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Sample records for radar transponder apparatus

  1. Radar transponder apparatus and signal processing technique

    SciTech Connect

    Axline, R.M. Jr.; Sloan, G.R.; Spalding, R.E.

    1994-12-31

    An active, phase-coded, time-grating transponder and a synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) and signal processor means, in combination, allow the recognition and location of the transponder (tag) in the SAR image and allow communication of information messages from the transponder to the SAR. The SAR is an illuminating radar having special processing modifications in an image-formation processor to receive an echo from a remote transponder, after the transponder receives and retransmits the SAR illuminations, and to enhance tile transponder`s echo relative to surrounding ground clutter by recognizing special transponder modulations from phase-shifted from the transponder retransmissions. The remote radio-frequency tag also transmits information to the SAR through a single antenna that also serves to receive the SAR illuminations. Unique tag-modulation and SAR signal processing techniques, in combination, allow the detection and precise geographical location of the tag, through the reduction of interfering signals from ground clutter, and allow communication of environmental and status information from said tag to be communicated to said SAR.

  2. Radar transponder apparatus and signal processing technique

    DOEpatents

    Axline, R.M. Jr.; Sloan, G.R.; Spalding, R.E.

    1996-01-23

    An active, phase-coded, time-grating transponder and a synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) and signal processor means, in combination, allow the recognition and location of the transponder (tag) in the SAR image and allow communication of information messages from the transponder to the SAR. The SAR is an illuminating radar having special processing modifications in an image-formation processor to receive an echo from a remote transponder, after the transponder receives and retransmits the SAR illuminations, and to enhance the transponder`s echo relative to surrounding ground clutter by recognizing special transponder modulations from phase-shifted from the transponder retransmissions. The remote radio-frequency tag also transmits information to the SAR through a single antenna that also serves to receive the SAR illuminations. Unique tag-modulation and SAR signal processing techniques, in combination, allow the detection and precise geographical location of the tag through the reduction of interfering signals from ground clutter, and allow communication of environmental and status information from said tag to be communicated to said SAR. 4 figs.

  3. Radar transponder apparatus and signal processing technique

    DOEpatents

    Axline, Jr., Robert M.; Sloan, George R.; Spalding, Richard E.

    1996-01-01

    An active, phase-coded, time-grating transponder and a synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) and signal processor means, in combination, allow the recognition and location of the transponder (tag) in the SAR image and allow communication of information messages from the transponder to the SAR. The SAR is an illuminating radar having special processing modifications in an image-formation processor to receive an echo from a remote transponder, after the transponder receives and retransmits the SAR illuminations, and to enhance the transponder's echo relative to surrounding ground clutter by recognizing special transponder modulations from phase-shifted from the transponder retransmissions. The remote radio-frequency tag also transmits information to the SAR through a single antenna that also serves to receive the SAR illuminations. Unique tag-modulation and SAR signal processing techniques, in combination, allow the detection and precise geographical location of the tag through the reduction of interfering signals from ground clutter, and allow communication of environmental and status information from said tag to be communicated to said SAR.

  4. Removing interfering clutter associated with radar pulses that an airborne radar receives from a radar transponder

    DOEpatents

    Ormesher, Richard C.; Axline, Robert M.

    2008-12-02

    Interfering clutter in radar pulses received by an airborne radar system from a radar transponder can be suppressed by developing a representation of the incoming echo-voltage time-series that permits the clutter associated with predetermined parts of the time-series to be estimated. These estimates can be used to estimate and suppress the clutter associated with other parts of the time-series.

  5. Transponder-aided joint calibration and synchronization compensation for distributed radar systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Qin

    2015-01-01

    High-precision radiometric calibration and synchronization compensation must be provided for distributed radar system due to separate transmitters and receivers. This paper proposes a transponder-aided joint radiometric calibration, motion compensation and synchronization for distributed radar remote sensing. As the transponder signal can be separated from the normal radar returns, it is used to calibrate the distributed radar for radiometry. Meanwhile, the distributed radar motion compensation and synchronization compensation algorithms are presented by utilizing the transponder signals. This method requires no hardware modifications to both the normal radar transmitter and receiver and no change to the operating pulse repetition frequency (PRF). The distributed radar radiometric calibration and synchronization compensation require only one transponder, but the motion compensation requires six transponders because there are six independent variables in the distributed radar geometry. Furthermore, a maximum likelihood method is used to estimate the transponder signal parameters. The proposed methods are verified by simulation results. PMID:25794158

  6. Transponder-Aided Joint Calibration and Synchronization Compensation for Distributed Radar Systems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen-Qin

    2015-01-01

    High-precision radiometric calibration and synchronization compensation must be provided for distributed radar system due to separate transmitters and receivers. This paper proposes a transponder-aided joint radiometric calibration, motion compensation and synchronization for distributed radar remote sensing. As the transponder signal can be separated from the normal radar returns, it is used to calibrate the distributed radar for radiometry. Meanwhile, the distributed radar motion compensation and synchronization compensation algorithms are presented by utilizing the transponder signals. This method requires no hardware modifications to both the normal radar transmitter and receiver and no change to the operating pulse repetition frequency (PRF). The distributed radar radiometric calibration and synchronization compensation require only one transponder, but the motion compensation requires six transponders because there are six independent variables in the distributed radar geometry. Furthermore, a maximum likelihood method is used to estimate the transponder signal parameters. The proposed methods are verified by simulation results. PMID:25794158

  7. An Innovative Transponder-Based Interferometric Radar for Vibration Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Coppi, F.; Cerutti, A.; Farina, P.; De Pasquale, G.; Novembrini, G.

    2010-05-28

    Ground-based radar interferometry has recently emerged as an innovative technology of remote sensing, able to accurately measure the static or dynamic displacement of several points of a structure. This technique in the last couple of years has been applied to different types of structures, such as bridges, towers and chimneys. This paper presents a prototype system developed by IDS, originally aimed at measuring the structural vibrations of helicopter rotor blades, based on an interferometric technique and constituted by combination of a radar sensor and a series of transponders installed on the target structure. The main advantages of this solution with respect to conventional interferometric radars, are related to the increased spatial resolution of the system, provided by the possibility to discriminate different transponders installed within the same resolution cell of the radar sensor, and to the reduction of the ambient noise (e.g. multi-path) on the radar measurement. The first feature allows the use of the microwave technology even on target areas with limited dimensions, such as industrial facilities, while the second aspect may extend the use of radar interferometric systems to complex scenarios, where multi-reflections are expected due to the presence of natural targets with high reflectivity to the radar signal. In the paper, the system and its major characteristics are first described; subsequently, application to the measurement of ambient vibration response of a lab set-up is summarized. Then the data acquired on a rotating mock-up are reported and analyzed to identify natural frequencies and mode shapes of the investigated structure.

  8. Radar transponder operation with compensation for distortion due to amplitude modulation

    DOEpatents

    Ormesher, Richard C.; Tise, Bertice L.; Axline, Jr., Robert M.

    2011-01-04

    In radar transponder operation, a variably delayed gating signal is used to gate a received radar pulse and thereby produce a corresponding gated radar pulse for transmission back to the source of the received radar pulse. This compensates for signal distortion due to amplitude modulation on the retransmitted pulse.

  9. Radar transponder antenna pattern analysis for the space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radcliff, Roger

    1989-01-01

    In order to improve tracking capability, radar transponder antennas will soon be mounted on the Shuttle solid rocket boosters (SRB). These four antennas, each being identical cavity-backed helices operating at 5.765 GHz, will be mounted near the top of the SRB's, adjacent to the intertank portion of the external tank. The purpose is to calculate the roll-plane pattern (the plane perpendicular to the SRB axes and containing the antennas) in the presence of this complex electromagnetic environment. The large electrical size of this problem mandates an optical (asymptotic) approach. Development of a specific code for this application is beyond the scope of a summer fellowship; thus a general purpose code, the Numerical Electromagnetics Code - Basic Scattering Code, was chosen as the computational tool. This code is based on the modern Geometrical Theory of Diffraction, and allows computation of scattering of bodies composed of canonical problems such as plates and elliptic cylinders. Apertures mounted on a curved surface (the SRB) cannot be accomplished by the code, so an antenna model consisting of wires excited by a method of moments current input was devised that approximated the actual performance of the antennas. The improvised antenna model matched well with measurements taken at the MSFC range. The SRB's, the external tank, and the shuttle nose were modeled as circular cylinders, and the code was able to produce what is thought to be a reasonable roll-plane pattern.

  10. Low profile harmonic radar transponder for tracking small endangered species.

    PubMed

    Kiriazi, John; Nakakura, Jayson; Hall, Kevin; Hafner, Noah; Lubecke, Victor

    2007-01-01

    Fragmentation of threatened species' habitat attributable to anthropogenic activity is a major concern. Understanding these animals' dispersal ecology and range utilization can greatly aid in designing preserves for their conservation, but this data is extremely difficult to obtain for populations of small animals. Presented here is a study miniature passive harmonic radar tags which allow the tracking of an endangered snail species without adversely affecting the tagged subjects. Whip antennas were found to be problematic through snagging and interference with snail activity. Alternative low-profile planar antennas were also tested, with bow-tie related antenna forms providing reasonable (up to 7 ft) detection range. PMID:18002461

  11. Helicopter discrimination apparatus for the murine radar

    DOEpatents

    Webb, Jr., John G.; Gray, Roger M.

    1977-01-01

    A helicopter discrimination apparatus for a radar utilizing doppler filtering to discriminate between a missile and ground clutter. The short duration of the doppler filter pulses which are emitted by helicopter rotor blades are processed to prevent false alarms, thus allowing the radar-protected helicopter to operate in formation with other helicopters while maintaining protection against infra-red-seeking missiles.

  12. Methods and apparatus for switching a transponder to an active state, and asset management systems employing same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mickle, Marlin H. (Inventor); Jones, Alex K. (Inventor); Cain, James T. (Inventor); Hawrylak, Peter J. (Inventor); Marx, Frank (Inventor); Hoare, Raymond R. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A transponder that may be used as an RFID tag includes a passive circuit to eliminate the need for an "always on" active RF receiving element to anticipate a wake-up signal for the balance of the transponder electronics. This solution allows the entire active transponder to have all circuit elements in a sleep (standby) state, thus drastically extending battery life or other charge storage device life. Also, a wake-up solution that reduces total energy consumption of an active transponder system by allowing all non-addressed transponders to remain in a sleep (standby) state, thereby reducing total system or collection energy. Also, the transponder and wake-up solution are employed in an asset tracking system.

  13. Methods and apparatus for switching a transponder to an active state, and asset management systems employing same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mickle, Marlin H. (Inventor); Jones, Alex K. (Inventor); Cain, James T. (Inventor); Hawrylak, Peter J. (Inventor); Marx, Frank (Inventor); Hoare, Raymond R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A transponder that may be used as an RFID tag includes a passive circuit to eliminate the need for an "always on" active RF receiving element to anticipate a wake-up signal for the balance of the transponder electronics. This solution allows the entire active transponder to have all circuit elements in a sleep (standby) state, thus drastically extending battery life or other charge storage device life. Also, a wake-up solution that reduces total energy consumption of an active transponder system by allowing all non-addressed transponders to remain in a sleep (standby) state, thereby reducing total system or collection energy. Also, the transponder and wake-up solution are employed in an asset tracking system.

  14. 14 CFR 99.13 - Transponder-on requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... equipped with an operable radar beacon transponder, shall operate the transponder, including altitude... designated in subpart B of this part unless that aircraft is equipped with a coded radar beacon transponder..., within, or across the contiguous U.S. ADIZ unless that aircraft is equipped with a coded radar...

  15. 14 CFR 99.13 - Transponder-on requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... equipped with an operable radar beacon transponder, shall operate the transponder, including altitude... designated in subpart B of this part unless that aircraft is equipped with a coded radar beacon transponder..., within, or across the contiguous U.S. ADIZ unless that aircraft is equipped with a coded radar...

  16. 14 CFR 99.13 - Transponder-on requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... equipped with an operable radar beacon transponder, shall operate the transponder, including altitude... designated in subpart B of this part unless that aircraft is equipped with a coded radar beacon transponder..., within, or across the contiguous U.S. ADIZ unless that aircraft is equipped with a coded radar...

  17. 14 CFR 99.13 - Transponder-on requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... equipped with an operable radar beacon transponder, shall operate the transponder, including altitude... designated in subpart B of this part unless that aircraft is equipped with a coded radar beacon transponder..., within, or across the contiguous U.S. ADIZ unless that aircraft is equipped with a coded radar...

  18. 14 CFR 99.13 - Transponder-on requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... equipped with an operable radar beacon transponder, shall operate the transponder, including altitude... designated in subpart B of this part unless that aircraft is equipped with a coded radar beacon transponder..., within, or across the contiguous U.S. ADIZ unless that aircraft is equipped with a coded radar...

  19. Moving receive beam method and apparatus for synthetic aperture radar

    DOEpatents

    Kare, Jordin T.

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving the performance of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems by reducing the effect of "edge losses" associated with nonuniform receiver antenna gain. By moving the receiver antenna pattern in synchrony with the apparent motion of the transmitted pulse along the ground, the maximum available receiver antenna gain can be used at all times. Also, the receiver antenna gain for range-ambiguous return signals may be reduced, in some cases, by a large factor. The beam motion can be implemented by real-time adjustment of phase shifters in an electronically-steered phased-array antenna or by electronic switching of feed horns in a reflector antenna system.

  20. Method and Apparatus for Reading Two Dimensional Identification Symbols Using Radar Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Harry F., Jr. (Inventor); Roxby, Donald L. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for sensing two-dimensional identification marks provided on a substrate or embedded within a substrate below a surface of the substrate. Micropower impulse radar is used to transmit a high risetime, short duration pulse to a focussed radar target area of the substrate having the two dimensional identification marks. The method further includes the steps of listening for radar echoes returned from the identification marks during a short listening period window occurring a predetermined time after transmission of the radar pulse. If radar echoes are detected, an image processing step is carried out. If no radar echoes are detected, the method further includes sequentially transmitting further high risetime, short duration pulses, and listening for radar echoes from each of said further pulses after different elapsed times for each of the further pulses until radar echoes are detected. When radar echoes are detected, data based on the detected echoes is processed to produce an image of the identification marks.

  1. Transponder data processing methods and systems

    DOEpatents

    Axline, Robert M.

    2003-06-10

    This invention is a radar/tag system where pulses from a radar cause a tag (or transponder) to respond to the radar. The radar, along with its conventional pulse transmissions, sends a reference signal to the tag. The tag recovers the reference signal and uses it to shift the center frequency of the received radar pulse to a different frequency. This shift causes the frequencies of the tag response pulses to be disjoint from those of the transmit pulse. In this way, radar clutter can be eliminated from the tag responses. The radar predicts, to within a small Doppler offset, the center frequency of tag response pulses. The radar can create synthetic-aperture-radar-like images and moving-target-indicator-radar-like maps containing the signature of the tag against a background of thermal noise and greatly attenuated radar clutter. The radar can geolocate the tag precisely and accurately (to within better than one meter of error). The tag can encode status and environmental data onto its response pulses, and the radar can receive and decode this information.

  2. Method and apparatus for contour mapping using synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, R. M.; Caro, E. R.; Wu, C. (inventors)

    1985-01-01

    By using two SAR antennas spaced a known distance, B, and oriented at substantially the same look angle to illuminate the same target area, pixel data from the two antennas may be compared in phase to determine a difference delta phi from which a slant angle theta is determined for each pixel point from an equation Delta phi = (2 pi B/lambda)sin(theta - alpha), where lambda is the radar wavelength and alpha is the roll angle of the aircraft. The height, h, of each pixel point from the aircraft is determined from the equation h = R cos theta, and from the known altitude, a, of the aircraft above sea level, the altitude (elevation), a', of each point is determined from the difference a - h. This elevation data may be displayed with the SAR image by, for example, quantizing the elevation at increments of 100 feet starting at sea level, and color coding pixels of the same quantized elevation. The distance, d, of each pixel from the ground track of the aircraft used for the display may be determined more accurately from the equation d = R sin theta.

  3. Altimeter range determination and applications using a transponder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristea, Elena; Moore, Philip

    2006-09-01

    Within the Gavdos Project (Establishment of a European radar altimeter calibration and sea level monitoring site for Jason, Envisat and Euro-Gloss), a transponder has been used for an experimental work package. The instrument has been deployed on the island of Gavdos beneath the ascending pass of Envisat and was receiving the altimeter pulses, amplifying and retransmitting them back to the altimeter. The transponder could thus be easily identified in the altimeter data stream in the characteristic variation of the waveform power. Acting as a point target for the satellite radar altimeter, the range measurements from the satellite to the transponder are not subject of "speckle" effects, as it happens in the case of the sea surface when the multitude of scatters cause interference effects to the radar echo. The distance measurement has a resolution of < 1 cm [1]; provided that the atmospheric delays are properly modeled, the accuracy of a range measurement is estimated to 2 cm. The applications deriving from the use of the transponder in the altimetry context are based on the accurate determination of the transponder-satellite distance. These include the altimeter bias calibration, the measurement of the orbit radial errors especially in places where positioning systems are unavailable, determination of ice thickness, and height transfer between land and ocean or land and land.

  4. Interplanetary Microlaser Transponders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degnan, John J.

    1999-01-01

    The feasibility of an asynchronous (i.e. independently firing) interplanetary laser transponder, capable of ranging between Earth and Mars and using the automated SLR2000 Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) system as an Earth base station, has been suggested. Since that time, we have received a small amount of discretionary funding to further explore the transponder concept and to develop and test an engineering breadboard. Candidate operational scenarios for acquiring and tracking the opposite laser terminal over interplanetary distances have been developed, and breadboard engineering parameters were chosen to reflect the requirements of an Earth-Mars link Laboratory tests have been devised to simulate the Earth- Mars link between two independent SLR2000 transceivers and to demonstrate the transfer of range and time in single photon mode. The present paper reviews the concept of the asynchronous microlaser transponder, the transponder breadboard design, an operational scenario recently developed for an asteroid rendezvous, and the laboratory test setup. The optical head of the transponder breadboard fits within a cylinder roughly 15 cm in diameter and 32 cm in length and is mounted in a commercial two axis gimbal driven by two computer-controlled stepper motors which allows the receiver optical axis to be centered on a simulated Earth image. The optical head is built around a small optical bench which supports a 14.7 cm diameter refractive telescope, a prototype 2 kHz SLR2000 microlaser transmitter, a quadrant microchannel plate photomultiplier (MCP/PMT), a CCD array camera, spatial and spectral filters, assorted lenses and mirrors, and protective covers and sun shields. The microlaser is end-pumped by a fiber-coupled diode laser array. An annular mirror is employed as a passive transmit/receive (T/R) switch in an aperture-sharing arrangement wherein the transmitted beam passes through the central hole and illuminates only the central 2.5 cm of the common telescope (adequate to achieve a 10 arcsecond full laser beam divergence) while the receiver uses the remainder of the 14.7 cm aperture. Additional electronic instrumentation includes the diode pump array and associated heat sink and current drivers, rubidium frequency standard, timing distribution module, range gate generator, a recently developed all-digital correlation range receiver, and system computer. Acquisition of the opposite transponder terminal requires a search within a three-dimensional volume determined by the initial pointing uncertainty and a maximum 500 microsecond uncertainty in the laser time of fire at the opposite terminal for totally uncorrelated Earth and spacecraft clocks. The angular search is aided by a sensitive CCD array capable of imaging the Earth, Moon, and surrounding stars within the nominal + 0.5 degree cone of uncertainty associated with the initial pointing of a spacecraft body or microwave communications dish.

  5. SHORT-PULSE ELECTROMAGNETIC TRANSPONDER FOR HOLE-TO-HOLE USE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, David L.; Watts, Raymond D.; Bramsoe, Erik

    1983-01-01

    Hole-to-hole observations were made through nearly 20 m of granite using an electromagnetic transponder (an active reflector) in one borehole and a single-hole short-pulse radar in another. The transponder is inexpensive, operationally simple, and effective in extending the capability of a short-pulse borehole radar system to allow hole-to-hole operation without requiring timing cables. A detector in the transponder senses the arrival of each pulse from the radar. Each pulse detection triggers a kilovolt-amplitude pulse for retransmission. The transponder 'echo' may be stronger than that of a passive reflector by a factor of as much as 120 db. The result is an increase in range capability by a factor which depends on attenuation in the medium and hole-to-hole wavepath geometry.

  6. Method and apparatus for measuring distance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichtenberg, Christopher L. (inventor); Shores, Paul W. (inventor); Kobayashi, Herbert S. (inventor)

    1988-01-01

    The invention employs a continuous wave radar technique and apparatus which can be used as a distance measuring system in the presence of background clutter by utilizing small passive transponders. A first continuous electromagnetic wave signal S sub 1 at a first frequency f sub 1 is transmitted from a first location. A transponder carried by a target object positioned at a second (remote) location receives the transmitted signal, phase-coherently divides the f sub 1 frequency and its phase, and re-transmits the transmitted signal as a second continuous electromagnetic wave signal S sub 2 at a lower frequency f sub 2 which is a subharmonic of f sub 1. The re-transmitted signal is received at the first location where a measurement of the phase difference is made between the signals S sub 1 and S sub 2, such measuremnt being indicative of the distance between the first and second locations.

  7. Absolute range calibration for JASON-1 and ENVISAT using a dedicated transponder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristea, E.; Pesec, P.

    2003-04-01

    Altimeter waveforms are used to study absolute range calibration for the altimeters on board of JASON-1 and ENVISAT. As a uniquely defined terrestrial reflection surface, a transponder is deployed within the footprint of the altimeter. The waveforms corresponding to the transponder distinguish themselves from the other waveforms resulting from natural targets in power and shape. When a satellite-borne altimeter passes over a ground-based active transponder, it makes within 3 to 4 seconds, 3000 - 4000 measurements of the satellite to transponder separation. That distance (range) varies in a parabolic fashion so that, when a parabolic curve is fitted to the measurements, the range at the point of the closest approach, that is the vertex of this parabola, can be determined with a resolution < 1mm. The accuracy of a single measurement of this sort is limited to about 2 - 3 cm by the ability to model the propagation delay in the atmosphere. The technique of using a dedicated transponder eliminates error sources such as tides and sea state bias and resolves the unknown altimeter calibration constant. Best results are obtained when the range window of the radar altimeter is preset to a fixed value during the transponder overpass, and this has been successfully used on RA-2 on board of ENVISAT. The poster presents the concept of absolute range calibration using a transponder and will show numerical results if relevant data are available.

  8. Frequency sharing between passive sensors and aeronautical radionavigation systems employing ground transponders in the band 4.2 - 4.4 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degroot, N. F.

    1982-01-01

    The 4.2 to 4.4 GHz band is reserved for radio altimeters aboard aircraft and for associated transponders on the ground. A radar altimeter system which utilizes associated ground transponders is described and the feasibility of co-channel operation of such a system with a typical passive sensor is analyzed.

  9. Microwave and optical lunar transponders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, P. L.; Faller, J. E.; Hall, J. L.; Degnan, J. J.; Dickey, J. O.; Newhall, X. X.; Williams, J. G.; King, R. W.; Macknik, L. O.; O'Gara, D.

    1990-01-01

    The scientific areas which used data from the Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment, collected from measurements to the Apollo 11, 14, and 15 and Lunakhod 2, include lunar science (i.e., studies of variations in the lunar angular orientation from that for uniform rotation, lunar tidal displacements, and the lunar mass distribution), geodynamics, astrometry, and gravitational physics. This paper argues that the placement of microwave and optical transponders on the moon would improve the accuracy of laser range measurements by nearly two orders of magnitude and would simplify the measurements. The K-band microwave transponders would be operated at the lunar base and at two remote sites on the moon surface, yielding much improved lunar libration and tidal displacement measurements. A two-wavelength laser transponder also would be operated at the lunar base, allowing accurate tropospheric propagation corrections to be made. This would introduce major improvements in measurements of the lunar orbit and of the earth's rotation, and in tests of general relativity.

  10. Performance evaluation of CS-3 transponder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Masayoshi; Horikawa, Kohji; Mizuno, Hideki; Okada, Kazuyasu

    The configuration of the transponder engineering model for the next-generation Japanese communication satellite CS-3 is described, and a CS-3 evaluation method capable of measuring 10 C-band and 10 Ka-band transponder channels simultaneously is discussed. Evaluation targets include electrical performance, spurious signals due to frequency single-conversion, temperature distribution due to the high output power, and electromagnetic interference due to increases in the number of transponder channels and integration density. The results show that new technologies in the CS-3 have contributed to reductions in transponder weight and size, and have improved longevity and many technical characteristics.

  11. Study to investigate and evaluate means of optimizing the radar function. [systems engineering of pulse radar for the space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The investigations for a rendezvous radar system design and an integrated radar/communication system design are presented. Based on these investigations, system block diagrams are given and system parameters are optimized for the noncoherent pulse and coherent pulse Doppler radar modulation types. Both cooperative (transponder) and passive radar operation are examined including the optimization of the corresponding transponder design for the cooperative mode of operation.

  12. Method and apparatus for Delta Kappa synthetic aperture radar measurement of ocean current

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, A. (inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A synthetic aperture radar (SAR) employed for delta k measurement of ocean current from a spacecraft without the need for a narrow beam and long observation times. The SAR signal is compressed to provide image data for different sections of the chirp band width, equivalent to frequencies and a common area for the separate image fields is selected. The image for the selected area at each frequency is deconvolved to obtain the image signals for the different frequencies and the same area. A product of pairs of signals is formed, Fourier transformed and squared. The spectrum thus obtained from different areas for the same pair of frequencies are added to provide an improved signal to noise ratio. The shift of the peak from the center of the spectrum is measured and compared to the expected shift due to the phase velocity of the Bragg scattering wave. Any difference is a measure of current velocity v sub o (delta k).

  13. Method and apparatus for reducing range ambiguity in synthetic aperture radar

    SciTech Connect

    Kare, J.T.

    1999-10-26

    A modified Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system is disclosed with reduced sensitivity to range ambiguities, and which uses secondary receiver channels to detect the range ambiguous signals and subtract them from the signal received by the main channel. Both desired and range ambiguous signals are detected by a main receiver and by one or more identical secondary receivers. All receivers are connected to a common antenna with two or more feed systems offset in elevation e.g., a reflector antenna with multiple feed horns or a phased array with multiple phase shift networks. The secondary receiver output(s) is (are) then subtracted from the main receiver output in such a way as to cancel the ambiguous signals while only slightly attenuating the desired signal and slightly increasing the noise in the main channel, and thus does not significantly affect the desired signal. This subtraction may be done in real time, or the outputs of the receivers may be recorded separately and combined during signal processing.

  14. Method and apparatus for reducing range ambiguity in synthetic aperture radar

    DOEpatents

    Kare, Jordin T.

    1999-10-26

    A modified Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system with reduced sensitivity to range ambiguities, and which uses secondary receiver channels to detect the range ambiguous signals and subtract them from the signal received by the main channel. Both desired and range ambiguous signals are detected by a main receiver and by one or more identical secondary receivers. All receivers are connected to a common antenna with two or more feed systems offset in elevation (e.g., a reflector antenna with multiple feed horns or a phased array with multiple phase shift networks. The secondary receiver output(s) is (are) then subtracted from the main receiver output in such a way as to cancel the ambiguous signals while only slightly attenuating the desired signal and slightly increasing the noise in the main channel, and thus does not significantly affect the desired signal. This subtraction may be done in real time, or the outputs of the receivers may be recorded separately and combined during signal processing.

  15. The 30/20 Gigahertz transponder study. [wideband multichannel transponders for a communications satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Design features and performance parameters are described for three types of wideband multiple channel satellite transponders for use in a 30/20 GHz communications satellite, which provides high data rate trunking service to ten ground station terminals. The three types of transponder are frequency division multiplex (FDM), time division multiplex (TDM), and a hybrid transponder using a combination of FDM and TDM techniques. The wideband multiple beam trunking concept, the traffic distribution between the trunking terminals, and system design constraints are discussed. The receiver front end design, the frequency conversion scheme, and the local oscillator design are described including the thermal interface between the transponders and the satellite. The three designs are compared with regard to performance, weight, power, cost and initial technology. Simplified block diagrams of the baseline transponder designs are included.

  16. TDRS multimode transponder program. Phase 1: Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cnossen, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    The use of geosynchronous tracking and data relay satellites (TDRS) which can serve both low data rate users at VHF and high data rate users at other frequencies is considered. The effects of radio frequency interference from the earth and of multipath propagation due to reflections from the earth are expected to pose problems for the TDRS system at VHF. Investigations suggest several modulation techniques that offer promise to overcome these problems. This report provides a complete design of a VHF/UHF multimode transponder and its associated ground support equipment. The transponder is designed for installation aboard an aircraft and will demonstrate candidate modulation techniques to provide the required information for the design of an eventual VHF/UHF transponder suitable for installation in a user satellite, capable of operating as part of a TDRS system.

  17. TDRSS multimode transponder program S-band modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackey, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    The S-Band TDRS multimode transponder and its associated ground support equipment is described. The transponder demonstrates candidate modulation techniques to provide the required information for the design of an eventual S-band transponder suitable for installation in a user satellite, capable of operating as part of a Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) system.

  18. System for Configuring Modular Telemetry Transponders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varnavas, Kosta A. (Inventor); Sims, William Herbert, III (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A system for configuring telemetry transponder cards uses a database of error checking protocol data structures, each containing data to implement at least one CCSDS protocol algorithm. Using a user interface, a user selects at least one telemetry specific error checking protocol from the database. A compiler configures an FPGA with the data from the data structures to implement the error checking protocol.

  19. VCO PLL Frequency Synthesizers for Spacecraft Transponders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott; Mysoor, Narayan; Lux, James; Cook, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Two documents discuss a breadboard version of advanced transponders that, when fully developed, would be installed on future spacecraft to fly in deep space. These transponders will be required to be capable of operation on any deepspace- communications uplink frequency channel between 7,145 and 7,235 MHz, and any downlink frequency channel between 8,400 and 8,500 MHz. The document focuses on the design and operation of frequency synthesizers for the receiver and transmitter. Heretofore, frequency synthesizers in deep-space transponders have been based on dielectric resonator oscillators (DROs), which do not have the wide tuning bandwidth necessary to tune over all channels in the uplink or downlink frequency bands. To satisfy the requirement for tuning bandwidth, the present frequency synthesizers are based on voltage-controlled-oscillator (VCO) phase-locked loops (PLLs) implemented by use of monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) implemented using inGaP heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) technology. MMIC VCO PLL frequency synthesizers similar to the present ones have been used in commercial and military applications but, until now, have exhibited too much phase noise for use in deep-space transponders. The present frequency synthesizers contain advanced MMIC VCOs, which use HBT technology and have lower levels of flicker (1/f) phase noise. When these MMIC VCOs are used with high-speed MMIC frequency dividers, it becomes possible to obtain the required combination of frequency agility and low phase noise.

  20. Advanced transponders for deep space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Tien M.; Kayalar, Selahattin; Yeh, Hen-Geul; Kyriacou, Charles

    1993-01-01

    Three architectures for advanced deep space transponders are proposed. The architectures possess various digital techniques such as fast Fourier transform (FFT), digital phase-locked loop (PLL), and digital sideband aided carrier detection with analog or digital turn-around ranging. Preliminary results on the design and conceptual implementation are presented. Modifications to the command detector unit (CDU) are also presented.

  1. Vehicle Transponder for Preemption of Traffic Lights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, Conrad; Bachelder, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe, in more detail, the transponder installed in each vehicle that participates in the emergency traffic-light-preemption system described in the immediately preceding article. The transponder (see figure) is a fully autonomous data--collection, data-processing, information-display, and communication subsystem that performs robustly in preemption of traffic lights and monitoring of the statuses of street intersections. This transponder monitors the condition of the emergency vehicle in which it is installed and determines when the vehicle has been placed in an emergency-response condition with its siren and/or warning lights activated. Upon detection of such a condition, the transponder collects real-time velocity and acceleration data from the onboard diagnostic (OBD) computer of the vehicle. For this purpose, the transponder contains an OBD interface circuit, including a microprocessor that determines the manufacturer and model of the vehicle and then sends the appropriate commands to the OBD computer requesting the speed and acceleration data. At the same time, data from an onboard navigation system are collected to determine the location and the heading of the vehicle. Then acceleration, speed, position, and heading data are processed and combined with a vehicle-identification number and the resulting set of data is transmitted to monitoring and control units located at all intersections within communication range. When the unit at an intersection determines that this vehicle is approaching and has priority to preempt the intersection, it transmits a signal declaring the priority and the preemption to all participating vehicles (including this one) in the vicinity. If the unit at the intersection has determined that other participating vehicles are also approaching the intersection, then this unit also transmits, to the vehicle that has priority, a message that the other vehicles are approaching the same intersection. The texts of these messages, plus graphical symbols that show the directions and numbers of the approaching vehicles, are presented on the display panel of a computer that is part of the transponder.

