raw SRC image (h4235.003) of a Martian crater within Gale crater (the MSL landing site) is shown in the upper left and the restored image is shown in the lower left. A raw image (h0715.004) of Phobos is shown in the upper right and the difference between the raw and restored images, a new derived image data product, is shown in the lower right. The lower images, resulting from an image restoration process, significantly improve feature recognition for improved derived topographic accuracy.

Duxbury, T. C.

2012-12-01

170

Data volume reduction for imaging radar polarimetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two alternative methods are disclosed for digital reduction of synthetic aperture multipolarized radar data using scattering matrices, or using Stokes matrices, of four consecutive along-track pixels to produce averaged data for generating a synthetic polarization image.

Zebker, Howard A. (Inventor); Held, Daniel N. (Inventor); van Zul, Jakob J. (Inventor); Dubois, Pascale C. (Inventor); Norikane, Lynne (Inventor)

1989-01-01

171

Data volume reduction for imaging radar polarimetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two alternative methods are presented for digital reduction of synthetic aperture multipolarized radar data using scattering matrices, or using Stokes matrices, of four consecutive along-track pixels to produce averaged data for generating a synthetic polarization image.

Zebker, Howard A. (inventor); Held, Daniel N. (inventor); Vanzyl, Jakob J. (inventor); Dubois, Pascale C. (inventor); Norikane, Lynne (inventor)

1988-01-01

172

Convergence of ESM sensors and passive covert radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explains the convergence of ESM sensors and passive covert radar (PCR) by presenting the results of field tests with the application of an experimental wideband digital ESM receiver as a sensor in bistatic configuration for PCR. Exploitation of an a priori unknown radar illumination gives the principal possibility of detecting moving targets. A LPI radar with FMCW signals

Dietmar Matthes

2005-01-01

173

OpenTopography: Enabling Online Access to High-Resolution Lidar Topography Data and Processing Tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution topography data acquired with lidar (light detection and ranging) technology are revolutionizing the way we study the Earth's surface and overlying vegetation. These data, collected from airborne, tripod, or mobile-mounted scanners have emerged as a fundamental tool for research on topics ranging from earthquake hazards to hillslope processes. Lidar data provide a digital representation of the earth's surface at a resolution sufficient to appropriately capture the processes that contribute to landscape evolution. The U.S. National Science Foundation-funded OpenTopography Facility (http://www.opentopography.org) is a web-based system designed to democratize access to earth science-oriented lidar topography data. OpenTopography provides free, online access to lidar data in a number of forms, including the raw point cloud and associated geospatial-processing tools for customized analysis. The point cloud data are co-located with on-demand processing tools to generate digital elevation models, and derived products and visualizations which allow users to quickly access data in a format appropriate for their scientific application. The OpenTopography system is built using a service-oriented architecture (SOA) that leverages cyberinfrastructure resources at the San Diego Supercomputer Center at the University of California San Diego to allow users, regardless of expertise level, to access these massive lidar datasets and derived products for use in research and teaching. OpenTopography hosts over 500 billion lidar returns covering 85,000 km2. These data are all in the public domain and are provided by a variety of partners under joint agreements and memoranda of understanding with OpenTopography. Partners include national facilities such as the NSF-funded National Center for Airborne Lidar Mapping (NCALM), as well as non-governmental organizations and local, state, and federal agencies. OpenTopography has become a hub for high-resolution topography resources. Datasets hosted by other organizations, as well as lidar-specific software, can be registered into the OpenTopography catalog, providing users a "one-stop shop" for such information. With several thousand active users, OpenTopography is an excellent example of a mature Spatial Data Infrastructure system that is enabling access to challenging data for research, education and outreach. Ongoing OpenTopography design and development work includes the archive and publication of datasets using digital object identifiers (DOIs); creation of a more flexible and scalable high-performance environment for processing of large datasets; expanded support for satellite and terrestrial lidar; and creation of a "pluggable" infrastructure for third-party programs and algorithms. OpenTopography has successfully created a facility for sharing lidar data. In the project's next phase, we are working to enable equally easy and successful sharing of services for processing and analysis of these data.

Crosby, Christopher; Nandigam, Viswanath; Baru, Chaitan; Arrowsmith, J. Ramon

2013-04-01

174

Radar astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radar Astronomy is a new and growing branch of Astronomy. Although it seems that radio echo studies must be confined to the solar system, they can play an important part in developing our understanding of the Sun and the planets. At the present time these objects are barely detectable by radar techniques and much of the work has been concerned

J. V. Evans

1960-01-01

175

Echo Source Discrimination in Airborne Radar Sounding Data From the Dry Valleys, Antarctica, for Mars Analog Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The identification of features on Mars exhibiting morphologies consistent with ice/rock mixtures, near-surface ice bodies and near-surface liquid water, and the importance of such features to the search for water on Mars highlights the need for appropriate terrestrial analogs in order to prepare for upcoming radar missions targeting these and other water-related features. Climatic, hydrological, and geological conditions in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica are analogous in many ways to those on Mars, and a number of ice-related features in the Dry Valleys may have direct morphologic and compositional counterparts on Mars. We have collected roughly 1,000 line-km of airborne radar sounding data in the Dry Valleys for Mars analog studies. A crucial first step in the data analysis process is the discrimination of echo sources in the radar data. The goal is to identify all returns from the surface of surrounding topography in order to positively identify subsurface echoes. This process will also be critical for radar data that will be collected in areas of Mars exhibiting significant topography, so that subsurface echoes are identified unambiguously. Using a Twin Otter airborne platform, data were collected in three separate flights during the austral summers of 1999-2000 and 2001-2002 using multiple systems, including a chirped 52.5 - 67.5 MHz coherent radar operating at 750 W and 8 kW peak power (with multiple receivers) and 1 - 2 microsecond pulse width, and a 60 MHz pulsed, incoherent radar operating at 8 kW peak power with 60 ns and 250 ns pulse width. The chirped, coherent data are suitable for the implementation of advanced pulse compression algorithms and SAR focusing. Flight elevation was nominally 500 m above the surface. Targets included permafrost, subsurface ice bodies, rock/ice glaciers, ice-covered saline lakes, and glacial deposits in Taylor and Beacon Valleys. A laser altimeter (fixed relative to the aircraft frame) was also used during both seasons. Post-processing of the positioning data yields accuracies of ~ 0.10 m for samples at ~ 15 m intervals. Precise positioning was accomplished through the use of two carrier-phase GPS receivers on the aircraft and two at McMurdo Station. Surface and shallow subsurface properties are being supplied by glacial geomorphologists conducting ground-based studies in Taylor and Beacon Valleys. Two techniques are being used in parallel to discriminate subsurface echoes from surface echoes due to surrounding topography. In the first method, surface returns are simulated using aircraft position data, the modeled radar antenna pattern, and surface topography from a digital elevation model (DEM) recently acquired by the USGS and NASA in the Dry Valleys with 2-meter postings. These predicted surface returns are then compared with the actual data to reveal side echoes. The second method identifies all echoes in the radar data and maps them into possible correlative surface features to the sides of the aircraft through range estimation. This uses the measured time delay of the echo and known surface topography. We map the echoes onto the DEM (and optical imagery) at the appropriate range in order to identify candidate surface return sources. The two methods should identify all echoes that are not from the subsurface. The comparison of different radar configurations and parallel tracks where they are available will also be utilized to identify the source of any ambiguous echoes.

Holt, J. W.; Blankenship, D. D.; Peters, M. E.; Kempf, S. D.; Williams, B. J.

2003-12-01

176

Flow Interaction with Topography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a foundation module in the Mesoscale Meteorology Primer series. Topics covered include an overview of factors that control whether air will go up and over a mountain or be forced around it, the role of potential and kinetic energy, the Froude number and what it tells you, and air flow blocked by topography.

2014-09-14

177

Towards Mapping the Ocean Surface Topography at 1 km Resolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We propose to apply the technique of synthetic aperture radar interferometry to the measurement of ocean surface topography at spatial resolution approaching 1 km. The measurement will have wide ranging applications in oceanography, hydrology, and marine geophysics. The oceanographic and related societal applications are briefly discussed in the paper. To meet the requirements for oceanographic applications, the instrument must be flown in an orbit with proper sampling of ocean tides.

Fu, Lee-Lueng; Rodriquez, Ernesto

2006-01-01

178

Quantifying the Differences in Low Probability of Intercept Radar Waveforms Using Quadrature Mirror Filtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) radars are a class of radar systems that possess certain performance% characteristics causing them to be nearly undetectable by most modern digital intercept receivers, Consequently, LPI radar systems can operate undetected until the intercept receiver is much closer than the radar's target detector, The enemy is thus faced with a significant problem To detect these

Pedro Jarpa

2002-01-01

179

Analysis of Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) Radar Signals Using Cyclostationary Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

LPI (Low Probability of Intercept) radar is a class of radar systems that possess certain performance characteristics that make them nearly undetectable by today's digital intercept receivers. This presents a significant tactical problem in the battle space. To detect these types of radar, new digital receivers that use sophisticated signal processing techniques are required This thesis investigates the use of

Antonio F. Lime Jr.

2002-01-01

180

Lightweight SAR GMTI radar technology development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small and lightweight dual-channel radar has been developed for SAR data collections. Using standard Displaced Phase Center Antenna (DPCA) radar digital signal processing, SAR GMTI images have been obtained. The prototype radar weighs 5-lbs and has demonstrated the extraction of ground moving targets (GMTs) embedded in high-resolution SAR imagery data. Heretofore this type of capability has been reserved for much larger systems such as the JSTARS. Previously, small lightweight SARs featured only a single channel and only displayed SAR imagery. Now, with the advent of this new capability, SAR GMTI performance is now possible for small UAV class radars.

Kirk, John C.; Lin, Kai; Gray, Andrew; Hseih, Chung; Darden, Scott; Kwong, Winston; Majumder, Uttam; Scarborough, Steven

2013-05-01

181

Object-based classification of vegetation and terrain topography in Southwestern Amazonia (Brazil) as a tool for detecting ancient fluvial geomorphic features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reconstructing the evolution of large tropical fluvial systems over the geological time is challenging, particularly in areas such as the Amazonian lowlands where basic geological and geomorphological data are still scarce relatively to the large dimension of the region. In such areas, remote sensing data are useful for detecting ancient morphological features that may reveal past fluvial dynamics. In this study, we explored object-based image analysis (OBIA) in the Madeira-Purus interfluve, Southwestern Brazilian Amazonia, integrating geospatial data including Landsat satellite multispectral images, the digital elevation model (DEM) acquired during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and stream channels digitized from topographic maps. This approach provided the basis to categorize automatically classes with contrasting vegetation and/or topographic characteristics within the dense tropical forest over an extensive and relatively flat forested area. The main goal was to use these classes as a surrogate for the recognition of ancient geomorphic features consisting mainly of paleochannels that may help reconstructing fluvial history in space and time. Landsat optical images with stream vector were appropriate to classify open vegetation areas that grow over paleochannels, but failed to identify these objects when they were located over forested areas. However, the digital elevation model (DEM) derived from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) was successful to detect these objects even in forested areas. Topographic survey undertaken in the field increased the classification reliability by demonstrating true terrain variations along transects measured across the paleochannels. Based on this technique, networks of dendritic paleochannels were mapped and related to ancient tributaries of the Madeira River that had their courses flowing opposite to main modern streams. This denotes a significant change in fluvial dynamics over time, most likely resulting from tectonic tilting.

Bertani, Thiago de Castilho; Rossetti, Dilce de Fátima; Albuquerque, Paulo Cesar Gurgel

2013-10-01

182

Radar interferometry: limits and potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contribution of radar interferometry to the field of digital terrain modeling is important because this technique offers specific features which optical instruments cannot attain. However, the complexity of the height restitution and the accuracy of the result strongly depend on the orbital geometry at the time of the data takes. The present study aims at assessing the potential of

Didier Massonnet; Thierry Rabaute

1993-01-01

183

Longitudinal and seasonal variations in the occurrence of sunrise undulation at the dip equator: A study using Trivandrum and Jicamarca Digital Ionosonde and Jicamarca Incoherent Scatter radar measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At night, the absence of photo ionization in combination with sustained downward plasma motion means that the F region can be severely depleted at the magnetic equator at the end of the night. As a result, there can be, at sunrise, a sudden upward jump in altitude of the F region peak which is then followed by a quick descent in association with the downward motion of the photo ionization production peak. This constitutes what has been described as the equatorial sunrise undulation. Its anecdotal existence has been reported over Jicamarca (120 S, 76.90 W, 1.70 S dip-latitude) while it has been seen repeatedly over Trivandrum (8.470 N, 76.920 E, 0.170 S dip latitude), India, particularly during equinox conditions. Seasonal variations in the occurrence of sunrise undulation in the F-region peak height (hmF2) at two longitudinally separated geomagnetic equatorial stations, namely Jicamarca and Trivandrum are being presented. Measurements from Digital ionosondes, located at these two stations, have been used in this study. A fast descends in hmF2 after the local F region sunrise was quite visible at both the stations. The frequency of occurrence of sunrise undulation at Trivandrum, however, was high compared to the same at Jicamarca. There were noticeable differences in the seasonal occurrence of sunrise undulation at the two places. While it was observed throughout the year at Trivandrum, there was a distinct seasonal preference of occurrence at Jicamarca, at least in the year 2010, a low solar active period. Its frequency of occurrence at Jicamarca was high during winter (June) solstice, low during equinox (March) and had almost negligible occurrence during summer solstice (December). We show that (1) plasma density during sunrise at Jicamarca on average was twice as much as at Trivandrum, and (2) average height of hmF2 during night at Jicamarca was higher (~100km ) during equinox and solstice months compared to the same at Trivandrum. Our results suggest that the background density plays an important role in the observation of a sunrise undulation in the F region peak which itself is quite sensitive to the electric field seen by the plasma between sunset and sunrise. Using incoherent backscatter radar data from Jicamarca we show that the sunrise undulation can be masked when remnant plasma from the previous night does not come down to low enough altitude. We argue that this is the reason behind the lack of sunrise undulations in December at Jicamarca, given the fact that there is often very strong plasma uplift in the evening at that time of year. Thus the seasonal and longitudinal variation of sunrise ionosphere is a proxy to understand the electro-dynamical features of the night before.

Ambili, K. M.; St-Maurice, Jean-Pierre; Choudhary, Raj Kumar

184

SURFACE WATER & OCEAN TOPOGRAPHY  

E-print Network

neighboring image pixels, which requires an increase in the intrinsic range resolution of the instrument-downlink requirements (for both ocean and inland waters) can be met with eight 300-Mbps X-band stations globally. Ref levels for ocean and inland water dynamics · Key Instruments ­ Ka- or Ku-band radar ­ Ku-band altimeter

Christian, Eric

185

Radar Core Electronics for the European Radar SOSTAR-X - Recent Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Radar Core Electronics (CE) has been developed for the European SOSTAR-X (Stand-Off Surveillance and Target Acquisition Radar) programme. Taking into account the requirements for different SAR modes, MTI modes, and simultaneous SAR\\/MTI modes, the main functions (frequency genera-tion, radar timing, waveform generation, demodulation, A\\/D-conversion, digital pre-processing and formatting) have been identified, and a modular, configurable and flexible CE has

M. Kirscht

2007-01-01

186

The Glacier and Ice Surface Topography Interferometer: UAVSAR's Single-pass Ka-Band Interferometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In May 2009 a new radar technique for mapping ice surface topography was demonstrated in a Greenland campaign as part of the NASA International Polar Year (IPY) activities. This was achieved with the airborne Glacier and Ice Surface Topography Interferometer (GLISTIN-A): a 35.6 GHz single-pass interferometer. Although the technique of using radar interferometry for mapping terrain has been demonstrated before, this is the first such application at millimeter-wave frequencies. The proof-of-concept demonstration was achieved by interfacing Ka-band RF and antenna hardware with the Uninhabited Airborne Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR). The GLISTIN-A was implemented as a custom installation of the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center Gulfstream III. Instrument performance indicates swath widths over the ice between 5-7km, with height precisions ranging from 30cm-3m at a posting of 3m x 3m. Processing challenges were encountered in achieving the accuracy requirements on several fronts including, aircraft motion sensitivity, multipath and systematic drifts. However, through a combination of processor optimization, a modified phase-screen and motion-compensation implementations were able to minimize the impact of these systematic error sources. We will present results from the IPY data collections including system performance evaluations and imagery. This includes a large area digital elevation model (DEM) collected over Jakobshavn glacier as an illustrative science data product. Further, by intercomparison with the NASA Wallops Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) and calibration targets we quantify the interferometric penetration bias of the Ka-band returns into the snow cover. Following the success of the IPY campaign, we are funded under the Earth Science Techonology Office (ESTO) Airborne Innovative Technology Transition (AITT) program to transition GLISTIN-A to a permanently-available pod-only system compatible with unpressurized operation. In addition fundamental system upgrades will greatly enhance the performance and make wider-swath and higher altitude operation possible. We will show results from first flights of GLISTIN-A and summarize the plans for the near future including GLISTIN-H: GLISTIN on the NASA Global Hawk Spring 2013.

Moller, D.; Hensley, S.; Sadowy, G.; Wu, X.; Carswell, J.; Fisher, C.; Michel, T.; Lou, Y.

2012-12-01

187

Visualization of planetary subsurface radar sounder data in three dimensions using stereoscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planetary subsurface sounding radar data extend the knowledge of planetary surfaces to a third dimension: the depth. The interpretation of delays of radar echoes converted into depth often requires the comparative analysis with other data, mainly topography, and radar data from different orbits can be used to investigate the spatial continuity of signals from subsurface geologic features. This scenario requires taking into account spatially referred information in three dimensions. Three dimensional objects are generally easier to understand if represented into a three dimensional space, and this representation can be improved by stereoscopic vision. Since its invention in the first half of 19th century, stereoscopy has been used in a broad range of application, including scientific visualization. The quick improvement of computer graphics and the spread of graphic rendering hardware allow to apply the basic principles of stereoscopy in the digital domain, allowing the stereoscopic projection of complex models. Specialized system for stereoscopic view of scientific data have been available in the industry, and proprietary solutions were affordable only to large research institutions. In the last decade, thanks to the GeoWall Consortium, the basics of stereoscopy have been applied for setting up stereoscopic viewers based on off-the shelf hardware products. Geowalls have been spread and are now used by several geo-science research institutes and universities. We are exploring techniques for visualizing planetary subsurface sounding radar data in three dimensions and we are developing a hardware system for rendering it in a stereoscopic vision system. Several Free Open Source Software tools and libraries are being used, as their level of interoperability is typically high and their licensing system offers the opportunity to implement quickly new functionalities to solve specific needs during the progress of the project. Visualization of planetary radar data in three dimensions represents a challenging task, and the exploration of different strategies will bring to the selection of the most appropriate ones for a meaningful extraction of information from the products of these innovative instruments.

Frigeri, A.; Federico, C.; Pauselli, C.; Ercoli, M.; Coradini, A.; Orosei, R.

2010-12-01

188

Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission was recommended in 2007 by the National Research Council's Decadal Survey, "Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond", for implementation by NASA. The SWOT mission is a partnership between two communities, the physical oceanography and the hydrology, to share high vertical accuracy and high spatial resolution topography data produced by the science payload, principally a Ka-band radar Interferometer (KaRIn). The SWOT payload also includes a precision orbit determination system consisting of GPS and DORIS receivers, a Laser Retro-reflector Assembly (LRA), a Jason-class nadir radar altimeter, and a JASON-class radiometer for tropospheric path delay corrections. The SWOT mission will provide large-scale data sets of ocean sea-surface height resolving scales of 15km and larger, allowing the characterization of ocean mesoscale and submesoscale circulation. The SWOT mission will also provide measurements of water storage changes in terrestrial surface water bodies and estimates of discharge in large (wider than 100m) rivers globally. The SWOT measurements will provide a key complement to other NASA spaceborne global measurements of the water cycle measurements by directly measuring the surface water (lakes, reservoirs, rivers, and wetlands) component of the water cycle. The SWOT mission is an international partnership between NASA and the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). The Canadian Space Agency (CSA) is also expected to contribute to the mission. SWOT is currently nearing entry to Formulation (Phase A). Its launch is targeted for October 2020.

Neeck, Steven P.; Lindstrom, Eric J.; Vaze, Parag V.; Fu, Lee-Lueng

2012-09-01

189

Broad perspectives in radar for ocean measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The various active radar implementation options available for the measurement functions of interest for the SEASAT follow-on missions were evaluated. These functions include surface feature imaging, surface pressure and vertical profile, atmospheric sounding, surface backscatter and wind speed determination, surface current location, wavelength spectra, sea surface topography, and ice/snow thickness. Some concepts for the Synthetic Aperture Imaging Radar were examined that may be useful in the design and selection of the implementation options for these missions. The applicability of these instruments for the VOIR mission was also kept under consideration.

Jain, A.

1978-01-01

190

Digital communications study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research is reported dealing with problems of digital data transmission and computer communications networks. The results of four individual studies are presented which include: (1) signal processing with finite state machines, (2) signal parameter estimation from discrete-time observations, (3) digital filtering for radar signal processing applications, and (4) multiple server queues where all servers are not identical.

Boorstyn, R. R.

1973-01-01

191

Evolution of Neogene Dynamic Topography in Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characteristic basins and swells of Africa's surface topography probably reflect patterns of convective circulation in the sub-lithospheric mantle. We have interrogated drainage networks to determine the spatial and temporal pattern of convectively driven uplift. ~560 longitudinal river profiles were extracted from a digital elevation model of Africa. An inverse model is then used to minimise the misfit between observed and calculated river profiles as a function of uplift rate history. During inversion, the residual misfit decreases from ~22 to ~5. Our results suggest that Africa's topography began to grow most rapidly after ~30 Ma at peak uplift rates of 0.1-0.15 mm/yr. The algorithm resolves distinct phases of uplift which generate localized swells of high topography and relief (e.g. the Angolan Dome). Uplift rate histories are shown to vary significantly from swell to swell. The calculated magnitudes, timing, and location of uplift agree well with local independent geological constraints, such as intense volcanism at Hoggar (42-39 Ma) and Afar (31-29 Ma), uplifted marine terraces, and warped peneplains. We have also calculated solid sediment flux histories for major African deltas which have persisted through time. This onshore record provides an important indirect constraint on the history of vertical motions at the surface, and agrees well with the offshore flux record, obtained from mapping isopachs of deltaic sediments. Our modelling and reconstructed sedimentary flux histories indicate that the evolution of drainage networks may contain useful information about mantle convective processes.

Paul, Jonathan; Roberts, Gareth; White, Nicky

2013-04-01

192

Integrated photonic analog-to-digital converters  

E-print Network

Accurate conversion of wideband multi-GHz analog signals into the digital domain has long been a target of analog-to-digital converter (ADC) developers, driven by applications in radar systems, software radio, medical ...

Khilo, Anatol (Anatol M.)

2011-01-01

193

Using radar image simulation to assess relative geometric distortions inherent in radar imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A unique method for observing the relative contributions of backscatter and propagation effects is afforded by radar image simulation. Digital terrain data are used in modeling radar image formation. Backscatter and propagation effects are modeled separately. These are incorporated serially and the image expression of each is noted. Sequences of images are presented illustrating these effects over a range of slopes and angles of incidence. The conclusions reached are that at angles of incidence that are smaller than the average slope of the terrain in a region, propagation phenomena predominate. As the angle of incidence increases beyond this, the radar image portrays an increasingly faithful representation of the backscatter from the ground. It is also demonstrated that digital simulation affords an important tool for evaluating complex interactions between the ground and radar, for training users in radar image interpretation, and for selecting optimum sensor parameters for particular applications.

Kaupp, V. H.; Macdonald, H. C.; Waite, W. P.

1981-01-01

194

Ocean Surface Topography from Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interactive Flash Module about Ocean Surface Topography. Module includes sea surface observations and measurements as well as visuals explanations of the alimetry instruments used to detect surface changes.

Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, NASA

195

Short contribution: Buried Canopic channel identified near Egypt's Nile delta coast with radar (SRTM) imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data, with ground-based geologic investigations, define the geographic position of the relict Canopic channel in Egypt's NW Nile delta. Two sinuous channel segments south of Abu Qir Bay are observed on a radar image: a more sinu- ous trace (36 km in length) west of Idku lagoon, and an eastern one (~20 km), reaching the

Jean-Daniel Stanley; Thomas F. Jorstad

2006-01-01

196

EAARL Coastal Topography - Sandy Hook 2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Kingston, RI; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of Gateway National Recreation Area's Sandy Hook Unit in New Jersey, acquired on May 16, 2007. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for pre-survey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is routinely used to create maps that represent submerged or first surface topography. Specialized filtering algorithms have been implemented to determine the 'bare earth' under vegetation from a point cloud of last return elevations.

Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Stevens, Sara; Yates, Xan; Bonisteel, Jamie M.

2008-01-01

197

ATM Coastal Topography-Mississippi, 2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the Mississippi coastline, from Lakeshore to Petit Bois Island, acquired September 9-10, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative scanning lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight-line definition, flight-path plotting, lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is used routinely to create maps that represent submerged or first-surface topography.

Nayegandhi, Amar; Yates, Xan; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Klipp, Emily S.; Wright, C. Wayne

2009-01-01

198

ATM Coastal Topography-Alabama 2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the Alabama coastline, acquired October 3-4, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative scanning Lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning Lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface, and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for pre-survey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is routinely used to create maps that represent submerged or first surface topography.

