An assessment of shuttle radar topography mission digital elevation data for studies of volcano's volcanoes. Although these data were acquired with a nominal spatial resolution of 30 m, such data are only available for volcanoes located within the U.S.A. and its Territories. For the overwhelming majority
The Cassini Titan RADAR Mapper is a K(sub u)-band (13.78 GHz, lambda = 2.17 cm) linear polarized RADAR instrument capable of operating in synthetic aperture (SAR), scatterometer, altimeter and radiometer modes. During the first targeted flyby of Titan on 26 October, 2004 (referred to as Ta) observations were made in all modes. Evidence for topographic relief based on the Ta altimetry and SAR data are presented here. Additional SAR and altimetry observations are planned for the T3 encounter on 15 February, 2005, but have not been carried out at this writing. Results from the T3 encounter relevant to topography will be included in our presentation. Data obtained in the Ta encounter include a SAR image swath
Kirk, R. L.; Callahan, P.; Seu, R.; Lorenz, R. D.; Paganelli, F.; Lopes, R.; Elachi, C.
The use of interferometric SAR (IFSAR) to measure elevation is one of the most powerful and promising capabilities of radar. A properly equipped spaceborne IFSAR system can produce a highly accurate global digital elevation map, including cloud-covered areas, in significantly less time and at significantly lower cost than with other systems. For accurate topography, the interferometric measurements must be performed simultaneously in physically sperate receive system, since measurements made at different times with the same system suffer significant decorrelation. The US/German/Italian spaceborne imaging radar C/X-band SAR (SIR-C/X-SAR), successfully flown twice in 1994 aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavor, offers a unique opportunity for global multifrequency elevation mapping by the year 2000. With appropriate augmentation, SIR-C/X-SAR is capable of producing an accurate elevation map covering 80 percent of the Earth's land surface in a single 10-day Shuttle flight. The existing US SIR-C SCANSAR mode provides a 225-km swath at C-band, which makes this coverage possible. Addition of a C-band receive antenna, extended from the Shuttle bay on a mast and operating in concert with the existing SIR-C antenna, produces an interferometric pair. Accuracy is enhanced by utilizing the SIR-C dual polarizations simultaneously to form separate SCANSAR beams. Due to the practical limitation of approximately 60 meters for the mast length, the longer SIR-C L-band wavelength does not produce useful elevation measurement accuracy. IFSAR measurements can also be obtained by the German/Italian X-SAR, simultaneously with SIR-C, by utilizing an added outboard antenna at X-band to produce a swath coverage of about 50 km. Accuracy can be enhanced at both frequencies by processing both ascending and descending data takes. It is estimated that the 90 percent linear absolute elevation error achievable is less that 16 meters for elevation postings of 30 meters. This will be the first use of spaceborne IFSAR to acquire accurate topographic data on a global scale.
Jordan, Rolando L.; Caro, Edward R.; Kim, Yunjin; Kobrick, Michael; Shen, Yuhsyen; Stuhr, Frederick V.; Werner, Marian U.
We find that the standard deviation, hence error, of the water surface elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) is 5.51 m for basin-wide, regional and local Amazon mainstem reaches. This error implies a minimum reach length of 733km in order to calculate a reliable water-surface slope. Resulting slopes are 1.92 +\\/- 0.19 cm\\/km for Manacapuru, 2.86 +\\/-
Gina LeFavour; Doug Alsdorf
The annual freeze/thaw cycle drives the length of the growing season in the boreal forest, and is a major factor determining annual productivity and associated exchange of CO2 with the atmosphere. Variations in freeze/thaw processes are spatially and temporally complex in boreal environments, particularly in areas of complex topography and in fire disturbance regimes. We investigate the spatial and temporal characteristics of seasonal freeze/thaw dynamics in complex boreal landscapes, as derived from radar backscatter measured with ERS (C-band, VV polarization, 200m resolution) and JERS-1 (L-band, HH polarization, 100m resolution) Synthetic Aperture Radars (SARs), and with the SeaWinds scatterometer (Ku-band, 25km resolution). C- and L-band backscatter are applied to characterize freeze/thaw transitions for a chronosequence of recovering burn sites near Delta Junction, Alaska, and for a region of complex topography on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. We characterize differences in radar-derived freeze/thaw state, examining transitions over complex terrain and landscape disturbance regimes. In areas of complex terrain, we explore freeze/thaw dynamics related to elevation, slope aspect and varying landcover. In the burned regions, we explore the timing of seasonal freeze/thaw transition as related to the recovering landscape, relative to that of a nearby control site. We apply in situ biophysical measurements, including flux tower measurements to validate and interpret the remotely sensed parameters. A multi-scale analysis is performed relating high-resolution SAR backscatter and moderate resolution scatterometer measurements to assess trade-offs in spatial and temporal resolution in the remotely sensed fields. A temporal change discriminator is applied to classify time series radar imagery to classify the landscape freeze-thaw state. We apply a 30m-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data to orthorectify the time series SAR imagery over the complex terrain site. This DEM was integrated with the SAR imagery to examine elevation and slope aspect effects on freeze/thaw transitions. Scaling assessments of the relationship between SAR and SeaWinds backscatter provide a means for determining sub-grid spatial variability in land cover, terrain and freeze/thaw processes, based on semi-variogram analyses. Results show that the high-resolution SARs may be applied to map freeze/thaw transitions in complex landscapes. In regions of complex terrain, dynamics related to elevation and slope aspect are delineated. Fusion with accurate DEM information as provided by SRTM facilitates orthorectification and analysis of terrain effects. The SARs also observe distinguishable differences in backscatter amplitude response and in the timing of freeze/thaw transitions associated with varying disturbance regimes driven by forest fire. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering landscape heterogeneity for development of remote sensing techniques for monitoring phenological processes across complex, heterogeneous landscapes in boreal ecosystems. This work was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, and the University of Montana under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
Podest, E.; McDonald, K.; Kimball, J.; Randerson, J. T.
Both topography and motion information are present in repeat pass ERS-1 interferograms over ice sheets. The authors demonstrate that the topography is separable from the surface displacement field when a sequence of radar images are available. If the velocity field is constant over the time span of observation, the topography can be derived from differential interferograms formed from sequential observations.
Ronald Kwok; Mark A. Fahnestock
A low-cost, real-time digital topography system is under development which will replace x-ray film and nuclear emulsion plates. The imaging system is based on an inexpensive surveillance camera that offers a 1000x1000 array of 8 im square pixels, anti-blooming circuitry, and very quick read out. Currently, the system directly converts x-rays to an image with no phosphor. The system is small and light and can be easily adapted to work with other crystallographic equipment. Preliminary images have been acquired of cubic insulin at the NSLS x26c beam line. NSLS x26c was configured for unfocused monochromatic radiation. Six reflections were collected with stills spaced from 0.002 to 0.001 degrees apart across the entire oscillation range that the reflections were in diffracting condition. All of the reflections were rotated to the vertical to reduce Lorentz and beam related effects. This particular CCD is designed for short exposure applications (much less than 1 sec) and so has a relatively high dark current leading to noisy raw images. The images are processed to remove background and other system noise with a multi-step approach including the use of wavelets, histogram, and mean window filtering. After processing, animations were constructed with the corresponding reflection profile to show the diffraction of the crystal volume vs. the oscillation angle as well as composite images showing the parts of the crystal with the strongest diffraction for each reflection. The final goal is to correlate features seen in reflection profiles captured with fine phi slicing to those seen in the topography images. With this development macromolecular topography finally comes into the digital age.
Lovelace, J.; Bellamy, H.; Snell, E. H.; Borgstahl, G.
We characterize differences in radar-derived freeze/thaw state, examining transitions over complex terrain and landscape disturbance regimes. In areas of complex terrain, we explore freezekhaw dynamics related to elevation, slope aspect and varying landcover. In the burned regions, we explore the timing of seasonal freeze/thaw transition as related to the recovering landscape, relative to that of a nearby control site. We apply in situ biophysical measurements, including flux tower measurements to validate and interpret the remotely sensed parameters. A multi-scale analysis is performed relating high-resolution SAR backscatter and moderate resolution scatterometer measurements to assess trade-offs in spatial and temporal resolution in the remotely sensed fields.
Podest, Erika; McDonald, Kyle; Kimball, John; Randerson, James
Fault growth and propagation during incipient continental rifting: Insights from a combined aeromagnetic and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model investigation of the Okavango Rift Zone, northwest Botswana
Digital Elevation Models (DEM) extracted from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data and high-resolution aeromagnetic data are used to characterize the growth and propagation of faults associated with the early stages of continental extension in the Okavango Rift Zone (ORZ), northwest Botswana. Significant differences in the height of fault scarps and the throws across the faults in the basement indicate extended fault histories accompanied by sediment accumulation within the rift graben. Faults in the center of the rift either lack topographic expressions or are interpreted to have become inactive, or have large throws and small scarp heights indicating waning activity. Faults on the outer margins of the rift exhibit either (1) large throws or significant scarp heights and are considered older and active or (2) throws and scarp heights that are in closer agreement and are considered young and active. Fault linkages between major fault systems through a process of "fault piracy" have combined to establish an immature border fault for the ORZ. Thus, in addition to growing in length (by along-axis linkage of segments), the rift is also growing in width (by transferring motion to younger faults along the outer margins while abandoning older faults in the middle). Finally, utilization of preexisting zones of weakness allowed the development of very long faults (>100 km) at a very early stage of continental rifting, explaining the apparent paradox between the fault length versus throw for this young rift. This study clearly demonstrates that the integration of the SRTM DEM and aeromagnetic data provides a 3-D view of the faults and fault systems, providing new insight into fault growth and propagation during the nascent stages of continental rifting.
Kinabo, B. D.; Hogan, J. P.; Atekwana, E. A.; Abdelsalam, M. G.; Modisi, M. P.
Compact, highly customizable digital receivers are being developed for the system described in 'Radar Interferometer for Topographic Mapping of Glaciers and Ice Sheets' (NPO-43962), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 7 (August 2007), page 72. The receivers are required to operate in unison, sampling radar returns received by the antenna elements in a digital beam-forming (DBF) mode. The design of these receivers could also be adapted to commercial radar systems. At the time of reporting the information for this article, there were no commercially available digital receivers capable of satisfying all of the operational requirements and compact enough to be mounted directly on the antenna elements. A provided figure depicts the overall system of which the digital receivers are parts. Each digital receiver includes an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), a demultiplexer (DMUX), and a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The ADC effects 10-bit band-pass sampling of input signals having frequencies up to 3.5 GHz. The input samples are demultiplexed at a user-selectable rate of 1:2 or 1:4, then buffered in part of the FPGA that functions as a first-in/first-out (FIFO) memory. Another part of the FPGA serves as a controller for the ADC, DMUX, and FIFO memory and as an interface between (1) the rest of the receiver and (2) a front-panel data port (FPDP) bus, which is an industry-standard parallel data bus that has a high data-rate capability and multichannel configuration suitable for DBF. Still other parts of the FPGA in each receiver perform signal-processing functions. The digital receivers can be configured to operate in a stand-alone mode, or in a multichannel mode as needed for DBF. The customizability of the receiver makes it applicable to a broad range of system architectures. The capability for operation of receivers in either a stand-alone or a DBF mode enables the use of the receivers in an unprecedentedly wide variety of radar systems.
Moller, Delwyn; Heavey, Brandon; Sadowy, Gregory
[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for the animationAbout the animation: This simulated view of the potential effects of storm surge flooding on Lake Pontchartrain and the New Orleans area was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. Although it is protected by levees and sea walls against storm surges of 18 to 20 feet, much of the city is below sea level, and flooding due to storm surges caused by major hurricanes is a concern. The animation shows regions that, if unprotected, would be inundated with water. The animation depicts flooding in one-meter increments. About the image: The city of New Orleans, situated on the southern shore of Lake Pontchartrain, is shown in this radar image from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). In this image bright areas show regions of high radar reflectivity, such as from urban areas, and elevations have been coded in color using height data also from the SRTM mission. Dark green colors indicate low elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. New Orleans is near the center of this scene, between the lake and the Mississippi River. The line spanning the lake is the Lake Pontchartrain Causeway, the world's longest overwater highway bridge. Major portions of the city of New Orleans are actually below sea level, and although it is protected by levees and sea walls that are designed to protect against storm surges of 18 to 20 feet, flooding during storm surges associated with major hurricanes is a significant concern. Data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. Location: 30.2 degrees North latitude, 90.1 degrees East longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Size: 80.3 by 68.0 kilometers (49.9 by 42.3 miles) Image Data: Radar image and colored Shuttle Radar Topography Mission elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000
Ice sheet thickness is a fundamental measurement for understanding the dynamics of large ice sheets (terrestrial or extraterrestrial). Radar is the primary tool used to measure ice thickness but a major challenge is accurately measuring the arrival time of the basal echo in the presence of surface clutter, which may arise from processes such as wind driven deposition and erosion or crevassing. Essentially, the basal echo strength, which is weak because of attenuation through the ice, becomes comparable to the surface scattering signal even though the coincident surface return comes from a large, off-nadir angle. During the past 4 years, we explored three surface clutter rejection techniques and applied them to data collected with 150/450 MHz radars operated from aircraft over the Greenland Ice Sheet. We also investigated how the techniques could be used to go beyond nadir sounding of ice sheets and, when operated used with broad-beam antennas, could successfully acquire 3-dimensional intensity images of the ice sheet base. In this paper, we describe experiments to image the ice sheet base using: synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferogram filtering; SAR tomography; and beam steering. For the case of a broad beam antenna array, we show that interferograms filtering provides the highest quality topographic data from both the left and right sides of the aircraft but only under optimal conditions. We show that a beam-steering/radar tomography hybrid algorithm provides the most robust topography and also yields an intensity map. We provide example topographies for the base of the Greenland Ice Sheet and suggest how the approach could be used for future sounding of extraterrestrial ice. The research described in this paper was carried out by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a grant from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 3-d radar image of the base of the ice sheet. Scene is an orthorectified mosaic located just south of the main Jacobshavn Drainage Channel
Freeman, A.; Gogineni, P. S.; Jezek, K. C.; Rodriguez, E.; Wu, X.
Cassini RADAR data are used to construct a global, albeit sparsely-sampled, topography map, and to generate a hypsometric profile to compare with other planetary bodies. Titan’s hypsogram is unimodal and strikingly narrow compared with the terrestrial planets. To investigate topographic extremes, a novel variant on the classic hypsogram is introduced, with a logarithmic abscissa to highlight mountainous terrain. In such a plot, the top of the terrestrial hypsogram is quite distinct from those of Mars and Venus due to the ‘glacial buzz-saw’ that clips terrestrial topography above the snowline. In contrast to the positive skew seen in other hypsograms, with a long tail of positive relief due to mountains, there is an indication (weak, given the limited data for Titan so far) that the Titan hypsogram appears slightly negatively skewed, suggesting a significant population of unfilled depressions. Limited data permit only a simplistic comparison of Titan topography with other icy satellites but we find that the standard deviation of terrain height (albeit at different scales) is similar to those of Ganymede and Europa. The topography of terrestrial planets is sampled with the same coverage that we have for Titan to gauge what as-yet-undiscovered topographic surprises may yet be hidden by Titan’s haze.
Lorenz, R. D.; Cassini RADAR Team
One of the more vexing dilemmas for RADAR remote sensing is the necessity to choose between altimetry and SAR imaging of a surface. Coincident surface height estimates are very useful in aiding the analysis of the unique surface features observed in the SAR imagery of Titan. Radar altimetry is optimally obtained from nadir observations, whereas SAR requires off-nadir observation in order to construct an image. Co-located nadir altimetry and SAR only occur when observations taken at different times happen to overlap. Stereo techniques can also be used to estimate topography in SAR images, but they also require multiple overlapping observations. Here we discuss a technique, SARTopo, for obtaining 10 km horizontal resolution and 75 m vertical resolution surface height estimates along each SAR swath. The height estimates comprise 1-3 cuts in each SAR pass that are 10 km wide by thousands of km long and extend along the entire long dimension of the SAR image strips. Because we obtain co-located topography along each SAR pass rather than only in regions with overlapping observations, the new technique extends the area over which we have colocated topography and SAR imagery by a couple orders of magnitude. The method is based upon Amplitude Monopulse Comparison, a technique for resolving RADAR targets developed prior to the advent of SAR. The technique requires: 1) accurate spacecraft pointing, 2) accurate spacecraft ephemeris, 3) precise knowledge of the antenna pattern of the RADAR, and 4) downlinked echo data covering the entire antenna footprint. The fourth requirement is met through synergy with Cassini SAR coverage requirements. Cassini SAR commanding and pointing is designed to utilize as much of the antenna footprint as possible in order to maximize cross-track coverage. We describe the technique and present the results for several SAR passes. We validate the technique through comparison with known features such as mountain ranges and dry lakes, and by comparison with colocated nadir altimetry and SAR stereo. In particular, we examine a strip of nadir altimetry obtained along a 1000 km strip observed by SAR a month earlier. The SARTopo height track is within 5-10 km of the nadir altimetry track for a 200 km long section. In this area, the two independent techniques agree closely. Furthermore the region contains prominent high spatial resolution topography, so it provides an excellent test of the resolution and accuracy of both techniques. SARTopo heights are also co-located and agree well with SAR stereo observations. The research described here was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
Stiles, B. W.; Hensley, S.; Gim, Y.; Kirk, R. L.; Zebker, H. A.; Janssen, M. A.; Johnson, W. T.; West, R. D.
The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) flew aboard Space Shuttle Endeavor February 2000 and used interferometry to map 80% of the Earth's landmass. SRTM employed a 200-foot deployable mast structure to extend a second antenna away from the main antenna located in the Shuttle payload bay. Mapping requirements demanded precision pointing and orbital trajectories from the Shuttle on-orbit Flight Control System (PCS). Mast structural dynamics interaction with the FCS impacted stability and performance of the autopilot for attitude maneuvers and pointing during mapping operations. A damper system added to ensure that mast tip motion remained with in the limits of the outboard antenna tracking system while mapping also helped to mitigate structural dynamic interaction with the FCS autopilot. Late changes made to the payload damper system, which actually failed on-orbit, required a redesign and verification of the FCS autopilot filtering schemes necessary to ensure rotational control stability. In-flight measurements using three sensors were used to validate models and gauge the accuracy and robustness of the pre-mission notch filter design.
Hamelin, Jennifer L.; Jackson, Mark C.; Kirchwey, Christopher B.; Pileggi, Roberto A.
Arecibo lambda 13 cm radar spectra of the main belt asteroids 7 Iris, 9 Metis, 12 Victoria, 216 Kleopatra, and 654 Zelinda exhibit evidence for large-scale topography. These asteroids range in diameter from 113 to 200 km and include members of the S,C, and M classes. Radar.
Mitchell, D. L.; Ostro, S. J.; Rosma, K. D.; Campbell, D. B.; Chandler, J. F.; Shapiro, I. I.; Hudson, R. S.
are inferred from digital topography by an autonomous computer algorithm as drainage networks, instead of being. Slopes of ``streams'' in Martian valley networks decrease downstream at a slower rate than slopes resemblance gave rise to an early suggestion [Masursky, 1973; Milton, 1973] of a common origin of VNs
Stepinski, Tomasz F.
A topographic surface of a low lying coastal marsh was created by using three flood extent vectors digitized from ERS-1 SAR images and two elevation contours from U.S. Geological Survey topographic quadrangles. Point measurement of water depth at the times of the SAR collections allowed conversion of the radar measured flood extent vectors to topographic contours. Generation of the topographic surface was accomplished with a surface gridding algorithm, SAR and on-site measures. Errors in the generated topography were mainly associated with the lack of input contours covering narrow to broad plateaus and topographic highs and lows. The misplacement of SAR derived flood extent vectors also caused errors in sparsely vegetated high marsh, at convoluted marsh-forest boundaries, and at topographic depressions. Overall, the standard deviation of differences between measured and predicted elevations at 747 points was 19 cm. Excluding the above mentioned abrupt boundaries and topographic highs and lows outside the range of available contours, standard deviation differences averaged about 14 cm, but most often averaged about 8 cm. This suggested a 5 to 9 factor improvement over the 150 cm topographic resolution currently available for this area.
Ramsey, III, E. W.; Nelson, G. A.; Laine, S. C.; Kirkman, R. G.; Topham, W.
A topographic surface of a low lying coastal marsh was created by using three flood extent vectors digitized from ERS-1 SAR images and two elevation contours from U.S. Geological Survey topographic quadrangles. Point measurement of water depth at the times of the SAR collections allowed conversion of the radar measured flood extent vectors to topographic contours. Generation of the topographic surface was accomplished with a surface gridding algorithm. SAR and on-site measures. Errors in the generated topography were mainly associated with the lack of input contours covering narrow to broad plateaus and topographic highs and lows. The misplacement of SAR derived flood extent vectors also caused errors in sparsely vegetated high marsh at convoluted marsh-forest boundaries, and at topographic depressions. Overall, the standard deviation of differences between measured and predicted elevations at 747 points was 19 cm. Excluding the above mentioned abrupt boundaries and topographic highs and lows outside the range of available contours, standard deviation differences averaged about 14 cm, but most often averaged about 8 cm. This suggested a 5 to 9 factor improvement over the 150 cm topographic resolution currently available for this area.
Ramsey, III, E. W.; Nelson, G. A.; Laine, S. C.; Kirkman, R. G.; Topham, W.
A novel algorithm for three-dimensional (3-D) surface representation of the optic nerve head from digitized stereo fundus images has been developed. The 3-D digital mapping of the optic nerve head is achieved by fusion of stereo depth map of a fundus image pair with a linearly stretched intensity image of the fundus. The depth map is obtained from the disparities of the features in the stereo fundus image pair, computed by a combination of cepstral analysis and a correlation-like scanning technique in the spatial domain. At present, the visualization of the optic nerve head cupping in glaucoma is clinically achieved, in most cases, by stereoscopic viewing of a fundus image pair of the suspected eye. The quantitative representation of the optic nerve head surface topography following this algorithm is not computationally intensive and should provide more useful and reproducible information than just qualitative stereoscopic viewing of the fundus.
Mitra, Sunanda; Ramirez, M.; Morales, Jose
These four images of the Long Valley region of east-central California illustrate the steps required to produced three dimensional data and topographics maps from radar interferometry. All data displayed in these images were acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour during its two flights in April and October, 1994. The image in the upper left shows L-band (horizontally transmitted and received) SIR-C radar image data for an area 34 by 59 kilometers (21 by 37 miles). North is toward the upper right; the radar illumination is from the top of the image. The bright areas are hilly regions that contain exposed bedrock and pine forest. The darker gray areas are the relatively smooth, sparsely vegetated valley floors. The dark irregular patch near the lower left is Lake Crowley. The curving ridge that runs across the center of the image from top to bottom is the northeast rim of the Long Valley Caldera, a remnant crater from a massive volcanic eruption that occurred about 750,000 years ago. The image in the upper right is an interferogram of the same area, made by combining SIR-C L-band data from the April and October flights. The colors in this image represent the difference in the phase of the radar echoes obtained on the two flights. Variations in the phase difference are caused by elevation differences. Formation of continuous bands of phase differences, known as interferometric 'fringes', is only possible if the two observations were acquired from nearly the same position in space. For these April and October data takes, the shuttle tracks were less than 100 meters (328 feet) apart. The image in the lower left shows a topographic map derived from the interferometric data. The colors represent increments of elevation, as do the thin black contour lines, which are spaced at 50-meter (164-foot) elevation intervals. Heavy contour lines show 250-meter intervals (820-foot). Total relief in this area is about 1,320 meters (4,330 feet). Brightness variations come from the radar image, which has been geometrically corrected to remove radar distortions and rotated to have north toward the top. The image in the lower right is a three-dimensional perspective view of the northeast rim of the Long Valley caldera, looking toward the northwest. SIR-C C-band radar image data are draped over topographic data derived from the interferometry processing. No vertical exaggeration has been applied. Combining topographic and radar image data allows scientists to examine relationships between geologic structures and landforms, and other properties of the land cover, such as soil type, vegetation distribution and hydrologic characteristics. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.
A modified APQ-102 sidelooking radar collected synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data which was digitized and recorded on wideband magnetic tape. These tapes were then ground processed into computer compatible tapes (CCT's). The CCT's may then be processed into high resolution radar images by software on the CYBER computer.
Griffin, C. R.; Estes, J. M.
The discussed navigation update system was designed for an unmanned platform with fire and forget capability. It meets the requirement due to fully autonomous operation. The system concept will be characterized by complementary use of the radar seeker for target identification as well as for navigation function. The system works in the navigation mode during preprogrammable phases where the primary target identification function is not active or in parallel processing. The dual function radar seeker system navigates the drone during the midcourse and terminal phases of the mission. Its high resolution due to range measurement and doppler beam sharpening in context with its radar reflectivity sensing capability are the basis for topography referenced navigation computation. The detected height jumps (coming from terrain elevation and cultural objects) and radar reflectivity features will be matched together with topography referenced features. The database comprises elevation data and selected radar reflectivity features that are robust against seasonal influences. The operational benefits of the discussed system are as follows: (1) the improved navigation performance with high probability of position fixing, even over flat terrain; (2) the operation within higher altitudes; and (3) bad weather capability. The developed software modules were verified with captive flight test data running in a hardware-in-the-loop simulation.
Lerche, H. D.; Tumbreagel, F.
Earth-based radar altimetry data for the northern equatorial belt of Mars (6 deg S-23 deg N) have recently been reduced to a common basis corresponding to the 6.1-mbar reference surface. A first look at these data indicates that the elevations of Tharsis, Elysium, and Lunae Planum are lower (by 2-5 km) than has been suggested by previous estimates. These differences show that the required amount of tectonic uplift (or constructional volcanism) for each area is less than has been previously envisioned. Atmospheric or surficial conditions are suggested which may explain the discrepancies between the radar topography and elevations measured by other techniques. The topographies of Chryse Planitia, Syrtis Major, and Valles Marineris are also described.
Downs, G. S.; Thompson, T. W.; Mouginis-Mark, P. J.; Zisk, S. H.
Digital image transformation and rectification can be described in three categories: (1) digital rectification of spacecraft pictures on workable stereoplotters; (2) digital correction of radar image geometry; and (3) digital reconstruction of shaded relief maps and perspective views including stereograms. Digital rectification can make high-oblique pictures workable on stereoplotters that would otherwise not accommodate such extreme tilt angles. It also enables panoramic line-scan geometry to be used to compile contour maps with photogrammetric plotters. Rectifications were digitally processed on both Viking Orbiter and Lander pictures of Mars as well as radar images taken by various radar systems. By merging digital terrain data with image data, perspective and three-dimensional views of Olympus Mons and Tithonium Chasma, also of Mars, are reconstructed through digital image processing. ?? 1985.
Wu, S. S. C.
The estimation of the mass balance of ice sheets and glaciers on Earth is a problem of considerable scientific and societal importance. The Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets together hold enough ice to raise global sea level by 80 m. The annual exchange of mass on the ice sheets is equivalent to 8mm/yr sea level, so that any fluctuation in that level of exchange is significant on the global scale. A key measurement to understanding, monitoring and forecasting these changes is ice-surface topography, both for ice-sheet and glacial regions. As such NASA identified "ice topographic mapping instruments capable of providing precise elevation and detailed imagery data for measurements on glacial scales for detailed monitoring of ice sheet, and glacier changes" as a science priority for the most recent ESTO- Instrument Incubator Program (IIP) opportunities. Funded under this opportunity is the technological development for a Ka-Band (35GHz) single-pass digitally beamformed interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR). Unique to this concept is the ability to map a significant swath impervious of cloud cover with measurement accuracies comparable to lidar altimeters but with variable resolution as appropriate to the differing scales-of-interest over ice-sheets and glaciers. By diverging from the more traditional profiling measurements employed to date (ie radar altimeters and lidars) we are able to offer the potential to significantly advance the spaciotemporal observational capabilities of both ice sheets and glaciers. Dubbed the Glacier and Land Ice Surface Topography Interferometer (GLISTIN), the instrument and mission presents several significant challenges. In particular, under the IIP program we are designing, building and demonstrating a large Ka-band antenna array with integrated digital receivers and utilizing digital beamforming to preserve both antenna gain and swath. These technology items will ultimately be integrated into a complete interferometric ground-based system and demonstrated from the local JPL mesa antenna range. While the demonstration addresses the key technology hurdles, an additional component to this program is to address the systematic and geophysical calibration issues that will arise for a dedicated mission of this type. We discuss our proposed calibration methodology and present several of the critical issues, including correction of systematic errors and surface and volume decorrelation effects. We conclude with a discussion of the impact of snow penetration on the height measurements, and discuss a proposed campaign to field a Ka-band interferometric synthetic aperture radar based on the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's new "UAVSAR" platform.
Moller, D. K.; Aaron, K.; Gim, Y.; Heavey, B.; Hodges, R.; Nicolson, A.; Rengarajan, S.; Rignot, E.; Rogez, F.; Sadowy, G.; Simard, M.; Zawadzki, M.
The Digital Beamforming Synthetic Aperture radar (DBSAR) is a state-of-the-art airborne radar developed at NASA/Goddard for the implementation, and testing of digital beamforming techniques applicable to Earth and planetary sciences. The DBSAR measurements have been employed to study: The estimation of vegetation biomass and structure - critical parameters in the study of the carbon cycle; The measurement of geological features - to explore its applicability to planetary science by measuring planetary analogue targets. The instrument flew two test campaigns over the East coast of the United States in 2011, and 2012. During the campaigns the instrument operated in full polarimetric mode collecting data from vegetation and topography features.
Rincon, Rafael F.; Fatoyinbo, Temilola; Carter, Lynn; Ranson, K. Jon; Vega, Manuel; Osmanoglu, Batuhan; Lee, SeungKuk; Sun, Guoqing
The design challenges associated with the development of the antenna array for a highly-integrated, low-cost, panelized radar system have been presented, and the methodology for the development of a digital array radar (DAR) antenna panel has been detailed. Now that a solution for the maximization of scan range in in the DAR antenna panel has been identified, the next step
C. Fulton; W. Chappell
The AN\\/TPQ-39(V) Digital Instrumentation Radar (DIR) is a modern versatile radar which meets many of the short-range requirements of test ranges. It is a transportable instrument designed for flexibility, low cost, and moderate accuracy. It makes use of a general-purpose digital computer with the objective of minimizing hardware and maximizing reliability and flexibility. The system was designed to accept a
L. E. Kitchens; D. N. Thomson
AN AIRBORNE DIGITAL PROCESSOR FOR RADAR SCATTEROMETER DATA A Thesis by DAVID STEVEN YEADON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1977... Major Subject: Electrical Engineering AN AIRBORNE DIGITAL PROCESSOR FOR RADAR SCATTEROMETER DATA A Thesis by DAVID STEVEN YEADON Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman o Committee) Head of epartment) ( (Member ) (Member) August 1977...
Yeadon, David Steven
TORNADO IDENTIFICATION FROM ANALYSES OF DIGITAL RADAR DATA A Thesis by DONALD NAYNE PITTMAN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM Onion nsity in Partial fulfillment of the requirement for the d=gr e of MASTFR OF SCIENCE December... 1976 Major Subject: Meteorology TORNADO IDENTIFICATION FROM ANALYSES OF DIGITAL RADAR DATA A Thesis by DONALD WAYNE PITTMAN Approved as to sty1e and content by: , Chair, an of Committe C! (Head of Department M"mber Member December 19. 6...
Pittman, Donald Wayne
. S. , Texas A&M University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Aylmer H. Thompson Three-dimensional (3-D) digital 10-cm radar data and digital GOES infrared ( IR) data for a 3-h period during a Southeast Texas squall line were examined. The radar... for 0300 GMT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Schematic time cross-section through an Oklahoma squall line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 29 Hodograph of pre-squall environment 69 30 PVAZ2 map for Scan 5NW, 0115 GMT, and IR...
McAnelly, Ray Lewis
The estimation of the mass balance of ice sheets and glaciers on Earth is a problem of considerable scientific and societal importance. A key measurement to understanding, monitoring and forecasting these changes is ice-surface topography, both for ice-sheet and glacial regions. As such NASA identified 'ice topographic mapping instruments capable of providing precise elevation and detailed imagery data for measurements on glacial scales for detailed monitoring of ice sheet, and glacier changes' as a science priority for the most recent Instrument Incubator Program (IIP) opportunities. Funded under this opportunity is the technological development for a Ka-Band (35GHz) single-pass digitally beamformed interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR). Unique to this concept is the ability to map a significant swath impervious of cloud cover with measurement accuracies comparable to laser altimeters but with variable resolution as appropriate to the differing scales-of-interest over ice-sheets and glaciers.
Moller, Delwyn K.; Heavey, Brandon; Hodges, Richard; Rengarajan, Sembiam; Rignot, Eric; Rogez, Francois; Sadowy, Gregory; Simard, Marc; Zawadzki, Mark
data transfer is one such real-time application that will tap the Next Generation Internet technology reality, desktop video, CAD/CAM design, and satellite image transfer. Gigabit- networking technologyGigabit Networking: Digitized Radar Data Transfer and Beyond Sangeetha L. Bangolae, Anura P
Jayasumana, Anura P.
74. Transmitter building no. 102, view of radar digital test and maintenance cabinet area control panel and date storage system showing ampex tape storage devices. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK
Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images are currently widely used in target recognition tasks. In this work, we propose an automatic approach for radar shadow detection and extraction from SAR images utilizing geometric projections along with the digital elevation model (DEM), which corresponds to the given georeferenced SAR image. First, the DEM is rotated into the radar geometry, so that each row would match that of a radar line of sight. Next, we extract the shadow regions by processing row by row until the image is covered fully. We test the proposed shadow detection approach on different DEMs and simulated one-dimensional signals and two-dimensional hills and valleys modeled by various variance-based Gaussian functions. Experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm produces good results in detecting shadows in SAR images with high resolution.
Prasath, V. B. Surya; Haddad, Oussama
Atmospheric delay is one of the major sources of error in repeat pass interferometry. We propose a new approach for correcting the topography-correlated components of this artifact. To this aim we use multiresolution wavelet analysis to identify the components of the unwrapped interferogram that correlate with topography. By using a forward wavelet transform we break down the digital elevation model and the unwrapped interferogram into their building blocks based on their frequency properties. We apply a cross-correlation analysis to identify correlated coefficients that represent the effect of the atmospheric delay. Thus, the correction to the unwrapped interferogram is obtained by down-weighting the correlated coefficients during inverse wavelet transform. We test this approach on real and synthetic data sets that are generated over the San Francisco Bay Area. We find that even in the presence of tectonic signals, this method is able to reduce the correlated component of the atmospheric delay by up to 75% and improves the signal in areas of high relief. The remaining part is most likely due to 3D heterogeneities of the atmosphere and can be reduced by integrating temporal information or using complementary observations or models of atmospheric delay.
Shirzaei, M.; Bürgmann, R.
The authors propose, based on reconnaissance geology studies and interpretation of landforms as depicted by Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images combined with digitized topography, that the Quezaltenango basin of Guatemala is part of a caldera. The Quezaltenango basin is an elliptical depression, about 12 by 25 km and about 500 m deep. The proposed Xela Caldera extends beyond the basin
D. Foley; A. McEwen; W. Duffield; G. Heiken
In this dissertation, two methods for estimating tree height using Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and ancillary data are developed and tested. Since the SRTM data set is near-global, the methods developed could be applied to large portions of the world, although the scale-up process is beyond the scope of this work. Previous tree height estimation algorithms have been confined to much smaller data sets. Development of the methods began with validation of the SRTM height data for selected test areas in Southeastern Michigan. Validation statistically characterized the noise in the SRTM height data. The next stage in the development of the first tree height estimation algorithm was the construction of a simplified forward model to relate the observed SRTM data to tree heights, which model relied on a forward model specific to the red pine tree structure. The simplified model was inverted using standard methods to yield tree height as a function of SRTM data. The second algorithm was much more general, not requiring a structure-specific forward model. The resulting tree height estimation algorithm were tested on actual and simulated SRTM data. The simulated data was produced by a simulator from the literature. Two SAR/INSAR simulators, one high-resolution and the other low-resolution, were also developed as a part of this work. Simulated images from the low-resolution simulator were used as an input to further test the first tree height estimation algorithm.
Brown, Charles Gordon
Recent studies indicate the significance of quantitative representation of surface topography for monitoring changes in geological surfaces, in particular, the polar ice sheets. At present, digital data from different sensors such as synthetic aperture radar (SAR), laser and radar altimeters, and multispectral scanners (MSS) are used to analyze hydrologic and topographic information indicative of the geographic diversity. There are fundamental limitations, however, inherent in obtaining detailed and accurate constructions of irregular and sloping surfaces from a single sensor. Integration of information from multiple sensors provides a better representation of geologic surface variation. Thus an integrated approach to recovery of three-dimensional surface topography from range maps and intensity data is proposed. This integrated approach to a 3-D surface slope recovery involves cepstral registration, quadratic interpolation, and a new approach to combine range and intensity digital data by histogram modification and a linear stretch of intensity data prior to overlaying on the range map. The proposed algorithm retains the features in the intensity map without adding false depth to the reconstructed surface. The proposed work will apply the surface slope recovery methodology with minimized error to digital fusion of range maps and SAR/Multispectral satellite imagery.
Mitra, Sunanda; Kher, Alok; Ramirez, Manuel
One of the most striking features of the Himalayan eastern syntaxis, Tibet, is the Tsangpo River Gorge, whose erosive power has created over 7000 m of local relief in the region of Namche Barwa. The erosion rate at Namche Barwa is rapid relative to other parts of the Himalaya, and the geodynamic/surface interaction is hypothesized to be very similar to the tectonic aneurism identified in the western syntaxis (Nanga Parbat and the Indus River, Pakistan) by Zeitler et al. (2001). Although the Namche Barwa is rapidly eroding, most of the active faults that accommodate exhumation have not been mapped. Based on the hypothesis that underlying tectonic processes are recorded in distinct topographic signatures, this study utilizes the NASA seamless Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation model (DEM) in conjunction with seismicity and field mapping to identify potential locations of active faults in this rapidly-eroding region for further field investigation. This type of calibration of remote-sensed DEM and TM (ETM+) data with field mapping and seismicity can by applied to identify active faults in other regions, such as the politically- and geographically-restricted southeastern portion of Namche Barwa or other remote sites on Earth, a critical first step in forming topographic descriptions that can determine where and how the landscape is responding to underlying geodynamic processes. Globally, unprecedented opportunities for remote studies of topography will arise as more 90-m SRTM and data of similar resolution are released, and it is timely to further characterize their uses and limits.
Ault, A. L.; Meltzer, A. S.; Kidd, W. S.
In this paper, we describe a new digital receiver developed for a 1.3-GHz range imaging atmospheric radar. The digital receiver comprises a general-purpose software-defined radio receiver referred to as the Universal Software Radio Peripheral 2 (USRP2) and a commercial personal computer (PC). The receiver is designed to collect received signals at an intermediate frequency (IF) of 130 MHz with a sample rate of 10 MS s-1. The USRP2 digitizes IF received signals, produces IQ time series, and then transfers the IQ time series to the PC through Gigabit Ethernet. The PC receives the IQ time series, performs range sampling, carries out filtering in the range direction, decodes the phase-modulated received signals, integrates the received signals in time, and finally saves the processed data to the hard disk drive (HDD). Because only sequential data transfer from the USRP2 to the PC is available, the range sampling is triggered by transmitted pulses leaked to the receiver. For range imaging, the digital receiver performs real-time signal processing for each of the time series collected at different frequencies. Further, the receiver is able to decode phase-modulated oversampled signals. Because the program code for real-time signal processing is written in a popular programming language (C++) and widely used libraries, the signal processing is easy to implement, reconfigure, and reuse. From radar experiments using a 1-?s subpulse width and 1-MHz frequency span (i.e., 2-MHz frequency bandwidth), we demonstrate that range imaging in combination with oversampling, which was implemented for the first time by the digital receiver, is able to resolve the fine-scale structure of turbulence with a vertical scale as small as 100 m or finer.
Yamamoto, Masayuki K.; Fujita, Toshiyuki; Abdul Aziz, Noor Hafizah Binti; Gan, Tong; Hashiguchi, Hiroyuki; Yu, Tian-You; Yamamoto, Mamoru
Central Luzon Island (13-16°N, 120-122°E), which is bounded to the east by Philippine Trench, to the west by Manila Trench, to the north by Digdig-Dingalan Fault (DDF) and to the south by Verde Island Passage Fault (VIPF), is one of the most seismically and volcanologically active regions in the Philippines. Active seismicity and violent earthquakes in the region are evidently related to the activities along the subduction zones and branches of the Philippine Fault system. Volcanic eruptions and periodic swarms of volcanic earthquakes were also observed in three active volcanoes, i.e., Pinatubo, Taal Volcano Island and Banahaw, while young calderas of Taal and Laguna de Bay are demonstrably fault-bounded. We use the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data with 90 m spatial resolution to conduct regional mapping of the faults and volcanic structures in this region. Of particular interests are the NE-SW set of normal faults within the Macolod Corridor, the right-lateral Marikina Valley Fault System (MVFS), the prevalence of N-S trending structures and the series of NW-SE structures that parallel to sub-parallel the active branches of the Philippine Fault. Using ENVI software package, we processed the SRTM data into shaded relief images and examined the lineament features from different azimuth directions and angles of artificial illumination. The prominent NW-SE structures in this area revealed by SRTM data were formed as sinistral shears that parallel the seismically active DDF and VIPF. The N-S trending structures, including some segments of MVFS and N-S oriented fold axes, were apparently generated by an earlier E-W compression, but recently displayed dextral movement with localized vertical component and pull-apart zones. The overprinting of recent fault kinematics on previously formed structures suggest a dramatic shift of regional stress distribution in Central Luzon. The dextral movement along MVFS and the extensional NE-SW faults within the Macolod Corridor are consistent with the regional deformation due to coupling of DDF and VIPF movements. Similarly, the E-W to ENE-WSW and N-S to NNE-SSW structures probably formed as Riedel and anti-Riedel shears.
Torres, R.; Mouginis-Mark, P.; Garbeil, H.; Bautista, L.; Ramos, E.