  2. Radar - The Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warwick, G.

    1985-02-01

    Progress in civil and military radar units since the invention of radar in 1935 is summarized, noting the trend to multipurpose units. The earliest systems functioned at 10 cm, then 3 cm after development of a cavity magnetron to provide power for shorter wavelengths. Military needs are driving improvements in three-dimensional scanning capabilities, Primarily to locate aircraft in the presence of ground clutter and sea surface scattering. Autonomous, separate transmitter and receiver units are being tested. Lengthening ground-based radar wavelengths to tens of meters will permit over-the-horizon sensing with backscattering, ionospheric bounce, or induction of a potential in the sea surface as the possible techniques. Mode S monopulse radars will permit transponder queries between small and large aircraft. Finally, pulse Doppler SAR systems may afford terrain recognition with no corroborating data except an expert systems data base.

  3. An improved drone tracking control system transponder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, James J.; Tannenholz, Philip H.

    A small, compact, and inexpensive method of achieving frequency stability of a solid state LO to +/- 1 MHz in the MD700C-1 drone tracking and control system C-band command and control transponder is described. The methodology for realizing improved RF rejection, local oscillator stability, automatic gain control, and power supply efficiency is discussed. A switching mode regulator and a nonsaturating power supply were designed to operate at 80 percent efficiency to reduce power consumption and heat while operating over a wide voltage range.

  4. 14 CFR 91.413 - ATC transponder tests and inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations § 91.413 ATC transponder tests and inspections. (a) No persons may... maintenance on an ATC transponder where data correspondence error could be introduced, the integrated...

  5. Personal communications via ACTS satellite HBR transponders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, Russell J. F.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of a fully meshed network of briefcase-sized terminals is presented for personal communications over Ka-band satellite transponders. In this concept, undesirable double-hop delays are avoided for voice communications. The bandwidth and power resources of the transponder are efficiently shared by users in a simple demand-assigned manner via code-division multiple access (CDMA). Voice, data, and facsimile are statistically multiplexed at each terminal. In order to minimize terminal costs, frequency-precorrected, and level-preadjusted continuous-wave tones are sent from the central network control station in each beam so that the terminals in each down-link beam can use these pilots as references for antenna acquisition and tracking, as reliable frequency sources, and as indicators of signal fade for up-link power control (ULPC). The potential CDMA 'near-far' problem due to up-link fades is mitigated by using ULPC. Quasi-burst mode transmission is employed to minimize the potential clock and pseudorandom number code synchronization.

  6. An electro-optical communications satellite transponder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, A. M., Jr.

    The design concept of an electrooptical transponder for communications satellites operating in C-band or Ku-band is presented. A system comprising 12 single-polarization transponders 36-MHz wide is illustrated with a block diagram. The RF carrier uplink signal passes through a low-noise GaAs FET amplifier and is translated to the downlink RF frequency by a mixer and local oscillator; this signal then serves as a subcarrier to intensity modulate an 850-nm GaAlAs semiconductor laser, and the optical signal is optically switched via fiber, demodulated by pin diode or avalanche photodiode, and passed through a GaAs FET preamplifier and amplifier for downlink transmission. Both prefiber and postfiber component groups can be integrated onto monolithic electrooptical chips operating at very low power. Additional features and design options are discussed; the frequency variation involved (12 decades) is illustrated; and the optical switching speed is shown to be noncritical in present TDMA, SS/TDMA, or FDMA configurations.

  7. Detecting and Mitigating Wind Turbine Clutter for Airspace Radar Systems

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    It is well recognized that a wind turbine has a large radar cross-section (RCS) and, due to the movement of the blades, the wind turbine will generate a Doppler frequency shift. This scattering behavior may cause severe interferences on existing radar systems including static ground-based radars and spaceborne or airborne radars. To resolve this problem, efficient techniques or algorithms should be developed to mitigate the effects of wind farms on radars. Herein, one transponder-based mitigation technique is presented. The transponder is not a new concept, which has been proposed for calibrating high-resolution imaging radars. It modulates the radar signal in a manner that the retransmitted signals can be separated from the scene echoes. As wind farms often occupy only a small area, mitigation processing in the whole radar operation will be redundant and cost inefficient. Hence, this paper uses a transponder to determine whether the radar is impacted by the wind farms. If so, the effects of wind farms are then mitigated with subsequent Kalman filtering or plot target extraction algorithms. Taking airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and pulse Doppler radar as the examples, this paper provides the corresponding system configuration and processing algorithms. The effectiveness of the mitigation technique is validated by numerical simulation results. PMID:24385880

  8. Detecting and mitigating wind turbine clutter for airspace radar systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Qin

    2013-01-01

    It is well recognized that a wind turbine has a large radar cross-section (RCS) and, due to the movement of the blades, the wind turbine will generate a Doppler frequency shift. This scattering behavior may cause severe interferences on existing radar systems including static ground-based radars and spaceborne or airborne radars. To resolve this problem, efficient techniques or algorithms should be developed to mitigate the effects of wind farms on radars. Herein, one transponder-based mitigation technique is presented. The transponder is not a new concept, which has been proposed for calibrating high-resolution imaging radars. It modulates the radar signal in a manner that the retransmitted signals can be separated from the scene echoes. As wind farms often occupy only a small area, mitigation processing in the whole radar operation will be redundant and cost inefficient. Hence, this paper uses a transponder to determine whether the radar is impacted by the wind farms. If so, the effects of wind farms are then mitigated with subsequent Kalman filtering or plot target extraction algorithms. Taking airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and pulse Doppler radar as the examples, this paper provides the corresponding system configuration and processing algorithms. The effectiveness of the mitigation technique is validated by numerical simulation results. PMID:24385880

  9. Using Transponders on the Moon to Increase Accuracy of GPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penanen, Konstantin; Chui, Talso

    2008-01-01

    It has been proposed to place laser or radio transponders at suitably chosen locations on the Moon to increase the accuracy achievable using the Global Positioning System (GPS) or other satellite-based positioning system. The accuracy of GPS position measurements depends on the accuracy of determination of the ephemerides of the GPS satellites. These ephemerides are determined by means of ranging to and from Earth-based stations and consistency checks among the satellites. Unfortunately, ranging to and from Earth is subject to errors caused by atmospheric effects, notably including unpredictable variations in refraction. The proposal is based on exploitation of the fact that ranging between a GPS satellite and another object outside the atmosphere is not subject to error-inducing atmospheric effects. The Moon is such an object and is a convenient place for a ranging station. The ephemeris of the Moon is well known and, unlike a GPS satellite, the Moon is massive enough that its orbit is not measurably affected by the solar wind and solar radiation. According to the proposal, each GPS satellite would repeatedly send a short laser or radio pulse toward the Moon and the transponder(s) would respond by sending back a pulse and delay information. The GPS satellite could then compute its distance from the known position(s) of the transponder(s) on the Moon. Because the same hemisphere of the Moon faces the Earth continuously, any transponders placed there would remain continuously or nearly continuously accessible to GPS satellites, and so only a relatively small number of transponders would be needed to provide continuous coverage. Assuming that the transponders would depend on solar power, it would be desirable to use at least two transponders, placed at diametrically opposite points on the edges of the Moon disk as seen from Earth, so that all or most of the time, at least one of them would be in sunlight.

  10. Asynchronous Laser Transponders for Precise Interplanetary Ranging and Time Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degnan, John J.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The feasibility of a two-way asynchronous (i.e. independently firing) interplanetary laser transponder pair, capable of decimeter ranging and subnanosecond time transfer from Earth to a spacecraft anywhere within the inner Solar System, is discussed. In the Introduction, we briefly discuss the current state-of-the-art in Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) and Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) which use single-ended range measurements to a passive optical reflector, and the limitations of this approach in ranging beyond the Moon to the planets. In Section 2 of this paper, we describe two types of transponders (echo and asynchronous), introduce the transponder link equation and the concept of "balanced" transponders, describe how range and time can be transferred between terminals, and preview the potential advantages of photon counting asynchronous transponders for interplanetary applications. In Section 3, we discuss and provide mathematical models for the various sources of noise in an interplanetary transponder link including planetary albedo, solar or lunar illumination of the local atmosphere, and laser backscatter off the local atmosphere. In Section 4, we introduce the key engineering elements of an interplanetary laser transponder and develop an operational scenario for the acquisition and tracking of the opposite terminal. In Section 5, we use the theoretical models of th previous sections to perform an Earth-Mars link analysis over a full synodic period of 780 days under the simplifying assumption of coaxial, coplanar, circular orbits. We demonstrate that, using slightly modified versions of existing space and ground based laser systems, an Earth-Mars transponder link is not only feasible but quite robust. We also demonstrate through analysis the advantages and feasibility of compact, low output power (<300 mW photon-counting transponders using NASA's developmental SLR2000 satellite laser ranging system as the Earth terminal. Section 6 provides a summary of the results and some concluding remarks regarding future applications.

  11. Simulation of a weather radar display for over-water airborne radar approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clary, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    Airborne radar approach (ARA) concepts are being investigated as a part of NASA's Rotorcraft All-Weather Operations Research Program on advanced guidance and navigation methods. This research is being conducted using both piloted simulations and flight test evaluations. For the piloted simulations, a mathematical model of the airborne radar was developed for over-water ARAs to offshore platforms. This simulated flight scenario requires radar simulation of point targets, such as oil rigs and ships, distributed sea clutter, and transponder beacon replies. Radar theory, weather radar characteristics, and empirical data derived from in-flight radar photographs are combined to model a civil weather/mapping radar typical of those used in offshore rotorcraft operations. The resulting radar simulation is realistic and provides the needed simulation capability for ongoing ARA research.

  12. Wide Tuning Capability for Spacecraft Transponders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lux, James; Mysoor, Narayan; Shah, Biren; Cook, Brian; Smith, Scott

    2007-01-01

    A document presents additional information on the means of implementing a capability for wide tuning of microwave receiver and transmitter frequencies in the development reported in the immediately preceding article, VCO PLL Frequency Synthesizers for Spacecraft Transponders (NPO- 42909). The reference frequency for a PLL-based frequency synthesizer is derived from a numerically controlled oscillator (NCO) implemented in digital logic, such that almost any reference frequency can be derived from a fixed crystal reference oscillator with microhertz precision. The frequency of the NCO is adjusted to track the received signal, then used to create another NCO frequency used to synthesize the transmitted signal coherent with, and at a specified frequency ratio to, the received signal. The frequencies can be changed, even during operation, through suitable digital programming. The NCOs and the related tracking loops and coherent turnaround logic are implemented in a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The interface between the analog microwave receiver and transmitter circuits and the FPGA includes analog-to-digital and digital-toanalog converters, the sampling rates of which are chosen to minimize spurious signals and otherwise optimize performance. Several mixers and filters are used to properly route various signals.

  13. Standardized accuracy assessment of the calypso wireless transponder tracking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, A. M.; Schmitt, D.; Seitel, A.; Chatrasingh, M.; Echner, G.; Oelfke, U.; Nill, S.; Birkfellner, W.; Maier-Hein, L.

    2014-11-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) tracking allows localization of small EM sensors in a magnetic field of known geometry without line-of-sight. However, this technique requires a cable connection to the tracked object. A wireless alternative based on magnetic fields, referred to as transponder tracking, has been proposed by several authors. Although most of the transponder tracking systems are still in an early stage of development and not ready for clinical use yet, Varian Medical Systems Inc. (Palo Alto, California, USA) presented the Calypso system for tumor tracking in radiation therapy which includes transponder technology. But it has not been used for computer-assisted interventions (CAI) in general or been assessed for accuracy in a standardized manner, so far. In this study, we apply a standardized assessment protocol presented by Hummel et al (2005 Med. Phys. 32 2371-9) to the Calypso system for the first time. The results show that transponder tracking with the Calypso system provides a precision and accuracy below 1 mm in ideal clinical environments, which is comparable with other EM tracking systems. Similar to other systems the tracking accuracy was affected by metallic distortion, which led to errors of up to 3.2 mm. The potential of the wireless transponder tracking technology for use in many future CAI applications can be regarded as extremely high.

  14. Italsat in-orbit test transponder design and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mott, R.; Estep, G.; Kelly, W.; Yogev, I.; di Fiore, L.; Talcott, J.; Williams, A.; Assal, F.

    1992-03-01

    This paper describes the design, fabrication, and test of the Italsat in-orbit test (IOT) RF bypass transponder mounted on board the Italsat multibeam spacecraft, which was launched in January 1991. It is believed that the in-orbit test transponder (IOTT) contains the first monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) ever launched into space on a communications satellite. The IOTT bypasses the demodulator, basebands switchboard, and modulator of the multibeam package of the Italsat spacecraft payload, enabling full characterization of the satellite's transponders using well-established IOT techniques. This space-qualified design incorporates custom-designed gallium arsenide MMIC Ku-band amplifiers, lightweight waveguide Ku-band channel filters, electronic power conditioner, and combined IOTT telemetry and command circuitry.

  15. TDRSS multimode transponder program. Phase 2: Equipment development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cnossen, R. S.

    1974-01-01

    This report contains a complete description of the TDRS Multimode Transponder and its associated ground support equipment. The transponder will demonstrate candidate modulation techniques to provide the required information for the design of an eventual VHF/UHF transponder suitable for installation in a user satellite, capable of operating as part of a Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) systems. Use of geosynchronous TDRS which can serve both low data rate users at VHF and high data rate users at other frequencies has been considered. The effects of radio frequency interference from the earth and of multipath propagation due to reflections from the earth are expected to pose problems for the TDRS system at VHF. Investigations have suggested several modulation techniques that offer promise to overcome these problems.

  16. The Effect of Transponder Motion on the Accuracy of the Calypso Electromagnetic Localization System

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Martin J. Eidens, Richard; Vertatschitsch, Edward; Wright, J. Nelson

    2008-09-01

    Purpose: To determine position and velocity-dependent effects in the overall accuracy of the Calypso Electromagnetic localization system, under conditions that emulate transponder motion during normal free breathing. Methods and Materials: Three localization transponders were mounted on a remote-controlled turntable that could move the transponders along a circular trajectory at speeds up to 3 cm/s. A stationary calibration established the coordinates of multiple points on each transponder's circular path. Position measurements taken while the transponders were in motion at a constant speed were then compared with the stationary coordinates. Results: No statistically significant changes in the transponder positions in (x,y,z) were detected when the transponders were in motion. Conclusions: The accuracy of the localization system is unaffected by transponder motion.

  17. Person-Locator System Based On Wristband Radio Transponders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mintz, Frederick W.; Blaes, Brent R.; Chandler, Charles W.

    1995-01-01

    Computerized system based on wristband radio frequency (RF), passive transponders is being developed for use in real-time tracking of individuals in custodial institutions like prisons and mental hospitals. Includes monitoring system that contains central computer connected to low-power, high-frequency central transceiver. Transceiver connected to miniature transceiver nodes mounted unobtrusively at known locations throughout the institution. Wristband transponders embedded in common hospital wristbands. Wristbands tamperproof: each contains embedded wire loop which, when broken or torn off and discarded, causes wristband to disappear from system, thus causing alarm. Individuals could be located in a timely fashion at relatively low cost.

  18. International business communications via Intelsat K-band transponders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagmann, W.; Rhodes, S.; Fang, R.

    This paper discusses how the transponder throughput and the required earth station HPA power in the Intelsat Business Services Network vary as a function of coding rate and required fade margin. The results indicate that transponder throughputs of 40 to 50 Mbit/s are achievable. A comparison of time domain simulation results with results based on a straightforward link analysis shows that the link analysis results may be fairly optimistic if the satellite traveling wave tube amplifier (TWTA) is operated near saturation; however, there is good agreement for large backoffs.

  19. LORAN-C TETROON TRANSPONDER AND TRACKING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    An advanced system for tracking multiple regional scale Lagrangian markers was developed. The system consists of a miniature tetroon-borne transponder and a small computerized receiving station capable of providing continuous real-time data on tetroon location (latitude/longitude...

  20. Ka-Band Transponder for Deep-Space Radio Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Matthew S.; Mysoor, Narayan R.; Folkner, William M.; Mendoza, Ricardo; Venkatesan, Jaikrishna

    2008-01-01

    A one-page document describes a Ka-band transponder being developed for use in deep-space radio science. The transponder receives in the Deep Space Network (DSN) uplink frequency band of 34.2 to 34.7 GHz, transmits in the 31.8- to 32.3 GHz DSN downlink band, and performs regenerative ranging on a DSN standard 4-MHz ranging tone subcarrier phase-modulated onto the uplink carrier signal. A primary consideration in this development is reduction in size, relative to other such transponders. The transponder design is all-analog, chosen to minimize not only the size but also the number of parts and the design time and, thus, the cost. The receiver features two stages of frequency down-conversion. The receiver locks onto the uplink carrier signal. The exciter signal for the transmitter is derived from the same source as that used to generate the first-stage local-oscillator signal. The ranging-tone subcarrier is down-converted along with the carrier to the second intermediate frequency, where the 4-MHz tone is demodulated from the composite signal and fed into a ranging-tone-tracking loop, which regenerates the tone. The regenerated tone is linearly phase-modulated onto the downlink carrier.

  1. Transponder-induced sarcoma in the heterozygous p53+/- mouse.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, K T; Barthel, C; French, J E; Holden, H E; Moretz, R; Pack, F D; Tennant, R W; Stoll, R E

    1999-01-01

    Heterozygous p53+/- transgenic mice are being studied for utility as a short-term alternative model to the 2-yr rodent carcinogenicity bioassay. During a 26-wk study to assess the potential carcinogenicity of oxymetholone using p-cresidine as a positive control, glass/polypropylene microchips (radio transponder identification devices) were subcutaneously implanted into male and female p53+/- mice. During week 15, the first palpable mass was clinically observed at an implant site. This rapidly growing mass virtually quadrupled in size by week 25. Microscopic examination of all implant sites revealed that 18 of 177 animals had a subcutaneous histologically malignant sarcoma. The neoplasms were characterized as undifferentiated sarcomas unrelated to drug treatment, as indicated by the relatively even distribution among dose groups, including controls. An unusual preneoplastic mesenchymal change characterized by the term "mesenchymal dysplasia" was present in most groups and was considered to be a prodromal change to sarcoma development. The tumors were observed to arise from dysplastic mesenchymal tissue that developed within the tissue capsule surrounding the transponder. The preneoplastic changes, including mesenchymal dysplasia, appeared to arise at the transponder's plastic anchoring barb and then progressed as a neoplasm to eventually surround the entire microchip. Capsule membrane endothelialization, inflammation, mesenchymal basophilia and dysplasia, and sarcoma were considered unequivocal preneoplastic/neoplastic responses to the transponder and were not related to treatment with either oxymetholone or p-cresidine. PMID:10528631

  2. Single vs. Multiple Transponders for Radio Tomography of Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pursiainen, Sampsa; Kaasalainen, M.; TUT Inverse Problems Group led by Mikko Kaasalainen, Prof.

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop numerical inverse methods for radio tomography of asteroids in which the goal is to recover the internal electric permittivity distribution of an asteroid based on radio frequency data gathered by an orbiter. The present tomography approach with a single transponder has been utilized in the CONSERT experiment which aims at reconstruction of a comet nucleus structure as a part of the ROSETTA (comet rendezvous) mission. This study aims at progress in designing the coming missions which necessitates a through investigation of implementable data gathering setups as well as forward (data) simulation and inverse computation schemes. The current signal generation approach of utilizing multiple transponders provides one potential scenario which can even be essential to achieve an appropriate reconstruction quality. Research to find the simplest and most robust (best bang for the buck) scenarios for signal generation and measurements is of utmost importance due to the high cost and long duration of planning and implementing a space mission, necessitating a highly optimized payload. Regarding the forward and inverse approaches, this study, in particular, validated the iterative alternating sequential (IAS) inversion (reconstruction) strategy with a forward simulation relying on the wave equation of the electric potential. To enable the IAS inverse approach, a linearized forward model was utilized to find the reconstructions. The inverse problem was given a Bayesian formulation. The numerical experiments included in this study compared the single and multiple transponder signal generation approaches in localization of permittivity anomalies. Three different anomaly strengths and four levels of total noise were tested to examine the tolerance of present reconstruction strategy to different error sources. Noise due to forward simulation was estimated. The results obtained were promising regarding the combination of the current forward and inverse approaches. They suggest that reconstruction quality increases along with the number of transponders and that multiple transponders can be necessary to distinguish three separate anomalies.

  3. Single chip interrogation system for a smart shoe wireless transponder.

    PubMed

    Sheibani, Shahrzad; Roshan, Meisam; Huang, Haiying; Banerjee, Bhaskar; Henderson, Rashaunda

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to design a wireless transponder for antenna-based sensors that can be used to simultaneously measure shear and pressure forces for diabetic foot diagnosis. The transponder will be placed on the top surface of a shoe and consists of sensor antennas and an identification system that transmits information to a receiver by modulating the signal reflected by the antennas sensor in the insole. The identification system includes an energy harvester, a crystal oscillator and a passive mixer. A single chip interrogation circuit has been designed in IBM130 nm CMOS technology to reduce size. The identification system including bond pads has a size of 1.2 mm 0.8 mm. PMID:25570659

  4. Ku-band modern TWTA's for satellite transponders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, A.; Stael, C.

    New satellite systems require transponders equipped with TWTAs capable of delivering powers in the range 40 to 120 W in Ku-band. Flexibility and profitability of exploitation impose high efficiency and bandwidth with an operating lifetime exceeding 15 years. Based on new helix tapering concepts and use of modern cathodes this study shows that TWTAs with well proven technology now reach 50 percent overall efficiency across a 2 GHz bandwidth, and assure a thousand fits reliability figure over more than 15 years.

  5. Advanced tracking and data relay experiment study: Multimode transponder experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cnossen, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    A series of experiments utilizing a multimode transponder mounted in an aircraft working either through a spacecraft or directly with a ground station is studied. The purpose of the experiments is to determine the best modulation and encoding techniques for combating RFI and multipath propagation and to determine the characteristics of VHF and UHF RFI in discreet bands. The experiments would also determine the feasibility and accuracy of range and range rate measurements with the various modulation and encoding techniques.

  6. 3-D transponder antennas for future SHF RFID applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zichner, R.; Baumann, R. R.

    2011-12-01

    The radio frequency identification (RFID) technology is omnipresent since a few years. Some of the most popular fields of application are the use for security tasks, for logistics and for the consumer segment. For example, chip card or key ring sized RFID transponders can allow wireless access to secured rooms. The number of applications for wireless data transmission for the identification and tracking of objects increases every year. There is a large development need for highly functional and inexpensive RFID transponders due to the ever-increasing demand on improved reliability, higher data rates and read and write ranges of the RFID systems. Therefore, research was performed on new 3-D transponder antennas for the Super High Frequency Band around 5.8 GHz. Additionally, wave propagation effects and the influence of different dielectric environments were considered. Parallel to the design of the novel antenna structures, the printing process for inexpensive manufacturing was investigated. The gained results are the basis for prospective RFID applications.

  7. Apparatus for aiding a pilot in avoiding a midair collision between aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrader, J. H.; Couch, R. H. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An apparatus for aiding a pilot in avoiding a midair collision between aircraft is described. A protected aircraft carries a transmitter, a transponder, a receiver, and a data processor; and an intruding cooperating aircraft carries a transponder. The transmitter of the protected aircraft continuously transmits a signal to the transponders of all intruding aircraft. The transponder of each of the intruding aircraft adds the altitude of the intruding aircraft to the signal and transmits it back to the receiver of the protected aircraft. The receiver selects only the signal from the most hazardous intruding aircraft and applies it to the data processor. From this selected signal the data processor determines the closing velocity between the protected and intruding aircraft, the range between the two aircraft, their altitude difference and the time to a possible collision.

  8. Transponders as permanent identification markers for domestic ferrets, black-footed ferrets, and other wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fagerstone, Kathleen A.; Johns, Brad E.

    1987-01-01

    A 0.05-g transponder implanted subcutaneously was tested to see if it provided a reliable identification method. In laboratory tests 20 domestic ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) received transponders and were monitored for a minimum of 6 months. None showed signs of inflammation, and necropsies conducted at the end of the study showed no scar tissue or transponder migration. Seven of 23 transponders failed during the test because of leakage through the plastic case, and a glass case is now being manufactured that does not have the leakage problem. During mark-recapture studies in September and October 1985, transponders were implanted in 20 black-footed ferrets (M. nigripes), 11 of which were subsequently recaptured and 9 of which were brought into captivity; none showed signs of inflammation. Transponders provide a reliable new method for identifying hard-to-mark wildlife with a unique, permanent number than can be read with the animal in-hand or by remote equipment.

  9. A passive integrated transponder system for tracking animal movements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boarman, W.I.; Beigel, M.L.; Goodlett, G.C.; Sazaki, M.

    1999-01-01

    We describe an automated system that uses passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags to track movements of animals past specific locations. The system was designed to operate maintenance free for several months, be secure from vandalism and environmental damage, and record the identity, date, and time of passage of animals past a 2.4-m wide area. We used the system to monitor effectively the movements of 172 desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) through 2 storm drain culverts that pass beneath a state highway in the Mojave Desert, California. Four tortoises entered or passed through the culverts on 60 occasions. The system can be easily adapted to other species.

  10. 21 CFR 880.6300 - Implantable radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... patient identification and health information. 880.6300 Section 880.6300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and health information. (a) Identification. An implantable radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and health information is a...

  11. 14 CFR 91.215 - ATC transponder and altitude reporting equipment and use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false ATC transponder and altitude reporting... RULES Equipment, Instrument, and Certificate Requirements § 91.215 ATC transponder and altitude... environmental requirements of any class of TSO-C74b (Mode A) or any class of TSO-C74c (Mode A with...

  12. 14 CFR 91.215 - ATC transponder and altitude reporting equipment and use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false ATC transponder and altitude reporting... RULES Equipment, Instrument, and Certificate Requirements § 91.215 ATC transponder and altitude... environmental requirements of any class of TSO-C74b (Mode A) or any class of TSO-C74c (Mode A with...

  13. Traffic-Light-Preemption Vehicle-Transponder Software Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachelder, Aaron; Foster, Conrad

    2005-01-01

    A prototype wireless data-communication and control system automatically modifies the switching of traffic lights to give priority to emergency vehicles. The system, which was reported in several NASA Tech Briefs articles at earlier stages of development, includes a transponder on each emergency vehicle, a monitoring and control unit (an intersection controller) at each intersection equipped with traffic lights, and a central monitoring subsystem. An essential component of the system is a software module executed by a microcontroller in each transponder. This module integrates and broadcasts data on the position, velocity, acceleration, and emergency status of the vehicle. The position, velocity, and acceleration data are derived partly from the Global Positioning System, partly from deductive reckoning, and partly from a diagnostic computer aboard the vehicle. The software module also monitors similar broadcasts from other vehicles and from intersection controllers, informs the driver of which intersections it controls, and generates visible and audible alerts to inform the driver of any other emergency vehicles that are close enough to create a potential hazard. The execution of the software module can be monitored remotely and the module can be upgraded remotely and, hence, automatically

  14. C-band radar pulse Doppler error: Its discovery, modeling, and elimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabill, W. B.; Dempsey, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    The discovery of a C Band radar pulse Doppler error is discussed and use of the GEOS 3 satellite's coherent transponder to isolate the error source is described. An analysis of the pulse Doppler tracking loop is presented and a mathematical model for the error was developed. Error correction techniques were developed and are described including implementation details.

  15. Sliceable transponders for metro-access transmission links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, C.; Madsen, P.; Spolitis, S.; Vegas Olmos, J. J.; Tafur Monroy, I.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a solution for upgrading optical access networks by reusing existing electronics or optical equipment: sliceable transponders using signal spectrum slicing and stitching back method after direct detection. This technique allows transmission of wide bandwidth signals from the service provider (OLT - optical line terminal) to the end user (ONU - optical network unit) over an optical distribution network (ODN) via low bandwidth equipment. We show simulation and experimental results for duobinary signaling of 1 Gbit/s and 10 Gbit/s waveforms. The number of slices is adjusted to match the lowest analog bandwidth of used electrical devices and scale from 2 slices to 10 slices. Results of experimental transmission show error free signal recovery by using post forward error correction with 7% overhead.

  16. INSAR Assessment Of Pipelines Stability Using Compact Active Transponders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hole, Jessica K.; Holley, Rachel J.; Giunta, Giuseppe; De Lorenzo, Gianpietro; Thomas, Adam M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the use of a network of 7 prototype Compact Active Transponders (CATs) to measure ground and pipeline motion in an area subject to landslides in northern Italy. The results showed that two of the CATs, located at the center of the study area, experienced higher rates of line-of-sight (LOS) motion than the others. The spatial variation in the LOS motion rates could indicate that the central section of the slope moved at a higher rate, most likely in a westward and down-slope direction during the study. In addition to the InSAR measurements, GPS campaigns provided four epochs of motion measurements. Despite technical and environmental challenges, the study demonstrated the potential use of CATs to remotely map and monitor ground and structure motion.

  17. STAR: FPGA-based software defined satellite transponder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davalle, Daniele; Cassettari, Riccardo; Saponara, Sergio; Fanucci, Luca; Cucchi, Luca; Bigongiari, Franco; Errico, Walter

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents STAR, a flexible Telemetry, Tracking & Command (TT&C) transponder for Earth Observation (EO) small satellites, developed in collaboration with INTECS and SITAEL companies. With respect to state-of-the-art EO transponders, STAR includes the possibility of scientific data transfer thanks to the 40 Mbps downlink data-rate. This feature represents an important optimization in terms of hardware mass, which is important for EO small satellites. Furthermore, in-flight re-configurability of communication parameters via telecommand is important for in-orbit link optimization, which is especially useful for low orbit satellites where visibility can be as short as few hundreds of seconds. STAR exploits the principles of digital radio to minimize the analog section of the transceiver. 70MHz intermediate frequency (IF) is the interface with an external S/X band radio-frequency front-end. The system is composed of a dedicated configurable high-speed digital signal processing part, the Signal Processor (SP), described in technology-independent VHDL working with a clock frequency of 184.32MHz and a low speed control part, the Control Processor (CP), based on the 32-bit Gaisler LEON3 processor clocked at 32 MHz, with SpaceWire and CAN interfaces. The quantization parameters were fine-tailored to reach a trade-off between hardware complexity and implementation loss which is less than 0.5 dB at BER = 10-5 for the RX chain. The IF ports require 8-bit precision. The system prototype is fitted on the Xilinx Virtex 6 VLX75T-FF484 FPGA of which a space-qualified version has been announced. The total device occupation is 82 %.

  18. Bronchoscopic Implantation of a Novel Wireless Electromagnetic Transponder in the Canine Lung: A Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Mayse, Martin L.; Parikh, Parag J. Lechleiter, Kristen M.; Dimmer, Steven; Park, Mia; Chaudhari, Amir; Talcott, Michael; Low, Daniel A.; Bradley, Jeffrey D.

    2008-09-01

    Purpose: The success of targeted radiation therapy for lung cancer treatment is limited by tumor motion during breathing. A real-time, objective, nonionizing, electromagnetic localization system using implanted electromagnetic transponders has been developed (Beacon electromagnetic transponder, Calypso Medical Technologies, Inc., Seattle, WA). We evaluated the feasibility and fixation of electromagnetic transponders bronchoscopically implanted in small airways of canine lungs and compared to results using gold markers. Methods and Materials: After approval of the Animal Studies Committee, five mongrel dogs were anesthetized, intubated, and ventilated. Three transponders were inserted into the tip of a plastic catheter, passed through the working channel of a flexible bronchoscope, and implanted into small airways of a single lobe using fluoroscopic guidance. This procedure was repeated for three spherical gold markers in the opposite lung. One, 7, 14, 28, and 60 days postimplantation imaging was used to assess implant fixation. Results: Successful bronchoscopic implantation was possible for 15 of 15 transponders and 12 of 15 gold markers; 3 markers were deposited in the pleural space. Fixation at 1 day was 15 of 15 for transponders and 12 of 12 for gold markers. Fixation at 60 days was 6 of 15 for transponders and 7 of 12 for gold markers, p value = 0.45. Conclusions: Bronchoscopic implantation of both transponders and gold markers into the canine lung is feasible, but fixation rates are low. If fixation rates can be improved, implantable electromagnetic transponders may allow improved radiation therapy for lung cancer by providing real-time continuous target tracking. Developmental work is under way to improve the fixation rates and to reduce sensitivity to implantation technique.