Nayegandhi, Amar; Yates, Xan; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Klipp, Emily S.; Wright, C. Wayne

2009-01-01

199

The Global Multi-Resolution Topography (GMRT) Synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topographic maps provide a backdrop for research in nearly every earth science discipline. There is particular demand for bathymetry data in the ocean basins, where existing coverage is sparse. Ships and submersibles worldwide are rapidly acquiring large volumes of new data with modern swath mapping systems. The science community is best served by a global topography compilation that is easily accessible, up-to-date, and delivers data in the highest possible (i.e. native) resolution. To meet this need, the NSF-supported Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS; www.marine-geo.org) has partnered with the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC; www.ngdc.noaa.gov) to produce the Global Multi-Resolution Topography (GMRT) synthesis - a continuously updated digital elevation model that is accessible through Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC; www.opengeospatial.org) Web services. GMRT had its genesis in 1992 with the NSF RIDGE Multibeam Synthesis (RMBS); later grew to include the Antarctic Multibeam Synthesis (AMBS); expanded again to include the NSF Ridge 2000 and MARGINS programs; and finally emerged as a global compilation in 2005 with the NSF Legacy of Ocean Exploration (LOE) project. The LOE project forged a permanent partnership between MGDS and NGDC, in which swath bathymetry data sets are routinely published and exchanged via the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH; www.openarchives.org). GMRT includes both color-shaded relief images and underlying elevation values at ten different resolutions as high as 100m. New data are edited, gridded, and tiled using tools originally developed by William Haxby at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory. Global and regional data sources include the NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM; http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/srtm/); Smith & Sandwell Satellite Predicted Bathymetry (http://topex.ucsd.edu/marine_topo/); SCAR Subglacial Topographic Model of the Antarctic (BEDMAP; http://www.antarctica.ac.uk/bedmap/); and International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean (IBCAO; http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/bathymetry/arctic/). Local data sources include high-resolution bathymetry swaths and grids from over 210 research cruises, submersible dives, and related compilations to date. GMRT is accessible via a OGC Web Map Service (WMS) which offers dynamic resolution and on-the-fly map re- projection. A growing number of commercial and open-source clients support OGC protocols, including recent versions of Google Earth and Google Maps which now support WMS natively. GMRT is incorporated as a primary basemap in science Web portals and geobrowsers including EarthChem (www.earthchem.org) and GeoMapApp (www.geomapapp.org), which also serves the underlying elevation values. Future development work will include extension of GMRT to higher resolutions; addition of the International Bathymetric Chart of the Southern Ocean (IBCSO; www.ibcso.org) and the improved SRTM V2; and deployment of new OGC services including a Web Coverage Service (WCS) and Web Terrain Service (WTS).

Arko, R.; Ryan, W.; Carbotte, S.; Melkonian, A.; Coplan, J.; O'Hara, S.; Chayes, D.; Weissel, R.; Goodwillie, A.; Ferrini, V.; Stroker, K.; Virden, W.

2007-12-01

200

Spectral analysis of the gravity and topography of Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New spherical harmonic models of the gravity and topography of Mars place important constraints on the structure and dynamics of the interior. The gravity and topography models are significantly phase coherent for harmonic degrees n less than 30 (wavelengths greater than 700 km). Loss of coherence below that wavelength is presumably due to inadequacies of the models, rather than a change in behavior of the planet. The gravity/topography admittance reveals two very different spectral domains: for n greater than 4, a simple Airy compensation model, with mean depth of 100 km, faithfully represents the observed pattern; for degrees 2 and 3, the effective compensation depths are 1400 and 550 km, respectively, strongly arguing for dynamic compensation at those wavelengths. The gravity model has been derived from a reanalysis of the tracking data for Mariner 9 and the Viking Orbiters, The topography model was derived by harmonic analysis of the USGS digital elevation model of Mars. Before comparing gravity and topography for internal structure inferences, we must ensure that both are consistently referenced to a hydrostatic datum. For the gravity, this involves removal of hydrostatic components of the even degree zonal coefficients. For the topography, it involves adding the degree 4 equipotential reference surface, to get spherically referenced values, and then subtracting the full degree 50 equipotential. Variance spectra and phase coherence of orthometric heights and gravity anomalies are addressed.

Bills, Bruce G.; Frey, Herbert V.; Kiefer, Walter S.; Nerem, R. Steven; Zuber, Maria T.

1993-01-01

201

Title: Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Data Creator /  

E-print Network

seconds (90m) and one at 30 arc seconds (900m). 80% of the earth's surface is covered for all of the area areas are not covered). Elevation units are in metres. Common uses of this data include video game, Antarctica Keywords (Subject): Topographic Maps, Land Use, Elevation #12;Restrictions: Data is licensed

202

Solar Radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radar echoes from the Sun were first detected in 1959 at 25 MHz and an extensive set of measurements was made at 38 MHz between 1960 and 1969. The results were unexpected and could not be explained at the time. Interest in the technique waned and radar astronomy evolved to the use of higher frequencies so it became impossible to repeat the measurements. The early observations can be explained in the light of our present understanding of the corona. New radar observations, with correlative optical, UV, and soft X-ray observations, would be very useful in probing the corona near the origin of the solar wind. Radar measures the range to the reflection point and the plasma velocity at the reflection point. Reflection occurs where the dielectric constant goes to zero, which is polarization dependent. Thus dual polarization observations provide estimates of the electron density, magnetic field, and velocity at the reflection point. Solar echoes can be observed at frequencies between 18 MHz and 100 MHz, corresponding to reflection heights between (roughly) 1.8 Rs and 1.15 Rs. It may be possible to operate up to 200 MHz and probe to the edge of the transition region. Here we will review the early observations; explain their basic features; outline existing and potential opportunities for new observations; and speculate on the future development of the technique.

Coles, W. A.

2002-12-01

203

Bistatic SAR coherence over non-planar topographies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monostatic Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Coherent Change Detection (CCD) has been found to be of great utility in detecting changes that occur on the ground. Detectable changes of interest include vehicle tracks and water flow. The CCD procedure involves performing repeat pass radar collections, to form a coherence product, where ground disturbances can induce detectable incoherence. However there is usually a difference in the radar collection geometry which can lead to incoherent energy noise entering the CCD, which reduces the detectability of tracks. When sensing flat terrain, the incoherence due to collection geometry difference can be removed through a conventional Fourier image support trimming process. However, it has been found that when the terrain contains non-flat topography, the optimal trimming process is substantially more involved, so much so that a new per-pixel SAR back-projection imaging algorithm has been developed. This algorithm trims off incoherent energy on a per-pixel basis according to the local topography. In order to validate the bistatic SAR generalization to the monostatic per-pixel formalism and algorithm, bistatic change detection measurements were conducted with the GB-SAR system, and these are reported here.

Andre, Daniel B.; Morrison, Keith

2012-05-01

204

Muti-Channel Digital LPI Signal Detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory of LPI radar signal interception is introduced and a method using multi-channel digital deramping is discussed in detail for FMCW signals. Many simulation experiments on the method have been done in several possible situations, and on the basis of them, the influences of mismatch factor and unsynchronized phase on the detection performance of the digital LPI radar detector

Song Jie; Tang Xiao-ming; He You

2006-01-01

205

Topography of Io (color)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The images used to create this color composite of Io were acquired by Galileo during its ninth orbit (C9) of Jupiter and are part of a sequence of images designed to map the topography or relief on Io and to monitor changes in the surface color due to volcanic activity. Obtaining images at low illumination angles is like taking a picture from a high altitude around sunrise or sunset. Such lighting conditions emphasize the topography of the volcanic satellite. Several mountains up to a few miles high can be seen in this view, especially near the upper right. Some of these mountains appear to be tilted crustal blocks. Most of the dark spots correspond to active volcanic centers.

North is to the top of the picture which merges images obtained with the clear, red, green, and violet filters of the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft. . The resolution is 8.3 kilometers per picture element. The image was taken on June 27, 1997 at a range of 817,000 kilometers by the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

1997-01-01

206

Analysis of synthetic aperture radar imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some problems faced in applications of radar measurements in hydrology are: (1) adequate calibration of the radar systems and direct digital data will be required in order that repeatable data can be acquired for hydrologic applications; (2) quantitative hydrologic research on a large scale will be prohibitive with aircraft mounted synthetic aperture radar systems due to the system geometry; (3) spacecraft platforms appear to be the best platforms for radar systems when conducting research over watersheds larger than a few square kilometers; (4) experimental radar systems should be designed to avoid use of radomes; and (5) cross polarized X and L band data seem to discriminate between good and poor hydrologic cover better than like polarized data.

Blanchard, B. J.

1977-01-01

207

Mississippi Delta, Radar Image with Colored Height  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for the animation

About the animation: This simulated view of the potential effects of storm surge flooding on Lake Pontchartrain and the New Orleans area was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. Although it is protected by levees and sea walls against storm surges of 18 to 20 feet, much of the city is below sea level, and flooding due to storm surges caused by major hurricanes is a concern. The animation shows regions that, if unprotected, would be inundated with water. The animation depicts flooding in one-meter increments.

About the image: The geography of the New Orleans and Mississippi delta region is well shown in this radar image from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. In this image, bright areas show regions of high radar reflectivity, such as from urban areas, and elevations have been coded in color using height data also from the mission. Dark green colors indicate low elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

New Orleans is situated along the southern shore of Lake Pontchartrain, the large, roughly circular lake near the center of the image. The line spanning the lake is the Lake Pontchartrain Causeway, the world's longest over water highway bridge. Major portions of the city of New Orleans are below sea level, and although it is protected by levees and sea walls, flooding during storm surges associated with major hurricanes is a significant concern.

Data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C.

Location: 30 degrees North latitude, 90 degrees East longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Size: 222.6 by 192.8 kilometers (138.3 by 119.8 miles) Image Data: Radar image and colored Shuttle Radar Topography Mission elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

2005-01-01

208

The Global Topography Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An accurate description of the surface elevation of the Earth is of fundamental importance to many branches of Earth science. A number of working groups have considered the characteristics of the available digital topographic data base and found that there are significant deficiencies in available topographic data that severly limit existing and potential new scientific applications.

Farr, T.; Evans, D.; Zebker, H.; Harding, D.; Bufton, J.; Dixon, T.; Vetrella, S.; Gesch, D.

1993-01-01

209

Generating nonlinear FM chirp radar signals by multiple integrations  

DOEpatents

A phase component of a nonlinear frequency modulated (NLFM) chirp radar pulse can be produced by performing digital integration operations over a time interval defined by the pulse width. Each digital integration operation includes applying to a respectively corresponding input parameter value a respectively corresponding number of instances of digital integration.

Doerry, Armin W. (Albuquerque, NM)

2011-02-01

210

Highly Integrated Radar Sensor-on-Chip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A highly integrated 24 GHz radar sensor is presented, based on a Radio Frequency Integrated Circuit (RFIC) which was specifically developed for a Frequency Modulated Shift Keying (FMSK) based Radar system design. Antenna, waveform, the Radio Frequency (RF) and Digital Signal Processor (DSP) module, the software design, cost and performance aspects will be described. The significant technical and economical advantages of the implemented Silicon-Germanium (SiGe) Bipolar CMOS (BiCMOS) transceiver are demonstrated. Some automotive and other applications based on this technology and new radar system design will be explained.

Mende, Ralph

2012-05-01

211

Comparison of elevation derived from insar data with dem from topography map in Son Dong, Bac Giang, Viet Nam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are used in many applications in the context of earth sciences such as in topographic mapping, environmental modeling, rainfall-runoff studies, landslide hazard zonation, seismic source modeling, etc. During the last years multitude of scientific applications of Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) techniques have evolved. It has been shown that InSAR is an established technique of generating high quality DEMs from space borne and airborne data, and that it has advantages over other methods for the generation of large area DEM. However, the processing of InSAR data is still a challenging task. This paper describes InSAR operational steps and processing chain for DEM generation from Single Look Complex (SLC) SAR data and compare a satellite SAR estimate of surface elevation with a digital elevation model (DEM) from Topography map. The operational steps are performed in three major stages: Data Search, Data Processing, and product Validation. The Data processing stage is further divided into five steps of Data Pre-Processing, Co-registration, Interferogram generation, Phase unwrapping, and Geocoding. The Data processing steps have been tested with ERS 1/2 data using Delft Object-oriented Interferometric (DORIS) InSAR processing software. Results of the outcome of the application of the described processing steps to real data set are presented.

Nguyen, Duy

2012-07-01

212

Mapping diverse forest cover with multipolarization airborne radar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Imaging radar backscatter in continuously forested areas contains information about the forest canopy; it also contains data about topography, landforms, and terrain texture. For purposes of radar image interpretation and geologic mapping researchers were interested in identifying and separating forest canopy effects from geologic or geomorphic effects on radar images. The objectives of this investigation was to evaluate forest canopy variables in multipolarization radar images under conditions where geologic and topographic variables are at a minimum. A subsidiary objective was to compare the discriminatory capabilities of the radar images with corresponding optical images of similar spatial resolution. It appears that the multipolarization images discriminate variation in tree density, but no evidence was found for discrimination between evergreen and deciduous forest types.

Ford, J. P.; Wickland, D. E.; Sharitz, R. R.

1985-01-01

213

Scale Dependencies of Vegetation and Topography in a Mountainous Environment of Montana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examines the effects of spatial scale on estimating the relationship between vegetation biomass and topography within a portion of Glacier National Park, Montana. The Reflectance\\/Absorptance vegetation index, developed from processed Landsat Thematic Mapper digital data, is related to three topographic variables obtained through processed Digital Elevation Models: elevation, slope angle, and slope aspect. R values between the vegetation

Ling Bian; Stephen J. Walsh

1993-01-01

214

Space Radar Image of San Rafael Glacier, Chile  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA radar instrument has been successfully used to measure some of the fastest moving and most inaccessible glaciers in the world -- in Chile's huge, remote Patagonia ice fields -- demonstrating a technique that could produce more accurate predictions of glacial response to climate change and corresponding sea level changes. This image, produced with interferometric measurements made by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) flown on the Space Shuttle last fall, has provided the first detailed measurements of the mass and motion of the San Rafael Glacier. Very few measurements have been made of the Patagonian ice fields, which are the world's largest mid-latitude ice masses and account for more than 60 percent of the Southern Hemisphere's glacial area outside of Antarctica. These features make the area essential for climatologists attempting to understand the response of glaciers on a global scale to changes in climate, but the region's inaccessibility and inhospitable climate have made it nearly impossible for scientists to study its glacial topography, meteorology and changes over time. Currently, topographic data exist for only a few glaciers while no data exist for the vast interior of the ice fields. Velocity has been measured on only five of the more than 100 glaciers, and the data consist of only a few single-point measurements. The interferometry performed by the SIR-C/X-SAR was used to generate both a digital elevation model of the glaciers and a map of their ice motion on a pixel-per-pixel basis at very high resolution for the first time. The data were acquired from nearly the same position in space on October 9, 10 and 11, 1994, at L-band frequency (24-cm wavelength), vertically transmitted and received polarization, as the Space Shuttle Endeavor flew over several Patagonian outlet glaciers of the San Rafael Laguna. The area shown in these two images is 50 kilometers by 30 kilometers (30 miles by 18 miles) in size and is centered at 46.6 degrees south latitude, 73.8 degrees west longitude. North is toward the upper right. The top image is a digital elevation model of the scene, where color and saturation represent terrain height (between 0 meters and 2,000 meters or up to 6,500 feet) and brightness represents radar backscatter. Low elevations are shown in blue and high elevations are shown in pink. The digital elevation map of the glacier surface has a horizontal resolution of 15 meters (50 feet) and a vertical resolution of 10 meters (30 feet). High-resolution maps like these acquired over several years would allow scientists to calculate directly long-term changes in the mass of the glacier. The bottom image is a map of ice motion parallel to the radar look direction only, which is from the top of the image. Purple indicates ice motion away from the radar at more than 6 centimeters per day; dark blue is ice motion toward or away at less than 6 cm per day; light blue is motion toward the radar of 6 cm to 20 cm (about 2 to 8 inches) per day; green is motion toward the radar of 20 cm to 45 cm (about 8 to 18 inches) per day; yellow is 45 cm to 85 cm (about 18 to 33 inches) per day; orange is 85 cm to 180 cm (about 33 to 71 inches) per day; red is greater than 180 cm (71 inches) per day. The velocity estimates are accurate to within 5 millimeters per day. The largest velocities are recorded on the San Rafael Glacier in agreement with previous work. Other outlet glaciers exhibit ice velocities of less than 1 meter per day. Several kilometers before its terminus, (left of center) the velocity of the San Rafael Glacier exceeds 10 meters (32 feet) per day, and ice motion cannot be estimated from the data. There, a revisit time interval of less than 12 hours would have been necessary to estimate ice motion from interferometry data. The results however demonstrate that the radar interferometry technique permits the monitoring of glacier characteristics unattainable by any other means. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) are part of NASA's

1994-01-01

215

Modeling of SAR signatures of shallow water ocean topography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hydrodynamic/electromagnetic model was developed to explain and quantify the relationship between the SEASAT synthetic aperture radar (SAR) observed signatures and the bottom topography of the ocean in the English Channel region of the North Sea. The model uses environmental data and radar system parameters as inputs and predicts SAR-observed backscatter changes over topographic changes in the ocean floor. The model results compare favorably with the actual SEASAT SAR observed backscatter values. The developed model is valid for only relatively shallow water areas (i.e., less than 50 meters in depth) and suggests that for bottom features to be visible on SAR imagery, a moderate to high velocity current and a moderate wind must be present.

Shuchman, R. A.; Kozma, A.; Kasischke, E. S.; Lyzenga, D. R.

1984-01-01

216

Density, Isostasy, and Topography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Show caption HideA critical component of this activity involves sharing team data with the entire class, done the old-fashioned way on the chalkboard. Details This activity begins with an exploration of a topographic map of the earth, ending with the question: Why is the distribution of topography on the earth bimodal? The students then collect two forms of data. They measure the density of the most common rocks that make up oceanic crust (basalt), continental crust (granite), and the mantle (peridotite). They also measure the density of several different kinds of wood, and how high each kind floats in a tub of water. In each case, they work in teams of two or three and then the entire class shares their data. Based on the data from the wood, they derive an equation that relates the density of the wood to the height at which the block floats in the water - the isostasy equation. They then substitute density values for real rocks into their equation to derive thicknesses for average continental and oceanic crust, and apply their knowledge in order to draw a cross-section of the crust across South America. This activity gives students a real, hands-on and mathematical understanding of the principle of isostasy.

Egger, Anne

217

Characterizing Radar Raingauge Errors for NWP Assimilation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The statistical characterisation of errors in quantitative precipitation estimates (QPE) is needed when generating QPE ensembles, combining multiple radars into a single mosaic, and when assimilating QPE into numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. The first step in the analysis was to characterise the errors at pixel resolution (1 km) as a function of radar specification, geographical location under the radar, and meteorology using data from 18 radars and 1500 rain gauges over a two-year period. The probability distribution of the radar - rain gauge residuals was evaluated and, as expected, the log-Normal distribution was found to fit the data better than the Normal distribution. Therefore the subsequent analysis was performed on the residuals expressed as decibels. The impact of beam width on the estimation errors was evaluated by comparing the errors from a one-degree S band radar (S1) with a two-degree S band radar (S2) for the same location (Brisbane) and time period. The standard deviation of the errors was found to increase by 0.2 dB per km for the S2 radar while the standard deviation for the S1 radar was constant out to the maximum range of 150 km. When data from all the S1 radars over the two years were pooled and compared with the S2 radars the standard deviation of the errors for the S1 radars increased by 0.1 dB per km compared with 0.25 dB per km for the S2 radars. The mean of the errors was found to vary significantly with range for all radars with underestimation at close range (< 30 km) and at far range (> 100 km). We think that this points to artefacts in the data due to clutter suppression at close range and over shooting the echo tops at the far range. The spatial distribution of the errors as a function of the altitude and roughness of the topography was investigated using the data from the S1 and S2 radars in Brisbane, but no relationship was found although there is clearly structure in the field. We also attempted to quantify the difference between summer and winter by comparing all the radar data from January 2011 with that from July 2011, but could not find a significant difference in the variance as a function of range, which we were expecting. One of the reasons for this is the range in the climatology over the radar network which ranges from the sub-tropics to the mid-latitudes, which would mask the increase that we expect for the mid-latitudes. Assimilating QPE into NWP models requires knowledge of the distribution of the error at scales that are larger than a single pixel. It is evident from our investigations that substantial data sets (many thousands of radar and gauge pairs) are required when evaluating the statistical structure of radar estimation errors and this limits our ability to characterise the errors beyond simple statements of the mean error variance and possibly the linear increase of variance with range. This also implies that the analysis of the scaling behaviour of the errors will not be dependent on location (except perhaps for range from radar) or meteorological situation, but this will be sufficient for assimilation purposes. Variograms of the spatial and temporal errors in the 30-minute accumulations were estimated and used to estimate the errors at scales that are greater than the original resolution.

Dance, S.; Seed, A.

2012-04-01

218

Void-Filled SRTM Digital Elevation Model of Afghanistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

EXPLANATION The purpose of this data set is to provide a single consistent elevation model to be used for national scale mapping, GIS, remote sensing applications, and natural resource assessments for Afghanistan's reconstruction. For 11 days in February of 2000, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency ian Space Agency (ASI) flew X-band and C-band radar interferometry onboard the Space Shuttle Endeavor. The mission covered the Earth between 60?N and 57?S and will provide interferometric digital elevation models (DEMs) of approximately 80% of the Earth's land mass when processing is complete. The radar-pointing angle was approximately 55? at scene center. Ascending and descending orbital passes generated multiple interferometric data scenes for nearly all areas. Up to eight passes of data were merged to form the final processed Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) DEMs. The effect of merging scenes averages elevation values recorded in coincident scenes and reduces, but does not completely eliminate, the amount of area with layover and terrain shadow effects. The most significant form of data processing for the Afghanistan DEM was gap-filling areas where the SRTM data contained a data void. These void areas are as a result of radar shadow, layover, standing water, and other effects of terrain as well as technical radar interferometry phase unwrapping issues. To fill these gaps, topographic contours were digitized from 1:200,000 - scale Soviet General Staff Topographic Maps which date from the middle to late 1980's. Digital contours were gridded to form elevation models for void areas and subsequently were merged with the SRTM data through GIS and image processing techniques. The data contained in this publication includes SRTM DEM quadrangles projected and clipped in geographic coordinates for the entire country. An index of all available SRTM DEM quadrangles is displayed here: Index_Geo_DD.pdf. Also included are quadrangles projected into their appropriate Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection. The country of Afghanistan spans three UTM Zones: Zone 41, Zone 42, and Zone 43. Maps are stored in their respective UTM Zone projection. Indexes of all available SRTM DEM quadrangles in their respective UTM zone are displayed here: Index_UTM_Z41.pdf, Index_UTM_Z42.pdf, Index_UTM_Z43.pdf.

Chirico, Peter G.; Barrios, Boris

2005-01-01

219

Weather Radar Fundamentals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 2-hour module presents the fundamental principles of Doppler weather radar operation and how to interpret common weather phenomena using radar imagery. This is accomplished via conceptual animations and many interactive radar examples in which the user can practice interpreting both radar reflectivity and radar velocity imagery. Although intended as an accelerated introduction to understanding and using basic Doppler weather radar products, the module can also serve as an excellent refresher for more experienced users.

COMET

2012-03-21

220

Radar Studies in the Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We aid in study of the solar system by means of ground-based radar. We have concentrated on: (1) developing the ephemerides needed to acquire radar data at Arecibo Observatory and (2) analyzing the resultant data to: test fundamental laws of gravitation; determine the size , shape, topography, and spin vectors of the targets; and study the surface properties of these objects, through their scattering law and polarization characteristics. We are engaged in radar observations of asteroids and comets, both as systematically planned targets and as "targets of opportunity." In the course of the program, we have prepared ephemerides for about 80 asteroids and three comets, and the radar observations have been made or attempted at the Arecibo Observatory, in most cases successfully, and in some cases on more than one apparition. The results of these observations have included echo spectra for the targets and, in some cases, delay - Doppler images and measurements of the total round-trip delay to the targets. Perhaps the most dramatic of these results are the images obtained for asteroids (4179) Toutatis and 1989PB (Castalia), which were revealed to be double-lobed objects by the radar images. Besides these direct results, the radar observations have furnished information on the sizes and shapes of the targets through analysis of the Doppler width of the echoes as a function of time, and on the surface properties (such as composition, bulk density, and roughness) through analysis of the reflectivity and of the polarization state of the echoes. We have also refined the orbits of the observed asteroids as a result of the Doppler (and in some cases delay) measurements from the radar observations. Although the orbits of main-belt asteroids accessible to ground-based radar are quite well known from the available optical data, some near-Earth objects have been seen by radar very soon after their optical discovery (for example, 199OMF, just eight days after discovery). In such cases. the radar results ensure that the object in question can be anticipated and identified at the next apparition. We have also participated in radar studies of the terrestrial planets. The results of these studies have included both planetary topography profiles from the analysis of round-trip delays to points along the target Doppler equator and determinations of the target spin state. The latter is of special interest in the case of Venus, which is very close to, but not on, a multi-body spin-orbit resonance such that Venus rotates 12 times for every 8 Earth orbits and 13 Venus orbits. As a result, Venus presents nearly the same face toward Earth at each inferior conjunction. Our latest results confirm that the spin state of Venus is slightly off the resonance. The delay measurements from planetary 2 ranging have also been used in combination with other types of range data in testing general relativity with increasing accuracy. We have also been engaged in radar studies of planetary satellites. Using our ephemerides, Arecibo made radar observations of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter and of Mars' satellite Phobos during the favorable opposition seasons (1988-1992 for Jupiter and 1990 for Mars). An attempt was also made to observe Deimos, but without detecting an echo. In 1997, an attempt was made to observe Saturn's satellite Titan, using the newly upgraded Arecibo radar system for transmitting and the Goldstone radar for receiving, but no echo was detected. The study of satellites by radar is in many ways similar to that of asteroids. The results from these observations have included characterization of the surface properties from the reflectivity and polarization ratio, as well as (in the case of the large satellites of Jupiter) the variation of reflectivity with incidence angle.