We have used a three-dimensional elastic finite element model to examine the effects of topography on the surface deformation predicted by models of magma chamber deflation. We used the topography of Mt. Etna to control the geometry of our model, and compared the finite element results to those predicted by an analytical solution for a pressurized sphere in an elastic
Charles A. Williams; Geoff Wadge
In this paper, we demonstrate artificial neural networks—self-organizing map (SOM)—as a semi-automatic method for extraction and analysis of landscape elements in the man and biosphere reserve "Eastern Carpathians". The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) collected data to produce generally available digital elevation models (DEM). Together with Landsat Thematic Mapper data, this provides a unique, consistent and nearly worldwide data set. To integrate the DEM with Landsat data, it was re-projected from geographic coordinates to UTM with 28.5 m spatial resolution using cubic convolution interpolation. To provide quantitative morphometric parameters, first-order (slope) and second-order derivatives of the DEM—minimum curvature, maximum curvature and cross-sectional curvature—were calculated by fitting a bivariate quadratic surface with a window size of 9×9 pixels. These surface curvatures are strongly related to landform features and geomorphological processes. Four morphometric parameters and seven Landsat-enhanced thematic mapper (ETM+) bands were used as input for the SOM algorithm. Once the network weights have been randomly initialized, different learning parameter sets, e.g. initial radius, final radius and number of iterations, were investigated. An optimal SOM with 20 classes using 1000 iterations and a final neighborhood radius of 0.05 provided a low average quantization error of 0.3394 and was used for further analysis. The effect of randomization of initial weights for optimal SOM was also studied. Feature space analysis, three-dimensional inspection and auxiliary data facilitated the assignment of semantic meaning to the output classes in terms of landform, based on morphometric analysis, and land use, based on spectral properties. Results were displayed as thematic map of landscape elements according to form, cover and slope. Spectral and morphometric signature analysis with corresponding zoom samples superimposed by contour lines were compared in detail to clarify the role of morphometric parameters to separate landscape elements. The results revealed the efficiency of SOM to integrate SRTM and Landsat data in landscape analysis. Despite the stochastic nature of SOM, the results in this particular study are not sensitive to randomization of initial weight vectors if many iterations are used. This procedure is reproducible for the same application with consistent results.
Ehsani, Amir Houshang; Quiel, Friedrich
of meteorological data and the proliferation of interactive systems The citations on the following pages follow the style of the J 1 f A~li d M~tl designed to display and compare fields of satellite, digital radar, and conventional surface and upper-air data... on TIROS 9 imagery, shipborne and shore- based radar data, and surface and upper-air data. Yonder Haar (1969) employed data from the geostationary satel- lites ATS 1 (Applications Technology Satellite 1) and ATS 3 in a study of reflected radiance...
Henderson, Rodney Stuart
The central objective of this project has been the development of geostatistical methods fro mapping elevation and ice surface characteristics from satellite radar altimeter (RA) and Syntheitc Aperture Radar (SAR) data. The main results are an Atlas of elevation maps of Antarctica, from GEOSAT RA data and an Atlas from ERS-1 RA data, including a total of about 200 maps with 3 km grid resolution. Maps and digital terrain models are applied to monitor and study changes in Antarctic ice streams and glaciers, including Lambert Glacier/Amery Ice Shelf, Mertz and Ninnis Glaciers, Jutulstraumen Glacier, Fimbul Ice Shelf, Slessor Glacier, Williamson Glacier and others.
Herzfeld, Ute C.
OpenTopography is a cyberinfrastructure-based facility for online access to high-resolution topography and tools. The project is an outcome of the Geosciences Network (GEON) project, which was a research project funded several years ago in the US to investigate the use of cyberinfrastructure to support research and education in the geosciences. OpenTopography provides online access to large LiDAR point cloud datasets along with services for processing these data. Users are able to generate custom DEMs by invoking DEM services provided by OpenTopography with custom parameter values. Users can track the progress of their jobs, and a private myOpenTopo area retains job information and job outputs. Data available at OpenTopography are provided by a variety of data acquisition groups under joint agreements and memoranda of understanding (MoU). These include national facilities such as the National Center for Airborne Lidar Mapping, as well as local, state, and federal agencies. OpenTopography is also being designed as a hub for high-resolution topography resources. Datasets and services available at other locations can also be registered here, providing a "one-stop shop" for such information. We will describe the OpenTopography system architecture and its current set of features, including the service-oriented architecture, a job-tracking database, and social networking features. We will also describe several design and development activities underway to archive and publish datasets using digital object identifiers (DOIs); create a more flexible and scalable high-performance environment for processing of large datasets; extend support for satellite-based and terrestrial lidar as well as synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data; and create a "pluggable" infrastructure for third-party services. OpenTopography has successfully created a facility for sharing lidar data. In the next phase, we are developing a facility that will also enable equally easy and successful sharing of services related to these data.
Baru, C.; Arrowsmith, R.; Crosby, C.; Nandigam, V.; Phan, M.; Cowart, C.
Assessment of actual detection capabilities obtained with high frequency surface wave radar (HFSWR) is a key issue for the global surveillance of the exclusive economic zone (EEZ). ONERA (The French Aerospace Lab) has just finished a ten month trial cycle of its new full digital HFSWR system. This system uses digital signal generation, digital receivers, high computational power workstations and
M. Menelle; G. Auffray; F. Jangal
The coming opportunity to extract quantitative sea ice data from routine synthetic aperture radar imagery requires the development of automated image processing techniques. An algorithm is described for measuring the opening and the closing of leads by comparing two sequential synthetic aperture radar (SAR) digital images. The pair of images is classified into leads and ice, correcting for variation in
M. Fily; D. A. Rothrock
This paper introduces the innovative concept of multidimensional waveform encoding for spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR). The combination of this technique with digital beamforming on receive enables a new generation of SAR systems with improved performance and flexible imaging capabilities. Examples are high-resolution wide-swath radar imaging with compact antennas, enhanced sensitivity for applications like alongtrack interferometry and moving object indication,
Gerhard Krieger; Nicolas Gebert; Alberto Moreira
When estimating elevation changes of ice-covered surfaces from radar altimetry, it is important to correct for slope-induced errors. They cause the reflecting point of the pulse to move up-slope and thus return estimates in the wrong coordinates. Slope-induced errors can be corrected for by introducing a Digital Elevation Model (DEM). In this work, such a DEM is developed for the Greenland Ice Sheet using a combination of Envisat radar and ICESat laser altimetry. If time permits, CryoSat radar altimetry will be included as well. The reference year is 2010 and the spatial resolution 2.5 x 2.5 km. This is in accordance with the results obtained in the ESA Ice Sheets CCI project showing that a 5 x 5 km grid spacing is reasonable for ice sheet-wide change detection (Levinsen et al., 2013). Separate DEMs will be created for the given data sets, and the geostatistical spatial interpolation method collocation will be used to merge them, thus adjusting for potential inter-satellite biases. The final DEM is validated with temporally and spatially agreeing airborne lidar data acquired in the NASA IceBridge and ESA CryoVex campaigns. The motivation for developing a new DEM is based on 1) large surface changes presently being observed, and mainly in margin regions, hence necessitating updated topography maps for accurately deriving and correcting surface elevation changes, and 2) although radar altimetry is subject to surface penetration of the signal into the snowpack, data is acquired continuously in time. This is not the case with e.g. ICESat, where laser altimetry data were obtained in periods of active lasers, i.e. three times a year with a 35-day repeat track. Previous DEMs e.g. have 2007 as the nominal reference year, or they are built merely from ICESat data. These have elevation errors as small as 10 cm, which is lower than for Envisat and CryoSat. The advantage of an updated DEM consisting of combined radar and laser altimetry therefore is the possibility of achieving a high spatial and temporal coverage, as well as the opportunity to continuously map surface changes relative to an updated topography and slopes. References: Levinsen, J. F., Khvorostovsky, K., Ticconi, F., Shepherd, A., Forsberg, R., Sørensen, L. S., Muir, A., Pie, N., Felikson, D., Flament, T., Hurkmans, R., Moholdt, G., Gunter, B., Lindenbergh, R. C., and Kleinherenbrink, M.: ESA's Ice Sheets CCI: validation and inter-comparison of surface elevation changes derived from laser and radar altimetry over Jakobshavn Isbræ, Greenland - Round Robin results, The Cryosphere Discuss., 7, 5433-5460, 2013.
Fredenslund Levinsen, Joanna; Smith, Ben; Sørensen, Louise S.; Forsberg, René
compared to rainfall values estimated from 0-deg and tilt, digital-radar data for April 26 and 27, 1972. . 83 xi LIST OF TABLES (CONTINfJED) Table Page Comparison of observed surface runoff and that computed by using the NWS API program with ARS... from 0-deg radar data between 2000-2100 CST, May 31, 1971 79 xiv LIST OF FIGURES (CONTINUED) Figure Page 25. Isohytal map (in inches) for rainfall estimated from tilt, digital-radar between 2000-2100 CST, May 31, 1971 80 26. Surface weather map...
Braatz, Dean Thomas
A modified APQ-102 sidelooking array radar (SLAR) in a B-57 aircraft test bed is used, with other optical and infrared sensors, in remote sensing of Earth surface features for various users at NASA Johnson Space Center. The video from the radar is normally recorded on photographic film and subsequently processed photographically into high resolution radar images. Using a high speed sampling (digitizing) system, the two receiver channels of cross-and co-polarized video are recorded on wideband magnetic tape along with radar and platform parameters. These data are subsequently reformatted and processed into digital synthetic aperture radar images with the image data available on magnetic tape for subsequent analysis by investigators. The system design and results obtained are described.
Griffin, C. R.; Estes, J. M.
The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), scheduled for an 11 day Space Shuttle flight in 1999, will use an Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar instrument to produce a near-global digital elevation map of the earth's land surface with 16 m absolute vertical height accuracy at 30 meter postings. SRTM will achieve the required interferometric baseline by extending a receive-only radar antenna
Riley M. Duren; Ed Wong; Bill Breckenridge; Scott Shaffer; Courtney Duncan; Eldred F. Tubbs; Phil M. Salomon
A study was carried out to investigate the evolution of thunderstorms with short-interval (5 min) geosynchronous digital satellite data and with digital radar data (12 min interval) in order to determine the potential and limitations of using the satellite data to detect regions of heavy convective precipitation. Initial results indicate that satellite-based estimates of thunderstorm updraft intensity are related to storm precipitation rate as indicated in the digital radar data. The conclusions give support to the effort to use satellite data for detection of heavy convective precipitation, but emphasize the need for high time resolution (5 min) data.
Negri, A. J.; Adler, R. F.
Surface elevation maps of the southern half of the Greenland subcontinent are produced from radar altimeter data acquired by the Seasat satellite. A summary of the processing procedure and examples of return waveform data are given. The elevation data are used to generate a regular grid which is then computer contoured to provide an elevation contour map. Ancillary maps show the statistical quality of the elevation data and various characteristics of the surface. The elevation map is used to define ice flow directions and delineate the major drainage basins. Regular maps of the Jakobshavns Glacier drainage basin and the ice divide in the vicinity of Crete Station are presented. Altimeter derived elevations are compared with elevations measured both by satellite geoceivers and optical surveying.
Bindschadler, Robert A.; Zwally, H. Jay; Major, Judith A.; Brenner, Anita C.
Both quasi-stationary and dynamic departures from the marine geoid were successfully detected using altitude measurements from the GEOS-3 radar altimeter. The quasi-stationary departures are observed either as elevation changes in single pass profiles across the Gulf Stream or at the crowding of contour lines at the western and northern areas of topographic maps generated using altimeter data spanning one month or longer. Dynamic features such as current meandering and spawned eddies can be monitored by comparing monthly mean maps. Comparison of altimeter inferred eddies with IR detected thermal rings indicates agreement of the two techniques. Estimates of current velocity are made using derived slope estimates in conjunction with the geostrophic equation.
Leitao, C. D.; Huang, N. E.; Parra, C. G.
Cassini RADAR has returned high resolution stereo images of dozens of areas on Titan. Digital topography extracted from the images provides new insight into lakes, dunes, mountains, flows, and other features including the enigmatic Ganesa Macula.
R. L. Kirk; E. Howington-Kraus; B. L. Redding; T. L. Becker; E. M. Lee; B. W. Stiles; S. Hensley; A. G. Hayes; R. M. C. Lopes; R. D. Lorenz; K. L. Mitchell; J. Radebaugh; F. Paganelli; L. A. Soderblom; E. R. Stofan; C. A. Wood; S. D. Wall
We present the results of the 2009-2010 airborne L-band radar and lidar campaigns in boreal, temperate and tropical forests. The main objective is to improve canopy height and biomass retrieval from radar data both radiometrically and interferometrically. To achieve this, we assessed and designed models to compensate for the impact of terrain topography and temporal decorrelation on the radar data. The UAVSAR is an L-band radar capable of repeat-pass interferometry producing fully polarimetric images with a spatial resolution of 5m. The LVIS system is a laser altimeter providing a spatially dense sampling of full waveforms. The lidar data is used to determine radar scattering model parameters as well as validate model predictions. During the campaigns, we also collected weather as well as forest structure data in a total of 95 plots. First, we present science-ready UAVSAR datasets that are radiometrically corrected for terrain topography and vegetation reflectivity pattern. This is a critical step before accurate estimation of forest parameters. We implemented a generic and homomorphic transform that can also handle UAVSAR’s antenna steering capabilities which otherwise introduce significant distortions of the image radiometry. We show results obtained from the radiometric calibration. The improvements on the biomass retrieval are significant. Another method to estimate forest 3D structure is polarimetric interferometry (polinSAR). However, since UAVSAR is a repeat-pass interferometric system, changes in forest canopy between radar acquisitions tend to decorrelate successive images. To quantify temporal decorrelation, we collected four radar datasets within a period of 11 days. The data enabled quantification of the temporal decorrelation and its relationship to weather patterns. To compensate for temporal decorrelation, we developed a polinSAR inversion model that account for the target changes. The canopy height inversion is demonstrated through a forward model based on radar observations. The impact of terrain topography on the radar radiometry can be corrected and is required for any retrieval of forest biomass. The use of a generic radiometric correction for the canopy’s reflectivity pattern is sufficient, but prior knowledge of the forest type is important. We have made great progress in the systematic implementation of temporal decorrelation into polinSAR canopy height model. However, the knowledge of environmental variables is found to have the significant impact on our ability to retrieve canopy structure.
Simard, M.; Lavalle, M.; Riel, B. V.; Pinto, N.; Dubayah, R.; Hensley, S.; Calderhead, A. I.
Although not the pervasive agent of resurfacing in the Outer Solar System that it was once thought to be, cryovolcanism, the eruption of low-temperature fluids from the interior of icy worlds, appears to be an important phenomenon on several bodies. One of the icy worlds purported to be cryovolcanically active is Titan; its rich atmosphere contains non-primordial isotopic signatures and a methane abundance that cannot be sustained without active outgassing, and the presence of a subsurface ocean at depth provides a source for such materials. The dominant paradigm on Titan for many years has been one of a cryovolcanically resurfaced world with a magmatic chemistry that is principally ammonia-water. Owing to this, and the uniquely (for an icy world) high atmospheric pressure which suppresses explosivity, effusive eruptions with complex rheologies are expected, possibly akin to terrestrial basaltic eruptions, feeding flows and possibly domes. Cassini has observed several features proposed as cryovolcanic in origin on the basis of morphological consistency with expectations. However, an alternative paradigm of an endogenically-dead Titan has emerged recently, arguing for a crustal origin of atmosphere species, and suggesting that alternative exogenic (primarily erosional and fluvial) processes should be considered for most surface features. We present a critical re-assessment of interpretations of cryovolcanic landforms in the context of this new paradigm, on the basis of additional imagery and new topographic data. Some, such as Ganesa Macula and Tortola Facula, are no longer considered potential cryovolcanoes, mostly because the more recently measured topography contradicts the morphological inferences used as a basis for interpretation. However, observations of ˜200 m thick lobate forms in two locations, Hotei and Sotra, strengthen earlier cryovolcanic interpretations.
Mitchell, Karl L.; Kirk, R. L.; Lopes, R. M. C.; Radebaugh, J.; Lorenz, R. D.; Cassini RADAR Team
The Space Based Radar (SBR) program includes a joint technology demonstration between NASA and the Air Force to design a low-earth orbiting, 2×50 m L-band (1.26 GHz) radar system for Earth science and intelligence-related observations. A key subsystem aboard SBR is the electronically-steerable digital beamformer (DBF) network that interfaces between 32 smaller subantenna panels in the array and the on-board
Mark A. Fischman; Charles Le
Elevation models produced from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data will be the most comprehensive, consistently processed, highest resolution topographic dataset ever produced for the Earth's land surface. Many applications that currently use elevation data will benefit from the increased availability of data with higher accuracy, quality, and resolution, especially in poorly mapped areas of the globe. SRTM data will be produced as seamless data, thereby avoiding many of the problems inherent in existing multi-source topographic databases. Serving as precursors to SRTM datasets, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has produced and is distributing seamless elevation datasets that facilitate scientific use of elevation data over large areas. GTOPO30 is a global elevation model with a 30 arc-second resolution (approximately 1-kilometer). The National Elevation Dataset (NED) covers the United States at a resolution of 1 arc-second (approximately 30-meters). Due to their seamless format and broad area coverage, both GTOPO30 and NED represent an advance in the usability of elevation data, but each still includes artifacts from the highly variable source data used to produce them. The consistent source data and processing approach for SRTM data will result in elevation products that will be a significant addition to the current availability of seamless datasets, specifically for many areas outside the U.S. One application that demonstrates some advantages that may be realized with SRTM data is delineation of land surface drainage features (watersheds and stream channels). Seamless distribution of elevation data in which a user interactively specifies the area of interest and order parameters via a map server is already being successfully demonstrated with existing USGS datasets. Such an approach for distributing SRTM data is ideal for a dataset that undoubtedly will be of very high interest to the spatial data user community.
Gesch, D.; Williams, J.; Miller, W.
The authors propose, based on reconnaissance geology studies and interpretation of landforms as depicted by Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images combined with digitized topography, that the Quezaltenango basin of Guatemala is part of a caldera. The Quezaltenango basin is an elliptical depression, about 12 by 25 km and about 500 m deep. The proposed Xela Caldera extends beyond the basin more than 10 km to the north. The geomorphological features of the area that are typical of a geologically young large-scale caldera include bounding walls that have steep interior and gentle exterior slopes; broad flat areas at the base of the walls; at least one large block, about 3 by 12 km, that only partly floundered as the caldera collapsed; resurgence of a younger volcanic dome, flow and small-scale caldera complex (last active in 1818); younger volcanoes located along the structural margin of the major caldera (one of which is currently active) lobate features on the caldera margins that may indicate a multiple sequence of eruptions; and an active, high-temperature geothermal system. The valley is coincident with a gravity low. Extensive ash-flow tuff sheets that have no identified source are located north of the caldera, and may be the outflow deposits. The Xela caldera is similar in size to the Atitlan caldera, which lies about 50 km southeast of Quezaltenango. The Xela Caldera, if confirmed by future studies, may contain undiscovered geothermal resources, may present a significant geologic hazard to the more than 400,000 people who occupy the Quezaltenango valley, and may be a new member of the list of magmatic systems that have the capability to change global climate for several years.
Foley, D. (Pacific Lutheran Univ., Tacoma, WA (United States). Dept. of Earth Sciences); McEwen, A.; Duffield, W. (Geological Survey, Flagstaff, AZ (United States)); Heiken, G. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))
Polarimetric CFAR detection procedures are first outlined. An advanced digital signal processor used for MMW polarimetric HRR active precision guiding radar is configured that involves a preamplifier and filter, a spectral analyzer and a DSP-based polarimetric detector\\/discriminator to seek and track ground targets in surface clutter. A fuzzy relative optimal state (FROS) of a processor is conceptualized concerning the compromise
Yong Rin; Benchao Sie; Lui Yongtan
In this paper, we design and implement a digital impulse generator using a DCM block and an OSERDES block for a 24GHz UWB impulse-Doppler radar. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has confirmed the spectrum from 22 to 29GHz for UWB radar with a limit power of -41.3dBm/MHz. UWB signal possesses an absolute bandwidth larger than 500MHz or a relative bandwidth up to 20%. The vehicle radar is the key technology with the inherent advantage detected the distance and the velocity regardless of weather. Radar has a role to measure the distance and the velocity of long-distance vehicle. But, the radar with 1m resolution is difficult to satisfy the detection performance in the blind spot zone because the blind spot zone needs high resolution. So, UWB impulse-Doppler radar with 30cm resolution is suitable for the blind spot zone. The designed impulse generator has a 2ns pulse width and 100us PRI. We perform simulations through Xilinx ISE; experiments use a spectrum analyzer and a digital oscilloscope. For UWB radar, we use an AD9779 DAC module with a 1Gsps maximum sampling rate. For equipment, we use a TDS5104B oscilloscope of Tektronix with 3dB bandwidth at 1GHz for the analysis of the time domain and an E4448A spectrum analyzer of Agilent with a 50GHz spectrum for the analysis of the frequency domain. The results of the digital impulse measurement show a 2ns pulse width in the time domain, a 500MHz bandwidth, and a 10KHz spectrum peak in the frequency domain.
Kim, Sang-Dong; Lee, Jong-Hun
Technology development related to digital, antenna and RF subsystems for Microwave Radar Sensors like Synthetic Aperture Radar, Scatterometer, Altimeter and Radiometer is one of the major activities under ISRO's microwave remote sensing programme, since 1980s. These technologies are now being gainfully utilized for building ISRO's operational Earth Observation missions involving microwave sensors like Radar Imaging Satellite, RISAT SAR, Oceansat-2 Scatterometer, Megha-Tropiques, MADRAS and Airborne SAR for Disaster Management, DMSAR. Concurrently, advanced technology developments in these fields are underway to meet the major technological challenges of building ISRO's proposed advanced microwave missions like ultra-high resolution SAR's, Synthetic Aperture Radiometer (SARAD), Milli-meter and sub-millimeter wave sounders and SAR Constellations for Disaster management as well as Interferometric, Polarmetric and polarmetric interferometry applications. Also, these hardware are being designed with core radar electronics concept, in which the same RF and digital hardware sub-units / modules will be utilized to build different microwave radar sensors. One of the major and common requirements for all these active and passive microwave sensors is the moderate to highspeed data acquisition and signal processing system. Traditionally, the Data acquisition units for all these radar sensors are implemented as stand-alone units, following the radar receivers. For ISRO's C-band airborne SAR (ASAR) and RISAT high resolution SAR, we have designed and developed High Speed 8-bit ADC based I/Q Digitisers, operating at 30.814 MHz and 250 MHz sampling rates, respectively. With the increasing demand of wide bandwidth and ultra-high resolution in imaging and non-imaging radar systems, the technology trend worldwide is towards a digital receiver, involving bandpass or IF sampling, thus eliminating the need for RF down converters and analog IQ demodulators. In order to evolve a generic configuration for all the microwave sensors, we have initiated design and development of a generic L-band digital receiver, consisting of receiver elements (LNA, digital attenuator and Bandpass filter) followed by Analog-to-Digital Converter. The digitised data can then be output in parallel or serial format. Additionally, a digital signal processor performing tasks like data compression, convolution or correlation and formatting can also be integrated with this generic digital receiver. The front end of the receiver is wide-band, catering to bandwidths of upto 2 GHz while the digitisation rates are also of the order of 1-2 GHz. It is proposed to standardize the design and use this generic receiver for front end data acquisition of all the future microwave sensors. It will meet the digitisation requirements of 500 MHz to 1 GHz for ultra-high resolution (0.25-0.5 meter) SAR as well as direct sampling of the signal around 1.4GHz for L-band Synthetic Aperture Radiometer. After initial prototyping using discrete receiver elements and ultra-high speed 8-bit ADC, it will be taken up as a custom ASIC or multi-chip module consisting of RF MMIC's and a mixed signal ADC ASIC. These designs will be fabricated using InP, GaAs or SiGe process technologies at competent foundries like GATEC, SCL, Infineon/Germany, X-Fab/Germany and Ommic-Philips/France. This novel digital receiver will offer several advantages like flexibility, stability, reduced RF hardware and miniaturisation. This paper describes the ultra-high speed design requirements, configuration details and target specifications and salient features of this generic L-band digital receiver for ISRO's future spaceborne and airborne radar missions. It also addresses the associated signal integrity, EMI/EMC and thermal issues.
Desai, Nilesh; Vachhani, J. G.; Soin, Sumit; Agrawal, Rinku; Rao, C. V. N.; Gujraty, Virendra; Rana, Surindersingh
for 1800Z on 15 April 1977 ~ 23 Surface synoptic conditions for 2100Z on 15 April 1977, ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 24 5 Radar summary for 2135Z 15 April 1977. . . , , 25 6 ~ Progression of three bands of thunderstorm cells with time... data from the spring of 1972 to determine the relationship between severe storm events and hoth 0-deg tilt indicators and VIL He considered storms with a 0-deg tilt reflectivity maximum of at least 10 mm /m (41 dBZ) and a VIL 4 1 6 3 1 The Bi ER...
Radlein, Robin Ann
The design of the MAS 2-8 (2 to 8 GHz microwave-active spectrometer), a ground-based sensor system, is presented. A major modification in 1974 to the MAS 2-8, that of a control subsystem to automate the data-taking operation, is the prime focus. The digital control unit automatically changes all system parameters except FM rate and records the return signal on paper tape. The overall system operation and a detailed discussion of the design and operation of the digital control unit are presented.
Oberg, J. M.; Ulaby, F. T.
In our previous work, in order to extend the GT-57633 catalogue [PSS, 56 (15), 1992-2008] with still uncatalogued impact-craters, the following has been done [GRS, 48 (5), in press, doi:10.1109/TGRS.2009.2037750]: (1) the crater detection algorithm (CDA) based on digital elevation model (DEM) was developed; (2) using 1/128° MOLA data, this CDA proposed 414631 crater-candidates; (3) each crater-candidate was analyzed manually; and (4) 57592 were confirmed as correct detections. The resulting GT-115225 catalog is the significant result of this effort. However, to check such a large number of crater-candidates manually was a demanding task. This was the main motivation for work on improvement of the CDA in order to provide better classification of craters as true and false detections. To achieve this, we extended the CDA with the machine learning capability, using support vector machines (SVM). In the first step, the CDA (re)calculates numerous terrain morphometric attributes from DEM. For this purpose, already existing modules of the CDA from our previous work were reused in order to be capable to prepare these attributes. In addition, new attributes were introduced such as ellipse eccentricity and tilt. For machine learning purpose, the CDA is additionally extended to provide 2-D topography-profile and 3-D shape for each crater-candidate. The latter two are a performance problem because of the large number of crater-candidates in combination with the large number of attributes. As a solution, we developed a CDA architecture wherein it is possible to combine the SVM with a radial basis function (RBF) or any other kernel (for initial set of attributes), with the SVM with linear kernel (for the cases when 2-D and 3-D data are included as well). Another challenge is that, in addition to diversity of possible crater types, there are numerous morphological differences between the smallest (mostly very circular bowl-shaped craters) and the largest (multi-ring) impact craters. As a solution to this problem, the CDA classifies crater-candidates according to their diameter into 7 groups (D smaller/larger then 2km, 4km, 8km, 16km, 32km and 64km), and for each group uses separate SVMs for training and prediction. For implementation of the machine-learning part and integration with the rest of the CDA, we used C.-J. Lin's et al. [http://www.csie.ntu.edu.tw/˜cjlin/] LIBSVM (A Library for Support Vector Machines) and LIBLINEAR (A Library for Large Linear Classification) libraries. According to the initial evaluation, now the CDA provides much better classification of craters as true and false detections.
Salamuni?car, Goran; Lon?ari?, Sven
EXPLANATION The digital elevation model of Ecuador represented in this data set was produced from over 40 individual tiles of elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Each tile was downloaded, converted from its native Height file format (.hgt), and imported into a geographic information system (GIS) for additional processing. Processing of the data included data gap filling, mosaicking, and re-projection of the tiles to form one single seamless digital elevation model. For 11 days in February of 2000, NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), the German Aerospace Center (DLR), and the Italian Space Agency (ASI) flew X-band and C-band radar interferometry onboard the Space Shuttle Endeavor. The mission covered the Earth between 60?N and 57?S and will provide interferometric digital elevation models (DEMs) of approximately 80% of the Earth's land mass when processing is complete. The radar-pointing angle was approximately 55? at scene center. Ascending and descending orbital passes generated multiple interferometric data scenes for nearly all areas. Up to eight passes of data were merged to form the final processed SRTM DEMs. The effect of merging scenes averages elevation values recorded in coincident scenes and reduces, but does not completely eliminate, the amount of area with layover and terrain shadow effects. The most significant form of data processing for the Ecuador DEM was gap-filling areas where the SRTM data contained a data void. These void areas are a result of radar shadow, layover, standing water, and other effects of terrain, as well as technical radar interferometry phase unwrapping issues. To fill these gaps, topographic contours were digitized from 1:50,000 - scale topographic maps which date from the mid-late 1980's (Souris, 2001). Digital contours were gridded to form elevation models for void areas and subsequently were merged with the SRTM data through GIS and remote sensing image-processing techniques. The data contained in this publication includes a gap filled, countrywide SRTM DEM of Ecuador projected in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) Zone 17 North projection, Provisional South American, 1956, Ecuador datum and a non gap filled SRTM DEM of the Galapagos Islands projected in UTM Zone 15 North projection. Both the Ecuador and Galapagos Islands DEMs are available as an ESRI Grid, stored as ArcInfo Export files (.e00), and in Erdas Imagine (IMG) file formats with a 90 meter pixel resolution. Also included in this publication are high and low resolution Adobe Acrobat (PDF) files of topography and landforms maps in Ecuador. The high resolution map should be used for printing and display, while the lower resolution map can be used for quick viewing and reference purposes.
Chirico, Peter G.; Warner, Michael B.
of the real potential of the digital radar will be presented for a thunderstorm system observed on April 26, 1969, that produced a confirmed tornado and rains of considerable intensity at 1700 CST at Ninnekah, Oklahoma. Between 1600 CST and 1700 CST, two... was investigated also. In particular, techniques were formulated that explain partially the explosive development associ- ated with the tornado occurrence. Convergence of several of the satellite cells into the main cell may have been a contributing factor...
Canipe, Yates Julio
This paper describes a digital processing algorithm and its associated system design for producing images from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data. The proposed system uses the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) approach to perform the two-dimensional correlation process. The range migration problem, which is often a major obstacle to efficient processing, can be alleviated by approximating the locus of echoes from a point target by several linear segments. SAR data corresponding to each segment is correlated separately, and the results are coherently summed to produce full-resolution images. This processing approach exhibits greatly improved computation efficiency relative to conventional digital processing methods.
Space-shuttle radar topography data from central Sulawesi, Indonesia, reveal two corrugated, domal landforms, covering hundreds to thousands of square kilometers, that are bounded to the north by an abrupt transition to typical hilly to mountainous topography. These domal landforms are readily interpreted as metamorphic core complexes, an interpretation consistent with a single previous field study, and the abrupt northward transition in topographic style is interpreted as marking the trace of two extensional detachment faults that are active or were recently active. Fault dip, as determined by the slope of exhumed fault footwalls, ranges from 4?? to 18??. Application of critical-taper theory to fault dip and hanging-wall surface slope, and to similar data from several other active or recently active core complexes, suggests a theoretical limit of three degrees for detachment-fault dip. This result appears to conflict with the dearth of seismological evidence for slip on faults dipping less than ~. 30??. The convex-upward form of the gently dipping fault footwalls, however, allows for greater fault dip at depths of earthquake initiation and dominant energy release. Thus, there may be no conflict between seismological and mapping studies for this class of faults. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Spencer, J. E.
A digital elevation model (DEM) produced from airborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar (TOPSAR) data of a 5 km×65 km region of the Greenland Ice Sheet is compared with multiple airborne laser altimeter profiles of the same surface. TOPSAR-derived elevation values were calculated on a 10 m×10 m grid. Surface topography at wavelengths greater than one kilometer is accurately reproduced. A
Robert Bindschadler; Mark Fahnestock; Angela Sigmund
The SOUSY-VHF-Radar operates at a frequency of 53.5 MHz in a valley in the Harz mountains, Germany, 90 km from Hanover. The radar controller, which is programmed by a 16-bit computer holds 1024 program steps in core and controls, via 8 channels, the whole radar system: in particular the master oscillator, the transmitter, the transmit-receive-switch, the receiver, the analog to digital converter, and the hardware adder. The high-sensitivity receiver has a dynamic range of 70 dB and a video bandwidth of 1 MHz. Phase coding schemes are applied, in particular for investigations at mesospheric heights, in order to carry out measurements with the maximum duty cycle and the maximum height resolution. The computer takes the data from the adder to store it in magnetic tape or disc. The radar controller is programmed by the computer using simple FORTRAN IV statements. After the program has been loaded and the computer has started the radar controller, it runs automatically, stopping at the program end. In case of errors or failures occurring during the radar operation, the radar controller is shut off caused either by a safety circuit or by a power failure circuit or by a parity check system.
Schmidt, G.; Ruster, R.; Czechowsky, P.
the capacity of interferometric radar for future surface water missions. Elevations from three Ohio reservoirs are attributed to increased averaging in C-band compared to X-band, greater sensitivity to surface water motion. Changes in water volumes stored ( S) in wetlands, lakes, and reservoirs serve to regulate the delivery
Howat, Ian M.
Collection of snow depth and precipitation measurements is exceedingly difficult above treeline in exposed areas of alpine terrain. Variability in surface topography combined with wind can cause large variations in snow depth and snow water equivalent over tens of meters, and precipitation measurements are often unreliable where wind speeds are high. Total snow depth and water equivalent measurements are often not representative in these highly variable snowpacks, while alpine locations often contain a large percentage of the water stored as snow in many watersheds. We use two different ground-based radar systems to measure snow distribution near an alpine weather station at 3719 m (12,200 ft) in SW Colorado at the Center for Snow and Avalanche Studies' Senator Beck Basin Study Area. The spatial distribution of snow is compared with a high resolution digital elevation model derived from ground-based LiDAR observations in snow-free conditions. The length scales of variation in both subsurface topography and snow depth are investigated in the region surrounding the weather station to help place the continuous snow depth observations at the weather station in the context of the snow distribution at the slope scale across this low angle site.
Marshall, H.; Deeb, E. J.; Gleason, A.; Heilig, A.; Finnegan, D. C.; Deems, J. S.; Havens, S.; Kormos, P. R.; Landry, C.; McCreight, J. L.
(& V (Co-Chairman of Committee) k. )&7 I). *v 'e(C' & ~. (Head of Department) (Member) ( ember) August 1973 ABSTRACT Applications of Digital Radar in the Analysis of Severe Local Storms (August 1973) John E. Vogel, B. S. , Texas A&M University... 2A 15 15 I* I! 51 I I 11 15 15 15 15 I I Ie I II le 13 15 te I I I OKLANOMA CLTY N S SL NORMAN 0 I m mi Fig. 16. 50, 000-ft CAZN for 2350 CST on April 29, 1970. Isopleths of reflectivity in dbZ. 33 level. Fig. 10, the 20, 000-ft CAZM...
Vogel, John Everett
Various digital enhancement techniques for SAR are compared using SIR-B and Seasat images of the Canadian Shield. The three best methods for enhancing geological structure were found to be: (1) a simple linear contrast stretch; (2) a mean or median low-pass filter to reduce speckle prior to edge enhancement or a K nearest-neighbor average to cosmetically reduce speckle; and (3) a modification of the Moore-Waltz (1983) technique. Three look directions were coregistered and several means of data display were investigated as means of compensating for radar azimuth biasing.
Masuoka, Penny M.; Harris, Jeff; Lowman, Paul D., Jr.; Blodget, Herbert W.
In this work multiwavelength digital holography, originally applied to calculate the volume displacement of various macroscopic topographic surface features, is now extended to the case of microscopic objects. Accurate measurements of volume displacement for macroscopic surface features has been achieved using long synthetic wavelengths up to several millimeters, generated via tunable IR laser sources. Microscopic volume measurements are performed via digital holographic microscopy using HeNe and Ar+ ion lasers to generate very short synthetic wavelengths. Practical methods of implementation are considered, including wavelength selection error and the geometric effects of both Michelson and Mach-Zehnder recording configurations on phase measurement. Results include comparisons to standard metrology tools, including 1D profilometry and white light interferometry.
Williams, L.; Banerjee, P. P.; Nehmetallah, G.; Praharaj, S.
The U.S. Science Plan for Deep Ice Coring in West Antarctica calls for a new ice core from a site near the Ross Sea/Amundsen Sea ice divide. The region is attractive because very thick ice in the region promises recovery of a long climate record with relatively high time resolution during the last glacial period. Ice thickness (together with accumulation rate history) is needed to estimate depth-age relationships for candidate core sites. However bed echoes from both airborne (Morse et al., Ann. Glac., v 35, 2002) and our ground-based radar profiles are often faint or not detected, especially in regions of very thick ice (up to 3500 m) that are preferred for potential core sites. Here we apply a combination of matched filtering and lateral averaging, which improves the signal-to-noise ratio of both englacial and bed echoes, to our 1.0 and 1.5MHz ground-based radar data collected in the vicinity of the western divide. Matched filtering requires a reflector model, which we derive from a strong, deep radar layer that is observed in nearly all transects. The signal model is consistent with bed echoes at sparse locations where the latter are reliable. Lateral averaging consists of coherent averaging at each point in the echogram, along lines of several slopes, followed by selection of the average of largest magnitude (constrained by an estimate of the maximum reflector slope). Lateral averaging is analogous to performing more stacking during acquisition to reveal fainter reflectors. Compared with data that have been processed by previous standard methods (eg. Gades et al., J. Glac. v 46, 2000), the new processing improves detection of the bed. Of particular interest is a profile along a flow line that crosses the ice divide at 42 km. The new processing clearly illuminates the bed at candidate site E at 15 km on the Ross Sea side of the divide; ice thickness there is 3460m. The bedrock divide is displaced 8 km west from the ice divide. No additional englacial layers were revealed by the processing in this case, and the deep radar stratigraphy is consistent with that found in a 1.5MHz transect that intersects the Byrd core. The basal topography near Site E is rough on the scale of 2-3km but the bed reflector itself is fairly coherent.
MacGregor, J. A.; Winebrenner, D. P.; Conway, H.; Sylvester, J.
In this paper we show how radio frequency interference (RFI) generated by digital video broadcasting terrestrial and digital audio broadcasting transmitters can be an important noise source for forward-looking ground penetrating radar (FLGPR) systems. Even in remote locations the average interference power sometimes exceeds ultra-wideband signals by many dB, becoming the limiting factor in the system sensitivity. The overall problem of RFI and its impact in GPR systems is briefly described and several signal processing approaches to removal of RFI are discussed. These include spectral estimation and coherent subtraction algorithms and various filter approaches which have been developed and applied by the research community in similar contexts. We evaluate the performance of these methods by simulating two different scenarios submitted to real RFI acquired with a FLGPR system developed at the Fraunhofer Institute for High Frequency Physics and Radar Techniques (FHR), (GER). The effectiveness of these algorithms in removing RFI is presented using some performance indices after suppression.
Rial, F. I.; Mendez-Rial, Roi; Lawadka, Lukasz; Gonzalez-Huici, Maria A.
Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) techniques are used to calculate the volume of extrusion at Okmok volcano, Alaska by constructing precise digital elevation models (DEMs) that represent volcano topography before and after the 1997 eruption. The posteruption DEM is generated using airborne topographic synthetic aperture radar (TOPSAR) data where a three-dimensional affine transformation is used to account for the misalignments
Zhong Lu; Eric Fielding; Matthew R. Patrick; Charles M. Trautwein
Standard image processing techniques which are used to enhance noncoherent optically produced images are not applicable to radar images due to the coherent nature of the radar imaging process. A model for the radar imaging process is derived in this paper and a method for smoothing noisy radar images is also presented. The imaging model shows that the radar image
Victor S. Frost; Josephine Abbott Stiles; K. S. Shanmugan; Julian C. Holtzman
In our previous work the following has been done: (1) the crater detection algorithm (CDA) based on digital elevation model (DEM) has been developed and the GT-115225 catalog has been assembled [GRS, 48 (5), in press, doi:10.1109/TGRS.2009.2037750]; and (2) the results of comparison between explosion-induced laboratory craters in stone powder surfaces and GT-115225 have been presented using depth/diameter measurements [41stLPSC, Abstract #1428]. The next step achievable using the available technology is to create 3D scans of such labo-ratory craters, in order to compare different properties with simple Martian craters. In this work, we propose a formal method for evaluation of laboratory craters, in order to provide objective, measurable and reproducible estimation of the level of achieved similarity between these laboratory and real impact craters. In the first step, the section of MOLA data for Mars (or SELENE LALT for Moon) is replaced with one or several 3D-scans of laboratory craters. Once embedment was done, the CDA can be used to find out whether this laboratory crater is similar enough to real craters, as to be recognized as a crater by the CDA. The CDA evaluation using ROC' curve represents how true detection rate (TDR=TP/(TP+FN)=TP/GT) depends on the false detection rate (FDR=FP/(TP+FP)). Using this curve, it is now possible to define the measure of similarity between laboratory and real impact craters, as TDR or FDR value, or as a distance from the bottom-right origin of the ROC' curve. With such an approach, the reproducible (formally described) method for evaluation of laboratory craters is provided.
Salamuni?car, Goran; Vinkovi?, Dejan; Lon?ari?, Sven; Vu?ina, Damir; Pehnec, Igor; Vojkovi?, Marin; Gomer?i?, Mladen; Hercigonja, Tomislav
Pine Island Glacier (PIG)in West Antarctica is currently losing ice at a rate equivalent to ~7% of current sea-level rise, and predicting its future is therefore an important scientific goal. Though the glacier has now been the focus of several modelling studies, the different models disagree on the likely future pace of loss and its spread inland. Significantly, all models depend critically on the form of the subglacial conditions used, and though the general form of the bed has been mapped from surveys over the last decade, the resolution of bed required for modelling to be improved, i.e. at the sub-km scale, has hitherto been unavailable. Addressing this dearth of detailed bed information was therefore a key objective for the 2013/14 UK iSTAR (Ice-Sheet Stability and Response) traverse across PIG. We deployed the British Antarctic Survey's DEep-LOoking Radio Echo Sounder (DELORES) to sound 10 x 15 km patches of the bed in six locations across PIG. Each patch was surveyed in 22 parallel transects lying 500 m apart and which were each 15 km long.Along each radar transect, the bed was sounded approximately every 5 m. The patches sample the main trunk of the ice stream, the beds of four of the main tributaries, and as a control site, an inter-tributary ridge. We show that the nature of the bed varies significantly between sites.