  19. Planetary benchmarks. [structural design criteria for radar reference devices on planetary surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uphoff, C.; Staehle, R.; Kobrick, M.; Jurgens, R.; Price, H.; Slade, M.; Sonnabend, D.

    1978-01-01

    Design criteria and technology requirements for a system of radar reference devices to be fixed to the surfaces of the inner planets are discussed. Offshoot applications include the use of radar corner reflectors as landing beacons on the planetary surfaces and some deep space applications that may yield a greatly enhanced knowledge of the gravitational and electromagnetic structure of the solar system. Passive retroreflectors with dimensions of about 4 meters and weighing about 10 kg are feasible for use with orbiting radar at Venus and Mars. Earth-based observation of passive reflectors, however, would require very large and complex structures to be delivered to the surfaces. For Earth-based measurements, surface transponders offer a distinct advantage in accuracy over passive reflectors. A conceptual design for a high temperature transponder is presented. The design appears feasible for the Venus surface using existing electronics and power components.

  20. Accident investigation: Analysis of aircraft motions from ATC radar recordings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingrove, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    A technique was developed for deriving time histories of an aircraft's motion from air traffic control (ATC) radar records. This technique uses the radar range and azimuth data, along with the downlinked altitude data (from an onboard Mode-C transponder), to derive an expanded set of data which includes airspeed, lift, thrust-drag, attitude angles (pitch, roll, and heading), etc. This method of analyzing aircraft motions was evaluated through flight experiments which used the CV-990 research aircraft and recordings from both the enroute and terminal ATC radar systems. The results indicate that the values derived from the ATC radar records are for the most part in good agreement with the corresponding values obtained from airborne measurements. In an actual accident, this analysis of ATC radar records can complement the flight-data recorders, now onboard airliners, and provide a source of recorded information for other types of aircraft that are equipped with Mode-C transponders but not with onboard recorders.

  1. 14 CFR Appendix F to Part 43 - ATC Transponder Tests and Inspections

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE, REBUILDING, AND ALTERATION Pt. 43, App. F Appendix F to Part... coupling to the aircraft antenna system is used, operate the test equipment for ATCRBS transponders at...

  2. 14 CFR Appendix F to Part 43 - ATC Transponder Tests and Inspections

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE, REBUILDING, AND ALTERATION Pt. 43, App. F Appendix F to Part... coupling to the aircraft antenna system is used, operate the test equipment for ATCRBS transponders at...

  3. 14 CFR Appendix F to Part 43 - ATC Transponder Tests and Inspections

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE, REBUILDING, AND ALTERATION Pt. 43, App. F Appendix F to Part... coupling to the aircraft antenna system is used, operate the test equipment for ATCRBS transponders at...

  4. Achieving Exact and Constant Turnaround Ratio in a DDS-Based Coherent Transponder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Addario, Larry R.

    2011-01-01

    A report describes a non-standard direct digital synthesizer (DDS) implementation that can be used as part of a coherent transponder so as to allow any rational turnaround ratio to be exactly achieved and maintained while the received frequency varies. (A coherent transponder is a receiver-transmitter in which the transmitted carrier is locked to a pre-determined multiple of the received carrier's frequency and phase. That multiple is called the turnaround ratio.) The report also describes a general model for coherent transponders that are partly digital. A partially digital transponder is one in which analog signal processing is used to convert the signals between high frequencies at which they are radiated and relatively low frequencies at which they are converted to or from digital form, with most of the complex processing performed digitally. There is a variety of possible architectures for such a transponder, and different ones can be selected by choosing different parameter values in the general model. Such a transponder uses a DDS to create a low-frequency quasi-sinusoidal signal that tracks the received carrier s phase, and another DDS to generate an IF or near-baseband version of the transmitted carrier. With conventional DDS implementations, a given turnaround ratio can be achieved only approximately, and the error varies slightly as the received frequency changes. The non-conventional implementation employed here allows any rational turnaround ratio to be exactly maintained.

  5. Apparatus Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Describes three pieces of scientific apparatus and their demonstrational use: a high temperature apparatus for positron annihilation studies, a digitally synthesized classroom variable star, and a demonstration of plasma laser-beam focusing using paint stripper flames. (GA)

  6. Radar principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, Toru

    1989-01-01

    Discussed here is a kind of radar called atmospheric radar, which has as its target clear air echoes from the earth's atmosphere produced by fluctuations of the atmospheric index of refraction. Topics reviewed include the vertical structure of the atmosphere, the radio refractive index and its fluctuations, the radar equation (a relation between transmitted and received power), radar equations for distributed targets and spectral echoes, near field correction, pulsed waveforms, the Doppler principle, and velocity field measurements.

  7. Photon-Counting Microlaser Rangers, Transponders, and Altimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degnan, John J.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Unlike current manned systems, NASA's next generation SLR2000 Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) station is fully autonomous. eye-safe, relatively compact and inexpensive. and, during daytime tracking operates at signal-to-noise ratios several orders of magnitude below unity. Tiny, passively Q-switched microlasers generate ultra-short pulses with output energies on the order of 100 micron-J at few kHz rates to achieve mm-level ranging precision to satellite altitudes of 20,000 km. Special ranging receivers, combined with Poisson statistical analysis of the received photon distribution, enable the system to rapidly and reliably identify and extract the single photon laser echoes from the solar background. The enhanced rate of return, combined with a uniform signal strength, can actually drive down both systematic and random range errors. The new SLR2000 technology has already spawned exciting new applications. Compact microlaser altimeters, capable of mapping the surface of a planet or other celestial body at multikilohertz rates, is one such application, and a high altitude, airborne version is currently being developed under NASA's Instrument Incubator Program. Interplanetary microlaser transponders would be capable of performing decimeter ranging or subnanosecond time transfer to spacecraft throughout the inner Solar System. resulting in improved knowledge of planetary motions and liberations and enhanced General Relativity experiments.

  8. Roll-to-Roll Screen Printed Radio Frequency Identification Transponder Antennas for Vehicle Tracking Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zichner, Ralf; Baumann, Reinhard R.

    2013-05-01

    Vehicle tracking systems based on ultra high frequency (UHF) radio frequency identification (RFID) technology are already introduced to control the access to car parks and corporate premises. For this field of application so-called Windshield RFID transponder labels are used, which are applied to the inside of the windshield. State of the art for manufacturing these transponder antennas is the traditional lithography/etching approach. Furthermore the performance of these transponders is limited to a reading distance of approximately 5 m which results in car speed limit of 5 km/h for identification. However, to achieve improved performance compared to existing all-purpose transponders and a dramatic cost reduction, an optimized antenna design is needed which takes into account the special dielectric and in particular metallic car environment of the tag and an roll-to-roll (R2R) printing manufacturing process. In this paper we focus on the development of a customized UHF RFID transponder antenna design, which is adopted for vehicle geometry as well as R2R screen printing manufacturing processes.

  9. SPS pilot signal design and power transponder analysis, volume 2, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, W. C.; Scholtz, R. A.; Chie, C. M.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of pilot signal parameter optimization and the related problem of power transponder performance analysis for the Solar Power Satellite reference phase control system are addressed. Signal and interference models were established to enable specifications of the front end filters including both the notch filter and the antenna frequency response. A simulation program package was developed to be included in SOLARSIM to perform tradeoffs of system parameters based on minimizing the phase error for the pilot phase extraction. An analytical model that characterizes the overall power transponder operation was developed. From this model, the effects of different phase noise disturbance sources that contribute to phase variations at the output of the power transponders were studied and quantified. Results indicate that it is feasible to hold the antenna array phase error to less than one degree per power module for the type of disturbances modeled.

  10. Underwater Acoustic Transponders Tracking While Mapping With A Multibeam Echo-Sounder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Moustier, C. P.; Franzheim, A.; Testa, W.; Burns, J. M.; Foy, R.

    2010-12-01

    A 160 kHz multibeam echo-sounder was used to interrogate and receive the replies from custom-built miniature underwater acoustic transponders attached to the carapace of king crabs in Womens Bay, Alaska. This new application of multibeam echo-sounders combines acoustic tracking and mapping, thus providing environmental context to the tracking information. Each transponder replies with its own coded sequence that stands out from other echoes received by the sonar. Range and bearing of the replies from multiple transponders can be obtained in a single sonar ping. The king crab experiment was done in 25-35 m of water depth, and the system was successfully tested without animals at 190 m depth. Work supported by NOAA's Undersea Research Program Grant G4768, with field work support from NOAA-NMFS/AFSC/RACE and Electronic Navigation Ltd.

  11. The first clinical implementation of electromagnetic transponder-guided MLC tracking

    PubMed Central

    Keall, Paul J.; Colvill, Emma; O’Brien, Ricky; Ng, Jin Aun; Poulsen, Per Rugaard; Eade, Thomas; Kneebone, Andrew; Booth, Jeremy T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: We report on the clinical process, quality assurance, and geometric and dosimetric results of the first clinical implementation of electromagnetic transponder-guided MLC tracking which occurred on 28 November 2013 at the Northern Sydney Cancer Centre. Methods: An electromagnetic transponder-based positioning system (Calypso) was modified to send the target position output to in-house-developed MLC tracking code, which adjusts the leaf positions to optimally align the treatment beam with the real-time target position. Clinical process and quality assurance procedures were developed and performed. The first clinical implementation of electromagnetic transponder-guided MLC tracking was for a prostate cancer patient being treated with dual-arc VMAT (RapidArc). For the first fraction of the first patient treatment of electromagnetic transponder-guided MLC tracking we recorded the in-room time and transponder positions, and performed dose reconstruction to estimate the delivered dose and also the dose received had MLC tracking not been used. Results: The total in-room time was 21 min with 2 min of beam delivery. No additional time was needed for MLC tracking and there were no beam holds. The average prostate position from the initial setup was 1.2 mm, mostly an anterior shift. Dose reconstruction analysis of the delivered dose with MLC tracking showed similar isodose and target dose volume histograms to the planned treatment and a 4.6% increase in the fractional rectal V60. Dose reconstruction without motion compensation showed a 30% increase in the fractional rectal V60 from that planned, even for the small motion. Conclusions: The real-time beam-target correction method, electromagnetic transponder-guided MLC tracking, has been translated to the clinic. This achievement represents a milestone in improving geometric and dosimetric accuracy, and by inference treatment outcomes, in cancer radiotherapy. PMID:24506591

  12. The first clinical implementation of electromagnetic transponder-guided MLC tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Keall, Paul J. OBrien, Ricky; Ng, Jin Aun; Colvill, Emma; Poulsen, Per Rugaard; Eade, Thomas; Kneebone, Andrew; Booth, Jeremy T.

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: We report on the clinical process, quality assurance, and geometric and dosimetric results of the first clinical implementation of electromagnetic transponder-guided MLC tracking which occurred on 28 November 2013 at the Northern Sydney Cancer Centre. Methods: An electromagnetic transponder-based positioning system (Calypso) was modified to send the target position output to in-house-developed MLC tracking code, which adjusts the leaf positions to optimally align the treatment beam with the real-time target position. Clinical process and quality assurance procedures were developed and performed. The first clinical implementation of electromagnetic transponder-guided MLC tracking was for a prostate cancer patient being treated with dual-arc VMAT (RapidArc). For the first fraction of the first patient treatment of electromagnetic transponder-guided MLC tracking we recorded the in-room time and transponder positions, and performed dose reconstruction to estimate the delivered dose and also the dose received had MLC tracking not been used. Results: The total in-room time was 21 min with 2 min of beam delivery. No additional time was needed for MLC tracking and there were no beam holds. The average prostate position from the initial setup was 1.2 mm, mostly an anterior shift. Dose reconstruction analysis of the delivered dose with MLC tracking showed similar isodose and target dose volume histograms to the planned treatment and a 4.6% increase in the fractional rectal V{sub 60}. Dose reconstruction without motion compensation showed a 30% increase in the fractional rectal V{sub 60} from that planned, even for the small motion. Conclusions: The real-time beam-target correction method, electromagnetic transponder-guided MLC tracking, has been translated to the clinic. This achievement represents a milestone in improving geometric and dosimetric accuracy, and by inference treatment outcomes, in cancer radiotherapy.

  13. Radiation-Hard SpaceWire/Gigabit Ethernet-Compatible Transponder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzman, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    A radiation-hard transponder was developed utilizing submicron/nanotechnology from IBM. The device consumes low power and has a low fabrication cost. This device utilizes a Plug-and-Play concept, and can be integrated into intra-satellite networks, supporting SpaceWire and Gigabit Ethernet I/O. A space-qualified, 100-pin package also was developed, allowing space-qualified (class K) transponders to be delivered within a six-month time frame. The novel, optical, radiation-tolerant transponder was implemented as a standalone board, containing the transponder ASIC (application specific integrated circuit) and optical module, with an FPGA (field-programmable gate array) friendly parallel interface. It features improved radiation tolerance; high-data-rate, low-power consumption; and advanced functionality. The transponder utilizes a patented current mode logic library of radiation-hardened-by-architecture cells. The transponder was developed, fabricated, and radhard tested up to 1 MRad. It was fabricated using 90-nm CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) 9 SF process from IBM, and incorporates full BIT circuitry, allowing a loop back test. The low-speed parallel LVCMOS (lowvoltage complementary metal oxide semiconductor) bus is compatible with Actel FPGA. The output LVDS (low-voltage differential signaling) interface operates up to 1.5 Gb/s. Built-in CDR (clock-data recovery) circuitry provides robust synchronization and incorporates two alarm signals such as synch loss and signal loss. The ultra-linear peak detector scheme allows on-line control of the amplitude of the input signal. Power consumption is less than 300 mW. The developed transponder with a 1.25 Gb/s serial data rate incorporates a 10-to-1 serializer with an internal clock multiplication unit and a 10-1 deserializer with internal clock and data recovery block, which can operate with 8B10B encoded signals. Three loop-back test modes are provided to facilitate the built-in-test functionality. The design is based on a proprietary library of differential current switching logic cells implemented in the standard 90-nm CMOS 9SF technology from IBM. The proprietary low-power LVDS physical interface is fully compatible with the SpaceWire standard, and can be directly connected to the SFP MSA (small form factor pluggable Multiple Source Agreement) optical transponder. The low-speed parallel interfaces are fully compatible with the standard 1.8 V CMOS input/output devices. The utilized proprietary annular CMOS layout structures provide TID tolerance above 1.2 MRad. The complete chip consumes less than 150 mW of power from a single 1.8-V positive supply source.

  14. Micropower RF transponder with superregenerative receiver and RF receiver with sampling mixer

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1997-05-13

    A micropower RF transponder employs a novel adaptation of the superregenerative receiver wherein the quench oscillator is external to the regenerative transistor. The quench oscillator applies an exponentially decaying waveform rather than the usual sinewave to achieve high sensitivity at microampere current levels. Further improvements include circuit simplifications for antenna coupling, extraction of the detected signal, and a low-voltage bias configuration that allows operation with less than a 1-volt rail voltage. The inventive transponder is expected to operate as long as the battery shelf life. 13 figs.

  15. Space based radar application to air traffic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caime, W. J.

    1985-01-01

    Future control of increasing air traffic on international routes will require significant advances in techniques employed. Development is underway, but at this time does not include addition of radar coverage of vast areas of oceanic traffic. This paper addresses the potential for a space-based radar to provide detection and track of aircraft in future traffic scenarios. Factors that must be considered in further tradeoff and concept optimization are discussed. These include: (1) satellite constellation characteristics and associated coverage, (2) efficient use of available energy in track-while-scan strategies, (3) development of tracker approaches to accommodate inherent system constraints, and (4) the application of transponders to assist in dense traffic environments. The analysis assumes the continued development and availability of technology required for high spacecraft power systems (hundreds of kilowatts), and for radar subclutter visibility.

  16. Spaceborne radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. K.; Eckerman, J.; Meneghini, R.; Atlas, D.; Boerner, W. M.; Cherry, S.; Clark, J. F.; Doviak, R. J.; Goldhirsh, J.; Lhermitte, R. M.

    1981-01-01

    The spaceborne radar panel considered how radar could be used to measure precipitation from satellites. The emphasis was on how radar could be used with radiometry (at microwave, visible (VIS), and infrared (IR) wavelengths) to reduce the uncertainties of measuring precipitation with radiometry alone. In addition, the fundamental electromagnetic interactions involved in the measurements were discussed to determine the key work areas for research and development to produce effective instruments. Various approaches to implementing radar systems on satellites were considered for both shared and dedicated instruments. Finally, a research and development strategy was proposed for establishing the parametric relations and retrieval algorithms required for extracting precipitation information from the radar and associated radiometric data.

  17. A zero power harmonic transponder sensor for ubiquitous wireless μL liquid-volume monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Haiyu; Chen, Pai-Yen; Hung, Cheng-Hsien; Gharpurey, Ranjit; Akinwande, Deji

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous liquid-volume monitoring is crucial in ubiquitous healthcare. However, conventional approach is based on either human visual observation or expensive detectors, which are costly for future pervasive monitoring. Here we introduce a novel approach based on passive harmonic transponder antenna sensor and frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) pattern analysis, to provide a very low cost wireless μL-resolution liquid-volume monitoring without battery or digital circuits. In our conceptual demonstration, the harmonic transponder comprises of a passive nonlinear frequency multiplier connected to a metamaterial-inspired 3-D antenna designed to be highly sensitive to the liquid-volume within a confined region. The transponder first receives some FHSS signal from an interrogator, then converts such signal to its harmonic band and re-radiates through the antenna sensor. The harmonic signal is picked up by a sniffer receiver and decoded through pattern analysis of the high dimensional FHSS signal strength data. A robust, zero power, absolute accuracy wireless liquid-volume monitoring is realized in the presence of strong direct coupling, background scatters, distance variance as well as near-field human-body interference. The concepts of passive harmonic transponder sensor, metamaterial-inspired antenna sensor, and FHSS pattern analysis based sensor decoding may help establishing cost-effective, energy-efficient and intelligent wireless pervasive healthcare monitoring platforms. PMID:26732251

  18. Tin Whisker Risk Assessment of TDRSS IV Transponder Units 101 and 102

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zellitti, Ron; Royse, Jeff; Jackson, Steve

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the plating requirements for the electrical and mechanical parts used in the TDRSS IV transponder manufactured by MOTOROLA, INC., SSG, SSSD. The intent of this report is to identify any electrical, electromechanical or mechanical part that does not have adequate requirements to prevent the use of a pure tin finish.

  19. 14 CFR Appendix F to Part 43 - ATC Transponder Tests and Inspections

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... allowed to compensate for antenna coupling errors during receiver sensitivity measurements conducted in... that location. (c) Receiver Sensitivity: (1) Verify that for any class of ATCRBS Transponder, the.... (2) Verify that the difference in Mode 3/A and Mode C receiver sensitivity does not exceed 1 db...

  20. A zero power harmonic transponder sensor for ubiquitous wireless μL liquid-volume monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Haiyu; Chen, Pai-Yen; Hung, Cheng-Hsien; Gharpurey, Ranjit; Akinwande, Deji

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous liquid-volume monitoring is crucial in ubiquitous healthcare. However, conventional approach is based on either human visual observation or expensive detectors, which are costly for future pervasive monitoring. Here we introduce a novel approach based on passive harmonic transponder antenna sensor and frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) pattern analysis, to provide a very low cost wireless μL-resolution liquid-volume monitoring without battery or digital circuits. In our conceptual demonstration, the harmonic transponder comprises of a passive nonlinear frequency multiplier connected to a metamaterial-inspired 3-D antenna designed to be highly sensitive to the liquid-volume within a confined region. The transponder first receives some FHSS signal from an interrogator, then converts such signal to its harmonic band and re-radiates through the antenna sensor. The harmonic signal is picked up by a sniffer receiver and decoded through pattern analysis of the high dimensional FHSS signal strength data. A robust, zero power, absolute accuracy wireless liquid-volume monitoring is realized in the presence of strong direct coupling, background scatters, distance variance as well as near-field human-body interference. The concepts of passive harmonic transponder sensor, metamaterial-inspired antenna sensor, and FHSS pattern analysis based sensor decoding may help establishing cost-effective, energy-efficient and intelligent wireless pervasive healthcare monitoring platforms.

  1. 14 CFR Appendix F to Part 43 - ATC Transponder Tests and Inspections

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false ATC Transponder Tests and Inspections F Appendix F to Part 43 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE, REBUILDING, AND ALTERATION Pt. 43, App. F Appendix F to...

  2. A zero power harmonic transponder sensor for ubiquitous wireless ?L liquid-volume monitoring.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haiyu; Chen, Pai-Yen; Hung, Cheng-Hsien; Gharpurey, Ranjit; Akinwande, Deji

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous liquid-volume monitoring is crucial in ubiquitous healthcare. However, conventional approach is based on either human visual observation or expensive detectors, which are costly for future pervasive monitoring. Here we introduce a novel approach based on passive harmonic transponder antenna sensor and frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) pattern analysis, to provide a very low cost wireless ?L-resolution liquid-volume monitoring without battery or digital circuits. In our conceptual demonstration, the harmonic transponder comprises of a passive nonlinear frequency multiplier connected to a metamaterial-inspired 3-D antenna designed to be highly sensitive to the liquid-volume within a confined region. The transponder first receives some FHSS signal from an interrogator, then converts such signal to its harmonic band and re-radiates through the antenna sensor. The harmonic signal is picked up by a sniffer receiver and decoded through pattern analysis of the high dimensional FHSS signal strength data. A robust, zero power, absolute accuracy wireless liquid-volume monitoring is realized in the presence of strong direct coupling, background scatters, distance variance as well as near-field human-body interference. The concepts of passive harmonic transponder sensor, metamaterial-inspired antenna sensor, and FHSS pattern analysis based sensor decoding may help establishing cost-effective, energy-efficient and intelligent wireless pervasive healthcare monitoring platforms. PMID:26732251

  3. Packard's Apparatus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the Packard's Falling Body Apparatus, invented by John C. Packard, which is essentially an inclined plane combined with a simple and elegant method of measuring the relative time of descent of a steel ball. (JRH)

  4. Reactor apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Echtler, J. Paul (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1981-01-01

    A reactor apparatus for hydrocracking a polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbonaceous feedstock to produce lighter hydrocarbon fuels by contacting the hydrocarbonaceous feedstock with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst.

  5. Apparatus Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Includes five brief articles on: solar-heating demonstration equipment, mercury or sodium vapor lamp spectroscopy, an apparatus for simulating variable stars, a voltage-to-frequency converter, and an introductory absorption experiment for low-energy beta particles. (MLH)

  6. Apparatus Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a technique to produce samples for x-ray diffraction studies on the Tel-X-Ometer 80 x-ray apparatus from readily available crystalline powders and discusses observations of transverse modes of an optical resonator. (SK)

  7. Planetary Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1992-01-01

    Planetary radar astronomy is the study of solar system entities (the moon, asteroids, and comets, as well as the major planets and their satellites and ring systems) by transmitting radio signals towards a target and receiving and analyzing the echoes.

  8. Imaging synthetic aperture radar

    DOEpatents

    Burns, Bryan L.; Cordaro, J. Thomas

    1997-01-01

    A linear-FM SAR imaging radar method and apparatus to produce a real-time image by first arranging the returned signals into a plurality of subaperture arrays, the columns of each subaperture array having samples of dechirped baseband pulses, and further including a processing of each subaperture array to obtain coarse-resolution in azimuth, then fine-resolution in range, and lastly, to combine the processed subapertures to obtain the final fine-resolution in azimuth. Greater efficiency is achieved because both the transmitted signal and a local oscillator signal mixed with the returned signal can be varied on a pulse-to-pulse basis as a function of radar motion. Moreover, a novel circuit can adjust the sampling location and the A/D sample rate of the combined dechirped baseband signal which greatly reduces processing time and hardware. The processing steps include implementing a window function, stabilizing either a central reference point and/or all other points of a subaperture with respect to doppler frequency and/or range as a function of radar motion, sorting and compressing the signals using a standard fourier transforms. The stabilization of each processing part is accomplished with vector multiplication using waveforms generated as a function of radar motion wherein these waveforms may be synthesized in integrated circuits. Stabilization of range migration as a function of doppler frequency by simple vector multiplication is a particularly useful feature of the invention; as is stabilization of azimuth migration by correcting for spatially varying phase errors prior to the application of an autofocus process.

  9. Control apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derkacs, Thomas (Inventor); Fetheroff, Charles W. (Inventor); Matay, Istvan M. (Inventor); Toth, Istvan J. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    Although the method and apparatus of the present invention can be utilized to apply either a uniform or a nonuniform covering of material over many different workpieces, the apparatus (20) is advantageously utilized to apply a thermal barrier covering (64) to an airfoil (22) which is used in a turbine engine. The airfoil is held by a gripper assembly (86) while a spray gun (24) is effective to apply the covering over the airfoil. When a portion of the covering has been applied, a sensor (28) is utilized to detect the thickness of the covering. A control apparatus (32) compares the thickness of the covering of material which has been applied with the desired thickness and is subsequently effective to regulate the operation of the spray gun to adaptively apply a covering of a desired thickness with an accuracy of at least plus or minus 0.0015 inches (1.5 mils) despite unanticipated process variations.

  10. Positioning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Vogel, M.A.; Alter, P.

    1983-07-07

    An apparatus is provided for precisely adjusting the position of an article relative to a beam emerging from a neutron source disposed in a housing. The apparatus includes a support pivotably mounted on a movable base plate and freely suspended therefrom. The support is gravity biased toward the housing and carries an article holder movable in a first direction longitudinally of the axis of said beam and normally urged into engagement against said housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the suspended holder in two mutually perpendicular directions, respectively, normal to the axis of the beam.

  11. TRANSFORMER APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Wolfgang, F.; Nicol, J.

    1962-11-01

    Transformer apparatus is designed for measuring the amount of a paramagnetic substance dissolved or suspended in a diamagnetic liquid. The apparatus consists of a cluster of tubes, some of which are closed and have sealed within the diamagnetic substance without any of the paramagnetic material. The remaining tubes are open to flow of the mix- ture. Primary and secondary conductors are wrapped around the tubes in such a way as to cancel noise components and also to produce a differential signal on the secondaries based upon variations of the content of the paramagnetic material. (AEC)

  12. Design study of a HEAO-C spread spectrum transponder telemetry system for use with the TDRSS subnet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weathers, G.

    1975-01-01

    The results of a design study of a spread spectrum transponder for use on the HEAO-C satellite were given. The transponder performs the functions of code turn-around for ground range and range-rate determination, ground command receiver, and telemetry data transmitter. The spacecraft transponder and associated communication system components will allow the HEAO-C satellite to utilize the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) subnet of the post 1978 STDN. The following areas were discussed in the report: TDRSS Subnet Description, TDRSS-HEAO-C System Configuration, Gold Code Generator, Convolutional Encoder Design and Decoder Algorithm, High Speed Sequence Generators, Statistical Evaluation of Candidate Code Sequences using Amplitude and Phase Moments, Code and Carrier Phase Lock Loops, Total Spread Spectrum Transponder System, and Reference Literature Search.

  13. Current radar responsive tag development activities at Sandia National Laboratories.

    SciTech Connect

    Plummer, Kenneth W.; Ormesher, Richard C.

    2003-09-01

    Over the past ten years, Sandia has developed RF radar responsive tag systems and supporting technologies for various government agencies and industry partners. RF tags can function as RF transmitters or radar transponders that enable tagging, tracking, and location determination functions. Expertise in tag architecture, microwave and radar design, signal analysis and processing techniques, digital design, modeling and simulation, and testing have been directly applicable to these tag programs. In general, the radar responsive tag designs have emphasized low power, small package size, and the ability to be detected by the radar at long ranges. Recently, there has been an interest in using radar responsive tags for Blue Force tracking and Combat ID (CID). The main reason for this interest is to allow airborne surveillance radars to easily distinguish U.S. assets from those of opposing forces. A Blue Force tracking capability would add materially to situational awareness. Combat ID is also an issue, as evidenced by the fact that approximately one-quarter of all U.S. casualties in the Gulf War took the form of ground troops killed by friendly fire. Because the evolution of warfare in the intervening decade has made asymmetric warfare the norm rather than the exception, swarming engagements in which U.S. forces will be freely intermixed with opposing forces is a situation that must be anticipated. Increasing utilization of precision munitions can be expected to drive fires progressively closer to engaged allied troops at times when visual de-confliction is not an option. In view of these trends, it becomes increasingly important that U.S. ground forces have a widely proliferated all-weather radar responsive tag that communicates to all-weather surveillance. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the recent, current, and future radar responsive research and development activities at Sandia National Laboratories that support both the Blue Force Tracking and Combat ID application.

  14. Apparatus Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Describes experiments and apparatus to: (1) allow astronomy students to test resolution limit of their eyes at several wavelengths; (2) analyze laser mode phases by interferometry; (3) demonstrate a Cartesian diver with an overhead projector; and (4) generate conical beams of light for smoke-chamber demonstrations. (JN)

  15. Apparatus Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    This collection of notes describes (1) an optoelectronic apparatus for classroom demonstrations of mechanical laws, (2) a more efficient method for demonstrated nuclear chain reactions using electrically energized "traps" and ping-pong balls, and (3) an inexpensive demonstration for qualitative analysis of temperature-dependent resistance. (CS)

  16. Apparatus Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Reviews apparatus design and instructional uses for Fume Cupboard Monitor, Plant Tissue Culture Kit, various equipment for electronic systems course, Welwyn Microprocessor-Tutor, Sweep Function Generator SFG 606, and Harris manufacturers materials--Regulated Power Supply Units, Electronic Current and Voltage Meters, Gas Preparation Kit, and

  17. Apparatus Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Presents four short articles on: a power supply for the measurement of the charge-to-mass ratio of the electron; a modified centripetal force apparatus; a black box electronic unknown for the scientific instruments laboratory; and a simple scaling model for biological systems. (MLH)

  18. Exercise apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffner, Grant (Inventor); Bentley, Jason R. (Inventor); Loehr, James A. (Inventor); Gundo, Daniel P. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An apparatus and method for exercising whereby the user is supported by various mechanisms in such as way that the user's shoulder area is free to translate and rotate; the user's pelvic area is free to translate and rotate; or in any combination.

  19. Prehensile apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Christopher M.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention relates to an apparatus for handling a workpiece comprising a vessel that is longitudinally extensible and pressurizable, and a nonextensible and laterally flexible member on the vessel. The member constrains one side of the vessel to be nonextensible, causing the vessel to bend in the direction of the nonextensible member when pressurized.

  20. Prehensile apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Smith, C.M.

    1993-10-12

    The present invention relates to an apparatus for handling a workpiece comprising a vessel that is longitudinally extensible and pressurizable, and a nonextensible and laterally flexible member on the vessel. The member constrains one side of the vessel to be nonextensible, causing the vessel to bend in the direction of the nonextensible member when pressurized. 8 figures.

  1. Apparatus Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Describes some science apparatus: included are a gene kit to demonstrate aspects of population genetics and selection, an electronic thermometer for use in the field of environmental studies, an astrobrella to use in astronomy classes, and crystal display models of different substances for chemistry classes. (GA)

  2. Apparatus Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Provided are reviews of science equipment/apparatus. Items reviewed include: Harris Micro-ecology tubes; Harris chromosome investigation kit; Harris trycult slides; a pressure cooker with thermometer; digital pH meter; digital scaler timer; electrical compensation calorimeter; and Mains alternating current ammeter. (JN)

  3. Sensor apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Deason, Vance A. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Telschow, Kenneth L. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-12-22

    A sensor apparatus and method for detecting an environmental factor is shown that includes an acoustic device that has a characteristic resonant vibrational frequency and mode pattern when exposed to a source of acoustic energy and, futher, when exposed to an environmental factor, produces a different resonant vibrational frequency and/or mode pattern when exposed to the same source of acoustic energy.

  4. Doppler and range determination for deep space vehicles using active optical transponders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinman, Peter W.; Gagliardi, Robert M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes and analyzes two types of laser system employing active transponders that could accurately determine Doppler and range to deep space vehicles from earth-orbiting satellites. The first is a noncoherent optical system in which the Doppler effect on an intensity-modulating subcarrier is measured. The second is a coherent optical system in which the Doppler effect of the optical carrier itself is measured. Doppler and range measurement errors are mathematically modeled and, for three example systems, numerically evaluated.

  5. Retention of passive integrated transponder tags in largemouth bass brood fish

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, W.D.; Campbell, D.L. )

    1989-07-01

    Passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags were injected into 22 largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) brood fish to determine the retention rate of the tags, the effect on spawning success, and the utility of the tags as a means of individual fish identification. Fish were evaluated 12, 17, and 24 months after implantation. All tags were retained and all tagged fish were recognized. Tag injection and retention had no discernible effect on spawning success.

  6. Preliminary design and implementation of the baseline digital baseband architecture for advanced deep space transponders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, T. M.; Yeh, H.-G.