Shaprio, Irwin I.

1998-01-01

221

Countering stealth with passive, multi-static, low frequency radars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of passive, multi-static radars as covert sensors for the detection of low flying, stealth air targets are illustrated by multi-static RCS analysis, coverage simulations for low flight levels and measurement results obtained with an experimental passive radar using digital audio broadcast signals (DAB). The measurement sensor is described and future perspectives are pointed out.

H. Kuschel; J. Heckenbach; S. Mu?ller; R. Appel

2010-01-01

222

INTEGRATED CONTROL OF COMBINED SEWER REGULATORS USING WEATHER RADAR  

EPA Science Inventory

Integrated operation was simulated of ten dynamic combined sewer regulators on a Montreal interceptor. Detailed review of digital recording weather radar capabilities indicated that it is potentially the best rainfall estimation means for accomplishing the runoff prediction that ...

223

A DDS and PLL-based X-band FMCW Radar System  

E-print Network

the quality of the received IF signals. A voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) commonly used in FMCW radar-band FMCW radar system whose VCO nonlinearity is controlled by a digitally generated reference signalA DDS and PLL-based X-band FMCW Radar System Yun-Taek Im, Jee-Hoon Lee, and Seong-Ook Park

Park, Seong-Ook

224

Digital shaded-relief map of Venezuela  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Digital Shaded-Relief Map of Venezuela is a composite of more than 20 tiles of 90 meter (3 arc second) pixel resolution elevation data, captured during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) in February 2000. The SRTM, a joint project between the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), provides the most accurate and comprehensive international digital elevation dataset ever assembled. The 10-day flight mission aboard the U.S. Space Shuttle Endeavour obtained elevation data for about 80% of the world's landmass at 3-5 meter pixel resolution through the use of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technology. SAR is desirable because it acquires data along continuous swaths, maintaining data consistency across large areas, independent of cloud cover. Swaths were captured at an altitude of 230 km, and are approximately 225 km wide with varying lengths. Rendering of the shaded-relief image required editing of the raw elevation data to remove numerous holes and anomalously high and low values inherent in the dataset. Customized ArcInfo Arc Macro Language (AML) scripts were written to interpolate areas of null values and generalize irregular elevation spikes and wells. Coastlines and major water bodies used as a clipping mask were extracted from 1:500,000-scale geologic maps of Venezuela (Bellizzia and others, 1976). The shaded-relief image was rendered with an illumination azimuth of 315? and an altitude of 65?. A vertical exaggeration of 2X was applied to the image to enhance land-surface features. Image post-processing techniques were accomplished using conventional desktop imaging software.

Garrity, Christopher P.; Hackley, Paul C.; Urbani, Franco

2004-01-01

225

High-resolution noise radar using slow ADC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional digital signal processing scheme in noise radars has some limitations related to combination of high resolution and high dynamic range. Those limitations are caused by a tradeoff in performance of currently available ADCs: the faster is ADC the smaller is its depth (number of bits) available. Depth of the ADC determines relation between the smallest and highest observable signals and thus limits its dynamic range. In noise radar with conventional processing the sounding and reference signals are to be digitized at intermediate frequency band and to be processed digitally. The power spectrum bandwidth of noise signal which can be digitized with ADC depends on its sampling rate. The bandwidth of radar signal defines range resolution of any radar: the wider the spectrum the better the resolution. Actually this is the main bottleneck of high resolution Noise Radars: conventional processing doesn't enable to get both high range resolution and high dynamic range. In the paper we present a way to go around this drawback by changing signal processing ideology in noise radar. We present results of our consideration and design of high resolution Noise Radar which uses slow ADCs. The design is based upon generation of both probing and reference signals digitally and realization of their cross-correlation in an analog correlator. The output of the correlator is a narrowband signal that requires rather slow ADC to be sampled which nowadays may give up to 130 dB dynamic range.

Lukin, Konstantin; Vyplavin, Pavlo; Zemlyanyi, Oleg; Lukin, Sergiy; Palamarchuk, Volodymyr

2011-06-01

226

EAARL Coastal Topography - Northern Gulf of Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived coastal topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. One objective of this research is to create techniques to survey areas for the purposes of geomorphic change studies following major storm events. The USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program's National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project is a multi-year undertaking to identify and quantify the vulnerability of U.S. shorelines to coastal change hazards such as effects of severe storms, sea-level rise, and shoreline erosion and retreat. Airborne Lidar surveys conducted during periods of calm weather are compared to surveys collected following extreme storms in order to quantify the resulting coastal change. Other applications of high-resolution topography include habitat mapping, ecological monitoring, volumetric change detection, and event assessment. The purpose of this project is to provide highly detailed and accurate datasets of the northern Gulf of Mexico coastal areas, acquired on September 19, 2004, immediately following Hurricane Ivan. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Airborne Advanced Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532 nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking RGB (red-green-blue) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system on September 19, 2004. The survey resulted in the acquisition of 3.2 gigabytes of data. The data were processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for pre-survey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is routinely used to create maps that represent submerged or sub-aerial topography. Specialized filtering algorithms have been implemented to determine the 'bare earth' under vegetation from a point cloud of 'last return' elevations.

Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, Abby; Wright, C. Wayne; Travers, Laurinda J.; Lebonitte, James

2008-01-01

227

Multipolarization Radar Images for Geologic Mapping and Vegetation Discrimination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NASA\\/JPL airborne synthetic aperture radar system produces radar image data simultaneously in four linear polarizations (HH, VV, VH, HV) at 24.6-cm wavelength (L-band), with 10-m resolution, across a swath width of approximately 10 km. The signal data are recorded optically and digitally and annotated in each of the channels to facilitate a completely automated digital correlation. Both standard amplitude,

Diane Evans; Tom Farr; J. P. Ford; Thomas Thompson; C. L. Werner

1986-01-01

228

Signal Processing for Passive Radar Using OFDM Waveforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passive radar is a concept where illuminators of opportunity are used in a multistatic radar setup. New digital signals, like digital audio\\/video broadcast (DAB\\/DVB), are excellent candidates for this scheme, as they are widely available, can be easily decoded to acquire the noise-free signal, and employ orthogonal frequency division multiplex (OFDM). Multicarrier transmission schemes like OFDM use block channel equalization

Christian R. Berger; Bruno Demissie; Jörg Heckenbach; Peter Willett; Shengli Zhou

2010-01-01

229

Radar image processing module development program, phase 3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of using charge coupled devices in an IPM for processing synthetic aperture radar signals onboard the NASA Convair 990 (CV990) aircraft was demonstrated. Radar data onboard the aircraft was recorded and processed using a CCD sampler and digital tape recorder. A description of equipment and testing was provided. The derivation of the digital presum filter was documented. Photographs of the sampler/tape recorder, real time display and circuit boards in the IPM were also included.

1977-01-01

230

REVS: a radar-based enhanced vision system for degraded visual environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC) has developed an enhanced vision system utilizing fast-scanning 94 GHz radar technology to provide three-dimensional measurements of an aircraft's forward external scene topography. This threedimensional data is rendered as terrain imagery, from the pilot's perspective, on a Head-Up Display (HUD). The image provides the requisite "enhanced vision" to continue a safe approach along the flight path below the Decision Height (DH) in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) that would otherwise be cause for a missed approach. Terrain imagery is optionally fused with digital elevation model (DEM) data of terrain outside the radar field of view, giving the pilot additional situational awareness. Flight tests conducted in 2013 show that REVS™ has sufficient resolution and sensitivity performance to allow identification of requisite visual references well above decision height in dense fog. This paper provides an overview of the Enhanced Flight Vision System (EFVS) concept, of the technology underlying REVS, and a detailed discussion of the flight test results.

Brailovsky, Alexander; Bode, Justin; Cariani, Pete; Cross, Jack; Gleason, Josh; Khodos, Victor; Macias, Gary; Merrill, Rahn; Randall, Chuck; Rudy, Dean

2014-06-01

231

Retrieving lunar topography from multispectral LROC images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A technique for retrieving information about the lunar topography from any individual multispectral LROC Wide Angle Camera (WAC) image has been developed. This technology is possible, since images acquired at different wavelengths correspond to different viewing angles and the influence of color differences between the images on the parallax assessments is small. This method provides the precision of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) comparable to the global lunar 100 m raster DTM retrieved from the LROC WAC stereo model (GLD100). It potentially allows one to obtain maps of the elevations with better horizontal resolution than those of the GLD100. An empirical model of the distortion for LROC WAC has been developed and used for correction of the initial WAC images. In contrast to the standard pre-flight model, our model allows for compensation of the radial distortion, decentering the optics, and tilt of the CCD array almost fully. The DEMs obtained using our approach exhibit real morphological details in some cases that are invisible in GLD100 maps. Thus, our method suggests additional independent information about the lunar topography. The fact that our elevation maps have the same projection as the initial images allows valid corrections of these images to account for topographic effects (i. e. orthorectification) in contrast to the use of the GLD100 that may have slightly different coordinates referencing in comparison to individual WAC images.

Korokhin, Viktor V.; Velikodsky, Yuri I.; Shalygin, Eugene V.; Shkuratov, Yuriy G.; Kaydash, Vadym G.; Videen, Gorden

2014-03-01

232

Selected tendencies of modern radars and radar systems development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents modern radars and radar systems problems caused by troubles and dangers connected with actual battlefield conditions. The usefulness of the phased array radar (PAR), low probability of intercept (LPI) radar and the multi-junction radar (MFR) has been described from the point of view of the single radar using. Moreover chosen aspects of the modem radar systems development,

J. F. Pietrasinski; T. W. Brenner; C. J. Lesnik

1998-01-01

233

Radar echo processing with partitioned de-ramp  

DOEpatents

The spurious-free dynamic range of a wideband radar system is increased by apportioning de-ramp processing across analog and digital processing domains. A chirp rate offset is applied between the received waveform and the reference waveform that is used for downconversion to the intermediate frequency (IF) range. The chirp rate offset results in a residual chirp in the IF signal prior to digitization. After digitization, the residual IF chirp is removed with digital signal processing.

Dubbert, Dale F.; Tise, Bertice L.

2013-03-19

234

Netted radar sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future radar applications are beginning to stretch monostatic radar systems beyond their fundamental sensitivity and information limits. Networks of smaller radar systems can offer a route to overcome these limitations; for example, networks of radar sensors can counter stealth technology whilst simultaneously providing additional information for improved target classification. More generally, multiple independent sensors can provide an energetically more efficient

C. J. Baker; A. L. Hume

2003-01-01

235

Wind shear radar simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs used in a presentation on wind shear radar simulation are given. Information on a microburst model of radar reflectivity and wind velocity, radar pulse output, the calculation of radar return, microburst power spectrum, and simulation plans are given. A question and answer session is transcribed.

Britt, Charles L.

1988-01-01

236

Precise integrated topography of Dokdo, East Sea, Korea, using LIDAR DEM and Multibeam echo sounding data  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, We created and analyzed Precise integrated topography of Dokdo, East Sea, Korea, using land data that were collected by airborne LIDAR(Light Detection and Ranging) DEM(Digital Elevation Model) and seafloor bathymetry data by Multi-beam echo sounder. Airborne LIDAR DEM represent more detailed topography of land than other DEM data. Composition of airborne LIDAR DEM and aerial photograph produced

C. Kim; H. Joo; E. Jeong; S. Lee; H. Kim

2009-01-01

237

Basal topography of Kronebreen, NW Svalbard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kronebreen is a tidewater outlet glacier draining the icefield Holtedahlfonna, in the Kongsfjord area of NW Svalbard. Like most glaciers in Svalbard, Kronebreen has been in retreat since the first front positions were recorded, with the exception of a brief advance during the surge of the neighboring glacier Kongsvegen around 1948. Kronebreen is one of the fastest non-surging glaciers in Svalbard, with average annual velocities near the calving front of around 450 m/yr. It has not been possible until recently to calculate ice fluxes, however, since the bottom topography of Kronebreen has been unknown. In 2009, ice thickness data were obtained using low frequency radar from helicopter over the heavily crevassed Kronebreen. These new thickness data are combined with surface elevation maps, older ice depth data, and fjord bathymetry data to create an expanded bed map of the Kongsfjord area. Velocity data of Kronebreen derived from feature tracking of high-res visible imagery is also combined with thickness data to calculate estimates of flux throughout the glacier. Analysis of this new data will give a better understanding of Kronebreen's retreat history, its mass balance and flux into Kongsfjord, and help in making predictions of when and how quickly further glacier retreat may occur.

O'Sadnick, M.; Kohler, J.; Langley, K.; Kehrl, L. M.; Berthier, E.

2010-12-01

238

Radar Images of the Kuiper Quadrangle (Mercury) from Goldstone Radar Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have assembled all currently processed radar data from 1989 to 1998 into crude images covering the Kuiper (H6) region on Mercury. The data used were taken to support the ephemeris improvement and gravitational physics programs; however, the resolution is good enough in some cases to make north/south ambiguous images that show some features that can be identified with the Mariner 10 features. Topography profiles along the apparent equator are also available; some of these profiles show ridges and rills as well as crater depths and diameters. The combination of the optical imaging and the radar imaging can be helpful in understanding similar features in radar images of the optically unimaged hemisphere.

Jurgens, R. F.; Rojas, F.; Slade, M. A.; Standish, E. M.; Haldemann, A. F. C.

2000-01-01

239

Shuttle imaging radar-C science plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Shuttle Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) mission will yield new and advanced scientific studies of the Earth. SIR-C will be the first instrument to simultaneously acquire images at L-band and C-band with HH, VV, HV, or VH polarizations, as well as images of the phase difference between HH and VV polarizations. These data will be digitally encoded and recorded using onboard high-density digital tape recorders and will later be digitally processed into images using the JPL Advanced Digital SAR Processor. SIR-C geologic studies include cold-region geomorphology, fluvial geomorphology, rock weathering and erosional processes, tectonics and geologic boundaries, geobotany, and radar stereogrammetry. Hydrology investigations cover arid, humid, wetland, snow-covered, and high-latitude regions. Additionally, SIR-C will provide the data to identify and map vegetation types, interpret landscape patterns and processes, assess the biophysical properties of plant canopies, and determine the degree of radar penetration of plant canopies. In oceanography, SIR-C will provide the information necessary to: forecast ocean directional wave spectra; better understand internal wave-current interactions; study the relationship of ocean-bottom features to surface expressions and the correlation of wind signatures to radar backscatter; and detect current-system boundaries, oceanic fronts, and mesoscale eddies. And, as the first spaceborne SAR with multi-frequency, multipolarization imaging capabilities, whole new areas of glaciology will be opened for study when SIR-C is flown in a polar orbit.

1986-01-01

240

Radar observations of F region equatorial irregularities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental results obtained with the Jicamarca radar and a new digital processing system during spread F conditions are presented. The data consist of two-dimensional maps showing backscatter power and samples of frequency spectra of the backscatter signals as a function of altitude and time. Almost simultaneous spread F backscatter power and incoherent scatter observations of electron density and vertical drifts

Ronald F. Woodman; César La Hoz

1976-01-01

241

Processing for spaceborne synthetic aperture radar imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The data handling and processing in using synthetic aperture radar as a satellite-borne earth resources remote sensor is considered. The discussion covers the nature of the problem, the theory, both conventional and potential advanced processing techniques, and a complete computer simulation. It is shown that digital processing is a real possibility and suggests some future directions for research.

Lybanon, M.

1973-01-01

242

Radar Ionospheric Impact Mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

New ionospheric modeling technology is being developed to improve correction of ionospheric impacts on the performance of ground-based space-surveillance radars (SSRs) in near-real-time. These radars, which detect and track space objects, can experience significant target location errors due to ionospheric delay and refraction of the radar signals. Since these radars must detect and track targets essentially to the radar horizon,

G. Bishop; D. Decker; C. Baker

2006-01-01

243

Advances in large-scale ocean dynamics from a decade of satellite altimetric measurement of ocean surface topography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The past decade has seen the most intensive observations of the global ocean surface topography from satellite altimeters. The Joint U.S./France TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) Mission has become the longest radar mission ever flown in space, providing the most accurate measurements for the study of ocean dynamics since October 1992.

Fu, L. L.; Menard, Y.

2002-01-01

244

Radar imaging of submarine sand waves in tidal channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The simple theoretical model of Alpers and Hennings describing the radar imaging of submarine bottom topography in coastal waters with strong unidirectional tidal currents is analytically extended to show the influence of advection. The theory applies for L band radar, where second-order terms in the hydrodynamic interaction can be neglected as a first approximation. If future imaging radars from satellites and space platforms as the ERS-I (First European Remote Sensing Satellite), the JERS-I (First Japanese Earth Remote Sensing Satellite), and the EOS (Earth Observing System) are to be used for cartographic applications, it is necessary to include the effect of advection to improve accuracy. This extension of the model simulates the position of the radar cross-section modulation relative to coastal geomorphological bedforms. By application of that theory it is possible to map features such as the crests of sandbanks and sand waves.

Hennings, Ingo

1990-06-01

245

Radar Remote Sensing of Arid Regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) system to map the bedrock topography underneath the sand in deserts and arid areas is presented. It is anticipated to greatly increase the efficiency of oil field and ground water exploration as well as environmental and archaeological studies. The proposed system consists of two InSAR subsystems, one operating at Ka-band to map the sand topography and the other operates in the VHF band to map the subsurface topography. It is shown that conventional InSAR processing produces unacceptable error in height estimation since it does not account for the refraction and the different propagation velocity in the sand. Thus, a new inversion algorithm is developed which can be used to accurately estimate the bedrock topography for arbitrary sand and bedrock geometries. The inversion algorithm is verified experimentally using a scaled model in the lab. One of the main concerns was the use of conventional SAR focusing techniques for imaging the subsurface region. This can result in significant image degradation and lower limit on the minimum achievable azimuth resolution. Thus, a new subsurface iterative focusing technique is developed to address these challenges. One of the main practical system implementation issues is the antenna design for the VHF system since very wideband and very compact antennas are desired. Thus a number of compact and low profile Ultra-Wideband antennas are also developed. These antennas have sub-wavelength sizes and most of them have bandwidths exceeding one octave. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Elsherbini, Adel A.

246

Space shuttle synthetic aperture radar. [using real time  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of a feasibility study to investigate a digital signal processor for real-time operation with a synthetic aperture radar system aboard the space shuttle are presented. Pertinent digital processing theory, a description of the proposed system, and size, weight, power, scheduling, and development estimates are included.

1975-01-01

247

Foldbelt exploration with synthetic aperture radar (SAR) in Papua New Guinea  

SciTech Connect

Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is being successfully used within the southern fold and thrust belt of Papua New Guinea to map surface structure and stratigraphy and to help plan a hydrocarbon exploration program. The airborne SAR imagery, along with other surface data, is used as a primary exploration tool because acquisition of acceptable seismic data is extremely costly due to extensive outcrops of Tertiary Darai Limestone which develops rugged karst topography. Most anticlines in the licenses are capped with this deeply karstified limestone. The region is ideally suited to geologic analysis using remote sensing technology. The area is seldom cloud free and is covered with tropical rain forest, and geologic field studies are limited. The widespread karst terrain is exceedingly dangerous, if not impossible, to traverse on the ground. SAR is used to guide ongoing field work, modeling of subsurface structure, and selection of well locations. SAR provides their explorationists with an excellent data base because (1) structure is enhanced with low illumination, (2) resolution is 6 x 12 m, (3) digital reprocessing is possible, (4) clouds are penetrated by the SAR, and (5) the survey was designed for stereoscopic photogeology. Landsat images and vertical aerial photographs complement SAR but provide subdued structural information because of minimal shadowing (due to high sun angles) and the jungle cover. SAR imagery reveals large-scale mass wasting that has led to a reevaluation of previously acquired field data. Lithologies can be recognized by textural and tonal changes on the SAR images despite near-continuous canopy of jungle. Reprocessing and contrast stretching of the digital radar imagery provide additional geologic information.

Ellis, J.M.; Pruett, F.D.

1987-05-01

248

Radar tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of experimental researches on radar sounding of non-uniform mediums and objects with use as multi frequency scanning in a UWB strip (from 0.5 up to 17 GHz), and sub nanosecond impulses are considered. It is shown, that addition of measurements by angular and spatial scanning with SAR technologies to realize 3-D tomography inhomogeneous with the spatial resolutions about 1 cm at the physical models of interaction of electromagnetic radiation with substance in which dominating mechanisms are allocated lay. It allows to simplify essentially the decision of inverse problems and to use fast algorithms of their realization. Focusing of radiation is carried out with use of mirrors, lenses, and also methods of 3-D coordinated filtrations with regularization. The examples confirming working capacity of a method for without contact tomography of structure of a forest, detection and visualization landmines hidden under a rough surface of sand are resulted. The description of the developed experimental installations is given. It is shown, that using of UWB radiation allows raising considerably accuracy of measurements at preservation of a real time scale of data processing.

Yakubov, V. P.; Telpuchovski, E. D.; Zepelev, G. M.; Klokov, A. V.; Moiseenko, N. A.; Novik, S. N.; Suhanov, D. Ya.; Yakubova, O. V.

2006-11-01

249

Surface Roughness of the Moon Derived from Multi-frequency Radar Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface roughness of the Moon provides important information concerning both significant questions about lunar surface processes and engineering constrains for human outposts and rover trafficabillity. Impact-related phenomena change the morphology and roughness of lunar surface, and therefore surface roughness provides clues to the formation and modification mechanisms of impact craters. Since the Apollo era, lunar surface roughness has been studied using different approaches, such as direct estimation from lunar surface digital topographic relief, and indirect analysis of Earth-based radar echo strengths. Submillimeter scale roughness at Apollo landing sites has been studied by computer stereophotogrammetry analysis of Apollo Lunar Surface Closeup Camera (ALSCC) pictures, whereas roughness at meter to kilometer scale has been studied using laser altimeter data from recent missions. Though these studies shown lunar surface roughness is scale dependent that can be described by fractal statistics, roughness at centimeter scale has not been studied yet. In this study, lunar surface roughnesses at centimeter scale are investigated using Earth-based 70 cm Arecibo radar data and miniature synthetic aperture radar (Mini-SAR) data at S- and X-band (with wavelengths 12.6 cm and 4.12 cm). Both observations and theoretical modeling show that radar echo strengths are mostly dominated by scattering from the surface and shallow buried rocks. Given the different penetration depths of radar waves at these frequencies (< 30 m for 70 cm wavelength, < 3 m at S-band, and < 1 m at X-band), radar echo strengths at S- and X-band will yield surface roughness directly, whereas radar echo at 70-cm will give an upper limit of lunar surface roughness. The integral equation method is used to model radar scattering from the rough lunar surface, and dielectric constant of regolith and surface roughness are two dominate factors. The complex dielectric constant of regolith is first estimated globally using the regolith composition and the relation among the dielectric constant, bulk density, and regolith composition. The statistical properties of lunar surface roughness are described by the root mean square (RMS) height and correlation length, which represent the vertical and horizontal scale of the roughness. The correlation length and its scale dependence are studied using the topography data from laser altimeter observations from recent lunar missions. As these two parameters are known, surface roughness (RMS slope) can be estimated by minimizing the difference between the observed and modeled radar echo strength. Surface roughness of several regions over Oceanus Procellarum and southeastern highlands on lunar nearside are studied, and preliminary results show that maira is smoother than highlands at 70 cm scale, whereas the situation turns opposite at 12 and 4 cm scale. Surface roughness of young craters is in general higher than that of maria and highlands, indicating large rock population produced during impacting process.

Fa, W.

2011-12-01

250

Radar Range Sidelobe Reduction Using Adaptive Pulse Compression Technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pulse compression has been widely used in radars so that low-power, long RF pulses can be transmitted, rather than a highpower short pulse. Pulse compression radars offer a number of advantages over high-power short pulsed radars, such as no need of high-power RF circuitry, no need of high-voltage electronics, compact size and light weight, better range resolution, and better reliability. However, range sidelobe associated with pulse compression has prevented the use of this technique on spaceborne radars since surface returns detected by range sidelobes may mask the returns from a nearby weak cloud or precipitation particles. Research on adaptive pulse compression was carried out utilizing a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) waveform generation board and a radar transceiver simulator. The results have shown significant improvements in pulse compression sidelobe performance. Microwave and millimeter-wave radars present many technological challenges for Earth and planetary science applications. The traditional tube-based radars use high-voltage power supply/modulators and high-power RF transmitters; therefore, these radars usually have large size, heavy weight, and reliability issues for space and airborne platforms. Pulse compression technology has provided a path toward meeting many of these radar challenges. Recent advances in digital waveform generation, digital receivers, and solid-state power amplifiers have opened a new era for applying pulse compression to the development of compact and high-performance airborne and spaceborne remote sensing radars. The primary objective of this innovative effort is to develop and test a new pulse compression technique to achieve ultrarange sidelobes so that this technique can be applied to spaceborne, airborne, and ground-based remote sensing radars to meet future science requirements. By using digital waveform generation, digital receiver, and solid-state power amplifier technologies, this improved pulse compression technique could bring significant impact on future radar development. The novel feature of this innovation is the non-linear FM (NLFM) waveform design. The traditional linear FM has the limit (-20 log BT -3 dB) for achieving ultra-low-range sidelobe in pulse compression. For this study, a different combination of 20- or 40-microsecond chirp pulse width and 2- or 4-MHz chirp bandwidth was used. These are typical operational parameters for airborne or spaceborne weather radars. The NLFM waveform design was then implemented on a FPGA board to generate a real chirp signal, which was then sent to the radar transceiver simulator. The final results have shown significant improvement on sidelobe performance compared to that obtained using a traditional linear FM chirp.