Bingham, Rob; Cornford, Stephen; Davies, Damon; De Rydt, Jan; King, Edward; Smith, Andrew; Spagnolo, Matteo; Vaughan, David
Avionic systems that depend on digitized terrain elevation data for guidance generation or navigational reference require accurate absolute and relative distance measurements to the terrain, especially as they approach lower altitudes. This is particularly exacting in low-altitude helicopter missions, where aggressive terrain hugging maneuvers create minimal horizontal and vertical clearances and demand precise terrain positioning. Sole reliance on airborne precision navigation and stored terrain elevation data for above-ground-level (AGL) positioning severely limits the operational altitude of such systems. A Kalman filter is presented which blends radar altimeter returns, precision navigation, and stored terrain elevation data for AGL positioning. The filter is evaluated using low-altitude helicopter flight test data acquired over moderately rugged terrain. The proposed Kalman filter is found to remove large disparities in predicted AGL altitude (i.e., from airborne navigation and terrain elevation data) in the presence of measurement anomalies and dropouts. Previous work suggested a minimum clearance altitude of 220 ft AGL for a near-terrain guidance system; integration of a radar altimeter allows for operation of that system below 50 ft, subject to obstacle-avoidance limitations.
Zelenka, Richard E.
The vehicle-based PELICAN radar system is used in the context of mobile mapping. The R-SLAM algorithm allows simultaneous retrieval of the vehicle trajectory and of the map of the environment. As the purpose of PELICAN is to provide a means for gathering spatial information, the impact of distortion caused by the topography is not negligible. This article proposes an orthorectification process to correct panoramic radar images and the consequent R-SLAM trajectory and radar map. The a priori knowledge of the area topography is provided by a digital elevation model. By applying the method to the data obtained from a path with large variations in altitude it is shown that the corrected panoramic radar images are contracted by the orthorectification process. The efficiency of the orthorectification process is assessed firstly by comparing R-SLAM trajectories to a GPS trajectory and secondly by comparing the position of Ground Control Points on the radar map with their GPS position. The RMS positioning error moves from 5.56 m for the raw radar map to 0.75 m for the orthorectified radar map.
Jaud, Marion; Rouveure, Raphaël; Faure, Patrice; Moiroux-Arvis, Laure; Monod, Marie-Odile
, ubstituting Eq (6) into Eq (5) we get log Z = 2 log r + log P + 9. 0 e3 r log Z = 2 log r + log P + 10. 1 e10 r (7 a) (7b) The digital value of P is converted to its dBm equivalent (always r negative) through the use of calibration data for each... shades of grey is called video contouring. These threshold levels can be set digitally in 0. 5 dB steps. A radar return that falls within level 1 is displayed as grey (half bright- ness), level 2 is displayed as white (full brightne s), and level 3 i...
Neyland, Michael Arthur
Matched filter processing for pulse compression of phase coded waveforms is a classic method for increasing radar range measurement resolution. A generic approach for simulating high resolution range extended radar scenes in a Hardware in the Loop (HWIL) test environment is to pass the phase coded radar transmit pulse through an RF tapped delay line comprised of individually amplitude- and
Richard F. Olson; William J. Braselton; Richard D. Mohlere
In-flight detection of errors for enhanced aircraft flight safety and vertical accuracy improvement using digital terrain elevation data with an inertial navigation system, global positioning system and radar altimeter
This dissertation discusses integration architectures using digital terrain elevation data (DTED) with an inertial navigation system (INS), a global positioning system (GPS) and a radar altimeter. Two integration architectures are considered: DTED with INS, GPS and radar altimeter for aircraft vertical accuracy improvement during the final approach; and DTED with kinematic GPS (KGPS) and a radar altimeter for enhanced aircraft
Robert Anthony Gray
A Kalman filter for the integration of a radar altimeter into a terrain database-dependent guidance system was developed. Results obtained from a low-altitude helicopter flight test data acquired over moderately rugged terrain showed that the proposed Kalman filter removes large disparities in predicted above-ground-level (AGL) altitude in the presence of measurement anomalies and dropouts. Integration of a radar altimeter makes it possible to operate a near-terrain guidance system at or below 50 ft (subject to obstacle-avoidance limitations), whereas without radar altimeter integration, a minimum clearance altitude of 220 AGL is needed, as is suggested by previous work.
Zelenka, Richard E.
The Magellan Venus orbiter carries only one scientific instrument: a 12.6-centimeter-wavelength radar system shared among three data-taking modes. The syntheticaperture mode images radar echoes from the Venus surface at a resolution of between 120 and 300 meters, depending on spacecraft altitude. In the altimetric mode, relative height measurement accuracies may approach 5 meters, depending on the terrain's roughness, although orbital uncertainties place a floor of about 50 meters on the absolute uncertainty. In areas of extremely rough topography, accuracy is limited by the inherent line-of-sight radar resolution of about 88 meters. The maximum elevation observed to date, corresponding to a planetary radius of 6062 kilometers, lies within Maxwell Mons. When used as a thermal emission radiometer, the system can determine surface emissivities to an absolute accuracy of about 0.02. Mosaicked and archival digital data products will be released in compact disk (CDROM) format.
Pettengill, G.H.; Ford, P.G.; Johnson, W.T.K.; Raney, R.K.; Soderblom, L.A.
Radar non-acoustic anti-submarine warfare (NAASW) became the subject of considerable scientific investigation and controversy in the West subsequent to the discovery by the Seasat satellite in 1978 that manifestations of underwater topography, thought to be hidden from the radar, were visible in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of the ocean. In addition, the Seasat radar produced images of ship wakes where the observed angle between the wake arms was much smaller than expected from classical Kelvin wake theory. These observations cast doubt on the radar oceanography community's ability to adequately explain these phenomena, and by extension on the ability of existing hydrodynamic and radar scattering models to accurately predict the observability of submarine-induced signatures. If one is of the opinion that radar NAASW is indeed a potentially significant tool in detecting submerged operational submarines, then the Soviet capability, as evidenced throughout this report, will be somewhat daunting. It will be shown that the Soviets have extremely fine capabilities in both theoretical and experimental hydrodynamics, that Soviet researchers have been conducting at-sea radar remote sensing experiments on a scale comparable to those of the United States for several years longer than we have, and that they have both an airborne and spaceborne SAR capability. The only discipline that the Soviet Union appears to be lacking is in the area of digital radar signal processing. If one is of the opinion that radar NAASW can have at most a minimal impact on the detection of submerged submarines, then the Soviet effort is of little consequence and poses not threat. 280 refs., 31 figs., 12 tabs.
Held, D.N.; Gasparovic, R.F.; Mansfield, A.W.; Melville, W.K.; Mollo-Christensen, E.L.; Zebker, H.A.
On February 11, 2000, the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) was launched into space as part of one of the pay load of the Shuttle Endeavor. Using a new radar sweeping technique most of the Earth's surfaces was digitized in 3D in approximately 10 days. SRTM acquired enough data during its mission to obtain a near-global high-resolution database of the
Manuel Garcia; Pierre Boulanger
WITTEX consists of multiple radar altimeters on individual satellites in the same orbit plane. Earth rotation separates their respective measurement tracks on the surface. In the monostatic version (co-located transmitter and receiver), each satellite generates one track, at nadir, as is standard in pulse-limited ocean altimetry. The nadir altimeters would have two frequencies (to mitigate ionospheric path delays) and a
R. Keith Raney; David L. Porter
This paper focuses on the use of a high resolution digital elevation model (DEM) to aid in rectifying and enhancing synthetic aperture radar images. Using a synthetic backscatter image, the SIR-B images are manually rectified and resampled to remove geometric distortions caused by topography. In a second step, an improved reflectance function of incidence angle is derived from the DEM and the rectified image and this function is used to reduce radiometric effects of topography yielding an albedo image which clearly shows the thematic, as opposed to topographic content of the image. The procedure is tested on four SIR-B images of a scene in Argentina (crossover point) that is imaged under different azimuth and incidence angles. The similarity of the resulting images indicates that the procedure effectively reduces artefacts from the images that are dependent on topography.
Domik, G.; Leberl, F.; Cimino, J.
Results are presented from computer processing and digital filtering of radiosonde and radar tracking data obtained during the ITCZ experiment when coordinated measurements were taken daily over a 16 day period across the Panama Canal Zone. The temperature relative humidity and wind velocity profiles are discussed.
Danielson, E. F.; Hipskind, R. S.; Gaines, S. E.
The report consists of two parts. In the first part, the sampling analysis of weight windows is conducted on the basis of atomic functions (AF) and their application in problems of the classical method of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is considered. The second part contains fundamentals of a modified method of synthetizing the aperture. The modified ambiguity function for different
V. F. Kravchenko; V. K. Volosyuk; V. V. Pavlikov
This document describes the design and operation of a low resolution radar data recording system for precipitation measurements. This system records a full azimuth scan on seven track magnetic tapes every five minutes. It is designed to operate on a continuous basis with operator intervention required only for changing tape reels and calibration.
The memory time of an RC integrator (i.e., a single-pole, low-pass filter) is proportional to the product of the resistance R and the capacitance C. Thus, the memory time will tend to vary with environment and from unit to unit in production. In a radar f...
C. S. Williams, L. T. James
Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) provide pilots with displays of stored geo-spatial data representing terrain, obstacles, and cultural features. As comprehensive validation is impractical, these databases typically have no quantifiable level of integrity. Further, updates to the databases may not be provided as changes occur. These issues limit the certification level and constrain the operational context of SVS for civil aviation. Previous work demonstrated the feasibility of using a realtime monitor to bound the integrity of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) by using radar altimeter measurements during flight. This paper describes an extension of this concept to include X-band Weather Radar (WxR) measurements. This enables the monitor to detect additional classes of DEM errors and to reduce the exposure time associated with integrity threats. Feature extraction techniques are used along with a statistical assessment of similarity measures between the sensed and stored features that are detected. Recent flight-testing in the area around the Juneau, Alaska Airport (JNU) has resulted in a comprehensive set of sensor data that is being used to assess the feasibility of the proposed monitor technology. Initial results of this assessment are presented.
Young, Steve; UijtdeHaag, Maarten; Sayre, Jonathon
Crater detection algorithms (CDAs) are an important subject of recent scientific research, as evident from the numerous recent publications in the field [ASR, 42 (1), 6-19]. In our previous work: (1) all the craters from the major currently available manually assembled catalogues have been merged into the catalogue with 57633 known Martian impact-craters [PSS, 56 (15), 1992-2008]; and (2) the CDA (developed to search for still uncatalogued impact-craters using 1/128° MOLA data) has been used to extend GT-57633 catalogue with 57592 additional craters resulting in GT-115225 catalog [GRS, 48 (5), in press, doi:10.1109/TGRS.2009.2037750]. On the other hand, the most complete catalog for Moon is the Morphological catalog of Lunar craters [edited by V. V. Shevchenko], which includes information on 14923 craters larger than 10km, visible on the lunar nearside and farside. This was the main motivation for application of our CDA to newly available Lunar SELENE LALT data. However, one of the main differences between MOLA and LALT data is the highest available resolution, wherein MOLA is available in 1/128° and LALT in 1/16° . The consequence is that only the largest craters can be detected using LALT dataset. However, this is still an excellent opportunity for further work on CDA in order to prepare it for forthcoming LRO LOLA data (which is expected to be in even better resolution than MOLA). The importance is in the fact that morphologically Martian and Lunar craters are not the same. Therefore, it is important to use the dataset for Moon in order to work on the CDA which is meant for detection of Lunar craters as well. In order to overcome the problem of currently available topography data in low resolution only, we particularly concentrated our work on the CDA's capability to detect very small craters relative to available dataset (up to the extreme case wherein the radius is as small as only two pixels). For this purpose, we improved the previous CDA with a new algorithm for sub-pixel interpolation of elevation samples, before subsequent computations. For elevation samples on larger distances from the crater's center, linear interpolation was used in order to speed-up the computations. For samples closer to the crater's center, the elevation value at the crater's center and relative sub-pixel distance to the selected elevation sample is additionally taken into account. The purpose is to compute the most realistic values for estimated elevation at a selected point. The results are, according to the initial visual evaluation, that numerous craters were successfully detected using SELENE LALT data.
Salamuni?car, Goran; Lon?ari?, Sven
The need to improve the spatial and temporal scaling and extrapolation of plot level measurements of ecosystem structure and function to the landscape level has been identified as a persistent research challenge in the arctic terrestrial sciences. Although there has been a range of advances in remote sensing capabilities on satellite, fixed wing, helicopter and unmanned aerial vehicle platforms over the past decade, these present costly, logistically challenging (especially in the Arctic), technically demanding solutions for applications in an arctic environment. Here, we present a relatively low cost alternative to these platforms that uses kite aerial photography (KAP). Specifically, we demonstrate how digital elevation models (DEMs) were derived from this system for a coastal arctic landscape near Barrow, Alaska. DEMs of this area acquired from other remote sensing platforms such as Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS), Airborne Laser Scanning, and satellite imagery were also used in this study to determine accuracy and validity of results. DEMs interpolated using the KAP system were comparable to DEMs derived from the other platforms. For remotely sensing acre to kilometer square areas of interest, KAP has proven to be a low cost solution from which derived products that interface ground and satellite platforms can be developed by users with access to low-tech solutions and a limited knowledge of remote sensing.
Vargas, S. A., Jr.; Tweedie, C. E.; Oberbauer, S. F.
This paper explores the many aspects of the nature and measurement of the corneal surface. Its structure and the factors that influence it are described. The traditional techniques of keratometry are summarized and there is an emphasis on new experimental methods of determining corneal topography including moiré, holographic interferometric and profile techniques. The advantages and disadvantages of these procedures are
Thomas W. Smith
The problem of radiowave propagation in the ionosphere in the presence of a wavelike disturbance has been solved in a generalized formulation using the model of a perfectly reflecting surface. The solution obtained has made it possible to develop a remote sensing technique for studying the ionosphere irregular wavelike phenomena, namely, traveling ionospheric disturbances, which are a manifestation of neutral atmosphere phenomena, atmospheric gravity waves. Implementation of this technique in the Digisonde Portable Sounder of the University of Massachusetts Lowell, Center for Atmospheric Research allowed development of a dedicated data acquisition system for ionospheric disturbance diagnostics. The experimental validation of the developed method has been obtained by comparison of the results of simultaneous disturbance diagnostics made with the Digisonde Portable Sounder and the Millstone Hill Incoherent Scatter Radar. Differences in disturbance parameters measured by the two techniques was no greater than 15%. The link between the atmospheric gravity waves and the moving solar terminator has been experimentally investigated using the Digisonde Portable Sounder and Millstone Hill Incoherent Scatter Radar and evidence of solar terminator generated disturbances has been demonstrated.
Paznukhov, Vadym Volodymyrovych
This paper deals with synthesizing in FPGA a digital correlator for signal processing in a Doppler radiolocation station (RLS) with continuous wave and pulse compression. A MATLAB-based mathematical model of a correlator has been developed and investigated. Part of the data, received as a result of these investigations, has been used for the simulation of the circuit, synthesized in FPGA.
D. M. Kovachev; N. G. Georgieva
Measuring soil surface water content spatial variability is essential for many environmental and agricultural researches and engineering applications, as this variable controls important key processes of the hydrological cycle such as infiltration, runoff, evaporation, and energy exchanges between the earth and the atmosphere. In particular, the characterization of spatial patterns and heterogeneities over a continuous range of scales is presently subject to intensive research for developing, calibrating and testing distributed hydrological models, with, e.g., the installation of field- to watershed-scale observatories. In that respect, ground penetrating radar (GPR) appears to be a promising tool for real-time, high resolution digital soil mapping at the field scale. Yet existing GPR techniques for quantitative soil characterization still suffer from a series of limitations, mainly arising from the strong simplifying assumptions that are commonly made with respect to electromagnetic wave propagation phenomena. We have developed a new GPR methodology based on full-waveform forward and inverse modelling, that inherently maximizes radar information retrieval capabilities thanks to an accurate electromagnetic model and system calibration procedure. The radar system consists of a vector network analyzer combined with an off- ground, zero-offset, ultra-wideband horn antenna, thereby setting up a stepped-frequency continuous-wave (SFCW) GPR. A full-waveform model describes accurately the radar signal by accounting for (1) all antenna effects and antenna-soil interactions through a linear system of frequency dependent, complex transfer functions, and (2) wave propagation in three-dimensional multilayered media through a Green's function as exact solution of Maxwell's equations. A fast procedure was developed to evaluate the involved spatial Green's function from its spectral counterpart, whose integral is singular. The soil electromagnetic properties and their vertical distribution are estimated by inverse modeling using various iterative optimization strategies, depending on the model complexity. The method presents especially considerable advantages compared to the current surface characterization techniques using GPR, namely, the ground wave and common reflection methods. The proposed methodology was successfully validated for a series of model configurations of increasing complexity. For the particular case of soil surface water content retrieval, we especially addressed the impact of shallow soil layering on the inverse estimates in case it is or not accounted for in the inverse model configuration. The results show that thin layers should not be neglected, especially when high contrasts between soil layers are encountered. The method is now routinely used for real-time, automated mapping of soil surface water content in the field. GPR-derived maps are compared to ground-truth measurements and satellite radar data products. Stochastic approaches are used for assessing the uncertainty on the inverse estimates. The proposed method constitutes in particular a robust alternative to other GPR approaches for shallow soil characterization.
Minet, J.; Lambot, S.; Slob, E.; Vereecken, H.; Vanclooster, M.
Digital elevation models (DEMs) are widely relied upon as representations of the Earth's topographic morphology. The most widely used global DEMs available are ETOPO5, TerrainBase and JGP95E at a 5?arc?minute spatial resolution, and the GTOPO30 and GLOBE (version 1) global DEMs at a 30?arc?second spatial resolution. This paper presents the results of intercomparisons of these global DEMs over Australia, and
R. D. Hilton; W. E. Featherstone; P. A. M. Berry; C. P. D. Johnson; J. F. Kirby
The Gallery of Virtual Topography features virtual depictions of topography, including 3D perspectives and QuickTime Virtual Reality (QTVR) movies, created from Digital Elevation Models (DEM's). The site showcases QTVR object movies where the user can spin a 3D terrain to view it from different perspectives. It also includes static 3D-perspective images (JPEG files) of the 3D terrains for those users with slower Internet connections. Some movies and images depict only the form of the landscape, but in others topographic contours are draped over the landscape to better illustrate how contours portray different types of topography (cliffs versus badlands, for example). Some animations illustrate the significance of contours, by allowing the user to progressively fill the landscape up with water to see the water interact with different topographic features. The site also contains a topographic contour map for each 3D terrain, so that instructors can develop student exercises, such as locating points on a map and constructing topographic profiles. Some QTVR movies contain numbered topographic features just for this purpose.
Papers are presented on air-traffic control radar, surveillance radar, missile guidance radar, and high-performance tactical three-dimensional radar. Also considered are the airborne early warning radar, the Foxhunter airborne intercept radar, and environmental remote sensing. Other topics include spaceborne SARs, the Pioneer Orbiter radar, and a bistatic pulse-Doppler intruder-detection radar.
Skolnik, Merrill I.
Papers are presented on air-traffic control radar, surveillance radar, missile guidance radar, and high-performance tactical three-dimensional radar. Also considered are the airborne early warning radar, the Foxhunter airborne intercept radar, and environmental remote sensing. Other topics include spaceborne SARs, the Pioneer Orbiter radar, and a bistatic pulse-Doppler intruder-detection radar.
Merrill I. Skolnik
Digitized four-channel radar images corresponding to particular areas from the Phoenix and Huntington test sites were generated in conjunction with prior experiments performed to collect X- and L-band synthetic aperture radar imagery of these two areas. The methods for generating this imagery are documented. A secondary objective was the investigation of digital processing techniques for extraction of information from the multiband radar image data. Following the digitization, the remaining resources permitted a preliminary machine analysis to be performed on portions of the radar image data. The results, although necessarily limited, are reported.
Ausherman, D.; Larson, R.; Liskow, C.
Some of the major initiatives and directions of remote sensing using SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) data alone and in conjunction with other sensors for Earth science investigations are outlined. Specific emphasis is on areas key to global monitoring using SAR data from spaceborne platforms: calibration, geophysical processing, and generation of digital elevation models. Calibration as used here encompasses end to end system characterization over the life of a sensor and characterization of data products relative to past and future sensors. Geophysical processing is defined here to include any processing which results in derived geophysical units. An additional data type, topography, which is required to complete the three dimensional view of surface properties and correct for distortions inherent in SAR is discussed. Future challenges in radar remote sensing include development of strategies to extrapolate from regional to global scale models and development of new sensor technology.
Evans, Diane L.
Some of the major initiatives and directions of remote sensing using SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) data alone and in conjunction with other sensors for earth science investigations are outlined. Specific emphasis is on areas key to global monitoring using SAR data from spaceborne platforms: calibration, geophysical processing, and generation of digital elevation models. Calibration as used here encompasses end-to-end system characterization over the life of a sensor and characterization of data products relative to past and future sensors. Geophysical processing is defined here to include any processing which results in derived geophysical units. An additional data type, topography, which is required to complete the three-dimensional view of surface properties and correct for distortions inherent in SAR is discussed. Future challenges in radar remote sensing include development of strategies to extrapolate from regional to global scale models and development of new sensor technology.
Evans, Diane L.
This is a three-dimensional perspective of the eastern front range of the Rocky Mountains, about 120 kilometers (75 miles) west of Great Falls, Montana. The image was created by combining two spaceborne radar images using a technique known as interferometry. Visualizations like this are useful to scientists because they show the shapes of the topographic features such as mountains and valleys. This technique helps to clarify the relationships of the different types of materials on the surface detected by the radar. The view is looking south-southeast. Along the right edge of the image is the valley of the north fork of the Sun River. The western edge of the Great Plains appears on the left side. The valleys in the lower center, running off into the plains on the left, are branches of the Teton River. The highest mountains are at elevations of 2,860 meters (9,390 feet), and the plains are about 1,400 meters (4,500 feet) above sea level. The dark brown areas are grasslands, bright green areas are farms, light brown, orange and purple areas are scrub and forest, and bright white and blue areas are steep rocky slopes. The two radar images were taken on successive days by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on board the space shuttle Endeavour in October 1994. The digital elevation map was produced using radar interferometry, a process in which radar data are acquired on different passes of the space shuttle. The two data passes are compared to obtain elevation information. Radar image data are draped over the topography to provide the color with the following assignments: red is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; green is C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; and blue are the differences seen in the L-band data between the two days. This image is centered near 47.7 degrees north latitude and 112.7 degrees west longitude. No vertical exaggeration factor has been applied to the data. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's program entitled Mission to Planet Earth.
Detecting and quantifying mountain permafrost creep from in situ inventory, space-borne radar permafrost creep are compared: (1) rock glacier inventory and characterization from in situ indicators, (2 detailed in situ investigations. 1. Introduction Permafrost, i.e. underground with temperatures below 0C
For several decades, measurement of optical techniques has been used in different branches of science and technology. One of these techniques is the so-called moiré topography (MT) that enables the accurate measurement of different parts of the human body topography. This investigation presents the measurement of topographies of teeth and gums using an automated system of shadow moiré and the
A. Moreno Yeras
The results of the surface topography mapping of South America during the ERS-1 geodetic mission are presented. The altimeter waveforms, the range measurement, and the internal and Doppler range corrections were obtained. The atmospheric corrections and solid tides were calculated. Comparisons between Shuttle laser altimetry and ERS-1 altimetry grid showed good agreement. Satellite radar altimetry data can be used to improve the topographic knowledge of regions for which only poor elevation data currently exist.
Brenner, Anita; Frey, Herb; DiMarzio, John; Tsaoussi, Lucia
High-precision topography measurement of micro-objects using interferometric and holographic techniques can be realized provided that the in-focus plane of an imaging system is very accurately determined. Therefore, in this paper we propose an accurate technique for in-focus plane determination, which is based on coherent and incoherent light. The proposed method consists of two major steps. First, a calibration of the imaging system with an amplitude object is performed with a common autofocusing method using coherent illumination, which allows for accurate localization of the in-focus plane position. In the second step, the position of the detected in-focus plane with respect to the imaging system is measured with white light interferometry. The obtained distance is used to accurately adjust a sample with the precision required for the measurement. The experimental validation of the proposed method is given for measurement of high-numerical-aperture microlenses with subwavelength accuracy. PMID:24787417
Li?ewski, Kamil; Tomczewski, S?awomir; Kozacki, Tomasz; Kostencka, Julianna
The simple theoretical model of Alpers and Hennings describing the radar imaging of submarine bottom topography in coastal waters with strong unidirectional tidal currents is analytically extended to show the influence of advection. The theory applies for L band radar, where second-order terms in the hydrodynamic interaction can be neglected as a first approximation. If future imaging radars from satellites
Unique among the icy satellites, Titan’s surface shows evidence for extensive modification by fluvial and aeolian erosion, which act to change the topography of its surface over time. Quantifying the extent of this landscape evolution is difficult, since the original, ‘non-eroded’ surface topography is generally unknown. However, fresh craters on icy satellites have a well-known shape and morphology, which has been determined from extensive studies on the airless worlds of the outer solar system (Schenk et al., 2004). By comparing the topography of craters on Titan to similarly sized, pristine analogues on airless bodies, we can obtain one of the few direct measures of the amount of erosion that has occurred on Titan. Cassini RADAR has imaged >30% of the surface of Titan, and more than 60 potential craters have been identified in this data set (Wood et al., 2010; Neish and Lorenz, 2012). Topographic information for these craters can be obtained from a technique known as ‘SARTopo’, which estimates surface heights by comparing the calibration of overlapping synthetic aperture radar (SAR) beams (Stiles et al., 2009). We present topography data for several craters on Titan, and compare the data to similarly sized craters on Ganymede, for which topography has been extracted from stereo-derived digital elevation models (Bray et al., 2012). We find that the depths of craters on Titan are generally within the range of depths observed on Ganymede, but several hundreds of meters shallower than the average (Fig. 1). A statistical comparison between the two data sets suggests that it is extremely unlikely that Titan’s craters were selected from the depth distribution of fresh craters on Ganymede, and that is it much more probable that the relative depths of Titan are uniformly distributed between ‘fresh’ and ‘completely infilled’. This is consistent with an infilling process that varies linearly with time, such as aeolian infilling. Figure 1: Depth of craters on Titan (gray diamonds) compared to similarly sized, fresh craters on Ganymede (central peaks, +; central pits, *) and a handful of relaxed craters (black squares) from Bray et al. (2012). References: Bray, V., et al.: "Ganymede crater dimensions - implications for central peak and central pit formation and development". Icarus, Vol. 217, pp. 115-129, 2012. Neish, C.D., Lorenz, R.D.: "Titan’s global crater population: A new assessment". Planetary and Space Science, Vol. 60, pp. 26-33, 2012. Schenk, P.M., et al.: "Ages and interiors: the cratering record of the Galilean satellites". In: Bagenal, F., McKinnon, W.B. (Eds.), Jupiter: The Planet, Satellites, and Magnetosphere, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 427-456, 2004. Stiles, B.W., et al.: "Determining Titan surface topography from Cassini SAR data". Icarus, Vol. 202, pp. 584-598, 2009. Wood, C.A., et al.: "Impact craters on Titan". Icarus, Vol. 206, pp. 334-344, 2010.
Neish, C.; Kirk, R.; Lorenz, R.; Bray, V.; Schenk, P.; Stiles, B.; Turtle, E.; Cassini Radar Team
Invented and developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is an inexpensive and highly sensitive, low-power radar system that produces and samples extremely short pulses of energy at the rate of 2 million per second. Called micropower impulse radar (MIR), it can detect objects at a greater variety of distances with greater sensitivity than conventional radar. Its origins in the Laboratory`s Laser Directorate stem from Nova`s transient digitizer. The MIR`s extraordinary range of applications include security, search and rescue, life support, nondestructive evaluation, and transportation.
Azevedo, S.; McEwan, T.E.
Shallow-source aeromagnetic anomalies observed over the West Antarctic Ice Sheet compared with coincident bed topography from radar ice sounding—new evidence for glacial “removal” of subglacially erupted late Cenozoic rift-related volcanic edifices
Aeromagnetic and radar ice sounding results from the 1991–1997 Central West Antarctica (CWA) aerogeophysical survey over part of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) and subglacial area of the volcanically active West Antarctic rift system have enabled detailed examination of specific anomaly sources. These anomalies, previously interpreted as caused by late Cenozoic subglacial volcanic centers, are compared to newly available
John C Behrendt; Donald D Blankenship; David L Morse; Robin E Bell
A digital base band converter (DBBC) system has been developed by the Istituto di Radioastronomia (Noto, Italy) for increasing the sensitivity of European VLBI Network (EVN) by expanding the full observed bandwidth using numerical methods. The output data rate of this VLBI-backend is raised from 1 to 4 Gbps for each radiotelescope. All operations related to the signal processing (frequency translation, amplification, frequency generation with local oscillators, etc.) are transferred to the digital domain, which allows - in addition to well-known advantages coming from digital technologies - achieving better repeatability, precision, simplicity, etc. The maximum input band of DBBC system is 3.5 GHz, and the instantaneous bandwidth is up to 1 GHz for each radio frequency/intermediate frequency (RF/IF) out of the eight possible. This backend is a highly powerful platform for other radioastronomy applications, and a number of additional so-called personalities have been developed and used. This includes PFB (polyphase filter bank) receivers and Spectra for high resolution spectroscopy. An additional new development with the same aim - to use the DBBC system as a multi-purpose backend - is related to the bi-static radar observations including Radar VLBI. In such observations it is possible to study the population of space debris, with detection of even centimetre class fragments. A powerful transmitter is used to illuminate the sky region to be analyzed, and the echoes coming from known or unknown objects are reflected to one or more groundbased telescopes thus producing a single-dish or interferometric detection. The DBBC Radar VLBI personality is able to realize a high-resolution spectrum analysis, maintaining in the central area the echo signal at the expected frequency including the Doppler shift of frequency. For extremely weak signals a very large integration time is needed, so for this personality different input parameters are provided. The realtime information can then allow exploring easily the desired range of search for unknown or not fully determined orbit objects. These features make Radar VLBI personality most useful in the space debris measurements. DBBC sist?ma izstr?d?ta Noto Radioastronomijas instit?t?. Sist?mas galvenais
Tuccari, G.; Bezrukovs, Vl.; Nechaeva, M.
The Microelectronics and Photonics Testbed (MPTB) is a scientific satellite carrying twenty-four experiments on-board in a\\u000a high radiation orbit since November 1997. The first objective of this paper is to summarize one year flight results, telemetred\\u000a from one of its experiments, a digital “neural board” programmed to perform texture analysis by means of an Artificial Neural\\u000a Network (ANN). One of
Raoul Velazco; Ch. Godin; Ph. Cheynet; Santiago Torres-alegre; Diego Andina; M. B. Gordon
The registration of synthetic aperture radar imagery to other images is difficult, especially in mountainous terrain. We introduce a new approach to this problem that registers radar images to digital elevation models derived from LIDAR. The algorithm generates a predicted image from the elevation model using the radar geometry and then registers the predicted image to the radar image with
Mark D. Pritt; Kevin J. LaTourette
A radar sector blanker comprises in analog-to-digital converter and a sector controller unit. The analog-to-digital converter receives the analog synchro voltages describing the positioning of a radar antenna and changes these voltages into binary-coded decimal (BCD) information. The sector controller unit comprises a portable housing, a controller system, and a power supply. The controller system includes an OFF comparator circuit, an ON comparator circuit, an S-R latch, and a solid-state switch. Each comparator circuit comprises three cascaded transistor-transistor logic (TTL) integrated chips. The power supply gives a direct-current voltage to the solid-state switch and the TTL chips. The sector blanker blocks transmission for a predetermined rotational region or sector of a radar system.
Hall, Roger B.
A brief history and development of the Newcastle Meteor Radar system is given. Also described are its geographical coordinates and its method of operation. The initial objective when the project was commenced was to develop an entirely digital analyzer capable of recognizing meteor echo signals and recording as many of their parameters as possible. This objective was achieved.
For several decades measurement optical techniques have been used in different branches of Science and Technology and in medicine. One of these techniques is the so-called Moire topography that allows the accurate measurement of different parts of the human body topography. This investigation presents the measurement of topographies of teeth and gums using an automated system of shadow moire, with which precision can be reached up to the order of the microns by the phase shift instrumentation in an original way. Advantages and disadvantages of using the Moire topography and its comparison with other techniques used in the optical metrology are presented. Also, some positive and negative aspects of the implementation of this technique are shown in dentistry.
Moreno Yeras, A.
Application of ground-penetrating radar, digital optical borehole images, and cores for characterization of porosity hydraulic conductivity and paleokarst in the Biscayne aquifer, southeastern Florida, USA
This paper presents examples of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data from two study sites in southeastern Florida where karstic Pleistocene platform carbonates that comprise the unconfined Biscayne aquifer were imaged. Important features shown on resultant GPR profiles include: (1) upward and lateral qualitative interpretative distribution of porosity and hydraulic conductivity; (2) paleotopographic relief on karstic subaerial exposure surfaces; and (3) vertical stacking of chronostratigraphic high-frequency cycles (HFCs). These characteristics were verified by comparison to rock properties observed and measured in core samples, and identified in digital optical borehole images. Results demonstrate that an empirical relation exists between measured whole-core porosity and hydraulic conductivity, observed porosity on digital optical borehole images, formation conductivity, and GPR reflection amplitudes-as porosity and hydraulic conductivity determined from core and borehole images increases, formation conductivity increases, and GPR reflection amplitude decreases. This relation allows for qualitative interpretation of the vertical and lateral distribution of porosity and hydraulic conductivity within HFCs. Two subtidal HFCs in the uppermost Biscayne aquifer have significantly unique populations of whole-core porosity values and vertical hydraulic conductivity values. Porosity measurements from one cycle has a median value about two to three times greater than the values from the other HFC, and median values of vertical hydraulic-conductivity about three orders of magnitude higher than the other HFC. The HFC with the higher porosity and hydraulic conductivity values is shown as a discrete package of relatively low-amplitude reflections, whereas the HFC characterized by lower porosity and hydraulic-conductivity measurements is expressed by higher amplitude reflections. Porosity and hydraulic-conductivity values measured from whole-core samples, and vuggy porosity identified on digital borehole images from shallowing-upward, peritidal HFCs show that the highest porosity occurs at the base of the cycles, moderate porosity at the middle of the cycles, and lowest porosity occurs at the top of cycles. Hydraulic conductivity is also highest at the base of the peritidal cycles and lowest in the middle to upper parts of cycles. This change in porosity and hydraulic conductivity from bottom to top is visible as an upward variation in reflection amplitude on GPR profiles-lowest amplitudes at the base and highest at the cycle tops. This study demonstrates that GPR can be used to show the qualitative distribution of porosity and hydraulic conductivity within a cycle-stratigraphic framework composed of carbonate HFCs. The distribution of porosity and hydraulic conductivity within HFCs is related to depositional textures. The upward and lateral patterns of the rock facies within the HFCs can be translated to geophysical-log properties and radar facies configurations that could aid in interpretation and prediction of ground-water flow through a carbonate aquifer. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cunningham, K. J.
When the National Weather Radar Testbed (NWRT) was installed in 2004, a single-channel digital receiver was implemented so that the radar could mimic typical Weather Surveillance Radar (WSR) version 1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) capability. This, however, left unused eight other channels, built into the antenna. This paper describes the hardware instrumentation of a recently completed project that digitizes the radar signals
Mark Yeary; Gerald Crain; Allen Zahrai; Christopher D. Curtis; John Meier; Redmond Kelley; Igor R. Ivic; Robert D. Palmer; Richard J. Doviak; G. Zhang; Tian-You Yu
We have developed a novel ice-penetrating radar system that can be carried on a backpack. Including batteries for a 3 hour continuous measurement, the total weight is 13 kg. In addition, it operates reliably down to -25°C, has a low power consumption of 24 W, and is semi-waterproof. The system has a built-in-one controller with a high-brightness display for reading data quickly, a receiver with 12-bit digitizing, and a 1 kV pulse transmitter in which the pulse amplitude varies by <0.2%. Optical communications between components provides low-noise data acquisition and allows synchronizing of the pulse transmission with sampling. Measurements with the system revealed the 300 m deep bed topography of a temperate valley glacier in the late ablation season.
Matsuoka, Kenichi; Saito, Ryoji; Naruse, Renji
Visitors to the Digital Globe have a front seat view of Lisbon, Portugal and the Phillipine Trench. The site offers two MPEG videos which animate topographic seafloor images. The video clips were created by David Sandwell at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Also available are nine images of seafloor topography from around the globe. Note that the videos are very large files.
During the fifty years since its initial development as a means of providing early warning of airborne attacks against allied countries during World War II, radar systems have developed to the point of being highly mobile and versatile systems capable of supporting a wide variety of remote sensing applications. Instead of being tied to stationary land-based sites, radar systems have found their way into highly mobile land vehicles as well as into aircraft, missiles, and ships of all sizes. Of all these applications, however, the most exciting revolution has occurred in the airborne platform arena where advanced technology radars can be found in all shapes and sizes...ranging from the large AWACS and Joint STARS long range surveillance and targeting systems to small millimeter wave multi-spectral sensors on smart weapons that can detect and identify their targets through the use of highly sophisticated digital signal processing hardware and software. This paper presents an overview of these radar applications with the emphasis on modern airborne sensors that span the RF spectrum. It will identify and describe the factors that influence the parameters of low frequency and ultra wide band radars designed to penetrate ground and dense foliage environments and locate within them buried mines, enemy armor, and other concealed or camouflaged weapons of war. It will similarly examine the factors that lead to the development of airborne radar systems that support long range extended endurance airborne surveillance platforms designed to detect and precision-located both small high speed airborne threats as well as highly mobile time critical moving and stationary surface vehicles. The mission needs and associated radar design impacts will be contrasted with those of radar systems designed for high maneuverability rapid acquisition tactical strike warfare platforms, and shorter range cued air-to-surface weapons with integral smart radar sensors.
This is a three-dimensional perspective view of Missoula, Montana, created by combining two spaceborne radar images using a technique known as interferometry. Visualizations like this are useful because they show scientists the shapes of the topographic features such as mountains and valleys. This technique helps to clarify the relationships of the different types of materials on the surface detected by the radar. The view is looking north-northeast. The blue circular area at the lower left corner is a bend of the Bitterroot River just before it joins the Clark Fork, which runs through the city. Crossing the Bitterroot River is the bridge of U.S. Highway 93. Highest mountains in this image are at elevations of 2,200 meters (7,200 feet). The city is about 975 meters (3,200 feet) above sea level. The bright yellow areas are urban and suburban zones, dark brown and blue-green areas are grasslands, bright green areas are farms, light brown and purple areas are scrub and forest, and bright white and blue areas are steep rocky slopes. The two radar images were taken on successive days by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour in October 1994. The digital elevation map was produced using radar interferometry, a process in which radar data are acquired on different passes of the space shuttle. The two data passes are compared to obtain elevation information. Radar image data are draped over the topography to provide the color with the following assignments: red is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; green is C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; and blue are differences seen in the L-band data between the two days. This image is centered near 46.9 degrees north latitude and 114.1 degrees west longitude. No vertical exaggeration factor has been applied to the data. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.
In February 2000, the Space Shuttle Endeavour flew a specially modified radar system during an 11-day mission. The purpose of the multinational Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) was to "obtain elevation data on a near-global scale to generate the most complete high-resolution digital topographic database of Earth" by using radar interferometry. The data and resulting products are now publicly available for download and give a view of the landscape removed of vegetation, buildings, and other structures. This new view of the Earth's topography allows us to see previously unmapped or poorly mapped regions of the Earth as well as providing a level of detail that was previously unknown using traditional topographic mapping techniques. Understanding and appreciating the geographic terrain is a complex but necessary requirement for middle school aged (11-14yo) students. Abstract in nature, topographic maps and other 2D renderings of the Earth's surface and features do not address the inherent spatial challenges of a concrete-learner and traditional methods of teaching can at times exacerbate the problem. Technological solutions such as 3D-imaging in programs like Google Earth are effective but lack the tactile realness that can make a large difference in learning comprehension and retention for these young students. First developed in the 1980's, 3D printers were not commercial reality until recently and the rapid rise in interest has driven down the cost. With the advent of sub US1500 3D printers, this technology has moved out of the high-end marketplace and into the local office supply store. Schools across the US and elsewhere in the world are adding 3D printers to their technological workspaces and students have begun rapid-prototyping and manufacturing a variety of projects. This project attempted to streamline the process of transforming SRTM data from a GeoTIFF format by way of Python code. The resulting data was then inputted into a CAD-based program for visualization and exporting as a .stl file for 3D printing. A proposal for improving the method and making it more accessible to middle school aged students is provided. Using the SRTM data to print a hand-held visual representation of a portion of the Earth's surface would utilize existing technology in the school and alter how topography can be taught in the classroom. Combining methods of 2D paper representations, on-screen 3D visualizations, and 3D hand-held models, give students the opportunity to truly grasp and retain the information being provided.
Thesenga, David; Town, James
Continuous topography from Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data is frequently segmented into terrain classes based on local morphological characteristics of terrain elevation, e.g., local slope gradient and convexity. The resulting classes are often used as proxies for the average shear wave velocity up to 30 m, and the determination of ground types as required by the Eurocode (EC8) for computing elastic design spectra. In this work, we investigate the links between terrain related variables, particularly slope gradient, extracted for the area of Greece from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 30 arc second global topographic data available from the United States Geological Survey (USGS), with: (a) the global terrain classification product of Iwahashi and Pike (2007) in which 16 terrain types are identified for the same spatial resolution, and (b) information on geological units extracted at the same resolution from the geological map of Greece at a scale of 1/500000 as published from the Institute of Geology and Mineral Exploration (IGME). An interpretation of these links is presented within the context of understanding the reliability of using geology, slope and terrain classes for site characterizations of earthquake risk in a high seismicity area like Greece. Our results indicate that slope is a somewhat biased proxy for solid rocks, whereas in Alluvial deposits the distance to and type of the nearest geological formation appears to provide qualitative information on the size of the sedimentary deposit.