    1993-01-01

    The baseline design and implementation of the digital baseband architecture for advanced deep space transponders is investigated and identified. Trade studies on the selection of the number of bits for the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and optimum sampling schemes are presented. In addition, the proposed optimum sampling scheme is analyzed in detail. Descriptions of possible implementations for the digital baseband (or digital front end) and digital phase-locked loop (DPLL) for carrier tracking are also described.

  7. Performance of a Ka-band transponder breadboard for deep-space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mysoor, N. R.; Lane, J. P.; Kayalar, S.; Kermode, A. W.

    1995-01-01

    This article summarizes the design concepts applied in the development of and advanced Ka-band (34.4 GHz/32 GHz) transponder breadboard for the next generation of space communications systems applications. The selected architecture upgrades the X-band (7.2 GHz/8.4 GHz) deep-space transponder (DST) to provide Da-band up/Ka- and X-band down capability. The Ka-band transponder breadboard incorporates several state-of-the-art components, including sampling mixers, a Ka-band dielectric resonator oscillator, and microwave monolithic integrated circuits (MMICs). The MMICs that were tested in the breadboard include upconverters, downconverters, automatic gain control circuits, mixers, phase modulators, and amplifiers. The measured receiver dynamic range, tracking range, acquisition rate, static phase error, and phase jitter characteristics of the Ka-band breadboard interfaced to the advanced engineering model X-band DST are in good agreement with the expected performance. The results show a receiver tracking threshold of -149 dBm with a dynamic range of 80 dB and a downlink phase jitter of 7 deg rms. The analytical results of phase noise and Allan standard deviation are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  8. Forecasting the impact of an 1859-caliber superstorm on geosynchronous Earth-orbiting satellites: Transponder resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odenwald, Sten F.; Green, James L.

    2007-06-01

    We calculate the economic impact on the existing geosynchronous Earth-orbiting satellite population of an 1859-caliber superstorm event were it to occur between 2008 and 2018 during the next solar activity cycle. From a detailed model for transponder capacity and leasing, we have investigated the total revenue loss over the entire solar cycle, as a function of superstorm onset year and intensity. Our Monte Carlo simulations of 1000 possible superstorms, of varying intensity and onset year, suggest that the minimum revenue loss could be of the order of 30 billion. The losses would be larger than this if more that 20 satellites are disabled, if future launch rates do not keep up with the expected rate of retirements, or if the number of spare transponders falls below 30%. Consequently, revenue losses can be significantly reduced below 30 billion if the current satellite population undergoes net growth beyond 300 units during Solar Cycle 24 and a larger margin of unused transponders is maintained.

  9. Laser Transponders for High-Accuracy Interplanetary Laser Ranging and Time Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degnan, John J.

    Satellite laser ranging (SLR) and lunar laser ranging (LLR) to passive reflectors have been carried out successfully since 1964 and 1969, respectively. The single-ended SLR ranging technique, although capable of providing millimeter precision range data to satellites, is not practical over interplanetary ranges. Double-ended laser transponders for decimeter or better accuracy interplanetary ranging and subnanosecond time transfer are well within the state-of-the-art, however, as was recently demonstrated in two successful transponder experiments carried out by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center to laser altimeters onboard the Messenger spacecraft (currently enroute to Mercury) and the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft (presently in Mars Orbit). A high-accuracy interplanetary ranging capability would support a number of new scientific investigations (e.g., solar system and planetary physics, general relativity, etc.) and enhance deep-space mission operations and reliability through vastly improved navigation accuracy and time synchronization with Earth mission control centers. The performance of future lunar or interplanetary laser transponder and laser communications instruments can be simulated and tested at distances to Pluto and beyond using existing passive SLR and LLR targets already in space.

  10. Application of asynchronous laser transponders to solar system and planetary science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degnan, John J.

    2007-08-01

    Since 1964, short pulse lasers have been used to range to artificial satellites equipped with passive retroreflectors. Today, a global network of 40 satellite laser ranging (SLR) stations, under the auspices of the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS), routinely track two dozen international space missions with few millimeter precision using picosecond pulse lasers in support of Earth Science. Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) began in 1969, shortly after NASA's Apollo 11 mission placed the first of five retroreflector packages on the Moon. For the past decade, work has been underway to extend these precise ranging capabilities beyond the Moon to interplanetary distances via the use of two-way asynchronous laser transponders. In May 2005, the first two-way asynchronous laser transponder link was established between NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center and a laser altimeter instrument onboard the Messenger spacecraft enroute to Mercury. The Earth to spacecraft distance of 24.3 million km was measured with an unprecedented precision of 20 cm and was limited by the roughly 10 nanosecond pulsewidth and resolution of the onboard laser and timing receiver. The Messenger experiment was carried out in full daylight with very modest onboard laser energies (<20 mJ) and receive apertures (25 cm) and a relatively high threshold detector (300 pe). In September 2005, approximately 500 laser pulses from the same GSFC station were observed by the Mars Observer Laser Altimeter (MOLA) receiver in Mars orbit at an even greater distance of 80 million km. A second Messenger experiment is planned for mid-June 2007 while the spacecraft is in the vicinity of Venus. Compact transponder packages using readily space-qualifiable ultrashort pulse lasers, detectors, and time-of-flight receivers should permit centimeter range accuracies over interplanetary distances in the near future. In preparing for these missions, many of the passive satellite assets already in Earth orbit can be used today to test and validate interplanetary link analyses (including atmospheric effects), target acquisition and tracking strategies, and data reduction algorithms prior to spacecraft launch or even mission definition. Science applications of transponders include: characterization of the solar gravitational field, mass distribution, and rotation; centimeter accuracy planetary and lunar ephemeredes; mass distribution within the asteroid belt; and improved general relativity experiments. Planned transponder experiments to artificial satellites will also speed the development of laser communications systems, which would offer orders of magnitude more bandwidth in transferring high resolution sensor data from our planetary neighbors and their moons.

  11. GEOS-2 C-band radar system project. Marine study using C-band radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    One of the secondary objectives of the GEOS-2 C-band Systems Project is to study the feasibility of using geodetic satellites to both evaluate shipborne instrumentation and to determine ship positions in broad ocean areas. The purpose of this task is to determine whether shipborne C-band radar tracking, in conjunction with ground based tracking, is sufficiently accurate to provide instrumentation evaluation and ship position estimates. Data from several Apollo tracking ships, in particular the USNS Vanguard, was made available for this effort. A series of tests, using the USNS Vanguard, were carried out in the Port Canaveral and Bahama Acoustic Transponder Array Areas. The major portion of the analyses reported are the result of preliminary investigations using the data from these tests.

  12. Sampling apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, N.R.; King, L.L.; Jackson, P.O.; Zulich, A.W.

    1989-07-18

    A sampling apparatus is provided for sampling substances from solid surfaces. The apparatus includes first and second elongated tubular bodies which telescopically and sealingly join relative to one another. An absorbent pad is mounted to the end of a rod which is slidably received through a passageway in the end of one of the joined bodies. The rod is preferably slidably and rotatably received through the passageway, yet provides a selective fluid tight seal relative thereto. A recess is formed in the rod. When the recess and passageway are positioned to be coincident, fluid is permitted to flow through the passageway and around the rod. The pad is preferably laterally orientable relative to the rod and foldably retractable to within one of the bodies. A solvent is provided for wetting of the pad and solubilizing or suspending the material being sampled from a particular surface. 15 figs.

  13. Sampling apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, Norman R. (Kennewick, WA); King, Lloyd L. (Benton, WA); Jackson, Peter O. (Richland, WA); Zulich, Alan W. (Bel Air, MD)

    1989-01-01

    A sampling apparatus is provided for sampling substances from solid surfaces. The apparatus includes first and second elongated tubular bodies which telescopically and sealingly join relative to one another. An absorbent pad is mounted to the end of a rod which is slidably received through a passageway in the end of one of the joined bodies. The rod is preferably slidably and rotatably received through the passageway, yet provides a selective fluid tight seal relative thereto. A recess is formed in the rod. When the recess and passageway are positioned to be coincident, fluid is permitted to flow through the passageway and around the rod. The pad is preferably laterally orientable relative to the rod and foldably retractable to within one of the bodies. A solvent is provided for wetting of the pad and solubilizing or suspending the material being sampled from a particular surface.

  14. Hyperthermia apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Larsen, Lawrence E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01

    A hyperthermia apparatus, suitable for transurethral application, has an energy radiating element comprising a leaky-wave antenna. The leaky wave antenna radiation pattern is characterized by a surface wave which propagates along an aperture formed by openings (small in comparison to a wavelength) in the outer conductor of a transmission line. Appropriate design of the leaky wave antenna produces a uniform, broadside pattern of temperature elevation that uniformly heats all or part of the periurethral tissues.

  15. Filter apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Zahedi, K.; Alexander, J. C.; Zieve, P. B.

    1985-03-19

    Electrified filter bed apparatus includes inner and outer cylindrical bed-retaining structures for confining a granular bed therebetween. The inner cylindrical structure may comprise a cage of superposed frusto-conical louvers and the outer structure may comprise a similar cage or a perforated cylindrical, liquid-drainage sheet. A cylindrical bed electrode for electrically charging the bed granules is suspended between the retaining structures. The tubular bed surrounds an internal gas passage from which polluted gas flows through the bed from the inside out. Gas enters the internal passage from above through an ionizer section of the apparatus. The ionizer section may include a disc-type ionizer assembly in an ionizer tube. The tube may form an extension of the inner louver cage. A corona discharge may be formed between the disc and the ionizer tube by providing electric current to the discs, whereby the corona discharge electrically charges particulate material within the gas stream. The discs may carry radially protruding needles defining circumferential corona discharge points. A blowdown system may be provided for cleaning the ionizer discs and the tube wall in the region of the discs. The apparatus may include means for avoiding blowout of bed granules from between the outer louvers, and a system for washing pollutant-coated bed granules.

  16. Solar apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Morse, R.N.

    1987-11-03

    A solar steam generating apparatus for generating process steam in the temperature range of 100/sup 0/C to 200/sup 0/C is described comprising: (a) a solar collector comprised of tubular collectors (b) heat storage means, and first duct means communicating with the solar collector and with the heat storage means to permit the transfer of heat from the air heated by the solar collector to the heat storage means; (c) a steam generating heat exchanger, and water and steam lines directed to and from the heat exchanger; (d) second duct means communicating with the first duct means, the heat exchanger being mounted in the second duct means, (e) fans means associated with the first and second duct means for circulating air through the solar collector and the first and second duct means; (f) flow control means provided in the first and second duct means to selectively control the flow of air to and from the solar collector; (g) the air passing through the solar collector, the first and second duct means and the heat storage means is at substantially atmospheric pressure during operation of the apparatus, whereby the apparatus provides 60-80% of the annual energy required for steam generation by the heat exchanger.

  17. Feasibility of Electromagnetic Transponder Use to Monitor Inter- and Intrafractional Motion in Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Shinohara, Eric T.; Kassaee, Alireza; Mitra, Nandita; Vapiwala, Neha; Plastaras, John P.; Drebin, Jeff; Wan, Fei; Metz, James M.

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: The primary objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of electromagnetic transponder implantation in patients with locally advanced unresectable pancreatic cancer. Secondarily, the use of transponders to monitor inter- and intrafractional motion, and the efficacy of breath holding for limiting target motion, were examined. Methods and Materials: During routine screening laparoscopy, 5 patients without metastatic disease were implanted with transponders peri-tumorally. The Calypso System's localization and tracking modes were used to monitor inter- and intrafractional motion, respectively. Intrafractional motion, with and without breath holding, was also examined using Calypso tracking mode. Results: Transponder implantation was well tolerated in all patients, with minimal migration, aside from 1 patient who expulsed a single transponder. Interfractional motion based on mean shifts from setup using tattoos/orthogonal imaging to transponder based localization from 164 treatments was significant in all dimensions. Mean shift (in millimeters), followed by the standard deviation and p value, were as follows: X-axis: 4.5 mm (1.0, p = 0.01); Y axis: 6.4 mm (1.9, p = 0.03); and Z-axis 3.9 mm (0.6, p = 0.002). Mean intrafractional motion was also found to be significant in all directions: superior, 7.2 mm (0.9, p = 0.01); inferior, 11.9 mm (0.9, p < 0.01); anterior: 4.9 mm (0.5, p = 0.01); posterior, 2.9 mm (0.5, p = 0.02); left, 2.2 mm (0.4, p = 0.02); and right, 3.1 mm (0.6, p = 0.04). Breath holding during treatment significantly decreased tumor motion in all directions. Conclusions: Electromagnetic transponder implantation appears to be safe and effective for monitoring inter- and intrafractional motion. Based on these results a larger clinical trial is underway.

  18. TRMM radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okamoto, Kenichi

    1993-01-01

    The results of a conceptual design study and the performance of key components of the Bread Board Model (BBM) of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) radar are presented. The radar, which operates at 13.8 GHz and is designed to meet TRMM mission objectives, has a minimum measurable rain rate of 0.5 mm/h with a range resolution of 250 m, a horizontal resolution of about 4 km, and a swath width of 220 km. A 128-element active phased array system is adopted to achieve contiguous scanning within the swath. The basic characteristics of BBM were confirmed by experiments. The development of EM started with the cooperation of NASDA and CRL.

  19. SEPARATION APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Huff, J.B.

    1962-03-13

    A furnace apparatus is designed for treating a nuclear reactor waste solution. The solution is sprayed onto a bed of burning petroleum coke which expels water, the more volatile fission products, and nitrogen oxides. Next, chlorine gas is introduced from below which causes aluminum to volatilize as aluminum chloride and along with it certain fission products including Nb/sup 95/ and Zr/sup 95/. These lose their radioactivity within four years and the long- lived radioactivity remains with the ash, which is stored. (AEC) V) nitrate. (P.C.H.)

  20. Fastener apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    While, Donald M. (Inventor); Matza, Edward C. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A fastening apparatus is adapted to be inserted and removed from one side of a work piece having an opposite side which is substantially inaccessible to a worker. A first, externally threaded member is threadingly engaged with a receiving structure, and a second member is inserted within corresponding seats or grooves for interlocking the two members. In the preferred embodiment diverting seats are provided for forming the second member into locking engagement between the receiving structure and the first member. In one embodiment, seat structures are provided for engaging frangible panels or the like for high temperature applications.

  1. Positioning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Vogel, Max A. (Kennewick, WA); Alter, Paul (Richland, WA)

    1986-01-01

    An apparatus for precisely positioning materials test specimens within the optimum neutron flux path emerging from a neutron source located in a housing. The test specimens are retained in a holder mounted on the free end of a support pivotably mounted and suspended from a movable base plate. The support is gravity biased to urge the holder in a direction longitudinally of the flux path against the housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the holder in two mutually perpendicular directions normal to the axis of the flux path.

  2. [Literature review of the influences on error rates when identifying equids with transponder and hot-iron branding].

    PubMed

    Campe, Amely; Schulz, Sophia; Bohnet, Willa

    2016-01-01

    Although equids have had to be tagged with a transponder since 2009, breeding associations in Germany disagree as to which method is best suited for identification (with or without hot iron branding). Therefore, the aim of this systematic literature review was to gain an overview of how effective identification is using transponders and hot iron branding and as to which factors influence the success of identification. Existing literature showed that equids can be identified by means of transponders with a probability of 85-100%, whereas symbol brandings could be identified correctly in 78-89%, whole number brandings in 0-87% and single figures in 37-92% of the readings, respectively. The successful reading of microchips can be further optimised by a correctly operated implantation process and thorough training of the applying persons. affect identification with a scanner. The removal of transponders for manipulation purposes is virtually impossible. Influences during the application of branding marks can hardly, if at all, be standardised, but influence the subsequent readability relevantly. Therefore, identification by means of hot branding cannot be considered sufficiently reliable. Impaired quality of identification can be reduced during reading but cannot be counteracted. Based on the existing studies it can be concluded that the transponder method is the best suited of the investigated methods for clearly identifying equids, being forgery-proof and permanent. It is not to be expected that applying hot branding in addition to microchips would optimise the probability of identification relevantly. PMID:26904892

  3. Asynchronous spread spectrum communication for a micro-miniature transponder: implementation and test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, David R., III; Welch, E. B.; Philpott, Rick A.; Coker, Jonathan D.; Schaefer, Timothy M.; Gilbert, Barry K.; Daniel, Erik S.

    2005-06-01

    While the field of wireless communication has developed dramatically over the past several decades, there are several notable applications of wireless technologies which impose constraints on power-consumption and form-factor that are not compatible with commercial technologies such as 802.11a,b,g or Bluetooth. These applications include implantable devices and remote monitoring devices. Such devices are better suited to transponder technology which is more power-efficient and can sustain data rates acceptable for these applications. Using a well-defined set of functional needs and system restrictions, we have developed an ultra-compact and ultra-low-powered transponder which contains spread spectrum (SS) logic for wireless communications. The transponder chip was designed and built in the Jazz BiCMOS SiGe technology. The device is activated via a pure tone and emits a SS response which is modulated over the carrier with binary phase shift keying (BPSK). The SS signal is a Gold Code generated from two 9-bit m-sequence generators. One of the m-sequences is seeded with a fixed value while the other 9-bit register is pinned out and can be a fixed ID or a bus to transmit data from a microcontroller. The data is received and decoded by a standard PC with a high-speed acquisition board. In order to support multiple devices at various distances, asynchronous decoding is applied. When active, the device draws less than 35 mW of power (@ 3.0V). Assuming a duty cycle of less than 1%, the device can be powered for several days using a very small coin battery. The device has been tested in the laboratory; natural environment testing is underway.

  4. Heating apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, C.G.

    1991-07-30

    This patent describes a heating apparatus. It comprises a housing, means for introducing water to a plurality of water conduits of the housing, a fireplace compartment disposed within the housing, the fireplace compartment being provided with a burner, a fin coil member disposed in the upper portion of the housing and communicating with the room environment for heat emitting, the fin coil member containing a serpentine configured fin coils disposed therein for absorbing heat from the water disposed in the water conduits, a heat chamber containing the water conduits, the heat chamber connected at one end to the fireplace compartment and at the other end to a chimney disposed at the middle of the the fireplace compartment for circulating hot combustion gases therethrough and for heating the water disposed in the water conduits, the combustion gases being vented from the chimney, and at least four turbo fans communicating with the heat chamber for blowing air across the fin coil member so as to heat the air and discharge it to the room environment, and reduce noise pollution of the heating apparatus.

  5. Micropower RF transponder with superregenerative receiver and RF receiver with sampling mixer

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1997-01-01

    A micropower RF transdponder employs a novel adaptation of the superregenerative receiver wherein the quench oscillator is external to the regenerative transistor. The quench oscillator applies an exponentially decaying waveform rather than the usual sinewave to achieve high sensitivity at microampere current levels. Further improvements include circuit simplifications for antenna coupling, extraction of the detected signal, and a low-voltage bias configuration that allows operation with less than a 1-volt rail voltage. The inventive transponder is expected to operate as long as the battery shelf life.

  6. Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Support of User Spacecraft without TDRSS Transponders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, James A.; Marr, Greg C.; Maher, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    NASA GSFC VNS TSG personnel have proposed the use of TDRSS to obtain telemetry and/or S-band one-way return Doppler tracking data for spacecraft which do not have TDRSS-compatible transponders and therefore were never considered candidates for TDRSS support. For spacecraft with less stable local oscillators (LO), one-way return Doppler tracking data is typically of poor quality. It has been demonstrated using UARS, WIND, and NOAA-J tracking data that the simultaneous use of two TDRSS spacecraft can yield differenced one-way return Doppler data of high quality which is usable for orbit determination by differencing away the effects of oscillator instability.

  7. Possibility of investigating star systems by radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rzhiga, O. N.

    1986-01-01

    There is no fundamental reason why radar cannot be used in investigations of star systems. In order to detect star systems by radar it is necessary to construct an antenna with a diameter of several tens of kilometers and a transmitter whose power is commensurable with the power of all electric power stations on the Earth. Such an antenna should be in outer space in order to avoid the influence of radio ray refraction in the Earth's troposphere and to to give rise to radio noise. At present the construction of such a radar apparatus may seem incredible, but there are no fundamentally insoluble problems. The closest stars are 10,000 times more distant from the Sun than Pluto. In order to make successful radar observations of star systems there would have to be the same jump in energy potential as with the transition from radar observations of the Moon to radar observations of Pluto. If the rates of increase in energy potential persist, radar observations of star systems will become realistic by the middle of the 21st century. A system for interstellar communication having a receiving antenna with an effective area of 2 x 10 to the 9th power square meters operating at a wavelength of 3 cm with a receiver noise temperature of 10 K can ensure transmission of a television signal from a distance of 4.34 light years with use at the transmitting end of an antenna with a diameter of 10 m and a transmitter with a power of 1 million W. Radar observations of star systems will open the way to interstellar ships in the same way that radar observations of planets in the solar system opened the way for the interplanetary stations.

  8. A method of long-term radar shower data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simek, M.

    1987-01-01

    Complex photographic and radar meteor observations have been carried out since 1957. Using the available observational data, the density of incident flux of meteoroids was estimated over a wide mass range of 0.001 to 100 g. To avoid the influence of apparatus selectivity a special technique was applied. The application of this technique to the radar shower data analysis is discussed in detail.

  9. Transport apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, B.R.; Lowe, D.B.; Lowe, D.W.

    1983-07-12

    Transport apparatus is disclosed comprising a drive unit and a slave unit movable in unison along a predetermined path. The slave unit is disposed beneath the drive unit to move along a tunnel with work stations located at intervals along the tunnel. The drive unit carries electromagnets which when energized levitate the slave unit within the tunnel, controls being provided to maintain the slave unit at a desired position relative to the drive unit. The roof of the tunnel is formed from a magnetically transparent material, such as glass. The slave unit is thereby physically isolated from the drive unit. As a result the drive unit is shielded from any hostile environment within the tunnel and resulting, for example, from the transport of radioactive or toxic materials by the slave units. This simplifies repair and maintenance operations on the drive unit.

  10. Thermoforming apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Wallsten, H.I.

    1984-10-16

    Apparatus for manufacturing articles is disclosed in which a preheated sheet of thermoplastic material is intermittently fed to present successive preheated portions of the sheet in a work station having a forming tool for forming articles in each successive sheet portion and a stamping tool for co-operating with the forming tool to stamp the formed articles from the sheet. The forming tool has a plurality of forming dies which are movable successively and cyclically into the work station for forming articles in respective successive sheet portions. After each forming operation the stamping tool is brought into engagement with a resilient counter-surface on the forming die to stamp from the sheet the articles formed by that die.

  11. Burner apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Ximpara, N.; Moriya, Y.; Xaneko, H.

    1984-01-31

    The present invention improves a conventional Bunsen burner by providing it with a primary combustion chamber which covers the primary flame forming portion of the Bunsen burner and which has a secondary flame hole immediately above the primary flame forming portion. The burner apparatus of the present invention produces reduced NO /SUB x/ since the overall combustion is divided into primary flame combustion and secondary flame combustion. Further according to the invention, an indication of incomplete combustion due to oxygen deficiency in the ambient air or blockade of the primary air passage can be dependably detected for cessation of combustion by providing a flame rod and measuring the impedance (or ion current) of the rod.

  12. Hydrogenation apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Friedman, Joseph (Encino, CA); Oberg, Carl L. (Canoga Park, CA); Russell, Larry H. (Agoura, CA)

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogenation reaction apparatus comprising a housing having walls which define a reaction zone and conduits for introducing streams of hydrogen and oxygen into the reaction zone, the oxygen being introduced into a central portion of the hydrogen stream to maintain a boundary layer of hydrogen along the walls of the reaction zone. A portion of the hydrogen and all of the oxygen react to produce a heated gas stream having a temperature within the range of from 1100.degree. to 1900.degree. C., while the boundary layer of hydrogen maintains the wall temperature at a substantially lower temperature. The heated gas stream is introduced into a hydrogenation reaction zone and provides the source of heat and hydrogen for a hydrogenation reaction. There also is provided means for quenching the products of the hydrogenation reaction. The present invention is particularly suitable for the hydrogenation of low-value solid carbonaceous materials to provide high yields of more valuable liquid and gaseous products.

  13. Collecting apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, Charles P.

    1983-01-01

    An improved collecting apparatus for small aquatic or airborne organisms such as plankton, larval fish, insects, etc. The improvement constitutes an apertured removal container within which is retained a collecting bag, and which is secured at the apex of a conical collecting net. Such collectors are towed behind a vessel or vehicle with the open end of the conical net facing forward for trapping the aquatic or airborne organisms within the collecting bag, while allowing the water or air to pass through the apertures in the container. The container is readily removable from the collecting net whereby the collecting bag can be quickly removed and replaced for further sample collection. The collecting bag is provided with means for preventing the bag from being pulled into the container by the water or air flowing therethrough.

  14. Investigation of sonar transponders for offshore wind farms: modeling approach, experimental setup, and results.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Moritz B; Rolfes, Raimund

    2013-11-01

    The installation of offshore wind farms in the German Exclusive Economic Zone requires the deployment of sonar transponders to prevent collisions with submarines. The general requirements for these systems have been previously worked out by the Research Department for Underwater Acoustics and Marine Geophysics of the Bundeswehr. In this article, the major results of the research project "Investigation of Sonar Transponders for Offshore Wind Farms" are presented. For theoretical investigations a hybrid approach was implemented using the boundary element method to calculate the source directivity and a three-dimensional ray-tracing algorithm to estimate the transmission loss. The angle-dependence of the sound field as well as the weather-dependence of the transmission loss are compared to experimental results gathered at the offshore wind farm alpha ventus, located 45 km north of the island Borkum. While theoretical and experimental results are in general agreement, the implemented model slightly underestimates scattering at the rough sea surface. It is found that the source level of 200 dB re 1 μPa at 1 m is adequate to satisfy the detectability of the warning sequence at distances up to 2 NM (≈3.7 km) within a horizontal sector of ±60° if realistic assumptions about signal-processing and noise are made. An arrangement to enlarge the angular coverage is discussed. PMID:24180764

  15. Autonomous sensor-transponder RFID with supply energy conditioning for object navigation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoczylas, M.; Kamuda, K.; Jankowski-Mihu?owicz, P.; Kalita, W.; Weglarski, Mariusz

    2014-08-01

    The properties of energy conditioning electrical circuits that are developed for powering additional functional blocks of autonomous RFID transponders working in the HF band have been analyzed and presented in the paper. The concept of autonomy is realized by implementing extra functions in the typical transponder. First of all, the autonomous system should harvest energy, e.g. from the electromagnetic field of read/write devices but also the possibility of gathering information about environment should be available, e.g. by measuring different kind of physical quantities. In such an electrical device, the crucial problem consists in energy conditioning because the output voltage-current characteristic of an front-end (antenna with matching and harvesting circuit) as well as the total and instantaneous power load generated by internal circuits are strongly dependent on a realized function but also on energy and communication conditions in the RFID interface. The properly designed solution should improve harvesting efficiency, current leakage of supply storage, matching between antenna and input circuits, in order to save energy and increase operating time in such a battery-free system. The authors present methods how to increase the autonomous operation time even at advanced measuring algorithms. The measuring system with wide spectrum of sensors dedicated for different quantities (physical, chemical, etc.) has also been presented. The results of model calculations and experimental verifications have been also discussed on the basis of investigations conducted in the unique laboratory stand of object navigation systems.

  16. Performance evaluation of digital phase-locked loops for advanced deep space transponders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, T. M.; Hinedi, S. M.; Yeh, H.-G.; Kyriacou, C.

    1994-01-01

    The performances of the digital phase-locked loops (DPLL's) for the advanced deep-space transponders (ADT's) are investigated. DPLL's considered in this article are derived from the analog phase-locked loop, which is currently employed by the NASA standard deep space transponder, using S-domain to Z-domain mapping techniques. Three mappings are used to develop digital approximations of the standard deep space analog phase-locked loop, namely the bilinear transformation (BT), impulse invariant transformation (IIT), and step invariant transformation (SIT) techniques. The performance in terms of the closed loop phase and magnitude responses, carrier tracking jitter, and response of the loop to the phase offset (the difference between in incoming phase and reference phase) is evaluated for each digital approximation. Theoretical results of the carrier tracking jitter for command-on and command-off cases are then validated by computer simulation. Both theoretical and computer simulation results show that at high sampling frequency, the DPLL's approximated by all three transformations have the same tracking jitter. However, at low sampling frequency, the digital approximation using BT outperforms the others. The minimum sampling frequency for adequate tracking performance is determined for each digital approximation of the analog loop. In addition, computer simulation shows that the DPLL developed by BT provides faster response to the phase offset than IIT and SIT.

  17. Improving the range of UHF RFID transponders using solar energy harvesting under low light conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascher, A.; Lehner, M.; Eberhardt, M.; Biebl, E.

    2015-11-01

    The sensitivity of passive UHF RFID transponders (Radio Frequency Identification) is the key issue, which determines the maximum read range of an UHF RFID system. During this work the ability of improving the sensitivity using solar energy harvesting, especially for low light conditions, is shown. To use the additional energy harvested from the examined silicon and organic solar cells, the passive RFID system is changed into a semi-active one. This needs no changes on the reader hardware itself, only the used RFIC (Radio Frequency Integrated Circuit) of the transponder has to possess an additional input pin for an external supply voltage. The silicon and organic cells are evaluated and compared to each other regarding their low light performance. The different cells are examined in a shielded box, which is protected from the environmental lighting. Additionally, a demonstrator is shown, which makes the measurement of the extended read range with respect to the lighting conditions possible. If the cells are completely darkened, the sensitivity gain is ascertained using high capacity super caps. Due to the measurements an enhancement in range up to 70 % could be guaranteed even under low light conditions.

  18. Neoplasia and granulomas surrounding microchip transponders in Damaraland mole rats (Cryptomys damarensis).

    PubMed

    Sura, R; French, R A; Goldman, B D; Schwartz, D R

    2011-07-01

    Damaraland mole rats (Cryptomys damarensis) are among the longest-living rodents, with a maximum longevity of approximately 16 years. As one of the few mammals termed eusocial, these animals have been used in behavioral, genetic, metabolic, and physiologic research at the University of Connecticut since 1997. For individual identification at 3 to 4 months of age, mole rats were subcutaneously implanted with microchip transponders (11 mm in length) in the dorsal cervical region. In 2007, 2 of the 90 implanted adults, 10-year-old and 9-year-old females, developed subcutaneous masses at the site of the implant. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations revealed amelanotic melanoma and fibrosarcoma, respectively, with metastasis of the amelanotic melanoma. In 2008, a total of 3 adult males were castrated as part of a sex behavior study; 3 months later, all 3 castrated males developed subcutaneous masses around their implants, whereas none of the noncastrated males had masses. After an additional 9 months, these masses were found to be granulomas. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of neoplasia in this species. Both the tumors and the granulomas surrounded the microchip transponder. PMID:20724516

  19. Wind shear radar simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, Charles L.

    1988-01-01

    Viewgraphs used in a presentation on wind shear radar simulation are given. Information on a microburst model of radar reflectivity and wind velocity, radar pulse output, the calculation of radar return, microburst power spectrum, and simulation plans are given. A question and answer session is transcribed.

  20. Method and apparatus for remote measurement of terrestrial biomass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Patrick W. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Method and apparatus for remote measurement of terrestrial biomass contained in vegetative elements, such as large tree boles or trunks present in an area of interest. The method includes providing an airborne radar system, overflying the area of interest while directing radar energy having a frequency of under 400 MHz, and preferably between 80 and 120 MHz, toward the area of interest, using the radar system to collect backscatter data from the radar energy as a function of incidence angle and frequency, and using an inversion algorithm to determine a magnitude of the biomass from the backscatter data for each radar resolution cell. A biomass map is generated showing the magnitude of the biomass of the vegetative elements as a function of location on the map by using each resolution cell as a unique location thereon.

  1. Attachment Apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, Edward F.

    1998-08-18

    The present invention includes an attachment apparatus comprising a rotation limiting member adapted to be threaded onto a threaded member; and a preload nut adapted to be threaded onto the threaded member. The rotation limiting member comprises a plurality of pins; and the preload nut comprises plurality of slots, preferably wherein the plurality of pins and the plurality of slots are the same in number, which is preferably three. The plurality of pins of the rotation limiting member are filled into a corresponding plurality of slots of the preload nut to form a rotatable unit adapted to be threaded onto the threaded member. In use, the rotatable unit is threaded onto the threaded member. The present invention thus provides a unitized removable device for holes, including holes other than circular in shape, which have an established depth before an end of, or before an enlargement of the hole. The configuration of some exposed part of the device, or the head, is shaped and formed for its intended purpose, such as clamping, anchor points, eye bolts, stud anchor, and the like. The device allows for the installation, preloading and removal of all components of the device, as a unit, without damage to the member for which attachment is required by simple rotations of some exposed part of the device.