Li, Lihua; Coon, Michael; McLinden, Matthew

2013-01-01

251

SRTM Colored and Shaded Topography: Haro and Kas Hills, India  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On January 26, 2001, the Kachchh region in western India suffered the most deadly earthquake in India's history. This shaded topography view of landforms northeast of the city of Bhuj depicts geologic structures that are of interest in the study the tectonic processes that may have led to that earthquake. However, preliminary field studies indicate that these structures are composed of Mesozoic rocks that are overlain by younger rocks showing little deformation. Thus these structures may be old, not actively growing, and not directly related to the recent earthquake.

The Haro Hills are on the left and the Kas Hills are on the right. The Haro Hills are an 'anticline,' which is an upwardly convex elongated fold of layered rocks. In this view, the anticline is distinctly ringed by an erosion resistant layer of sandstone. The east-west orientation of the anticline may relate to the crustal compression that has occurred during India's northward movement toward, and collision with, Asia. In contrast, the largest of the Kas Hills appears to be a tilted (to the south) and faulted (on the north) block of layered rocks. Also seen here, the linear feature trending toward the southwest from the image center is an erosion-resistant 'dike,' which is an igneous intrusion into older 'host' rocks along a fault plane or other crack. These features are simple examples of how shaded topography can provide a direct input to geologic studies.

In this image, colors show the elevation as measured by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Colors range from green at the lowest elevations, through yellow and red, to purple at the highest elevations. Elevations here range from near sea level to about 300 meters (about 1000 feet). Shading has been added, with illumination from the north (image top).

Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, DC.

Size: 26.3 x 16.6 kilometers ( 16.3 x 10.3 miles) Location: 23.4 deg. North lat., 69.8 deg. East lon. Orientation: North toward the top Date Acquired: February 2000

2001-01-01

252

Development of an Integrated Digital Elevation Model for Safe Takeoff and Landing of the Aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article describes preliminary results of the augmentation of Global Navigation Satellite System/Inertial Navigation System positioning (GNSS/INS) by Digital Elevation Model (DEM) based on the data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and data from field survey. The prototype software is developed to refer the position of the aircraft to DEM and informs the user about the current relevant flight parameters. The number of the parameters may be arbitrarily increased, however, currently we investigate the altitude above the terrain and the aircraft position relative to the descent path and airfield. The study provides some information on the local SRTM accuracy in relation to the field survey of the airfield "Dajtki" - Aeroclub of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn.

Cie?ko, Adam; Jarmo?owski, Wojciech

2013-12-01

253

Radar images analysis for scattering surfaces characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the different problems and techniques related to the detection and recognition of airplanes and vehicles moving on the Airport surface, the present work mainly deals with the processing of images gathered by a high-resolution radar sensor. The radar images used to test the investigated algorithms are relative to sequence of images obtained in some field experiments carried out by the Electronic Engineering Department of the University of Florence. The radar is the Ka band radar operating in the'Leonardo da Vinci' Airport in Fiumicino (Rome). The images obtained from the radar scan converter are digitized and putted in x, y, (pixel) co- ordinates. For a correct matching of the images, these are corrected in true geometrical co-ordinates (meters) on the basis of fixed points on an airport map. Correlating the airplane 2-D multipoint template with actual radar images, the value of the signal in the points involved in the template can be extracted. Results for a lot of observation show a typical response for the main section of the fuselage and the wings. For the fuselage, the back-scattered echo is low at the prow, became larger near the center on the aircraft and than it decrease again toward the tail. For the wings the signal is growing with a pretty regular slope from the fuselage to the tips, where the signal is the strongest.

Piazza, Enrico

1998-10-01

254

Amplitude calibration of spaceborne synthetic aperture radars. [Synthetic Aperture Radar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Problems encountered during attempts to calibrate SAR imagery, recent successful experiments conducted with SEASAT SAR data, and a proposed program for the calibration and validation of the radar imagery from the forthcoming SIR-B SAR are discussed. The SEASAT SAR data for 10 passes over Death Valley, California, were processed with a modified digital correlator. The procedure included a preliminary screening of the data to check for raw data saturation, compensation of waveforms and estimation of the amplitude of the pilot tone. All data was normalized to this pilot tone signal to reduce the effects of variable gains in the data links and ground receivers. The digital correlation algorithm generated image data. Evaluation of 6 passes results in a maximum pass to pass gain variation of only 1.1 dB and a standard deviation amongst the passes of 0.35 dB. previously announced in STAR as N83-26215

Held, D. N.

1983-01-01

255

Models of the diffuse radar backscatter from Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The topographies of several debris flow units near the Mount St. Helens Volcano were measured at lateral scales of millimeters to meters in September 1990. The objective was to measure the surface roughness of the debris flows at scales smaller than, on the order of, and larger that the radar wavelength of common remote sensing radars. A laser profiling system and surveying instruments were used to obtain elevation data for square areas that varied in size from 10 to 32 cm. The elevation data were converted to estimates of the power spectrum of surface roughness. The conversions were based upon standard periodogram techniques, and upon a modified spectral estimation technique that was developed.

England, A. W.; Austin, R. T.

1991-01-01

256

Observe how radar was used to map Venus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This series of five animations summarizes how the Magellan Radar Mapping Mission created a map of Venus. High school students can see that dense cloud cover obscured the planet's surface and how radar was used to penetrate the clouds and measure the topography. The animations also demonstrate how the images were captured in long strips and sent back to Earth. Sample image strips are shown, as well as the final product: a rotating map of Venus. Movie controls allow students to repeat, pause, or step through the animation, which can give students more time to analyze the images. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

TERC. Center for Earth and Space Science Education

2003-01-01

257

Spaceborne radar observation of Earth and planetary environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spaceborne radar sensors have played critical roles in a number of planetary missions, specifically Magellan, Mars Express, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and Cassini as well as numerous Earth Science Missions. Synthetic aperture radars provide high resolution surface images independent of surface illumination (or lack of) and through cloud cover as is the case on Venus and Titan. Interferometric systems provide also three dimensional capability and sounders provide subsurface sensing capabilities particularly in icy surfaces. In this talk, we will discuss ideas for future possible investigations including Venus surface three dimensional imaging, Europa, and Ganymede subsurface sounding, comet nuclei sounding, as well as similar Earth observations of surface structure, topography, motion and cover.

Elachi, Charles; Plaut, Jeffrey; Hensley, Scott; Moussessian, Alina; Rosen, Paul; Smrekar, Suzanne

258

Radar investigation of asteroids and planetary satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aim is to make radar reconnaissance of near-Earth asteroids, mainbelt ateroids, the Galilean satellites, the Martian satellites, and the largest Saturnian satellites, using the Arecibo 13-cm and the Goldstone 3.5-cm systems. Measurements of echo strength, polarization, and delay/Doppler distribution of echo power provide information about dimensions, spin vector, large-scale topography, cm-to-m-scale morphology, and surface bulk density. The observations also yield refined estimates of target orbital elements. Radar signatures were measured for 31 mainbelt asteroids and 16 near-Earth asteroids since this task began eight years ago. The dispersion in asteroid radar albedoes and circular polarization ratios is extreme, revealing huge differences in surface morphologies, bulk densities, and metal concentration. For the most part, correction between radar signature and VIS/IR class is not high. Many near-Earth asteroids have extremely irregular, nonconvex shapes, but some have polar silhouettes that appear only slightly noncircular. The signatures of 1627 Ivar, 1986 DA, and the approximately 180-km mainbelt asteroid 216 Kleopatra suggest bifurcated shapes. Observational milestones during 1987 and 1988 are noted.

Ostro, Steven J.

1988-01-01

259

Ultrawideband radar clutter measurements of forested terrain, 1991--1992  

SciTech Connect

The ultrawideband (UWB) radar clutter measurements project was conducted to provide radar clutter data for new ultrawideband radar systems which are currently under development. A particular goal of this project is to determine if conventional narrow band clutter data may be extrapolated to the UWB case. This report documents measurements conducted in 1991 and additional measurements conducted in 1992. The original project consisted of clutter measurements of forested terrain in the Olympic National Forest near Sequim, WA. The impulse radar system used a 30 kW peak impulse source with a 2 Gigasample/second digitizer to form a UHF (300--1000 MHz) ultrawideband impulse radar system. Additional measurements were conducted in parallel using a Systems Planning Corporation (SPC) step-chirp radar system. This system utilized pulse widths of 1330 nanoseconds over a bandwidth of 300--1000 MHz to obtain similar resolution to the impulse system. Due to the slow digitizer data throughput in the impulse radar system, data collection rates were significantly higher using the step-chirp system. Additional forest clutter measurements were undertaken in 1992 to increase the amount of data available, and especially to increase the amount of data from the impulse radar system.

Sheen, D.M.; Severtsen, R.H.; Prince, J.M.; Davis, K.C.; Collins, H.D.

1993-06-01

260

Imaging Radar Applications in the Death Valley Region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Death Valley has had a long history as a testbed for remote sensing techniques (Gillespie, this conference). Along with visible-near infrared and thermal IR sensors, imaging radars have flown and orbited over the valley since the 1970's, yielding new insights into the geologic applications of that technology. More recently, radar interferometry has been used to derive digital topographic maps of the area, supplementing the USGS 7.5' digital quadrangles currently available for nearly the entire area. As for their shorter-wavelength brethren, imaging radars were tested early in their civilian history in Death Valley because it has a variety of surface types in a small area without the confounding effects of vegetation. In one of the classic references of these early radar studies, in a semi-quantitative way the response of an imaging radar to surface roughness near the radar wavelength, which typically ranges from about 1 cm to 1 m was explained. This laid the groundwork for applications of airborne and spaceborne radars to geologic problems in and regions. Radar's main advantages over other sensors stems from its active nature- supplying its own illumination makes it independent of solar illumination and it can also control the imaging geometry more accurately. Finally, its long wavelength allows it to peer through clouds, eliminating some of the problems of optical sensors, especially in perennially cloudy and polar areas.

Farr, Tom G.

1996-01-01

261

Remorque RADAR Description technique  

E-print Network

ANNEXE: Remorque RADAR Description technique Le but de la remorque est de transporter un RADAR et pour héberger l'électronique radar et son opérateur. Caractéristiques générales de la remorque : · PTC'un côté, une baie de l'autre. Un hublot sur le toit et une baie donnant sur la partie RADAR. Un plafonnier

Heurteaux, Yanick

262

The MU radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The middle atmosphere (stratosphere, mesosphere, and lower thermosphere) is now being studied intensively. Mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radars are playing a vital role in observing middle atmospheric motions. These radars receive very weak echoes caused by scattering from atmospheric density fluctuations that are produced by clear air turbulence. These irregularities move with the local wind so that the Doppler shift of the radar echo power spectrum gives the component of the local wind along the line of sight of the radar beam.

Kato, S.

263

Lunar radar backscatter studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lunar surface material in the Plato area is characterized using Earth based visual, infrared, and radar signatures. Radar scattering in the lunar regolith with an existing optical scattering computer program is modeled. Mapping with 1 to 2 km resolution of the Moon using a 70 cm Arecibo radar is presented.

Thompson, T. W.

1979-01-01

264

Radar hydrology: rainfall estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radar observations of rainfall and their use in hydrologic research provide the focus for the paper. Radar-rainfall products are crucial for input to runoff and flood prediction models, validation of satellite remote sensing algorithms, and for statistical characterization of extreme rainfall frequency. In this context we discuss the issues of radar-rainfall product development, and the theoretical and practical requirements of

W. F. Krajewski; J. A. Smith

2002-01-01

265

Netted radar sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we consider a number of aspects illustrating how networks of radar sensor systems (rather than a single monostatic radar) can offer a counter to stealth technology whilst simultaneously providing more detailed information for improved target detection, classification and location. The netted radar equation is developed, coverage, detection and location performance are quantified, and the potential utility of

A. L. Hume; C. J. Baker

2001-01-01

266

Radar Location Equipment Development Program: Phase I  

SciTech Connect

The work described in this report represents the first phase of a planned three-phase project designed to develop a radar system for monitoring waste canisters stored in a thick layer of bedded salt at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The canisters will be contained in holes drilled into the floor of the underground waste storage facility. It is hoped that these measurements can be made to accuracies of +-5 cm and +-2/sup 0/, respectively. The initial phase of this project was primarily a feasibility study. Its principal objective was to evaluate the potential effectiveness of the radar method in the planned canister monitoring application. Its scope included an investigation of the characteristics of radar signals backscattered from waste canisters, a test of preliminary data analysis methods, an assessment of the effects of salt and bentonite (a proposed backfill material) on the propagation of the radar signals, and a review of current ground-penetrating radar technology. A laboratory experiment was performed in which radar signals were backscattered from simulated waste canisters. The radar data were recorded by a digital data acquisition system and were subsequently analyzed by three different computer-based methods to extract estimates of canister location and tilt. Each of these methods yielded results that were accurate within a few centimeters in canister location and within 1/sup 0/ in canister tilt. Measurements were also made to determine the signal propagation velocities in salt and bentonite (actually a bentonite/sand mixture) and to estimate the signal attenuation rate in the bentonite. Finally, a product survey and a literature search were made to identify available ground-penetrating radar systems and alternative antenna designs that may be particularly suitable for this unique application. 10 refs., 21 figs., 4 tabs.

Sandness, G.A.; Davis, K.C.

1985-06-01

267

Stem Cell Interaction with Topography  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The growth and differentiation of stem cells are regulated by biochemical and biophysical cues in the extracellular microenvironment.\\u000a Increasing evidences have shown that substrate topography, one of the biophysical properties of the microenvironment, can\\u000a affect stem cell fate, such as the maintenance of embryonic stem cells and the differentiation of adult and embryonic stem\\u000a cells. The underlying mechanism of how

Benjamin K. K. Teo; Soneela Ankam; Evelyn K. F. Yim

268

Radar Meteorology Tutorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Brian McNoldy at Multi-community Environmental Storm Observatory (MESO) educates the public about the use of radar in meteorology in this pdf document. After reading about the history of radar, visitors can find out how radar can detect storms by transmitting a high-power beam of radiation. Students can learn how scatter, absorption, frequencies, scan angles, and moments impact the radar display. With the help of many example images, the author also discusses how to interpret the images collected. At the end of the online document, visitors can learn about the characteristics and capabilities of NEXRAD WSR-88D, the radar used throughout the United States.

McNoldy, Brian

269

Studies of multibaseline spaceborne interferometric synthetic aperture radars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors have utilized a set of Seasat synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data that were obtained in nearly repeat ground-track orbits to demonstrate the performance of spaceborne interferometric SAR (INSAR) systems. An assessment of the topography measurement capability is presented. A phase measurement error model is described and compared with the data obtained at various baseline separations and signal-to-noise ratios.

FUK K. LI; R. M. Goldstein

1990-01-01

270

Simulated and measured X-band radar reflectivity of land in mountainous terrain using a fan-beam antenna  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer program for meteorological radar siting, previously developed for pencil?beam antenna, long?range, C?band radars, has been adapted for fan?beam antenna, short?range, X?band radars. The simulator uses topographic information in the form of a raster digital elevation model and a surface backscattering cross?section per unit area at grazing angles derived from the literature. It is independent of specific radar sites

Marco Gabella; Riccardo Notarpietro; Stefano Turso; Giovanni Perona

2008-01-01

271

Software defined noise radar with low sampling rate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preliminary results of our investigations of Software Defined Noise Radar are presented; namely, results on the design and implementation of FPGA-based Noise Radar with digital generation of random signal and coherent reception of radar returns. Parallelization of computations in FPGA enabled realization of algorithm in time domain for evaluation of the cross-correlations, comparable with the frequency-domain algorithm in efficiency. Moreover, implementation of relay-type correlator algorithm enabled realizing of the cross-correlation algorithm which might operate much faster. We present comparison of performance and limitations of different considered designs. Digital correlator has been implemented in the Altera/Stratix evaluation board having 1 million gates and up to 300 MHz clock frequency. We also realized a software defined CW noise radar on the basis of RVI Development Board from ICTP M-LAB.

Lukin, K.; Vyplavin, P.; Savkovich, Elena; Lukin, S.

2011-10-01

272

The Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS): An Airborne Laser Altimeter for Mapping Vegetation and Topography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) is an airborne laser altimeter designed to quickly and extensively map surface topography as well as the relative heights of other reflecting surfaces within the laser footprint. Since 1997, this instrument has primarily been used as the airborne simulator for the Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) mission, a spaceborne mission designed to measure tree height, vertical structure and ground topography (including sub-canopy topography). LVIS is capable of operating from 500 m to 10 km above ground level with footprint sizes from 1 to 60 m. Laser footprints can be randomly spaced within the 7 degree telescope field-of-view, constrained only by the operating frequency of the ND:YAG Q-switched laser (500 Hz). A significant innovation of the LVIS altimeter is that all ranging, waveform recording, and range gating are performed using a single digitizer, clock base, and detector. A portion of the outgoing laser pulse is fiber-optically fed into the detector used to collect the return signal and this entire time history of the outgoing and return pulses is digitized at 500 Msamp/sec. The ground return is then located using software digital signal processing, even in the presence of visibly opaque clouds. The surface height distribution of all reflecting surfaces within the laser footprint can be determined, for example, tree height and ground elevation. To date, the LVIS system has been used to monitor topographic change at Long Valley caldera, CA, as part of NASA's Topography and Surface Change program, and to map tree structure and sub-canopy topography at the La Selva Biological Research Station in Costa Rica, as part of the pre-launch calibration activities for the VCL mission. We present results that show the laser altimeter consistently and accurately maps surface topography, including sub-canopy topography, and vegetation height and structure. These results confirm the measurement concept of VCL and highlight the benefits of airborne prototypes of spaceborne instruments.

Bryan, J.; Rabine, David L.

1998-01-01

273

Delineate subsurface structures with ground penetrating radar  

SciTech Connect

High resolution ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys were conducted at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina in late 1991 to demonstrate the radar techniques in imaging shallow utility and soil structures. Targets of interest at two selected sites, designated as H- and D-areas, were a buried backfilled trench, buried drums, geologic stratas, and water table. Multiple offset 2-D and single offset 3-D survey methods were used to acquire high resolution radar data. This digital data was processed using standard seismic processing software to enhance signal quality and improve resolution. Finally, using a graphics workstation, the 3D data was interpreted. In addition, a small 3D survey was acquired in The Woodlands, Texas, with very dense spatial sampling. This data set adequately demonstrated the potential of this technology in imaging subsurface features.

Wyatt, D.E. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Hu, L.Z. (New Wave Technology, Houston, TX (United States)); Ramaswamy, M. (Houston Advanced Research Center, Woodlands, TX (United States)); Sexton, B.G. (Microseeps, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States))

1992-01-01

274

Delineate subsurface structures with ground penetrating radar  

SciTech Connect

High resolution ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys were conducted at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina in late 1991 to demonstrate the radar techniques in imaging shallow utility and soil structures. Targets of interest at two selected sites, designated as H- and D-areas, were a buried backfilled trench, buried drums, geologic stratas, and water table. Multiple offset 2-D and single offset 3-D survey methods were used to acquire high resolution radar data. This digital data was processed using standard seismic processing software to enhance signal quality and improve resolution. Finally, using a graphics workstation, the 3D data was interpreted. In addition, a small 3D survey was acquired in The Woodlands, Texas, with very dense spatial sampling. This data set adequately demonstrated the potential of this technology in imaging subsurface features.

Wyatt, D.E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Hu, L.Z. [New Wave Technology, Houston, TX (United States); Ramaswamy, M. [Houston Advanced Research Center, Woodlands, TX (United States); Sexton, B.G. [Microseeps, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1992-10-01

275

Urban topography: 3D database construction for propagation modeling in an urban environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Construction of digital elevation models (DEMs) for natural earth surfaces have now become common practice. What does one do when the topography is caused by the closely-spaced tall buildings of lower Manhattan, New York City. Although the DEM principles are applicable, special problems were encountered in this very exciting and innovative project, requiring unique solutions, which are all discussed in this article.

Goldsmith, Viktor; Williamson, Doug; Tobar, Juan; Becker, Mark

1998-02-01

276

Accuracy of topographic maps derived from ERS-1 interferometric radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

An interferometric radar technique for topographic mapping of surfaces promises a high-resolution approach to the generation of digital elevation models. The authors present analyses of data collected by the synthetic aperture radar instrument on-board the ERS-1 satellite on successive orbits. Use of a single satellite in a nearly repeating orbit is attractive for reducing cost and spaceborne hardware complexity; also

Howard A. Zebker; Charles L. Werner; Paul A. Rosen; Scott Hensley

1994-01-01

277

Signal processing techniques for surveillance radar - An overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper is concerned with a survey of the signal processing techniques presently employed in modern air defense and surveillance radars and those techniques likely to be applied in the future. Attention is given to the requirements for enhancing performance in surveillance radar, current processing techniques, advanced techniques, low probability of intercept (LPI) and anti-ARM (anti-radiation missile), anti-stealth, digital

A. Farina; G. Galati

1985-01-01

278

2. VIEW SOUTHWEST, prime search radar tower, height finder radar ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW SOUTHWEST, prime search radar tower, height finder radar towards, height finder radar towers, and radar tower (unknown function) - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

279

The length-scaling properties of topography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The scaling properties of synthetic topographic surfaces and digital elevation models (DEMs) of topography are examined by analyzing their 'structure functions,' i.e., the qth order powers of the absolute elevation differences: delta h(sub q) (l) = E((absolute value of h(x + l) - h(x))(exp q)). We find that the relation delta h(sub 1 l) approximately equal cl(exp H) describes well the scaling behavior of natural topographic surfaces, as represented by DEMs gridded at 3 arc sec. Average values of the scaling exponent H between approximately 0.5 and 0.7 characterize DEMs from Ethiopia, Saudi Arabia, and Somalia over 3 orders of magnitude range in length scale l (approximately 0.1-150 km). Differences in appparent topographic roughness among the three areas most likely reflect differences in the amplitude factor c. Separate determination of scaling properties in the x and y coordinate directions allows us to assess whether scaling exponents are azimuthally dependent (anisotropic) or whether they are isotropic while the surface itself is anisotropic over a restricted range of length scale. We explore ways to determine whether topographic surfaces are characterized by simple or multiscaling properties.

Weissel, Jeffrey K.; Pratson, Lincoln F.; Malinverno, Alberto

1994-01-01

280

The Importance of Basal Topography for Greenland Ice Sheet Margin Hydrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nearly half of the Greenland ice sheet's total mass loss is controlled by surface mass balance, primarily driven by meltwater runoff exiting at its margin via supra-, en-, and sub-glacial drainage networks into fjords and pro-glacial lakes and rivers. Despite the importance of meltwater runoff, Greenland's hydrologic drainage patterns are not well understood. This is partly due to a scarcity of ice sheet meltwater runoff observations and detailed information about supra- and sub-glacial topography, which are responsible for dictating runoff flow patterns. However, such data are available locally in southwest Greenland for the Akuliarusiarsuup Kuua (AK) River watershed. In this study, NASA IceBridge supra-glacial (Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM)) and sub-glacial (Multichannel Coherent Radar Depth Sounder (MCoRDS)) topography and in situ hydrologic data from 2009-2012 are used to study three nested riverine systems within the AK River watershed ranging from 8 to 101 km2. Examination of relationships between drainage patterns modeled from topographic data and actual ice sheet runoff losses provide insight into drainage basin delineation accuracy, scale-dependency, and surface and sub-glacial topography controls on ice sheet margin hydrology. Finally, an assessment is made to determine the importance of incorporating basal topography within meltwater runoff models versus surface topography alone.

Moustafa, S.; Rennermalm, A. K.; Smith, L. C.; Pitcher, L. H.; Chu, V. W.

2012-12-01

281

IEEE National Radar Conference, 3rd, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, Apr. 20, 21, 1988, Proceedings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present conference discusses topics in radar systems and subsystems, radar techniques, radar signal processing, and radar phenomenology. Attention is given to mm-wave radar system tradeoffs, polarimetric X/L/C-band SAR, a VHF radar for tropical jungle terrain elevation modeling, low probability of intercept techniques and implementations, target tracking in maneuver-centered coordinates, advanced techniques for extension of SAR depth-of-focus under arbitrary aircraft maneuvers, and iterative noncoherent angular superresolution. Also discussed are the effect of codebook size on the vector quantization of SAR data, the application of knowledge-based systems to surveillance, digital filters for SAR, novel radar pulse compression waveforms, the theory and application of SAR oceanography, autoregressive modeling of radar data with application to target identification, and a coherent model of radar weather clutter.