Zargli, Eleni; Liodakis, Stelios; Kyriakidis, Phaedon; Savvaidis, Alexandros
We aid in a study of the solar system by means of ground-based radar. We have concentrated on (1) developing the ephemerides needed to acquire radar data at Arecibo Observatory and (2) analyzing the resultant data to: test fundamental laws of gravitation; determine the size, shape, topography, and spin vectors of the targets; and study the surface properties of these objects, through their scattering law and polarization characteristics.
Shapiro, Irwin I.
Concentration microinhomogeneities in crystals were characterized using x-ray topography, digital image processing, and spectral\\u000a analysis of signals. Based on the features in lattice strains in such layered inhomogeneous crystals, methods for optimizing\\u000a the conditions of x-ray topography detection of growth striations were proposed to obtain quantitative information on the\\u000a composition fluctuation amplitude and spatial characteristics.
I. A. Prokhorov; I. Z. Bezbakh; B. G. Zakharov; I. L. Shul’pina
The surface of mammalian cells is neither smooth nor flat and cells have several times more plasma membrane than the minimum area required to accommodate their shape. We discuss the biological function of this apparent excess membrane that allows the cells to migrate and undergo shape changes and probably plays a role in signal transduction. Methods for studying membrane folding and topography--atomic force microscopy, scanning ion conductance microscopy, fluorescence polarization microscopy and linear dichroism--are described and evaluated. Membrane folding and topography is frequently ignored when interpreting microscopy data. This has resulted in several misconceptions regarding for instance colocalization, membrane organization and molecular clustering. We suggest simple ways to avoid these pitfalls and invoke Occam's razor--that simple explanations are preferable to complex ones. Topography, i.e. deviations from a smooth surface, should always be ruled out as the cause of anomalous data before other explanations are presented. PMID:23438106
Parmryd, Ingela; Onfelt, Björn
For several decades, measurement of optical techniques has been used in different branches of science and technology. One of these techniques is the so-called moiré topography (MT) that enables the accurate measurement of different parts of the human body topography. This investigation presents the measurement of topographies of teeth and gums using an automated system of shadow moiré and the phase shift method in an original way. The fringe patterns used to compute the shape and the shape matrix itself are presented in the article. The phase shift method ensures precisions up to the order of microns. Advantages and disadvantages of using the MT are included. Besides, some positive and negative aspects concerned with the implementation of this technique in odontology are shown in the article.
Moreno Yeras, A.
Discussed here is a kind of radar called atmospheric radar, which has as its target clear air echoes from the earth's atmosphere produced by fluctuations of the atmospheric index of refraction. Topics reviewed include the vertical structure of the atmosphere, the radio refractive index and its fluctuations, the radar equation (a relation between transmitted and received power), radar equations for distributed targets and spectral echoes, near field correction, pulsed waveforms, the Doppler principle, and velocity field measurements.
Topography assisted photoablation (TAP) is an important and logic step for future customized therapeutic photokeratectomy. Its goal is to reshape any irregular corneal surface in order to achieve an ideal sphere. Accuracy and reproducibility of the 2D and 3D topography data, strategies of data acquisition, data modification and transfer are essential elements. Accurate and appropriate subtraction methods for difference mapping are discussed. Furthermore, the properties and algorithms of the lasers' delivery systems, have to be taken into account. The overview paper describes and discusses some of the central elements of TAP.
Jean, Benedikt J.; Bende, Thomas
An interferometric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) onboard processor concept and algorithm has been developed for the Ka-band radar interferometer (KaRIn) instrument on the Surface and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission. This is a mission- critical subsystem that will perform interferometric SAR processing and multi-look averaging over the oceans to decrease the data rate by three orders of magnitude, and therefore enable the downlink of the radar data to the ground. The onboard processor performs demodulation, range compression, coregistration, and re-sampling, and forms nine azimuth squinted beams. For each of them, an interferogram is generated, including common-band spectral filtering to improve correlation, followed by averaging to the final 1 1-km ground resolution pixel. The onboard processor has been prototyped on a custom FPGA-based cPCI board, which will be part of the radar s digital subsystem. The level of complexity of this technology, dictated by the implementation of interferometric SAR processing at high resolution, the extremely tight level of accuracy required, and its implementation on FPGAs are unprecedented at the time of this reporting for an onboard processor for flight applications.
Esteban-Fernandez, Daniel; Rodriquez, Ernesto; Peral, Eva; Clark, Duane I.; Wu, Xiaoqing
ERS-1\\/ERS-2 synthetic aperture radar interferometry was used to study the 1997 eruption of Okmok volcano in Alaska. First, we derived an accurate digital elevation model (DEM) using a tandem ERS-1\\/ERS-2 image pair and the preexisting DEM. Second, by studying changes in interferometric coherence we found that the newly erupted lava lost radar coherence for 5-17 months after the eruption. This
Zhong Lu; Dörte Mann; Jeffrey T. Freymueller; David J. Meyer
This radar image acquired by SRTM shows an area south of the Sao Francisco River in Brazil. The area is predominantly scrub forest. Areas such as these are difficult to map by traditional methods because of frequent cloud cover and local inaccessibility. Image brightness differences in this image are caused by differences in vegetation type and density. Tributaries of the Sao Francisco are visible in the upper right. The Sao Francisco River is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, forestation and human influences on ecosystems.This radar image was obtained by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission as part of its mission to map the Earth's topography. The image was acquired by just one of SRTM's two antennas, and consequently does not show topographic data but only the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground. This signal, known as radar backscatter, provides insight into the nature of the surface, including its roughness, vegetation cover, and urbanization.The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.
This is a three-dimensional view of Isabela, one of the Galapagos Islands located off the western coast of Ecuador, South America. This view was constructed by overlaying a Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) image on a digital elevation map produced by TOPSAR, a prototype airborne interferometric radar which produces simultaneous image and elevation data. The vertical scale in this image is exaggerated by a factor of 1.87. The SIR-C/X-SAR image was taken on the 40th orbit of space shuttle Endeavour. The image is centered at about 0.5 degree south latitude and 91 degrees west longitude and covers an area of 75 by 60 kilometers (47 by 37 miles). The radar incidence angle at the center of the image is about 20 degrees. The western Galapagos Islands, which lie about 1,200 kilometers (750 miles)west of Ecuador in the eastern Pacific, have six active volcanoes similar to the volcanoes found in Hawaii and reflect the volcanic processes that occur where the ocean floor is created. Since the time of Charles Darwin's visit to the area in 1835, there have been more than 60 recorded eruptions on these volcanoes. This SIR-C/X-SAR image of Alcedo and Sierra Negra volcanoes shows the rougher lava flows as bright features, while ash deposits and smooth pahoehoe lava flows appear dark. Vertical exaggeration of relief is a common tool scientists use to detect relationships between structure (for example, faults, and fractures) and topography. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI).
This module explores the fundamental concepts used to determine how air flow interacts with topography. Using the simple analogy of a marble rolling over a hill, this module examines the relationship between wind speed and static stability of the atmosphere. These results are further extended to include three-dimensional terrain barriers as well as the evolution through time of the interaction.
This is a foundation module in the Mesoscale Meteorology Primer series. Topics covered include an overview of factors that control whether air will go up and over a mountain or be forced around it, the role of potential and kinetic energy, the Froude number and what it tells you, and air flow blocked by topography.
These two images of the eastern part of the island of Oahu, Hawaii provide information on regional topography and show the relationship between urban development and sensitive ecosystems. On the left is a topographic radar image collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM.) On the right is an optical image acquired by a digital camera on the Space Shuttle Endeavour, which carried SRTM. Features of interest in this scene include Diamond Head (an extinct volcano at the lower center), Waikiki Beach (just left of Diamond Head), the Punchbowl National Cemetery (another extinct volcano, at the foot of the Koolau Mountains), downtown Honolulu and Honolulu airport (lower left of center), and Pearl Harbor (at the left edge.)The topography shows the steep, high central part of the island surrounded by flatter coastal areas. The optical image shows the urban areas and a darker, forested region on the mountain slopes. The clouds in the optical image and the black areas on the topographic image are both a result of the steep topography. In this tropical region, high mountain peaks are usually covered in clouds. These steep peaks also cause shadows in the radar data, resulting in missing data 'holes.' A second pass over the island was obtained by SRTM and will be used to fill in the holes.The left image combines two types of SRTM data. Brightness corresponds to the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground, while colors show the elevation. Each color cycle (from pink through blue and back to pink) represents 400 meters (1,300 feet) of elevation difference, like the contour lines on a topographic map. This image contains about 2,400 meters (8,000 feet) of total relief. The optical image was acquired by the Shuttle Electronic Still Camera with a lens focal length of 64 millimeters (2.5 inches) for the Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle school students (EarthKAM) project. EarthKAM has flown on five space shuttle missions since 1996. Additional information about EarthKAM is available at http://Earthkam.sdsc.edu/geo/ .The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) was carried onboard the Space Shuttle Endeavor, which launched on February 11,2000. It uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar(SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI)space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, DC.Size: 35 by 35 kilometers (22 by 22 miles) Location: 21.4 degrees North latitude, 157.8 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Original Data Resolution: SRTM, 30 meters (99 feet), EarthKAM Electronic Still Camera, 40 meters (132 feet) Date Acquired: SRTM, February 18, 2000; EarthKAM, February 12, 2000 Image: NASA/JPL/NIMA
A set of ten side-looking radar images of a mining area in Arizona that were aquired over a period of 14 yr are studied to demonstrate the photogrammetric differential-rectification technique applied to radar images and to examine changes that occurred in the area over time. Five of the images are rectified by using ground control points and a digital height model taken from a map. Residual coordinate errors in ground control are reduced from several hundred meters in all cases to + or - 19 to 70 m. The contents of the radar images are compared with a Landsat image and with aerial photographs. Effects of radar system parameters on radar images are briefly reviewed.
Leberl, F.; Fuchs, H.; Ford, J. P.
Two techniques for radar image registration and rectification are presented. In the registration method, a general 2-D polynomial transform is defined to accomplish the geometric mapping from one image into the other. The degree and coefficients of the polynomial are obtained using an a priori found tiepoint data set. In the second part of the paper, a rectification procedure is developed that models the distortion present in the radar image in terms of the radar sensor's platform parameters and the topographic variations of the imaged scene. This model, the ephemeris data and the digital topographic data are then used in rectifying the radar image. The two techniques are then used in registering and rectifying two examples of radar imagery. Each method is discussed as to its benefits, shortcomings and registration accuracy.
Naraghi, M.; Stromberg, W. D.
An objective of the ERS-1 radar altimeter is to measure the surface topography of the polar ice sheets to a precision on the order of a meter. ERS-1 Waveform Altimeter Product (WAP) data was corrected for several processing errors. A range correction from the WAP waveforms, using the multiparameter retracking algorithm to account for range tracking limitations inherent to radar altimetry, was derived. From crossover analysis, the resulting precision is shown to be about 2.1 m in ocean mode and 2.2 m in ice mode. A topography map, produced with 23 days of corrected data, shows details of the western part of west Antarctic ice sheet and part of the Ross ice shelf including ice divides, ice stream boundaries, and ice shelf grounding lines.
Zwally, H. Jay; Brenner, Anita C.; Dimarzio, John; Seiss, Timothy
A digitally formed monopulse radar employing dynamic real-time calibration during operation is described. The invention has a transmitter section, timing circuit, RF section, IF section, in-phase and quadrature section and a digital signal processor. A portion of the transmit signal is diverted from the transmitter section for preparation of calibration factors during the calibration period between receive signals. The calibration factors prepared by the digital signal processor are applied by the processor to antenna received signals during the receive mode and to produce the corrected sum and delta pitch, and delta yaw signals and the tracking errors Ey.
Ghaleb, Sam; Stokes, Michael
Two alternative methods are disclosed for digital reduction of synthetic aperture multipolarized radar data using scattering matrices, or using Stokes matrices, of four consecutive along-track pixels to produce averaged data for generating a synthetic polarization image.
Zebker, Howard A. (Inventor); Held, Daniel N. (Inventor); van Zul, Jakob J. (Inventor); Dubois, Pascale C. (Inventor); Norikane, Lynne (Inventor)
In traditional radar systems, the use of electronic analog devices, such as mixers and oscillators, introduces some noise sources which complicate the realization of a completely digital radar systems. In fact, non linear behaviors of such systems as well as low Spurious Free Dynamic Range (SFDR) and low phase coherence, compromise radar performance in terms of detection and coherent signal
Francesco Laghezza; Amerigo Capria; Andrea Cacciamano; Fabrizio Berizzi; Paolo Ghelfi; Antonella Bogoni
In May 2009 a new radar technique for mapping ice surface topography was demonstrated in a Greenland campaign as part of the NASA International Polar Year (IPY) activities. This was achieved with the airborne Glacier and Ice Surface Topography Interferometer (GLISTIN-A): a 35.6 GHz single-pass interferometer. Although the technique of using radar interferometry for mapping terrain has been demonstrated before, this is the first such application at millimeter-wave frequencies. The proof-of-concept demonstration was achieved by interfacing Ka-band RF and antenna hardware with the Uninhabited Airborne Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR). The GLISTIN-A was implemented as a custom installation of the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center Gulfstream III. Instrument performance indicates swath widths over the ice between 5-7km, with height precisions ranging from 30cm-3m at a posting of 3m x 3m. Processing challenges were encountered in achieving the accuracy requirements on several fronts including, aircraft motion sensitivity, multipath and systematic drifts. However, through a combination of processor optimization, a modified phase-screen and motion-compensation implementations were able to minimize the impact of these systematic error sources. We will present results from the IPY data collections including system performance evaluations and imagery. This includes a large area digital elevation model (DEM) collected over Jakobshavn glacier as an illustrative science data product. Further, by intercomparison with the NASA Wallops Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) and calibration targets we quantify the interferometric penetration bias of the Ka-band returns into the snow cover. Following the success of the IPY campaign, we are funded under the Earth Science Techonology Office (ESTO) Airborne Innovative Technology Transition (AITT) program to transition GLISTIN-A to a permanently-available pod-only system compatible with unpressurized operation. In addition fundamental system upgrades will greatly enhance the performance and make wider-swath and higher altitude operation possible. We will show results from first flights of GLISTIN-A and summarize the plans for the near future including GLISTIN-H: GLISTIN on the NASA Global Hawk Spring 2013.
Moller, D.; Hensley, S.; Sadowy, G.; Wu, X.; Carswell, J.; Fisher, C.; Michel, T.; Lou, Y.
The global shape and the dynamic environment are fundamental properties of a body. Other properties such as volume, bulk density, and models for the dynamic environment can subsequently be computed based on such models. Stereo-photogrammetric methods were applied to derive a global digital terrain model (DTM) with 100 m/pixel resolution using High Resolution Stereo Camera images of the Mars Express mission and Viking Orbiter images. In a subsequent least-squares fit, coefficients of the spherical harmonic function to degree and order 45 are computed. The dynamic models for Phobos were derived from a polyhedron representation of the DTM. The DTM, spherical harmonic function model, and dynamic models, have been refined and represent Phobos' dynamic and geometric topography with much more detail when compared to Shi et al. (2012) and Willner et al. (2010) models, respectively. The volume of Phobos has been re-determined to be in the order of 5741 km3 with an uncertainty of only 0.6% of the total volume. This reduces the bulk density to 1.86±0.013 g/cm3 in comparison to previous results. Assuming a homogeneous mass distribution a forced libration amplitude for Phobos of 1.14° is computed that is in better agreement with observations by Willner et al. (2010) than previous estimates.
Willner, K.; Shi, X.; Oberst, J.
The general theory of laser tracking and ranging and the principles governing the design of laser radar systems are examined. Major problems related to optimum reception of laser radar signals and parameter measurement are analyzed from the standpoint of the theory of statistical solutions. Attention is given to methods for processing trajectory measurements and various methods for obtaining noncoordinate information,
I. N. Matveev; V. V. Protopopov; I. N. Troitskii; N. D. Ustinov
A new corneal topography system is described which combines proven grid projection and stereo triangulation techniques with an innovative user interface which simplifies the data capture process. Principles of the imaging, measurement, and calibration processes used with the system are presented. The device generates a complete topographic model of the anterior corneal surface with spatial resolution of 0.2 millimeters and elevation accuracy of 2 microns. System applications include pre- and post-operative assessment of refractive surgery patients, contact lens fitting including specification of custom RGP lenses, and excimer surgery planning and simulation. The innovative features of the system are described along with preliminary results of accuracy evaluations.
Cambier, James L.; Gao, Yan
Commercial OCT systems provide pachymetry measurements. Full corneal topographic information of anterior and posterior corneal surfaces for use in cataract surgery and refractive procedures is a desirable goal and would add to the usefulness of anterior and posterior segment evaluation. While substantial progress has been made towards obtaining "average" central corneal power (D Huang), power in different meridians and topography are still missing. This is usually reported to be due to eye movement. We analyze the role of centration, eye movements and develop a model that allows for the formulation of criteria for obtaining reliable topographic data within ¼ diopter.
Sayegh, Samir; Jiang, Yanshui
The Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission was recommended in 2007 by the National Research Council's Decadal Survey, "Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond", for implementation by NASA. The SWOT mission is a partnership between two communities, the physical oceanography and the hydrology, to share high vertical accuracy and high spatial resolution topography data produced by the science payload, principally a Ka-band radar Interferometer (KaRIn). The SWOT payload also includes a precision orbit determination system consisting of GPS and DORIS receivers, a Laser Retro-reflector Assembly (LRA), a Jason-class nadir radar altimeter, and a JASON-class radiometer for tropospheric path delay corrections. The SWOT mission will provide large-scale data sets of ocean sea-surface height resolving scales of 15km and larger, allowing the characterization of ocean mesoscale and submesoscale circulation. The SWOT mission will also provide measurements of water storage changes in terrestrial surface water bodies and estimates of discharge in large (wider than 100m) rivers globally. The SWOT measurements will provide a key complement to other NASA spaceborne global measurements of the water cycle measurements by directly measuring the surface water (lakes, reservoirs, rivers, and wetlands) component of the water cycle. The SWOT mission is an international partnership between NASA and the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). The Canadian Space Agency (CSA) is also expected to contribute to the mission. SWOT is currently nearing entry to Formulation (Phase A). Its launch is targeted for October 2020.
Neeck, Steven P.; Lindstrom, Eric J.; Vaze, Parag V.; Fu, Lee-Lueng
Longitudinal and seasonal variations in the occurrence of sunrise undulation at the dip equator: A study using Trivandrum and Jicamarca Digital Ionosonde and Jicamarca Incoherent Scatter radar measurements
At night, the absence of photo ionization in combination with sustained downward plasma motion means that the F region can be severely depleted at the magnetic equator at the end of the night. As a result, there can be, at sunrise, a sudden upward jump in altitude of the F region peak which is then followed by a quick descent in association with the downward motion of the photo ionization production peak. This constitutes what has been described as the equatorial sunrise undulation. Its anecdotal existence has been reported over Jicamarca (120 S, 76.90 W, 1.70 S dip-latitude) while it has been seen repeatedly over Trivandrum (8.470 N, 76.920 E, 0.170 S dip latitude), India, particularly during equinox conditions. Seasonal variations in the occurrence of sunrise undulation in the F-region peak height (hmF2) at two longitudinally separated geomagnetic equatorial stations, namely Jicamarca and Trivandrum are being presented. Measurements from Digital ionosondes, located at these two stations, have been used in this study. A fast descends in hmF2 after the local F region sunrise was quite visible at both the stations. The frequency of occurrence of sunrise undulation at Trivandrum, however, was high compared to the same at Jicamarca. There were noticeable differences in the seasonal occurrence of sunrise undulation at the two places. While it was observed throughout the year at Trivandrum, there was a distinct seasonal preference of occurrence at Jicamarca, at least in the year 2010, a low solar active period. Its frequency of occurrence at Jicamarca was high during winter (June) solstice, low during equinox (March) and had almost negligible occurrence during summer solstice (December). We show that (1) plasma density during sunrise at Jicamarca on average was twice as much as at Trivandrum, and (2) average height of hmF2 during night at Jicamarca was higher (~100km ) during equinox and solstice months compared to the same at Trivandrum. Our results suggest that the background density plays an important role in the observation of a sunrise undulation in the F region peak which itself is quite sensitive to the electric field seen by the plasma between sunset and sunrise. Using incoherent backscatter radar data from Jicamarca we show that the sunrise undulation can be masked when remnant plasma from the previous night does not come down to low enough altitude. We argue that this is the reason behind the lack of sunrise undulations in December at Jicamarca, given the fact that there is often very strong plasma uplift in the evening at that time of year. Thus the seasonal and longitudinal variation of sunrise ionosphere is a proxy to understand the electro-dynamical features of the night before.
Ambili, K. M.; St-Maurice, Jean-Pierre; Choudhary, Raj Kumar
Radar signal based helicopter categorization is a challenging task for all types of radars. Airborne pulse Doppler radar with an appropriate digital signal processing unit has a good potential to perform categorization or even classification, providing that radar parameters are carefully selected. This paper presents a helicopter categorization method, which is based on estimation of the main rotor blade tip
Jani M. Tikkinen; Elina E. Helander; A. Visa
The Patriot radar is a C-band, phased-array, multifunction radar that, under the control of the weapon control computer in the engagement control station, performs target search and track; missile search, track, and communications during midcourse guidance; and target-via-missile terminal guidance. This paper describes the functions the radar performs and provides descriptions of the subsystems. The use of a multichannel, multifunction receiver and digital signal processor is emphasized to demonstrate the control and processing for multiple radar actions required to support the tactical air defense mission. A summary of results of an extensive test program at the White Sands Missile Range is presented.
Carey, David R.; Evans, William
The characteristic basins and swells of Africa's surface topography probably reflect patterns of convective circulation in the sub-lithospheric mantle. We have interrogated drainage networks to determine the spatial and temporal pattern of convectively driven uplift. ~560 longitudinal river profiles were extracted from a digital elevation model of Africa. An inverse model is then used to minimise the misfit between observed and calculated river profiles as a function of uplift rate history. During inversion, the residual misfit decreases from ~22 to ~5. Our results suggest that Africa's topography began to grow most rapidly after ~30 Ma at peak uplift rates of 0.1-0.15 mm/yr. The algorithm resolves distinct phases of uplift which generate localized swells of high topography and relief (e.g. the Angolan Dome). Uplift rate histories are shown to vary significantly from swell to swell. The calculated magnitudes, timing, and location of uplift agree well with local independent geological constraints, such as intense volcanism at Hoggar (42-39 Ma) and Afar (31-29 Ma), uplifted marine terraces, and warped peneplains. We have also calculated solid sediment flux histories for major African deltas which have persisted through time. This onshore record provides an important indirect constraint on the history of vertical motions at the surface, and agrees well with the offshore flux record, obtained from mapping isopachs of deltaic sediments. Our modelling and reconstructed sedimentary flux histories indicate that the evolution of drainage networks may contain useful information about mantle convective processes.
Paul, Jonathan; Roberts, Gareth; White, Nicky
These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Kingston, RI; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of Gateway National Recreation Area's Sandy Hook Unit in New Jersey, acquired on May 16, 2007. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for pre-survey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is routinely used to create maps that represent submerged or first surface topography. Specialized filtering algorithms have been implemented to determine the 'bare earth' under vegetation from a point cloud of last return elevations.
Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Stevens, Sara; Yates, Xan; Bonisteel, Jamie M.
The images used to create this color composite of Io were acquired by Galileo during its ninth orbit (C9) of Jupiter and are part of a sequence of images designed to map the topography or relief on Io and to monitor changes in the surface color due to volcanic activity. Obtaining images at low illumination angles is like taking a picture from a high altitude around sunrise or sunset. Such lighting conditions emphasize the topography of the volcanic satellite. Several mountains up to a few miles high can be seen in this view, especially near the upper right. Some of these mountains appear to be tilted crustal blocks. Most of the dark spots correspond to active volcanic centers.North is to the top of the picture which merges images obtained with the clear, red, green, and violet filters of the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft. . The resolution is 8.3 kilometers per picture element. The image was taken on June 27, 1997 at a range of 817,000 kilometers by the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo
Topographic maps provide a backdrop for research in nearly every earth science discipline. There is particular demand for bathymetry data in the ocean basins, where existing coverage is sparse. Ships and submersibles worldwide are rapidly acquiring large volumes of new data with modern swath mapping systems. The science community is best served by a global topography compilation that is easily accessible, up-to-date, and delivers data in the highest possible (i.e. native) resolution. To meet this need, the NSF-supported Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS; www.marine-geo.org) has partnered with the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC; www.ngdc.noaa.gov) to produce the Global Multi-Resolution Topography (GMRT) synthesis - a continuously updated digital elevation model that is accessible through Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC; www.opengeospatial.org) Web services. GMRT had its genesis in 1992 with the NSF RIDGE Multibeam Synthesis (RMBS); later grew to include the Antarctic Multibeam Synthesis (AMBS); expanded again to include the NSF Ridge 2000 and MARGINS programs; and finally emerged as a global compilation in 2005 with the NSF Legacy of Ocean Exploration (LOE) project. The LOE project forged a permanent partnership between MGDS and NGDC, in which swath bathymetry data sets are routinely published and exchanged via the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH; www.openarchives.org). GMRT includes both color-shaded relief images and underlying elevation values at ten different resolutions as high as 100m. New data are edited, gridded, and tiled using tools originally developed by William Haxby at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory. Global and regional data sources include the NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM; http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/srtm/); Smith & Sandwell Satellite Predicted Bathymetry (http://topex.ucsd.edu/marine_topo/); SCAR Subglacial Topographic Model of the Antarctic (BEDMAP; http://www.antarctica.ac.uk/bedmap/); and International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean (IBCAO; http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/bathymetry/arctic/). Local data sources include high-resolution bathymetry swaths and grids from over 210 research cruises, submersible dives, and related compilations to date. GMRT is accessible via a OGC Web Map Service (WMS) which offers dynamic resolution and on-the-fly map re- projection. A growing number of commercial and open-source clients support OGC protocols, including recent versions of Google Earth and Google Maps which now support WMS natively. GMRT is incorporated as a primary basemap in science Web portals and geobrowsers including EarthChem (www.earthchem.org) and GeoMapApp (www.geomapapp.org), which also serves the underlying elevation values. Future development work will include extension of GMRT to higher resolutions; addition of the International Bathymetric Chart of the Southern Ocean (IBCSO; www.ibcso.org) and the improved SRTM V2; and deployment of new OGC services including a Web Coverage Service (WCS) and Web Terrain Service (WTS).
Arko, R.; Ryan, W.; Carbotte, S.; Melkonian, A.; Coplan, J.; O'Hara, S.; Chayes, D.; Weissel, R.; Goodwillie, A.; Ferrini, V.; Stroker, K.; Virden, W.
Research is reported dealing with problems of digital data transmission and computer communications networks. The results of four individual studies are presented which include: (1) signal processing with finite state machines, (2) signal parameter estimation from discrete-time observations, (3) digital filtering for radar signal processing applications, and (4) multiple server queues where all servers are not identical.
Boorstyn, R. R.
This three-dimensional perspective of the remote Karakax Valley in the northern Tibetan Plateau of western China was created by combining two spaceborne radar images using a technique known as interferometry. Visualizations like this are helpful to scientists because they reveal where the slopes of the valley are cut by erosion, as well as the accumulations of gravel deposits at the base of the mountains. These gravel deposits, called alluvial fans, are a common landform in desert regions that scientists are mapping in order to learn more about Earth's past climate changes. Higher up the valley side is a clear break in the slope, running straight, just below the ridge line. This is the trace of the Altyn Tagh fault, which is much longer than California's San Andreas fault. Geophysicists are studying this fault for clues it may be able to give them about large faults. Elevations range from 4000 m (13,100 ft) in the valley to over 6000 m (19,700 ft) at the peaks of the glaciated Kun Lun mountains running from the front right towards the back. Scale varies in this perspective view, but the area is about 20 km (12 miles) wide in the middle of the image, and there is no vertical exaggeration. The two radar images were acquired on separate days during the second flight of the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour in October 1994. The interferometry technique provides elevation measurements of all points in the scene. The resulting digital topographic map was used to create this view, looking northwest from high over the valley. Variations in the colors can be related to gravel, sand and rock outcrops. This image is centered at 36.1 degrees north latitude, 79.2 degrees east longitude. Radar image data are draped over the topography to provide the color with the following assignments: Red is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; green is the average of L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received and C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; and blue is C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.
SAR interferometry at Venus for topography and change detection Franz J. Meyer a,b,n , David T 1 March 2012 Received in revised form 4 October 2012 Accepted 5 October 2012 Keywords: Venus of Venus in the early 1990's, techniques of synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) have become
Sandwell, David T.
ctoh.legos.obs-mip.fr ABSTRACT : The Centre for the Topography of Oceans and the Hydrosphere (CTOH), the Altimeter Data Service of the LEGOS laboratory validates ENVISAT RA2 altimetry, in particular over Antarctic-CNES Symposium, 20 Years of Progress in Radar Altimetry, 24-29 September 2012, Venice, Italy LEGOS/CTOH, 14
Accurate conversion of wideband multi-GHz analog signals into the digital domain has long been a target of analog-to-digital converter (ADC) developers, driven by applications in radar systems, software radio, medical ...
Khilo, Anatol (Anatol M.)
In recent years, much attention has been devoted to digital elevation models (DEMs) produced using Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR). This has been triggered by the relative novelty of the InSAR method and its world-famous product—the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) DEM. However, much less attention, if at all, has been paid to sources of artefacts in SRTM. In this work, we focus not on the missing pixels (null pixels) due to shadows or the layover effect, but rather on outliers that were undetected by the SRTM validation process. The aim of this study is to identify some of the causes of the elevation outliers in SRTM. Such knowledge may be helpful to mitigate similar problems in future InSAR DEMs, notably the ones currently being developed from data acquired by the TanDEM-X mission. We analysed many cross-sections derived from SRTM. These cross-sections were extracted over the elevation test areas, which are available from the Global Elevation Data Testing Facility (GEDTF) whose database contains about 8,500 runways with known vertical profiles. Whenever a significant discrepancy between the known runway profile and the SRTM cross-section was detected, a visual interpretation of the high-resolution satellite image was carried out to identify the objects causing the irregularities. A distance and a bearing from the outlier to the object were recorded. Moreover, we considered the SRTM look direction parameter. A comprehensive analysis of the acquired data allows us to establish that large metallic structures, such as hangars or car parking lots, are causing the outliers. Water areas or plain wet terrains may also cause an InSAR outlier. The look direction and the depression angle of the InSAR system in relation to the suspected objects influence the magnitude of the outliers. We hope that these findings will be helpful in designing the error detection routines of future InSAR or, in fact, any microwave aerial- or space-based survey. The presence of outliers in SRTM was first reported in Becek, K. (2008). Investigating error structure of shuttle radar topography mission elevation data product, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L15403.
Becek, K.; Borkowski, A.
The various active radar implementation options available for the measurement functions of interest for the SEASAT follow-on missions were evaluated. These functions include surface feature imaging, surface pressure and vertical profile, atmospheric sounding, surface backscatter and wind speed determination, surface current location, wavelength spectra, sea surface topography, and ice/snow thickness. Some concepts for the Synthetic Aperture Imaging Radar were examined that may be useful in the design and selection of the implementation options for these missions. The applicability of these instruments for the VOIR mission was also kept under consideration.
This paper presents the HAL-3 radar test set (called the set in the following) used to measure the technical specifications of the HAL-3 airborne radar and to maintain it based on tested results. Some new techniques are employed in the set, including sinusoidal pulsewidth modulation (SPWM) in the power supply, digital gyro simulator and automatic test module (ATM) with STD industrial control microprocessor series. The specially designed software implements man-machine interaction with menu in Chinese, selects parameters and operation mode, and controls testing procedures. These techniques may be extensively applied to other automatic test instruments.
Fang, Zhenhe; Zhang, Ming-Xing; Shen, Chang-Hong; Wang, Yi
by rubbersheeting of the other DEM #12;Measuring Elevation with ASTER Nighttime Thermal Imagery Â· In rugged terrain Geospatial-Intelligence Agency Unedited Edited Water Bodies & Minor Voids #12;Total SRTM United States
Wright, Dawn Jeannine
The various techniques of X-ray diffraction topography image imperfections in single-crystals by Bragg reflexion, with a spatial resolution of approximately one micrometre. Defects can be studied in relation to crystal growth and physical properties. X-ray interference effects can also be explored in perfect, and nearly perfect, crystals. Synchrotron radiation has given X-ray topography additional powers, including the rapid non-destructive assessment
This paper presents a novel digital interferometric method to demodulate Placido fringe patterns. This is a synchronous method which uses a computer-stored conic-wavefront as demodulating reference. Here we focuses on the experimental aspects to phase-demodulate Placido mires applied to corneal topography. This synchronous method is applied to two topographic Placido images and their de-modulated corneal-slope deformation is estimated. This conic-interferometric method is highly robust against typical "noisy" signals in Placido topography such as: reflected eyelashes and iris structures. That is because the eyelashes and the iris structure are high frequency "noisy" signals corrupting the reflected Placido mire, so they are filtered-out by this method. Digital synchronous interferometry is here applied for the first time to demodulate corneal topographic concentric-rings images (Patent pending at the USPTO).
A technique for retrieving information about the lunar topography from any individual multispectral LROC Wide Angle Camera (WAC) image has been developed. This technology is possible, since images acquired at different wavelengths correspond to different viewing angles and the influence of color differences between the images on the parallax assessments is small. This method provides the precision of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) comparable to the global lunar 100 m raster DTM retrieved from the LROC WAC stereo model (GLD100). It potentially allows one to obtain maps of the elevations with better horizontal resolution than those of the GLD100. An empirical model of the distortion for LROC WAC has been developed and used for correction of the initial WAC images. In contrast to the standard pre-flight model, our model allows for compensation of the radial distortion, decentering the optics, and tilt of the CCD array almost fully. The DEMs obtained using our approach exhibit real morphological details in some cases that are invisible in GLD100 maps. Thus, our method suggests additional independent information about the lunar topography. The fact that our elevation maps have the same projection as the initial images allows valid corrections of these images to account for topographic effects (i. e. orthorectification) in contrast to the use of the GLD100 that may have slightly different coordinates referencing in comparison to individual WAC images.
Korokhin, Viktor V.; Velikodsky, Yuri I.; Shalygin, Eugene V.; Shkuratov, Yuriy G.; Kaydash, Vadym G.; Videen, Gorden
Some problems faced in applications of radar measurements in hydrology are: (1) adequate calibration of the radar systems and direct digital data will be required in order that repeatable data can be acquired for hydrologic applications; (2) quantitative hydrologic research on a large scale will be prohibitive with aircraft mounted synthetic aperture radar systems due to the system geometry; (3) spacecraft platforms appear to be the best platforms for radar systems when conducting research over watersheds larger than a few square kilometers; (4) experimental radar systems should be designed to avoid use of radomes; and (5) cross polarized X and L band data seem to discriminate between good and poor hydrologic cover better than like polarized data.
Blanchard, B. J.
A highly integrated 24 GHz radar sensor is presented, based on a Radio Frequency Integrated Circuit (RFIC) which was specifically developed for a Frequency Modulated Shift Keying (FMSK) based Radar system design. Antenna, waveform, the Radio Frequency (RF) and Digital Signal Processor (DSP) module, the software design, cost and performance aspects will be described. The significant technical and economical advantages of the implemented Silicon-Germanium (SiGe) Bipolar CMOS (BiCMOS) transceiver are demonstrated. Some automotive and other applications based on this technology and new radar system design will be explained.
Imaging radar backscatter in continuously forested areas contains information about the forest canopy; it also contains data about topography, landforms, and terrain texture. For purposes of radar image interpretation and geologic mapping researchers were interested in identifying and separating forest canopy effects from geologic or geomorphic effects on radar images. The objectives of this investigation was to evaluate forest canopy variables in multipolarization radar images under conditions where geologic and topographic variables are at a minimum. A subsidiary objective was to compare the discriminatory capabilities of the radar images with corresponding optical images of similar spatial resolution. It appears that the multipolarization images discriminate variation in tree density, but no evidence was found for discrimination between evergreen and deciduous forest types.
Ford, J. P.; Wickland, D. E.; Sharitz, R. R.
A NASA radar instrument has been successfully used to measure some of the fastest moving and most inaccessible glaciers in the world -- in Chile's huge, remote Patagonia ice fields -- demonstrating a technique that could produce more accurate predictions of glacial response to climate change and corresponding sea level changes. This image, produced with interferometric measurements made by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) flown on the Space Shuttle last fall, has provided the first detailed measurements of the mass and motion of the San Rafael Glacier. Very few measurements have been made of the Patagonian ice fields, which are the world's largest mid-latitude ice masses and account for more than 60 percent of the Southern Hemisphere's glacial area outside of Antarctica. These features make the area essential for climatologists attempting to understand the response of glaciers on a global scale to changes in climate, but the region's inaccessibility and inhospitable climate have made it nearly impossible for scientists to study its glacial topography, meteorology and changes over time. Currently, topographic data exist for only a few glaciers while no data exist for the vast interior of the ice fields. Velocity has been measured on only five of the more than 100 glaciers, and the data consist of only a few single-point measurements. The interferometry performed by the SIR-C/X-SAR was used to generate both a digital elevation model of the glaciers and a map of their ice motion on a pixel-per-pixel basis at very high resolution for the first time. The data were acquired from nearly the same position in space on October 9, 10 and 11, 1994, at L-band frequency (24-cm wavelength), vertically transmitted and received polarization, as the Space Shuttle Endeavor flew over several Patagonian outlet glaciers of the San Rafael Laguna. The area shown in these two images is 50 kilometers by 30 kilometers (30 miles by 18 miles) in size and is centered at 46.6 degrees south latitude, 73.8 degrees west longitude. North is toward the upper right. The top image is a digital elevation model of the scene, where color and saturation represent terrain height (between 0 meters and 2,000 meters or up to 6,500 feet) and brightness represents radar backscatter. Low elevations are shown in blue and high elevations are shown in pink. The digital elevation map of the glacier surface has a horizontal resolution of 15 meters (50 feet) and a vertical resolution of 10 meters (30 feet). High-resolution maps like these acquired over several years would allow scientists to calculate directly long-term changes in the mass of the glacier. The bottom image is a map of ice motion parallel to the radar look direction only, which is from the top of the image. Purple indicates ice motion away from the radar at more than 6 centimeters per day; dark blue is ice motion toward or away at less than 6 cm per day; light blue is motion toward the radar of 6 cm to 20 cm (about 2 to 8 inches) per day; green is motion toward the radar of 20 cm to 45 cm (about 8 to 18 inches) per day; yellow is 45 cm to 85 cm (about 18 to 33 inches) per day; orange is 85 cm to 180 cm (about 33 to 71 inches) per day; red is greater than 180 cm (71 inches) per day. The velocity estimates are accurate to within 5 millimeters per day. The largest velocities are recorded on the San Rafael Glacier in agreement with previous work. Other outlet glaciers exhibit ice velocities of less than 1 meter per day. Several kilometers before its terminus, (left of center) the velocity of the San Rafael Glacier exceeds 10 meters (32 feet) per day, and ice motion cannot be estimated from the data. There, a revisit time interval of less than 12 hours would have been necessary to estimate ice motion from interferometry data. The results however demonstrate that the radar interferometry technique permits the monitoring of glacier characteristics unattainable by any other means. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) are part of NASA's
Recent technology improvements have made it feasible to consider digital spaceltime adaptive antenna beamforming, with associated sophisticated adaptive weight generation algorithms, for Airborne Early Warning (AEW) radar and other applications. These technologies are of particullar interest with AEW radar because of its potential vulnerability to large ground clutter returns combined with casual and intentional interference (i.e., electromagnetic interference (EMI), jamming).
James K. Day
In this paper we have introduced a new topology for a digitally-controlled smart radar absorbing structure based on the phase-switched screen and presented initial experimental data which support the theoretical concept.
B. Chambers; A. Tennant
We aid in study of the solar system by means of ground-based radar. We have concentrated on: (1) developing the ephemerides needed to acquire radar data at Arecibo Observatory and (2) analyzing the resultant data to: test fundamental laws of gravitation; determine the size , shape, topography, and spin vectors of the targets; and study the surface properties of these objects, through their scattering law and polarization characteristics. We are engaged in radar observations of asteroids and comets, both as systematically planned targets and as "targets of opportunity." In the course of the program, we have prepared ephemerides for about 80 asteroids and three comets, and the radar observations have been made or attempted at the Arecibo Observatory, in most cases successfully, and in some cases on more than one apparition. The results of these observations have included echo spectra for the targets and, in some cases, delay - Doppler images and measurements of the total round-trip delay to the targets. Perhaps the most dramatic of these results are the images obtained for asteroids (4179) Toutatis and 1989PB (Castalia), which were revealed to be double-lobed objects by the radar images. Besides these direct results, the radar observations have furnished information on the sizes and shapes of the targets through analysis of the Doppler width of the echoes as a function of time, and on the surface properties (such as composition, bulk density, and roughness) through analysis of the reflectivity and of the polarization state of the echoes. We have also refined the orbits of the observed asteroids as a result of the Doppler (and in some cases delay) measurements from the radar observations. Although the orbits of main-belt asteroids accessible to ground-based radar are quite well known from the available optical data, some near-Earth objects have been seen by radar very soon after their optical discovery (for example, 199OMF, just eight days after discovery). In such cases. the radar results ensure that the object in question can be anticipated and identified at the next apparition. We have also participated in radar studies of the terrestrial planets. The results of these studies have included both planetary topography profiles from the analysis of round-trip delays to points along the target Doppler equator and determinations of the target spin state. The latter is of special interest in the case of Venus, which is very close to, but not on, a multi-body spin-orbit resonance such that Venus rotates 12 times for every 8 Earth orbits and 13 Venus orbits. As a result, Venus presents nearly the same face toward Earth at each inferior conjunction. Our latest results confirm that the spin state of Venus is slightly off the resonance. The delay measurements from planetary 2 ranging have also been used in combination with other types of range data in testing general relativity with increasing accuracy. We have also been engaged in radar studies of planetary satellites. Using our ephemerides, Arecibo made radar observations of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter and of Mars' satellite Phobos during the favorable opposition seasons (1988-1992 for Jupiter and 1990 for Mars). An attempt was also made to observe Deimos, but without detecting an echo. In 1997, an attempt was made to observe Saturn's satellite Titan, using the newly upgraded Arecibo radar system for transmitting and the Goldstone radar for receiving, but no echo was detected. The study of satellites by radar is in many ways similar to that of asteroids. The results from these observations have included characterization of the surface properties from the reflectivity and polarization ratio, as well as (in the case of the large satellites of Jupiter) the variation of reflectivity with incidence angle.