  2. Windmill apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, M.J.; Hwang, L.M.

    1987-11-17

    A windmill apparatus is described comprising: a frame body structure adapted to be positioned on a flat top surface of a construction such as a building; a main shaft vertically fixed in a middle position of the frame body structure; a first main-shaft sleeve rotatably coupled with a lower portion of the main shaft for being driven to rotate around the main shaft; a belt pulley fixedly connected at a lower end of the first main-shaft sleeve for providing a driving force along with the first main-shaft sleeve; a rotating means having a revolving arrangement vertically disposed therein rotatably installed around the first main-shaft sleeve within a lower open portion of the frame body structure for being driven to rotate by wind along with the first main-shaft sleeve; a second main-shaft sleeve with a first gear fixed at a lower end thereof movably connected at an upper portion of the main shaft for providing gear transmission therefrom; a direction control means installed within an upper closed portion of the frame body structure and rotatably connected to the rotating means through the second main-shaft sleeve for automatically adjusting the revolving arrangement according to wind direction; and a wind direction indicating means horizontally disposed on top of the frame body structure and rotatably connected to the direction control means so as to relay wind direction change whereby, wind force can be effectively utilized with a simplified structure.

  3. Piston apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Timmerman, T.; Chapman, N.V.

    1987-09-22

    This patent describes a piston apparatus comprising: (a) a first pair of spaced-part cylinders aligned along a cylinder axis; (b) a pair of pistons, each piston being slidably received in one of the cylinders for reciprocation along the axis; (c) a pair of spaced-apart crank members on opposite sides of the cylinder axis, the crank members having parallel axes of rotation; (d) a first gear wheel, a second gear wheel and a third gear wheel, (e) a crank connecting member having a longitudinal axis which is perpendicular to the cylinder axis and having opposite ends. (f) a piston connecting member interconnecting the pair of pistons and having an aperture extending perpendicular to the cylinder axis. The crank connecting member is slidably received in the aperture to permit relative movement between the piston connecting member and the crank connecting member along the longitudinal axis of the crank connecting member. The piston connecting member and the crank connecting member are carried together for movement parallel to the cylinder axis.

  4. Dehumidification apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Meckler, G.

    1988-02-09

    This patent describes an apparatus for dehumidifying air comprising, in combination, first and second dehumidifiers, both of which employ a desiccant, means for passing air to be dehumidified through the first dehumidifier and then through the second dehumidifier, whereby moisture is removed by the desiccants and the air is dehumidified, and from the second dehumidifier to a space to be conditioned. A first regenerator for the desiccant of the second dehumidifier, means for passing air to and through each of the regenerators in contact with the desiccant therein and then from the regenerators, means for transferring heat of sorption from the first and second dehumidifiers, means for moving moisture laden desiccant from the first dehumidifier to the first regenerator, means for moving moisture laden desiccant from the second dehumidifier to the second regenerator, and means for transferring heat to the regenerators, the last-named means including means for transferring heat of sorption from the first dehumidifier to the first regenerator, whereby absorbed moisture is rejected from the regenerators are included.

  5. Laser apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Owen (Fairport, NY); Stogran, Edmund M. (North Syracuse, NY)

    1980-01-01

    Laser apparatus is described wherein an active laser element, such as the disc of a face-pumped laser, is mounted in a housing such that the weight of the element is supported by glass spheres which fill a chamber defined in the housing between the walls of the housing and the edges of the laser element. The uniform support provided by the spheres enable the chamber and the pump side of the laser element to be sealed without affecting the alignment or other optical properties of the laser element. Cooling fluid may be circulated through the sealed region by way of the interstices between the spheres. The spheres, and if desired also the cooling fluid may contain material which absorbs radiation at the wavelength of parasitic emissions from the laser element. These parasitic emissions enter the spheres through the interface along the edge surface of the laser element and it is desirable that the index of refraction of the spheres and cooling fluid be near the index of refraction of the laser element. Thus support, cooling, and parasitic suppression functions are all accomplished through the use of the arrangement.

  6. Hydrogenation apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Friedman, J.; Oberg, C. L.; Russell, L. H.

    1981-06-23

    Hydrogenation reaction apparatus is described comprising a housing having walls which define a reaction zone and conduits for introducing streams of hydrogen and oxygen into the reaction zone, the oxygen being introduced into a central portion of the hydrogen stream to maintain a boundary layer of hydrogen along the walls of the reaction zone. A portion of the hydrogen and all of the oxygen react to produce a heated gas stream having a temperature within the range of from 1,100 to 1,900 C, while the boundary layer of hydrogen maintains the wall temperature at a substantially lower temperature. The heated gas stream is introduced into a hydrogenation reaction zone and provides the source of heat and hydrogen for a hydrogenation reaction. There also is provided means for quenching the products of the hydrogenation reaction. The present invention is particularly suitable for the hydrogenation of low-value solid carbonaceous materials to provide high yields of more valuable liquid and gaseous products. 2 figs.

  7. Workover rig support apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Crist, W.W.

    1984-08-28

    An apparatus is claimed for distributing the weight of a workover or maintenance apparatus connected to a Christmas tree over the surface of the portion of the Christmas tree to which the workover apparatus is attached, including a plate which rests upon the portion of the Christmas tree to which the workover apparatus is attached, and a rigid support extending upwardly from the plate, the rigid support being connectable to said workover apparatus. The apparatus may include plugs for plugging the other strings of tubing contained in the Christmas tree to which the workover apparatus is not attached, and devices for adjusting the length of the rigid support.

  8. Fifty years of radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skolnik, M. I.

    1985-02-01

    A development history of radar technology is presented, with attention to the driving of radar system design advances by the emergence of such weapon systems as long range aircraft and cruise missiles in World War II and the range of current applications for state-of-the-art radar techniques. The applications noted encompass over-the-horizon backscatter radars for aircraft detection at 500-1800 nmi ranges, ultralow sidelobe antenna military radars, a long range, frequency scanning three-dimensional S-band radar, a shipborne phased array radar for the collection of exoatmospheric and endoatmospheric data on ballistic missile reentry vehicles, multimission/multimode X-band fighter aircraft radars, and phased array air defense radars.

  9. Evacuation of Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) Tags from Northern Pikeminnow Consuming Tagged Juvenile Chinook Salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, J.H.; Barfoot, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Prey fish implanted with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags can be used in predation studies if the timing of tag evacuation from the predators is understood. Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine how PIT tags in juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that were consumed by northern pikeminnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis were evacuated in relation to various parameters. The rate of evacuation was directly related to temperature, while predator size and the number of prey consumed had less effect on the timing of tag evacuation. A power model was fitted to predict the proportion of tags expected to be evacuated at different intervals after ingestion. These results could be used in planning field or laboratory predation experiments with PIT-tagged prey fish.

  10. A dual-mode driver automatic level control amplifier for a direct broadcast satellite transponder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moochalla, S.; Kohut, E.; Aubert, D.; Dhillon, S.; Zelen, H.

    This paper describes the design and performance of a 12-GHz GaAs FET amplifier used as a driver amplifier for high-power (230 watts) TWTAs on a direct broadcast satellite (DBS) transponder. The amplifier provides two modes of operation: an automatic output signal level control (ALC) mode and a fixed selected gain mode. The amplifier has 68.5 dB gain with 70 dB dynamic range in the ALC mode and 46 dB gain control dynamic range in the fixed gain mode. This amplifier provides an output power of +1 to +17 dBm in 2-dB steps over an input power range of -45.5 dBm to +1.5 dBm over the frequency range of 12.2 to 12.7 GHz.

  11. Asynchronous spread spectrum communication for a microminiature transponder: implementation and test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, David R., III; Welch, E. B.; Philpott, Rick A.; Coker, Jonathan D.; Schaefer, Timothy M.; Gilbert, Barry K.; Daniel, Erik S.

    2005-06-01

    While the field of wireless communication has developed dramatically over the past several decades, there are several notable applications of wireless technologies which impose constraints on power-consumption and form-factor that are not compatible with cutting edge technologies. These applications include implantable devices and remote monitoring devices. Using a well-defined set of functional needs and system restrictions, we have developed an ultra-compact and ultra-low-powered transponder which contains spread spectrum (SS) logic for wireless communications. The transponder chip was designed and built in the Jazz BiCMOS SiGe technology. The device is activated via a pure tone and emits a SS response which is modulated over the carrier with binary phase shift keying (BPSK). The SS signal is a gold-code generated from two 9-bit m-sequence generators. One of the m-sequences is seeded with a fixed value while the other 9-bit register is pinned out and can be a fixed ID or a bus to transmit data from a microcontroller. The data is received and decoded by a standard PC with a high-speed acquisition board. In order to support multiple devices at various distances, asynchronous decoding is applied. When active, the device draws less than 35 mA of current. Because the duty cycle of this device is likely less than 1%, the device can be powered for several hours using a very small coin battery. The device has been tested both in the lab and natural environment testing is underway. Future work will combine the device with a microcontroller in the field to achieve specific monitoring goals.

  12. Evaluation of Remote Delivery of Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) Technology to Mark Large Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Walter, W. David; Anderson, Charles W.; VerCauteren, Kurt C.

    2012-01-01

    Methods to individually mark and identify free-ranging wildlife without trapping and handling would be useful for a variety of research and management purposes. The use of Passive Integrated Transponder technology could be an efficient method for collecting data for mark-recapture analysis and other strategies for assessing characteristics about populations of various wildlife species. Passive Integrated Transponder tags (PIT) have unique numbered frequencies and have been used to successfully mark and identify mammals. We tested for successful injection of PIT and subsequent functioning of PIT into gelatin blocks using 4 variations of a prototype dart. We then selected the prototype dart that resulted in the least depth of penetration in the gelatin block to assess the ability of PIT to be successfully implanted into muscle tissue of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) post-mortem and long-term in live, captive Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus). The prototype dart with a 12.7 mm (0.5 inch) needle length and no powder charge resulted in the shallowest mean ( SD) penetration depth into gelatin blocks of 27.0 mm (5.6 mm) with 2.0 psi setting on the Dan-Inject CO2-pressured rifle. Eighty percent of PIT were successfully injected in the muscle mass of white-tailed deer post-mortem with a mean ( SD) penetration depth of 22.2 mm (3.8 mm; n?=?6). We injected PIT successfully into 13 live, captive elk by remote delivery at about 20 m that remained functional for 7 months. We successfully demonstrated that PIT could be remotely delivered in darts into muscle mass of large mammals and remain functional for >6 months. Although further research is warranted to fully develop the technique, remote delivery of PIT technology to large mammals is possible using prototype implant darts. PMID:22984572

  13. Doppler radar results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bracalente, Emedio M.

    1992-01-01

    The topics are covered in viewgraph form and include the following: (1) a summary of radar flight data collected; (2) a video of combined aft cockpit, nose camera, and radar hazard displays; (3) a comparison of airborne radar F-factor measurements with in situ and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) F-factors for some sample events; and (4) a summary of wind shear detection performance.

  14. Calibration of the CONSERT / ROSETTA Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herique, A.; Kofman, W.

    2003-04-01

    Oral presentation The ROSETTA/ESA probe will rendezvous Comet Wirtanen in 2011 and launch a Lander at the nucleus surface. The CONSERT instrument will perform the sounding of the comet nucleus by measuring a 90 MHz electromagnetic wave propagation from the Lander to the orbiter throughout the nucleus. The goal of this sounding is to determine the internal structures of the comet nucleus at different scales and to deduce information on its composition (density, type and abundance of the refractor). The probe has been launch in January and both Lander and Orbiter parts of the instrument have been ground and in-fly calibrated. The CONSERT instrument is an original concept of spaceborne transmission radar based on the propagation throughout the nucleus while the classical radars are based on the reflection. This instrument fulfills three functions: - A chronometer to measure the propagation delay (main function) - An imager based on the multipath propagation - A radiometer to estimate the wave attenuation (secondary function) The calibration of the instrument should characterize these three functions but due to the novelty of the instrument concept we have no classical set of parameters to quantify the instrument performances from a data-inversion point of view. The instrument design and the absence of calibration channel due to mass and power constraints require specific signal processing and calibration protocol. We start with the present the instrument, its objectives and its time transponder structure. Then we present the philosophy of the ground and in-fly calibration. In particular, we define the set of instrument performances used to characterize Consert instrument and the derivation of the calibration plan. We finish with the presentation of results of the instrument ground calibration and we show preliminary results of the in-fly calibration.

  15. Lunar radar backscatter studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.

    1979-01-01

    The lunar surface material in the Plato area is characterized using Earth based visual, infrared, and radar signatures. Radar scattering in the lunar regolith with an existing optical scattering computer program is modeled. Mapping with 1 to 2 km resolution of the Moon using a 70 cm Arecibo radar is presented.

  16. Helium ionization detection apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagai, R.

    1984-01-01

    In a gas chromatograph apparatus comprising a gas supply (He carrier gas), a sample injection apparatus, a chromatograph column, a He ion detector, and connecting tubes, a foreign gas (other than He) injection apparatus is installed between the sample injection apparatus and the detector. Mixing of the sample gas and foreign gas takes place readily, the sample gas is always maintained at a stable concentrator range, and accurate measurements are possible, especially at low sample gas concentrations.

  17. System, method, and apparatus for remote measurement of terrestrial biomass

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Patrick W

    2011-04-12

    A system, method, and/or apparatus for remote measurement of terrestrial biomass contained in vegetative elements, such as large tree boles or trunks present in an area of interest, are provided. The method includes providing an airborne VHF radar system in combination with a LiDAR system, overflying the area of interest while directing energy toward the area of interest, using the VHF radar system to collect backscatter data from the trees as a function of incidence angle and frequency, and determining a magnitude of the biomass from the backscatter data and data from the laser radar system for each radar resolution cell. A biomass map is generated showing the magnitude of the biomass of the vegetative elements as a function of location on the map by using each resolution cell as a unique location thereon. In certain preferred embodiments, a single frequency is used with a linear array antenna.

  18. Fault isolation detection expert (FIDEX). Part 1: Expert system diagnostics for a 30/20 Gigahertz satellite transponder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durkin, John; Schlegelmilch, Richard; Tallo, Donald

    1992-01-01

    LeRC has recently completed the design of a Ka-band satellite transponder system, as part of the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) System. To enhance the reliability of this satellite, NASA funded the University of Akron to explore the application of an expert system to provide the transponder with an autonomous diagnosis capability. The results of this research was the development of a prototype diagnosis expert system called FIDEX (fault-isolation and diagnosis expert). FIDEX is a frame-based expert system that was developed in the NEXPERT Object development environment by Neuron Data, Inc. It is a MicroSoft Windows version 3.0 application, and was designed to operate on an Intel i80386 based personal computer system.

  19. Comparison of Noncontact Infrared Thermometry and 3 Commercial Subcutaneous Temperature Transponding Microchips with Rectal Thermometry in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Brunell, Marla K

    2012-01-01

    This study compared a noncontact infrared laser thermometer and 3 different brands of subcutaneous temperature transponding microchips with rectal thermometry in 50 rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). The data were analyzed by using intraclass correlation coefficients and limits of agreement. In addition, the technical capabilities and practicality of the thermometers in the clinical setting were reviewed. None of the alternative techniques investigated was equivalent to rectal thermometry in rhesus macaques. Temperatures obtained by using microchips had higher correlation and agreed more closely with rectal temperatures than did those obtained by the noncontact infrared method. However, transponding microchips did not yield consistent results. Due to difficulty in positioning nonsedated macaques in their homecage, subcutaneous microchips were not practical in the clinical setting. Furthermore, pair-housed macaques may be able to break or remove microchips from their cagemates. PMID:23043815

  20. Comparison of noncontact infrared thermometry and 3 commercial subcutaneous temperature transponding microchips with rectal thermometry in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Brunell, Marla K

    2012-07-01

    This study compared a noncontact infrared laser thermometer and 3 different brands of subcutaneous temperature transponding microchips with rectal thermometry in 50 rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). The data were analyzed by using intraclass correlation coefficients and limits of agreement. In addition, the technical capabilities and practicality of the thermometers in the clinical setting were reviewed. None of the alternative techniques investigated was equivalent to rectal thermometry in rhesus macaques. Temperatures obtained by using microchips had higher correlation and agreed more closely with rectal temperatures than did those obtained by the noncontact infrared method. However, transponding microchips did not yield consistent results. Due to difficulty in positioning nonsedated macaques in their homecage, subcutaneous microchips were not practical in the clinical setting. Furthermore, pair-housed macaques may be able to break or remove microchips from their cagemates. PMID:23043815

  1. A comparison of radiographic techniques and electromagnetic transponders for localization of the prostate

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to compare three methodologies of prostate localization and to determine if there are significant differences in the techniques. Methods Daily prostate localization using cone beam CT or orthogonal kV imaging has been performed at UT Southwestern Medical Center since 2006. Prostate patients are implanted with gold seeds, which are matched with the planning CT or DRR before treatment. More recently, a technology using electromagnetic transponders implanted within the prostate was introduced into our clinic (Calypso). With each technology, patients are localized initially using skin marks and the room lasers. In this study, patients were localized with Calypso and either CBCT or kV orthogonal images in the same treatment session, allowing a direct comparison of the technologies. Localization difference distributions were determined from the difference in the offsets determined by CBCT/kV imaging and Calypso. CBCT-Calypso and kV imaging-Calypso localization data were summarized from over 900 and 250 fractions each, respectively. The Wilcoxon signed rank test is used to determine if the localization differences are statistically significant. We also calculated Pearsons productmoment correlation coefficient (R2) to determine if there is a linear relationship between the shifts determined by Calypso and the radiographic techniques. Results The differences between CBCT-Calypso and kV imaging-Calypso localizations are ?0.18??2.90?mm, -0.79??2.18?mm, -0.01??1.20?mm and ?0.09??1.40?mm, 0.48??1.50?mm, 0.08??1.04?mm, respectively, in the AP, SI, and RL directions. The Pearson productmoment correlation coefficients for the CBCT-Calypso shifts were 0.71, 0.92 and 0.88 and for the OBI-Calypso comparison were 0.95, 0.89 and 0.85. The percentage of localization differences that were less than 3?mm were 86.1%, 84.5% and 96.0% for the CBCT-Calypso comparison and 95.8%, 94.3% and 97% for the kV OBI-Calypso comparison. No trends were observed in the Bland-Altman analysis. Conclusions Localization of the prostate using electromagnetic transponders agrees well with radiographic techniques and each technology is suitable for high precision radiotherapy. This study finds that there is more uncertainty in CBCT localization of the prostate than in 2D orthogonal imaging, but the difference is not clinically significant. PMID:22720845

  2. Planetary Radar Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Gregory J.

    2002-12-01

    Radar is a powerful tool for studying the Solar System, with its reach limited in theory only by the transmitter power available. It has been used to observe targets ranging in size from the rings of Saturn down to house-sized asteroids. An observer has control of the illumination source, so a radar experiment provides information not available from passive observing methods. On centimeter to meter scales it is a sensitive probe of surface characteristics such as dielectric constant and roughness, and on larger scales can map topography and determine shapes of irregular objects at resolutions finer than other ground-based methods. This lecture will cover the basic techniques of planetary radar astronomy, give an overview of the scientific questions that can be addressed, and survey some recent results. Key points of the lecture will be: what can be learned from radar experiments; types of radar experiments; observable quantities; the radar equation; and an outline of current radar systems.

  3. Planetary radar astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, Steven J.

    1987-01-01

    The scientific aims, theoretical principles, techniques and instrumentation, and future potential of radar observations of solar-system objects are discussed in a general overview. Topics examined include the history of radar technology, echo detectability, the Arecibo and Goldstone radar observatories, echo time delay and Doppler shift, radar waveforms, albedo and polarization ratio, measurement of dynamical properties, and the dispersion of echo power. Consideration is given to angular scattering laws; the radar signatures of the moon and inner planets, Mars, and asteroids; topographic relief; delay-Doppler radar maps and their physical interpretation; and radar observations of the icy Galilean satellites of Jupiter, comets, and the rings of Saturn. Diagrams, drawings, photographs, and sample maps and images are provided.

  4. Planetary radar astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostro, Steven J.

    The scientific aims, theoretical principles, techniques and instrumentation, and future potential of radar observations of solar-system objects are discussed in a general overview. Topics examined include the history of radar technology, echo detectability, the Arecibo and Goldstone radar observatories, echo time delay and Doppler shift, radar waveforms, albedo and polarization ratio, measurement of dynamical properties, and the dispersion of echo power. Consideration is given to angular scattering laws; the radar signatures of the moon and inner planets, Mars, and asteroids; topographic relief; delay-Doppler radar maps and their physical interpretation; and radar observations of the icy Galilean satellites of Jupiter, comets, and the rings of Saturn. Diagrams, drawings, photographs, and sample maps and images are provided.

  5. Method and apparatus for sensor fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, Kumar (Inventor); Shaw, Scott (Inventor); Defigueiredo, Rui J. P. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Method and apparatus for fusion of data from optical and radar sensors by error minimization procedure is presented. The method was applied to the problem of shape reconstruction of an unknown surface at a distance. The method involves deriving an incomplete surface model from an optical sensor. The unknown characteristics of the surface are represented by some parameter. The correct value of the parameter is computed by iteratively generating theoretical predictions of the radar cross sections (RCS) of the surface, comparing the predicted and the observed values for the RCS, and improving the surface model from results of the comparison. Theoretical RCS may be computed from the surface model in several ways. One RCS prediction technique is the method of moments. The method of moments can be applied to an unknown surface only if some shape information is available from an independent source. The optical image provides the independent information.

  6. Space Radar Image of Flevoland, Netherlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a three-frequency false color image of Flevoland, The Netherlands, centered at 52.4 degrees north latitude, 5.4 degrees east longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard space shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994. It was produced by combining data from the X-band, C-band and L-band radars. The area shown is approximately 25 kilometers by 28 kilometers (15-1/2 by 17-1/2 miles). Flevoland, which fills the lower two-thirds of the image, is a very flat area that is made up of reclaimed land that is used for agriculture and forestry. At the top of the image, across the canal from Flevoland, is an older forest shown in red; the city of Harderwijk is shown in white on the shore of the canal. At this time of the year, the agricultural fields are bare soil, and they show up in this image in blue. The changes in the brightness of the blue areas are equal to the changes in roughness. The dark blue areas are water and the small dots in the canal are boats. This SIR-C/X-SAR supersite is being used for both calibration and agricultural studies. Several soil and crop ground-truth studies will be conducted during the shuttle flight. In addition, about 10calibration devices and 10 corner reflectors have been deployed to calibrate and monitor the radar signal. One of these transponders can be seen as a bright star in the lower right quadrant of the image. This false-color image was made using L-band total power in the red channel, C-band total power in the green channel, and X-band VV polarization in the blue channel. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrte.v. (DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  7. 2. VIEW SOUTHWEST, prime search radar tower, height finder radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTHWEST, prime search radar tower, height finder radar towards, height finder radar towers, and radar tower (unknown function) - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  8. Laser-Ranging Transponders for Science Investigations of the Moon and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid; Chen, Yijiang; Bimbaum, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    An active laser was developed ranging in real-time with two terminals, emulating interplanetary distances, and with submillimeter accuracy. In order to overcome the limitations to ranging accuracy from jitters and delay drifts within the transponders, architecture was proposed based on asynchronous paired one-way ranging with local references. A portion of the transmitted light is directed, via a reference path, to the local detector. This allows for compensation of any jitter in the timing of the emitted laser pulse. The same detector is used to measure the time of the received pulses emitted from the remote terminal. This approach removes any change in the delay caused by the detector or its electronics. Two separate terminals using commercial off-the-shelf hardware were built to emulate active laser ranging over interplanetary distances. The communication link for the command to start recording pulse arrival times and data transfer from one terminal to the other was achieved using a standard wireless link, emulating free space laser communication. The deviation is well below the goal of 1-mm precision. This leaves enough margin to achieve 1-mm precision when including the fluctuations due to atmospheric turbulence while ranging to Mars through the Earth s atmosphere. The two terminals are mounted on translation stages, which can be moved freely on rails to yield a wide range of distances with fine adjustment. The two terminals were separated by approximately 16 meters.

  9. Efficiency of Portable Antennas for Detecting Passive Integrated Transponder Tags in Stream-Dwelling Salmonids.

    PubMed

    Banish, Nolan P; Burdick, Summer M; Moyer, Katherine R

    2016-01-01

    Portable antennas have become an increasingly common technique for tracking fish marked with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. We used logistic regression to evaluate how species, fish length, and physical habitat characteristics influence portable antenna detection efficiency in stream-dwelling brown trout (Salmo trutta), bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), and redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss newberrii) marked with 12-mm PIT tags. We redetected 56% (20/36) of brown trout, 34% (68/202) of bull trout, and 33% (20/61) of redband trout after a recovery period of 21 to 46 hours. Models indicate support for length and species and minor support for percent boulder, large woody debris, and percent cobble as parameters important for describing variation in detection efficiency, although 95% confidence intervals for estimates were large. The odds of detecting brown trout (1.5 ± 2.2 [mean ± SE]) are approximately four times as high as bull trout (0.4 ± 1.6) or redband trout (0.3 ± 1.8) and species-specific differences may be related to length. Our reported detection efficiency for brown trout falls within the range of other studies, but is the first reported for bull trout and redband trout. Portable antennas may be a relatively unbiased way of redetecting varying sizes of all three salmonid species. PMID:26901317

  10. Efficiency of Portable Antennas for Detecting Passive Integrated Transponder Tags in Stream-Dwelling Salmonids

    PubMed Central

    Moyer, Katherine R.

    2016-01-01

    Portable antennas have become an increasingly common technique for tracking fish marked with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. We used logistic regression to evaluate how species, fish length, and physical habitat characteristics influence portable antenna detection efficiency in stream-dwelling brown trout (Salmo trutta), bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), and redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss newberrii) marked with 12-mm PIT tags. We redetected 56% (20/36) of brown trout, 34% (68/202) of bull trout, and 33% (20/61) of redband trout after a recovery period of 21 to 46 hours. Models indicate support for length and species and minor support for percent boulder, large woody debris, and percent cobble as parameters important for describing variation in detection efficiency, although 95% confidence intervals for estimates were large. The odds of detecting brown trout (1.5 ± 2.2 [mean ± SE]) are approximately four times as high as bull trout (0.4 ± 1.6) or redband trout (0.3 ± 1.8) and species-specific differences may be related to length. Our reported detection efficiency for brown trout falls within the range of other studies, but is the first reported for bull trout and redband trout. Portable antennas may be a relatively unbiased way of redetecting varying sizes of all three salmonid species. PMID:26901317

  11. Survival and tag loss in Moapa White River springfish implanted with passive integrated transponder tags

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, Christopher J.; Mesa, Matthew G.

    2011-01-01

    We monitored survival and tag loss among Moapa White River springfish Crenichthys baileyi moapae that were surgically implanted with passive integrated transponder (PIT; 9 2 mm) tags. The fish used in the study ranged from 40 to 67 mm in total length and from 1.0 to 6.5 g in mass; the PIT tag: body weight ratios were 1.06.1%. Fish were held for 41 d in live cages within a small, warm desert stream. Survival did not differ between untagged control fish (94.5%) and tagged fish (95.6%). Survival did not appear to be influenced by fish size or PIT tag: body weight ratio, but the small number of fish that died precluded a detailed analysis. Tag retention was 100% among the 86 fish that survived over the 41 d. Our results suggest that surgically implanting 9-mm PIT tags into Moapa White River springfish as small as 40 mm is an effective method for marking them because it has minimal impacts on survival and tag retention is high. More work is needed on the effects of PIT tagging on growth and other performance metrics of springfish and other small desert fishes.

  12. MMIC linear-phase and digital modulators for deep space spacecraft X-band transponder applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mysoor, Narayan R.; Ali, Fazal

    1991-01-01

    The design concepts, analyses, and development of GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) linear-phase and digital modulators for the next generation of space-borne communications systems are summarized. The design approach uses a compact lumped element quadrature hybrid and Metal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MESFET)-varactors to provide low loss and well-controlled phase performance for deep space transponder (DST) applications. The measured results of the MESFET-diode show a capacitance range of 2:1 under reverse bias, and a Q of 38 at 10 GHz. Three cascaded sections of hybrid-coupled reflection phase shifters were modeled and simulations performed to provide an X-band (8415 +/- 50 MHz) DST phase modulator with +/- 2.5 radians of peak phase deviation. The modulator will accommodate downlink signal modulation with composite telemetry and ranging data, with a deviation linearity tolerance of +/- 8 percent and insertion loss of less than 8 +/- 0.5 dB. The MMIC digital modulator is designed to provide greater than 10 Mb/s of bi-phase modulation at X-band.

  13. Asynchronous Laser Transponders:. a New Tool for Improved Fundamental Physics Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degnan, John J.

    Since 1964, the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has been using short pulse lasers to range to artificial satellites equipped with passive retroreflectors. Today, a global network of 40 satellite laser ranging (SLR) stations, under the auspices of the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS), routinely tracks two dozen international space missions with few-millimeter precision using picosecond pulse lasers in support of Earth science. Lunar laser ranging (LLR) began in 1969, shortly after NASA's Apollo 11 mission placed the first of five retroreflector packages on the Moon. An important LLR data product has been the verification of Einstein's equivalence principle and other tests of general relativity. In 1975, the University of Maryland used a laser ranging system to continuously transfer time between two sets of atomic clocks one set on the ground and the other in an aircraft to observe the predicted relativistic effects of gravity and velocity on the clock rates. Two-way asynchronous laser transponders promise to extend these precise ranging and time transfer capabilities beyond the Moon to the planets, as evidenced by two successful experiments carried out in 2005 at distances of 24 and 80 million km respectively.

  14. Portable containment sleever apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Rea, Michael J.; Brown, Roger A.

    2000-01-01

    A sleever apparatus includes an inner member with a central passage through which an item to be sleeved is passed. An outer member surrounds the inner member and defines a space between the members for holding a supply of containment material, which is preferably plastic sleeving. The apparatus has a handle which allows a user to hold the apparatus and walk the apparatus along the length of the item to be sleeved. As the user passes the item through the sleever apparatus, the containment material exits through a slit at one end of the apparatus in order to contain the item. The sleever apparatus may be formed of disposable materials, such as cardboard, and may be intended for a single use application. Alternatively, the sleever apparatus may be comprised of more permanent materials such as PVC or fiberglass. The sleever apparatus may include a serrated end for cutting the containment material and may include appropriate tubing and valves for either directing an inert gas into the containment material around the item or for withdrawing air from within the containment material in order to create a vacuum. In one embodiment, the sleever apparatus has a cartridge that can be replaced with another cartridge once the supply of the containment material has been depleted.

  15. 3. VIEW NORTHWEST, height finder radar towers, and radar tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW NORTHWEST, height finder radar towers, and radar tower (unknown function) - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  16. 30. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #318, showing radar control. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #318, showing radar control. Console and line printers - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  17. Planetary radar studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.; Cutts, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    A catalog of lunar and radar anomalies was generated to provide a base for comparison with Venusian radar signatures. The relationships between lunar radar anomalies and regolith processes were investigated, and a consortium was formed to compare lunar and Venusian radar images of craters. Time was scheduled at the Arecibo Observatory to use the 430 MHz radar to obtain high resolution radar maps of six areas of the lunar suface. Data from 1978 observations of Mare Serenitas and Plato are being analyzed on a PDP 11/70 computer to construct the computer program library necessary for the eventual reduction of the May 1981 and subsequent data acquisitions. Papers accepted for publication are presented.

  18. Laser radar in robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Carmer, D.C.; Peterson, L.M.

    1996-02-01

    In this paper the authors describe the basic operating principles of laser radar sensors and the typical algorithms used to process laser radar imagery for robotic applications. The authors review 12 laser radar sensors to illustrate the variety of systems that have been applied to robotic applications wherein information extracted from the laser radar data is used to automatically control a mechanism or process. Next, they describe selected robotic applications in seven areas: autonomous vehicle navigation, walking machine foot placement, automated service vehicles, manufacturing and inspection, automotive, military, and agriculture. They conclude with a discussion of the status of laser radar technology and suggest trends seen in the application of laser radar sensors to robotics. Many new applications are expected as the maturity level progresses and system costs are reduced.

  19. 1999 IEEE radar conference

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-01

    This conference addresses the stringent radar technology demands facing the next century: target detection, tracking and identification; changing target environment; increased clutter mitigation techniques; air traffic control; transportation; drug smuggling; remote sensing, and other consumer oriented applications. A timely discussion covers how to minimize costs for these emerging areas. Advanced radar technology theory and applications are also presented. Topics covered include: signal processing; space time adaptive processing/antennas; surveillance technology; radar systems; dual use; and phenomenology.