282

Do you have a radar bill in your pocket?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity introduces students to radar bills (currency that has serial numbers that read the same forward and backward) and challenges them to estimate how frequently radar bills occur. The activity, part of the Figure This! collection of 80 math challenges emphasizing math in the real world, explains how symmetry and repeating patterns are important to mathematicians, scientists, and artists. The Hint tells students that our currency has eight-digit serial numbers, and the solution provides a table that shows the relationship between the number of digits in a serial number and the number of radar bills. Related questions ask students to solve similar problems with serial numbers that contain different numbers of digits. Answers to all questions and links to additional resources are provided. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM)

2002-01-01

283

Correlation detection filter for imaging laser radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser radar can simultaneously produce the intensity and range images, and the space resolution is high, so the recognition performance is well, and it can choose the aim point of target. Laser radar is applied to many fields, such as guidance, navigation, and becomes the research hot point in recent years. In the vertical detection of laser radar, the algorithm is required not only solving in-plane rotation-invariant problem, also the distortion-invariant problem, and it must satisfied the real-time. Correlation algorithm is a parallel processing procedure, detecting many targets at one time, and its design can be implemented on the high speed digital signal processor. In the paper, a new filter named CHF-MACH filter is presented, which combine multiple circular harmonic expansions into one filter through MACH criteria. Because of the filter having the characters of the two filters, it can solve the problems of in-plane rotation-invariance and distortion-invariance simultaneously, and meet the real-time requirement. The simulated range image of laser radar is regarded as research target, and computing the PSR (peak to sidelobe ratio) values of correlation output of the different objects, and plotting the PSR curves of the different angles. Simulating the scene of laser radar which includes multiple objects, CHF-MACH filter performance is validated through testing with the different angles for the objects, and the non-training images can obtain the well correlation output.

Sun, Jianfeng; Li, Qi; Lu, Wei; Wang, Qi

2007-01-01

284

Rendezvous radar for the orbital maneuvering vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the development of the Rendezvous Radar Set (RRS) for the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The RRS was to be used to locate, and then provide vectoring information to, target satellites (or Shuttle or Space Station) to aid the OMV in making a minimum-fuel-consumption approach and rendezvous. The RRS design is that of an X-Band, all solid-state, monopulse tracking, frequency hopping, pulse-Doppler radar system. The development of the radar was terminated when the OMV prime contract to TRW was terminated by NASA. At the time of the termination, the development was in the circuit design stage. The system design was virtually completed, the PDR had been held. The RRS design was based on Motorola's experiences, both in the design and production of radar systems for the US Army and in the design and production of hi-rel communications systems for NASA space programs. Experience in these fields was combined with the latest digital signal processor and micro-processor technology to design a light-weight, low-power, spaceborne radar. The antenna and antenna positioner (gimbals) technology developed for the RRS is now being used in the satellite-to-satellite communication link design for Motorola's Iridium telecommunications system.

Locke, John W.; Olds, Keith; Parks, Howard

1991-01-01

285

30. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #318, showing radar control. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

30. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #318, showing radar control. Console and line printers - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

286

3. VIEW NORTHWEST, height finder radar towers, and radar tower ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. VIEW NORTHWEST, height finder radar towers, and radar tower (unknown function) - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

287

A fully photonics-based coherent radar system.  

PubMed

The next generation of radar (radio detection and ranging) systems needs to be based on software-defined radio to adapt to variable environments, with higher carrier frequencies for smaller antennas and broadened bandwidth for increased resolution. Today's digital microwave components (synthesizers and analogue-to-digital converters) suffer from limited bandwidth with high noise at increasing frequencies, so that fully digital radar systems can work up to only a few gigahertz, and noisy analogue up- and downconversions are necessary for higher frequencies. In contrast, photonics provide high precision and ultrawide bandwidth, allowing both the flexible generation of extremely stable radio-frequency signals with arbitrary waveforms up to millimetre waves, and the detection of such signals and their precise direct digitization without downconversion. Until now, the photonics-based generation and detection of radio-frequency signals have been studied separately and have not been tested in a radar system. Here we present the development and the field trial results of a fully photonics-based coherent radar demonstrator carried out within the project PHODIR. The proposed architecture exploits a single pulsed laser for generating tunable radar signals and receiving their echoes, avoiding radio-frequency up- and downconversion and guaranteeing both the software-defined approach and high resolution. Its performance exceeds state-of-the-art electronics at carrier frequencies above two gigahertz, and the detection of non-cooperating aeroplanes confirms the effectiveness and expected precision of the system. PMID:24646997

Ghelfi, Paolo; Laghezza, Francesco; Scotti, Filippo; Serafino, Giovanni; Capria, Amerigo; Pinna, Sergio; Onori, Daniel; Porzi, Claudio; Scaffardi, Mirco; Malacarne, Antonio; Vercesi, Valeria; Lazzeri, Emma; Berizzi, Fabrizio; Bogoni, Antonella

2014-03-20

288

The Rationale for a New High-resolution Imaging Radar Mission to Venus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magellan, NASA's last geoscience mission to Venus, provided synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images at ~100-m resolution, topography at ~10-km resolution, and the gravity field at ~300-km resolution. Although that mission provided a major advance in our understanding of the planet, basic questions about the geologic history of Venus remain unresolved. For example, hypotheses on the planet's surface evolution range from

R. R. Herrick; V. L. Sharpton; R. Gens; R. R. Ghent; M. S. Gilmore; R. E. Grimm; C. L. Johnson; P. J. McGovern; F. Meyer; P. J. Mouginis-Mark; J. J. Plaut; D. T. Sandwell; M. Simons; S. C. Solomon

2009-01-01

289

EXTRACTING A RADAR REFLECTION FROM A CLUTTERED ENVIRONMENT USING 3-D INTERPRETATION  

EPA Science Inventory

A 3-D Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey at 50 MHz center frequency was conducted at Hill Air Force Base, Utah, to define the topography of the base of a shallow aquifer. The site for the survey was Chemical Disposal Pit #2 where there are many man-made features that generate ...

290

Very high resolution precipitation climatologies from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission precipitation radar  

E-print Network

Very high resolution precipitation climatologies from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission precipitation radar Stephen W. Nesbitt1 and Alison M. Anders2 Received 4 March 2009; revised 6 July 2009 of topography and precipitation, a tropics-wide (±36° latitude) high resolution (0.1°) ten year (1998

Nesbitt, Steve

291

Sentinel-3 Surface Topography Mission: Payload, Data Products and Cal/Val Preparation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sentinel-3 is an Earth observation satellite mission designed for GMES to ensure the long-term collection of high-quality measurements delivered in an operational manner to GMES ocean, land, atmospheric, emergency and security services. Primary sentinel-3 topography mission measurement requirements have been derived from GMES user needs as follows: • Sea surface topography (SSH), significant wave height (Hs) and surface wind speed derived over the global ocean to an equivalent accuracy and precision as that presently achieved by ENVISAT Radar Altimeter-2 (RA-2). • Enhanced surface topography measurements in the coastal zone, sea ice regions and over inland rivers, their tributaries and lakes. To address the above requirements, the Sentinel-3 Topography payload will carry a Synthetic Aperture Radar Altimeter (SRAL) instrument, a passive microwave radiometer (MWR) a GPS receiver and laser retro-reflector for precise orbit determination providing continuing the legacy of ENVISAT RA-2 and Cryosat. Three level of timeliness are defined within GMES for the S-3 Topography mission: • NRT products, delivered to the users in less than 3 hours after acquisition of data by the sensor, • Short time critical (STC) products, delivered to the users in less than 48 hours after the acquisition and, • Non-time critical (NTC) products delivered not later than 1 month after acquisition or from long-term archives. The Sentinel-3 topography data products will provide continuity of ENVISAT type measurement capability in Europe to determine sea, ice and land surface topography measurements with high accuracy, timely delivery and in a sustained operational manner for GMES users. The Sentinel-3 data will also provide fundamental inputs to a variety of value-adding downstream services for industry, government agencies, commercial users, service providers and appropriate regulatory authorities. The Calibration and Validation of the Sentinel-3 topography products will nominally rely on the cross-comparison with the ESA Envisat Altimetry mission and will be a significant challenge due to the stringent S-3 mission measurement requirements and their safeguarding all over the mission lifetime.

Féménias, P.; Rebhan, H.; Donlon, C.; Buongiorno, A.; Mavrocordatos, C.

2012-04-01

292

Planetary radar studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A catalog of lunar and radar anomalies was generated to provide a base for comparison with Venusian radar signatures. The relationships between lunar radar anomalies and regolith processes were investigated, and a consortium was formed to compare lunar and Venusian radar images of craters. Time was scheduled at the Arecibo Observatory to use the 430 MHz radar to obtain high resolution radar maps of six areas of the lunar suface. Data from 1978 observations of Mare Serenitas and Plato are being analyzed on a PDP 11/70 computer to construct the computer program library necessary for the eventual reduction of the May 1981 and subsequent data acquisitions. Papers accepted for publication are presented.

Thompson, T. W.; Cutts, J. A.

1981-01-01

293

Laser radar in robotics  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the authors describe the basic operating principles of laser radar sensors and the typical algorithms used to process laser radar imagery for robotic applications. The authors review 12 laser radar sensors to illustrate the variety of systems that have been applied to robotic applications wherein information extracted from the laser radar data is used to automatically control a mechanism or process. Next, they describe selected robotic applications in seven areas: autonomous vehicle navigation, walking machine foot placement, automated service vehicles, manufacturing and inspection, automotive, military, and agriculture. They conclude with a discussion of the status of laser radar technology and suggest trends seen in the application of laser radar sensors to robotics. Many new applications are expected as the maturity level progresses and system costs are reduced.

Carmer, D.C.; Peterson, L.M. [Environmental Research Inst. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

1996-02-01

294

MIMO radar, SIMO radar, and IFIR radar: a P. P. Vaidyanathan and Piya Pal  

E-print Network

MIMO radar, SIMO radar, and IFIR radar: a comparison P. P. Vaidyanathan and Piya Pal Dept and SIMO radar systems for the case where the transmitter and receiver are collocated. The simplicity of the application allows one to see clearly where the advantages of MIMO radar come from, and what the tradeoffs are

Vaidyanathan, P. P.

295

Plasma processing for nanostructured topographies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma and directed ion interactions with materials have been widely observed to create complex surface patterns on a micro- and nano- scale. Generally, these texturizations are byproducts of another intended application (such as a feature formation on a sputtering target) and patterning is considered inconsequential or even detrimental. This work examined the possibility of using these phenomena as primary methods for producing beneficial topographies. Specifically, investigations focused on the use of helium plasma exposure and directed ion etching to create nanostructured surfaces capable of affecting biological interactions with implanted materials. Orthogonal argon ion etching and low energy helium plasma texturization of titanium were considered for use on orthopedic and dental implants as a means of increasing osteoblast activity and bone attachment; and oblique angle etching was evaluated for its use in creating topographies with cell deterrent or anti-thrombogenic properties. In addition, the helium driven evolution of surface features on 6061 aluminum alloy was characterized with respect to ion energy and substrate temperature. These surfaces were then considered for ice phobic applications.

Riedel, Nicholas Alfred

296

1999 IEEE radar conference  

SciTech Connect

This conference addresses the stringent radar technology demands facing the next century: target detection, tracking and identification; changing target environment; increased clutter mitigation techniques; air traffic control; transportation; drug smuggling; remote sensing, and other consumer oriented applications. A timely discussion covers how to minimize costs for these emerging areas. Advanced radar technology theory and applications are also presented. Topics covered include: signal processing; space time adaptive processing/antennas; surveillance technology; radar systems; dual use; and phenomenology.

NONE

1999-07-01

297

Caribbean Radar Cases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module presents radar case studies taken from events in the Caribbean that highlight radar signatures of severe weather. These cases include examples of deep convection, squall lines, bow echoes, tornadoes, and heavy rain resulting in flooding. Each case study includes a discussion of the conceptual models of each type of event as a review before showing the radar signatures and allowing the learner to analyze each one.

COMET

2013-12-31

298

Silence tracking radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high performance linear FMCW radar sensor and its implementation as tracking radar are presented. The radar has been built with an all-solid state transmitter with 200 mw output power and two channel receivers with 9 dB noise figure. Tracking range of more than 10 km, angle error of better than 0.5 mrad and range error of better than 5

Zhang Guanjie; Guo Min; Bao Yongjie

2001-01-01

299

Aircraft radar echoes characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromagnetic wave diffraction and reflection theories enable prediction of most of the effects generated by radar echoes on aircraft. However, it is difficult to modelize some complex effects originating in canopies, radomes and cavities. In order to supplement the present theoretical knowledge by experimental results obtained on actual targets, ONERA has developed a novel analysis method allowing the generation of radar images. This method provides an efficient working tool to assist in defining radar wise discrete aerial targets.

Pouit, C.

1980-04-01

300

Integrating a Microwave Radiometer into Radar Hardware for Simultaneous Data Collection Between the Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The conventional method for integrating a radiometer into radar hardware is to share the RF front end between the instruments, and to have separate IF receivers that take data at separate times. Alternatively, the radar and radiometer could share the antenna through the use of a diplexer, but have completely independent receivers. This novel method shares the radar's RF electronics and digital receiver with the radiometer, while allowing for simultaneous operation of the radar and radiometer. Radars and radiometers, while often having near-identical RF receivers, generally have substantially different IF and baseband receivers. Operation of the two instruments simultaneously is difficult, since airborne radars will pulse at a rate of hundreds of microseconds. Radiometer integration time is typically 10s or 100s of milliseconds. The bandwidth of radar may be 1 to 25 MHz, while a radiometer will have an RF bandwidth of up to a GHz. As such, the conventional method of integrating radar and radiometer hardware is to share the highfrequency RF receiver, but to have separate IF subsystems and digitizers. To avoid corruption of the radiometer data, the radar is turned off during the radiometer dwell time. This method utilizes a modern radar digital receiver to allow simultaneous operation of a radiometer and radar with a shared RF front end and digital receiver. The radiometer signal is coupled out after the first down-conversion stage. From there, the radar transmit frequencies are heavily filtered, and the bands outside the transmit filter are amplified and passed to a detector diode. This diode produces a DC output proportional to the input power. For a conventional radiometer, this level would be digitized. By taking this DC output and mixing it with a system oscillator at 10 MHz, the signal can instead be digitized by a second channel on the radar digital receiver (which typically do not accept DC inputs), and can be down-converted to a DC level again digitally. This unintuitive step allows the digital receiver to sample both the radiometer and radar data at a rapid, synchronized data rate (greater than 1 MHz bandwidth). Once both signals are sampled by the same digital receiver, high-speed quality control can be performed on the radiometer data to allow it to take data simultaneously with the radar. The radiometer data can be blanked during radar transmit, or when the radar return is of a power level high enough to corrupt the radiometer data. Additionally, the receiver protection switches in the RF front end can double as radiometer calibration sources, the short (four-microsecond level) switching periods integrated over many seconds to estimate the radiometer offset. The major benefit of this innovation is that there is minimal impact on the radar performance due to the integration of the radiometer, and the radiometer performance is similarly minimally affected by the radar. As the radar and radiometer are able to operate simultaneously, there is no extended period of integration time loss for the radiometer (maximizing sensitivity), and the radar is able to maintain its full number of pulses (increasing sensitivity and decreasing measurement uncertainty).

McLinden, Matthew; Piepmeier, Jeffrey

2013-01-01

301

The Invisible Radar Triangle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about radar imaging and its various military and civilian applications that include recognition and detection of human-made targets, and the monitoring of space, deforestation and oil spills. They learn how the concepts of similarity and scaling are used in radar imaging to create three-dimensional models of various targets. Students apply the critical attributes of similar figures to create scale models of a radar imaging scenario using infrared range sensors (to emulate radar functions) and toy airplanes (to emulate targets). They use technology tools to measure angles and distances, and relate the concept of similar figures to real-world applications.

RET-ENET Program, Electrical Engineering Department,

302

EAARL Coastal Topography - Northern Gulf of Mexico, 2007: Bare Earth  

USGS Publications Warehouse

These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived bare earth (BE) topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Gulf Coast Network, Lafayette, LA; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. The purpose of this project is to provide highly detailed and accurate datasets of select barrier islands and peninsular regions of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida, acquired on June 27-30, 2007. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is used routinely to create maps that represent submerged or sub-aerial topography. Specialized filtering algorithms have been implemented to determine the 'bare earth' under vegetation from a point cloud of last return elevations.

Smith, Kathryn E.L.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Wright, C. Wayne; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Brock, John C.

2009-01-01

303

EAARL Submerged Topography - U.S. Virgin Islands 2003  

USGS Publications Warehouse

These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived submerged topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), South Florida-Caribbean Network, Miami, FL; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate bathymetric datasets of a portion of the U.S. Virgin Islands, acquired on April 21, 23, and 30, May 2, and June 14 and 17, 2003. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is used routinely to create maps that represent submerged or first surface topography. Specialized filtering algorithms have been implemented to determine the 'bare earth' under vegetation from a point cloud of last return elevations.

Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Stevens, Sara; Yates, Xan; Bonisteel, Jamie M.

2008-01-01

304

EAARL Topography - Natchez Trace Parkway 2007: First Surface  

USGS Publications Warehouse

These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first surface (FS) topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Gulf Coast Network, Lafayette, LA; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Natchez Trace Parkway in Mississippi, acquired on September 14, 2007. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is used routinely to create maps that represent submerged or first surface topography. Specialized filtering algorithms have been implemented to determine the 'bare earth' under vegetation from a point cloud of last return elevations.

Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Segura, Martha; Yates, Xan

2008-01-01

305

EAARL Coastal Topography-Pearl River Delta 2008: First Surface  

USGS Publications Warehouse

These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first surface (FS) topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the University of New Orleans (UNO), Pontchartrain Institute for Environmental Sciences (PIES), New Orleans, LA; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Pearl River Delta in Louisiana and Mississippi, acquired March 9-11, 2008. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is used routinely to create maps that represent submerged or first surface topography. Specialized filtering algorithms have been implemented to determine the 'bare earth' under vegetation from a point cloud of last return elevations.

Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Miner, Michael D.; Michael, D.; Yates, Xan; Bonisteel, Jamie M.

2009-01-01

306

EAARL Coastal Topography - Northeast Barrier Islands 2007: First Surface  

USGS Publications Warehouse

These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the northeast coastal barrier islands in New York and New Jersey, acquired April 29-30 and May 15-16, 2007. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is routinely used to create maps that represent submerged or first surface topography. Specialized filtering algorithms have been implemented to determine the 'bare earth' under vegetation from a point cloud of last return elevations.

Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Wright, C. Wayne; Yates, Xan; Bonisteel, Jamie M.

2009-01-01

307

EAARL Coastal Topography - Fire Island National Seashore 2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first surface (FS) and bare earth (BE) topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Kingston, RI; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of Fire Island National Seashore in New York, acquired on April 29-30 and May 15-16, 2007. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for pre-survey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is routinely used to create maps that represent submerged or first surface topography. Specialized filtering algorithms have been implemented to determine the 'bare earth' under vegetation from a point cloud of last return elevations.

Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Stevens, Sara; Yates, Xan; Bonisteel, Jamie M.

2008-01-01

308

EAARL Coastal Topography-Pearl River Delta 2008: Bare Earth  

USGS Publications Warehouse

These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived bare earth (BE) topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the University of New Orleans (UNO), Pontchartrain Institute for Environmental Sciences (PIES), New Orleans, LA; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Pearl River Delta in Louisiana and Mississippi, acquired March 9-11, 2008. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is used routinely to create maps that represent submerged or first surface topography. Specialized filtering algorithms have been implemented to determine the 'bare earth' under vegetation from a point cloud of last return elevations.

Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Miner, Michael D.; Yates, Xan; Bonisteel, Jamie M.

2009-01-01

309

EAARL Coastal Topography - Northeast Barrier Islands 2007: Bare Earth  

USGS Publications Warehouse

These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived bare earth (BE) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the northeast coastal barrier islands in New York and New Jersey, acquired April 29-30 and May 15-16, 2007. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is routinely used to create maps that represent submerged or first surface topography. Specialized filtering algorithms have been implemented to determine the 'bare earth' under vegetation from a point cloud of last return elevations.

Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Wright, C. Wayne; Yates, Xan; Bonisteel, Jamie M.

2008-01-01

310

EAARL Topography - Vicksburg National Military Park 2008: Bare Earth  

USGS Publications Warehouse

These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived bare earth (BE) topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Gulf Coast Network, Lafayette, LA; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the Vicksburg National Military Park in Mississippi, acquired on March 6, 2008. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is used routinely to create maps that represent submerged or first surface topography. Specialized filtering algorithms have been implemented to determine the 'bare earth' under vegetation from a point cloud of last return elevations.

Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Segura, Martha; Yates, Xan

2008-01-01

311

EAARL Coastal Topography--Cape Canaveral, Florida, 2009: First Surface  

USGS Publications Warehouse

These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography datasets were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Kennedy Space Center, FL. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the eastern Florida coastline beachface, acquired on May 28, 2009. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral color-infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine aircraft, but the instrument was deployed on a Pilatus PC-6. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight-line definition, flight-path plotting, lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is used routinely to create maps that represent submerged or sub-aerial topography. Specialized filtering algorithms have been implemented to determine the "bare earth" under vegetation from a point cloud of last return elevations.

Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Plant, Nathaniel; Wright, C.W.; Nagle, D.B.; Serafin, K.S.; Klipp, E.S.

2011-01-01

312

EAARL Coastal Topography-Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, 2010: Bare Earth  

USGS Publications Warehouse

These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived bare-earth (BE) and submerged topography datasets were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Chandeleur Islands, acquired March 3, 2010. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral color-infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight-line definition, flight-path plotting, lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is used routinely to create maps that represent submerged or sub-aerial topography. Specialized filtering algorithms have been implemented to determine the 'bare earth' under vegetation from a point cloud of last return elevations. For more information about similar projects, please visit the Decision Support for Coastal Science and Management website.

Nayegandhi, Amar; Bonisteel-Cormier, Jamie M.; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Wright, C. Wayne; Nagle, David B.; Vivekanandan, Saisudha; Yates, Xan; Klipp, Emily S.

2010-01-01

313

EAARL Topography - Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve 2006  

USGS Publications Warehouse

These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first surface (FS) and bare earth (BE) topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Gulf Coast Network, Lafayette, LA; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve in Louisiana, acquired on September 22, 2006. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is used routinely to create maps that represent submerged or first surface topography. Specialized filtering algorithms have been implemented to determine the 'bare earth' under vegetation from a point cloud of last return elevations.

Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Segura, Martha; Yates, Xan

2008-01-01

314

EAARL Topography-Vicksburg National Military Park 2007: First Surface  

USGS Publications Warehouse

These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Gulf Coast Network, Lafayette, LA; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the Vicksburg National Military Park in Mississippi, acquired on September 12, 2007. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is used routinely to create maps that represent submerged or first surface topography. Specialized filtering algorithms have been implemented to determine the 'bare earth' under vegetation from a point cloud of last return elevations.

Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Segura, Martha; Yates, Xan

2009-01-01

315

EAARL Topography - George Washington Birthplace National Monument 2008  

USGS Publications Warehouse

These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived bare earth (BE) and first surface (FS) topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Kingston, RI; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the George Washington Birthplace National Monument in Virginia, acquired on March 26, 2008. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is routinely used to create maps that represent submerged or first surface topography. Specialized filtering algorithms have been implemented to determine the 'bare earth' under vegetation from a point cloud of last return elevations.

Brock, John C.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Wright, C. Wayne; Stevens, Sara; Yates, Xan

2009-01-01

316

ATM Coastal Topography-Florida 2001: Eastern Panhandle  

USGS Publications Warehouse

These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the eastern Florida panhandle coastline, acquired October 2, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative scanning Lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning Lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is routinely used to create maps that represent submerged or first surface topography.

Yates, Xan; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Klipp, Emily S.; Wright, C. Wayne

2009-01-01

317

ATM Coastal Topography-Texas, 2001: UTM Zone 14  

USGS Publications Warehouse

These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Texas coastline within UTM zone 14, acquired October 12-13, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative scanning lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight-line definition, flight-path plotting, lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is used routinely to create maps that represent submerged or first-surface topography.

Klipp, Emily S.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Yates, Xan; Wright, C. Wayne

2009-01-01

318

ATM Coastal Topography-Florida 2001: Western Panhandle  

USGS Publications Warehouse

These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the western Florida panhandle coastline, acquired October 2-4 and 7-10, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative scanning Lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning Lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is routinely used to create maps that represent submerged or first surface topography.

Yates, Xan; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Klipp, Emily S.; Wright, C. Wayne

2009-01-01

319

ATM Coastal Topography-Texas, 2001: UTM Zone 15  

USGS Publications Warehouse

These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Texas coastline within UTM zone 15, from Matagorda Peninsula to Galveston Island, acquired October 12-13, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative scanning lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight-line definition, flight-path plotting, lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is used routinely to create maps that represent submerged or first-surface topography.

Klipp, Emily S.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Yates, Xan; Wright, C. Wayne

2009-01-01

320

Spatial Estimation of Soil Moisture Using Synthetic Aperture Radar in Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A spatially distributed Model of Arctic Thermal and Hydrologic processes (MATH) has been developed. One of the attributes of this model is the spatial and temporal prediction of soil moisture in the active layer. The spatially distributed output from this model required verification data obtained through remote sensing to assess performance at the watershed scale independently. Therefore, a neural network was trained to predict soil moisture contents near the ground surface. The input to train the neural network is synthetic aperture radar (SAR) pixel value, and field measurements of soil moisture, and vegetation, which were used as a surrogate for surface roughness. Once the network was trained, soil moisture predictions were made based on SAR pixel value and vegetation. These results were then used for comparison with results from the hydrologic model. The quality of neural network input was less than anticipated. Our digital elevation model (DEM) was not of high enough resolution to allow exact co-registration with soil moisture measurements; therefore, the statistical correlations were not as good as hoped. However, the spatial pattern of the SAR derived soil moisture contents compares favorably with the hydrologic MATH model results. Primary surface parameters that effect SAR include topography, surface roughness, vegetation cover and soil texture. Single parameters that are considered to influence SAR include incident angle of the radar, polarization of the radiation, signal strength and returning signal integration, to name a few. These factors influence the reflectance, but if one adequately quantifies the influences of terrain and roughness, it is considered possible to extract information on soil moisture from SAR imagery analysis and in turn use SAR imagery to validate hydrologic models

Meade, N. G.; Hinzman, L. D.; Kane, D. L.