Shaprio, Irwin I.
We discuss the innovative concept and technology development of a Ka-band (35 GHz) radar for mapping the surface topography of glaciers and ice sheets. The "Glacier and Land Ice Surface Topography Interferometer" (GLISTIN) is a single-pass, single platform interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) with an 8mm wavelength, which minimizes snow penetration yet remains relatively impervious to atmospheric attenuation. Such a system has the potential for delivering topographic maps at high spatial resolution, high vertical accuracy, independent of cloud cover, with a subseasonal update and would greatly enhance current observational and modeling capabilities of ice mass-balance and glacial retreat. To enable such measurements, a digitally beamformed antenna array is utilized to provide a wide measurement swath at a technologically feasible transmit power. To prove this concept and advance the technology readiness of this design we are currently funded by the NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Instrument Incubator Program (IIP) to build and test a 1m x 1m digitally-beamformed (DBF) Ka-band slotted waveguide antenna with integrated digital receivers. This antenna provides 16 simultaneous receive beams, effectively broadening the swath without reducing receive antenna gain. The implementation of such a large aperture at Ka-band presents many design, manufacturing and calibration challenges which are addressed as part of this IIP. The integrated DBF array will be fielded at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's antenna range to demonstrate the overall calibration, beamforming and interferometric performance through creation of topographic imagery of the local Arroyo Seco. Currently entering the third year of the program, we will overview the system concept, array implementation and status of the technology. While the IIP addresses the development of the major technology challenges, an additional effort will demonstrate the phenomenology of the measurement by adapting the NASA ESTO-funded Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle - Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) system for Ka-band single-pass interferometry. The conversion to Ka-Band will utilize the modular UAVSAR system originally designed for L-Band operation, retaining the radar control, data acquisition and processing infrastructure and requiring only minor pod and RF modifications. We will fly the Ka-Band interferometer aboard the UAVSAR platform over regions of Greenland, flying a grid over Jakobshavn glacier, then a transect from the coast to Swiss Camp ending at Greenland's Summit. Over a period of 4-5 weeks at the beginning of the melt season, these flight missions will be repeated in different snow/ice conditions. The flight data will be compared with airborne laser altimetry (Airborne Topographic Mapper lidar instrument, NASA GSFC/Wallops), field observations (GPS data at Swiss Camp, Summit), and climate data from the Automatic Weather Station (Colorado University) network (snowfall, corrected for densification) to estimate penetration and produce topographic surface maps. Topography is an essential piece of information for glaciology and a high-quality topographic map (tens of cm height accuracy over 10m pixels) will be produced. The experiment will pave the way to making more topographic products available to glaciologists and aid in the design a spaceborne mission capable of delivering similar products at the continental scale.
Moller, D.; Heavey, B.; Hensley, S.; Hodges, R.; Rengarajan, S.; Rignot, E.; Sadowy, G.; Simard, M.; Zawadzki, M.
This 2-hour module presents the fundamental principles of Doppler weather radar operation and how to interpret common weather phenomena using radar imagery. This is accomplished via conceptual animations and many interactive radar examples in which the user can practice interpreting both radar reflectivity and radar velocity imagery. Although intended as an accelerated introduction to understanding and using basic Doppler weather radar products, the module can also serve as an excellent refresher for more experienced users.
Field mapping of young lava flows at Aleutian volcanoes is logistically difficult, and the utility of optical images from aircraft or satellites for this purpose is greatly reduced by persistent cloud cover. These factors have hampered earlier estimates of the areas and volumes of three young lava flows at Westdahl Volcano, including its most recent (1991-1992) flow. We combined information from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images with multispectral Landsat-7 data to differentiate the 1991-1992 flow from the 1964 flow and a pre-1964 flow, and to calculate the flow areas (8.4, 9.2, and 7.3 km 2, respectively). By differencing a digital elevation model (DEM) from the 1970-1980s with a DEM from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) in February 2000, we estimated the average thickness of the 1991-1992 flow to be 13 m, which reasonably agrees with field observations (5-10 m). Lava-flow maps produced in this way can be used to facilitate field mapping and flow-hazards assessment, and to study magma-supply dynamics and thus to anticipate future eruptive activity. Based on the recurrence interval of recent eruptions and the results of this study, the next eruption at Westdahl may occur before the end of this decade. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lu, Z.; Rykhus, R.; Masterlark, T.; Dean, K.G.
Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC) has developed an enhanced vision system utilizing fast-scanning 94 GHz radar technology to provide three-dimensional measurements of an aircraft's forward external scene topography. This threedimensional data is rendered as terrain imagery, from the pilot's perspective, on a Head-Up Display (HUD). The image provides the requisite "enhanced vision" to continue a safe approach along the flight path below the Decision Height (DH) in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) that would otherwise be cause for a missed approach. Terrain imagery is optionally fused with digital elevation model (DEM) data of terrain outside the radar field of view, giving the pilot additional situational awareness. Flight tests conducted in 2013 show that REVS™ has sufficient resolution and sensitivity performance to allow identification of requisite visual references well above decision height in dense fog. This paper provides an overview of the Enhanced Flight Vision System (EFVS) concept, of the technology underlying REVS, and a detailed discussion of the flight test results.
Brailovsky, Alexander; Bode, Justin; Cariani, Pete; Cross, Jack; Gleason, Josh; Khodos, Victor; Macias, Gary; Merrill, Rahn; Randall, Chuck; Rudy, Dean
Though contact guidance has been known since the very early days of cell culture very little quantitative examination of the reaction of cells to topography has been made. Exceptions to this subjective approach are given prominence below. Yet if we are to understand how cells react and if we are to be able to design ideal substrata for particular cells
Adam S. G. Curtis; Chris D. W. Wilkinson
The authors present a brief overview of the surface to be measured (the cornea of the eye), review the current state of the technology designed to measure the corneal topography, and define the outstanding issues of current significance. The topics discussed include: eye movements; fundamental operating principles of new systems; videokeratographic systems; fundamental limitations of the operating principles; limitations of
R. A. Applegate; H. C. Howland
A seamless, 3-meter digital elevation model (DEM) was constructed for the entire Southern California coastal zone, extending 473 km from Point Conception to the Mexican border. The goal was to integrate the most recent, high-resolution datasets available (for example, Light Detection and Ranging (Lidar) topography, multibeam and single beam sonar bathymetry, and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IfSAR) topography) into a continuous surface from at least the 20-m isobath to the 20-m elevation contour. This dataset was produced to provide critical boundary conditions (bathymetry and topography) for a modeling effort designed to predict the impacts of severe winter storms on the Southern California coast (Barnard and others, 2009). The hazards model, run in real-time or with prescribed scenarios, incorporates atmospheric information (wind and pressure fields) with a suite of state-of-the-art physical process models (tide, surge, and wave) to enable detailed prediction of water levels, run-up, wave heights, and currents. Research-grade predictions of coastal flooding, inundation, erosion, and cliff failure are also included. The DEM was constructed to define the general shape of nearshore, beach and cliff surfaces as accurately as possible, with less emphasis on the detailed variations in elevation inland of the coast and on bathymetry inside harbors. As a result this DEM should not be used for navigation purposes.
Barnard, Patrick L.; Hoover, Daniel
The past decade has seen the most intensive observations of the global ocean surface topography from satellite altimeters. The Joint U.S./France TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) Mission has become the longest radar mission ever flown in space, providing the most accurate measurements for the study of ocean dynamics since October 1992.
Fu, L. L.; Menard, Y.
One of the major and common requirements for all active microware sensors is generation of the transmit modulation signal-like chirp\\/LFM signal, MSK, etc., which can be generated by analog or digital means. With the increasing demands of side bandwidth, longer duration chirp signals in radar systems, digital signal generation, and processing has emerged as a preferred alternative. Design and development
S. Gangele; N. M. Desai; R. Senthil Kumar; J. G. Vachhani; V. R. Gujraty
has found military applications such as ground penetrating radar (GPR), wall penetrating radar, secure. Particularly, in UWB ground penetrating radar, a digitally tunable pulse generator allows the pulse width on the resolution of the radar. If the impulse radio is used as GPR to provide high penetration depth, higher pulse
We have assembled all currently processed radar data from 1989 to 1998 into crude images covering the Kuiper (H6) region on Mercury. The data used were taken to support the ephemeris improvement and gravitational physics programs; however, the resolution is good enough in some cases to make north/south ambiguous images that show some features that can be identified with the Mariner 10 features. Topography profiles along the apparent equator are also available; some of these profiles show ridges and rills as well as crater depths and diameters. The combination of the optical imaging and the radar imaging can be helpful in understanding similar features in radar images of the optically unimaged hemisphere.
Jurgens, R. F.; Rojas, F.; Slade, M. A.; Standish, E. M.; Haldemann, A. F. C.
SIR-C/X-SAR, a three-frequency radar to be flown on the Space Shuttle in September 1993, is described. The SIR-C system is a two-frequency radar operating at 1250 MHz (L-band) and 5300 MHz (C-band), and is designed to get four-polarization radar imagery at multiple surface angles. The X-SAR system is an X-band imaging radar operating at 9600 MHz. The discussion covers the mission concept; system design; hardware; RF electronics; digital electronics; command, timing, and telemetry; and testing.
Jordan, Rolando L.; Huneycutt, Bryan L.; Werner, Marian
Viewgraphs used in a presentation on wind shear radar simulation are given. Information on a microburst model of radar reflectivity and wind velocity, radar pulse output, the calculation of radar return, microburst power spectrum, and simulation plans are given. A question and answer session is transcribed.
Britt, Charles L.
An overview of radar and electronic warfare is given. Definitions, common terms, and principles of radar and electronic warfare, and simple analyses of interactions between radar systems and electronic countermeasures (ECM) are presented. Electronic counter-countermeasure and electronic support measures are discussed. Background material in mathematics, electromagnetics, and probability necessary for an understanding of radar and electronic warfare is given and
August Golden Jr.
The technological evolution in signal processing that has been made in last decades led to improvements in radar performances. Increasing the radar range by improving its sensitivity has been made by the designers of aircraft and other military systems to try to decrease the radar cross section of these types of equipment. The radar cross section is a matter of
L. Nicolaescu; Teofil Oroian
The Shuttle Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) mission will yield new and advanced scientific studies of the Earth. SIR-C will be the first instrument to simultaneously acquire images at L-band and C-band with HH, VV, HV, or VH polarizations, as well as images of the phase difference between HH and VV polarizations. These data will be digitally encoded and recorded using onboard high-density digital tape recorders and will later be digitally processed into images using the JPL Advanced Digital SAR Processor. SIR-C geologic studies include cold-region geomorphology, fluvial geomorphology, rock weathering and erosional processes, tectonics and geologic boundaries, geobotany, and radar stereogrammetry. Hydrology investigations cover arid, humid, wetland, snow-covered, and high-latitude regions. Additionally, SIR-C will provide the data to identify and map vegetation types, interpret landscape patterns and processes, assess the biophysical properties of plant canopies, and determine the degree of radar penetration of plant canopies. In oceanography, SIR-C will provide the information necessary to: forecast ocean directional wave spectra; better understand internal wave-current interactions; study the relationship of ocean-bottom features to surface expressions and the correlation of wind signatures to radar backscatter; and detect current-system boundaries, oceanic fronts, and mesoscale eddies. And, as the first spaceborne SAR with multi-frequency, multipolarization imaging capabilities, whole new areas of glaciology will be opened for study when SIR-C is flown in a polar orbit.
Efforts to extend radar range by an order of magnitude with use of the ionosphere as a virtual mirror started after the end of World War II. A number of HF radar programs were pursued, with long-range nuclear burst and missile launch detection demonstrated by 1956. Successful east coast radar aircraft detect and track tests extending across the Atlantic were conducted by 1961. The major obstacles to success, the large target-to-clutter ratio and low signal-to-noise ratio, were overcome with matched filter Doppler processing. To search the areas that a 2000 nautical mile (3700 km) radar can reach, very complex and high dynamic range processing is required. The spectacular advances in digital processing technology have made truly wide-area surveillance possible. Use of the surface attached wave over the oceans can enable HF radar to obtain modest extension of range beyond the horizon. The decameter wavelengths used by both skywave and surface wave radars require large physical antenna apertures, but they have unique capabilities for air and surface targets, many of which are of resonant scattering dimensions. Resonant scattering from the ocean permits sea state and direction estimation. Military and commercial applications of HF radar are in their infancy.
Headrick, J. M.; Thomason, J. F.
The Cassini mission is an international venture, involving NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Italian Space Agency (ASI), for the investigation of the Saturn system and, in particular, Titan. The Cassini radar will be able to see through Titan's thick, optically opaque atmosphere, allowing us to better understand the composition and the morphology of its surface, but the interpretation of the results, due to the complex interplay of many different factors determining the radar echo, will not be possible without an extensive modellization of the radar system functioning and of the surface reflectivity. In this paper, a simulator of the multimode Cassini radar will be described, after a brief review of our current knowledge of Titan and a discussion of the contribution of the Cassini radar in answering to currently open questions. Finally, the results of the simulator will be discussed. The simulator has been implemented on a RISC 6000 computer by considering only the active modes of operation, that is altimeter and synthetic aperture radar. In the instrument simulation, strict reference has been made to the present planned sequence of observations and to the radar settings, including burst and single pulse duration, pulse bandwidth, pulse repetition frequency and all other parameters which may be changed, and possibly optimized, according to the operative mode. The observed surfaces are simulated by a facet model, allowing the generation of surfaces with Gaussian or non-Gaussian roughness statistic, together with the possibility of assigning to the surface an average behaviour which can represent, for instance, a flat surface or a crater. The results of the simulation will be discussed, in order to check the analytical evaluations of the models of the average received echoes and of the attainable performances. In conclusion, the simulation results should allow the validation of the theoretical evaluations of the capabilities of microwave instruments, when considering topics like the surface topography, stratigraphy and identification of different materials.
Melacci, P. T.; Orosei, R.; Picardi, G.; Seu, R.
During the last decade, the techniques to generate digital elevation models (DEM) from SAR interferometry have been demonstrated and refined to a quasi-operational status using data from the ERS tandem mission. With this experience and an improved single-pass system concept, data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) acquired in 2000 have been used to produce a global DEM with unprecedented quality. However, under the extreme viewing conditions in mountainous terrain both ERS and SRTM suffer from or even fail due to the radar specific layover and shadow effect that leaves significant areas uncovered and poses severe problems to phase unwrapping. The paper quantifies the areas leading to layover and shadow, and shows innovative ways to overcome shadow and improve phase unwrapping in general. The paper is organized in three major sections. Firstly, the problem to map slopes is addressed in a simplified statistical way. Strategies to optimize the incidence angle for single and multiple observations are proposed. Secondly, a new algorithm is presented that makes the best from shadow by actively using it to help phase unwrapping. Thirdly, an outlook on the use of deltak interferometry for phase unwrapping is given. The paper aims to improve the understanding of the mapping geometry of radar systems and the data currently available and to improve the concepts of future systems and missions.
After radiography, white-beam X-ray topography (XRT) is the simplest X-ray imaging technique for crystals. An X-ray topograph is formed by a Bragg reflexion and is in effect a high-spatial-resolution Laue ‘spot’. Synchrotron radiation has given XRT additional powers, with its broad continuous spectrum, small beam divergence, high intensity, strong polarization and regular pulsed time structure. Each Laue image, however, may
In the body, cells encounter a complex milieu of signals, including topographical cues. Imposed topography can affect cells on surfaces by promoting adhesion, spreading, alignment, morphological changes, and changes in gene expression. Neural response to topography is complex, and depends on the dimensions and shapes of physical features. Looking toward repair of nerve injuries, strategies are being explored to engineer guidance conduits with precise surface topographies. How neurons and other cell types sense and interpret topography remains to be fully elucidated. Studies reviewed here include those of topography on cellular organization and function as well as potential cellular mechanisms of response. PMID:20438370
Hoffman-Kim, Diane; Mitchel, Jennifer A.; Bellamkonda, Ravi V.
There has been an increasing number of articles stressing the advantage of applying remote sensing products of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) for rapidly enhancing the volume of geological data in Amazonian areas, where forest cover is dense and high, clouds are abundant and accessibility is limited. The majority of these studies has emphasized geomorphology as a tool for both discussing tectonic reactivations during the Cenozoic and reconstructing Quaternary paleolandscapes. This work applies Digital Elevation Model (DEM) derived from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) for delineating past morphological features under dense rainforest in an Amazonian lowland area. Previous use of this tool in southwestern Marajó Island (northern Brazil) helped to delineate, with exceptional precision, a paleochannel network hidden under the rainforest, which would be barely detected with other available remote sensing products. Fieldwork revealed that these paleochannels are related to palimpsest drainage systems developed mostly during the last 40,000 14C yr B.P. Measured altitudes acquired during topographic surveys attested that paleochannel areas are slightly higher than adjacent floodplains. This fact determined the successful application of SRTM-DEM for mapping paleochannels in Marajó Island. Integration of SRTM data with sedimentological information collected during fieldwork suggests paleoflows derived from continental areas located to south of the study area. This paleodrainage was active when the island was still connected to mainland. With island detachment due to reactivation of tectonic faults, the channels became abandoned and were progressively forested. The results obtained in the present study indicate that SRTM-DEM has high potential for unraveling similar morphological features from many other Amazonian areas with low topography and a dense forest cover.
Mantelli, Luiz Rogério; Rossetti, Dilce de Fátima; Albuquerque, Paulo Gurgel; Valeriano, Márcio de Morisson
An Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) system to map the bedrock topography underneath the sand in deserts and arid areas is presented. It is anticipated to greatly increase the efficiency of oil field and ground water exploration as well as environmental and archaeological studies. The proposed system consists of two InSAR subsystems, one operating at Ka-band to map the sand topography and the other operates in the VHF band to map the subsurface topography. It is shown that conventional InSAR processing produces unacceptable error in height estimation since it does not account for the refraction and the different propagation velocity in the sand. Thus, a new inversion algorithm is developed which can be used to accurately estimate the bedrock topography for arbitrary sand and bedrock geometries. The inversion algorithm is verified experimentally using a scaled model in the lab. One of the main concerns was the use of conventional SAR focusing techniques for imaging the subsurface region. This can result in significant image degradation and lower limit on the minimum achievable azimuth resolution. Thus, a new subsurface iterative focusing technique is developed to address these challenges. One of the main practical system implementation issues is the antenna design for the VHF system since very wideband and very compact antennas are desired. Thus a number of compact and low profile Ultra-Wideband antennas are also developed. These antennas have sub-wavelength sizes and most of them have bandwidths exceeding one octave. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)
Elsherbini, Adel A.
The article describes preliminary results of the augmentation of Global Navigation Satellite System/Inertial Navigation System positioning (GNSS/INS) by Digital Elevation Model (DEM) based on the data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and data from field survey. The prototype software is developed to refer the position of the aircraft to DEM and informs the user about the current relevant flight parameters. The number of the parameters may be arbitrarily increased, however, currently we investigate the altitude above the terrain and the aircraft position relative to the descent path and airfield. The study provides some information on the local SRTM accuracy in relation to the field survey of the airfield "Dajtki" - Aeroclub of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn.
Cie?ko, Adam; Jarmo?owski, Wojciech
Results of a feasibility study to investigate a digital signal processor for real-time operation with a synthetic aperture radar system aboard the space shuttle are presented. Pertinent digital processing theory, a description of the proposed system, and size, weight, power, scheduling, and development estimates are included.
The Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) is an airborne laser altimeter designed to quickly and extensively map surface topography as well as the relative heights of other reflecting surfaces within the laser footprint. Since 1997, this instrument has primarily been used as the airborne simulator for the Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) mission, a spaceborne mission designed to measure tree height, vertical structure and ground topography (including sub-canopy topography). LVIS is capable of operating from 500 m to 10 km above ground level with footprint sizes from 1 to 60 m. Laser footprints can be randomly spaced within the 7 degree telescope field-of-view, constrained only by the operating frequency of the ND:YAG Q-switched laser (500 Hz). A significant innovation of the LVIS altimeter is that all ranging, waveform recording, and range gating are performed using a single digitizer, clock base, and detector. A portion of the outgoing laser pulse is fiber-optically fed into the detector used to collect the return signal and this entire time history of the outgoing and return pulses is digitized at 500 Msamp/sec. The ground return is then located using software digital signal processing, even in the presence of visibly opaque clouds. The surface height distribution of all reflecting surfaces within the laser footprint can be determined, for example, tree height and ground elevation. To date, the LVIS system has been used to monitor topographic change at Long Valley caldera, CA, as part of NASA's Topography and Surface Change program, and to map tree structure and sub-canopy topography at the La Selva Biological Research Station in Costa Rica, as part of the pre-launch calibration activities for the VCL mission. We present results that show the laser altimeter consistently and accurately maps surface topography, including sub-canopy topography, and vegetation height and structure. These results confirm the measurement concept of VCL and highlight the benefits of airborne prototypes of spaceborne instruments.
Bryan, J.; Rabine, David L.
The scaling properties of synthetic topographic surfaces and digital elevation models (DEMs) of topography are examined by analyzing their 'structure functions,' i.e., the qth order powers of the absolute elevation differences: delta h(sub q) (l) = E((absolute value of h(x + l) - h(x))(exp q)). We find that the relation delta h(sub 1 l) approximately equal cl(exp H) describes well the scaling behavior of natural topographic surfaces, as represented by DEMs gridded at 3 arc sec. Average values of the scaling exponent H between approximately 0.5 and 0.7 characterize DEMs from Ethiopia, Saudi Arabia, and Somalia over 3 orders of magnitude range in length scale l (approximately 0.1-150 km). Differences in appparent topographic roughness among the three areas most likely reflect differences in the amplitude factor c. Separate determination of scaling properties in the x and y coordinate directions allows us to assess whether scaling exponents are azimuthally dependent (anisotropic) or whether they are isotropic while the surface itself is anisotropic over a restricted range of length scale. We explore ways to determine whether topographic surfaces are characterized by simple or multiscaling properties.
Weissel, Jeffrey K.; Pratson, Lincoln F.; Malinverno, Alberto
An overview of radar and electronic warfare is given. Definitions, common terms, and principles of radar and electronic warfare, and simple analyses of interactions between radar systems and electronic countermeasures (ECM) are presented. Electronic counter-countermeasure and electronic support measures are discussed. Background material in mathematics, electromagnetics, and probability necessary for an understanding of radar and electronic warfare is given and radar tracking models are examined. The effects of various ECM emissions on radar systems are analyzed, including discussion of active ECM and angle scanning systems, angle measurement in monopulse, and automatic gain control.
Golden, August, Jr.
Surface roughness of the Moon provides important information concerning both significant questions about lunar surface processes and engineering constrains for human outposts and rover trafficabillity. Impact-related phenomena change the morphology and roughness of lunar surface, and therefore surface roughness provides clues to the formation and modification mechanisms of impact craters. Since the Apollo era, lunar surface roughness has been studied using different approaches, such as direct estimation from lunar surface digital topographic relief, and indirect analysis of Earth-based radar echo strengths. Submillimeter scale roughness at Apollo landing sites has been studied by computer stereophotogrammetry analysis of Apollo Lunar Surface Closeup Camera (ALSCC) pictures, whereas roughness at meter to kilometer scale has been studied using laser altimeter data from recent missions. Though these studies shown lunar surface roughness is scale dependent that can be described by fractal statistics, roughness at centimeter scale has not been studied yet. In this study, lunar surface roughnesses at centimeter scale are investigated using Earth-based 70 cm Arecibo radar data and miniature synthetic aperture radar (Mini-SAR) data at S- and X-band (with wavelengths 12.6 cm and 4.12 cm). Both observations and theoretical modeling show that radar echo strengths are mostly dominated by scattering from the surface and shallow buried rocks. Given the different penetration depths of radar waves at these frequencies (< 30 m for 70 cm wavelength, < 3 m at S-band, and < 1 m at X-band), radar echo strengths at S- and X-band will yield surface roughness directly, whereas radar echo at 70-cm will give an upper limit of lunar surface roughness. The integral equation method is used to model radar scattering from the rough lunar surface, and dielectric constant of regolith and surface roughness are two dominate factors. The complex dielectric constant of regolith is first estimated globally using the regolith composition and the relation among the dielectric constant, bulk density, and regolith composition. The statistical properties of lunar surface roughness are described by the root mean square (RMS) height and correlation length, which represent the vertical and horizontal scale of the roughness. The correlation length and its scale dependence are studied using the topography data from laser altimeter observations from recent lunar missions. As these two parameters are known, surface roughness (RMS slope) can be estimated by minimizing the difference between the observed and modeled radar echo strength. Surface roughness of several regions over Oceanus Procellarum and southeastern highlands on lunar nearside are studied, and preliminary results show that maira is smoother than highlands at 70 cm scale, whereas the situation turns opposite at 12 and 4 cm scale. Surface roughness of young craters is in general higher than that of maria and highlands, indicating large rock population produced during impacting process.
Within complex topography, the characteristic spatial scales of hydrological forcings are poorly captured by sparse measurements. The aim of this study is to improve temperature and precipitation interpolations during extreme precipitation events by integrating digital terrain information (DTM) and a weather forecast model (LAM) with sparse gauge data. Three previous events were analyzed to determine the factors which have the
Cara Tobin; Ludovico Nicotina; Alexis Berne; Marc Parlange; Andrea Rinaldo
Ground-Penetrating Radar Signal Enhancement by Digital Filtering Delphine Potin, Emmanuel Duflos, Member problems have been raised by these sensors. Ground-penetrating radars (GPRs) are key sensors for landmine. Thanks to the sensors, the technology is available. The ground-penetrating radar (GPR) has an im- portant
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
The United States Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program operates millimeter-wavelength cloud radars in several climatologically distinct regions. The digital signal processors for these radars were recently upgraded and allow for enhancements in the operational parameters running on them. Recent evaluations of millimeter-wavelength cloud radar signal processing performance relative to the range of cloud dynamical and microphysical conditions encountered
Pavlos Kollias; Eugene E. Clothiaux; Mark A. Miller; Edward P. Luke; Karen L. Johnson; Kenneth P. Moran; Kevin B. Widener; Bruce A. Albrecht
As one of the main facilities of so-called China Meridian Project which is focusing on the monitoring solar-terrestrial link and space weather, as well as sun-earth climate connection study, Beijing MST radar has been completed in the middle of 2011 and started its quasi-continuous operational observation since the end of 2011. Beijing MST radar is located in IAP's field observatory (39.4 N,117.0 E) which is a large scale full coherent VHF Doppler radar, with antenna area 9,110 m^2, power-aperture product 3.1×108 W.m^2. It's antenna array is consisted of 24×24 three element YAGI antenna with square digital active phased array, with beam width equal to or less than 4.5 degree and active five antenna beam azimuth directions and zenith angle ranging from zenith to 20 degree with 1 degree steps. Also the radar uses direct digital receivers and high speed signal processing system. The expected observation altitude is 3-25 km and 60-90 km, for which low, middle and high observation modes can be selected with different vertical resolutions. Same as other MST radars worldwide, Beijing MST radar may observe the 3D wind, backscattering power, and signal noise ratio, for different altitude ranges. Based on preliminary observation in certain time periods, results have been shown that both wind profiling from 3-25 km and 60-90 km are observed. Preliminary results show that the present radar can observe the altitude of lower thermosphere, at least in 90-100 km, even to 110 km. Further results will be given.
Lu, Daren; Chen, Zeyu; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Wenxing; Duan, Shu
The aim is to make radar reconnaissance of near-Earth asteroids, mainbelt ateroids, the Galilean satellites, the Martian satellites, and the largest Saturnian satellites, using the Arecibo 13-cm and the Goldstone 3.5-cm systems. Measurements of echo strength, polarization, and delay/Doppler distribution of echo power provide information about dimensions, spin vector, large-scale topography, cm-to-m-scale morphology, and surface bulk density. The observations also yield refined estimates of target orbital elements. Radar signatures were measured for 31 mainbelt asteroids and 16 near-Earth asteroids since this task began eight years ago. The dispersion in asteroid radar albedoes and circular polarization ratios is extreme, revealing huge differences in surface morphologies, bulk densities, and metal concentration. For the most part, correction between radar signature and VIS/IR class is not high. Many near-Earth asteroids have extremely irregular, nonconvex shapes, but some have polar silhouettes that appear only slightly noncircular. The signatures of 1627 Ivar, 1986 DA, and the approximately 180-km mainbelt asteroid 216 Kleopatra suggest bifurcated shapes. Observational milestones during 1987 and 1988 are noted.
Ostro, Steven J.
The aim is to make radar reconnaissance of near-Earth asteroids, mainbelt ateroids, the Galilean satellites, the Martian satellites, and the largest Saturnian satellites, using the Arecibo 13-cm and the Goldstone 3.5-cm systems. Measurements of echo strength, polarization, and delay/Doppler distribution of echo power provide information about dimensions, spin vector, large-scale topography, cm-to-m-scale morphology, and surface bulk density. The observations also yield refined estimates of target orbital elements. Radar signatures were measured for 31 mainbelt asteroids and 16 near-Earth asteroids since this task began eight years ago. The dispersion in asteroid radar albedoes and circular polarization ratios is extreme, revealing huge differences in surface morphologies, bulk densities, and metal concentration. For the most part, correction between radar signature and VIS/IR class is not high. Many near-Earth asteroids have extremely irregular, nonconvex shapes, but some have polar silhouettes that appear only slightly noncircular. The signatures of 1627 Ivar, 1986 DA, and the approximately 180-km mainbelt asteroid 216 Kleopatra suggest bifurcated shapes. Observational milestones during 1987 and 1988 are noted.
Ostro, Steven J.
The OSU ElectroScience Laboratory Radar/Radiometer Facilities are described. This instrumentation includes a high-resolution radar/radiometer system, a fully automated low-resolution radar system, and a small surveillance radar system. The high-resolution radar/radiometer system operates at 3, 9, and 15 GHz using two 9.1 m and one 4.6 m parabolic antennas, respectively. The low-resolution and surveillance radars operate at 9 and 15 GHz, respectively. Both the high- and low-resolution systems are interfaced to real-time digital processing and recording systems. This capability was developed for the measurement of the temporal and spatial characteristics of precipitation in conjunction with millimeter wavelength propagation studies utilizing the Advanced Technology Satellites. Precipitation characteristics derived from these measurements could also be of direct benefit in such diverse areas as: the atmospheric sciences, meteorology, water resources, flood control and warning, severe storm warning, agricultural crop studies, and urban and regional planning.
Hodge, D. B.; Taylor, R. C.
A VHF radar frequencies the range coverage is not strictly limited by the quasi-optical horizon like at microwave radar frequencies but is extended due to diffraction propagation. This effect, here called beyond-the-horizon (BTH) detection capability is strongly dependent on the propagation path and thus on the terrain structure. The availability of digital terrain maps gives way to the use of computerized methods for the prediction of radar range coverage in real environment. In combination with wave propagation models suitable for diffraction at terrain structures, digital terrain data can even be used for the prediction of BTH target detectability at VHF radar. Here the digital landmass system (DLSS) terrain database was used in combination with a multiple-knife-edge diffraction model to predict the diffraction attenuation between the radar and the potential target positions, especially beyond the optical horizon. The propagation paths extracted from the database are modeled as a sequence of diffraction screens suited for the application of a Fresnel-Kirchhoff algorithm yielding the knife-edge-diffraction attenuation. This terrain related propagation model was verified by a large number of measurements at different frequencies. Implemented in a fast computer system, this prediction model can be used for mission planning of air operations. Considering hostile VHF radar coverage and terrain condition for flight path optimization or, on the other hand it can assist in siting mobile radars for gap filling according to the actual threat situation. Calculations of the diffraction propagation using the prediction model, yield range coverage patterns in real terrain situations, allowing to quantify the BTH detection advantage of VHF radar compared to microwave radar. An experimental large wavelength radar LARA (VHF) built flying targets beyond the close horizon. Here, especially the detection of hiding helicopters by exploiting diffractive wave propagation was examined. Measurements at different VHF frequencies were carried out, to validate the results obtained by simulation.
Mapping of minor lineaments from radar imagery of the rain forest in southeast Peru is biased due to the selective suppression of some topography which results from the observation geometry of the imaging radar system and the varied perception of lineaments on the imagery by different interpreters. Team analysis of the imagery compensates for several of the sources of bias, and results in the clear recognition of differing regimes within the regional fracture field in the study area.
Martin-Kaye, P. H. A.; Norman, J. W.; Skidmore, M. J.
Death Valley has had a long history as a testbed for remote sensing techniques (Gillespie, this conference). Along with visible-near infrared and thermal IR sensors, imaging radars have flown and orbited over the valley since the 1970's, yielding new insights into the geologic applications of that technology. More recently, radar interferometry has been used to derive digital topographic maps of the area, supplementing the USGS 7.5' digital quadrangles currently available for nearly the entire area. As for their shorter-wavelength brethren, imaging radars were tested early in their civilian history in Death Valley because it has a variety of surface types in a small area without the confounding effects of vegetation. In one of the classic references of these early radar studies, in a semi-quantitative way the response of an imaging radar to surface roughness near the radar wavelength, which typically ranges from about 1 cm to 1 m was explained. This laid the groundwork for applications of airborne and spaceborne radars to geologic problems in and regions. Radar's main advantages over other sensors stems from its active nature- supplying its own illumination makes it independent of solar illumination and it can also control the imaging geometry more accurately. Finally, its long wavelength allows it to peer through clouds, eliminating some of the problems of optical sensors, especially in perennially cloudy and polar areas.
Farr, Tom G.
Plasma and directed ion interactions with materials have been widely observed to create complex surface patterns on a micro- and nano- scale. Generally, these texturizations are byproducts of another intended application (such as a feature formation on a sputtering target) and patterning is considered inconsequential or even detrimental. This work examined the possibility of using these phenomena as primary methods for producing beneficial topographies. Specifically, investigations focused on the use of helium plasma exposure and directed ion etching to create nanostructured surfaces capable of affecting biological interactions with implanted materials. Orthogonal argon ion etching and low energy helium plasma texturization of titanium were considered for use on orthopedic and dental implants as a means of increasing osteoblast activity and bone attachment; and oblique angle etching was evaluated for its use in creating topographies with cell deterrent or anti-thrombogenic properties. In addition, the helium driven evolution of surface features on 6061 aluminum alloy was characterized with respect to ion energy and substrate temperature. These surfaces were then considered for ice phobic applications.
Riedel, Nicholas Alfred
This thesis advances our understanding of how transport properties of turbidity currents are mediated by interactions with seafloor topography, specifically channelized surfaces. Turbidity currents are responsible for ...
Straub, Kyle M
Orbiting radar system measures rates of rainfall from 0.5 to 60 mm/h. Radar waves scattered and absorbed by rainfall to extents depending on wavelength, polarization, rate of rainfall, and distribution of sizes and shapes of raindrops. Backscattered radar signal as function of length of path through rain used to infer detailed information about rain. Accumulated radar return signals processed into global maps of monthly average rainfall for use in climatological studies.
Im, K. E.; Li, F. K.; Wilson, W. J.; Rosing, D.
In this study, LiDAR vegetation topography (bare-earth + vegetation height), LiDAR bare-earth topography, the National Elevation Data (NED) set, and Shuttle Radar Terrain Mission (SRTM) measurements are used to develop a statistical model to explore the possibility of extracting vegetation height measurements and accurate high resolution bare-earth topography from SRTM data. The key innovation is to obtain the statistical signature of the vegetation height measurements in the Fourier domain by taking advantage of the well-known linearity in additive properties of the Fourier transform. We demonstrate that the power-law relationship, P(k) ? k^(-?), as shown by the bare-earth topography, breaks down approximately at a cross-over wavenumber, k=k_c, due to the vegetation height effect using four different topographic and vegetation study locations in the United States. We document that the vegetation effect mainly dominates the high-frequency contents of the vegetation topography from 2-180 m, 1-60 m, and 1-70 m for the South Fork Eel River, California; Flathead Lake, Montana; and Tenderfoot Creek, Montana, LiDAR data, respectively, and from 1-240 m for 30 m SRTM data for the Jesup, Georgia site. Finally, we demonstrate our ability to obtain a high resolution bare-earth topography with RMSE of 9.6 m, 2.2 m, and 2.9 m and vegetation height with RMSE of 11.0 m (11% error), 4.5 m (12% error), and 1.6 m (8% error) for LiDAR data study sites, whereas for the SRTM data, bare-earth topography and vegetation height are obtained with RMSE values of 5.4 m and 3.1 m, respectively, for the Jesup site. Model Vegetation height
Gangodagamage, C.; Liu, D.; Alsdorf, D.
The work described in this report represents the first phase of a planned three-phase project designed to develop a radar system for monitoring waste canisters stored in a thick layer of bedded salt at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The canisters will be contained in holes drilled into the floor of the underground waste storage facility. It is hoped that these measurements can be made to accuracies of +-5 cm and +-2/sup 0/, respectively. The initial phase of this project was primarily a feasibility study. Its principal objective was to evaluate the potential effectiveness of the radar method in the planned canister monitoring application. Its scope included an investigation of the characteristics of radar signals backscattered from waste canisters, a test of preliminary data analysis methods, an assessment of the effects of salt and bentonite (a proposed backfill material) on the propagation of the radar signals, and a review of current ground-penetrating radar technology. A laboratory experiment was performed in which radar signals were backscattered from simulated waste canisters. The radar data were recorded by a digital data acquisition system and were subsequently analyzed by three different computer-based methods to extract estimates of canister location and tilt. Each of these methods yielded results that were accurate within a few centimeters in canister location and within 1/sup 0/ in canister tilt. Measurements were also made to determine the signal propagation velocities in salt and bentonite (actually a bentonite/sand mixture) and to estimate the signal attenuation rate in the bentonite. Finally, a product survey and a literature search were made to identify available ground-penetrating radar systems and alternative antenna designs that may be particularly suitable for this unique application. 10 refs., 21 figs., 4 tabs.
Sandness, G.A.; Davis, K.C.
Radar observations of rainfall and their use in hydrologic research provide the focus for the paper. Radar-rainfall products are crucial for input to runoff and flood prediction models, validation of satellite remote sensing algorithms, and for statistical characterization of extreme rainfall frequency. In this context we discuss the issues of radar-rainfall product development, and the theoretical and practical requirements of
W. F. Krajewski; J. A. Smith
The lunar surface material in the Plato area is characterized using Earth based visual, infrared, and radar signatures. Radar scattering in the lunar regolith with an existing optical scattering computer program is modeled. Mapping with 1 to 2 km resolution of the Moon using a 70 cm Arecibo radar is presented.
Thompson, T. W.
Low observable technologies for military and tactical aircraft are reviewed including signature-reduction techniques and signal detection/jamming. Among the applications considered are low-signature sensors and the reduction of radar cross section in conjunction with radar-absorbing structures and materials. Technologies for reducing radar cross section are shown to present significant technological challenges, although they afford enhanced aircraft survivability.
Foulke, K.W. (U.S. Navy, Naval Air Warfare Center, China Lake, CA (United States))
Low observable technologies for military and tactical aircraft are reviewed including signature-reduction techniques and signal detection\\/jamming. Among the applications considered are low-signature sensors and the reduction of radar cross section in conjunction with radar-absorbing structures and materials. Technologies for reducing radar cross section are shown to present significant technological challenges, although they afford enhanced aircraft survivability.
The radar augmentation device (RAD) serves to increase the radar response of a target body and thus expedite radar acquisition. The design and development of the RAD are discussed with particular emphasis on technical problems that were encountered and solved. Discussions of the mode of operation of the RAD and the ground test history are also included.
Riedel, J. K.
Invented and developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is an inexpensive and highly sensitive, low-power radar system that produces and samples extremely short pulses of energy at the rate of 2 million per second. Called micropower impulse radar (MIR), it can detect objects at a greater variety of distances with greater sensitivity than conventional radar. Its origins in the Laboratory`s
S. Azevedo; T. E. McEwan
A set of Seasat SAR data that were obtained in nearly repeat ground track orbits is utilized to simulate the performance of spaceborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) systems. A qualitative assessment of the topography measurement capability is presented. A phase measurement error model is described and compared with the data obtained at various baseline separations and signal-to-noise ratios. Finally, the implications of these results on the future spaceborne ISAR design are discussed.
Li, F.; Goldstein, R.
This research is part of an ongoing field and remote sensing analysis of surface units within the 1969-1974 Mauna Ulu flow field (Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i). The current study examines the complex unit-scale topography produced by primary lava emplacement and secondary modification, as well as the utility of radar data for distinguishing flow regimes and post-emplacement changes within the flow field.