  20. Bistatic-radar investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, H. T.; Tyler, G. L.

    1972-01-01

    A bistatic-radar study during the Apollo 15 flight is reviewed, with the orbiting command module as one terminal. Bistatic-radar slopes are compared to geological maps of Copernicus and Riphaeus mountain regions and Kepler region. Basic theory is discussed, including the radar echoes composed of the sum of the reflections from the moon area that is mutually visible from the spacecraft and earth. A signal receiving system and data processing system are outlined schematically.

  1. Planetary radar astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1983-03-01

    The present investigation is concerned with planetary radar research reported during the time from 1979 to 1982. A brief synopsis of radar definitions and technical terminology is also provided. In connection with the proximity of the moon to earth, lunar radar studies have been performed over a wider range of wavelengths than radar investigations of other planetary targets. The most recent study of lunar quasispecular scattering is due to Simpson and Tyler (1982). The latest efforts to interpret the lunar radar maps focus on maria-highlands regolith differences and models of crater ejecta evolution. The highly successful Pioneer Venus Radar Mapper experiment has provided a first look at Venus' global distributions of topography, lambda 17-cm radar reflectivity, and rms surface slopes. Attention is given to recent comparisons of Viking Orbiter images of Mars to groundbased radar altimetry of the planet, the icy Galilean satellites, radar observations of asteroids and comets, and lambda 4-cm and lambda 13-cm observations of Saturn's rings.

  2. Equatorial radar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rukao, S.; Tsuda, T.; Sato, T.; Kato, S.

    1989-01-01

    A large clear air radar with the sensitivity of an incoherent scatter radar for observing the whole equatorial atmosphere up to 1000 km altitude is now being designed in Japan. The radar, called the Equatorial Radar, will be built in Pontianak, Kalimantan Island, Indonesia (0.03 N, 109.3 E). The system is a 47 MHz monostatic Doppler radar with an active phased array configuration similar to that of the MU radar in Japan, which has been in successful operation since 1983. It will have a PA product of more than 5 x 10(9) sq. Wm (P = average transmitter power, A = effective antenna aperture) with sensitivity more than 10 times that of the MU radar. This system configuration enables pulse-to-pulse beam steering within 25 deg from the zenith. As is the case of the MU radar, a variety of sophisticated operations will be made feasible under the supervision of the radar controller. A brief description of the system configuration is presented.

  3. Battery cell feedthrough apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL)

    1995-01-01

    A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance.

  4. Increased dose near the skin due to electromagnetic surface beacon transponder.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Kang-Hyun; Manger, Ryan; Halpern, Howard J; Aydogan, Bulent

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the increased dose near the skin from an electromagnetic surface beacon transponder, which is used for localization and tracking organ motion. The bolus effect due to the copper coil surface beacon was evaluated with radiographic film measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. Various beam incidence angles were evaluated for both 6 MV and 18 MV experimentally. We performed simulations using a general-purpose Monte Carlo code MCNPX (Monte Carlo N-Particle) to supplement the experimental data. We modeled the surface beacon geometry using the actual mass of the glass vial and copper coil placed in its L-shaped polyethylene terephthalate tubing casing. Film dosimetry measured factors of 2.2 and 3.0 enhancement in the surface dose for normally incident 6 MV and 18 MV beams, respectively. Although surface dose further increased with incidence angle, the relative contribution from the bolus effect was reduced at the oblique incidence. The enhancement factors were 1.5 and 1.8 for 6 MV and 18 MV, respectively, at an incidence angle of 60. Monte Carlo simulation confirmed the experimental results and indicated that the epidermal skin dose can reach approximately 50% of the dose at dmax at normal incidence. The overall effect could be acceptable considering the skin dose enhancement is confined to a small area (~ 1 cm2), and can be further reduced by using an opposite beam technique. Further clinical studies are justified in order to study the dosimetric benefit versus possible cosmetic effects of the surface beacon. One such clinical situation would be intact breast radiation therapy, especially large-breasted women. PMID:26103472

  5. Development and Evaluation of Passive Integrated Transponder Tag Technology, 2000-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, Sandra L.; Prentice, Earl F.; Nunnallee, Edmund P.

    2009-04-03

    Since 1984, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has conducted a research project to develop and evaluate technology for passive-integrated-transponder tags (PIT tags) throughout the Columbia River Basin (CRB). Work conducted as part of this project between October 2000 and September 2002 (FY01 and FY02) was divided into seven individual elements, which are covered separately in this report. The efforts by personnel associated with this project have produced and will continue to produce products that aid resource stakeholders in assessing the effectiveness of actions taken to enhance the survival of juvenile and adult salmonids. These products and their uses include: (1) Survival and migration timing information on stocks to evaluate water management strategies and fish passage/collection facilities; (2) Data needed for the management and restoration of salmonids and other fish stocks listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA); (3) Information required for the management of multiple species in a variety of habitats; and (4) Tools that enable fisheries researchers and managers to address previously unanswerable questions and critical uncertainties These products are also used in genetic, physiology, behavior, and captive broodstock research on endangered species. The continued development of PIT-tag technology will enable researchers and fisheries managers to address issues expressed in both of NMFS biological opinions for operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS)(NMFS 1995a, 2000) and the proposed Snake River Recovery Plan (NMFS 1995b; tasks 2.1.d, 2.3.b.4, 2.4.a, 2.6.c.2, and 2.9.d).

  6. Layout of buoys and seafloor transponders for next-generation measurement system for ocean floor crustal deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakata, T.; Nagai, S.; Tadokoro, K.; Ikuta, R.

    2012-12-01

    We are developing a geodetic method for monitoring crustal deformation under the ocean. We deployed benchmarks on the ocean floor and determine their positions through acoustic ranging from a vessel whose position is determined by kinematic GPS technique. Both sound speed structure and the benchmark (transponder) positions are determined simultaneously from the two-way travel time of ultrasonic signals. To monitor the crustal deformation at the focal area of anticipated plate boundary earthquakes, a lower margin of error is desirable. The most effective factor is a temporal-spatial variation of sound speed structure. In our measurement system, we can average temporal variations of sound speed structure, although they also include spatial variations. We are planning to install a moored buoy-based next generation measurement system using the tomographic technique as a method of distinguishing temporal and spatial variations of sound speed structure completely. We need to consider that the positions of the buoys are controlled by water current. We can control only the area of drifting by adjusting the length of the mooring cables and the buoyancy of the buoys. If we want to make the buoy stable around one point, we can make the cable short but we must make the buoyancy larger to avoid sinking by the current, which requires more cost. An appropriate designing of length of the cable and buoyancy is very important. We theoretically investigated the relationship between buoy-transponder geometry and the accuracy of transponder position. We assumed a system composed of three transponders installed at a depth of 1000 m and three buoys. The configurations of both buoy and transponder were equilateral triangles. The length of a side of them was 2000m.We assumed that the sound speed structure consisted of two layers. We defined 'initial sound speed structure (ISSS)' on which the value of sound speed in the first layer (0-100 m in depth) was 1523 m/s and it in the second layer (100-1000 m in depth) was 1486 m/s. Then we also set another sound speed structure with 99.98% of the value of sound speed on ISSS to model horizontal spatial variations of the sound speed structure. We calculated travel-time using these two structures depending on positions of buoys. We calculated the joint probability density function (JPDF) of the weight center location of benchmark from the synthesized travel time. We computed variabilities and biases of the position, using the peak of JPDF, with various buoy-transponder geometries. The results show the following relationship between the accuracy of benchmark position and the geometry: (1) If the weight center location shifts 1000 m from the initial position, the accuracies in X and Y components can be kept in the range of 25 % worse than the best solution. (2) If the buoy configuration distorts, 40% shortening or lengthening of the length of side makes worse the accuracy by 10 %. (3) In both simple horizontal shifts of buoys and the distortion of the buoy configuration, the ratio of decrease of accuracy in Z component is larger than that in the other two components. Taking the accuracy in Z component into account, the results suggest that the benchmark positioning accuracy is less robust with simple shift than with distortion of the buoy configuration.

  7. Subsurface "radar" camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, A.

    1977-01-01

    Long-wave length multiple-frequency radar is used for imaging and determining depth of subsurface stratified layers. Very-low frequency radar signals pinpoint below-ground strata via direct imagery techniques. Variation of frequency and scanning angle adjusts image depth and width.

  8. Radar illusion via metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wei Xiang; Cui, Tie Jun

    2011-02-01

    An optical illusion is an image of a real target perceived by the eye that is deceptive or misleading due to a physiological illusion or a specific visual trick. The recently developed metamaterials provide efficient approaches to generate a perfect optical illusion. However, all existing research on metamaterial illusions has been limited to theory and numerical simulations. Here, we propose the concept of a radar illusion, which can make the electromagnetic (EM) image of a target gathered by radar look like a different target, and we realize a radar illusion device experimentally to change the radar image of a metallic target into a dielectric target with predesigned size and material parameters. It is well known that the radar signatures of metallic and dielectric objects are significantly different. However, when a metallic target is enclosed by the proposed illusion device, its EM scattering characteristics will be identical to that of a predesigned dielectric object under the illumination of radar waves. Such an illusion device will confuse the radar, and hence the real EM properties of the metallic target cannot be perceived. We designed and fabricated the radar illusion device using artificial metamaterials in the microwave frequency, and good illusion performances are observed in the experimental results.

  9. Noncooperative rendezvous radar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A fire control radar system was developed, assembled, and modified. The baseline system and modified angle tracking system are described along with the performance characteristics of the baseline and modified systems. Proposed changes to provide additional techniques for radar evaluation are presented along with flight test data.

  10. Java Radar Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaczek, Mariusz P.

    2005-01-01

    Java Radar Analysis Tool (JRAT) is a computer program for analyzing two-dimensional (2D) scatter plots derived from radar returns showing pieces of the disintegrating Space Shuttle Columbia. JRAT can also be applied to similar plots representing radar returns showing aviation accidents, and to scatter plots in general. The 2D scatter plots include overhead map views and side altitude views. The superposition of points in these views makes searching difficult. JRAT enables three-dimensional (3D) viewing: by use of a mouse and keyboard, the user can rotate to any desired viewing angle. The 3D view can include overlaid trajectories and search footprints to enhance situational awareness in searching for pieces. JRAT also enables playback: time-tagged radar-return data can be displayed in time order and an animated 3D model can be moved through the scene to show the locations of the Columbia (or other vehicle) at the times of the corresponding radar events. The combination of overlays and playback enables the user to correlate a radar return with a position of the vehicle to determine whether the return is valid. JRAT can optionally filter single radar returns, enabling the user to selectively hide or highlight a desired radar return.

  11. The Cloud Radar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Racette, Paul; Heymsfield, Gerald; Li, Lihua; Tian, Lin; Zenker, Ed

    2003-01-01

    Improvement in our understanding of the radiative impact of clouds on the climate system requires a comprehensive view of clouds including their physical dimensions, dynamical generation processes, and detailed microphysical properties. To this end, millimeter vave radar is a powerful tool by which clouds can be remotely sensed. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has developed the Cloud Radar System (CRS). CRS is a highly sensitive 94 GHz (W-band) pulsed-Doppler polarimetric radar that is designed to fly on board the NASA high-altitude ER-2 aircraft. The instrument is currently the only millimeter wave radar capable of cloud and precipitation measurements from above most all clouds. Because it operates from high-altitude, the CRS provides a unique measurement perspective for cirrus cloud studies. The CRS emulates a satellite view of clouds and precipitation systems thus providing valuable measurements for the implementation and algorithm validation for the upcoming NASA CloudSat mission that is designed to measure ice cloud distributions on the global scale using a spaceborne 94 GHz radar. This paper describes the CRS instrument and preliminary data from the recent Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers - Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE). The radar design is discussed. Characteristics of the radar are given. A block diagram illustrating functional components of the radar is shown. The performance of the CRS during the CRYSTAL-FACE campaign is discussed.

  12. Laser beam generating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Warner, B.E.; Duncan, D.B.

    1993-12-28

    Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect). 11 figures.

  13. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, G.A.; Elder, M.G.; Kemme, J.E.

    1984-03-20

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for thermally protecting sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components such as electronics to a heat sink such as ice.

  14. Laser beam generating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Warner, B.E.; Duncan, D.B.

    1994-02-15

    Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus is described. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect). 7 figures.

  15. Vector Addition Demonstration Apparatus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Glenn L.

    1980-01-01

    Describes an apparatus to be used in a visual presentation of simultaneous, independent motions and their resultants. The apparatus is best suited for representing a boat and stream, but could be modified to represent a plane in a moving air mass. (Author/DS)

  16. Apparatus for Teaching Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Describes: (1) a variable inductor suitable for an inductance-capacitance bridge consisting of a fixed cylindrical solenoid and a moveable solenoid; (2) long-range apparatus for demonstrating falling bodies; and (3) an apparatus using two lasers to demonstrate ray optics. (SK)

  17. Laser beam generating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Bruce E. (Livermore, CA); Duncan, David B. (Auburn, CA)

    1994-01-01

    Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect).

  18. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Gloria A. (Los Alamos, NM); Elder, Michael G. (Los Alamos, NM); Kemme, Joseph E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus which thermally protects sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components to a heat sink such as ice.

  19. Apparatus for treating garbage

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.L.; Chen, K.; Hsien, K.

    1994-01-11

    An apparatus for treating garbage is described. The apparatus has a conveyor, a continuous incinerator receiving garbage from the conveyor, a device for cooling ash carried out of the continuous incinerator, a device for filtering the ash, a pipe for inducing exhaust from the continuous incinerator to a water tank for removing particles and water-soluble components from the exhaust. 1 fig.

  20. Equatorial MU Radar project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Mamoru; Hashiguchi, H.; Tsuda, Toshitaka; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoto University (RISH) has been studying the atmosphere by using radars. The first big facility was the MU (Middle and Upper atmosphere) radar installed in Shiga, Japan in 1984. This is one of the most powerful and multi-functional radar, and is successful of revealing importance of atmospheric waves for the dynamical vertical coupling processes. The next big radar was the Equatorial Atmosphere Radar (EAR) installed at Kototabang, West Sumatra, Indonesia in 2001. The EAR was operated under close collaboration with LAPAN (Indonesia National Institute for Aeronautics and Space), and conducted the long-term continuous observations of the equatorial atmosphere/ionosphere for more than 10 years. The MU radar and the EAR are both utilized for inter-university and international collaborative research program for long time. National Institute for Polar Research (NIPR) joined EISCAT Scientific Association together with Nagoya University, and developed the PANSY radar at Syowa base in Antarctica as a joint project with University of Tokyo. These are the efforts of radar study of the atmosphere/ionosphere in the polar region. Now we can find that Japan holds a global network of big atmospheric/ionospheric radars. The EAR has the limitation of lower sensitivity compared with the other big radars shown above. RISH now proposes a plan of Equatorial MU Radar (EMU) that is to establish the MU-radar class radar next to the EAR. The EMU will have an active phased array antenna with the 163m diameter and 1055 cross-element Yagis. Total output power of the EMU will be more than 500kW. The EMU can detect turbulent echoes from the mesosphere (60-80km). In the ionosphere incoherent-scatter observations of plasma density, drift, and temperature would be possible. Multi-channel receivers will realize radar-imaging observations. The EMU is one of the key facilities in the project "Study of coupling processes in the solar-terrestrial system" for Master Plan 2014 of the Science Council of Japan (SCJ). We show the EMU project and its science in the presentation.

  1. Cassini Titan Radar Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elachi, Charles; Im, Eastwood; Roth, Ladislav E.; Werner, Charles L.

    1991-01-01

    The Cassini Titan Radar Mapper is a multimode radar instrument designed to probe the optically inaccessible surface of Titan, Saturn's largest moon. The instrument is to be included in the payload of the Cassini Saturn Mission, scheduled for launch in 1995. The individual modes of Cassini Radar Mapper will allow topographic mapping and surface imaging at few hundred meters resolution. The requirements that lay behind the design are briefly discussed, and the configuration and capability of the instrument are described. The present limited knowledge of Titan's surface and the measurement requirements imposed on the radar instrument are addressed. Also discussed are the Cassini mission and the projected orbits, which imposed another set of design constraints that led to the multitude of modes and to an unconventional antenna configuration. The antenna configuration and the different radar modes are described.

  2. Intelligent radar data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzbaur, Ulrich D.

    The application of artificial intelligence principles to the processing of radar signals is considered theoretically. The main capabilities required are learning and adaptation in a changing environment, processing and modeling information (especially dynamics and uncertainty), and decision-making based on all available information (taking its reliability into account). For the application to combat-aircraft radar systems, the tasks include the combination of data from different types of sensors, reacting to electronic counter-countermeasures, evaluation of how much data should be acquired (energy and radiation management), control of the radar, tracking, and identification. Also discussed are related uses such as monitoring the avionics systems, supporting pilot decisions with respect to the radar system, and general applications in radar-system R&D.

  3. Meteorological radar calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, D. B.

    1978-01-01

    A meteorological radar calibration technique is developed. It is found that the integrated, range corrected, received power saturates under intense rain conditions in a manner analogous to that encountered for the radiometric path temperature. Furthermore, it is found that this saturation condition establishes a bound which may be used to determine an absolution radar calibration for the case of radars operating at attenuating wavelengths. In the case of less intense rainfall or for radars at nonattenuating wavelengths, the relationship for direct calibration in terms of an independent measurement of radiometric path temperature is developed. This approach offers the advantage that the calibration is in terms of an independent measurement of the rainfall through the same elevated region as that viewed by the radar.

  4. Micropower impulse radar imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, M.S.

    1995-11-01

    From designs developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in radar and imaging technologies, there exists the potential for a variety of applications in both public and private sectors. Presently tests are being conducted for the detection of buried mines and the analysis of civil structures. These new systems use a patented ultra-wide band (impulse) radar technology known as Micropower Impulse Radar (GPR) imaging systems. LLNL has also developed signal processing software capable of producing 2-D and 3-D images of objects embedded in materials such as soil, wood and concrete. My assignment while at LLNL has focused on the testing of different radar configurations and applications, as well as assisting in the creation of computer algorithms which enable the radar to scan target areas of different geometeries.

  5. 4. VIEW NORTHEAST, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW NORTHEAST, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar tower, emergency power building, and height finder radar tower - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  6. 5. VIEW EAST, height finder radar towers, radar tower (unknown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW EAST, height finder radar towers, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar tower, operations building, and central heating plant - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  7. Goldstone solar system radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurgens, Raymond F.

    1988-01-01

    Planning, direction, experimental design, and coordination of data-acquisition and engineering activities in support of all Goldstone planetary radar astronomy were performed. This work demands familiarity with the various components of a planetary radar telescope (transmitter, receiver, antenna, computer hardware and software) as well as knowledge of how the entire system must function as a cohesive unit to meet the particular scientific objectives at hand in a given observation. Support radar data-processing facilities, currently being used for virtually all Goldstone data reduction includes: a VAX 11/780 computer system, an FPS 5210 array processor, terminals, tape drives, and image-display devices, as well as a large body of data-reduction software to accommodate the variety of data-acquisition formats and strategems. Successful 113-cm radar observation of Callisto and the near-Earth asteroid 1981 Midas and Goldstone/VLA radar observations of Saturn's rings were obtained. Quick-look verification programs from data taken with phase-coded cw (i.e., ranging) waveforms, applicable to Venus, the Moon, and small bodies were completed. Definition of scientific and engineering requirements on instrument performance, radar system configuration, and personnel, for all 1988 Goldstone radar investigations was accomplished.

  8. Ground-penetrating radar methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ground-penetrating radar geophysical methods are finding greater and greater use in agriculture. With the ground-penetrating radar (GPR) method, an electromagnetic radio energy (radar) pulse is directed into the subsurface, followed by measurement of the elapsed time taken by the radar signal as it ...

  9. Radar applications overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenspan, Marshall

    1996-06-01

    During the fifty years since its initial development as a means of providing early warning of airborne attacks against allied countries during World War II, radar systems have developed to the point of being highly mobile and versatile systems capable of supporting a wide variety of remote sensing applications. Instead of being tied to stationary land-based sites, radar systems have found their way into highly mobile land vehicles as well as into aircraft, missiles, and ships of all sizes. Of all these applications, however, the most exciting revolution has occurred in the airborne platform arena where advanced technology radars can be found in all shapes and sizes...ranging from the large AWACS and Joint STARS long range surveillance and targeting systems to small millimeter wave multi-spectral sensors on smart weapons that can detect and identify their targets through the use of highly sophisticated digital signal processing hardware and software. This paper presents an overview of these radar applications with the emphasis on modern airborne sensors that span the RF spectrum. It will identify and describe the factors that influence the parameters of low frequency and ultra wide band radars designed to penetrate ground and dense foliage environments and locate within them buried mines, enemy armor, and other concealed or camouflaged weapons of war. It will similarly examine the factors that lead to the development of airborne radar systems that support long range extended endurance airborne surveillance platforms designed to detect and precision-located both small high speed airborne threats as well as highly mobile time critical moving and stationary surface vehicles. The mission needs and associated radar design impacts will be contrasted with those of radar systems designed for high maneuverability rapid acquisition tactical strike warfare platforms, and shorter range cued air-to-surface weapons with integral smart radar sensors.

  10. Radar Imaging of Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, M.; Harmon, J.

    2004-11-01

    Radar images of the entire Mercurian surface have been created using the Arecibo S-band radar (wavelength 12.6cm) and the long code delay-Doppler method. We have mapped the locations of midlatitude radar-bright craters across all longitudes, and in the Mariner-10 imaged hemisphere we find several disagreements between the features that appear freshest in the unpolarized radar images and those that have been classified as most recent in the USGS geologic maps. All USGS c5 craters correspond to bright features in our same-circular polarized radar images; however, several c1 and c2 craters have radar-bright deposits as well. In our radar maps of the Skinakas Basin region of the Mariner-10 unimaged hemisphere, we find little agreement between the proposed basin rim locations and the radar features. We have mapped the south polar region using new data from April 2004 with a sub-Earth latitude of 4.5S, this being our first chance to view the south pole since the Arecibo telescope upgrade. We confirm the locations of features seen in the pre-upgrade maps and we identify 15 new "ice" features extending to latitudes as low as 73S. All south polar features have circular polarization inversions (average SC/OC=1.38) that are consistent with volume scattering off cold-trapped volatiles. We also present a preliminary analysis of our August 2004 observations, including new radar images of "Feature C" (the strongest echo feature in the Mariner-10 unimaged hemisphere) and of the north polar region. This research was funded by the NSF as part of the Research Experiences for Undergraduates program.

  11. Air modulation apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenahan, D. T.; Corsmeier, R. J.; Sterman, A. P. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An air modulation apparatus, such as for use in modulating cooling air to the turbine section of a gas turbine engine is described. The apparatus includes valve means disposed around an annular conduit, such as a nozzle, in the engine cooling air circuit. The valve means, when in a closed position, blocks a portion of the conduit, and thus reduces the amount and increases the velocity of cooling air flowing through the nozzle. The apparatus also includes actuation means, which can operate in response to predetermined engine conditions, for enabling opening and closing of the valve means.

  12. Conduit grinding apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Nachbar, Henry D. (Ballston Lake, NY); Korytkowski, Alfred S. (Scotia, NY)

    1991-01-01

    A grinding apparatus for grinding the interior portion of a valve stem receiving area of a valve. The apparatus comprises a faceplate, a plurality of cams mounted to an interior face of the faceplate, a locking bolt to lock the faceplate at a predetermined position on the valve, a movable grinder and a guide tube for positioning an optical viewer proximate the area to be grinded. The apparatus can either be rotated about the valve for grinding an area of the inner diameter of a valve stem receiving area or locked at a predetermined position to grind a specific point in the receiving area.

  13. Mirror plasma apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Moir, Ralph W.

    1981-01-01

    A mirror plasma apparatus which utilizes shielding by arc discharge to form a blanket plasma and lithium walls to reduce neutron damage to the wall of the apparatus. An embodiment involves a rotating liquid lithium blanket for a tandem mirror plasma apparatus wherein the first wall of the central mirror cell is made of liquid lithium which is spun with angular velocity great enough to keep the liquid lithium against the first material wall, a blanket plasma preventing the lithium vapor from contaminating the plasma.

  14. Cleaning method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, D.D.; Hollen, R.M.

    1981-02-27

    A method of very thoroughly and quikcly cleaning a guaze electrode used in chemical analyses is given, as well as an automobile cleaning apparatus which makes use of the method. The method generates very little waste solution, and this is very important in analyzing radioactive materials, especially in aqueous solutions. The cleaning apparatus can be used in a larger, fully automated controlled potential coulometric apparatus. About 99.98% of a 5 mg plutonium sample was removed in less than 3 minutes, using only about 60 ml of rinse solution and two main rinse steps.

  15. Cleaning method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, Darryl D. (Los Alamos, NM); Hollen, Robert M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1983-01-01

    A new automatable cleaning apparatus which makes use of a method of very thoroughly and quickly cleaning a gauze electrode used in chemical analyses is given. The method generates very little waste solution, and this is very important in analyzing radioactive materials, especially in aqueous solutions. The cleaning apparatus can be used in a larger, fully automated controlled potential coulometric apparatus. About 99.98% of a 5 mg. plutonium sample was removed in less than 3 minutes, using only about 60 ml. of rinse solution and two main rinse steps.

  16. Nuclear reactor apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Wade, Elman E.

    1978-01-01

    A lifting, rotating and sealing apparatus for nuclear reactors utilizing rotating plugs above the nuclear reactor core. This apparatus permits rotation of the plugs to provide under the plug refueling of a nuclear core. It also provides a means by which positive top core holddown can be utilized. Both of these operations are accomplished by means of the apparatus lifting the top core holddown structure off the nuclear core while stationary, and maintaining this structure in its elevated position during plug rotation. During both of these operations, the interface between the rotating member and its supporting member is sealingly maintained.

  17. Pipe crawler apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hovis, Gregory L. (North Augusta, SC); Erickson, Scott A. (Augusta, GA); Blackmon, Bruce L. (Aiken, SC)

    2002-01-01

    A pipe crawler apparatus particularly useful for 3-inch and 4-inch diameter pipes is provided. The pipe crawler apparatus uses a gripping apparatus in which a free end of a piston rod is modified with a bearing retaining groove. Bearings, placed within the groove, are directed against a camming surface of three respective pivoting support members. The non-pivoting ends of the support members carry a foot-like gripping member that, upon pivoting of the support member, engages the interior wall of the pipe.

  18. The Cassini Radar Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, Stephen D.

    2008-01-01

    The Cassini/Huygens Mission is a nineteen-year multinational project to design, construct and execute an investigation of the Saturn system, with emphasis on its largest moon, Titan. Titan's atmosphere is nearly opaque at optical wavelengths, so a Ku-band radar imaging system was required to map its surface. In this paper we describe the radar instrument, discuss some of the challenges to its design, and review its operating modes. We briefly summarize the surprises that the radar instrument has revealed while investigating Titan.

  19. Micropower impulse radar

    SciTech Connect

    Azevedo, S.; McEwan, T.E.

    1996-01-01

    Invented and developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is an inexpensive and highly sensitive, low-power radar system that produces and samples extremely short pulses of energy at the rate of 2 million per second. Called micropower impulse radar (MIR), it can detect objects at a greater variety of distances with greater sensitivity than conventional radar. Its origins in the Laboratory`s Laser Directorate stem from Nova`s transient digitizer. The MIR`s extraordinary range of applications include security, search and rescue, life support, nondestructive evaluation, and transportation.

  20. Asteroid radar astrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.; Jurgens, R. F.; Rosema, K. D.; Winkler, R.; Yeomans, D. K.; Campbell, D. B.; Chandler, J. F.; Shapiro, I. I.; Hine, A. A.; Velez, R.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of time delay and Doppler frequency are reported for asteroid-radar echoes obtained at Arecibo and Goldstone during 1980-1990. Radar astrometry is presented for 23 near-earth asteroids and three mainbelt asteroids. These measurements, which are orthogonal to optical, angular-position measurements, and typically have a fractional precision between 10 to the -5th and 10 to the -8th, permit significant improvement in estimates of orbits and hence in the accuracy of prediction ephemerides. Estimates are also reported of radar cross-section and circular polarization ratio for all asteroids observed astrometrically during 1980-1990.

  1. Radar investigation of asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1981-05-01

    Efforts were focused on: (1) acquisition of radar data at Arecibo; (2) examination of raw data; (3) reduction of the unmodulated data to background-free, calibrated spectra; (4) integration and coherent analyses of the phase-coded data; and (5) calculation of Doppler shifts and preliminary values for echo limb-to-limb bandwidths, radar cross sections, and circular polarization ratios. Asteroids observed to data have radar properties distinct from those of the rocky terrestrial planets and those of the icy Galilean satellites.

  2. Radar Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    This lecture was just a taste of radar remote sensing techniques and applications. Other important areas include Stereo radar grammetry. PolInSAR for volumetric structure mapping. Agricultural monitoring, soil moisture, ice-mapping, etc. The broad range of sensor types, frequencies of observation and availability of sensors have enabled radar sensors to make significant contributions in a wide area of earth and planetary remote sensing sciences. The range of applications, both qualitative and quantitative, continue to expand with each new generation of sensors.

  3. Radar investigation of asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1984-07-01

    The initial radar observations of the mainbelt asteroids 9 Metis, 27 Euterpe, and 60 Echo are examined. For each target, data are taken simultaneously in the same sense of circular polarization as transmitted as well as in the opposite (OC) sense. Estimates of the radar cross sections provide estimates of the circular polarization ratio, and the normalized OC radar cross section. The circular polarization ratio, is comparable to values measured for other large S type asteroids and for a few much smaller, Earth approaching objects, most of the echo is due to single reflection backscattering from smooth surface elements.

  4. Radar investigation of asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1984-01-01

    The initial radar observations of the mainbelt asteroids 9 Metis, 27 Euterpe, and 60 Echo are examined. For each target, data are taken simultaneously in the same sense of circular polarization as transmitted as well as in the opposite (OC) sense. Estimates of the radar cross sections provide estimates of the circular polarization ratio, and the normalized OC radar cross section. The circular polarization ratio, is comparable to values measured for other large S type asteroids and for a few much smaller, Earth approaching objects, most of the echo is due to single reflection backscattering from smooth surface elements.

  5. Spaceborne laser radar.

    PubMed

    Flom, T

    1972-02-01

    Laser radar systems are being developed to acquire and track targets in applications such as the rendezvous and docking of two spacecraft. To search effectively for and locate a target using a narrow laser beam, a scanning system is needed. This paper describes a scan technique whereby a narrow laser beam is synchronously scanned with an equally narrow receiver field-of-view without the aid of mechanical gimbals. Equations are developed in order to examine the maximum acquisition and tracking rates, and the maximum target range for a scanning laser radar system. A recently built prototype of a small, lightweight, low-power-consuming scanning laser radar is described. PMID:20111497

  6. Multitone harmonic radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzaro, Gregory J.; Martone, Anthony F.

    2013-05-01

    Nonlinear radar exploits the electronic response from a target whose reflected frequencies are different from those transmitted. Reception of frequencies that are not part of the transmitted probe distinguishes the received signal from a linear return produced by clutter and indicates the presence of electronics. Presented in this paper is a type of nonlinear radar that transmits multiple frequencies and listens for a harmonic of these frequencies as well as other frequencies near that harmonic. A laboratory test-bed has been constructed to demonstrate the multitone radar concept. Measurements of nonlinear responses from RF devices probed by multiple tones are reported.

  7. A microprogrammable radar controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Law, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    The Wave Propagation Lab. has completed the design and construction of a microprogrammable radar controller for atmospheric wind profiling. Unlike some radar controllers using state machines or hardwired logic for radar timing, this design is a high speed programmable sequencer with signal processing resources. A block diagram of the device is shown. The device is a single 8 1/2 inch by 10 1/2 inch printed circuit board and consists of three main subsections: (1) the host computer interface; (2) the microprogram sequencer; and (3) the signal processing circuitry. Each of these subsections are described in detail.

  8. Technical Note: Suppression of artifacts arising from simultaneous cone-beam imaging and RF transponder tracking in prostate radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Poludniowski, Gavin; Webb, Steve; Evans, Philip M.