1999-01-01

321

SPIRIT. SPOT 5 stereoscopic survey of Polar Ice: Reference Images and Topographies during the fourth International Polar Year (2007-2009)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring the evolution of polar glaciers, ice caps and ice streams is of utmost importance because they constitute a good indicator of global climate change and contribute significantly to ongoing sea level rise. Accurate topographic surveys are particularly relevant as they reflect the geometric evolution of ice masses. Unfortunately, the precision and/or spatial coverage of current satellite missions (radar altimetry, ICESat) or field surveys are generally insufficient. Improving our knowledge of the topography of Polar Regions is the goal of the SPIRIT (SPOT 5 stereoscopic survey of Polar Ice: Reference Images and Topographies) international polar year (IPY) project. SPIRIT will allow (1) the acquisition of a large archive of SPOT 5 stereoscopic images covering most polar ice masses and, (2) the delivery of digital terrain models (DTM) to the scientific community. Here, we present the architecture of this project and the coverage achieved over northern and southern polar areas during the first year of IPY (July 2007 to April 2008). We also provide the first accuracy assessments of the SPIRIT DTMs. Over Jakobshavn Isbrae (West Greenland), SPIRIT elevations are within ±6 m of ICESat elevations for 90% of the data. Some comparisons with ICESat profiles over Devon ice cap (Canada), St Elias Mountains (Alaska) and west Svalbard confirm the good overall quality of the SPIRIT DTMs although large errors are observed in the flat accumulation area of Devon ice cap. We then demonstrate the potential of SPIRIT DTMs for mapping glacier elevation changes. The comparison of summer-2007 SPIRIT DTMs with October-2003 ICESat profiles shows that the thinning of Jakobshavn Isbrae (by 30-40 m in 4 years) is restricted to the fast glacier trunk. The thinning of the coastal part of the ice stream (by over 100 m) and the retreat of its calving front (by up to 10 km) are clearly depicted by comparing the SPIRIT DTM to an ASTER April-2003 DTM.

Korona, Jérôme; Berthier, Etienne; Bernard, Marc; Rémy, Frédérique; Thouvenot, Eric

322

A New Implementation of the Mellin Transform and its Application to Radar Classification of Ships  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modified Mellin transform for digital implementation is developed and applied to range radar profiles of naval vessels. The scale invariance property of the Mellin transform provides a means for extracting features from the profiles which are insensitive to the aspect angle of the radar. Past implementations of the Mellin transform based on the FFT have required exponential sampling, interpolation,

Philip E. Zwicke; Imre Kiss

1983-01-01

323

Radar sensor for remote control of track occupancy and railway cars speed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of development of low cost radar sensors for remote control of track occupancy and railway cars' speed over the territory of hump yards under heavy weather conditions are presented. The radar sensor feature is application of autodyne transmitting-receiving module for linear frequency modulation and digital systems for forming sounding signal and spectral processing of received signals. Sensor is

G. P. Ermak; I. V. Popov; A. V. Varavin; A. S. Vasilev

2009-01-01

324

Radar and radio data fusion platform for future intelligent transportation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a software-defined data fusion system which integrates both radar (sensing) function and radio (communication) function within a single transceiver platform. In the proposed architecture, the radar mode and the radio mode operate in different time slots. The required modulated waveform is generated with the help of a direct digital synthesizer (DDS) that is able to control signal parameters

Liang Han; Ke Wu

2010-01-01

325

The utilization of functionally dedicated micro processors in radar video processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a digital radar video processor, for use with 2-D search radars, that employs a functionally dedicated micro processor. A micro processor can efficiently perform many of the functions previously accomplished in either hard-wired logic or in the system central processing unit (CPU). Micro instruction execution times in the order of 150 nanoseconds enable the micro processor to

H. W. Pyle; L. E. Vogel

1975-01-01

326

Generalized radar/radiometry imaging problems  

E-print Network

Paper Generalized radar/radiometry imaging problems Ivan Prudyus, Sviatoslav Voloshynovskiy, Andriy- ing simulation based on radar, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and radiometry systems are presented systems, synthetic aperture radar, spatio-temporal imaging. 1. Introduction Resolution of radar

Genève, Université de

327

A Systematic Study of Topography Effect of ERT Based on 3-D Modeling and Inversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a quick method using a digital elevation model (DEM) to obtain real terrain points for generating tetrahedral mesh has been developed, based on TetGen. Then three-dimensional (3-D) forward modeling and inversion, based on the patching method of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and which have been compared favorably with those obtained using other software, were used to study topography effect. Asystematic research of apparent resistivity features of different topographies with pole-pole array and Wenner array has been conducted in this study. Based on that, the solutions for removing topography effect are given to the two-dimensional (2-D) survey and the 3-D survey, respectively. Comparing to the inversion result, the solution for the 2-D survey can effectively remove topography influence. A 3-D inversion algorithm incorporating topography is proposed at the same time. Two synthetic models incorporating real topography with fault and ellipse anomalies were created to test the 3-D inversion algorithm, and the results show that the relative image error is less than 30 % and the correlation coefficient is more than 90 %.

Lu, De-Bao; Zhou, Qi-You; Junejo, S. A.; Xiao, An-Lin

2014-12-01

328

AN UPDATE ON MULTICHANNEL RECEIVER DEVELOPMENT FOR THE REALIZATION MULTI-MISSION CAPABILITIES AT THE NATIONAL WEATHER RADAR TESTBED  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the status of a new project that will digitize radar signals coming from eight channels on the phased array antenna at the National Weather Radar Testbed (NWRT) in Norman, Oklahoma. At the current time, a single-channel digital receiver is operational to mimic the current WSR-88D capability. The multi-channel digital data will foster a new gener- ation of

M. Yeary; J. Crain; A. Zahrai; T.-Y. Yu; R. Palmer; G. Zhang; Y. Zhang; R. Doviak; P. Chilson; M. Xue; Q. Xu

329

INTRODUCTION TO MULTICHANNEL RECEIVER DEVELOPMENT FOR THE REALIZATION MULTI-MISSION CAPABILITIES AT THE NATIONAL WEATHER RADAR TESTBED  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the beginning states of a new project that will digitize radar signals coming from eight channels on the phased array antenna at the National Weather Radar Testbed (NWRT) in Norman, Oklahoma. At the current time, a single-channel digital receiver is operational to mimic the current WSR-88D capability. The multi-channel digital data will foster a new gener- ation

M. Yeary; R. Palmer; M. Xue; T.-Y. Yu; G. Zhang; A. Zahrai; J. Crain; Y. Zhang; R. Doviak; Q. Xu; P. Chilson

330

JournalofGlaciology, Vo!. 45, No. 149, 1999 Surface and bed topography of Trapridge Glacier, Yukon  

E-print Network

Territory, Canada: digital elevation lTIodels and derived hydraulic geoll1.etry GWENN E. FLOWERS, CARRY K. C approaches notation.These pre dictions are compared to hydraulic connection probabilities based on borehole drilling. IN TRODUC TION Ice-penetrating radar has been used extensively in glaciol ogy, most commonly

Flowers, Gwenn

331

THE INCIDENCE AND CROSS METHODS FOR EFFICIENT RADAR DETECTION --BY ALEXANDER FISH AND SHAMGAR GUREVICH 1 The Incidence and Cross Methods for Efficient  

E-print Network

THE INCIDENCE AND CROSS METHODS FOR EFFICIENT RADAR DETECTION -- BY ALEXANDER FISH AND SHAMGAR GUREVICH 1 The Incidence and Cross Methods for Efficient Radar Detection Alexander Fish and Shamgar, the distances, and relative velocities, between the targets and the radar. Using standard digital-to-analog

Fish, Alexander

332

Description and availability of airborne Doppler radar data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An airborne, forward-looking, pulse, Doppler radar has been developed in conjunction with the joint FAA/NASA Wind Shear Program. This radar represents a first in an emerging technology. The radar was developed to assess the applicability of an airborne radar to detect low altitude hazardous wind shears for civil aviation applications. Such a radar must be capable of looking down into the ground clutter environment and extracting wind estimates from relatively low reflectivity weather targets. These weather targets often have reflectivities several orders of magnitude lower than the surrounding ground clutter. The NASA radar design incorporates numerous technological and engineering achievements in order to accomplish this task. The basic R/T unit evolved from a standard Collins 708 weather radar, which supports specific pulse widths of 1-7 microns and Pulse Repetition Frequencies (PRF) of less than 1-10 kHz. It was modified to allow for the output of the first IF signal, which fed a NASA developed receiver/detector subsystem. The NASA receiver incorporated a distributed, high-speed digital attenuator, producing a range bin to range bin automatic gain control system with 65 dB of dynamic range. Using group speed information supplied by the aircraft's navigation system, the radar signal is frequency demodulated back to base band (zero Doppler relative to stationary ground). The In-phase & Quadrature-phase (I/Q) components of the measured voltage signal are then digitized by a 12-bit A-D converter (producing an additional 36 dB of dynamic range). The raw I/Q signal for each range bin is then recorded (along with the current radar & aircraft state parameters) by a high-speed Kodak tape recorder.

Harrah, S. D.; Bracalente, E. M.; Schaffner, P. R.; Baxa, E. G.

1993-01-01

333

Radar cross calibration investigation TAMU radar polarimeter calibration measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A short pulse, 20 MHz bandwidth, three frequency radar polarimeter system (RPS) operates at center frequencies of 10.003 GHz, 4.75 GHz, and 1.6 GHz and utilizes dual polarized transmit and receive antennas for each frequency. The basic lay-out of the RPS is different from other truck mounted systems in that it uses a pulse compression IF section common to all three RF heads. Separate transmit and receive antennas are used to improve the cross-polarization isolation at each particular frequency. The receive is a digitally controlled gain modulated subsystem and is interfaced directly with a microprocesser computer for control and data manipulation. Antenna focusing distance, focusing each antenna pair, rf head stability, and polarization characteristics of RPS antennas are discussed. Platform and data acquisition procedures are described.

Blanchard, A. J.; Newton, R. W.; Bong, S.; Kronke, C.; Warren, G. L.; Carey, D.

1982-01-01

334

Bathymetry, Topography, and Relief Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This extensive site from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center provides a collection of bathymetry, topography, and relief data from a variety of sources and environments including coastlines, the Great Lakes, and the seafloor. The site also features the National Ocean Service (NOS) hydrographic database. Some images and data can be downloaded at no charge, while others may be purchased on CD-ROM or DVD. The site can be searched for downloadable data using the GEODAS Data Search and Retrieval System. Data products from NOS surveys, including Descriptive Reports (DRs), smooth sheet images, survey data images, textual gridded data, and sidescan sonar mosaics, are available for download using the National Ocean Service Hydrographic Survey Data Map Service, an ArcIMS interactive map and data discovery tool.

Center, National G.; Noaa

335

Venus - Global gravity and topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new gravity field determination that has been produced combines both the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) and the Magellan Doppler radio data. Comparisons between this estimate, a spherical harmonic model of degree and order 21, and previous models show that significant improvements have been made. Results are displayed as gravity contours overlaying a topographic map. We also calculate a new spherical harmonic model of topography based on Magellan altimetry, with PVO altimetry included where gaps exist in the Magellan data. This model is also of degree and order 21, so in conjunction with the gravity model, Bouguer and isostatic anomaly maps can be produced. These results are very consistent with previous results, but reveal more spatial resolution in the higher latitudes.

McNamee, J. B.; Borderies, N. J.; Sjogren, W. L.

1993-05-01

336

Los Angeles, California, Radar Image, Wrapped Color as Height  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This topographic radar image shows the relationships of the dense urban development of Los Angeles and the natural contours of the land. The image includes the Pacific Ocean on the left, the flat Los Angeles Basin across the center, and the steep ranges of the Santa Monica and Verdugo mountains along the top. The two dark strips near the coast at lower left are the runways of Los Angeles International Airport. Downtown Los Angeles is the bright yellow and pink area at lower center. Pasadena, including the Rose Bowl, are seen half way down the right edge of the image. The communities of Glendale and Burbank, including the Burbank Airport, are seen at the center of the top edge of the image. Hazards from earthquakes, floods and fires are intimately related to the topography in this area. Topographic data and other remote sensing images provide valuable information for assessing and mitigating the natural hazards for cities such as Leangles.

This image combines two types of data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The image brightness corresponds to the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground, while colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Each cycle of colors (from pink through blue back to pink) represents an equal amount of elevation difference (400 meters, or 1300 feet) similar to contour lines on a standard topographic map. This image contains about 2400 meters (8000 feet) of total relief.

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

Size: 41 km (25 miles) x 29 km (18 miles) Location: 34.1 deg. North lat., 118.3 deg. West lon. Orientation: North toward upper right Original Data Resolution: 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 16, 2000

2000-01-01

337

The EISCAT Svalbard radar: A case study in modern incoherent scatter radar system design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The EISCAT (European incoherent scatter) Svalbard radar (ESR) was officially inaugurated on August 22, 1996. This event marked the successful completion on schedule of the first phase of the EISCAT Svalbard radar project. In contrast to previous incoherent scatter radars, the ESR system design was adapted to make use of commercial off-the-shelf TV transmitter hardware, thereby reducing design risk, lead times, and cost to a minimum. Commercial hardware is also used in the digital signal processing system. Control and monitoring are performed by distributed, networked VME systems. Thanks to modern reflector antenna design methods and extreme efforts to reduce the receiver noise contribution, the system noise temperature is only 70 K, thus making the ESR about 30% faster than the much more powerful EISCAT UHF radar in F region experiments! Once the transmitter power is increased to 1 MW, it will become about 2-3 times faster than the UHF radar. State-of-the-art exciter and receiver hardware has been developed in-house to accommodate the special requirements introduced by operating the radar at the exceptionally high duty cycle of 25%. The RF waveform is generated by a system based on four switchable direct digital synthesizers. Continuous monitoring of the transmitted RF waveform by the receiver system allows removal of klystron-induced spurious Doppler effects from the data. Intermediate-frequency sampling at 7.5 MHz is employed, followed by fully digital channel separation, signal detection, and postdetection filtering in six parallel receiver channels. Radar codes for both E and F layer observation have been designed and perfected. So far, more than 40 hours of good quality ionospheric data have been collected and analyzed in terms of plasma parameters. While the tragic loss of the Cluster mission suddenly changed the plans and dispositions of a majority of the ESR user community, the radar has still been in high demand since its inauguration. It is now being operated by EISCAT staff on a campaign basis, to provide ground-based support data for a number of other magnetospheric satellites, notably Polar and FAST, and will be opened to the EISCAT user community for special program operations later in 1997.

Wannberg, G.; Wolf, I.; Vanhainen, L.-G.; Koskenniemi, K.; RöTtger, J.; Postila, M.; Markkanen, J.; Jacobsen, R.; Stenberg, A.; Larsen, R.; Eliassen, S.; Heck, S.; Huuskonen, A.

1997-11-01

338

The Cloud Radar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improvement in our understanding of the radiative impact of clouds on the climate system requires a comprehensive view of clouds including their physical dimensions, dynamical generation processes, and detailed microphysical properties. To this end, millimeter vave radar is a powerful tool by which clouds can be remotely sensed. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has developed the Cloud Radar System (CRS). CRS is a highly sensitive 94 GHz (W-band) pulsed-Doppler polarimetric radar that is designed to fly on board the NASA high-altitude ER-2 aircraft. The instrument is currently the only millimeter wave radar capable of cloud and precipitation measurements from above most all clouds. Because it operates from high-altitude, the CRS provides a unique measurement perspective for cirrus cloud studies. The CRS emulates a satellite view of clouds and precipitation systems thus providing valuable measurements for the implementation and algorithm validation for the upcoming NASA CloudSat mission that is designed to measure ice cloud distributions on the global scale using a spaceborne 94 GHz radar. This paper describes the CRS instrument and preliminary data from the recent Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers - Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE). The radar design is discussed. Characteristics of the radar are given. A block diagram illustrating functional components of the radar is shown. The performance of the CRS during the CRYSTAL-FACE campaign is discussed.

Racette, Paul; Heymsfield, Gerald; Li, Lihua; Tian, Lin; Zenker, Ed

2003-01-01

339

Radars for the eighties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Modular Survivable Radar (MSR), proposed by the General Electric Company as the solution to the USAF's airborne attack radar requirements, is a flexible system with ECCM and low probability of intercept (LPI) protection capabilities. The system is built with standard modular line replaceable units (LRU) and is adaptable to a wide range of performance requirements. The structure of the

M. Shohat

1979-01-01

340

Netted radar sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider how networks of radar sensors can offer a counter to stealth technology whilst simultaneously providing more detailed information for improved target classification. Specifically, it is shown how multiple independent sensors can provide an energetically more efficient collector of radar scatter. Further, the relative merits of non-coherent and coherent dependent networks are discussed particularly emphasising the balance between increased

A. L. Hume; C. J. Baker

2001-01-01

341

Aircraft radar antennas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many changes have taken place in airborne radar antennas since their beginnings over forty years ago. A brief historical review of the advances in technology is presented, from mechanically scanned reflectors to modern multiple function phased arrays. However, emphasis is not on history but on the state-of-the-art technology and trends for future airborne radar systems. The status of rotating surveillance

Helmut E. Schrank

1987-01-01

342

Java Radar Analysis Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Java Radar Analysis Tool (JRAT) is a computer program for analyzing two-dimensional (2D) scatter plots derived from radar returns showing pieces of the disintegrating Space Shuttle Columbia. JRAT can also be applied to similar plots representing radar returns showing aviation accidents, and to scatter plots in general. The 2D scatter plots include overhead map views and side altitude views. The superposition of points in these views makes searching difficult. JRAT enables three-dimensional (3D) viewing: by use of a mouse and keyboard, the user can rotate to any desired viewing angle. The 3D view can include overlaid trajectories and search footprints to enhance situational awareness in searching for pieces. JRAT also enables playback: time-tagged radar-return data can be displayed in time order and an animated 3D model can be moved through the scene to show the locations of the Columbia (or other vehicle) at the times of the corresponding radar events. The combination of overlays and playback enables the user to correlate a radar return with a position of the vehicle to determine whether the return is valid. JRAT can optionally filter single radar returns, enabling the user to selectively hide or highlight a desired radar return.

Zaczek, Mariusz P.

2005-01-01

343

Radar illusion via metamaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optical illusion is an image of a real target perceived by the eye that is deceptive or misleading due to a physiological illusion or a specific visual trick. The recently developed metamaterials provide efficient approaches to generate a perfect optical illusion. However, all existing research on metamaterial illusions has been limited to theory and numerical simulations. Here, we propose the concept of a radar illusion, which can make the electromagnetic (EM) image of a target gathered by radar look like a different target, and we realize a radar illusion device experimentally to change the radar image of a metallic target into a dielectric target with predesigned size and material parameters. It is well known that the radar signatures of metallic and dielectric objects are significantly different. However, when a metallic target is enclosed by the proposed illusion device, its EM scattering characteristics will be identical to that of a predesigned dielectric object under the illumination of radar waves. Such an illusion device will confuse the radar, and hence the real EM properties of the metallic target cannot be perceived. We designed and fabricated the radar illusion device using artificial metamaterials in the microwave frequency, and good illusion performances are observed in the experimental results.

Jiang, Wei Xiang; Cui, Tie Jun

2011-02-01

344

Looking at Radar Images  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These activities pertain to the value of the different types of images, including a false color mosaic, a Compressed Stokes image, a vegetation map and key, and various ground photographs. Students are given specific directions on how to decide what features of a radar image indicate such structures as upland forest, clear-cut areas, and roads. In a second activity, students look at the radar images to see if they can produce a vegetation map similar to the one they have been given. The third activity introduces 15 Decade Volcanoes that pose a particular threat to humans. Using the Decade Volcanoes as examples, students view radar images of volcanoes that occur around the world. The final exercise is aimed at helping students distinguish the differences between radar image data and visible photographs. Students will look at radar data and photographs of three sites taken by the astronauts.

345

Scale model ultrawideband impulse radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Transient Electromagnetic Scattering Laboratory (TESL) is described which employs a unique dual-channel ultra-wideband impulsive illuminating source. This is a free-field facility where targets are suspended within an anechoic chamber. A highly coherent primal step pulse is amplified by two GaAs wideband power amplifiers having complementary passbands which feed individual wideband horn antennas. This yields an effective 1 - 12 GHz impulse bandwidth. A high speed digital processing oscilloscope samples the output of a single receiving horn. The TESL has facilitated research into radar target identification using complex natural resonances. Theory and operational characteristics of the facility are discussed and technical improvements are described which have yielded significant improvement in both the effective bandwidth and the signal-to-noise ratio of transient scattering measurements. Experimental validations are shown which illustrate the level of fidelity attainable and consideration is given to recent enhancements, including an increase of measurement bandwidth to 50 GHz.

Morgan, Michael A.

1993-05-01

346

X-SAR/SRTM Digital Height Models: Processing Status and Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission in February 2000 had two "single pass" interferometric radar systems on board which are the C-band system of NASA/JPL and the X-band system from DLR. Both systems have been operated simultaneously during the mission. Independent processors have been developed to produce the digital terrain models. During SRTM the two C- and X-band radar systems of SIR-C/X-SAR were used as active ilumination sources and were supplemented by two passive antennas mounted on the top of a 60 m long boom. Due to this re-use of existing hardware the X-band system covered only a 50 km wide swath providing a net of elevation data during this 11day mission. After a difficult and long calibration phase in which mainly the baseline determination errors had to be removed we began the operational processing of the X-band data in December 2001. The processing sequence is continent-by-continent starting from the ocean, which is used as a reference. Each swath crossing as well as overlaps between adjacent swaths is used to support the height fixation and to check the height and location accuracy. Meanwhile the west part of Europe (30 deg longitude) is processed, Africa and South America have been finished and the digital height models and radar images are available to the public. Height error maps accompany the digital terrain models in tiles with a size of 15 arc-minutes. More than 1000 products have been delivered so far to the principal investigators, customers and to DLR's own research team. The interferometric processing of the whole raw data set with an amount of 3600 Gbyte is already completed and the data are ready for the geocoding and mosaicking process. There are some problematic areas where the phase unwrapping failed which have now to be reworked with different procedures and matched parameters. In this paper we present the status of the processing and the future schedule as well as some results from comparison with reference DEM's. The performance of the X-band data set is very good and is compliant with the specification. We discuss the applied filters, the height and location accuracy of the products, and we report about the experience and some interesting observations we made during the processing of 60 Million square kilometres of land surface. Several international principal investigators of X-SAR/SRTM have already analysed and compared the data products and have used the data set for geophysical investigations.

Werner, M.; Roth, A.; Knoepfle, W.; Breit, H.; Eineder, M.; Suchandt, S.

2003-04-01

347

5. VIEW EAST, height finder radar towers, radar tower (unknown ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. VIEW EAST, height finder radar towers, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar tower, operations building, and central heating plant - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

348

4. VIEW NORTHEAST, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. VIEW NORTHEAST, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar tower, emergency power building, and height finder radar tower - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

349

Browse > Conferences> Radar Conference, 2008. RADAR ... INDEX TERMS  

E-print Network

Browse > Conferences> Radar Conference, 2008. RADAR ... INDEX TERMS REFERENCES CITING DOCUMENTS Force, MorphoAnalysis in Signal Process. Lab., Salon-de-Provence This paper appears in: Radar Conference, 2008. RADAR '08. IEEE Issue Date: 26-30 May 2008 On page(s): 1 - 5 Location: Rome ISSN: 1097-5659 Print

Préaux, Jean-Philippe

350

Pulse compression hardware decoding techniques for MST radars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The techniques for decoding in hardware received signals transmitted by phase-coded mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radars are reviewed. The designs consist of digital and analog types which resemble filters or correlators in their operation. A new analog design is presented, and a discussion of the choice between hardware and software decoding is given. The number of bits required for digital coherent integrators and decoders is discussed, and the use of fast Fourier transforms for decoding is described.

Sulzer, M. P.; Woodman, R. F.

1985-12-01

351

Bed topography of Store Glacier, Greenland from high-resolution airborne gravity data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Store Glacier is a major west Greenland outlet tidewater glacier draining an area of 30,000 square km into Uummannaq Fjord, flowing at a speed of 4.8 km per year at the terminus. The bed topography of the glacier is poorly known and the fjord bathymetry has only been partially surveyed for the first time in 2012. In this study, we present a new approach on the modeling of glacier thickness and sea floor bathymetry based on high resolution gravity constrained with other observations. In August 2012, we acquired a 250m spacing grid of free-air gravity data at a speed of 50 knots with accuracy at sub-milligal level. We constrain the 3D inversion of these gravity data with ship-borne bathymetry near the glacier front and radar-derived ice thickness on grounded ice to derive a seamless map of bed topography of grounded ice and sea floor. Comparison of the new topography with prior maps reveals vast differences. Prior bathymetry (IBCAO3) has an ice front grounded at sea level whereas observations show a depth of 550m. On grounded ice, the data reveal the subglacial topography at an unprecedented level of spatial details. We discuss the impact of the results on the modeling of the glacier flow and the understanding of its interaction with ocean thermal forcing and surface mass balance.

An, L.; Rignot, E. J.