J. M. Byrnes; D. A. Crown
Sentinel-3 is an Earth observation satellite mission designed for GMES to ensure the long-term collection of high-quality measurements delivered in an operational manner to GMES ocean, land, atmospheric, emergency and security services. Primary sentinel-3 topography mission measurement requirements have been derived from GMES user needs as follows: • Sea surface topography (SSH), significant wave height (Hs) and surface wind speed derived over the global ocean to an equivalent accuracy and precision as that presently achieved by ENVISAT Radar Altimeter-2 (RA-2). • Enhanced surface topography measurements in the coastal zone, sea ice regions and over inland rivers, their tributaries and lakes. To address the above requirements, the Sentinel-3 Topography payload will carry a Synthetic Aperture Radar Altimeter (SRAL) instrument, a passive microwave radiometer (MWR) a GPS receiver and laser retro-reflector for precise orbit determination providing continuing the legacy of ENVISAT RA-2 and Cryosat. Three level of timeliness are defined within GMES for the S-3 Topography mission: • NRT products, delivered to the users in less than 3 hours after acquisition of data by the sensor, • Short time critical (STC) products, delivered to the users in less than 48 hours after the acquisition and, • Non-time critical (NTC) products delivered not later than 1 month after acquisition or from long-term archives. The Sentinel-3 topography data products will provide continuity of ENVISAT type measurement capability in Europe to determine sea, ice and land surface topography measurements with high accuracy, timely delivery and in a sustained operational manner for GMES users. The Sentinel-3 data will also provide fundamental inputs to a variety of value-adding downstream services for industry, government agencies, commercial users, service providers and appropriate regulatory authorities. The Calibration and Validation of the Sentinel-3 topography products will nominally rely on the cross-comparison with the ESA Envisat Altimetry mission and will be a significant challenge due to the stringent S-3 mission measurement requirements and their safeguarding all over the mission lifetime.
Féménias, P.; Rebhan, H.; Donlon, C.; Buongiorno, A.; Mavrocordatos, C.
These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first surface (FS) topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Gulf Coast Network, Lafayette, LA; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Natchez Trace Parkway in Mississippi, acquired on September 14, 2007. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is used routinely to create maps that represent submerged or first surface topography. Specialized filtering algorithms have been implemented to determine the 'bare earth' under vegetation from a point cloud of last return elevations.
Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Segura, Martha; Yates, Xan
These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the northeast coastal barrier islands in New York and New Jersey, acquired April 29-30 and May 15-16, 2007. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is routinely used to create maps that represent submerged or first surface topography. Specialized filtering algorithms have been implemented to determine the 'bare earth' under vegetation from a point cloud of last return elevations.
Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A. H.; Wright, C. Wayne; Yates, Xan; Bonisteel, Jamie M.
These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography datasets were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Kennedy Space Center, FL. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the eastern Florida coastline beachface, acquired on May 28, 2009. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral color-infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine aircraft, but the instrument was deployed on a Pilatus PC-6. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight-line definition, flight-path plotting, lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is used routinely to create maps that represent submerged or sub-aerial topography. Specialized filtering algorithms have been implemented to determine the "bare earth" under vegetation from a point cloud of last return elevations.
Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Plant, Nathaniel; Wright, C.W.; Nagle, D.B.; Serafin, K.S.; Klipp, E.S.
These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first surface (FS) topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the University of New Orleans (UNO), Pontchartrain Institute for Environmental Sciences (PIES), New Orleans, LA; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Pearl River Delta in Louisiana and Mississippi, acquired March 9-11, 2008. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is used routinely to create maps that represent submerged or first surface topography. Specialized filtering algorithms have been implemented to determine the 'bare earth' under vegetation from a point cloud of last return elevations.
Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Miner, Michael D.; Michael D.; Yates, Xan; Bonisteel, Jamie M.
These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived bare earth (BE) topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Gulf Coast Network, Lafayette, LA; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the Vicksburg National Military Park in Mississippi, acquired on March 6, 2008. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is used routinely to create maps that represent submerged or first surface topography. Specialized filtering algorithms have been implemented to determine the 'bare earth' under vegetation from a point cloud of last return elevations.
Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Segura, Martha; Yates, Xan
These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Gulf Coast Network, Lafayette, LA; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the Vicksburg National Military Park in Mississippi, acquired on September 12, 2007. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is used routinely to create maps that represent submerged or first surface topography. Specialized filtering algorithms have been implemented to determine the 'bare earth' under vegetation from a point cloud of last return elevations.
Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Segura, Martha; Yates, Xan
The last decade of the evolution of radar was heavily influenced by the rapid increase in the information processing capabilities. Advances in solid state radio HF devices, digital technology, computing architectures and software offered the designers to develop very efficient radars. In designing modern radars the emphasis goes towards the simplification of the system hardware, reduction of overall power, which is compensated by coding and real time signal processing techniques. Radars are commonly employed in geophysical radio soundings like probing the ionosphere; stratosphere-mesosphere measurement, weather forecast, GPR and radio-glaciology etc. In the laboratorio di Geofisica Ambientale of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Rome, Italy, we developed two pulse compression radars. The first is a HF radar called AIS-INGV; Advanced Ionospheric Sounder designed both for the purpose of research and for routine service of the HF radio wave propagation forecast. The second is a VHF radar called GLACIORADAR, which will be substituting the high power envelope radar used by the Italian Glaciological group. This will be employed in studying the sub glacial structures of Antarctica, giving information about layering, the bed rock and sub glacial lakes if present. These are low power radars, which heavily rely on advanced hardware and powerful real time signal processing. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.
Arokiasamy, B. J.; Bianchi, C.; Sciacca, U.; Tutone, G.; Zirizzotti, A.; Zuccheretti, E.
Precipitation or weather radar is an essential tool for research, diagnosis, and nowcasting of precipitation events like fronts or thunderstorms. Only with weather radar is it possible to gain insights into the three-dimensional structure of thunderstorms and to investigate processes like hail formation or tornado genesis. A number of different radar products are available to analyze the structure, dynamics and microphysics of precipitation systems. Cloud radars use short wavelengths to enable detection of small ice particles or cloud droplets. Their applications differ from weather radar as they are mostly orientated vertically, where different retrieval techniques can be applied.
Hagen, Martin; Höller, Hartmut; Schmidt, Kersten
The barotropic tide generates internal gravity waves due to sea floor topography, which leads to conversion of tidal energy into smaller scale waves and eventually dissipation. New measurements indicate that the tidal dissipation in the open ocean is substantially higher than predicted by theoretical models. Hence, the search is on for an effect that enhances the energy conversion rate. Using functional equations techniques, one can show that the solution for a steep triangular seamount is exactly equivalent to a triangular seamount with a slope at the angle of wave propagation. The stream function develops spatial discontinuities (shocks) as the maximum topographic slope approaches the critical slope from below. Nonlinear effects become important in a vortex forming above the seamount, which may cause significant changes in the conversion rate.
Schorghofer, Norbert; Khatiwala, Samar; Aharonson, Oded
The objectives of the Apollo 17 Lunar Sounder Experiment (ALSE) were to detect subsurface geologic structures, to generate a continuous lunar profile, and to image the moon at radar wavelengths. A three-wavelength synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) operating at 60, 20, and 2 m wavelengths was designed to attain these objectives. The design choices reflected a balance of scientific requirements versus Apollo mission and hardware constraints. The radar data from the lunar mission were recorded on photographic film in a conventional SAR format, and were returned to earth for processing. A combination of optical and digital processing and exploitation techniques was applied to the scientific interpretation of the data. Some preliminary results from the lunar mission have been obtained.
Porcello, L. J.; Zelenka, J. S.; Adams, G. F.; Jackson, P. L.; Jordan, R. L.; Phillips, R. J.; Brown, W. E., Jr.; Ward, S. H.
The next time you flip on a light switch, there s a chance that you could be benefitting from data originally acquired during the Space Shuttle Program. An effort spearheaded by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) in 2000 put together the first near-global elevation map of the Earth ever assembled, which has found use in everything from 3D terrain maps to models that inform solar power production. For the project, called the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), engineers at JPL designed a 60-meter mast that was fitted onto Shuttle Endeavour. Once deployed in space, an antenna attached to the end of the mast worked in combination with another antenna on the shuttle to simultaneously collect data from two perspectives. Just as having two eyes makes depth perception possible, the SRTM data sets could be combined to form an accurate picture of the Earth s surface elevations, the first hight-detail, near-global elevation map ever assembled. What made SRTM unique was not just its surface mapping capabilities but the completeness of the data it acquired. Over the course of 11 days, the shuttle orbited the Earth nearly 180 times, covering everything between the 60deg north and 54deg south latitudes, or roughly 80 percent of the world s total landmass. Of that targeted land area, 95 percent was mapped at least twice, and 24 percent was mapped at least four times. Following several years of processing, NASA released the data to the public in partnership with NGA. Robert Crippen, a member of the SRTM science team, says that the data have proven useful in a variety of fields. "Satellites have produced vast amounts of remote sensing data, which over the years have been mostly two-dimensional. But the Earth s surface is three-dimensional. Detailed topographic data give us the means to visualize and analyze remote sensing data in their natural three-dimensional structure, facilitating a greater understanding of the features and processes taking place on Earth."
in surface, airborne and space-based defense, security and intelligence. Principal capabilities of the ARRC has expanded capabilities in radar and other electromagnetic technologies, with applications technology; digital signal/array processing; automated algorithms; decision support tools; data assimilation
Oklahoma, University of
An interferometric radar technique for topographic mapping of surfaces promises a high-resolution approach to the generation of digital elevation models. The authors present analyses of data collected by the synthetic aperture radar instrument on-board the ERS-1 satellite on successive orbits. Use of a single satellite in a nearly repeating orbit is attractive for reducing cost and spaceborne hardware complexity; also
Howard A. Zebker; Charles L. Werner; Paul A. Rosen; Scott Hensley
Forward modeling of ground penetration radar is developed using exact ray-tracing techniques. Structural boundaries for a ground model are incorporated via a discrete grid with interfaces described by splines, polynomials, and in the case of special structures such as circular objects, the boundaries are given in terms of their functional formula. In the synthetic radar gram method, the waveform contributions of many different wave types are computed. Using a finely digitized antenna directional response function, the radar cross-section of buried targets and the effective area of the receiving antenna can be statistically modeled. Attenuation along the raypaths is also monitored. The forward models are used: (1) as a learning tool to avoid pitfalls in radar gram interpretation, (2) to understand radar signatures measured across various engineering structures, and (3) to predict the response of cultural structures buried beneath important archaeological sites in Japan.
Goodman, D. (Univ. of Miami Japan Div., Ishikawa (Japan). Geophysical Archaeometry Lab.)
A 2D ground penetrating radar survey at 250 MHz central frequency was conducted on Randolph College's campus, in Lynchburg, VA. The experimental setup consisted of three radar profile lines, each with length of 70 -- 100 m. The goals of the project were to image subsurface heterogeneities, and define depth to bedrock. Conventional seismic refraction conducted earlier at the side revealed irregular topography of the subsurface and high degree of uncertainty in the arrival times of the elastic waves. Radar surveys have the potential to provide much higher resolution images. We observed a number of point reflectors and multiple layering of the subsurface soil.
Toteva, Tatiana; Pokharel, Reeju; Datta, Archana
2. VIEW SOUTHWEST, prime search radar tower, height finder radar towards, height finder radar towers, and radar tower (unknown function) - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI
This radar image is the first to show the full 240-kilometer-wide (150 mile)swath collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The area shown is in the state of Bahia in Brazil. The semi-circular mountains along the leftside of the image are the Serra Da Jacobin, which rise to 1100 meters (3600 feet) above sea level. The total relief shown is approximately 800 meters (2600 feet). The top part of the image is the Sertao, a semi-arid region, that is subject to severe droughts during El Nino events. A small portion of the San Francisco River, the longest river (1609 kilometers or 1000 miles) entirely within Brazil, cuts across the upper right corner of the image. This river is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, drought and human influences on ecosystems.This image combines two types of data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The image brightness corresponds to the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground, while colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. The three dark vertical stripes show the boundaries where four segments of the swath are merged to form the full scanned swath. These will be removed in later processing. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations.The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.
This is an image of equatorial Africa, centered on the equator at longitude 15degrees east. This image is a mosaic of almost 4,000 separate images obtained in 1996 by the L-band imaging radar onboard the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite. Using radar to penetrate the persistent clouds prevalent in tropical forests, the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite was able for the first time to image at high resolution this continental scale region during single flooding seasons. The area shown covers about 7.4 million square kilometers (2.8 million square miles) of land surface, spans more than 5,000 kilometers(3,100 miles) east and west and some 2,000 kilometers (1,240 miles) north and south. North is up in this image. At the full resolution of the mosaic (100 meters or 330 feet), this image is more than 500 megabytes in size, and was processed from imagery totaling more than 60 gigabytes.Central Africa was imaged twice in 1996, once between January and March, which is the major low-flood season in the Congo Basin, and once between October and November, which is the major high-flood season in the Congo Basin. The red color corresponds to the data from the low-flood season, the green to the high-flood season, and the blue to the 'texture' of the low-flood data. The forests appear green as a result, the flooded and palm forests, as well as urban areas, appear yellow, the ocean and lakes appear black, and savanna areas appear blue, black or green, depending on the savanna type, surface topography and other factors. The areas of the image that are black and white were mapped only between January and March 1996. In these areas, the black areas are savanna or open water, the gray are forests, and the white areas are flooded forests or urban areas. The Congo River dominates the middle of the image, where the nearby forests that are periodically flooded by the Congo and its tributaries stand out as yellow. The Nile River flows north from Lake Victoria in the middle right of the color portion of the mosaic.This image is one of the products resulting from the Global Rain Forest Mapping project, a joint project between the National Space Development Agency of Japan, the Space Applications Institute of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and an international team of scientists. The goal of the Global Rain Forest Mapping mission is to map with the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite the world's tropical rain forests. The Japanese satellite was launched in 1992 by the National Space Development Agency of Japan and the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry, with support from the Remote Sensing Technology Center of Japan.
This paper describes the development of the Rendezvous Radar Set (RRS) for the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The RRS was to be used to locate, and then provide vectoring information to, target satellites (or Shuttle or Space Station) to aid the OMV in making a minimum-fuel-consumption approach and rendezvous. The RRS design is that of an X-Band, all solid-state, monopulse tracking, frequency hopping, pulse-Doppler radar system. The development of the radar was terminated when the OMV prime contract to TRW was terminated by NASA. At the time of the termination, the development was in the circuit design stage. The system design was virtually completed, the PDR had been held. The RRS design was based on Motorola's experiences, both in the design and production of radar systems for the US Army and in the design and production of hi-rel communications systems for NASA space programs. Experience in these fields was combined with the latest digital signal processor and micro-processor technology to design a light-weight, low-power, spaceborne radar. The antenna and antenna positioner (gimbals) technology developed for the RRS is now being used in the satellite-to-satellite communication link design for Motorola's Iridium telecommunications system.
Locke, John W.; Olds, Keith; Parks, Howard
The next generation of radar (radio detection and ranging) systems needs to be based on software-defined radio to adapt to variable environments, with higher carrier frequencies for smaller antennas and broadened bandwidth for increased resolution. Today's digital microwave components (synthesizers and analogue-to-digital converters) suffer from limited bandwidth with high noise at increasing frequencies, so that fully digital radar systems can work up to only a few gigahertz, and noisy analogue up- and downconversions are necessary for higher frequencies. In contrast, photonics provide high precision and ultrawide bandwidth, allowing both the flexible generation of extremely stable radio-frequency signals with arbitrary waveforms up to millimetre waves, and the detection of such signals and their precise direct digitization without downconversion. Until now, the photonics-based generation and detection of radio-frequency signals have been studied separately and have not been tested in a radar system. Here we present the development and the field trial results of a fully photonics-based coherent radar demonstrator carried out within the project PHODIR. The proposed architecture exploits a single pulsed laser for generating tunable radar signals and receiving their echoes, avoiding radio-frequency up- and downconversion and guaranteeing both the software-defined approach and high resolution. Its performance exceeds state-of-the-art electronics at carrier frequencies above two gigahertz, and the detection of non-cooperating aeroplanes confirms the effectiveness and expected precision of the system.
Ghelfi, Paolo; Laghezza, Francesco; Scotti, Filippo; Serafino, Giovanni; Capria, Amerigo; Pinna, Sergio; Onori, Daniel; Porzi, Claudio; Scaffardi, Mirco; Malacarne, Antonio; Vercesi, Valeria; Lazzeri, Emma; Berizzi, Fabrizio; Bogoni, Antonella
ECE 468 Digital Signal Processing 1. History: Â· Digital signal processing has its roots in 17th on a computer before implementing it in analog hardware. 1 #12;Broadcasting: television and radio programs the depth. On the other hand, radars make use of radio waves in order to communicate the locations
Chen, Ying "Ada"
3. VIEW NORTHWEST, height finder radar towers, and radar tower (unknown function) - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI
Laser radar has been widely used these years and the hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) testing of laser radar become important because of its low cost and high fidelity compare with On-the-Fly testing and whole digital simulation separately. Scene generation and projection two key technologies of hardware-in-the-loop testing of laser radar and is a complicated problem because the 3D images result from time
Qian Wang; Wei Lu; Chunhui Wang; Qi Wang
A catalog of lunar and radar anomalies was generated to provide a base for comparison with Venusian radar signatures. The relationships between lunar radar anomalies and regolith processes were investigated, and a consortium was formed to compare lunar and Venusian radar images of craters. Time was scheduled at the Arecibo Observatory to use the 430 MHz radar to obtain high resolution radar maps of six areas of the lunar suface. Data from 1978 observations of Mare Serenitas and Plato are being analyzed on a PDP 11/70 computer to construct the computer program library necessary for the eventual reduction of the May 1981 and subsequent data acquisitions. Papers accepted for publication are presented.
Thompson, T. W.; Cutts, J. A.
In this paper the authors describe the basic operating principles of laser radar sensors and the typical algorithms used to process laser radar imagery for robotic applications. The authors review 12 laser radar sensors to illustrate the variety of systems that have been applied to robotic applications wherein information extracted from the laser radar data is used to automatically control a mechanism or process. Next, they describe selected robotic applications in seven areas: autonomous vehicle navigation, walking machine foot placement, automated service vehicles, manufacturing and inspection, automotive, military, and agriculture. They conclude with a discussion of the status of laser radar technology and suggest trends seen in the application of laser radar sensors to robotics. Many new applications are expected as the maturity level progresses and system costs are reduced.
Carmer, D.C.; Peterson, L.M. [Environmental Research Inst. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
The conventional method for integrating a radiometer into radar hardware is to share the RF front end between the instruments, and to have separate IF receivers that take data at separate times. Alternatively, the radar and radiometer could share the antenna through the use of a diplexer, but have completely independent receivers. This novel method shares the radar's RF electronics and digital receiver with the radiometer, while allowing for simultaneous operation of the radar and radiometer. Radars and radiometers, while often having near-identical RF receivers, generally have substantially different IF and baseband receivers. Operation of the two instruments simultaneously is difficult, since airborne radars will pulse at a rate of hundreds of microseconds. Radiometer integration time is typically 10s or 100s of milliseconds. The bandwidth of radar may be 1 to 25 MHz, while a radiometer will have an RF bandwidth of up to a GHz. As such, the conventional method of integrating radar and radiometer hardware is to share the highfrequency RF receiver, but to have separate IF subsystems and digitizers. To avoid corruption of the radiometer data, the radar is turned off during the radiometer dwell time. This method utilizes a modern radar digital receiver to allow simultaneous operation of a radiometer and radar with a shared RF front end and digital receiver. The radiometer signal is coupled out after the first down-conversion stage. From there, the radar transmit frequencies are heavily filtered, and the bands outside the transmit filter are amplified and passed to a detector diode. This diode produces a DC output proportional to the input power. For a conventional radiometer, this level would be digitized. By taking this DC output and mixing it with a system oscillator at 10 MHz, the signal can instead be digitized by a second channel on the radar digital receiver (which typically do not accept DC inputs), and can be down-converted to a DC level again digitally. This unintuitive step allows the digital receiver to sample both the radiometer and radar data at a rapid, synchronized data rate (greater than 1 MHz bandwidth). Once both signals are sampled by the same digital receiver, high-speed quality control can be performed on the radiometer data to allow it to take data simultaneously with the radar. The radiometer data can be blanked during radar transmit, or when the radar return is of a power level high enough to corrupt the radiometer data. Additionally, the receiver protection switches in the RF front end can double as radiometer calibration sources, the short (four-microsecond level) switching periods integrated over many seconds to estimate the radiometer offset. The major benefit of this innovation is that there is minimal impact on the radar performance due to the integration of the radiometer, and the radiometer performance is similarly minimally affected by the radar. As the radar and radiometer are able to operate simultaneously, there is no extended period of integration time loss for the radiometer (maximizing sensitivity), and the radar is able to maintain its full number of pulses (increasing sensitivity and decreasing measurement uncertainty).
McLinden, Matthew; Piepmeier, Jeffrey
Store Glacier is a major west Greenland outlet tidewater glacier draining an area of 30,000 square km into Uummannaq Fjord, flowing at a speed of 4.8 km per year at the terminus. The bed topography of the glacier is poorly known and the fjord bathymetry has only been partially surveyed for the first time in 2012. In this study, we present a new approach on the modeling of glacier thickness and sea floor bathymetry based on high resolution gravity constrained with other observations. In August 2012, we acquired a 250m spacing grid of free-air gravity data at a speed of 50 knots with accuracy at sub-milligal level. We constrain the 3D inversion of these gravity data with ship-borne bathymetry near the glacier front and radar-derived ice thickness on grounded ice to derive a seamless map of bed topography of grounded ice and sea floor. Comparison of the new topography with prior maps reveals vast differences. Prior bathymetry (IBCAO3) has an ice front grounded at sea level whereas observations show a depth of 550m. On grounded ice, the data reveal the subglacial topography at an unprecedented level of spatial details. We discuss the impact of the results on the modeling of the glacier flow and the understanding of its interaction with ocean thermal forcing and surface mass balance.
An, L.; Rignot, E. J.
This module presents radar case studies taken from events in the Caribbean that highlight radar signatures of severe weather. These cases include examples of deep convection, squall lines, bow echoes, tornadoes, and heavy rain resulting in flooding. Each case study includes a discussion of the conceptual models of each type of event as a review before showing the radar signatures and allowing the learner to analyze each one.
This portal provides access to a variety of educational resources from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) ocean surface topography program based on the missions of the TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason satellites. Materials include a kids' section with games, puzzles, and facts; educational entertainment; online resources for educators; information about useful books; and links to lesson plans and classroom activities. There is also a section on radar altimetry and its use in studying ocean topography, and a set of links to interactive exhibits demonstrating TOPEX/Poseidon technology. The class activities section includes hands-on demonstrations, skits, and an activity in which older students make models of the sea surface to match TOPEX/Poseidon satellite images of sea-surface height. There is also information on obtaining posters, brochures, CDs and slides, and a collection of links to additional resources and to frequently-asked-questions.
Due to rapid technological progress in real-time signal processing, FM-CW radar systems are expected to become a more serious competitor to pulse radar systems. This paper deals with basic radar principles such as modulating waveforms and ambiguity functions characteristics. Advantages and disadvantages of FM-CW radar systems are compared to pulse radar systems. The inherent signal processing used in FM-CW radar systems allows a flexible choice of system parameters. In this context aspects like sensitivity, range and velocity resolution are discussed. It is elucidated that the use of digital processors for signal processing (frequency determination, filtering, etc.) offers the possibility to exchange dedicated hardware solutions with software implementations. Attention is paid to equipment like the antennas, diplexer, transmitter and receiver, and to isolation problems between transmitter and receiver. Results of an experimental FM-CW research radar are shown. In addition, the future prospects of FM-CW radar, with the aerial and solid-state R.F. head-end integrated, are indicated.
Ligthart, L. P.; Nieuwkerk, L. R.; Vansinttruyen, J. S.
A modified Mellin transform for digital implementation is developed and applied to range radar profiles of naval vessels. The scale invariance property of the Mellin transform provides a means for extracting features from the profiles which are insensitive to the aspect angle of the radar. Past implementations of the Mellin transform based on the FFT have required exponential sampling, interpolation,
Philip E. Zwicke; Imre Kiss
A unique class of radar signals (the quadriphase codes) which may be of use in pulse compression applications is described. The codes investigated are particularly attractive for radars using digital processing for Doppler filtering, pulse compression, and CFAR operation. The quadriphase code employs subpulses of half-cosine shape, resulting in a spectrum fall-off of 12 dB/octave.
Taylor, J. W., Jr.; Blinchikoff, H. J.
The aim of this paper is to compare the quality and accuracy of Digital Elevation Models (DEM) generated from different sources. Three different DEMs, covering the same geographic area (region of Uberaba, MG), are tentatively evaluated in this work. The first is a DEM derived from radar interferometry, through the Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM). The other two are DEMs
Lucas de Melo Melgaço; Roberto de Souza; Michael Steinmayer; Caixa Postal; R. Felipe Neri
Students learn about radar imaging and its various military and civilian applications that include recognition and detection of human-made targets, and the monitoring of space, deforestation and oil spills. They learn how the concepts of similarity and scaling are used in radar imaging to create three-dimensional models of various targets. Students apply the critical attributes of similar figures to create scale models of a radar imaging scenario using infrared range sensors (to emulate radar functions) and toy airplanes (to emulate targets). They use technology tools to measure angles and distances, and relate the concept of similar figures to real-world applications.
RET-ENET Program, Electrical Engineering Department,
These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first surface (FS) elevation data were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Gulf Coast Network, Lafayette, LA; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. The project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of select barrier islands and peninsular regions of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida, acquired June 27-30, 2007. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is used routinely to create maps that represent submerged or sub-aerial topography. Specialized filtering algorithms have been implemented to determine the 'bare earth' under vegetation from a point cloud of last return elevations.
Smith, Kathryn E. L.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Wright, C. Wayne; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Brock, John C.
Information regarding the spatial extent and inundation state in the internationally important Wetlands as designated by Ramsar Convention is important to a series of research questions including wetland ecosystem functioning and services, water management and habitat suitability assessment. This study develops an expedient digital mapping technique using optical remotely sensed imagery of the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), ENVISAT ASAR active radar C-band imagery, and topographical indices derived from topographic maps. All data inputs were resampled to a common 30 m resolution grid. An ensemble classifiers based on trees (random forest) procedure was employed to produce a final map of per-grid cell wetland probability map. This study also provides a general approach to delineate the extent of flooding builds upon documented relationships between fields measured inundation state and SAR data response on each vegetation types. The current study indicated that multi-source data (i.e. optical, radar and topography) are useful in the characterization of freshwater marshes and their inundation state. This analysis constitutes a necessary step towards improved herbaceous wetland monitoring and provides ecologists and managers with vital information that is related to ecology and hydrology in a wetland area.
Na, Xiaodong; Zang, Shuying; Zhang, Yuhong; Liu, Lei
Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) techniques are used to calculate the volume of extrusion at Okmok volcano, Alaska by constructing precise digital elevation models (DEMs) that represent volcano topography before and after the 1997 eruption. The posteruption DEM is generated using airborne topographic synthetic aperture radar (TOPSAR) data where a three-dimensional affine transformation is used to account for the misalignments between different DEM patches. The preeruption DEM is produced using repeat-pass European Remote Sensing satellite data; multiple interferograms are combined to reduce errors due to atmospheric variations, and deformation rates are estimated independently and removed from the interferograms used for DEM generation. The extrusive flow volume associated with the 1997 eruption of Okmok volcano is 0.154 ?? 0.025 km3. The thickest portion is approximately 50 m, although field measurements of the flow margin's height do not exceed 20 m. The in situ measurements at lava edges are not representative of the total thickness, and precise DEM data are absolutely essential to calculate eruption volume based on lava thickness estimations. This study is an example that demonstrates how InSAR will play a significant role in studying volcanoes in remote areas.
Lu, Z.; Fielding, E.; Patrick, M. R.; Trautwein, C. M.
Surface topography characterization is a continuing issue for the Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) particle accelerator community. Efforts are underway to both to improve surface topography, and its characterization and analysis using various techniques. In measurement of topography, Power Spectral Density (PSD) is a promising method to quantify typical surface parameters and develop scale-specific interpretations. PSD can also be used to indicate how chemical processes modifiesy the roughnesstopography at different scales. However, generating an accurate and meaningful topographic PSD of an SRF surface requires careful analysis and optimization. In this report, polycrystalline surfaces with different process histories are sampled with AFM and stylus/white light interferometer profilometryers and analyzed to indicate trace topography evolution at different scales. evolving during etching or polishing. Moreover, Aan optimized PSD analysis protocol will be offered to serve the SRF surface characterization needs is presented.
Chen Xu, Hui Tian, Charles Reece, Michael Kelley
Although there is a great deal known about menthol as a flavoring agent in foods and confections, less is known about the particular sensory properties of menthol cigarette smoke. Similarly, although smoking topography (the unique way an individual smokes a cigarette) has been well studied using non-menthol cigarettes, there is relatively less known about how menthol affects smoking behavior. The objective of this review is to assess the sensory properties of menthol tobacco smoke, and smoking topography associated with menthol cigarettes. The cooling, analgesic, taste, and respiratory effects of menthol are well established, and studies have indicated that menthol’s sensory attributes can have an influence on the positive, or rewarding, properties associated smoking, including ratings of satisfaction, taste, perceived smoothness, and perceived irritation. Despite these sensory properties, the data regarding menthol’s effect on smoking topography are inconsistent. Many of the topography studies have limitations due to various methodological issues. PMID:21624149
Seafloor topography can excite strong interface waves called Scholte waves that are often dispersive and characterized by slow propagation but large amplitude. This type of wave can be used to invert for near seafloor shear ...
Animal data show that cortical development is initially patterned by genetic gradients largely along three orthogonal axes. We previously reported differences in genetic influences on cortical surface area along an anterior-posterior axis using neuroimaging data of adult human twins. Here, we demonstrate differences in genetic influences on cortical thickness along a dorsal-ventral axis in the same cohort. The phenomenon of orthogonal gradations in cortical organization evident in different structural and functional properties may originate from genetic gradients. Another emerging theme of cortical patterning is that patterns of genetic influences recapitulate the spatial topography of the cortex within hemispheres. The genetic patterning of both cortical thickness and surface area corresponds to cortical functional specializations. Intriguingly, in contrast to broad similarities in genetic patterning, two sets of analyses distinguish cortical thickness and surface area genetically. First, genetic contributions to cortical thickness and surface area are largely distinct; there is very little genetic correlation (i.e., shared genetic influences) between them. Second, organizing principles among genetically defined regions differ between thickness and surface area. Examining the structure of the genetic similarity matrix among clusters revealed that, whereas surface area clusters showed great genetic proximity with clusters from the same lobe, thickness clusters appear to have close genetic relatedness with clusters that have similar maturational timing. The discrepancies are in line with evidence that the two traits follow different mechanisms in neurodevelopment. Our findings highlight the complexity of genetic influences on cortical morphology and provide a glimpse into emerging principles of genetic organization of the cortex. PMID:24082094
Chen, Chi-Hua; Fiecas, Mark; Gutierrez, E. D.; Panizzon, Matthew S.; Eyler, Lisa T.; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Thompson, Wesley K.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Hagler, Donald J.; Jernigan, Terry L.; Neale, Michael C.; Franz, Carol E.; Lyons, Michael J.; Fischl, Bruce; Tsuang, Ming T.; Dale, Anders M.; Kremen, William S.
An airborne, forward-looking, pulse, Doppler radar has been developed in conjunction with the joint FAA/NASA Wind Shear Program. This radar represents a first in an emerging technology. The radar was developed to assess the applicability of an airborne radar to detect low altitude hazardous wind shears for civil aviation applications. Such a radar must be capable of looking down into the ground clutter environment and extracting wind estimates from relatively low reflectivity weather targets. These weather targets often have reflectivities several orders of magnitude lower than the surrounding ground clutter. The NASA radar design incorporates numerous technological and engineering achievements in order to accomplish this task. The basic R/T unit evolved from a standard Collins 708 weather radar, which supports specific pulse widths of 1-7 microns and Pulse Repetition Frequencies (PRF) of less than 1-10 kHz. It was modified to allow for the output of the first IF signal, which fed a NASA developed receiver/detector subsystem. The NASA receiver incorporated a distributed, high-speed digital attenuator, producing a range bin to range bin automatic gain control system with 65 dB of dynamic range. Using group speed information supplied by the aircraft's navigation system, the radar signal is frequency demodulated back to base band (zero Doppler relative to stationary ground). The In-phase & Quadrature-phase (I/Q) components of the measured voltage signal are then digitized by a 12-bit A-D converter (producing an additional 36 dB of dynamic range). The raw I/Q signal for each range bin is then recorded (along with the current radar & aircraft state parameters) by a high-speed Kodak tape recorder.
Harrah, S. D.; Bracalente, E. M.; Schaffner, P. R.; Baxa, E. G.
Better understanding topography on Earth's core-mantle boundary (CMB) may provide important constraints on mantle dynamics, specifically the style of mantle convection, and on lower mantle heterogeneity. For example, the origin of large, lowermost mantle low shear wave velocity provinces beneath the central Pacific and Africa is not well constrained, but are likely related to both mantle dynamics and CMB topography. Two competing hypotheses for these anomalies are: thermal upwellings (e.g., plume clusters) or large intrinsically dense piles of primitive mantle material (e.g., thermochemical piles). Here we discuss the results from our current 3D investigation of CMB topography in two styles of mantle convection: 1) an isochemical mantle with plume clusters, and 2) a thermochemical mantle with large, intrinsically dense piles. In this study, we numerically investigate 3D spherical models of mantle convection and calculate maps of topography (CMB and surface, with self-gravitation included) and geoid (CMB and surface). Maps of CMB topography and geoid (CMB and surface) are produced, and compared to observed CMB topography (e.g., Morelli and Dziewonski, 1987; Boschi and Dziewonski, 2000; Sze and van der Hilst, 2003) and surface geoid (e.g., Earth Geopotential Model, 1996). Our predicted surface geoid maps provide a key image of how CMB topography, for any given model, will affect the geoid. The results of this work emphasize the importance in using a suite of observables (in this case, topography and geoid maps for CMB and surface) to constrain whole mantle dynamics and lower mantle structure.
Lassak, T. M.; McNamara, A. K.; Zhong, S.; Garnero, E.
Comparisons of earth and Venus topography by use of Pioneer/Venus radar altimetry are examined. Approximately 93% of the Venus surface has been mapped with a horizontal resolution of 200 km and a vertical resolution of 200 m. Tectonic troughs have been indicated in plains regions which cover 65% of Venus, and hypsometric comparisons between the two planets' elevation distributions revealed that while the earth has a bimodal height distribution, Venus displays a unimodal configuration, with 60% of the planet surface within 500 m of the modal planet radius. The effects of mapping the earth at the same resolution as the Venus observations were explored. Continents and oceans were apparent, and although folded mountains appeared as high spots, no indications of tectonic activity were discernible. A NASA Venus Orbiting Imaging radar is outlined, which is designed to detect volcanoes, folded mountain ranges, craters, and faults, and thereby allow definition of possible plate-tectonic activity on Venus.
Head, J. W.; Yuter, S. E.; Solomon, S. C.
The term biometrics is used to describe the process of analyzing biological and behavioral traits that are unique to an individual in order to confirm or determine his or her identity. Many biometric modalities are currently being researched and implemented including, fingerprints, hand and facial geometry, iris recognition, vein structure recognition, gait, voice recognition, etc... This project explores the possibility of using corneal topography measurements as a trait for biometric identification. Two new corneal topographers were developed for this study. The first was designed to function as an operator-free device that will allow a user to approach the device and have his or her corneal topography measured. Human subject topography data were collected with this device and compared to measurements made with the commercially available Keratron Piccolo topographer (Optikon, Rome, Italy). A third topographer that departs from the standard Placido disk technology allows for arbitrary pattern illumination through the use of LCD monitors. This topographer was built and tested to be used in future research studies. Topography data was collected from 59 subjects and modeled using Zernike polynomials, which provide for a simple method of compressing topography data and comparing one topographical measurement with a database for biometric identification. The data were analyzed to determine the biometric error rates associated with corneal topography measurements. Reasonably accurate results, between three to eight percent simultaneous false match and false non-match rates, were achieved.
Lewis, Nathan D.
To study the influence of topography on ground motion, eight seismic recorders were deployed for a period of one year over Poverty Ridge on the east side of the San Francisco Bay Area, California. This location is desirable because of its proximity to local earthquake sources and the significant topographic relief of the array (439 m). Topographic amplification is evaluated as a function of frequency using a variety of methods, including reference?site?based spectral ratios and single?station horizontal?to?vertical spectral ratios using both shear waves from earthquakes and ambient noise. Field observations are compared with the predicted ground motion from an accurate digital model of the topography and a 3D local velocity model. Amplification factors from the theoretical calculations are consistent with observations. The fundamental resonance of the ridge is prominently observed in the spectra of data and synthetics; however, higher?frequency peaks are also seen primarily for sources in line with the major axis of the ridge, perhaps indicating higher resonant modes. Excitations of lateral ribs off of the main ridge are also seen at frequencies consistent with their dimensions. The favored directions of resonance are shown to be transverse to the major axes of the topographic features.
Hartzell, Stephen; Meremonte, Mark; Ramírez-Guzmán, Leonardo; McNamara, Daniel
Java Radar Analysis Tool (JRAT) is a computer program for analyzing two-dimensional (2D) scatter plots derived from radar returns showing pieces of the disintegrating Space Shuttle Columbia. JRAT can also be applied to similar plots representing radar returns showing aviation accidents, and to scatter plots in general. The 2D scatter plots include overhead map views and side altitude views. The superposition of points in these views makes searching difficult. JRAT enables three-dimensional (3D) viewing: by use of a mouse and keyboard, the user can rotate to any desired viewing angle. The 3D view can include overlaid trajectories and search footprints to enhance situational awareness in searching for pieces. JRAT also enables playback: time-tagged radar-return data can be displayed in time order and an animated 3D model can be moved through the scene to show the locations of the Columbia (or other vehicle) at the times of the corresponding radar events. The combination of overlays and playback enables the user to correlate a radar return with a position of the vehicle to determine whether the return is valid. JRAT can optionally filter single radar returns, enabling the user to selectively hide or highlight a desired radar return.
Zaczek, Mariusz P.
An optical illusion is an image of a real target perceived by the eye that is deceptive or misleading due to a physiological illusion or a specific visual trick. The recently developed metamaterials provide efficient approaches to generate a perfect optical illusion. However, all existing research on metamaterial illusions has been limited to theory and numerical simulations. Here, we propose the concept of a radar illusion, which can make the electromagnetic (EM) image of a target gathered by radar look like a different target, and we realize a radar illusion device experimentally to change the radar image of a metallic target into a dielectric target with predesigned size and material parameters. It is well known that the radar signatures of metallic and dielectric objects are significantly different. However, when a metallic target is enclosed by the proposed illusion device, its EM scattering characteristics will be identical to that of a predesigned dielectric object under the illumination of radar waves. Such an illusion device will confuse the radar, and hence the real EM properties of the metallic target cannot be perceived. We designed and fabricated the radar illusion device using artificial metamaterials in the microwave frequency, and good illusion performances are observed in the experimental results.
Jiang, Wei Xiang; Cui, Tie Jun
A fire control radar system was developed, assembled, and modified. The baseline system and modified angle tracking system are described along with the performance characteristics of the baseline and modified systems. Proposed changes to provide additional techniques for radar evaluation are presented along with flight test data.
Invented and developed at LLNL (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory), this inexpensive and highly sensitive radar system produces and samples extremely short pulses of energy. This novel technology is finding dozens of new uses in Laboratory programs and in sensor devices for homes, automobiles, factories, and hospitals. We have invented and patented a fundamentally different type of compact, low-power radar system
S. Azevedo; T. E. McEwan
The first topographic and ice-motion maps of the northwestern flank of Hielo Patagonico Norte (HPN, northern Patagonia Icefield), in Chile, were produced using satellite synthetic-aperture interferometric radar data acquired by NASA's Spaceborne Imaging Radar C instrument in October 1994. The topographic map has a IO m vertical precision with a 30 m horizontal spacing, which should be sufficient to serve as a reference for monitoring future mass changes of the icefield. The ice-motion map is accurate to within 4 mm/ d (or 1/ ma). The radar-derived surface topography and ice velocity are used to estimate the ice discharge from the accumulation area of four outlet glaciers, and the calving flux and mass balance of Glaciar San Rafael. The results demonstrate the use of SAR interferometry for monitoring glaciological parameters on a spatial and temporal scale unattainable by any other means.
Rignot, Eric; Forster, Rick; Isacks, Bryan
Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoto University (RISH) has been studying the atmosphere by using radars. The first big facility was the MU (Middle and Upper atmosphere) radar installed in Shiga, Japan in 1984. This is one of the most powerful and multi-functional radar, and is successful of revealing importance of atmospheric waves for the dynamical vertical coupling processes. The next big radar was the Equatorial Atmosphere Radar (EAR) installed at Kototabang, West Sumatra, Indonesia in 2001. The EAR was operated under close collaboration with LAPAN (Indonesia National Institute for Aeronautics and Space), and conducted the long-term continuous observations of the equatorial atmosphere/ionosphere for more than 10 years. The MU radar and the EAR are both utilized for inter-university and international collaborative research program for long time. National Institute for Polar Research (NIPR) joined EISCAT Scientific Association together with Nagoya University, and developed the PANSY radar at Syowa base in Antarctica as a joint project with University of Tokyo. These are the efforts of radar study of the atmosphere/ionosphere in the polar region. Now we can find that Japan holds a global network of big atmospheric/ionospheric radars. The EAR has the limitation of lower sensitivity compared with the other big radars shown above. RISH now proposes a plan of Equatorial MU Radar (EMU) that is to establish the MU-radar class radar next to the EAR. The EMU will have an active phased array antenna with the 163m diameter and 1055 cross-element Yagis. Total output power of the EMU will be more than 500kW. The EMU can detect turbulent echoes from the mesosphere (60-80km). In the ionosphere incoherent-scatter observations of plasma density, drift, and temperature would be possible. Multi-channel receivers will realize radar-imaging observations. The EMU is one of the key facilities in the project "Study of coupling processes in the solar-terrestrial system" for Master Plan 2014 of the Science Council of Japan (SCJ). We show the EMU project and its science in the presentation.