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: Artifacts in treatment-room cone-beam reconstructions have been observed at the authors' center when cone-beam acquisition is simultaneous with radio frequency (RF) transponder tracking using the Calypso 4D system (Calypso Medical, Seattle, WA). These artifacts manifest as CT-number modulations and increased CT-noise. The authors present a method for the suppression of the artifacts. Methods: The authors propose a three-stage postprocessing technique that can be applied to image volumes previously reconstructed by a cone-beam system. The stages are (1) segmentation of voxels into air, soft-tissue, and bone; (2) application of a 2D spatial-filter in the axial plane to the soft-tissue voxels; and (3) normalization to remove streaking along the axial-direction. The algorithm was tested on patient data acquired with Synergy XVI cone-beam CT systems (Elekta, Crawley, United Kingdom). Results: The computational demands of the suggested correction are small, taking less than 15 s per cone-beam reconstruction on a desktop PC. For a moderate loss of spatial-resolution, the artifacts are strongly suppressed and low-contrast visibility is improved. Conclusions: The correction technique proposed is fast and effective in removing the artifacts caused by simultaneous cone-beam imaging and RF-transponder tracking.

  9. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Transponder Loading Data Conversion Software. User's guide and software maintenance manual, version 1.2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mallasch, Paul G.

    1993-01-01

    This volume contains the complete software system documentation for the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Transponder Loading Data Conversion Software (FIX-FCC). This software was written to facilitate the formatting and conversion of FCC Transponder Occupancy (Loading) Data before it is loaded into the NASA Geosynchronous Satellite Orbital Statistics Database System (GSOSTATS). The information that FCC supplies NASA is in report form and must be converted into a form readable by the database management software used in the GSOSTATS application. Both the User's Guide and Software Maintenance Manual are contained in this document. This volume of documentation passed an independent quality assurance review and certification by the Product Assurance and Security Office of the Planning Research Corporation (PRC). The manuals were reviewed for format, content, and readability. The Software Management and Assurance Program (SMAP) life cycle and documentation standards were used in the development of this document. Accordingly, these standards were used in the review. Refer to the System/Software Test/Product Assurance Report for the Geosynchronous Satellite Orbital Statistics Database System (GSOSTATS) for additional information.

  10. Ultra-wideband short-pulse radar with range accuracy for short range detection

    SciTech Connect

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T; Pankonin, Jeffrey; Heintzleman, Richard E; Kinzie, Nicola Jean; Popovic, Zorana P

    2014-10-07

    An ultra-wideband (UWB) radar transmitter apparatus comprises a pulse generator configured to produce from a sinusoidal input signal a pulsed output signal having a series of baseband pulses with a first pulse repetition frequency (PRF). The pulse generator includes a plurality of components that each have a nonlinear electrical reactance. A signal converter is coupled to the pulse generator and configured to convert the pulsed output signal into a pulsed radar transmit signal having a series of radar transmit pulses with a second PRF that is less than the first PRF.

  11. Gas turbine sealing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Marra, John Joseph; Wessell, Brian J.; Liang, George

    2013-03-05

    A sealing apparatus in a gas turbine. The sealing apparatus includes a seal housing apparatus coupled to a disc/rotor assembly so as to be rotatable therewith during operation of the gas turbine. The seal housing apparatus comprises a base member, a first leg portion, a second leg portion, and spanning structure. The base member extends generally axially between forward and aft rows of rotatable blades and is positioned adjacent to a row of stationary vanes. The first leg portion extends radially inwardly from the base member and is coupled to the disc/rotor assembly. The second leg portion is axially spaced from the first leg portion, extends radially inwardly from the base member, and is coupled to the disc/rotor assembly. The spanning structure extends between and is rigidly coupled to each of the base member, the first leg portion, and the second leg portion.

  12. NMR logging apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, David O; Turner, Peter

    2014-05-27

    Technologies including NMR logging apparatus and methods are disclosed. Example NMR logging apparatus may include surface instrumentation and one or more downhole probes configured to fit within an earth borehole. The surface instrumentation may comprise a power amplifier, which may be coupled to the downhole probes via one or more transmission lines, and a controller configured to cause the power amplifier to generate a NMR activating pulse or sequence of pulses. Impedance matching means may be configured to match an output impedance of the power amplifier through a transmission line to a load impedance of a downhole probe. Methods may include deploying the various elements of disclosed NMR logging apparatus and using the apparatus to perform NMR measurements.

  13. Apparatus for growing crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasinski, Thomas J. (Inventor); Witt, August F. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    An improved apparatus and method for growing crystals from a melt employing a heat pipe, consisting of one or more sections, each section serving to control temperature and thermal gradients in the crystal as it forms inside the pipe.

  14. An Economical Electrophoresis Apparatus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, I. M.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the production of an electrophoresis apparatus from commonly discarded articles. Outlines paper and gel electrophoresis and its application to the separation of amino acids and intestinal enzymes. (GS)

  15. Battery cell feedthrough apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.

    1995-03-14

    A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus is described comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance. 8 figs.

  16. Aircraft radar antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrank, Helmut E.

    1987-04-01

    Many changes have taken place in airborne radar antennas since their beginnings over forty years ago. A brief historical review of the advances in technology is presented, from mechanically scanned reflectors to modern multiple function phased arrays. However, emphasis is not on history but on the state-of-the-art technology and trends for future airborne radar systems. The status of rotating surveillance antennas is illustrated by the AN/APY-1 Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) slotted waveguide array, which achieved a significant breakthrough in sidelobe suppression. Gimballed flat plate arrays in nose radomes are typified by the AN/APG-66 (F-16) antenna. Multifunction phased arrays are presented by the Electronically Agile Radar (EAR) antenna, which has achieved significant advances in performance versatility and reliability. Trends toward active aperture, adaptive, and digital beamforming arrays are briefly discussed. Antennas for future aircraft radar systems must provide multiple functions in less aperture space, and must perform more reliably.

  17. RADAR performance experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leroux, C.; Bertin, F.; Mounir, H.

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical studies and experimental results obtained at Coulommiers airport showed the capability of Proust radar to detect wind shears, in clear air condition as well as in presence of clouds or rain. Several examples are presented: in a blocking highs situation an atmospheric wave system at the Brunt-Vaisala frequency can be clearly distinguished; in a situation of clouds without rain the limit between clear air and clouds can be easily seen; and a windshear associated with a gust front in rainy conditions is shown. A comparison of 30 cm clear air radar Proust and 5 cm weather Doppler radar Ronsard will allow to select the best candidate for wind shear detection, taking into account the low sensibility to ground clutter of Ronsard radar.

  18. Radar investigation of asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    For 80 Sappho, 356 Liguria, 694 Ekard, and 2340 Hathor, data were taken simultaneously in the same sense of circular polarization as transmitted (SC) as well as in the opposite (OC) sense. Graphs show the average OC and SC radar echo power spectra soothed to a resolution of EFB Hz and plotted against Doppler frequency. Radar observations of the peculiar object 2201 Oljato reveal an unusual set of echo power spectra. The albedo and polarization ratio remain fairly constant but the bandwidths range from approximately 0.8 Hz to 1.4 Hz and the spectral shapes vary dramatically. Echo characteristics within any one date's approximately 2.5-hr observation period do not fluctuate very much. Laboratory measurements of the radar frequency electrical properties of particulate metal-plus-silicate mixtures can be combined with radar albedo estimates to constrain the bulk density and metal weight, fraction in a hypothetical asteroid regolith having the same particle size distribution as lab samples.

  19. Radar investigation of asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1983-01-01

    For 80 Sappho, 356 Liguria, 694 Ekard, and 2340 Hathor, data were taken simultaneously in the same sense of circular polarization as transmitted (SC) as well as in the opposite (OC) sense. Graphs show the average OC and SC radar echo power spectra soothed to a resolution of EFB Hz and plotted against Doppler frequency. Radar observations of the peculiar object 2201 Oljato reveal an unusual set of echo power spectra. The albedo and polarization ratio remain fairly constant but the bandwidths range from approximately 0.8 Hz to 1.4 Hz and the spectral shapes vary dramatically. Echo characteristics within any one date's approximately 2.5-hr observation period do not fluctuate very much. Laboratory measurements of the radar frequency electrical properties of particulate metal-plus-silicate mixtures can be combined with radar albedo estimates to constrain the bulk density and metal weight, fraction in a hypothetical asteroid regolith having the same particle size distribution as lab samples.

  20. Vacuum pump apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Batzer, Thomas H. (Livermore, CA); Call, Wayne R. (Tracy, CA)

    1985-01-01

    An improved cryopumping apparatus which comprises a cryopumping space which may be alternately opened and closed from the surrounding area by moveable panels, trubular cryopanels within said cryopumping space through which a coolant such as liquid helium may be passed, and an apparatus for spraying liquid argon onto said cylindrical cryopanels in order to enhance the cryogenic entrapment of such low-z ions, atoms, and molecules as hydrogen and helium.

  1. Infrared microscope inspection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Forman, S.E.; Caunt, J.W.

    1985-02-26

    Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface. 4 figs.

  2. Electric arc saw apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Deichelbohrer, P.R.

    1983-08-08

    A portable, hand-held electric arc saw apparatus comprising a small frame for supporting an electrically conducting rotary blade which serves as an electrode for generating an electric arc between the blade and a workpiece of opposite polarity. Electrically conducting means are provided on said frame for transmitting current to said blade. A pair of freely movable endless belts in the form of crawler treads are employed to facilitate movement of the apparatus relative to the workpiece.

  3. Infrared microscope inspection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Forman, Steven E. (Framingham, MA); Caunt, James W. (Concord, MA)

    1985-02-26

    Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface.

  4. Spin coating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Torczynski, John R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01

    A spin coating apparatus requires less cleanroom air flow than prior spin coating apparatus to minimize cleanroom contamination. A shaped exhaust duct from the spin coater maintains process quality while requiring reduced cleanroom air flow. The exhaust duct can decrease in cross section as it extends from the wafer, minimizing eddy formation. The exhaust duct can conform to entrainment streamlines to minimize eddy formation and reduce interprocess contamination at minimal cleanroom air flow rates.

  5. Battery formation charging apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.L.

    1987-08-04

    An apparatus is describe for charging electric storage batteries, the apparatus comprising: (a) a host computer for providing charging information to and receiving status information from at least one slave computer by means of a data link; and (b) at least one control module coupled to the slave computer for applying charging current to at least one electric storage battery in response to instructions received from the slave computer, and for providing feedback and status information to the slave computer.

  6. Downhole pulse radar

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Hsi-Tien

    1987-09-28

    A borehole logging tool generates a fast rise-time, short duration, high peak-power radar pulse having broad energy distribution between 30 MHz and 300 MHz through a directional transmitting and receiving antennas having barium titanate in the electromagnetically active region to reduce the wavelength to within an order of magnitude of the diameter of the antenna. Radar returns from geological discontinuities are sampled for transmission uphole. 7 figs.

  7. Downhole pulse radar

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Hsi-Tien

    1989-01-01

    A borehole logging tool generates a fast rise-time, short duration, high peak-power radar pulse having broad energy distribution between 30 MHz and 300 MHz through a directional transmitting and receiving antennas having barium titanate in the electromagnetically active region to reduce the wavelength to within an order of magnitude of the diameter of the antenna. Radar returns from geological discontinuities are sampled for transmission uphole.

  8. Radar Calibration Using a Student-Built Nanosatellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, L.; Fisher, N.; Jones, W.; Umeda, M.; Furumo, J.; Ah Heong, J.; Lim, T.; Shiroma, W.

    2011-09-01

    As a matter of national security, the US military must monitor and calibrate its 80+ C-band radar tracking stations on a consistent basis. These radar stations, which are distributed around the world, currently depend on two calibration satellites: RADCAL and DMSP F-15, launched in 1993 and 1999, respectively. Should either of these two satellites fail, the community of radar calibration users will no longer have a dependable means of calibration. Presented in this paper is the story behind a student-built satellite project, named Ho‘oponopono (“to make right” in the Hawaiian language), which is the first radar calibration satellite to take on a CubeSat form-factor. Led by a team of undergraduate and graduate students, this project has enabled its participants to reach their true potentials and thus act as a training ground for a class of highly competent, multi-tiered engineers. The management practices implemented throughout this project follow those used by today’s top defense contractors and engineering companies. Being involved in a project of this caliber, although time-consuming, provides the students with the experiences they need to make immediate and worthwhile contributions in today’s workforce. Juggling the multitude of commitments they have, however, makes it a challenge. Ho‘oponopono’s concept of operations calls for the collection and dissemination of ephemeris data, while simultaneously conducting transponder interrogations. After acquiring both sets of data, a radar station requesting calibration can then correlate the two and implement its calibration algorithms as needed. Ho‘oponopono and its mission were the basis for the University of Hawaii’s participation in the AFOSR University Nanosat-6 Program. After completing a rigorous two-year, six-level review process, we were awarded with the Most Improved and Third Place Awards at the January 2011 Flight Competition Review. Ho‘oponopono was also selected by NASA as a participant in its CubeSat Launch Initiative for an upcoming launch.

  9. Space Radar Image of Death Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This image shows Death Valley, California, centered at 36.629 degrees north latitude, 117.069 degrees west longitude. The image shows Furnace Creek alluvial fan and Furnace Creek Ranch at the far right, and the sand dunes near Stove Pipe Wells at the center. The dark fork-shaped feature between Furnace Creek fan and the dunes is a smooth flood-plain which encloses Cottonball Basin. This SIR-C/X-SAR supersite is an area of extensive field investigations and has been visited by both Space Radar Lab astronaut crews. Elevations in the valley range from 70 meters (230 feet) below sea level, the lowest in the United States, to more than 3,300 meters (10,800 feet) above sea level. Scientists are using SIR-C/X-SAR data from Death Valley to help answer a number of different questions about Earth's geology. One question concerns how alluvial fans are formed and change through time under the influence of climatic changes and earthquakes. Alluvial fans are gravel deposits that wash down from the mountains over time. They are visible in the image as circular, fan-shaped bright areas extending into the darker valley floor from the mountains. Information about the alluvial fans helps scientists study Earth's ancient climate. Scientists know the fans are built up through climatic and tectonic processes and they will use the SIR-C/X-SAR data to understand the nature and rates of weathering processes on the fans, soil formation and the transport of sand and dust by the wind. SIR-C/X-SAR's sensitivity to centimeter-scale (inch-scale) roughness provides detailed maps of surface texture. Such information can be used to study the occurrence and movement of dust storms and sand dunes. The goal of these studies is to gain a better understanding of the record of past climatic changes and the effects of those changes on a sensitive environment. This may lead to a better ability to predict future response of the land to different potential global climate-change scenarios. Death Valley is also one of the primary calibration sites for SIR-C/X-SAR. The bright dots near the center of the image are corner reflectors that have been set-up to calibrate the radar as the shuttle passes overhead. Thirty triangular-shaped reflectors (they look like aluminum pyramids) have been deployed by the calibration team from JPL over a 40- by 40-kilometer (25- by 25-mile) area in and around Death Valley. The calibration team will also deploy transponders (electronic reflectors) and receivers to measure the radar signals from SIR-C/X-SAR on the ground. SIR-C/X-SAR is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI).

  10. 66. VIEW SHOWING HOLD FOR RADAR CABLES AT RADAR SITE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. VIEW SHOWING HOLD FOR RADAR CABLES AT RADAR SITE, LOOKING NORTH Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. Polarization Imaging Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zou, Yingyin K.; Chen, Qiushui

    2010-01-01

    A polarization imaging apparatus has shown promise as a prototype of instruments for medical imaging with contrast greater than that achievable by use of non-polarized light. The underlying principles of design and operation are derived from observations that light interacts with tissue ultrastructures that affect reflectance, scattering, absorption, and polarization of light. The apparatus utilizes high-speed electro-optical components for generating light properties and acquiring polarization images through aligned polarizers. These components include phase retarders made of OptoCeramic (registered TradeMark) material - a ceramic that has a high electro-optical coefficient. The apparatus includes a computer running a program that implements a novel algorithm for controlling the phase retarders, capturing image data, and computing the Stokes polarization images. Potential applications include imaging of superficial cancers and other skin lesions, early detection of diseased cells, and microscopic analysis of tissues. The high imaging speed of this apparatus could be beneficial for observing live cells or tissues, and could enable rapid identification of moving targets in astronomy and national defense. The apparatus could also be used as an analysis tool in material research and industrial processing.

  12. A barrier radar concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, J.; Ball, C.; Weissman, I.

    A description is given of a low power, light-weight radar that can be quickly set up and operated on batteries for extended periods of time to detect airborne intruders. With low equipment and operating costs, it becomes practical to employ a multiplicity of such radars to provide an unbroken intrusion fence over the desired perimeter. Each radar establishes a single transmitted fan beam extending vertically from horizon to horizon. The beam is generated by a two-face array antenna built in an A-frame configuration and is shaped, through phasing of the array elements, to concentrate the transmitter power in a manner consistent with the expected operating altitude ceiling of the targets of interest. The angular width of this beam in the dimension transverse to the fan depends on the radar transmission frequency and the antenna aperture dimension, but is typically wide enough so that a target at the maximum altitude or range will require tens of seconds to pass through the beam. A large number of independent samples of radar data will thus be available to provide many opportunities for target detection.

  13. Development of precision acoustic transponders for GPS/Acoustic observation on the deep seafloor near the Japan Trench axis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, H.; Kido, M.

    2012-12-01

    The 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake has let most of researchers recognize the importance of seafloor geodetic observation, especially near the trench axis. Iinuma et al. (2012a) estimated the coseismic slip distribution combining onshore GPS data with the seafloor geodetic data. Their results reveal that a huge (> 50 m) slip occurred in a small area (about 40 km in width and 120 km in length) near the Japan Trench and generated the huge tsunami. After the Tohoku-oki earthquake, seismic coupling near the trench axis has become a key to understand giant earthquakes in subduction zones, and it is GPS/Acoustic (GPS/A) repeated seafloor positioning that can give an observational constraint to it. Observation of postseimic deformation is another and urgent task required in the Japan Trench. Seafloor geodetic observation indicates posteseimic deformation near the Japan Trench axis in the north and south of the huge slip area (Iinuma et al., 2012b). The result is clearly different from that of onshore GPS observation. Postseismic deformation is estimated to be a key observation that can discriminate proper models from several ones that can explain the occurrence of the mega thrust. Tohoku University plans to deploy extensive GPS/A observation array along the Japan Trench in 2012 with a fund from MEXT, Japan, to cope with these requests (Kido et al., in this meeting). Precision acoustic transponders have newly been developed for the array to enable the following three requests: (1) observation on the deep seafloor, (2) compatibility among three institutions in Japan, and (3) observation for ten years. The first is the observation on the deep seafloor near the trench. While the Japan Trench axis is deeper than 7000 m, the existing GPS/A sites along the Japan Trench have remained on the seafloor shallower than 2500 m except the one nearest to the trench, where we observed coseismic slip of 31 m (Kido et al., 2011). We deployed 4 units of the new transponders supplied by Kaiyo Denshi, Ltd., in July this year on the seafloor of water depth around 5570 m. We have confirmed reliable acoustic ranging up to a slant range of 13 km, which is necessary for GPS/A observation on the seafloor of 6000 m water depth. The depth of 6000 m is a limit of cost effective glass-sphere pressure housing. The new transponder can also be adaptable to the GPS/A observation systems of Japan Coast Guard and Nagoya University to increase the chance of observations and to realize mutual comparison of the observed results. The acoustic system of Tohoku University was not so different from that of Nagoya University, but was quite different from that of Japan Coast Guard. Stronger Doppler effect on a longer acoustic signal adopted by the Japan Coast Guard was the most critical problem. We deployed one unit of the new transponder on the seafloor of about 2000 m water depth, and Japan Coast Guard has confirmed precise acoustic ranging with it up to a slant range of about 6000 m by using the acoustic system installed on their survey vessel.

  14. Enhanced Mars Radar Observations with the Goldstone Solar System Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haldemann, A. F. C.; Jurgens, R. F.; Anderson, F. S.; Slade, M. A.

    2000-10-01

    The Goldstone Solar System Radar (GSSR) has successfully collected radar echo data from Mars over the past 30 years. GSSR radar data were critical in assessing the Viking Lander 1 as well as the Mars Pathfinder landing sites. A reprocessing to common format of the last ten years worth of GSSR Mars delay-Doppler sub-Earth radar track profiles was recently completed in aid of landing site characterization. The radar data obtained since 1988 by the GSSR comprise some 73 delay-Doppler radar tracks. Sixteen of those tracks also have interferometric radar data, which has never been processed, because the signal to noise is insufficient to constrain both the phases and the radar scattering parameters. The new topographic data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft offer the best means to finally make radar maps that extend the radar properties coverage some 3 to 4 degrees beyond the sub-Earth radar track. This would be a significant expansion of the dataset, and is all the more warranted as the radar spatial resolution improves away from the sub-Earth track. At the outer edges the radar resolution cell is of the same order of size as the landing site ellipses for future mission (approximately 20 km diameter). Initial results of processing the interferometric data will be presented at the meeting. The 2001 Mars opposition offers an opportunity to fill in some areas where radar data are lacking in the current dataset. We are planning 18 radar experiments from May through July of 2001. The goal of the observations will be to provide new, interferometric, improved-spatial-resolution radar data over the equatorial regions (latitudes -2 to +7) of Mars, in particular over the so-called Hematite Site in Sinus Meridiani. This work was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology, with funding from the Mars Data Analysis Program of NASA OSS.

  15. Gas compression apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terp, L. S. (inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Apparatus for transferring gas from a first container to a second container of higher pressure was devised. A free-piston compressor having a driving piston and cylinder, and a smaller diameter driven piston and cylinder, comprise the apparatus. A rod member connecting the driving and driven pistons functions for mutual reciprocation in the respective cylinders. A conduit may be provided for supplying gas to the driven cylinder from the first container. Also provided is apparatus for introducing gas to the driving piston, to compress gas by the driven piston for transfer to the second higher pressure container. The system is useful in transferring spacecraft cabin oxygen into higher pressure containers for use in extravehicular activities.

  16. Robot arm apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Nachbar, Henry D.

    1992-01-01

    A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for conveying inspection and/or maintenance apparatus from outside the steam generator to the interior of the steam generator. The flexible conduit has a terminal working end which is translated into and around the interior of the steam generator. Three motors located outside the steam generator are employed for moving the terminal working end inside the steam generator in "x", "y", and "z" directions, respectively. Commonly conducted inspection and maintenance operations include visual inspection for damaged areas, water jet lancing for cleaning sludge deposits, core boring for obtaining sludge deposits, and scrubbing of internal parts.

  17. Passive orientation apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.; Fischer, Gary J.; Martinez, Michael A.

    2001-01-01

    An apparatus that can return a payload to a known orientation after unknown motion, without requiring external power or complex mechanical systems. The apparatus comprises a faceted cage that causes the system to rest in a stable position and orientation after arbitrary motion. A gimbal is mounted with the faceted cage and holds the payload, allowing the payload to move relative to the stable faceted cage. The payload is thereby placed in a known orientation by the interaction of gravity with the geometry of the faceted cage, the mass of the system, and the motion of the payload and gimbal. No additional energy, control, or mechanical actuation is required. The apparatus is suitable for use in applications requiring positioning of a payload to a known orientation after arbitrary or uncontrolled motion, including remote sensing and mobile robot applications.

  18. Robot arm apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Nachbar, Henry D.

    1992-12-01

    A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for conveying inspection and/or maintenance apparatus from outside the steam generator to the interior of the steam generator. The flexible conduit has a terminal working end which is translated into and around the interior of the steam generator. Three motors located outside the steam generator are employed for moving the terminal working end inside the steam generator in "x", "y", and "z" directions, respectively. Commonly conducted inspection and maintenance operations include visual inspection for damaged areas, water jet lancing for cleaning sludge deposits, core boring for obtaining sludge deposits, and scrubbing of internal parts.

  19. Biological particle identification apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Salzman, Gary C. (Los Alamos, NM); Gregg, Charles T. (Los Alamos, NM); Grace, W. Kevin (Los Alamos, NM); Hiebert, Richard D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus and method for making multiparameter light scattering measurements from suspensions of biological particles is described. Fourteen of the sixteen Mueller matrix elements describing the particles under investigation can be substantially individually determined as a function of scattering angle and probing radiations wavelength, eight elements simultaneously for each of two apparatus configurations using an apparatus which incluees, in its simplest form, two polarization modulators each operating at a chosen frequency, one polarizer, a source of monochromatic electromagnetic radiation, a detector sensitive to the wavelength of radiation employed, eight phase-sensitive detectors, and appropriate electronics. A database of known biological particle suspensions can be assembled, and unknown samples can be quickly identified once measurements are performed on it according to the teachings of the subject invention, and a comparison is made with the database.

  20. Apparatus for fixing latency

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Bartholomew, David B.; Moon, Justin; Koehler, Roger O.

    2009-09-08

    An apparatus for fixing computational latency within a deterministic region on a network comprises a network interface modem, a high priority module and at least one deterministic peripheral device. The network interface modem is in communication with the network. The high priority module is in communication with the network interface modem. The at least one deterministic peripheral device is connected to the high priority module. The high priority module comprises a packet assembler/disassembler, and hardware for performing at least one operation. Also disclosed is an apparatus for executing at least one instruction on a downhole device within a deterministic region, the apparatus comprising a control device, a downhole network, and a downhole device. The control device is near the surface of a downhole tool string. The downhole network is integrated into the tool string. The downhole device is in communication with the downhole network.

  1. Amplified wind turbine apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hein, L. A.; Myers, W. N. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    An invention related to the utilization of wind energy and increasing the effects thereof for power generation is described. Amplified wind turbine apparatus is disclosed wherein ambient inlet air is prerotated in a first air rotation chamber having a high pressure profile increasing the turbulence and Reynolds number thereof. A second rotation chamber adjacent and downstream of the turbine has a low pressure core profile whereby flow across the turbine is accelerated and thereafter exits the turbine apparatus through a draft anti-interference device. Interference with ambient winds at the outlet of the turbine apparatus is thus eliminated. Pivotable vanes controlled in response to prevailing wind direction admit air to the chambers and aid in imparting rotation. A central core may be utilized for creating the desired pressure profile in the chamber.

  2. Robot arm apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Nachbar, H.D.

    1990-12-31

    A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for conveying inspection and/or maintenance apparatus from outside the steam generator to the interior of the steam generator. The flexible conduit has a terminal working end which is translated into and around the interior of the steam generator. Three motors located outside the steam generator are employed for moving the terminal working end inside the steam generator in ``x,`` ``y,`` and ``z`` directions, respectively. Commonly conducted inspection and maintenance operations include visual inspection for damaged areas, water jet lancing for cleaning sludge deposits, core boring for obtaining sludge deposits, and scrubbing of internal parts.

  3. Thermal energy test apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audet, N. F.

    1991-10-01

    The Navy Clothing and Textile Research Facility (NCTRF) designed and fabricated a thermal energy test apparatus to permit evaluation of the heat protection provided by crash crew firefighter's proximity clothing materials against radiant and convective heat loads, similar to those found outside the flame zone of aircraft fuel fires. The apparatus employs electrically operated quartz lamp radiant heaters and a hot air convective heater assembly to produce the heat load conditions the materials to be subjected to, and is equipped with heat flux sensors of different sensitivities to measure the incident heat flux on the sample material as well as the heat flux transmitted by the sample. Tests of the apparatus have shown that it can produce radiant heat flux levels equivalent to those estimated to be possible in close proximity to large aircraft fuel fires, and can produce convective heat fluxes equivalent to those measured in close proximity to aircraft fuel fires at upwind and sidewind locations. Work was performed in 1974.

  4. Apparatus for processing coal

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.M.

    1985-02-12

    Apparatus for processing coal to prevent the creation of extreme fines and to extract pyrites from the principal coal fractions in which there are two air circulating circuits having processing components which cooperate in their respective circuits to result initially in substantial extraction of fines in the first circuit while releasing principal granulated coal fractions and pyrites to the second circuit where specific gravity separation of the pyrites and principal coal fractions occur. The apparatus includes a source of drying heat added to the air moving in the circuits and delivered at the places where surface moisture drying is most effective. Furthermore, the apparatus is operated so as to reduce coal to a desired size without creating an excessive volume of extreme fines, to separate pyrites and hard to grind components by specific gravity in a region where fines are not present, and to use the extreme fines as a source of fuel to generate drying heat.

  5. 33. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #320, perimeter acquisition radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #320, perimeter acquisition radar operations center (PAROC), contains the tactical command and control group equipment required to control the par site. Showing spacetrack monitor console - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  6. Phase modulating the Urbana radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrington, L. J., Jr.; Bowhill, S. A.

    1983-01-01

    The design and operation of a switched phase modulation system for the Urbana Radar System are discussed. The system is implemented and demonstrated using a simple procedure. The radar system and circuits are described and analyzed.

  7. Ultrasonic drilling apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Duran, E.L.; Lundin, R.L.

    1988-06-20

    Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry. In operation, slurry is provided into the housing, and into the spindle through inlets while the spindle is rotating and ultrasonically reciprocating. Slurry flows through the spindle and through the hollow drill bit to cleanse the cutting edge of the bit during a drilling operation. 3 figs.

  8. Ultrasonic drilling apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Duran, Edward L. (Santa Fe, NM); Lundin, Ralph L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry. In operation, slurry is provided into the housing, and into the spindle through inlets while the spindle is rotating and ultrasonically reciprocating. Slurry flows through the spindle and through the hollow drill bit to cleanse the cutting edge of the bit during a drilling operation.

  9. Current measurement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Umans, Stephen D. (Belmont, MA)

    2008-11-11

    Apparatus and methods are provided for a system for measurement of a current in a conductor such that the conductor current may be momentarily directed to a current measurement element in order to maintain proper current without significantly increasing an amount of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element or adding resistance to assist in current measurement. The apparatus and methods described herein are useful in superconducting circuits where it is necessary to monitor current carried by the superconducting elements while minimizing the effects of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element.

  10. Microelectromechanical ratcheting apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Barnes, Stephen M. (Albuquerque, NM); Miller, Samuel L. (Albuquerque, NM); Jensen, Brian D. (Albuquerque, NM); Rodgers, M. Steven (Albuquerque, NM); Burg, Michael S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) ratcheting apparatus is disclosed which includes an electrostatic or thermal actuator that drives a moveable member in the form of a ring gear, stage, or rack. Motion is effected by one or more reciprocating pawls driven by the actuator in a direction that is parallel to, in line with, or tangential to the path. The reciprocating pawls engage indexing elements (e.g. teeth or pins) on the moveable member to incrementally move the member along a curved or straight path with the ability to precisely control and determine the position of the moveable member. The MEM apparatus can be formed on a silicon substrate by conventional surface micromachining methods.

  11. Fissile solution measurement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Crane, T.W.; Collinsworth, P.R.

    1984-06-11

    An apparatus for determining the content of a fissile material within a solution by detecting delayed fission neutrons emitted by the fissile material after it is temporarily irradiated by a neutron source. The apparatus comprises a container holding the solution and having a portion defining a neutron source cavity centrally disposed within the container. The neutron source cavity temporarily receives the neutron source. The container has portions defining a plurality of neutron detector ports that form an annular pattern and surround the neutron source cavity. A plurality of neutron detectors count delayed fission neutrons emitted by the fissile material. Each neutron detector is located in a separate one of the neutron detector ports.

  12. Visual examination apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, R. F.; Fitzgerald, J. W.; Rositano, S. A. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An automated visual examination apparatus for measuring visual sensitivity and mapping blind spot location is described. The apparatus includes a projection system for displaying to a patient a series of visual stimuli, a response switch enabling him to indicate his reaction to the stimuli, and a recording system responsive to both the visual stimuli per se and the patient's response. The recording system provides a correlated permanent record of both stimuli and response from which a substantive and readily apparent visual evaluation can be made.

  13. Expendable oceanographic sensor apparatus

    DOEpatents

    McCoy, Kim O.; Downing, Jr., John P.; DeRoos, Bradley G.; Riches, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    An expendable oceanographic sensor apparatus is deployed from an airplane or a ship to make oceanographic observations in a profile of the surface-to-ocean floor, while deployed on the floor, and then a second profile when returning to the ocean surface. The device then records surface conditions until on-board batteries fail. All data collected is stored and then transmitted from the surface to either a satellite or other receiving station. The apparatus is provided with an anchor that causes descent to the ocean floor and then permits ascent when the anchor is released. Anchor release is predetermined by the occurrence of a pre-programmed event.

  14. Radar data smoothing filter study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, J. V.

    1984-01-01

    The accuracy of the current Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) data smoothing techniques for a variety of radars and payloads is examined. Alternative data reduction techniques are given and recommendations are made for improving radar data processing at WFF. A data adaptive algorithm, based on Kalman filtering and smoothing techniques, is also developed for estimating payload trajectories above the atmosphere from noisy time varying radar data. This algorithm is tested and verified using radar tracking data from WFF.

  15. An active radar calibration target

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brunfeldt, D. R.; Ulaby, F. T.