2013-12-01

352

Use and Interpretation of Radar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This undergraduate meteorology tutorial from Texas A&M University discusses the basic principles of operation of weather radars, describes how to interpret radar mosaics, and discusses the use of radar in weather forecasting. Students learn the relationship between range and elevation and how to use radar images and mosaics in short-range forecasting.

John Nielsen-Gammon

1996-01-01

353

Low probability of intercept radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of LPI radars is defined and performance characteristics are examined. A performance criterion relating the range at which the LPI radar can detect a target to the range at which an intercept receiver aboard the target can detect the LPI radar is defined. The response of various operational and advanced intercept receivers to wideband LPI radar waveforms is

D. C. Schleher

1985-01-01

354

Ground-penetrating radar methods  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ground-penetrating radar geophysical methods are finding greater and greater use in agriculture. With the ground-penetrating radar (GPR) method, an electromagnetic radio energy (radar) pulse is directed into the subsurface, followed by measurement of the elapsed time taken by the radar signal as it ...

355

Radar sensing of the ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radar remote sensing of the ocean has been the subject of research for about 20 years. Spaceborne radar altimetry and scatterometry are approaching maturity, and synthetic-aperture radars (SAR) show great promise. The principles of radar scattering from the sea are outlined here, along with some recently discovered questions. For wind-vector scatterometry, the principle is presented, and remaining uncertainties are outlined.

RICHARD K. MOORE

1985-01-01

356

Ocean Surface Topography from Space: Educational Resources (title provided or enhanced by cataloger)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal provides access to a variety of educational resources from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) ocean surface topography program based on the missions of the TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason satellites. Materials include a kids' section with games, puzzles, and facts; educational entertainment; online resources for educators; information about useful books; and links to lesson plans and classroom activities. There is also a section on radar altimetry and its use in studying ocean topography, and a set of links to interactive exhibits demonstrating TOPEX/Poseidon technology. The class activities section includes hands-on demonstrations, skits, and an activity in which older students make models of the sea surface to match TOPEX/Poseidon satellite images of sea-surface height. There is also information on obtaining posters, brochures, CDs and slides, and a collection of links to additional resources and to frequently-asked-questions.

357

Radar image enhancement and simulation as an aid to interpretation and training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Greatly increased activity in the field of radar image applications in the coming years demands that techniques of radar image analysis, enhancement, and simulation be developed now. Since the statistical nature of radar imagery differs from that of photographic imagery, one finds that the required digital image processing algorithms (e.g., for improved viewing and feature extraction) differ from those currently existing. This paper addresses these problems and discusses work at the Remote Sensing Laboratory in image simulation and processing, especially for systems comparable to the formerly operational SEASAT synthetic aperture radar.

Frost, V. S.; Stiles, J. A.; Holtzman, J. C.; Dellwig, L. F.; Held, D. N.

1980-01-01

358

Simulation and studies of spaceborne synthetic aperture radar image quality with reduced bit rate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer simulation program that is used to study the effects of digitization in spaceborne synthetic aperture radar systems is described. An analytical study of the distortion noise introduced by the digitization process at various gain settings, sampling rates and bit error rates is presented and the results agree well with those obtained from the simulation program. The simulation program is also used to study the spatial frequency response of hard-limiting (quantizing to 1-bit) synthetic aperture radar systems. The implications of these results on synthetic aperture radar system design are discussed.

Li, F.; Held, D.; Huneycutt, B.; Zebker, H.

1981-01-01

359

Digital holographic reflectometry.  

PubMed

Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) is an interferometric technique that allows real-time imaging of the entire complex optical wavefront (amplitude and phase) reflected by or transmitted through a sample. To our knowledge, only the quantitative phase is exploited to measure topography, assuming homogeneous material sample and a single reflection on the surface of the sample. In this paper, dual-wavelength DHM measurements are interpreted using a model of reflected wave propagation through a three-interfaces specimen (2 layers deposited on a semi-infinite layer), to measure simultaneously topography, layer thicknesses and refractive indices of micro-structures. We demonstrate this DHM reflectometry technique by comparing DHM and profilometer measurement of home-made SiO(2)/Si targets and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) sputter craters on specimen including different multiple layers. PMID:20389382

Colomb, Tristan; Krivec, Stefan; Hutter, Herbert; Akatay, Ahmet Ata; Pavillon, Nicolas; Montfort, Frédéric; Cuche, Etienne; Kühn, Jonas; Depeursinge, Christian; Emery, Yves

2010-02-15

360

A model for simulation and processing of radar images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model for recording, processing, presentation, and analysis of radar images in digital form is presented. The observed image is represented as having two random components, one which models the variation due to the coherent addition of electromagnetic energy scattered from different objects in the illuminated areas. This component is referred to as fading. The other component is a representation of the terrain variation which can be described as the actual signal which the radar is attempting to measure. The combination of these two components provides a description of radar images as being the output of a linear space-variant filter operating on the product of the fading and terrain random processes. In addition, the model is applied to a digital image processing problem using the design and implementation of enhancement scene. Finally, parallel approaches are being employed as possible means of solving other processing problems such as SAR image map-matching, data compression, and pattern recognition.

Stiles, J. A.; Frost, V. S.; Shanmugam, K. S.; Holtzman, J. C.

1981-01-01

361

Goldstone solar system radar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planning, direction, experimental design, and coordination of data-acquisition and engineering activities in support of all Goldstone planetary radar astronomy were performed. This work demands familiarity with the various components of a planetary radar telescope (transmitter, receiver, antenna, computer hardware and software) as well as knowledge of how the entire system must function as a cohesive unit to meet the particular scientific objectives at hand in a given observation. Support radar data-processing facilities, currently being used for virtually all Goldstone data reduction includes: a VAX 11/780 computer system, an FPS 5210 array processor, terminals, tape drives, and image-display devices, as well as a large body of data-reduction software to accommodate the variety of data-acquisition formats and strategems. Successful 113-cm radar observation of Callisto and the near-Earth asteroid 1981 Midas and Goldstone/VLA radar observations of Saturn's rings were obtained. Quick-look verification programs from data taken with phase-coded cw (i.e., ranging) waveforms, applicable to Venus, the Moon, and small bodies were completed. Definition of scientific and engineering requirements on instrument performance, radar system configuration, and personnel, for all 1988 Goldstone radar investigations was accomplished.

Jurgens, Raymond F.

1988-01-01

362

Estimating Bedrock Topography beneath Ice and Sediment Fillings in High Mountain Valleys: Preliminary Results from a Method Comparison Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge about the thickness distribution of ice and sediment fillings in high mountain valleys is important for many applications in the fields of Hydrology, Geology, Glaciology, Geohazards and Geomorphology. However, direct geophysical measurements of ice/sediment thickness are laborious and require infrastructure and logistics that is often not available, particularly in remote mountain regions. In the past years, several methods have been developed to approximate the valley fill thicknesses primarily based on digital elevation data. In the case of sediment fillings, the thickness estimates are mostly based on simple morphometric considerations, whereas in the case of ice, more complex methods have been established using glacier mass balance and ice-flow dynamics. In this study we compare three of these methods that have been frequently applied in the past. These include a physically based approach for estimating ice-thickness distribution of valley glaciers using mass fluxes and flow mechanics. Further we adopt a method that uses the prediction capability of artificial neural networks (ANN) and we investigate a method that is based on the extrapolation of the slopes of the valley walls into the subsurface. We set up a test series in which all methods are applied to four glaciers and two sediment-filled valleys in the European Alps. The resulting bedrock topography derived from each method is checked against available ground truth data, comprising ground penetrating radar-, seismic reflection- and borehole measurements. Obviously, the method developed for estimation of ice-thickness is applicable only to the cases where valleys are occupied by ice, whereas the ANN approach and the slope extrapolation method are independent of the sort of valley fill. Thus a direct comparison is restricted to glacier settings. First results show that all methods can qualitatively reconstruct bedrock topography with typical overdeepenings and trough-shaped cross-profiles. Due to its lack of extrapolation capability the artificial neural network is very sensitive to the range of target values provided in the learning process and therefore its use requires careful selection of training data.

Mey, J.; Scherler, D.; Strecker, M. R.; Zeilinger, G.

2012-12-01

363

Target Detection and Localization Using MIMO Radars and Sonars  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a new space-time coding configuration for target detection and localization by radar or sonar systems. In common active array systems, the transmitted signal is usually coherent between the different elements of the array. This configuration does not allow array processing in the transmit mode. However, space-time coding of the transmitted signals allows to digitally steer

Ilya Bekkerman; Joseph Tabrikian

2006-01-01

364

Discrimination of geophysical phenomena in satellite radar interferograms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various geophysical phenomena are recorded in the interference patterns formed by differencing two synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. The fringes generated by the topographic relief can be removed using a digital elevation model (DEM). The remaining fringes map the change in satellite-to-ground range which occurred between the acquisition times of the two images. By comparing different pairs of images spanning

Didier Massonnet; Kurt L. Feigl

1995-01-01

365

Most people immediately recognize the importance of radar systems to  

E-print Network

a few. However, these 10- to 40-year- old systems are nearing the end of their designed lifespans. MIT An innovative design exploits dual polarization and digital beamforming to provide a radar solution board (PCB), a heat exchanger, and a backplane PCB that distributes DC power and control to the array

Reuter, Martin

366

Wuhan Atmosphere Radio Exploration (WARE) radar: System design and online winds measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basic configuration of the Wuhan MST (mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere) radar, which was designed and constructed by the School of Electronic Information, Wuhan University, is preliminarily described in this paper. The Wuhan MST radar operates at very high frequency (VHF) band (53.8 MHz) by observing the real-time characteristics of turbulence and the wind field vector in the height range of 3.5-90 km (not including 25-60 km) with high temporal and height resolutions. This all-solid-state, all-coherent pulse Doppler radar is China's first independent development of an MST radar focusing on atmospheric observation. The subsystems of the Wuhan MST radar include an antenna system, a feeder line system, all-solid-state radar transmitters, digital receivers, a beam control system, a signal processing system, a data processing system, a product generation system, and a user terminal. Advanced radar technologies are used, including highly reliable all-solid-state transmitters, low-noise large dynamic range digital receivers, an active phased array, high-speed digital signal processing, and real-time graphic terminals. This paper describes the design and implementation of the radar. Preliminary online wind measurements and results of the comparison to simultaneous observations by a GPS rawinsonde are presented as well.

Zhengyu, Zhao; Chen, Zhou; Haiyin, Qing; Guobin, Yang; Yuannong, Zhang; Gang, Chen; Yaogai, Hu

2013-05-01

367

Topography, surface properties, and tectonic evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in atmospheric composition, atmospheric and lithospheric temperature, and perhaps mantle composition, suggest that the rock cycle on Venus is not similar to the earth's. While radar data are not consistent with a thick, widespread and porous regolith like that of the moon, wind-transported regolith could be cemented into sedimentary rock that would be indistinguishable from other rocks in radar

G. E. McGill; J. L. Warner; M. C. Malin; R. E. Arvidson; E. Eliason; S. Nozette; R. D. Reasenberg

1983-01-01

368

Bed topography under Greenland outlet glaciers revealed by Operation IceBridge data and mass conservation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed maps of bed elevation and ice thickness are essential to many glaciological applications, including ice sheet numerical models. These maps are typically obtained using airborne radar-sounding profiler data interpolated onto regular grids using geostatistical techniques, such as kriging. While this approach provides continuous maps of bedrock elevation, it generates products that are not consistent with ice flow dynamics and are impractical for high-resolution ice flow simulations. Here, we first analyze radar-sounding data from a dense survey of Russell Glacier, in central-west Greenland, collected in 2010 and 2011 by NASA's Operation IceBridge. We compare gridded maps of bed elevation obtained using (1) radar tomography, (2) ordinary kriging and (3) mass conversation. Radar tomography eliminates radar-sounding profiler errors caused by off-nadir bed reflections to yield reference bed elevations. Ordinary kriging yields a standard error of 50 m at 500 m resolution, but with model artifacts in between tracks and flux divergence errors larger than 200 m/yr, which confound ice sheet flow models. Mass conservation optimally combines radar-sounding profiler data with independently gridded ice velocity data to lower the standard error to 30 m and flux divergence errors smaller than 1 m/yr. More importantly, mass conservation uniquely reveals complex structural features in bed elevation, e.g. valleys, ridges, bumps and hollows, that play a central role in channelizing ice flow toward the ice sheet margin. We then apply this technique to other outlet glaciers along the west coast of Greenland. The application of the mass conservation method to the entire ice sheet periphery, combined with radar tomography, promises to be transformative in our knowledge of basal topography in coastal Greenland, especially for the modeling of its outlet glaciers. This work was performed at the University of California Irvine and the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cryospheric Sciences Program, grant NNX12AB86G.ed topography (m) of Russell Glacier inferred using the mass conservation method at 400 m resolution. The dashed white line defines the limits of the model domain. NASA Operation IceBridge (OIB) flight tracks are indicated as lines. Surface elevation is from Howat et al. 2012 (in prep.), including on ice-free zone. Note the agreement between ice-free and ice-covered elevations.

Morlighem, M.; Rignot, E. J.; Mouginot, J.; Seroussi, H. L.; Larour, E. Y.

2012-12-01

369

Radar Remote Sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This lecture was just a taste of radar remote sensing techniques and applications. Other important areas include Stereo radar grammetry. PolInSAR for volumetric structure mapping. Agricultural monitoring, soil moisture, ice-mapping, etc. The broad range of sensor types, frequencies of observation and availability of sensors have enabled radar sensors to make significant contributions in a wide area of earth and planetary remote sensing sciences. The range of applications, both qualitative and quantitative, continue to expand with each new generation of sensors.

Rosen, Paul A.

2012-01-01

370

Radar investigation of asteroids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The initial radar observations of the mainbelt asteroids 9 Metis, 27 Euterpe, and 60 Echo are examined. For each target, data are taken simultaneously in the same sense of circular polarization as transmitted as well as in the opposite (OC) sense. Estimates of the radar cross sections provide estimates of the circular polarization ratio, and the normalized OC radar cross section. The circular polarization ratio, is comparable to values measured for other large S type asteroids and for a few much smaller, Earth approaching objects, most of the echo is due to single reflection backscattering from smooth surface elements.

Ostro, S. J.

1984-01-01

371

Topography of Venus and earth - A test for the presence of plate tectonics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Comparisons of earth and Venus topography by use of Pioneer/Venus radar altimetry are examined. Approximately 93% of the Venus surface has been mapped with a horizontal resolution of 200 km and a vertical resolution of 200 m. Tectonic troughs have been indicated in plains regions which cover 65% of Venus, and hypsometric comparisons between the two planets' elevation distributions revealed that while the earth has a bimodal height distribution, Venus displays a unimodal configuration, with 60% of the planet surface within 500 m of the modal planet radius. The effects of mapping the earth at the same resolution as the Venus observations were explored. Continents and oceans were apparent, and although folded mountains appeared as high spots, no indications of tectonic activity were discernible. A NASA Venus Orbiting Imaging radar is outlined, which is designed to detect volcanoes, folded mountain ranges, craters, and faults, and thereby allow definition of possible plate-tectonic activity on Venus.

Head, J. W.; Yuter, S. E.; Solomon, S. C.

1981-01-01

372

Maps of Mars Global Topography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Maps of Mars' global topography. The projections are Mercator to 70o latitude and stereographic at the poles with the south pole at left and north pole at right. Note the elevation difference between the northern and southern hemispheres. The Tharsis volcano-tectonic province is centered near the equator in the longitude range 220o E to 300o E and contains the vast east-west trending Valles Marineris canyon system and several major volcanic shields including Olympus Mons (18o N, 225o E), Alba Patera (42o N, 252o E), Ascraeus Mons (12o N, 248o E), Pavonis Mons (0o, 247o E), and Arsia Mons (9o S, 239o E). Regions and structures discussed in the text include Solis Planum (25o S, 270o E), Lunae Planum (10o N, 290o E), and Claritas Fossae (30o S, 255o E). Major impact basins include Hellas (45o S, 70o E), Argyre (50o S, 320o E), Isidis (12o N, 88o E), and Utopia (45o N, 110o E). This analysis uses an areocentric coordinate convention with east longitude positive.

1999-01-01

373

Surface Roughness, Optical Shadowing, and Radar Backscatter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The topography of natural surfaces at scales of a few meters or less is commonly referred to as roughness. These variations in height and slope, their magnitude, and the changes in structure as a function of scale length are of fundamental importance to interpretation of geologic emplacement regimes and subsequent modification. For most planetary studies and many terrestrial situations, no in situ observations of the ground are available, and remote sensing data are used to infer the nature of the terrain. For optical, infrared, and microwave measurements, surface roughness and its scale-dependence have a large impact on the brightness, polarization, angular scattering properties, and wavelength-dependence of reflected energy. The link between surface roughness and specific remote sensing properties for many types of observations, however, remains elusive. We focus here on the nature of roughness and its scale-dependence for terrestrial rocky surfaces, and the effect of such changes on optical shadowing and radar backscatter.

Shepard, M. K.; Campbell, B. A.

1996-03-01

374

Bistatic synthetic aperture radar using two satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper demonstrates the feasibility of a bistatic synthetic aperture radar (BISAR) utilizing two satellites. The proposed BISAR assumes that the direction of the two narrow antenna beams are programmed to coincide over the desired area to be imaged. Functionally, the transmitter and receiver portions can be interchanged between the two satellites. The two satellites may be in one orbit plane or two different orbits such as geosynchronous and low-earth orbits. The pulse repetition frequency and imaging geometry are constrained by contours of isodops and isodels. With two images of the same area viewed from different angles, it is possible in principle to derive three-dimensional stereo images. Applications of BISAR include topography, water resource management, and soil moisture determination.. Advantages of BISAR over a monostatic SAR are mentioned, including lower transmitter power and greater ranges in incidence angle and coverage.

Tomiyasu, K.

1978-01-01

375

Earth resources shuttle imaging radar. [systems analysis and design analysis of pulse radar for earth resources information system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A report is presented on a preliminary design of a Synthetic Array Radar (SAR) intended for experimental use with the space shuttle program. The radar is called Earth Resources Shuttle Imaging Radar (ERSIR). Its primary purpose is to determine the usefulness of SAR in monitoring and managing earth resources. The design of the ERSIR, along with tradeoffs made during its evolution is discussed. The ERSIR consists of a flight sensor for collecting the raw radar data and a ground sensor used both for reducing these radar data to images and for extracting earth resources information from the data. The flight sensor consists of two high powered coherent, pulse radars, one that operates at L and the other at X-band. Radar data, recorded on tape can be either transmitted via a digital data link to a ground terminal or the tape can be delivered to the ground station after the shuttle lands. A description of data processing equipment and display devices is given.

1975-01-01

376

EAARL coastal topography--Alligator Point, Louisiana, 2010  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of Alligator Point, Louisiana, acquired on March 5 and 6, 2010. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral color-infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine aircraft, but the instrument was deployed on a Pilatus PC-6. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight-line definition, flight-path plotting, lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is used routinely to create maps that represent submerged or sub-aerial topography. Specialized filtering algorithms have been implemented to determine the "bare earth" under vegetation from a point cloud of last return elevations.

Nayegandhi, Amar; Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Wright, C.W.; Brock, J.C.; Nagle, D.B.; Vivekanandan, Saisudha; Fredericks, Xan; Barras, J.A.

2012-01-01

377

EAARL Coastal Topography - Northern Gulf of Mexico, 2007: First Surface  

USGS Publications Warehouse

These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first surface (FS) elevation data were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Gulf Coast Network, Lafayette, LA; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. The project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of select barrier islands and peninsular regions of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida, acquired June 27-30, 2007. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is used routinely to create maps that represent submerged or sub-aerial topography. Specialized filtering algorithms have been implemented to determine the 'bare earth' under vegetation from a point cloud of last return elevations.

Smith, Kathryn E.L.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Wright, C. Wayne; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Brock, John C.

2009-01-01

378

The 94 GHz MMW imaging radar system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 94 GHz MMW airborne radar system that provides a runway image in adverse weather conditions is now undergoing tests at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB). This system, which consists of a solid state FMCW transceiver, antenna, and digital signal processor, has an update rate of 10 times per second, 0.35x azimuth resolution and up to 3.5 meter range resolution. The radar B scope (range versus azimuth) image, once converted to C scope (elevation versus azimuth), is compatible with the standard TV presentation and can be displayed on the Head Up Display (HUD) or Head Down Display (HDD) to aid the pilot during landing and takeoff in limited visibility conditions.

Alon, Yair; Ulmer, Lon

1993-01-01

379

Sensory properties of menthol and smoking topography  

PubMed Central

Although there is a great deal known about menthol as a flavoring agent in foods and confections, less is known about the particular sensory properties of menthol cigarette smoke. Similarly, although smoking topography (the unique way an individual smokes a cigarette) has been well studied using non-menthol cigarettes, there is relatively less known about how menthol affects smoking behavior. The objective of this review is to assess the sensory properties of menthol tobacco smoke, and smoking topography associated with menthol cigarettes. The cooling, analgesic, taste, and respiratory effects of menthol are well established, and studies have indicated that menthol’s sensory attributes can have an influence on the positive, or rewarding, properties associated smoking, including ratings of satisfaction, taste, perceived smoothness, and perceived irritation. Despite these sensory properties, the data regarding menthol’s effect on smoking topography are inconsistent. Many of the topography studies have limitations due to various methodological issues. PMID:21624149

2011-01-01

380

Portable radar simulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A portable radar simulator, when connected to a transmitting means such as a waveguide horn antenna, provides a radar signal to test a radar receiver. The portable radar simulator comprises a tunable oscillator which generates a continuous wave signal in the microwave frequency range with the desired frequency of the signal being selected by an operator. The signal generated by the tunable oscillator is supplied to a microwave switch. The microwave switch receives a control signal provided by a pulse repetition frequency generating circuit and in response to the control signal turns the switch on or off controlling the transmission of the oscillator generated signal to the wave guide horn antenna. The pulse repetition frequency generating circuit which comprises an integrated circuit timer and a monostable multivibrator provides a variable frequency and variable pulse width control signal. The frequency and pulse width of the control signal are, in turn, set by the operator.

Aw, Kenneth

1992-09-01

381

Caribbean Radar Products  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module provides examples of radar imagery from various locations in the Caribbean to demonstrate the different types of images available. Also, examples of different meteorological and non meteorological features are presented to show features seen in island locations.

2014-09-14

382

GMTI MIMO radar  

E-print Network

Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) extensions to radar systems enable a number of advantages compared to traditional approaches. These advantages include improved angle estimation and target detection. In this paper, ...

Bliss, Daniel W., Jr.

383

Imaging with Radar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive activity from NOVA features synthetic aperture radar (SAR), which uses radio waves to create high-quality images. Examine SAR images of Washington, D.C., and learn about this technology's unique advantages.

2004-01-29

384

Predicting dynamic topography from mantle circulation models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic topography is anomalous vertical motions of Earth's surface associated with viscous flow in the mantle. Deformable boundaries, such as the surface, CMB and phase transition boundaries, within a fluid (Earth's mantle) are deflected by viscous flow. Denser than average, sinking mantle creates inward deflections of Earth's surface. Equally, upwelling flow creates bulges in the surface; large plumes are commonly thought to produce superswells, such as the anomalously high elevation of Southern Africa. Dynamic topography appears to operate on a number of length scales. Mantle density anomalies estimated from seismic tomography indicate long wavelength dynamic topography at present day of around 2 km amplitude (e.g. Conrand & Husson, 2009) whilst continental scale studies suggest vertical motions of a few hundred metres. Furthermore, time scales must be an important factor to consider when assessing dynamic topography. Stable, dense lower mantle 'piles' may contribute to dynamic surface topography; as they appear stable over reasonably long time scales, long wavelength dynamic topography may be a fairly constant feature over the recent geological past. Shorter wavelength, smaller amplitude dynamic topography may be due to more transient features of mantle convection. Studies on a continental scale reveal shorter term changes in dynamic topography of the order of a few hundred metres (e.g. Roberts & White, 2010; Heine et al., 2010). Understanding dynamic topography is complicated by the fact it is difficult to observe as the signal is often masked by isostatic effects. We use forward mantle convection models with 300 million years of recent plate motion history as the surface boundary condition to generate a present day distribution of density anomalies associated with subducted lithosphere. From the modelled temperature and density fields we calculate the normal stress at or near the surface of the model. As the models generally have a free slip surface where no vertical motion is allowed, an excess or deficit of stress exists near the surface. A pointwise force balance between this stress excess and the weight of rock above is used to calculate the anomalous elevation associated with the stress. Here we present some of the results obtained from mantle circulation models. We look at different ways of predicting dynamic topography, including the depth at which the stress field is calculated and by removing lithospheric density anomalies from the calculation. We also assess the impact of crustal thickness and isostasy on the predictions of dynamic topography.

Webb, Peter; Davies, J. Huw

2013-04-01

385

Downhole pulse radar  

DOEpatents

A borehole logging tool generates a fast rise-time, short duration, high peak-power radar pulse having broad energy distribution between 30 MHz and 300 MHz through a directional transmitting and receiving antennas having barium titanate in the electromagnetically active region to reduce the wavelength to within an order of magnitude of the diameter of the antenna. Radar returns from geological discontinuities are sampled for transmission uphole. 7 figs.

Chang, Hsi-Tien

1987-09-28

386

Doppler Radar Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides an introduction to the function and uses of the The National Weather Service's (NWS) Weather Surveillance Doppler Radar (WSR-88D). Topics include the components of the system, an overview of the products and overlays the system creates, and some example images with captions explaining what is being shown. There are also links to radar meteorology tutorials and to information on training to use the system and interpret its imagery.