Yamamoto, Mamoru; Hashiguchi, H.; Tsuda, Toshitaka; Yamamoto, Masayuki
The paper presents an approach for measurements of corneal topography by use of a patent pending double path shearing interferometer (DPSI). Laser light reflected from the surface of the cornea is divided and directed to the inputs of two interferometers. The interferometers use lateral shearing of wavefronts in two orthogonal directions. A tilt of one of the mirrors in each interferometric setup perpendicularly to the lateral shear introduces parallel carrier frequency fringes at the output of each interferometer. There is orthogonal linear polarization of the laser light used in two DPSI. Two images of fringe patters are recorded by a high resolution digital camera. The obtained fringe patterns are used for phase difference reconstruction. The phase of the wavefront was reconstructed by use of algorithms for a large grid based on discrete integration. The in vivo method can also be used for tear film stability measurement, artificial tears and contact lens tests.
Licznerski, Tomasz J.; Jaronski, Jaroslaw; Kosz, Dariusz
We derive models for the global shape and topography of Mercury from limb images obtained by the MESSENGER spacecraft during flybys and from orbit. Crossover heights of 225 individual limb profiles were adjusted by least-squares techniques to establish a rigid global topographic network. Mercury is confirmed to possess an equatorial ellipticity and a polar oblateness. Several large impact basins and craters can be identified in the topographic model, including one basin that was earlier proposed but unconfirmed. Comparisons with absolute height data from laser altimetry indicate that the limb model appears to overestimate planetary radius by ~900 m on average. Limb profiles and local digital terrain models derived from stereo-photogrammetry show good agreement.
Elgner, Stephan; Stark, Alexander; Oberst, Jürgen; Perry, Mark E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Robinson, Mark S.; Solomon, Sean C.
A short history of the uses of various laser radars is presented, and appropriate applications of laser and microwave radars are discussed. CO2 laser radar, operating at 10.6 microns, is considered for use in aircraft navigation systems, fire-control systems for armored vehicle and aircraft, missile guidance, severe storm research, line-of-sight command of missiles, wind turbine site surveys, clear-air turbulence monitors for aircraft, and satellite tracking. Microwave radar is all-weather, but is subject to multipath inaccuracies, countermeasures, and angular resolution limitations, so hybrid laser microwave systems look promising for microwave target acquisition and laser tracking. Advantages and disadvantages of the use of ruby, YAG, and CO2 lasers in varying atmospheric conditions are discussed. Development of a laser radar pod for obstacle detection, Doppler navigation, automatic terrain following, hover control, weapon delivery, and precision searching is noted.
Jelalian, A. V.
The present work on the development status of spaceborne weather radar systems and services discusses radar instrument complementarities, the current forms of equations for the characterization of such aspects of weather radar performance as surface and mirror-image returns, polarimetry, and Doppler considerations, and such essential factors in spaceborne weather radar design as frequency selection, scanning modes, and the application of SAR to rain detection. Attention is then given to radar signal absorption by the various atmospheric gases, rain drop size distribution and wind velocity determinations, and the characteristics of clouds, as well as the range of available estimation methods for backscattering, single- and dual-wavelength attenuation, and polarimetric and climatological characteristics.
Meneghini, Robert; Kozu, Toshiaki
From designs developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in radar and imaging technologies, there exists the potential for a variety of applications in both public and private sectors. Presently tests are being conducted for the detection of buried mines and the analysis of civil structures. These new systems use a patented ultra-wide band (impulse) radar technology known as Micropower Impulse Radar (GPR) imaging systems. LLNL has also developed signal processing software capable of producing 2-D and 3-D images of objects embedded in materials such as soil, wood and concrete. My assignment while at LLNL has focused on the testing of different radar configurations and applications, as well as assisting in the creation of computer algorithms which enable the radar to scan target areas of different geometeries.
The rationale for the present study was to investigate several aspects of P300 topography in relation to aging and neuropsychological measures. We administered an auditory oddball ERP task to 72 participants aged 21.8 to 94.7 years, 36 males and 36 females, in addition to the Wechsler Abbreviated Scales of Intelligence (WASI) and digit span from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales
Anders M. Fjell; Kristine B. Walhovd
4. VIEW NORTHEAST, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar tower, emergency power building, and height finder radar tower - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI
5. VIEW EAST, height finder radar towers, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar tower, operations building, and central heating plant - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI
The topographical perturbation of steady-state subsurface temperature fields has been an important issue in geothermal interpretations throughout the past century. This paper reports a numerical study, which considers the possible influence of terrain topography on transient temperature signals. Typical morphological situations over wide areas in central Europe affect most likely that same depth range which also contains the temperature signals resulting from the most interesting ground surface temperature changes (i.e. during the last 200 years). The evaluation of the interaction is performed on a synthetic sinusoidal topography with varying wavelength and amplitude. Vertical profiles (i.e. temperature logs) were extracted from these numerical forward 2-D calculations. Thereby, the error could be estimated by comparing ground surface temperature time-histories inverted from temperature logs both with and without topographic correction. The results show that a topographic correction of temperature data is absolutely necessary to achieve a consistent inversion result. Even rather flat topographies with 20-km wavelengths and 100-m amplitudes may introduce topographical effects which confuse the inversion process. On the other hand, the palaeoclimatically induced temperature signal persists even in rough topographies and will show correct inversion results when data are adequately treated. Only extreme situations cause a lateral interference of these transient signals with depth. The results from such 2-D synthetic models have been confirmed by an analysis of a real situation. The example chosen is the area surrounding the German Continental Deep Drilling (KTB) project. The area is situated in a moderately undulating surface topography with maximum altitude variations of the order of 250 m. The additional 3-D simulation demonstrates that a strong topography-dependent variation of the transient temperature signal can occur even at greater depths. The introduction of corrections for topography influence, reduces apparent differences in profiles from different locations in the surroundings of the KTB site to a maximum of 0.2 K.
The development of the arctic gas fields requires a gas transport system to be laid across the Obskaya Bay and the Baydaratskaya Bay, Kara Sea. Designing, construction and safe operation of the offshore parts of the crossing demands special knowledge about a structure of the bottom topography and coastal zone dynamics. Results of investigation indicate a difference between those regions and common features of structure and evolution. Owing to a quite large scale of research it was possible to detail the bottom topography, to reveal separate elements and forms. The analyses of topography were executed to define the mechanisms and basic phases of relief formation. Accordingly, the geomorphological map describing the bottom topography by the set of parameters (major of them are morphology, morphometry, age, genesis and dynamics) has also become more detailed. Geomorphological structure of a seabed is the important source of the information on location of permafrost relicts, sites of concentration of rip currents, intensive ice bottom gouging, deformations of an underwater coastal slope and other adverse phenomena and dangerous exogenous processes. The analysis of all these data allowed making prediction of bottom topography development, to plan and carry out an engineering construction. Digital model of bottom topography is a basis for engineering constructions designing. Creation of digital models of bottom topography was carried out by the original method consisted of several stages and based on manual author's processing and interpretation of maps. Also a large amount of archival and literary materials on geophysics, geology, geomorphology and paleogeography has been involved for digital model creation with the purpose to determine the features of morphostructure and genesis of the basic elements. It is established, that the geomorphological structure of the bottom of the Baydaratskaya and Obskaya Bays reflects consecutive change of the conditions and relief formation processes in Late Pleistocene-Holocene, since a continental stage of development of the drained erosion plain down to present time, including attributes of non-uniform rise of a sea level and activity of coastal processes (underwater bluffs, ancient beach ridges et al.).
Ermolov, A.; Noskov, A.; Ogorodov, S.
Greatly increased activity in the field of radar image applications in the coming years demands that techniques of radar image analysis, enhancement, and simulation be developed now. Since the statistical nature of radar imagery differs from that of photographic imagery, one finds that the required digital image processing algorithms (e.g., for improved viewing and feature extraction) differ from those currently existing. This paper addresses these problems and discusses work at the Remote Sensing Laboratory in image simulation and processing, especially for systems comparable to the formerly operational SEASAT synthetic aperture radar.
Frost, V. S.; Stiles, J. A.; Holtzman, J. C.; Dellwig, L. F.; Held, D. N.
The results of high performance ground penetrating radar study of Area 2 at Technical Area 49 are presented. The survey was commissioned as part of Los Alamos Laboratory`s continuing Environmental Remediation program and was completed and analyzed before borehole studies in Area 2 were started. Based upon the ground penetrating radar results, the location of one of the planned boreholes was moved to assure the drilling area was as safe as possible. While earlier attempts to use commercial radar devices at this facility had not been successful, the radar and digital processing system developed at Los Alamos were able to significantly improve the buried physical detail of the site.
Hoeberling, R.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Rangel, M.J. III [Analysis Programming Processing Instrumentation, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)
A model for recording, processing, presentation, and analysis of radar images in digital form is presented. The observed image is represented as having two random components, one which models the variation due to the coherent addition of electromagnetic energy scattered from different objects in the illuminated areas. This component is referred to as fading. The other component is a representation of the terrain variation which can be described as the actual signal which the radar is attempting to measure. The combination of these two components provides a description of radar images as being the output of a linear space-variant filter operating on the product of the fading and terrain random processes. In addition, the model is applied to a digital image processing problem using the design and implementation of enhancement scene. Finally, parallel approaches are being employed as possible means of solving other processing problems such as SAR image map-matching, data compression, and pattern recognition.
Stiles, J. A.; Frost, V. S.; Shanmugam, K. S.; Holtzman, J. C.
AIMSTo map the thickness, elevation (anterior and posterior corneal surface), and axial curvature of the cornea in normal eyes with the Orbscan corneal topography system.METHODS94 eyes of 51 normal subjects were investigated using the Orbscan corneal topography system. The anterior and posterior corneal elevation maps were classified into regular ridge, irregular ridge, incomplete ridge, island, and unclassified patterns, and the
Zuguo Liu; Andrew J Huang; Stephen C Pflugfelder
Simulated stereo radar imagery is used to investigate parameters for a spaceborne imaging radar. Incidence angles ranging from small to intermediate to large are used with three digital terrain model areas which are representative of relatively flat, moderately rough, and mountaneous terrain. The simulated radar imagery was evaluated by interpreters for ease of stereo perception and information content, and rank ordered within each class of terrain. The interpreter's results are analyzed for trends between the height of a feature and either parallax or vertical exaggeration for a stereo pair. A model is developed which predicts the amount of parallax (or vertical exaggeration) an interpreter would desire for best stereo perception of a feature of a specific height. Results indicate the selection of angle of incidence and stereo intersection angle depend upon the relief of the terrain. Examples of the simulated stereo imagery are presented for a candidate spaceborne imaging radar having four selectable angles of incidence.
Pisaruck, M. A.; Kaupp, V. H.; Macdonald, H. C.; Waite, W. P.
The report describes the experimental digital range unit used with the M-33D radar. The unit, designed and built for use with both the M-33D and Nike-Ajax radar sets, is part of the testing facility constructed at NOTS for the Surface Launched Weapon Cont...
K. O. Bryant, S. G. Valdivia
The paper describes the design parameters and development of a synthetic aperture radar for use on the SEASAT spacecraft. This imaging radar is designed to operate at altitudes of 800 km with an orbital inclination of 108 deg, a nominal resolution of 25 m, and a swath width of 100 km. The design evolved from planetary imaging radar studies conducted over many years where an L-band imaging radar was developed and tested on aircraft flights as a prototype system to map the surface of Venus. A solid-state transmitter is used where the pulse repetition frequency is a function of altitude and will be about 2kHz for a 12-m long antenna. The receiver consists of the receiver protector, input filters, the gain control, and the RF amplifier. The ground station uses the standard NASA receiver with a 10-m antenna. The correlator, either optical or digital, must be able to compensate for the pitch and yaw variations of the spacecraft as well as the inherent effective yaw caused by the rotation of the earth, and extract the range curvature and range walk effects.
Brown, W. E., Jr.
A generic electronic counter-counter measure (ECCM) system consisting of band-partitioned (BP) sidelobe canceller (SLC) is investigated for wideband radar. This paper describes trade-off studies performed on the BP digital SLC and identifies techniques and parameters that are capable of providing improved cancellation performance.
Feng-ling C. Lin; Karl Gerlach; Michael L. Picciolo
A solid state coherent laser radar system was employed to measure accelerations and\\/or deformations of metal foils. The foils were ablatively accelerated by a short laser pulse to velocities of approximately 1 km\\/s. Velocity profiles were determined by digitizing the chirped waveform produced by the target as its velocity changes. This waveform was analyzed to determine the Doppler shift as
M. G. Roe; A. L. Huston; B. L. Justus
The design, calibration and performance of a CW coherent laser radar testbed system is described. Detector responsiveness and detector noise in a heterodyne system is considered. A detailed evaluation of beam propagation and phase front matching is given. The final system is supplemented with a digital image memory, a galvanometer scanner and a boresighted TV camera. Analysis of images obtained
T. Claesson; K. Gullberg; D. Letalick; I. Renhorn; O. Steinvall; A. Widen
Various geophysical phenomena are recorded in the interference patterns formed by differencing two synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. The fringes generated by the topographic relief can be removed using a digital elevation model (DEM). The remaining fringes map the change in satellite-to-ground range which occurred between the acquisition times of the two images. By comparing different pairs of images spanning
Didier Massonnet; Kurt L. Feigl
Radar is a powerful technique that has furnished otherwise unavailable information about solar system bodies for three decades. The advantages of radar in planetary astronomy result from: (1) the observer's control of all the attributes of the coherent signal used to illuminate the target, especially the wave form's time/frequency modulation and polarization; (2) the ability of radar to resolve objects spatially via measurements of the distribution of echo power in time delay and Doppler frequency; (3) the pronounced degree to which delay-Doppler measurements constrain orbits and spin vectors; and (4) centimeter-to-meter wavelengths, which easily penetrate optically opaque planetary clouds and cometary comae, permit investigation of near-surface macrostructure and bulk density, and are sensitive to high concentrations of metal or, in certain situations, ice. Planetary radar astronomy has primarily involved observations with Earth-based radar telescopes, but also includes some experiments with a spaceborne transmitter or receiver. In addition to providing a wealth of information about the geological and dynamical properties of asteroids, comets, the inner planets, and natural satellites, radar experiments have established the scale of the solar system, have contributed significantly to the accuracy of planetary ephemerides, and have helped to constrain theories of gravitation. This review outlines radar astronomical techniques and describes principal observational results.
Ostro, Steven J.
Various radar designs and methods are studied for the estimation of rainfall parameters from space. An immediate goal is to support the development of the spaceborne radar that has been proposed for the Tropical Rain Measuring Mission (TRMM). The effort is divided into two activities: a cooperative airborne rain measuring experiment with the Radio Research Laboratory of Japan (RRL), and the modelling of spaceborne weather radars. An airborne rain measuring experiment was conducted at Wallops Flight Facility in 1985 to 1986 using the dual-wavelength radar/radiometer developed by RRL. The data are presently being used to test a number of methods that are relevant to spaceborne weather radars. An example is shown of path-averaged rain rates as estimated from three methods: the standard reflectivity rain rate method (Z-R), a dual-wavelength method, and a surface reference method. The results from the experiment shows for the first time the feasibility of using attenuation methods from space. The purposes of the modelling are twofold: to understand in a quantitative manner the relationships between a particular radar design and its capability for estimating precipitation parameters and to help devise and test new methods. The models are being used to study the impact of various TRMM radar designs on the accuracy of rain rate estimation as well as to test the performance of range-profiling algorithms, the mirror-image method, and some recently devised graphical methods for the estimation of the drop size distribution.
A variety of digital terrain models (DTMs) are nowadays available for use by the international scientific community. In terms of geodetic applications, such models are especially important for precise Stokesian geoid determinations, for geophysical and geodynamical studies related to the isostatic behaviour of the Earth's crust, and also for the development of realistic synthetic representations for the Earth's external gravitational field. However, the problem of which DTM should be chosen for such studies, as well as in other related applications of geo-sciences and engineering, is not a trivial question to answer. That is because most of the available global DTMs differ significantly in terms of their original data sources and their production technique, their accuracy and resolution levels and their actual spatial coverage. Furthermore, additional problems may arise from the fact that the accuracy characteristics within each DTM are not really homogeneous over the total coverage area, but they rather exhibit a spatially dependent behaviour which is often strongly correlated with the terrain morphology. Among the freely available DTMs covering Canada, the recently released SRTM30 model is of special interest for geodetic applications since it is based on the interferometric data gathered during NASA's Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The SRTM used space-borne radar interferometry sensors to produce a near global digital terrain model. The final SRTM30 model is thus primarily generated by a set of data which is consistent and of uniform quality over the entire coverage area. This is usually not the case for other global DTMs which are typically generated by merging existing topographic and/or cartographic data sources with varying (and often questionable) quality levels. This paper presents an initial assessment of the SRTM30 terrain model with respect to some other well known DTMs that are often used in practice, namely ETOPO2, GTOPO30 and the Canadian Digital Elevation Data (CDED) sets. The aforementioned models are evaluated and assessed through a statistical inter-comparison over various test areas representing typical Canadian landforms (e.g., mountain ranges along the Rockies in western Canada, flatter regions in the eastern Canada). A type of absolute comparison for all these models is also performed using as reference the orthometric, ellipsoidal and geoid height values at a set of nearly 1930 geodetic leveling benchmarks distributed throughout Canada.
Malmquist, C.; Kotsakis, C.; Sideris, M. G.
FGAN developed a High Power Radar System, able to track and image low Earth orbiting objects, for experimental radar research. The system is unique in Germany; it consists of a narrow band tracking radar and a high resolution imaging radar. The radars are supported from one 34-m parabolic dish antenna. They operate simultaneously on the object of interest. All information which a radar can gain about physical characteristics of targets have to be extracted from the backscattered electromagnetic field of transmitted pulses. L-band tracking data provide information on range, range rate, angular direction, and radar cross-section. From high resolution polarimetric Ku-band radar data projections of the 1- and 2-dimensional scatter centre distributions are computed. This paper gives a brief description of the FGAN radar and summarizes some radar based methods for orbit analysis, orbital lifetime prediction, reconstruction of object images, assessment of object dimensions, shape, attitude, and mass.
Results are presented of the topographic mapping of six large central volcanoes on Mars. Stereo images of the volcanoes Olympus Mons, Elysium Mons, Albor Tholus, Ceraunius Tholus, Uranius Tholus and Uranius Patera were acquired by Viking Orbiter 1, and pairs of images were compiled into topographic maps through the use of digital image measurement techniques. Olympus Mons is found to have the general form of a terrestrial basaltic shield constructed almost entirely from lava flows, however with an altitude of 20-23 km and flank slopes averaging about 4 deg; a high nominal density indicates that anomalously dense lithosphere underlies the shield. Uranius Patera is observed to be a similar feature of present relief about 2 km, with its lower flanks buried by later lava flood deposits. Elysium Mons has about 13 km of local relief with average slopes of 4.4 deg, although its upper flank slopes are significantly steeper than those of Olympus Mons, suggesting a shield volcano modified by a terminal phase of mixed volcanic activity. Albor Tholus is found to be a partially buried 3-km shield-like construct, while Ceranius and Uranius Tholus are steeper cone-like features with reliefs of about 6 and 2 km, respectively, which may be lava shield constructs modified by a terminal stage of explosive activity.
Blasius, K. B.; Cutts, J. A.
Much of our understanding of the geodynamics and geology of Venus has been derived from radar imagery and topography from the Magellan mission (NASA 1989-1994). These data were archived at the Planetary Data System (PDS) and are easily and freely available. Unfortunately, the Magellan Venus data are far less accessible than those of the Earth, Mars, and the Moon. Data for these bodies are available via the Google Earth geobrowser, allowing anyone to easily explore the latest imagery and surface information. In an effort to promote public interest in Venus, we have created content for Google Earth that displays three types of information from the Magellan-era. First the FMAP compilation of the Magellan SAR imagery has been assembled into a global overlay image for rapid panning and zooming. Second, the reprocessed altimetry data [Ford and Pettingell, 1992; Rappaport et al. 1999] have been carefully edited and merged with a global spherical harmonic analysis [Wieczorek, 2007] to form a 10-km resolution global DEM of the planet. Finally the IAU feature names along with the content from ``The Face of Venus'' [Roth and Wall, 1995] have been assembled as an overlay to provide basic naming and geology information. A draft version of this material is available by adding this Network Link in Google Earth: http://byss.arc.nasa.gov/ge-venus/venus.kml. We welcome comments and suggestions on how to best represent Venus data for the public
Beyer, R. A.; Mehnert, E.; Sandwell, D. T.; Kolb, E.; Austin Foulkes, J.; Schwehr, K.; Johnson, C. L.
With ERS-1/2 satellite radar interferometry, it is possible to make measurements of glacier motion with high accuracy and fine spatial resolution. Interferometric techniques were applied to map velocity and topography for several outlet glaciers in Greenland. For the Humboldt and Petermann glaciers, data from several adjacent tracks were combined to make a wide-area map that includes the enhanced flow regions of both glaciers. The discharge flux of the Petermann glacier upstream of the grounding line was estimated, thereby establishing the potential use of ERS-1/2 interferometric data for monitoring ice-sheet discharge. Interferograms collected along a single track are sensitive to only one component of motion. By utilizing data from ascending and descending passes and by making a surface-parallel flow assumption, it is possible to measure the full three-dimensional vector flow field. The application of this technique for an area on the Ryder glacier is demonstrated. Finally, ERS-1/2 interferograms were used to observe a mini-surge on the Ryder glacier that occurred in autumn of 1995.
Joughlin, Ian; Kwok, Ron; Fahnestock, Mark; Winebrenner, Dale; Tulaczyk, Slawek; Gogenini, Prasad
Topography is crucial data input for hydrological modeling but in many regions of the world, the only way to characterize topography is the use of satellite-based Digital Elevation Models (DEM). In some regions, the quality of these DEMs remains poor and induces modeling errors that may or not be compensated by model parameters tuning. In such regions, the evaluation of these data uncertainties is an important step in the modeling procedure. In this study, which focuses on the Altiplano region, we present the evaluation of the two freely available DEM. The shuttle radar topographic mission (SRTM), a product of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Advanced Space Born Thermal Emission and Reflection Global Digital Elevation Map (ASTER GDEM), data provided by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of Japan (MESI) in collaboration with the NASA, are widely used. While the first represents a resolution of 3 arc seconds (90m) the latter is 1 arc second (30m). In order to select the most reliable DEM, we compared the DEM elevation with high qualities control points elevation. Because of its large spatial coverture (track spaced of 30 km with a measure of each 172 m) and its high vertical accuracy which is less than 15 cm in good weather conditions, the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) on board on the Ice, Cloud and Land elevation Satellite of NASA (ICESat) represent the better solution to establish a high quality elevation database. After a quality check, more than 150 000 ICESat/GLAS measurements are suitable in terms of accuracy for the Altiplano watershed. This data base has been used to evaluate the vertical accuracy for each DEM. Regarding to the full spatial coverture; the comparison has been done for both, all kind of land coverture, range altitude and mean slope.
Satgé, F.; Arsen, A.; Bonnet, M.; Timouk, F.; Calmant, S.; Pilco, R.; Molina, J.; Lavado, W.; Crétaux, J.; HASM
Since the 1940s, radar development has focused on narrow-beam, scanning sensors. A wide field of view has advantages in terms of extended acquisition time for any target, and when combined with a high Doppler sampling frequency can yield high-resolution Doppler spectra. Unambiguous range and Doppler can be achieved under certain circumstances, resulting in enhanced ability to evaluate the characteristics of targets and clutter. Holographic radar has a range of applications in which the ability to discriminate targets among clutter is key. An example of such an application is in mitigation of wind farm interference with Air Traffic Control radar.
Oswald, Gordon K. A.
This projects introduces digital libraries, digital initiatives, search techniques, and the Instructional Architect Review Rubric. Digital Library Information : The Scope of the Digital Library D-Lib Journal article, 1998 2008 Joint Conference on Digital Libraries (JCDL) Annual meeting devoted to Digital Libraries Initiatives : Digital Libraries Initiative The Initiative's focus is to dramatically advance the means to collect, store, and organize information in digital forms, and make it available for searching, retrieval, and processing via communication networks -- all in ...
A report is presented on a preliminary design of a Synthetic Array Radar (SAR) intended for experimental use with the space shuttle program. The radar is called Earth Resources Shuttle Imaging Radar (ERSIR). Its primary purpose is to determine the usefulness of SAR in monitoring and managing earth resources. The design of the ERSIR, along with tradeoffs made during its evolution is discussed. The ERSIR consists of a flight sensor for collecting the raw radar data and a ground sensor used both for reducing these radar data to images and for extracting earth resources information from the data. The flight sensor consists of two high powered coherent, pulse radars, one that operates at L and the other at X-band. Radar data, recorded on tape can be either transmitted via a digital data link to a ground terminal or the tape can be delivered to the ground station after the shuttle lands. A description of data processing equipment and display devices is given.
The 94 GHz MMW airborne radar system that provides a runway image in adverse weather conditions is now undergoing tests at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB). This system, which consists of a solid state FMCW transceiver, antenna, and digital signal processor, has an update rate of 10 times per second, 0.35x azimuth resolution and up to 3.5 meter range resolution. The radar B scope (range versus azimuth) image, once converted to C scope (elevation versus azimuth), is compatible with the standard TV presentation and can be displayed on the Head Up Display (HUD) or Head Down Display (HDD) to aid the pilot during landing and takeoff in limited visibility conditions.
Alon, Yair; Ulmer, Lon
We have derived digital elevation models (DEMs) over the western part of the Devon Ice Cap in Nunavut, Canada, using "swath processing" of interferometric data collected by Cryosat between February 2011 and January 2012. With the standard ESA (European Space Agency) SARIn (synthetic aperture radar interferometry) level 2 (L2) data product, the interferometric mode is used to map the cross-track position and elevation of the "point-of-closest-approach" (POCA) in sloping glacial terrain. However, in this work we explore the extent to which the phase of the returns in the intermediate L1b product can also be used to map the heights of time-delayed footprints beyond the POCA. We show that there is a range of average cross-track slopes (~ 0.5 to ~ 2°) for which the returns will be dominated by those beneath the satellite in the main beam of the antenna so that the resulting interferometric phase allows mapping of heights in the delayed range window beyond the POCA. In this way a swath of elevation data is mapped, allowing the creation of DEMs from a sequence of L1b SARIn Cryosat data takes. Comparison of the Devon results with airborne scanning laser data showed a mean difference of order 1 m with a standard deviation of about 1 m. The limitations of swath processing, which generates almost 2 orders of magnitude more data than traditional radar altimetry, are explored through simulation, and the strengths and weaknesses of the technique are discussed.
Gray, L.; Burgess, D.; Copland, L.; Cullen, R.; Galin, N.; Hawley, R.; Helm, V.
Bacterial biofilms are a population of bacteria attached to each other and irreversibly to a surface, enclosed in a matrix of self-secreted polymers, among others polysaccharides, proteins, DNA. Biofilms cause persisting infections associated with implanted medical devices and hospital acquired (nosocomial) infections. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are the most common type of nosocomial infections accounting for up to 40% of all hospital acquired infections. Several different strategies, including use of antibacterial agents and genetic cues, quorum sensing, have been adopted for inhibiting biofilm formation relevant to CAUTI surfaces. Each of these methods pertains to certain types of bacteria, processes and has shortcomings. Based on eukaryotic cell topography interaction studies and Ulva linza spore studies, topographical surfaces were suggested as a benign control method for biofilm formation. However, topographies tested so far have not included a systematic variation of size across basic topography shapes. In this study patterned topography was systematically varied in size and shape according to two approaches 1) confinement and 2) wetting. For the confinement approach, using scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy, orienting effects of tested topography based on staphylococcus aureus (s. aureus) (SH1000) and enterobacter cloacae (e. cloacae) (ATCC 700258) bacterial models were identified on features of up to 10 times the size of the bacterium. Psuedomonas aeruginosa (p. aeruginosa) (PAO1) did not show any orientational effects, under the test conditions. Another important factor in medical biofilms is the identification and quantification of phenotypic state which has not been discussed in the literature concerning bacteria topography characterizations. This was done based on antibiotic susceptibility evaluation and also based on gene expression analysis. Although orientational effects occur, phenotypically no difference was observed between the patterned topography tested. Another potential strategy for biofilm control through patterned topography is based on the design of robust non-wetting surfaces with undercut feature geometries, characterized by 1) breakthrough pressure and 2) triple phase contact line model. It was found that height and presence of undercut had statistically significant effects, directly proportional to breakthrough pressures, whereas extent of undercut did not. A predictive triple phase contact line model was also developed. (Full text of this dissertation may be available via the University of Florida Libraries web site. Please check http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/etd.html)
Dike intrusions often cause complex ground displacements that are not sufficiently explained by simple analytical models. We develop a method to find complex and realistic dike geometries and overpressures from interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data. This method is based on a combination of a boundary element method with realistic topography and a neighborhood algorithm inversion. Dike model geometry is
Y. Fukushima; V. Cayol; P. Durand
Topographic measurements of sea surface elevation collected by the Surface Contour Radar (SCR) during NASA's Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR-B) experiment are plotted as three dimensional surface plots to observe wave height variance along the track of a P-3 aircraft. Ocean wave spectra were computed from rotating altimeter measurements acquired by the Radar Ocean Wave Spectrometer (ROWS). Fourier power spectra computed from SIR-B synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of the ocean are compared to ROWS surface wave spectra. Fourier inversion of SAR spectra, after subtraction of spectral noise and modeling of wave height modulation, yields topography similar to direct measurements made by SCR. Visual perspectives on the SCR and SAR ocean data are compared. Threshold distinctions between surface elevation and texture modulations of SAR data are considered within the context of a dynamic statistical model of rough surface scattering. The result of these endeavors is insight as to the physical mechanism governing the imaging of ocean waves with SAR.
Tilley, David G.
A satellite has been designed for application to radar calibration. Electromagnetic and mechanical characteristics of the satellite and their influence on the selection of shape and other parameters are discussed. Theoretical and experimental scattering data are included.
L. J. Kaplan; J. F. A. Ormsby; EVERT N. FOWLE; KENT R. JOHNSON; Richard T. Bates; S. H. Bickel
This module provides examples of radar imagery from various locations in the Caribbean to demonstrate the different types of images available. Also, examples of different meteorological and non meteorological features are presented to show features seen in island locations.
The Environmental Research Institute of Michigan (ERIM) dual-polarization X and L band radar was flown to acquire radar imagery over the Phoenix (Arizona) test site. The site was covered by a north-south pass and an east-west pass. Radar response to soil moisture was investigated. Since the ERIM radar does not have accurately measured antenna patterns, analysis of the L band data was performed separately for each of several strips along the flight line, each corresponding to a narrow angle of incidence. For the NS pass, good correlation between the radar return and mositure content was observed for each of the two nearest (to nadir) angular ranges. At higher angular ranges, no correlation was observed. The above procedure was not applied to the EW pass due to flight path misalignments. The results obtained stress the importance of radar calibration, the digitization process, and the angle of incidence.
Cihlar, J.; Ulaby, F. T.; Mueller, R.
Radar has the unique capability of looking under the dry and cold surfaces of Mars. The depth of penetration of radio waves depends on a number of surface and subsurface parameters such as surface topography, subsurface geological structure, and surface and subsurface electromagnetic properties. Among these parameters, the surface topography is known best largely due to valuable data provided by Mars Global Surveyor's MOLA (Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter) instrument. However, little information is available on the electromagnetic properties and subsurface characteristics of Mars. In addition to dispersion, the ionosphere will also attenuate the radio wave. The level of attenuation depends on the ionosphere's electron density and its profile shape and the electron-neutral collision frequency. Fortunately, information from past missions can provide some information on the expected level of attenuation. A figure shows expected total radio wave attenuation under three different ionospheric conditions. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.
Safaeinili, A.; Biccari, D.; Bombaci, O.; Gurnett, D.; Johnson, W. T. K..; Jordan, R. L.; Orosei, R.; Picardi, G.; Plaut, J.; Seu, R.
A collaboration has carried out measurements of ice thickness at the mouth of Ice Streams D and E, West Antarctica, using a surface-based impulse radar. These studies were undertaken as a part of the continuing effort to understand the state of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and its response to climate change. Thickness measurements will be used in the mass balance calculation currently in progress and to better understand features in the surface topography seen at low-angle sun illumination in the satellite imagery. Results show that the discharge areas of Ice Streams D and E are thickening by approximately 1 meter per year, and thus that these ice streams are likely losing mass. Aperiodic wavelike features in the surface topography are described, which pose interesting questions about migration of the grounding line and ice-stream dynamics.
Jacobel, Robert W.
The operating principles, technology, and applications of phased-array radars are reviewed and illustrated with diagrams and photographs. Consideration is given to the antenna elements, circuitry for time delays, phase shifters, pulse coding and compression, and hybrid radars combining phased arrays with lenses to alter the beam characteristics. The capabilities and typical hardware of phased arrays are shown using the US military systems COBRA DANE and PAVE PAWS as examples.
A borehole logging tool generates a fast rise-time, short duration, high peak-power radar pulse having broad energy distribution between 30 MHz and 300 MHz through a directional transmitting and receiving antennas having barium titanate in the electromagnetically active region to reduce the wavelength to within an order of magnitude of the diameter of the antenna. Radar returns from geological discontinuities are sampled for transmission uphole. 7 figs.
A borehole logging tool generates a fast rise-time, short duration, high peak-power radar pulse having broad energy distribution between 30 MHz and 300 MHz through a directional transmitting and receiving antennas having barium titanate in the electromagnetically active region to reduce the wavelength to within an order of magnitude of the diameter of the antenna. Radar returns from geological discontinuities are sampled for transmission uphole.
Chang, Hsi-Tien (Albuquerque, NM)
The theoretical and practical features of a self-adaptive filter designed to remove clutter noise from a radar signal are described. The hardware employs an 8-bit microprocessor/fast hardware multiplier combination along with analog-digital and digital-analog interfaces. The software here is implemented in assembler language. It is assumed that there is little overlap between the signal and the noise spectra and that the noise power is much greater than that of the signal. It is noted that one of the most important factors to be considered when designing digital filters is the quantization noise. This works to degrade the steady state performance from that of the ideal (infinite word length) filter. The principal limitation of the filter described here is its low sampling rate (1.72 kHz), due mainly to the time spent on the multiplication routines. The methods discussed here, however, are general and can be applied to both traditional and more complex radar MTI systems, provided that the filter sampling frequency is increased. Dedicated VLSI signal processors are seen as holding considerable promise.
Gong, Y. H.; Cooling, J. E.
A new urban landscape characterizes cities around the globe, eclipsing the smokestacks of the 19th century and skyscrapers of the 20th century, yet the topography of the 21st century digital cityscape is almost invisible. In sharp contrast to the limits of interaction imposed by geography, architecture, and physical distances characteristic of…
Gonick, Lev; Junnar, Priya
The SAAB REX WaveRadar sensor is widely used for platform-based wave measurement systems by the offshore oil and gas industry. It offers in situ surface elevation wave measurements at relatively low operational costs. Furthermore, there is adequate flexibility in sampling rates, allowing in principle sampling frequencies from 1 to 10 Hz, but with an angular microwave beam width of 10° and an implied ocean surface footprint in the order of metres, significant limitations on the spatial and temporal resolution might be expected. Indeed there are reports that the accuracy of the measurements from wave radars may not be as good as expected. We review the functionality of a WaveRadar using numerical simulations to better understand how WaveRadar estimates compare with known surface elevations. In addition, we review recent field measurements made with a WaveRadar set at the maximum sampling frequency, in the light of the expected functionality and the numerical simulations, and we include inter-comparisons between SAAB radars and buoy measurements for locations in the North Sea.
Ewans, Kevin; Feld, Graham; Jonathan, Philip
We have investigated the effects of topography on the surface-deformation field of volcanoes. Our study provides limits to the use of classical half-space models. Considering axisymmetrical volcanoes, we show that interpreting ground-surface displacements with half-space models can lead to erroneous estimations of the shape of the deformation source. When the average slope of the flanks of a volcano exceeds 20??, tilting in the summit area is reversed to that expected for a flat surface. Thus, neglecting topography may lead to misinterpreting an inflation of the source as a deflation. Comparisons of Mogi's model with a three-dimensional model shows that ignoring topography may lead to an overestimate of the source-volume change by as much as 50% for a slope of 30??. This comparison also shows that the depths calculated by using Mogi's solution for prominent volcanoes should be considered as depths from the summit of the edifices. Finally, we illustrate these topographic effects by analyzing the deformation field measured by radar interferometry at Mount Etna during its 1991-1993 eruption. A three-dimensional modeling calculation shows that the flattening of the deflation field near the volcano's summit is probably a topographic effect.
Cayol, V.; Cornet, F.H.
The scattering interaction of short electromagnetic pulses with a spherical target is studied. The target is assumed penetrable and is modeled as an air-filled dielectric shell. The radar cross-section (RCS) of such a target is obtained and its resonance features are analyzed. A dielectric composition makes the resonance features become very prominent compared with the case of an ideally conducting sphere. When the interrogating waveform is a pulse of short duration, the resonance features of the backscattering cross-section can be extracted within the frequency band of the incident pulse. To verify theoretical predictions, spherical targets were illuminated with short broad-band pulses using an impulse radar system. The actual shape of the pulse that is incident on the target is theoretically modeled using a digital filter design techniques, and the predicted backscattered returns of spherical targets are compared with selected echoes of the pulses transmitted by the impulse radar. The authors verify that the shape of the predicted backscattered pulse that results from the design method agrees well with the experimental findings using metal spheres of three different sizes. By means of an incident pulse of designed shape, the form-function in the backscattering radar cross-section of a dielectric target is predicted using a discrete Fourier transform (DFT) technique. It is shown that many of the resonance features of a dielectric spherical shell can be extracted from the frequency band of the incident pulse employing this method. The methodology that is developed can handle broadband pulses of any sufficiently smooth spectrum, interacting with (lossy or lossless) dielectric scatterers, and can extract the resonance features within the frequency band of the transmitted pulse. Accordingly, this methodology could also be used for assessing the performance of high-power impulse radar systems.
Abrahamson, Steffan; Brusmark, B.; Gaunaurd, Guillermo C.; Strifors, Hans C.
X-Ray topography is a powerfull method to study isolated defects in macroscopic crystals. The contrast of the most common defects is rather well-known and their study may be done without a good knowledge of the dynamical theory. Very simples rules permit to everybody the use of this method. An accurate model for the deformation due to a defect may be
Y. Epelboin; M. Curie
Topographic maps are an often-encountered feature in the brains of many species, yet there are no standard, objective procedures for quantifying topography. Topographic maps are typically identified and described subjectively, but in cases where the scale of the map is close to the resolution limit of the measurement technique, identifying the presence of a topographic map can be a challenging subjective task. In such cases, an objective topography detection test would be advantageous. To address these issues, we assessed seven measures (Pearson distance correlation, Spearman distance correlation, Zrehen's measure, topographic product, topological correlation, path length and wiring length) by quantifying topography in three classes of cortical map model: linear, orientation-like, and clusters. We found that all but one of these measures were effective at detecting statistically significant topography even in weakly-ordered maps, based on simulated noisy measurements of neuronal selectivity and sparse sampling of the maps. We demonstrate the practical applicability of these measures by using them to examine the arrangement of spatial cue selectivity in pallid bat A1. This analysis shows that significantly topographic arrangements of interaural intensity difference and azimuth selectivity exist at the scale of individual binaural clusters. PMID:24505279
Yarrow, Stuart; Razak, Khaleel A.; Seitz, Aaron R.; Series, Peggy
The topographical perturbation of steady-state subsurface temperature fields has been an important issue in geothermal interpretations throughout the past century. This paper reports a numerical study, which considers the possible influence of terrain topography on transient temperature signals. Typical morphological situations over wide areas in central Europe affect most likely that same depth range which also contains the temperature signals
Satellite radar altimeters have the ability to provide information related to ocean wave heights, wind speed, and currents. The present investigation has the objective to demonstrate the current capabilities and to indicate ways to increase the information content of the altimeter return through the use of wider bandwidth, higher pulse repetition frequencies (PRF), and multibeam. Altimeters aboard Skylab, Geos-3, and Seasat-1 have provided investigators with valuable experience in translating the radar observables into oceanic parameters. Basically, an altimeter transmits a narrow pulse and measures the time interval until the return energy from the ocean surface is received. That direct measure of the satellite altitude can be interpreted in terms of surface topography. Attention is given to altimeter oceanographic measurements, altimeter return pulse characteristics, satellite pointing and surface slopes, the adaptive tracker for terrain mapping, and a multibeam altimeter.
Townsend, W. F.; Mcgoogan, J. T.; Walsh, E. J.
A model that estimates a relative error bound for the radiometric calibration of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery is presented. This model is based on a statistical `Coefficient of Variation of Error Model', which produces a relative error bound by propagating the measured or estimated uncertainties in the radar system parameters utilized to correct digitally processed SAR image intensity values.
E. S. Kasischke; G. W. Fowler
Analysis of the side looking airborn radar imagery of Massachusetts, Connecticut and Rhode Island indicates that radar shows the topography in great detail. Since bedrock geologic features are frequently expressed in the topography the radar lends itself to geologic interpretation. The radar was studied by comparisons with field mapped geologic data first at a scale of approximately 1:125,000 and then at a scale of 1:500,000. The larger scale comparison revealed that faults, minor faults, joint sets, bedding and foliation attitudes, lithology and lithologic contacts all have a topographic expression interpretable on the imagery. Surficial geologic features were far less visible on the imagery over most of the area studied. The smaller scale comparisons revealed a pervasive, near orthogonal fracture set cutting all types and ages of rock and trending roughly N40?E and N30?W. In certain places the strike of bedding and foliation attitudes and some lithologic Contacts were visible in addition to the fractures. Fracturing in southern New England is apparently far more important than has been previously recognized. This new information, together with the visibility of many bedding and foliation attitudes and lithologic contacts, indicates the importance of radar imagery in improving the geologic interpretation of an area.
Banks, Paul T.