387

Downhole pulse radar  

DOEpatents

A borehole logging tool generates a fast rise-time, short duration, high peak-power radar pulse having broad energy distribution between 30 MHz and 300 MHz through a directional transmitting and receiving antennas having barium titanate in the electromagnetically active region to reduce the wavelength to within an order of magnitude of the diameter of the antenna. Radar returns from geological discontinuities are sampled for transmission uphole.

Chang, Hsi-Tien (Albuquerque, NM)

1989-01-01

388

Adaptive MIMO radar waveforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple-Input, Multiple-Output (MIMO) radars enhance performance by transmitting and receiving coded waveforms from multiple locations. To date, the theoretical literature on MIMO radar has focused largely on the use of ldquoorthogonal waveforms.rdquo Practical approaches to approximate orthogonality (e.g., via waveforms characterized by low cross-correlation and low autocorrelation sidelobe levels) have also started to emerge. We show, however, that such waveforms

Daniel J. Rabideau; Lexington MA

2008-01-01

389

Dynamic Topography of Oceans and Continents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The large contrasts in surface topography are one of the most striking features of our planet. Contributions to topography range from short-wavelength uncompensated features due to tectonic activity, to variations in crustal thickness and density structure and long-wavelength deflections of the lithosphere caused by mantle dynamics. Upwelling or downwelling flow in Earth's mantle can elevate or depress the earth's surface even if the sources of buoyancy are deep in the mantle. However, direct observation of this ``dynamic topography'' has been elusive, because it is obscured by the isostatic contribution due to crustal and lithospheric structure. Any potential confirmation of the role of dynamic topography, sheds light not only on the impact of mantle dynamics on surface processes, but also on the nature of mantle dynamics itself. For example, we expect dramatically different topographic signals from layered vs. whole mantle convection. We have learned a great deal about the consequences of dynamic topography for continental flooding and the formation of large sedimentary basins since the pioneering work of Mitrovica et al. [1989] and Gurnis [1990]. Recently, unequivocal signals of dynamically supported topography have been found in both continents (Africa [Lithgow-Bertelloni and Silver, 1998] and Arabia [Daradich et al., 2004]) and oceanic basins (North-Atlantic [Conrad et al., 2004]). In all three cases, the identifiable dynamic topography signal results from upwelling mantle. In regions associated with downwellings considerable controversy remains [e.g. Wheeler and White, 2002]. There is a hint in this result that relates to the ability of slabs to penetrate into the lower mantle and of upwellings to reach the surface from great depth. We review in this talk the evidence for dynamic topography in continents and oceans, and present some speculations related to the nature of layering in mantle convection.

Lithgow-Bertelloni, C.; Conrad, C. P.

2004-05-01

390

Current radar responsive tag development activities at Sandia National Laboratories.  

SciTech Connect

Over the past ten years, Sandia has developed RF radar responsive tag systems and supporting technologies for various government agencies and industry partners. RF tags can function as RF transmitters or radar transponders that enable tagging, tracking, and location determination functions. Expertise in tag architecture, microwave and radar design, signal analysis and processing techniques, digital design, modeling and simulation, and testing have been directly applicable to these tag programs. In general, the radar responsive tag designs have emphasized low power, small package size, and the ability to be detected by the radar at long ranges. Recently, there has been an interest in using radar responsive tags for Blue Force tracking and Combat ID (CID). The main reason for this interest is to allow airborne surveillance radars to easily distinguish U.S. assets from those of opposing forces. A Blue Force tracking capability would add materially to situational awareness. Combat ID is also an issue, as evidenced by the fact that approximately one-quarter of all U.S. casualties in the Gulf War took the form of ground troops killed by friendly fire. Because the evolution of warfare in the intervening decade has made asymmetric warfare the norm rather than the exception, swarming engagements in which U.S. forces will be freely intermixed with opposing forces is a situation that must be anticipated. Increasing utilization of precision munitions can be expected to drive fires progressively closer to engaged allied troops at times when visual de-confliction is not an option. In view of these trends, it becomes increasingly important that U.S. ground forces have a widely proliferated all-weather radar responsive tag that communicates to all-weather surveillance. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the recent, current, and future radar responsive research and development activities at Sandia National Laboratories that support both the Blue Force Tracking and Combat ID application.

Plummer, Kenneth W.; Ormesher, Richard C.

2003-09-01

391

Ground motion in the presence of complex topography  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To study the influence of topography on ground motion, eight seismic recorders were deployed for a period of one year over Poverty Ridge on the east side of the San Francisco Bay Area, California. This location is desirable because of its proximity to local earthquake sources and the significant topographic relief of the array (439 m). Topographic amplification is evaluated as a function of frequency using a variety of methods, including reference?site?based spectral ratios and single?station horizontal?to?vertical spectral ratios using both shear waves from earthquakes and ambient noise. Field observations are compared with the predicted ground motion from an accurate digital model of the topography and a 3D local velocity model. Amplification factors from the theoretical calculations are consistent with observations. The fundamental resonance of the ridge is prominently observed in the spectra of data and synthetics; however, higher?frequency peaks are also seen primarily for sources in line with the major axis of the ridge, perhaps indicating higher resonant modes. Excitations of lateral ribs off of the main ridge are also seen at frequencies consistent with their dimensions. The favored directions of resonance are shown to be transverse to the major axes of the topographic features.

Hartzell, Stephen; Meremonte, Mark; Ramírez-Guzmán, Leonardo; McNamara, Daniel

2014-01-01

392

Finding realistic dike models from interferometric synthetic aperture radar data: The February 2000 eruption at Piton de la Fournaise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dike intrusions often cause complex ground displacements that are not sufficiently explained by simple analytical models. We develop a method to find complex and realistic dike geometries and overpressures from interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data. This method is based on a combination of a boundary element method with realistic topography and a neighborhood algorithm inversion. Dike model geometry is

Y. Fukushima; V. Cayol; P. Durand

2005-01-01

393

Formation and Tectonic Evolution of Sedimentary Sequences on Mars from HiRISE Stereo Topography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stereo topography from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) provides a new tool for investigating the stratigraphy of widespread sedimentary deposits, including both their formation and subsequent tectonic evolution. Digital Terrain Models from HiRISE images with a post spacing of 1 meter have been created which enable resolving the topographic signature of sub-meter

K. W. Lewis; O. Aharonson; J. P. Grotzinger; R. L. Kirk; A. S. McEwen; T. Suer

2008-01-01

394

Mercury's global shape and topography from MESSENGER limb images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive models for the global shape and topography of Mercury from limb images obtained by the MESSENGER spacecraft during flybys and from orbit. Crossover heights of 225 individual limb profiles were adjusted by least-squares techniques to establish a rigid global topographic network. Mercury is confirmed to possess an equatorial ellipticity and a polar oblateness. Several large impact basins and craters can be identified in the topographic model, including one basin that was earlier proposed but unconfirmed. Comparisons with absolute height data from laser altimetry indicate that the limb model appears to overestimate planetary radius by ~900 m on average. Limb profiles and local digital terrain models derived from stereo-photogrammetry show good agreement.

Elgner, Stephan; Stark, Alexander; Oberst, Jürgen; Perry, Mark E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Robinson, Mark S.; Solomon, Sean C.

2014-11-01

395

Seamless Synthetic Aperture Radar Archive for Interferometry Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Advancing Collaborative Connections for Earth System Science (ACCESS) seamless synthetic aperture radar (SAR) archive (SSARA) project is a collaboration between UNAVCO, the Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and OpenTopography at the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC) to design and implement a seamless distributed access system for SAR data and derived interferometric SAR (InSAR) data products. A unified application programming interface (API) has been created to search the SAR archives at ASF and UNAVCO, 30 and 90-m SRTM DEM data available through OpenTopography, and tropospheric data from the NASA OSCAR project at JPL. The federated query service provides users a single access point to search for SAR granules, InSAR pairs, and corresponding DEM and tropospheric data products from the four archives, as well as the ability to search and download pre-processed InSAR products from ASF and UNAVCO.

Baker, S.; Baru, C.; Bryson, G.; Buechler, B.; Crosby, C.; Fielding, E.; Meertens, C.; Nicoll, J.; Youn, C.

2014-11-01

396

Evolution of Topography in Glaciated Mountain Ranges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This thesis examines the response of alpine landscapes to the onset of glaciation. The basic approach is to compare fluvial and glacial laudscapes, since it is the change from the former to the latter that accompanies climatic cooling. This allows a detailed evaluation of hypotheses relating climate change to tectonic processes in glaciated mountain belts. Fieldwork was carried out in the eastern Sierra Nevada, California, and the Sangre de Cristo Range, Colorado, alongside digital elevation model analyses in the western US, the Southern Alps of New Zealand, and the Himalaya of northwestern Pakistan. hypothesis is overstated in its appeal to glacial erosion as a major source of relief production and subsequent peak uplift. Glaciers in the eastern Sierra Nevada and the western Sangre de Cristos have redistributed relief, but have produced only modest relief by enlarging drainage basins at the expense of low-relief topography. Glaciers have lowered valley floors and ridgelines by similar amounts, limiting the amount of "missing mass' that can be generated, and causing a decrease in drainage basin relief. The principal response of glaciated landscapes to rapid rock uplift is the development of towering cirque headwalls. This represents considerable relief production, but is not caused by glacial erosion alone. Large valley glaciers can maintain their low gradient regardless of uplift rate, which supports the "glacial buzzsaw" hypothesis. However, the inability of glaciers to erode steep hillslopes as rapidly can cause mean elevations to rise. Cosmogenic isotope dating is used to show that (i) where plucking is active, the last major glaciation removed sufficient material to reset the cosmogenic clock; and (ii) former glacial valley floors now stranded near the crest of the Sierra Nevada are at varying stages of abandonment, suggesting a cycle of drainage reorganiszation and relief inversion due to glacial erosion similar to that observed in river networks. Glaciated landscapes are quite distinct from their fluvial counterparts in both landforms and processes. Given the scarcity of purely fluvial, active mountain ranges, it is essential that glacial erosion be considered amongst the processes sculpting active orogenic belts.

Brocklehurst, Simon H.

2002-01-01

397

Quality assessment of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) in view of the Altiplano hydrological modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topography is crucial data input for hydrological modeling but in many regions of the world, the only way to characterize topography is the use of satellite-based Digital Elevation Models (DEM). In some regions, the quality of these DEMs remains poor and induces modeling errors that may or not be compensated by model parameters tuning. In such regions, the evaluation of these data uncertainties is an important step in the modeling procedure. In this study, which focuses on the Altiplano region, we present the evaluation of the two freely available DEM. The shuttle radar topographic mission (SRTM), a product of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Advanced Space Born Thermal Emission and Reflection Global Digital Elevation Map (ASTER GDEM), data provided by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of Japan (MESI) in collaboration with the NASA, are widely used. While the first represents a resolution of 3 arc seconds (90m) the latter is 1 arc second (30m). In order to select the most reliable DEM, we compared the DEM elevation with high qualities control points elevation. Because of its large spatial coverture (track spaced of 30 km with a measure of each 172 m) and its high vertical accuracy which is less than 15 cm in good weather conditions, the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) on board on the Ice, Cloud and Land elevation Satellite of NASA (ICESat) represent the better solution to establish a high quality elevation database. After a quality check, more than 150 000 ICESat/GLAS measurements are suitable in terms of accuracy for the Altiplano watershed. This data base has been used to evaluate the vertical accuracy for each DEM. Regarding to the full spatial coverture; the comparison has been done for both, all kind of land coverture, range altitude and mean slope.

Satgé, F.; Arsen, A.; Bonnet, M.; Timouk, F.; Calmant, S.; Pilco, R.; Molina, J.; Lavado, W.; Crétaux, J.; HASM

2013-05-01

398

Radar Ionospheric Impact Mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New ionospheric modeling technology is being developed to improve correction of ionospheric impacts on the performance of ground-based space-surveillance radars (SSRs) in near-real-time. These radars, which detect and track space objects, can experience significant target location errors due to ionospheric delay and refraction of the radar signals. Since these radars must detect and track targets essentially to the radar horizon, it is necessary to accurately model the ionosphere as the radar would observe it, down to the local horizon. To correct for spatial and temporal changes in the ionosphere the model must be able to update in near-real-time using ionospheric sensor data. Since many radars are in isolated locations, or may have requirements to operate autonomously, an additional required capability is to provide accurate ionospheric mitigation by exploiting only sensor data from the radar site. However, the model must also be able to update using additional data from other types of sensors that may be available. The original radar ionospheric mitigation approach employed the Bent climatological model. This 35-year-old technology is still the means employed in the many DoD SSRs today. One more recent approach used capabilities from the PRISM model. PRISM technology has today been surpassed by `assimilative models' which employ better physics and Kalman filtering techniques. These models are not necessarily tailored for SSR application which needs to optimize modeling of very small regions using only data from a single sensor, or very few. The goal is to develop and validate the performance of innovative and efficient ionospheric modeling approaches that are optimized for the small regions applicable to ground-based radar coverage (radius of ~2000 km at ionospheric altitudes) and somewhat beyond. These approaches must adapt a continuous modeling scheme in near-real-time to be consistent with all observational data that may become available, and degrade gracefully toward a climatological representation in the absence of data. In this presentation we will discuss the issues for improving correction of ionospheric impacts on SSRs, some of the capabilities and limitations of current models, and the requirements and goals for new modeling technologies.

Bishop, G.; Decker, D.; Baker, C.

2006-12-01

399

Dunes on Titan observed by Cassini Radar  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Thousands of longitudinal dunes have recently been discovered by the Titan Radar Mapper on the surface of Titan. These are found mainly within ??30?? of the equator in optically-, near-infrared-, and radar-dark regions, indicating a strong proportion of organics, and cover well over 5% of Titan's surface. Their longitudinal duneform, interactions with topography, and correlation with other aeolian forms indicate a single, dominant wind direction aligned with the dune axis plus lesser, off-axis or seasonally alternating winds. Global compilations of dune orientations reveal the mean wind direction is dominantly eastwards, with regional and local variations where winds are diverted around topographically high features, such as mountain blocks or broad landforms. Global winds may carry sediments from high latitude regions to equatorial regions, where relatively drier conditions prevail, and the particles are reworked into dunes, perhaps on timescales of thousands to tens of thousands of years. On Titan, adequate sediment supply, sufficient wind, and the absence of sediment carriage and trapping by fluids are the dominant factors in the presence of dunes. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Radebaugh, J.; Lorenz, R.D.; Lunine, J.I.; Wall, S.D.; Boubin, G.; Reffet, E.; Kirk, R.L.; Lopes, R.M.; Stofan, E.R.; Soderblom, L.; Allison, M.; Janssen, M.; Paillou, P.; Callahan, P.; Spencer, C.; The Cassini Radar Team

2008-01-01

400

Radar MeteorologyRadar Meteorology Feb 20, 1941 10 cm (S-band) radar used to track rain showers (Ligda)  

E-print Network

Radar MeteorologyRadar Meteorology Feb 20, 1941 10 cm (S-band) radar used to track rain showers similar observations in the early 1940's (U.S. Air Corps meteorologists receiving "radar" training at MIT in 1943 First operational weather radar, Panama, 1943 Science of radar meteorology born from WWII research

Rutledge, Steven

401

Honolulu, Hawaii Radar Image, Wrapped Color as Height  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This topographic radar image shows the city of Honolulu, Hawaii and adjacent areas on the island of Oahu. Honolulu lies on the south shore of the island, right of center of the image. Just below the center is Pearl Harbor, marked by several inlets and bays. Runways of the airport can be seen to the right of Pearl Harbor. Diamond Head, an extinct volcanic crater, is a blue circle along the coast right of center. The Koolau mountain range runs through the center of the image. The steep cliffs on the north side of the range are thought to be remnants of massive landslides that ripped apart the volcanic mountains that built the island thousands of years ago. On the north shore of the island are the Mokapu Peninsula and Kaneohe Bay. High resolution topographic data allow ecologists and planners to assess the effects of urban development on the sensitive ecosystems in tropical regions.

This image combines two types of data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The image brightness corresponds to the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground, while colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Each cycle of colors (from pink through blue back to pink) represents an equal amount of elevation difference (400 meters, or 1300 feet) similar to contour lines on a standard topographic map. This image contains about 2400 meters (8000 feet) of total relief.

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

Size: 56 by 56 kilometers (35 by 35 miles) Location: 21.4 deg. North lat., 157.8 deg. West lon. Orientation: North toward upper left Original Data Resolution: 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 18, 2000

2000-01-01

402

Design guidelines for SAR digital receiver/exciter boards.  

SciTech Connect

High resolution radar systems generally require combining fast analog to digital converters and digital to analog converters with very high performance digital signal processing logic. These mixed analog and digital printed circuit boards present special challenges with respect to electromagnetic interference. This document first describes the mechanisms of interference on such boards then follows up with a discussion of prevention techniques and finally provides a checklist for designers to help avoid common mistakes.

Dudley, Peter A.

2009-08-01

403

The Multiple Doppler Radar Workshop, November 1979.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The findings of the Multiple Doppler Radar Workshop are summarized by a series of six papers. Part I of this series briefly reviews the history of multiple Doppler experimentation, fundamental concepts of Doppler signal theory, and organization and objectives of the Workshop. Invited presentations by dynamicists and cloud physicists are also summarized.Experimental design and procedures (Part II) are shown to be of critical importance. Well-defined and limited experimental objectives are necessary in view of technological limitations. Specified radar scanning procedures that balance temporal and spatial resolution considerations are discussed in detail. Improved siting for suppression of ground clutter as well as scanning procedures to minimize errors at echo boundaries are discussed. The need for accelerated research using numerically simulated proxy data sets is emphasized.New technology to eliminate various sampling limitations is cited as an eventual solution to many current problems in Part III. Ground clutter contamination may be curtailed by means of full spectral processing, digital filters in real time, and/or variable pulse repetition frequency. Range and velocity ambiguities also may be minimized by various pulsing options as well as random phase transmission. Sidelobe contamination can be reduced through improvements in radomes, illumination patterns, and antenna feed types. Radar volume-scan time can be sharply reduced by means of wideband transmission, phased array antennas, multiple beam antennas, and frequency agility.Part IV deals with synthesis of data from several radars in the context of scientific requirements in cumulus clouds, widespread precipitation, and severe convective storms. The important temporal and spatial scales are examined together with the accuracy required for vertical air motion in each phenomenon. Factors that introduce errors in the vertical velocity field are identified and synthesis techniques are discussed separately for the dual Doppler and multiple Doppler cases. Various filters and techniques, including statistical and variational approaches, are mentioned. Emphasis is placed on the importance of experiment design and procedures, technological improvements, incorporation of all information from supporting sensors, and analysis priority for physically simple cases. Integrated reliability is proposed as an objective tool for radar siting.Verification of multiple Doppler-derived vertical velocity is discussed in Part V. Three categories of verification are defined as direct, deductive, and theoretical/numerical. Direct verification consists of zenith-pointing radar measurements (from either airborne or ground-based systems), air motion sensing aircraft, instrumented towers, and tracking of radar chaff. Deductive sources include mesonetworks, aircraft (thermodynamic and microphysical) measurements, satellite observations, radar reflectivity, multiple Doppler consistency, and atmospheric soundings. Theoretical/numerical sources of verification include proxy data simulation, momentum checking, and numerical cloud models. New technology, principally in the form of wide bandwidth radars, is seen as a development that may reduce the need for extensive verification of multiple Doppler-derived vertical air motions. Airborne Doppler radar is perceived as the single most important source of verification within the bounds of existing technology.Nine stages of data processing and display are identified in Part VI. The stages are identified as field checks, archival, selection, editing, coordinate transformation, synthesis of Cartesian fields, filtering, display, and physical analysis. Display of data is considered to be a problem critical to assimilation of data at all stages. Interactive computing systems and software are concluded to be very important, particularly for the editing stage. Three- and 4-dimensional displays are considered essential for data assimilation, particularly at the physical analysis stage. The concept of common data tape formats is approved both for data in radar s

Carbone, R. E.; Harris, F. I.; Hildebrand, P. H.; Kropfli, R. A.; Miller, L. J.; Moninger, W.; Strauch, R. G.; Doviak, R. J.; Johnson, K. W.; Nelson, S. P.; Ray, P. S.; Gilet, M.

1980-10-01

404

66. VIEW SHOWING HOLD FOR RADAR CABLES AT RADAR SITE, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

66. VIEW SHOWING HOLD FOR RADAR CABLES AT RADAR SITE, LOOKING NORTH Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

405

On the potentials of passive, multistatic, low frequency radars to counter stealth and detect low flying targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potentials of passive, multi-static radars as covert sensors for the detection of low flying, stealth air targets are illustrated by multi-static RCS analysis, coverage simulations for low flight levels and measurement results obtained with an experimental passive radar using digital audio broadcast signals (DAB). The measurement sensor is described and future perspectives are pointed out.

H. Kuschel; J. Heckenbach; S. Muller; R. Appel

2008-01-01

406

a Statistical Description of Storm Cells: Analysis of Film Records of the Binghamton, New York WSR-57 PPI Weather Radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable effort has been expended recently to mathematically model convective rainstorms. Parameter estimation has lagged behind theoretical work. This investigation utilizes digitized radar imagery to estimate the duration and areal extent of convective cells. The parameters were chosen based on a mathematical model proposed by Rodriguez -Iturbe-Eagelson. Three thunderstorms in the area scanned by the Broome County, New York radar

Cynthia Brower Kirby

1991-01-01

407

A geologic analysis of the Side-Looking Airborne Radar imagery of southern New England  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analysis of the side looking airborn radar imagery of Massachusetts, Connecticut and Rhode Island indicates that radar shows the topography in great detail. Since bedrock geologic features are frequently expressed in the topography the radar lends itself to geologic interpretation. The radar was studied by comparisons with field mapped geologic data first at a scale of approximately 1:125,000 and then at a scale of 1:500,000. The larger scale comparison revealed that faults, minor faults, joint sets, bedding and foliation attitudes, lithology and lithologic contacts all have a topographic expression interpretable on the imagery. Surficial geologic features were far less visible on the imagery over most of the area studied. The smaller scale comparisons revealed a pervasive, near orthogonal fracture set cutting all types and ages of rock and trending roughly N40?E and N30?W. In certain places the strike of bedding and foliation attitudes and some lithologic Contacts were visible in addition to the fractures. Fracturing in southern New England is apparently far more important than has been previously recognized. This new information, together with the visibility of many bedding and foliation attitudes and lithologic contacts, indicates the importance of radar imagery in improving the geologic interpretation of an area.

Banks, Paul T.

1975-01-01

408

Weather Radar and Instrumentation: Laboratory Modules  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These 16 radar education modules, developed for the Weather Radar and Instrumentation Curriculum at the University of Oklahoma, provide hands-on instruction for beginning, intermediate, or advanced students to learn about radar systems, especially weather radar. Topics include hardware, weather radar, adaptive systems, advanced hydrometeors, applications of weather radar, and atmospheric interpretations. The modules may be downloaded.

409

33. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #320, perimeter acquisition radar ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

33. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #320, perimeter acquisition radar operations center (PAROC), contains the tactical command and control group equipment required to control the par site. Showing spacetrack monitor console - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

410

Interferometric estimation of ice sheet motion and topography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With ERS-1/2 satellite radar interferometry, it is possible to make measurements of glacier motion with high accuracy and fine spatial resolution. Interferometric techniques were applied to map velocity and topography for several outlet glaciers in Greenland. For the Humboldt and Petermann glaciers, data from several adjacent tracks were combined to make a wide-area map that includes the enhanced flow regions of both glaciers. The discharge flux of the Petermann glacier upstream of the grounding line was estimated, thereby establishing the potential use of ERS-1/2 interferometric data for monitoring ice-sheet discharge. Interferograms collected along a single track are sensitive to only one component of motion. By utilizing data from ascending and descending passes and by making a surface-parallel flow assumption, it is possible to measure the full three-dimensional vector flow field. The application of this technique for an area on the Ryder glacier is demonstrated. Finally, ERS-1/2 interferograms were used to observe a mini-surge on the Ryder glacier that occurred in autumn of 1995.

Joughlin, Ian; Kwok, Ron; Fahnestock, Mark; Winebrenner, Dale; Tulaczyk, Slawek; Gogenini, Prasad

1997-01-01

411

Display of Magellan SAR and Topography Data in Google Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much of our understanding of the geodynamics and geology of Venus has been derived from radar imagery and topography from the Magellan mission (NASA 1989-1994). These data were archived at the Planetary Data System (PDS) and are easily and freely available. Unfortunately, the Magellan Venus data are far less accessible than those of the Earth, Mars, and the Moon. Data for these bodies are available via the Google Earth geobrowser, allowing anyone to easily explore the latest imagery and surface information. In an effort to promote public interest in Venus, we have created content for Google Earth that displays three types of information from the Magellan-era. First the FMAP compilation of the Magellan SAR imagery has been assembled into a global overlay image for rapid panning and zooming. Second, the reprocessed altimetry data [Ford and Pettingell, 1992; Rappaport et al. 1999] have been carefully edited and merged with a global spherical harmonic analysis [Wieczorek, 2007] to form a 10-km resolution global DEM of the planet. Finally the IAU feature names along with the content from ``The Face of Venus'' [Roth and Wall, 1995] have been assembled as an overlay to provide basic naming and geology information. A draft version of this material is available by adding this Network Link in Google Earth: http://byss.arc.nasa.gov/ge-venus/venus.kml. We welcome comments and suggestions on how to best represent Venus data for the public

Beyer, R. A.; Mehnert, E.; Sandwell, D. T.; Kolb, E.; Austin Foulkes, J.; Schwehr, K.; Johnson, C. L.

2012-12-01