The Descent Imager/Spectral Radiometer (DISR) aboard the Huygens Probe took several hundred visible-light images with its three cameras on approach to the surface of Titan. Several sets of stereo image pairs were collected during the descent. The digital terrain models constructed from those images show rugged topography, in places approaching the angle of repose, adjacent to flatter darker plains. Brighter regions north of the landing site display two styles of drainage patterns: (1) bright highlands with rough topography and deeply incised branching dendritic drainage networks (up to fourth order) with dark-floored valleys that are suggestive of erosion by methane rainfall and (2) short, stubby low-order drainages that follow linear fault patterns forming canyon-like features suggestive of methane spring-sapping. The topographic data show that the bright highland terrains are extremely rugged; slopes of order of 30?? appear common. These systems drain into adjacent relatively flat, dark lowland terrains. A stereo model for part of the dark plains region to the east of the landing site suggests surface scour across this plain flowing from west to east leaving ???100-m-high bright ridges. Tectonic patterns are evident in (1) controlling the rectilinear, low-order, stubby drainages and (2) the "coastline" at the highland-lowland boundary with numerous straight and angular margins. In addition to flow from the highlands drainages, the lowland area shows evidence for more prolific flow parallel to the highland-lowland boundary leaving bright outliers resembling terrestrial sandbars. This implies major west to east floods across the plains where the probe landed with flow parallel to the highland-lowland boundary; the primary source of these flows is evidently not the dendritic channels in the bright highlands to the north. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Soderblom, L. A.; Tomasko, M. G.; Archinal, B. A.; Becker, T. L.; Bushroe, M. W.; Cook, D. A.; Doose, L. R.; Galuszka, D. M.; Hare, T. M.; Howington-Kraus, E.; Karkoschka, E.; Kirk, R. L.; Lunine, J. I.; McFarlane, E. A.; Redding, B. L.; Rizk, B.; Rosiek, M. R.; See, C.; Smith, P. H.
The Mojave Desert-Death Valley region has had a long history as a test bed for remote sensing techniques. Along with visible-near infrared and thermal IR sensors, imaging radars have flown and orbited over the area since the 1970's, yielding new insights into the geologic applications of these technologies. More recently, radar interferometry has been used to derive digital topographic maps of the area, supplementing the USGS 7.5' digital quadrangles currently available for nearly the entire area. As for their shorter-wavelength brethren, imaging radars were tested early in their civilian history in the Mojave Desert-Death Valley region because it contains a variety of surface types in a small area without the confounding effects of vegetation. The earliest imaging radars to be flown over the region included military tests of short-wavelength (3 cm) X-band sensors. Later, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory began its development of imaging radars with an airborne sensor, followed by the Seasat orbital radar in 1978. These systems were L-band (25 cm). Following Seasat, JPL embarked upon a series of Space Shuttle Imaging Radars: SIRA (1981), SIR-B (1984), and SIR-C (1994). The most recent in the series was the most capable radar sensor flown in space and acquired large numbers of data swaths in a variety of test areas around the world. The Mojave Desert-Death Valley region was one of those test areas, and was covered very well with 3 wavelengths, multiple polarizations, and at multiple angles. At the same time, the JPL aircraft radar program continued improving and collecting data over the Mojave Desert Death Valley region. Now called AIRSAR, the system includes 3 bands (P-band, 67 cm; L-band, 25 cm; C-band, 5 cm). Each band can collect all possible polarizations in a mode called polarimetry. In addition, AIRSAR can be operated in the TOPSAR mode wherein 2 antennas collect data interferometrically, yielding a digital elevation model (DEM). Both L-band and C-band can be operated in this way, with horizontal resolution of about 5 m and vertical errors less than 2 m. The findings and developments of these earlier investigations are discussed.
Farr, Tom G.
Although topographic coverage of Titan is and will remain sparse, some significant results have been obtained from global, regional and local measurements, via stereo, radarclinometry (shape-from-shading), autostereo (deviation from an assumed symmetric shape due to the inclined incidence), altimetry and SARtopo (monopulse) techniques. The global ellipsoidal shape (Zebker et al., 2009) provides important geophysical constraints on the interior. Hypsometry (Lorenz et al., 2011) provides insight into the balance of constructional and erosive processes and the strength of the lithosphere. Some local observations to be summarized in the talk include the measurement of mountains, the quantification of slopes that divert dunes and that drive fluid flow in river networks, as well as depth measurement of several impact craters and the assessment of candidate cryovolcanic structures. A recent new observation is a long altimetry pass T77 along the equator at the western edge of Xanadu, acquired both to constrain Titan's global shape and to understand the surface slopes and properties that may maintain the striking contrast between the dune fields of Shangri-La and the rugged and radiometrically anomalous Xanadu region. T77 also featured a SAR observation of the Ksa impact structure (discovered in SAR on T17), allowing a stereo DEM to be constructed. A feature shared by Earth and Titan is the ephemeral topography of liquids on the surface. Titan's lakes and seas likely vary in depth on geological (Myr-Gyr) and astronomical (~10 kyr) timescales : the depth of Ontario Lacus has been observed to vary on a seasonal timescale (~1 m/yr). Periodic changes of the order of 0.2-5m may occur diurnally, forced by Saturn gravitational tides. Finally, waves may be generated, at least during the windy season (which for Titan's north may be just about to begin) which can be constrained by radar and optical scattering measurements. Looking to the future, a Phase A study of the Titan Mare Explorer (TiME) mission, to float in Ligeia Mare in 2023, raises the prospect of seabed topography measurement via an acoustic depth sounder (sonar).
Lorenz, R. D.; Cassini Radar Team
A design study on adding a radar altimeter to the Pioneer Venus small probe is review. Block and timing diagrams are provided. The inherent and interface ambiguities, resolution, and data handling logic for radar altimeters are described.
The design and operation of a switched phase modulation system for the Urbana Radar System are discussed. The system is implemented and demonstrated using a simple procedure. The radar system and circuits are described and analyzed.
Herrington, L. J., Jr.; Bowhill, S. A.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate police officers exposures to microwaves emitted by traffic radar units at the ocular and testicular level. Additionally, comparisons were made of the radar manufacturers published maximum power density...
Fink, John Michael
The accuracy of the current Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) data smoothing techniques for a variety of radars and payloads is examined. Alternative data reduction techniques are given and recommendations are made for improving radar data processing at WFF. A data adaptive algorithm, based on Kalman filtering and smoothing techniques, is also developed for estimating payload trajectories above the atmosphere from noisy time varying radar data. This algorithm is tested and verified using radar tracking data from WFF.
White, J. V.
Developments at Dornier in radar equipment are discussed. Characteristics of the Tasyll-1 scoring system for air target simulation are examined with emphasis on the Doppler radar principle for missile location. The RADOBS-R (Radar-object shield panorama sensor) system creates a ring-shaped alarm zone around an object for protection and has an operating frequency around 14 GHz. A Synthetic Aperture Radar and
U. Knepper; R. Kremer; H. Lamprecht; R. Schotter
A system to measure the topography of the first optical surface of the human eye noninvasively by using a curvature sensor is described. The static corneal topography and the dynamic topography of the tear film can both be measured, and the topographies obtained are presented. The system makes possible the study of the dynamic aberrations introduced by the tear film to determine their contribution to the overall ocular aberrations in healthy eyes, eyes with corneal pathologies, and eyes wearing contact lenses.
Gruppetta, Steve; Koechlin, Laurent; Lacombe, François; Puget, Pascal
A new Digital Elevation Model was created using the best available high-resolution topography and multibeam bathymetry surrounding the area of Seward, Alaska. Datasets of (1) LIDAR topography collected for the Kenai Watershed Forum, (2) Seward harbor soundings from the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers, and (3) multibeam bathymetry from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration contributed to the final combined product. These datasets were placed into a common coordinate system, horizontal datum, vertical datum, and data format prior to being combined. The projected coordinate system of Universal Transverse Mercator Zone 6 North American Datum of 1927 was used for the horizontal coordinates. Z-values in meters were referenced to the tidal datum of Mean High Water. Gaps between the datasets were interpolated to create the final seamless 5-meter grid covering the area of interest around Seward, Alaska.
Labay, Keith A.; Haeussler, Peter J.
More than 10,000 km2 of high-resolution, public-domain topography acquired by the Puget Sound Lidar Consortium is revolutionizing investigations of active faulting, continental glaciation, landslides, and surficial processes in the seismically active Puget Lowland. The Lowland-the population and economic center of the Pacific Northwest-presents special problems for hazards investigations, with its young glacial topography, dense forest cover, and urbanization. Lidar mapping during leaf-off conditions has led to a detailed digital model of the landscape beneath the forest canopy. The surface thus revealed contains a rich and diverse record of previously unknown surface-rupturing faults, deep-seated landslides, uplifted Holocene and Pleistocene beaches, and subglacial and periglacial features. More than half a dozen suspected postglacial fault scarps have been identified to date. Five scarps that have been trenched show evidence of large, Holocene, surface-rupturing earthquakes.
Haugerud, R.A.; Harding, D.J.; Johnson, S.Y.; Harless, J.L.; Weaver, C.S.; Sherrod, B.L.
Located in a narrow canyon 15 km west of Boulder, Colorado, the Sunset pulsed Doppler radar was the first radar designed and constructed specifically as a VHF ST radar. The antenna system is a phased array of coaxial-colinear dopoles with computer-controlled phase shifters for each line of dipoles. It operates at a frequency of 40.475 MHz and a wavelength of 7.41M. Peak transmitter power is 100 kW. Aperture efficiency is 0.58 and resistive loss is 0.30 for its 3600 sq m area. The practical steering rate is 1 record/minute/position to any arbitrary antenna beam position. The first clear-air turbulence echoes and wind velocity measurements were obtained in 1974. Significant accomplishments are listed.
Green, J. L.
A flight mission of NASA GSFC's Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) is planned for June-August 2003 in the Amazon region of Brazil. The goal of this flight mission is to map the vegetation height and structure and ground topography of a large area of the Amazon. This data will be used to produce maps of true ground topography, vegetation height, and estimated above-ground biomass and for comparison with and potential calibration of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data. Approximately 15,000 sq. km covering various regions of the Amazon will be mapped. The LVIS sensor has the unique ability to accurately sense the ground topography beneath even the densest of forest canopies. This is achieved by using a high signal-to-noise laser altimeter to detect the very weak reflection from the ground that is available only through small gaps in between leaves and between tree canopies. Often the amount of ground signal is 1% or less of the total returned echo. Once the ground elevation is identified, that is used as the reference surface from which we measure the vertical height and structure of the vegetation. Test data over tropical forests have shown excellent correlation between LVIS measurements and biomass, basal area, stem density, ground topography, and canopy height. Examples of laser altimetry data over forests and the relationships to biophysical parameters will be shown. Also, recent advances in the LVIS instrument will be discussed.
Blair, J. Bryan; Nelson, B.; dosSantos, J.; Valeriano, D.; Houghton, R.; Hofton, M.; Lutchke, S.; Sun, Q.
The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) has been investigating the utility of ultra-wideband (UWB) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technology for detecting concealed targets in various applications. We have designed and built a vehicle-based, low-frequency UWB SAR radar for proof-of-concept demonstration in detecting obstacles for autonomous navigation, detecting concealed targets (mines, etc.), and mapping internal building structures to locate enemy activity. Although the low-frequency UWB radar technology offers valuable information to complement other technologies due to its penetration capability, it is very difficult to comprehend the radar imagery and correlate the detection list from the radar with the objects in the real world. Using augmented reality (AR) technology, we can superimpose the information from the radar onto the video image of the real world in real-time. Using this, Soldiers would view the environment and the superimposed graphics (SAR imagery, detection locations, digital map, etc.) via a standard display or a head-mounted display. The superimposed information would be constantly changed and adjusted for every perspective and movement of the user. ARL has been collaborating with ITT Industries to implement an AR system that integrates the video data captured from the real world and the information from the UWB radar. ARL conducted an experiment and demonstrated the real-time geo-registration of the two independent data streams. The integration of the AR sub-system into the radar system is underway. This paper presents the integration of the AR and SAR systems. It shows results that include the real-time embedding of the SAR imagery and other information into the video data stream.
Nguyen, Lam; Koenig, Francois; Sherbondy, Kelly
Calibration of an airborne sidelooking radar is accomplished by the use of a model that relates the radar parameters to the physical mapping situation. Topics discussed include: characteristics of the transmitters; the antennas; target absorption and reradiation; the receiver and map making or radar data processing; and the calibration process.
Edwards, W. D.
In this work we report the design of a null screen for corneal topography. Here we assume that the corneal surface is an ellipsoid with a diameter of 12 mm and a curvature radius of 7.8 mm. To avoid the difficulties in the alignment of the test system due to the face contour (eyebrows, nose, or eyelids), we design a conical null-screen with spots (similar to ellipses) drawn on it in such a way that its image, which is formed by reflection on the test surface, becomes an exact radial array of circular spots if the surface is perfect. Additionally, we performed a numerical simulation introducing Gaussian random errors in the coordinates of the centroids of the spots on the image plane, and in the coordinates of the sources (spots on the null-screen) in order to obtain the conical null-screen that reduces the error in the evaluation of the topography.
Campos-García, Manuel; Estrada-Molina, Amilcar; Díaz-Uribe, Rufino
An overview of the present state of the art in the different scientific and technological fields related to spaceborne imaging radars was presented. The data acquired with the SEASAT SAR (1978) and Shuttle Imaging Radar, SIR-A (1981) clearly demonstrated the important emphasis in the 80's is going to be on in-depth research investigations conducted with the more flexible and sophisticated SIR series instruments and on long term monitoring of geophysical phenomena conducted from free-flying platforms such as ERS-1 and RADARSAT.
The characteristics of HF radar echoes reflected from ionization irregularities aligned along the lines of force of the Earth's magnetic field are presented. Utilizing experimental radar-ionospheric clutter data acquired at frequencies between HF and UHF, an analysis is made of the amplitude, the cross-sectional area and the angular extent statistics of HF field-aligned echoes. The Doppler frequency variation, the frequency of occurrence and the diurnal and seasonal variation of HF ionospheric backscatter echoes and their correlation with solar-geophysical conditions are also discussed.
Millman, G. H.
Many polarization techniques, which have been proposed and analyzed to enhance radar performance, are reviewed in this paper in order to assess the possible improvement they can provide in the signal-to-disturbance ratio, target detectability, target discrimination and resolution, and target classification and identification. Some recent experimentally-based results relating to these applications are also presented. Those techniques are emphasized for which polarization-based capabilities appear sufficiently assessed, such as adaptive polarization cancellation of clutter, chaff, and jamming. Polarization Doppler processing of dual-polarization radar signals, meteorologic applications, and polarization adaptation for target detection in the clear (in free space) are also examined.
Detailed snowpack observations, meteorology, topography and landcover classification were integrated with multi?temporal SAR data to assess its capability for landscape scale snowmelt mapping at the forest–tundra ecotone. At three sites along an approximately 8° latitudinal gradient in the Fennoscandian mountain range, 16 multi?temporal spaceborne ERS?2 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) were used for mapping snowmelt.Comparison of field measurements and backscatter values
A. M. Dean; I. A. Brown; B. Huntley; C. J. Thomas
Short-wavelength anomalies in sea surface topography, caused by the gravitational effects of major ocean bottom topographic features, have been detected by the radar altimeter aboard Skylab. Some features, such as deep ocean trenches, seamounts, and escarpments, displace the ocean surface by as much as 15 meters over 100-kilometer wavelengths. This experiment demonstrates the potential of satellite altimetry for determining the ocean geoid and for mapping major features of the ocean bottom.
Leitao, C. D.; Mcgoogan, J. T.
Shore-based high-frequency Doppler radar observations collected in Monterey Bay between 1999 and 2001 are utilized for the reconstruction of high-resolution surface currents: mesoscale and submesoscale ageostrophic spiral eddies, eddy dipoles, eddy tripoles and multi-eddy systems with lifetimes about 4-12 hours (sub-inertial periods). Our analysis demonstrates topography nature of all these eddies because of rectification of tides in the submarine canyon
L. M. Ivanov; O. V. Melnichenko
The authors describe a novel scheme for obtaining position update information for an inertial navigation system through the use of imagery from a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensor and an onboard digital map database. Updated information is obtained through comparison of the locations of terrain features extracted from the SAR imagery with locations predicted using the digital map and current
J. E. Bevington; C. A. Marttila
The transfer function of geoid over topography as a function of wavelength is derived. The relationship between oceanic geoid and seafloor depth is analyzed. The correction of the geoid and topological data for thermal cooling of the oceanic lithosphere, sediment loading, and crustal thickening induced by volcanism under large ocean plateaus is discussed. The global residual depth and geoid anomalies are computed. The admittance and correlation between residual depth and geoid anomalies as a function of wavelength are examined.
Cazenave, A.; Dominh, K.; Allegre, C. J.; Marsh, J. G.
Structural information of special interest to crystal growers and device physicists is now available from high resolution monochromatic synchrotron diffraction imaging (topography). In the review, the importance of superior resolution in momentum transfer and in space is described, and illustrations are taken from a variety of crystals: gallium arsenide, cadmium telluride, mercuric iodide, bismuth silicon oxide, and lithium niobate. The identification and understanding of local variations in crystal growth processes are shown. Finally, new experimental opportunities now available for exploitation are indicated.
Steiner, Bruce; Kuriyama, Masao; Dobbyn, Ronald C.; Laor, Uri
Although there is a great deal known about menthol as a flavoring agent in foods and confections, less is known about the\\u000a particular sensory properties of menthol cigarette smoke. Similarly, although smoking topography (the unique way an individual\\u000a smokes a cigarette) has been well studied using non-menthol cigarettes, there is relatively less known about how menthol affects\\u000a smoking behavior. The
Deirdre Lawrence; Brie Cadman; Allison C Hoffman
This lesson is comprised of three activities (three class periods). Students use web-based animations to explore the impacts of ice melt and changes to sea level. Students are introduced to topographic maps by doing a hands-on activity to model the contours of an island. Students examine the relationship between topography and sea level change by mapping changing shorelines using a topographic map.
Whitfield, Lise; Mcmillon, Bill; Scotchmoor, Judy; Stoffer, Phil; DLESE (Digital Library for Earth System Education)
This Web site contains Lidar-derived topography (bare earth) maps and GIS files for the Sandy Hook Unit within Gateway National Recreation Area in New Jersey. These Lidar-derived topography maps were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program, FISC St. Petersburg, the National Park Service (NPS) South Florida/Caribbean Network Inventory and Monitoring Program, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility. One objective of this research is to create techniques to survey coral reefs and barrier islands for the purposes of geomorphic change studies, habitat mapping, ecological monitoring, change detection, and event assessment. As part of this project, data from an innovative instrument under development at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, the NASA Experimental Airborne Advanced Research Lidar (EAARL) are being used. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in this realm for measuring subaerial and submarine topography wthin cross-environment surveys. High spectral resolution, water-column correction, and low costs were found to be key factors in providing accurate and affordable imagery to costal resource managers.
Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Patterson, Matt; Nayegandhi, Amar; Patterson, Judd
This thesis introduces digital materials by analogy with digital computation and digital communications. Traditional fabrication techniques include pick-and-place, roll-to-roll, molding, patterning and more. Current research ...
Popescu, George A
The radar is being developed to replace the outmoded and expensive to maintain AN/FPS-93 and AN/FPS-90 radars now used in Alaska. The AN/FPS-93 is a two-dimensional surveillance radar and the AN/FPS-90 is a two-dimensional height finder radar; both of these older radars have been in operation since the early 1950's. The specification requirements for SEEK IGL00 were set by a combination of the following: (1) performance characteristics of the AN/FPS-90 and AN/FPS-93 radars; (2) performance characteristics of the Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) System and the Joint Surveillance System (JSS); (3) sensor requirements using the new generation fighter aircraft; and (4) stringent reliability, maintainability and availability requirements to reduce on-site maintenance and operations personnel. The SEEK IGLOO radar will provide digital output messages (as opposed to the conventional "blip' signals used with many radar displays) containing range, azimuth and height information for radar and beacon targets.
Smith, R. C.
These remotely sensed, geographically referenced color-infrared (CIR) imagery and elevation measurements of lidar-derived bare-earth (BE) topography, first-surface (FS) topography, and canopy-height (CH) datasets were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Gulf Coast Network, Lafayette, LA; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the Naval Live Oaks Area in Florida's Gulf Islands National Seashore, acquired June 30, 2007. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral CIR camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight-line definition, flight-path plotting, lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is used routinely to create maps that represent submerged or sub-aerial topography. Specialized filtering algorithms have been implemented to determine the 'bare earth' under vegetation from a point cloud of last return elevations. For more information about similar projects, please visit the Decision Support for Coastal Science and Management website.
Nagle, David B.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Yates, Xan; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Klipp, Emily S.; Segura, Martha
Digital time series data at 16 heights within two storms were collected at vertical incidence with a 10-cm Doppler radar. On several occasions during data collection, lightning echoes were observed as increased reflectivity on an oscilloscope display. Simultaneously, lightning signals from nearby electric field change antennas were recorded on an analog recorder together with the radar echoes. Reflectivity, mean velocity, and Doppler spectra were examined by means of time series analysis for times during and after lightning discharges. Spectra from locations where lightning occurred show peaks, due to the motion of the lightning channel at the air speed. These peaks are considerably narrower than the ones due to precipitation. Besides indicating the vertical air velocity that can then be used to estimate hydrometeor-size distribution, the lightning spectra provide a convenient means to estimate the radar cross section of the channel. Subsequent to one discharge, we deduce that a rapid change in the orientation of hydrometeors occurred within the resolution volume.
Zrnic, D. S.; Rust, W. D.; Taylor, W. L.
Data obtained in 1978 by Seasat and in 1984 by SIR-B over a forested area in northern Florida are analyzed. The objective of the study was to determine the potential for detecting major changes in forest cover utilizing synthetic aperture radar obtained from satellite altitudes, and to define an effective methodology for processing and analyzing digital synthetic aperture radar data obtained on two different dates. It is found that multitemporal synthetic aperture radar data obtained from satellite altitudes can be used to detect major changes in forest cover conditions such as deforestation and reforestation. A suprisingly good level of detectivity was obtained for identifying areas of regrowth after they had been clearcut and replanted.
Lee, Kyu-Sung; Hoffer, Roger M.
The processing subsystem of a land based radar polarimeter was designed and constructed. This subsystem is labeled the remote data acquisition and distribution system (RDADS). The radar polarimeter, an experimental remote sensor, incorporates the RDADS to control all operations of the sensor. The RDADS uses industrial standard components including an 8-bit microprocessor based single board computer, analog input/output boards, a dynamic random access memory board, and power supplis. A high-speed digital electronics board was specially designed and constructed to control range-gating for the radar. A complete system of software programs was developed to operate the RDADS. The software uses a powerful real time, multi-tasking, executive package as an operating system. The hardware and software used in the RDADS are detailed. Future system improvements are recommended.
Kronke, C. W.; Blanchard, A. J.
Presented here is a description of a coherent radar scattermeter and its associated signal processing hardware, which have been specifically designed to detect microbursts and record their radar characteristics. Radar parameters, signal processing techniques and detection algorithms, all under computer control, combine to sense and process reflectivity, clutter, and microburst data. Also presented is the system's high density, high data rate recording system. This digital system is capable of recording many minutes of the in-phase and quadrature components and corresponding receiver gains of the scattered returns for selected spatial regions, as well as other aircraft and hardware related parameters of interest for post-flight analysis. Information is given in viewgraph form.
Jones, W. R.; Altiz, O.; Schaffner, P.; Schrader, J. H.; Blume, H. J. C.
The primary objective of the SIR-B experiment was to acquire multiple-incidence-angle radar imagery of a variety of Earth's surfaces to better understand the effects of imaging geometry on radar backscatter. A complementary objective was to map extensive regions of particular interest. Under these broad objectives, many specific scientific experiments were defined by the 43 SIR-B Science Team members, including studies in the area of geology, vegetation, radar penetration, oceanography, image analysis, and calibration technique development. Approximately 20 percent of the planned digital data were collected, meeting 40 percent of the scientific objectives. This report is an overview of the SIR-B experiment and includes the science investigations, hardware design, mission scenario, mission operations, events of the actual missions, astronaut participation, data products (including auxiliary data), calibrations, and a summary of the actual coverage. Also included are several image samples.
Cimino, Jo Bea; Holt, Benjamin; Richardson, Annie
A procedure for the optimal design of thin wideband radar absorbers is presented. The resulting absorbers are implemented by printing a frequency selective surface on a lossy perforated substrate. A binary hill climbing optimization scheme with random restart is used to find optimal solutions. The method of moments in conjunction with the transmission line method is used to calculate the
Arya Fallahi; Alireza Yahaghi; Hans-Rudolf Benedickter; Habibollah Abiri; Mahmoud Shahabadi; Christian Hafner
The Radar SAIL concept is based on the use of a rectangular antenna lying in the dawn-dusk orbital plane with the length (along speed vector) smaller than the height. Such geometry makes it possible to place the solar cells on the back of the antenna, to use gravity gradient stabilisation, and to implement multipath-free GPS interferometric measurement of the antenna
Jean Paul Aguttes; Jacques Sombrin; Eric Conde
The performances and characteristics of a satelliteborne radar operating in the millimeter wavelength region of the spectrum with emphasis placed on the 35 and 94 GH3 frequency bands are discussed. It is concluded that millimetric wavelengths provide an acceptable solution for the design of satelliteborne active microwave equipment.
Eckerman, J.; Meneghini, R.
A method of non-contact, on-machine measurement of three dimensional surface topography of grinding wheels' whole surface was developed in this paper, focusing on an electroplated coarse-grained diamond grinding wheel. The measuring system consists of a Keyence laser displacement sensor, a Keyence controller and a NI PCI-6132 data acquisition card. A resolution of 0.1?m in vertical direction and 8?m in horizontal direction could be achieved. After processing the data by LabVIEW and MATLAB, the 3D topography of the grinding wheel's whole surface could be reconstructed. When comparing the reconstructed 3D topography of the grinding wheel's marked area to its real topography captured by a high-depth-field optical digital microscope (HDF-ODM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), they were very similar to each other, proving that this method is accurate and effective. By a subsequent data processing, the topography of every grain could be extracted and then the active grain number, the active grain volume and the active grain's bearing ration could be calculated. These three parameters could serve as the criterion to evaluate the grinding performance of coarse-grained diamond grinding wheels. Then the performance of the grinding wheel could be evaluated on-machine accurately and quantitatively.
Pan, Yongcheng; Zhao, Qingliang; Guo, Bing
25. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #2M4, (mezzanine), power supply room; computer power supply on left and water flow on right. This room is directly below data processing area (room #318). Sign on right reads: High purity water digital rack - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND
Reviews research on digital preservation issues, including born-digital and digitally recreated documents. Discusses electronic records research; metadata and other standards; electronic mail; Web-based documents; moving images media; selection of materials for digitization, including primary sources; administrative issues; media stability…
Digital printing is described as a tool to replace conventional printing machines completely. Still this goal was not reached until now with any of the digital printing technologies to be described in the paper. Productivity and costs are still the main parameters and are not really solved until now. Quality in digital printing is no problem anymore. Definition of digital
Werner K. Sobotka
This paper represents a continuation of work begun by Petty and Katsaros (1990) on refining an attenuation-based technique for estimating rainfall parameters from polarized 37-GHz brightness temperatures. In the present work, Nimbus-7 SMMR normalized 37-GHz polarization differences P are compared with surface digital radar observations of oceanic precipitation, made during the Taiwan Area Mesoscale Experiment (TAMEX) for cases when the SMMR and the radar coverages of significant precipitation features were nearly simultaneous. After the radar data were corrected for range-dependent errors, relationships were determined between the 37-GHz P and the radar reflectivity factor Z. The relationship was used to generate a large set of simulated SMMR observations from all available TAMEX radar scans, to produce histograms and mean values of pixel-averaged rain rate as a function of P.
Petty, Grant W.; Katsaros, Kristina B.
Our challenge is to model plant species distributions in complex montane environments using disparate sources of data, including topography, geology, and hyperspectral data. From an ecologist's point of view, species distributions are determined by local environment and disturbance history, while spectral data are 'ancillary.' However, a remote sensor's perspective says that spectral data provide picture of what vegetation is there, topographic and geologic data are ancillary. In order to bridge the gap, all available data should be used to get the best possible prediction of species distributions using complex multivariate techniques implemented on a GIS. Vegetation reflects local climatic and nutrient conditions, both of which can be modeled, allowing predictive mapping of vegetation distributions. Geologic substrate strongly affects chemical, thermal, and physical properties of soils, while climatic conditions are determined by local topography. As elevation increases, precipitation increases and temperature decreases. Aspect, slope, and surrounding topography determine potential insolation, so that south-facing slopes are warmer and north-facing slopes cooler at a given elevation. Topographic position (ridge, slope, canyon, or meadow) and slope angle affect sediment accumulation and soil depth. These factors combine as complex environmental gradients, and underlie many features of plant distributions. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data, digital elevation models, digitized geologic maps, and 378 ground control points were used to predictively map species distributions in the central and southern White Mountains, along the western boundary of the Basin and Range province. Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) bands were calculated from the visible and near-infrared AVIRIS bands, and combined with digitized geologic maps and topographic variables using Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA). CCA allows for modeling species 'envelopes' in multidimensional environmental space, which can then be projected across entire landscapes.
VandeVen, C.; Weiss, S. B.
This is a three-dimensional perspective view of Long Valley, California by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar on board the space shuttle Endeavour. This view was constructed by overlaying a color composite SIR-C image on a digital elevation map. The digital elevation map was produced using radar interferometry, a process by which radar data are acquired on different passes of the space shuttle and, which then, are compared to obtain elevation information. The data were acquired on April 13, 1994 and on October 3, 1994, during the first and second flights of the SIR-C/X-SAR radar instrument. The color composite radar image was produced by assigning red to the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received) polarization; green to the C-band (vertically transmitted and received) polarization; and blue to the ratio of the two data sets. Blue areas in the image are smooth and yellow areas are rock outcrops with varying amounts of snow and vegetation. The view is looking north along the northeastern edge of the Long Valley caldera, a volcanic collapse feature created 750,000 years ago and the site of continued subsurface activity. Crowley Lake is off the image to the left. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.
This three-dimensional perspective view of Long Valley, California was created from data taken by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar on board the space shuttle Endeavour. This image was constructed by overlaying a color composite SIR-C radar image on a digital elevation map. The digital elevation map was produced using radar interferometry, a process by which radar data are acquired on different passes of the space shuttle. The two data passes are compared to obtain elevation information. The interferometry data were acquired on April 13,1994 and on October 3, 1994, during the first and second flights of the SIR-C/X-SAR instrument. The color composite radar image was taken in October and was produced by assigning red to the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received) polarization; green to the C-band (vertically transmitted and received) polarization; and blue to the ratio of the two data sets. Blue areas in the image are smooth and yellow areas are rock outcrops with varying amounts of snow and vegetation. The view is looking north along the northeastern edge of the Long Valley caldera, a volcanic collapse feature created 750,000 years ago and the site of continued subsurface activity. Crowley Lake is the large dark feature in the foreground. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v. (DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.
The available photometric, IRAS, occultation, and radar data suggest that Kleopatra's shape is extremely elongated, nonconvex, and possibly bifurcated, with a maximum dimension greater than 230 km. Kleopatra's radar albedo, the highest measured for a main-belt object, requires a very high surface bulk density that, given the asteroid's M classification, implies either a metallic composition and porosity typical of the lunar regolith or a regolith-free enstatite chondritic surface. The former is much more plausible; therefore Kleopatra may be a remnant of the core of a collisionally disrupted, differentiated asteroid. Kleopatra's fall 1999 opposition is the most favorable for radar until 2013. We plan an intensive campaign of delay-Doppler imaging to reconstruct the asteroid's detailed shape. The view will be a few tens of degrees from the pole, so the north/south ambiguity will be resolved easily and, given the anticipated echo strength, imaging with linear resolution of order 6 km should be possible. That level of geologic detail should define the asteroid's gross shape and also should reveal larger craters and any prominent topography. It also should define the radar scattering law, providing a very tight constraint on the Fresnel reflection coefficient and hence on the surface's bulk density and metal abundance. References Dunham, D. W. (1981). Recently-observed planetary occultations. Occultation Newsletter 2 (11), 139-143. Dunham, D. W. (1992). Planetary occultations of stars in 1992. Sky & Telescope, January 1992, pp. 72-73. Lagerkvist, C.-I., A. W. Harris, V. Zappala (1989). Asteroid lightcurve parameters. In Asteroids II (R. P. Binzel, T. Gehrels, M. S. Matthews, Eds.), pp. 1162-1179. Univ. Arizona Press, Tucson. Mitchell, D. L., et al. (1995). Radar observations of asteroids 7 Iris, 9 Metis, 12 Victoria, 216 Kleopatra, and 654 Zelinda. Icarus 118, 105-131.
Ostro, S. J.; Hudson, R. S.; Nolan, M. C.; Magri, C.; Campbell, D. B.; Giorgini, J. D.; Yeomans, D. K.
The ability of a space-based radar surveillance system to obtain target information from a clutter corrupted radar echo signal is dependent on the clutter cancellation technique employed. To thoroughly understand the nature of clutter so as to efficiently and effectively design and develop clutter cancellation techniques, fundamental mathematical relationships dealing with radar signal representation, probability theory, detection and estimation theory and signal comparison techniques were established and defined. Since the implementation of the mathematical expressions which describe clutter and clutter cancellation techniques are accomplished digitally, digital signal representation and digital filter characterization via FFt's were also established and defined. Drawing upon the established mathematical principles, as well as temporal probability models, spectral models and average backscatter coefficient models, clutter was described. Capitalizing on the different spectral characteristics between clutter and targets, three representative Doppler cancellation schemes were developed. The three schemes were delay line cancelers, Doppler filter banks and multiple look systems.
Background Radar transmitters emit high-power radiofrequency radiation by creation of a high-voltage and high-frequency alternating electrical current. Methods: Health effects of occupational exposure to military radar were investigated. Visual reaction time was recorded with a simple blind computer-assisted-visual reaction time test. To assess the short-term memory, modified Wechsler Memory Scale test was performed. Results: The mean +/- SD reaction time in radar works (N=100) and the control group (N=57) were 238.58 +/? 23.47 milliseconds and 291.86 +/? 28.26 milliseconds (P<0.0001), respectively. The scores of forward digit span in radar works and the control group were 3.56 +/? 0.77 and 4.29 +/? 1.06 (P<0.0001), while the scores of backward digit span in radar works and the control group were 2.70 +/? 0.69 and 3.62 +/? 0.95 (P<0.0001). The scores of word recognition in radar works and the control group were 3.37 +/? 1.13 and 5.86 +/? 1.11 (P<0.0001). Finally, the scores of paired words in radar works and the control group were 13.56 +/? 1.78 and 15.21 +/? 2.20 (P<0.0001). It can be concluded that occupational exposures to radar radiations decreases reaction time, which may lead to a better response to different hazards. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that occupational exposure to radar microwave radiation leads to decreased reaction time and the lower performance of short-term memory. Altogether, these results indicate that occupational exposure to radar microwave radiations may be linked to some non-detrimental and detrimental health effects. PMID:23785684
MORTAZAVI, Seyed Mohammad Javad; TAEB, Shahram; DEHGHAN, Naser
Geodetic control is extremely important in the production and quality control of topographic data sets, enabling elevation results to be referenced to an absolute vertical datum. Global topographic data with improved geodetic accuracy achieved using global Ground Control Point (GCP) databases enable more accurate characterization of land topography and its change related to solid Earth processes, natural hazards and climate change. The multiple-beam lidar instrument that will be part of the NASA Deformation, Ecosystem Structure and Dynamics of Ice (DESDynI) mission will provide a comprehensive, global data set that can be used for geodetic control purposes. Here we illustrate that potential using data acquired by NASA's Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICEsat) that has acquired single-beam, globally distributed laser altimeter profiles (+/-86deg) since February of 2003 [1, 2]. The profiles provide a consistently referenced elevation data set with unprecedented accuracy and quantified measurement errors that can be used to generate GCPs with sub-decimeter vertical accuracy and better than 10 m horizontal accuracy. Like the planned capability for DESDynI, ICESat records a waveform that is the elevation distribution of energy reflected within the laser footprint from vegetation, where present, and the ground where illuminated through gaps in any vegetation cover . The waveform enables assessment of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) with respect to the highest, centroid, and lowest elevations observed by ICESat and in some cases with respect to the ground identified beneath vegetation cover. Using the ICESat altimetry data we are developing a comprehensive database of consistent, global, geodetic ground control that will enhance the quality of a variety of regional to global DEMs. Here we illustrate the accuracy assessment of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) DEM produced for Australia, documenting spatially varying elevation biases of several meters in magnitude.
Carabajal, Claudia C.; Harding, David J.; Suchdeo, Vijay P.
Sheet What is a coastal DEM? A coastal DEM depicts Earth's land surface and ocean bottom. It is madeCoastal DEMs integrate seafloor bathymetry and land topography to depict Earth's solid surface, and help us better understand a variety of ocean processes. Coastal Digital Elevation Model (DEM) Fact
Airborne LIDAR (Light Detecting and Ranging) is a relatively new technique that rapidly and accurately measures micro-topographic features. This study compares topography derived from LIDAR with subsurface karst structures mapped in 3-dimensions with ground penetrating radar (GPR). Over 500 km of LIDAR data were collected in 1995 by the NASA ATM instrument. The LIDAR data was processed and analyzed to
Juana Maria Montane
A miniature L-band transceiver that operates at a carrier frequency of 1.25 GHz has been developed as part of a generic radar electronics module (REM) that would constitute one unit in an array of many identical units in a very-large-aperture phased-array antenna. NASA and the Department of Defense are considering the deployment of such antennas in outer space; the underlying principles of operation, and some of those of design, also are applicable on Earth. The large dimensions of the antennas make it advantageous to distribute radio-frequency electronic circuitry into elements of the arrays. The design of the REM is intended to implement the distribution. The design also reflects a requirement to minimize the size and weight of the circuitry in order to minimize the weight of any such antenna. Other requirements include making the transceiver robust and radiation-hard and minimizing power demand. Figure 1 depicts the functional blocks of the REM, including the L-band transceiver. The key functions of the REM include signal generation, frequency translation, amplification, detection, handling of data, and radar control and timing. An arbitrary-waveform generator that includes logic circuitry and a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) generates a linear-frequency-modulation chirp waveform. A frequency synthesizer produces local-oscillator signals used for frequency conversion and clock signals for the arbitrary-waveform generator, for a digitizer [that is, an analog-to-digital converter (ADC)], and for a control and timing unit. Digital functions include command, timing, telemetry, filtering, and high-rate framing and serialization of data for a high-speed scientific-data interface. The aforementioned digital implementation of filtering is a key feature of the REM architecture. Digital filters, in contradistinction to analog ones, provide consistent and temperature-independent performance, which is particularly important when REMs are distributed throughout a large array. Digital filtering also enables selection among multiple filter parameters as required for different radar operating modes. After digital filtering, data are decimated appropriately in order to minimize the data rate out of an antenna panel. The L-band transceiver (see Figure 2) includes a radio-frequency (RF)-to-baseband down-converter chain and an intermediate- frequency (IF)-to-RF up-converter chain. Transmit/receive (T/R) switches enable the use of a single feed to the antenna for both transmission and reception. The T/R switches also afford a built-in test capability by enabling injection of a calibration signal into the receiver chain. In order of decreasing priority, components of the transceiver were selected according to requirements of radiation hardness, then compactness, then low power. All of the RF components are radiation-hard. The noise figure (NF) was optimized to the extent that (1) a low-noise amplifier (LNA) (characterized by NF < 2 dB) was selected but (2) the receiver front-end T/R switches were selected for a high degree of isolation and acceptably low loss, regardless of the requirement to minimize noise.
McWatters, Dalia; Price, Douglas; Edelstein, Wendy
A sophisticated 3D laser radar sensor simulation, developed and applied to the task of autonomous hazard detection and avoidance, is presented. This simulation includes a backward ray trace to sensor subpixels, incoherent subpixel integration, range dependent noise, sensor point spread function effects, digitization noise, and AM-CW modulation. Specific sensor parameters, spacecraft lander trajectory, and terrain type have been selected to generate simulated sensor data.
Reiley, Michael F.; Carmer, Dwayne C.; Pont, W. F.
The Apollo Lunar Sounder Experiment, a coherent radar operated from lunar orbit during the Apollo 17 mission, has scientific objectives of mapping lunar subsurface structure, surface profiling, surface imaging, and galactic noise measurement. Representative results from each of the four disciplines are presented. Subsurface reflections have been interpreted in both optically and digitally processed data. Images and profiles yield detailed selenomorphological information. The preliminary galactic noise results are consistent with earlier measurements by other workers.
Phillips, R. J.; Brown, W. E., Jr.; Jordan, R.; Adams, G. F.; Jackson, P.; Peeples, W. J.; Porcello, L. J.; Ryu, J.; Eggleton, R. E.; Schaber, G.
This paper reports preliminary results of airborne imaging radar studies of the Sudbury structure carried out in preparation for a CCRS European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-1) investigation. The data used were synthetic aperture radar (SAR) C-band (5.66 cm) images acquired from about 6 km altitude in 1987. They cover the Sudbury area in both wide and narrow swath modes, with east-west flight paths and north-south illumination directions. Narrow swath resolution is 6 m in range and azimuth; wide swath resolution is 20 m in range and 10 m in azimuth. The STAR imagery has proven highly effective for field use, providing excellent rendition of topography and topographically expressed structure. Reasons for this include the illumination geometry, notably the look azimuth normal to the long axis of the Sudbury structure and Penokean fold axes, the good spatial resolution, and the short wavelength. Forested areas in the Sudbury area tend to be uniformly rough at C-band wavelength, with backscatter dominated by local incidence angle (i.e., topography). Field work using the SAR imagery has to date been concentrated in the North Range and Superior Province as far north as the Benny greenstone belt. This area was chosen for initial investigation of the original size and shape of the Sudbury structure because the effects of the Penokean Orogeny were minimal there. Field work using SAR indicates that there has been little postimpact deformation of the North Range or adjacent Superior Province rock. There appears to be no evidence for an outer ring concentric with the North Range as indicated by early Landsat imagery. The apparent ring shown by Landsat is visible on the SAR imagery as the intersection of two regional fracture patterns not related to the Sudbury structure. There is no outer ring visible southwest of the structure. This can reasonably be explained by Penokean deformation, but there is no outer ring to the northeast cutting the relatively undeformed Huronian sediments of the Cobalt Embayment.
Lowman, P. D.; Singhroy, V. H.; Slaney, V. R.