    1982-01-01

    An active radar calibrator (ARC), consisting of a receive antenna and a transmit antenna with an RF amplifier in between, is proposed as a tool for conducting high-precision calibration measurements of radar systems. The ARC can be designed to have a large radar cross-section with a broad pattern. Its major advantages over passive reflectors are its small physical size and its suitability for calibrating radars operating in a cross-polarized antenna configuration.

  16. Radar detection of phobos.

    PubMed

    Ostro, S J; Jurgens, R F; Yeomans, D K; Standish, E M; Greiner, W

    1989-03-24

    Radar echoes from the martian satellite Phobos provide information about that object's surface properties at scales near the 3.5-cm observing wavelength. Phobos appears less rough than the moon at centimeter-to-decimeter scales. The uppermost few decimeters of the satellite's regolith have a mean bulk density within 20% of 2.0 g cm(-3). The radar signature of Phobos (albedo, polarization ratio, and echo spectral shape) differs from signatures measured for small, Earth-approaching objects, but resembles those of large (>/=100-km), C-class, mainbelt asteroids. PMID:17847261

  17. Radar detection of Phobos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.; Jurgens, R. F.; Yeomans, D. K.; Standish, E. M.; Greiner, W.

    1989-01-01

    Radar echoes from the martian satellite Phobos provide information about that object's surface properties at scales near the 3.5-cm observing wavelength. Phobos appears less rough than the moon at centimeter-to-decimeter scales. The uppermost few decimeters of the satellite's regolith have a mean bulk density within 20 percent of 2.0 g/cu cm. The radar signature of Phobos (albedo, polarization ratio, and echo spectral shape) differs from signatures measured for small, earth-approaching objects, but resembles those of large (greater than 100-km), C-class, mainbelt asteroids.

  18. Radar Investigations of Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1984-01-01

    Radar investigations of asteroids, including observations during 1984 to 1985 of at least 8 potential targets and continued analyses of radar data obtained during 1980 to 1984 for 30 other asteroids is proposed. The primary scientific objectives include estimation of echo strength, polarization, spectral shape, spectral bandwidth, and Doppler shift. These measurements yield estimates of target size, shape, and spin vector; place constraints on topography, morphology, density, and composition of the planetary surface; yield refined estimates of target orbital parameters; and reveals the presence of asteroidal satellites.

  19. Spaceborne Imaging Radar Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elachi, C.

    1983-01-01

    An overview of the present state of the art in the different scientific and technological fields related to spaceborne imaging radars was presented. The data acquired with the SEASAT SAR (1978) and Shuttle Imaging Radar, SIR-A (1981) clearly demonstrated the important emphasis in the 80's is going to be on in-depth research investigations conducted with the more flexible and sophisticated SIR series instruments and on long term monitoring of geophysical phenomena conducted from free-flying platforms such as ERS-1 and RADARSAT.

  20. Spaceborne laser radar.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flom, T.

    1972-01-01

    Development of laser systems to acquire and track targets in applications such as the rendezvous and docking of two spacecraft. A scan technique is described whereby a narrow laser beam is simultaneously scanned with an equally narrow receiver field-of-view without the aid of mechanical gimbals. Equations are developed in order to examine the maximum acquisition and tracking rates, and the maximum target range for a scanning laser radar system. A recently built prototype of a small, lightweight, low-power-consuming scanning laser radar is described.

  1. Systems and Methods for Radar Data Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunch, Brian (Inventor); Szeto, Roland (Inventor); Miller, Brad (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A radar information processing system is operable to process high bandwidth radar information received from a radar system into low bandwidth radar information that may be communicated to a low bandwidth connection coupled to an electronic flight bag (EFB). An exemplary embodiment receives radar information from a radar system, the radar information communicated from the radar system at a first bandwidth; processes the received radar information into processed radar information, the processed radar information configured for communication over a connection operable at a second bandwidth, the second bandwidth lower than the first bandwidth; and communicates the radar information from a radar system, the radar information communicated from the radar system at a first bandwidth.

  2. SEASAT Synthetic Aperture Radar Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, F. M.

    1981-01-01

    The potential of radar imagery from space altitudes is discussed and the advantages of radar over passive sensor systems are outlined. Specific reference is made to the SEASAT synthetic aperture radar. Possible applications include oil spill monitoring, snow and ice reconnaissance, mineral exploration, and monitoring phenomena in the urban environment.

  3. Nonlinear synthetic aperture radar imaging using a harmonic radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, Kyle A.; Mazzaro, Gregory J.; Ranney, Kenneth I.; Nguyen, Lam H.; Martone, Anthony F.; Sherbondy, Kelly D.; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of linear and nonlinear targets. Data are collected using a linear/nonlinear step frequency radar. We show that it is indeed possible to produce SAR images using a nonlinear radar. Furthermore, it is shown that the nonlinear radar is able to reduce linear clutter by at least 80 dB compared to a linear radar. The nonlinear SAR images also show the system's ability to detect small electronic devices in the presence of large linear clutter. The system presented here has the ability to completely ignore a 20-inch trihedral corner reflector while detecting a RF mixer with a dipole antenna attached.

  4. 47 CFR 32.2311 - Station apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... apparatus in stock that are included in this account. The number of such station apparatus items as... made for all station apparatus included in this account. (g) Items of station apparatus in stock...

  5. 47 CFR 32.2311 - Station apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... apparatus in stock that are included in this account. The number of such station apparatus items as... made for all station apparatus included in this account. (g) Items of station apparatus in stock...

  6. 47 CFR 32.2311 - Station apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... apparatus in stock that are included in this account. The number of such station apparatus items as... made for all station apparatus included in this account. (g) Items of station apparatus in stock...

  7. 47 CFR 32.2311 - Station apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... apparatus in stock that are included in this account. The number of such station apparatus items as... made for all station apparatus included in this account. (g) Items of station apparatus in stock...

  8. Venus Radar Mapper (VRM): Multimode radar system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, William T. K.; Edgerton, Alvin T.

    1986-01-01

    The surface of Venus has remained a relative mystery because of the very dense atmosphere that is opaque to visible radiation and, thus, normal photographic techniques used to explore the other terrestrial objects in the solar system are useless. The atmosphere is, however, almost transparent to radar waves and images of the surface have been produced via Earth-based and orbital radars. The technique of obtaining radar images of a surface is variously called side looking radar, imaging radar, or synthetic aperture radar (SAR). The radar requires a moving platform in which the antenna is side looking. High resolution is obtained in the cross-track or range direction by conventional radar pulse encoding. In the along-track or azimuth direction, the resolution would normally be the antenna beam width, but for the SAR case, a much longer antenna (or much sharper beam) is obtained by moving past a surface target as shown, and then combining the echoes from many pulses, by using the Doppler data, to obtain the images. The radar design of the Venus Radar Mapper (VRM) is discussed. It will acquire global radar imagery and altimetry data of the surface of Venus.

  9. Apparatus for Teaching Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Walter, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Provides the apparatus setup, experimental method, necessary formulas, and references for three measurement experiments: (1) "Determine the Magnetic Induction of a Coil with a Hall Element"; (2) "Measuring Magnetic Force and Magnetic Field of Small Permanent Magnets"; and (3) "Measurements of Sound Velocity by Means of PZT" (piezoelectric…

  10. Borehole data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, O.M.

    1993-03-23

    A borehole data transmission apparatus is described whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

  11. Autonomous data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    1997-01-01

    A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters.

  12. Positioning and locking apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hayward, M.L.; Harper, W.H.

    1985-06-19

    A positioning and locking apparatus including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member.

  13. Apparatus for Teaching Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnix, Richard B.; Carpenter, D. Rae

    1985-01-01

    Describes these tools for physics teaching: (1) stick with calibrations for measuring student reaction time; (2) compact high-pressure sodium lamps used to demonstrate spectra; (3) air pumps for fish tanks providing simple inexpensive motors; (4) a rotating manometer for measuring centripetal force; and (5) an apparatus for checking conservation

  14. Borehole data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M. (1739 Grandview #2, Idaho Falls, ID 83402)

    1993-01-01

    A borehole data transmission apparatus whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

  15. Mobile lighting apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Roe, George Michael; Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott; Rea, Gerald W; Drake, Robert A; Johnson, Terry A; Wingert, Steven John; Damberger, Thomas A; Skradski, Thomas J; Radley, Christopher James; Oros, James M; Schuttinger, Paul G; Grupp, David J; Prey, Stephen Carl

    2013-05-14

    A mobile lighting apparatus includes a portable frame such as a moveable trailer or skid having a light tower thereon. The light tower is moveable from a stowed position to a deployed position. A hydrogen-powered fuel cell is located on the portable frame to provide electrical power to an array of the energy efficient lights located on the light tower.

  16. Apparatus for Teaching Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnix, Richard B.; Carpenter, D. Rae, Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Explains: (1) use of piezoelectric film (connected to power supply and oscilloscope) to reveal force-versus-time curves of bouncing balls; (2) use of bound wood splints or meter sticks to illustrate tree or tower stability; and (3) apparatus of co-axial discs with connected linking rods and suspended bobs to simulate waves. (DH)

  17. Apparatus for Teaching Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a few apparatuses and demonstrations for teaching physics under the headings: demonstrating resonance of the inner ear, constructing a potential well-hill for overhead projectors, rubber tube vacuum pump, improvement on the simple homemade motor, air track to demonstrate sailing into the wind, and center of gravity and stability. (GA)

  18. Apparatus for Teaching Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Six different pieces of physics apparatus are described: Telsa Coil for instant ignition of sodium arc lamps, Timekube, Magnetic Maps of the United States, a slinky with vertical mounting, a wave generator power supply, and a long-period timer power switch. Price and supplier are included. (BT)

  19. Apparatus for Teaching Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnix, Richard B., Ed.; Carpenter, D. Rae, Jr., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Describes four body-lever models (biceps, triceps, back lever when lifting, foot lever and Achilles tendon muscle) used in noncalculus physics courses. Instructions for constructing the wooden models are provided. Also describes an improvement on a centripetal-force apparatus so that it is easier to operate. (JN)

  20. Holographic Animation Apparatus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Sean F.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a simple apparatus for producing strip holograms with a number of slit-shaped exposures displaced along the vertical direction. The hologram maintains full horizontal parallax, but the slit aperture reduces the vertical viewing angle of the animated object. (Author/GA)

  1. Apparatus for Teaching Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Describes an apparatus for plotting electric fields using burglar alarm window tape for electrodes and carbonized electronic stencil paper as sheet resistance. Also describes a simple pentode modulator circuit which will modulate a typical helium-neon gas laser, providing an audio channel for demonstration purposes. (SK)

  2. Apparatus for Teaching Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnix, Richard B., Ed.; Carpenter, D. Rae, Jr., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a "no-cost" apparatus designed to demonstrate rotational inertia. Also describes and evaluates a microprocessor-based instrument (Versatile Laboratory Aid) that performs a large variety of timing and data acquisition tasks encountered in introductory and advanced physics laboratories. (JN)

  3. An Adaptive Surfing Apparatus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Gregory

    Reported is a study in which the effectiveness of an adapted surfing apparatus was evaluated for eight adolescents with upper extremity physical impairments. Related literature is reviewed, and a detailed analysis of the adapted device is presented. Case studies of the individual Ss are provided to demonstrate test performance in a pool and the

  4. Apparatus for granulating coal

    SciTech Connect

    Ogino, E.; Harada, K.; Yoshii, N.

    1983-08-30

    A granulating apparatus is disclosed comprising a stirring tank or a duct for containing a slurry particulate to granular coal having a binder incorporated therein, a rotary shaft disposed in the tank or duct and at least one agitating blade made of metal netting and attached to the rotary shaft.

  5. Pruning apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Dellinger, Roger D. (Prosser, WA)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is an automated pruning apparatus that requires little or no follow-up hand pruning and requires no sensors to avoid supportive trunks or posts. The present invention uses at least one pair of flat, close angled toothed, counter rotating blades. Woody branches are directed to the counter rotating blades first with a lifting arm and secondly by a quilled drum.

  6. Multipurpose binocular scanning apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, F. R.; Parker, G. L.

    1969-01-01

    Optical gimballing apparatus directs narrow fields of view throughout solid angle approaching 4 pi steradians. Image rotation produced by scanning can be eliminated or altered by gear trains directly linked to the scanning drive assembly. It provides the basis for a binocular scanning capability.

  7. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    SciTech Connect

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  8. Apparatus for Teaching Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnix, Richard B., Ed.; Carpenter, D. Rae, Jr., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Standing transverse waves in homogeneous strings have been demonstrated in lectures and used in experiments (called Melde's experiment). A variation to this experiment is discussed. Also discusses the use of the speed-of-sound resonance-tube apparatus to clean mercury. (Author/JN)

  9. Apparatus for Teaching Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    This section presents new ideas with regard to apparatus for teaching physics. The following four ideas are presented: (1) measuring speed of light (2) a poor man's barometer, (3) center of mass of a rotating object, and (4) minimizing glass breakage. (HM)

  10. Apparatus for Teaching Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Walter, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Provides the apparatus setup, experimental method, necessary formulas, and references for three measurement experiments: (1) "Determine the Magnetic Induction of a Coil with a Hall Element"; (2) "Measuring Magnetic Force and Magnetic Field of Small Permanent Magnets"; and (3) "Measurements of Sound Velocity by Means of PZT" (piezoelectric

  11. Autonomous data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, O.M.

    1997-03-25

    A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus is described for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters. 4 figs.

  12. Micromachine friction test apparatus

    DOEpatents

    deBoer, Maarten P.; Redmond, James M.; Michalske, Terry A.

    2002-01-01

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) friction test apparatus is disclosed for determining static or dynamic friction in MEM devices. The friction test apparatus, formed by surface micromachining, is based on a friction pad supported at one end of a cantilevered beam, with the friction pad overlying a contact pad formed on the substrate. A first electrostatic actuator can be used to bring a lower surface of the friction pad into contact with an upper surface of the contact pad with a controlled and adjustable force of contact. A second electrostatic actuator can then be used to bend the cantilevered beam, thereby shortening its length and generating a relative motion between the two contacting surfaces. The displacement of the cantilevered beam can be measured optically and used to determine the static or dynamic friction, including frictional losses and the coefficient of friction between the surfaces. The test apparatus can also be used to assess the reliability of rubbing surfaces in MEM devices by producing and measuring wear of those surfaces. Finally, the friction test apparatus, which is small in size, can be used as an in situ process quality tool for improving the fabrication of MEM devices.

  13. Apparatus for Teaching Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Herbert H.

    1977-01-01

    Describes: how to measure index of refraction by the thickness method; how to teach the concept of torque using a torque wrench; how to produce a real image with a concave mirror; how to eliminate the interface effects of a Pyrex containers; and an apparatus to illustrate Bernoulli's Principle. (MLH)

  14. Well pumping apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, E.D.

    1981-12-15

    A pumping apparatus that may be used with a well in which a sucker rod is connected with the well so as to remain in axial alignment with the same during shifting of the well and the sucker rod is supported clear of the well and the structure for operating the same.

  15. Apparatus for Teaching Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnix, Richard B.; Carpenter, D. Rae, Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a coriolis simulator which uses a carbon paper trace technique and a simple specific-heat apparatus, emphasizing instructional considerations. Also indicates that a variac and an ordinary electric drill can be used to wind coil if a lathe or coil winder are unavailable. (JN)

  16. Apparatus for obstacle traversion

    DOEpatents

    Borenstein, Johann

    2004-08-10

    An apparatus for traversing obstacles having an elongated, round, flexible body that includes a plurality of drive track assemblies. The plurality of drive track assemblies cooperate to provide forward propulsion wherever a propulsion member is in contact with any feature of the environment, regardless of how many or which ones of the plurality of drive track assemblies make contact with such environmental feature.

  17. Apparatus for Teaching Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnix, Richard B.; Carpenter, D. Rae, Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a simple apparatus and provides instructions to do relative index of refraction measurements/calculations and to show mathematical relationships betwen indices when light travels from one liquid to another. A listing of a computer program (in BASIC) which will analyze data is available from the author. (JM)

  18. Radioactive waste processing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, R.E.; Ziegler, A.A.; Serino, D.F.; Basnar, P.J.

    1985-08-30

    Apparatus for use in processing radioactive waste materials for shipment and storage in solid form in a container is disclosed. The container includes a top, and an opening in the top which is smaller than the outer circumference of the container. The apparatus includes an enclosure into which the container is placed, solution feed apparatus for adding a solution containing radioactive waste materials into the container through the container opening, and at least one rotatable blade for blending the solution with a fixing agent such as cement or the like as the solution is added into the container. The blade is constructed so that it can pass through the opening in the top of the container. The rotational axis of the blade is displaced from the center of the blade so that after the blade passes through the opening, the blade and container can be adjusted so that one edge of the blade is adjacent the cylindrical wall of the container, to insure thorough mixing. When the blade is inside the container, a substantially sealed chamber is formed to contain vapors created by the chemical action of the waste solution and fixant, and vapors emanating through the opening in the container. The chamber may be formed by placing a removable extension over the top of the container. The extension communicates with the apparatus so that such vapors are contained within the container, extension and solution feed apparatus. A portion of the chamber includes coolant which condenses the vapors. The resulting condensate is returned to the container by the force of gravity.

  19. Radar investigation of asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1986-01-01

    The number of radar detected asteroids has climbed from 6 to 40 (27 mainbelt plus 13 near-Earth). The dual-circular-polarization radar sample now comprises more than 1% of the numbered asteroids. Radar results for mainbelt asteroids furnish the first available information on the nature of these objects at macroscopic scales. At least one object (2 Pallas) and probably many others are extraordinarily smooth at centimeter-to-meter scales but are extremely rough at some scale between several meters and many kilometers. Pallas has essentially no small-scale structure within the uppermost several meters of the regolith, but the rms slope of this regolith exceeds 20 deg., much larger than typical lunar values (approx. 7 deg.). The origin of these slopes could be the hypervelocity impact cratering process, whose manifestations are likely to be different on low-gravity, low-radius-of-curvature objects from those on the terrestrial planets. The range of mainbelt asteroid radar albedoes is very broad and implies big variations in regolith porosity or metal concentration, or both. The highest albedo estimate, for 16 Psyche, is consistent with a surface having porosities typical of lunar soil and a composition nearly completely metallic. Therefore, Psyche might be the collisionally stripped core of a differentiated small plant, and might resemble mineralogically the parent bodies of iron meteorites.

  20. Radar investigation of asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1986-09-01

    The number of radar detected asteroids has climbed from 6 to 40 (27 mainbelt plus 13 near-Earth). The dual-circular-polarization radar sample now comprises more than 1% of the numbered asteroids. Radar results for mainbelt asteroids furnish the first available information on the nature of these objects at macroscopic scales. At least one object (2 Pallas) and probably many others are extraordinarily smooth at centimeter-to-meter scales but are extremely rough at some scale between several meters and many kilometers. Pallas has essentially no small-scale structure within the uppermost several meters of the regolith, but the rms slope of this regolith exceeds 20 deg., much larger than typical lunar values (approx. 7 deg.). The origin of these slopes could be the hypervelocity impact cratering process, whose manifestations are likely to be different on low-gravity, low-radius-of-curvature objects from those on the terrestrial planets. The range of mainbelt asteroid radar albedoes is very broad and implies big variations in regolith porosity or metal concentration, or both. The highest albedo estimate, for 16 Psyche, is consistent with a surface having porosities typical of lunar soil and a composition nearly completely metallic. Therefore, Psyche might be the collisionally stripped core of a differentiated small plant, and might resemble mineralogically the parent bodies of iron meteorites.

  1. Mars Radar Catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, R. A.; Tyler, G. L.

    1985-01-01

    Radar observations of Mars have been conducted since 1963 using four Earth based facilities. Wavelengths have ranged from about 3 to about 70 cm. Experiments have been conducted in ranging, spectral, and mixed modes. Results include topographic profiles, estimates of dielectric constant and meter scale surface roughness, and qualtitative determinations of centimeter scale structure.

  2. Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, P. A.; Hensley, S.; Joughin, I. R.; Li, F.; Madsen, S. N.; Rodriguez, E.; Goldstein, R. M.

    1998-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar interferometry is an imaging technique for measuring the topography of a surface, its changes over time, and other changes in the detailed characteristics of the surface. This paper reviews the techniques of interferometry, systems and limitations, and applications in a rapidly growing area of science and engineering.

  3. Impulse radar studfinder

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1995-01-01

    An impulse radar studfinder propagates electromagnetic pulses and detects reflected pulses from a fixed range. Unmodulated pulses, about 200 ps wide, are emitted. A large number of reflected pulses are sampled and averaged. Background reflections are subtracted. Reflections from wall studs or other hidden objects are detected and displayed using light emitting diodes.

  4. Impulse radar studfinder

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1995-10-10

    An impulse radar studfinder propagates electromagnetic pulses and detects reflected pulses from a fixed range. Unmodulated pulses, about 200 ps wide, are emitted. A large number of reflected pulses are sampled and averaged. Background reflections are subtracted. Reflections from wall studs or other hidden objects are detected and displayed using light emitting diodes. 9 figs.

  5. High-resolution wind and temperature observations from aircraft tracked by Mode-S air traffic control radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Haan, S.

    2011-05-01

    Wind, temperature, and humidity observations from radiosonde and aircraft are the main sources of upper air information for meteorology. For mesoscale meteorology, the horizontal coverage of radiosondes is too sparse. Aircraft observations through Aircraft Meteorological Data Relay (AMDAR) sample an atmospheric profile in the vicinity of airports. However, not all aircraft are equipped with AMDAR or have the system activated. Observations inferred from an enhanced tracking and ranging (TAR) air traffic control radar can fill this gap. These radars follows all aircraft in the airspace visible to the radar for air traffic management. The TAR radar at Schiphol airport in Netherlands has a range of 270 km. This Mode-S radar contacts each aircraft every 4 s on which the transponder in the aircraft responds with a message that contains information on flight level, direction, and speed. Combined with the ground track of an aircraft, meteorological information on temperature and wind can be inferred from this information. Because all aircraft are required to respond to the TAR radar, the data volume is extremely large, being around 1.5 million observations per day. Note that there are no extra costs for this data link. The quality of these observations is assessed by comparison to numerical weather prediction (NWP) model information, AMDAR observations, and radiosonde observations. A preprocessing step is applied to enhance the quality of wind and temperature observations, albeit with a reduced time frequency of one observation of horizontal wind vector and temperature per aircraft per minute. Nevertheless, the number of observations per day is still very large. In this paper it is shown that temperature observations from Mode-S, even after corrections, are not very good; an RMS which is twice as large as AMDAR is observed when compared to NWP. In contrast to the temperature observations, the quality found for wind after correction and calibration is good; it is comparable to AMDAR, slightly worse than radiosonde but certainly very valuable for mesoscale NWP.

  6. Servomechanism for Doppler shift compensation in optical correlator for synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Constaninides, N. J.; Bicknell, T. J. (inventors)

    1980-01-01

    A method and apparatus for correcting Doppler shifts in synthetic aperture radar data is described. An optical correlator for synthetic aperture radar data has a means for directing a laser beam at a signal film having radar return pulse intensity information recorded on it. A resultant laser beam passes through a range telescope, an azimuth telescope, and a Fourier transform filter located between the range and azimuth telescopes, and forms an image for recording on an image film. A compensation means for Doppler shift in the radar return pulse intensity information includes a beam splitter for reflecting the modulated laser beam, after having passed through the Fourier transform filter, to a detection screen having two photodiodes mounted on it.

  7. An MSK Radar Waveform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quirk, Kevin J.; Srinivasan, Meera

    2012-01-01

    The minimum-shift-keying (MSK) radar waveform is formed by periodically extending a waveform that separately modulates the in-phase and quadrature- phase components of the carrier with offset pulse-shaped pseudo noise (PN) sequences. To generate this waveform, a pair of periodic PN sequences is each passed through a pulse-shaping filter with a half sinusoid impulse response. These shaped PN waveforms are then offset by half a chip time and are separately modulated on the in-phase and quadrature phase components of an RF carrier. This new radar waveform allows an increase in radar resolution without the need for additional spectrum. In addition, it provides self-interference suppression and configurable peak sidelobes. Compared strictly on the basis of the expressions for delay resolution, main-lobe bandwidth, effective Doppler bandwidth, and peak ambiguity sidelobe, it appears that bi-phase coded (BPC) outperforms the new MSK waveform. However, a radar waveform must meet certain constraints imposed by the transmission and reception of the modulation, as well as criteria dictated by the observation. In particular, the phase discontinuity of the BPC waveform presents a significant impediment to the achievement of finer resolutions in radar measurements a limitation that is overcome by using the continuous phase MSK waveform. The phase continuity, and the lower fractional out-of-band power of MSK, increases the allowable bandwidth compared with BPC, resulting in a factor of two increase in the range resolution of the radar. The MSK waveform also has been demonstrated to have an ambiguity sidelobe structure very similar to BPC, where the sidelobe levels can be decreased by increasing the length of the m-sequence used in its generation. This ability to set the peak sidelobe level is advantageous as it allows the system to be configured to a variety of targets, including those with a larger dynamic range. Other conventionally used waveforms that possess an even greater spectral efficiency than the MSK waveform, such as linear frequency modulation (LFM) and Costas frequency hopping, have a fixed peak sidelobe level that is therefore not configurable, and can be exceeded by high contrast targets. Furthermore, in the case of a multistatic experiment observing a target in motion, self-interference from the transmitter to the receiver is mitigated by the MSK waveform. Waveforms that have delay Doppler coupling, such as LFM, provide no such protection.

  8. Fast shutter apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Zimmermann, E.L.; Kania, D.R.

    1984-06-27

    An apparatus for protecting diagnostic equipment from blast damage by rapidly interposing a shutter between the equipment and the blast area. The apparatus comprises a sensor for sensing a trigger signal associated with the blast and for converting it into a voltage pulse. The voltage pulse is received by the first end of a firing pin. A pressure chamber holds a gas under pressure. The second end of the firing pin is located inside the pressure chamber and is located above a foil member covering an orifice. When the voltage pulse reaches the second end, a point-to-plane discharge ruptures the foil, allowing the gas to enter a drive housing and quickly move a drive piston away from the foil. A drive rod connects the drive piston to a shutter and as the drive piston is moved down, the shutter moves into a closed position, protecting the equipment from debris.

  9. Fast shutter apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Zimmermann, Eugene L. (Santa Fe, NM); Kania, Don R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus for protecting diagnostic equipment from blast damage by rapidly interposing a shutter between the equipment and the blast area. The apparatus comprises a sensor for sensing a trigger signal associated with the blast and for converting it into a voltage pulse. The voltage pulse is received by the first end of a firing pin. A pressure chamber holds a gas under pressure. The second end of the firing pin is located inside the pressure chamber and is located above a foil member covering an orifice. When the voltage pulse reaches the second end, a point-to-plane discharge ruptures the foil, allowing the gas to enter a drive housing and quickly move a drive piston away from the foil. A drive rod connects the drive piston to a shutter and as the drive piston is moved down, the shutter moves into a closed position, protecting the equipment from debris.

  10. Ophthalmic method and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evvard, J. C.; Mcgannon, W. J.; Vargo, D. J. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing material and components such as the lens from an eye is described. High speed rotary cutting members at one end of a rod macerate the lens while an annular tubing disposed around the cutting members vibrates ultrasonically to coact with the cutting members in macerating the lens. At the same time, a liquid is supplied to the chamber behind the cornea of the eye. Spiral grooves extending along the rotating rod from the cutting members evacuate the liquid and the macerated material from the eye. An alternate embodiment of the apparatus includes a tube through which liquid is supplied to the operative site of the ultrasonically vibrating tube and the cutting members in the area of the lens.

  11. Gas turbine sealing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Wiebe, David J; Wessell, Brian J; Ebert, Todd; Beeck, Alexander; Liang, George; Marussich, Walter H

    2013-02-19

    A gas turbine includes forward and aft rows of rotatable blades, a row of stationary vanes between the forward and aft rows of rotatable blades, an annular intermediate disc, and a seal housing apparatus. The forward and aft rows of rotatable blades are coupled to respective first and second portions of a disc/rotor assembly. The annular intermediate disc is coupled to the disc/rotor assembly so as to be rotatable with the disc/rotor assembly during operation of the gas turbine. The annular intermediate disc includes a forward side coupled to the first portion of the disc/rotor assembly and an aft side coupled to the second portion of the disc/rotor assembly. The seal housing apparatus is coupled to the annular intermediate disc so as to be rotatable with the annular intermediate disc and the disc/rotor assembly during operation of the gas turbine.

  12. Energy conversion apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, F.J.

    1982-04-20

    An apparatus for maintaining the speed of rotation of a windmill rotor at a fixed ratio to the free flow velocity of the driving wind. This arrangement permits the windmill rotor to rotate at the speed at which its power output is maximized. The apparatus includes a plurality of interleaved rotating and stationary friction discs which convert the rotational kinetic energy of the windmill rotor shaft into thermal energy. An anemometer shaft, which rotates with a velocity which is proportional to the ambient wind velocity, drives a gear train which increases or decreases the pressure on the friction discs so that the load on the rotor is increased or decreased, in an offsetting manner, as the wind velocity changes.

  13. Gas shielding apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Brandt, D.

    1984-06-05

    An apparatus for preventing oxidation by uniformly distributing inert shielding gas over the weld area of workpieces such as pipes being welded together. The apparatus comprises a chamber and a gas introduction element. The chamber has an annular top wall, an annular bottom wall, an inner side wall and an outer side wall connecting the top and bottom walls. One side wall is a screen and the other has a portion defining an orifice. The gas introduction element has a portion which encloses the orifice and can be one or more pipes. The gas introduction element is in fluid communication with the chamber and introduces inert shielding gas into the chamber. The inert gas leaves the chamber through the screen side wall and is dispersed evenly over the weld area.

  14. Gas shielding apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Brandt, D.

    1985-12-31

    An apparatus is disclosed for preventing oxidation by uniformly distributing inert shielding gas over the weld area of workpieces such as pipes being welded together. The apparatus comprises a chamber and a gas introduction element. The chamber has an annular top wall, an annular bottom wall, an inner side wall and an outer side wall connecting the top and bottom walls. One side wall is a screen and the other has a portion defining an orifice. The gas introduction element has a portion which encloses the orifice and can be one or more pipes. The gas introduction element is in fluid communication with the chamber and introduces inert shielding gas into the chamber. The inert gas leaves the chamber through the screen side wall and is dispersed evenly over the weld area. 3 figs.

  15. Gas shielding apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Brandt, Daniel (Los Alamos, NM)

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus for preventing oxidation by uniformly distributing inert shielding gas over the weld area of workpieces such as pipes being welded together. The apparatus comprises a chamber and a gas introduction element. The chamber has an annular top wall, an annular bottom wall, an inner side wall and an outer side wall connecting the top and bottom walls. One side wall is a screen and the other has a portion defining an orifice. The gas introduction element has a portion which encloses the orifice and can be one or more pipes. The gas introduction element is in fluid communication with the chamber and introduces inert shielding gas into the chamber. The inert gas leaves the chamber through the screen side wall and is dispersed evenly over the weld area.

  16. Coiled tubing apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Baugh, B.F.

    1981-05-05

    Disclosed are coiled tubing apparatus for operating on wells. A tubing injector head is supported on a mast and is moveable to selected elevations along the mast. The mast includes a lower section maintained in upright orientation, and an upper section which is pivotally joined to the lower section. The injector head may be lowered below the pivot point and the mast folded for transportation purposes. A chain drive maneuvers the injector head in one horizontal direction, and a fluid pressure cylinder maneuvers the injector head in a second horizontal direction generally orthogonal to the first. The chain drive is fitted with a worm gear coupling to positively lock the injector head in position. A height-adjustable level wind tubing guide directs the tubing onto or off of a reel. The base of the apparatus is fitted with a track along which a blowout preventer may be moved for subsequent positioning over a well.

  17. Microscope collision protection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    DeNure, Charles R. (Pocatello, ID)

    2001-10-23

    A microscope collision protection apparatus for a remote control microscope which protects the optical and associated components from damage in the event of an uncontrolled collision with a specimen, regardless of the specimen size or shape. In a preferred embodiment, the apparatus includes a counterbalanced slide for mounting the microscope's optical components. This slide replaces the rigid mounts on conventional upright microscopes with a precision ball bearing slide. As the specimen contacts an optical component, the contacting force will move the slide and the optical components mounted thereon. This movement will protect the optical and associated components from damage as the movement causes a limit switch to be actuated, thereby stopping all motors responsible for the collision.

  18. Wet atmospheric generation apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamner, Richard M.; Allen, Janice K.

    1990-03-01

    The invention described relates to an apparatus for providing a selectively humidified gas to a camera canister containing cameras and film used in space. A source of pressurized gas (leak test gas or motive gas) is selected by a valve, regulated to a desired pressure by a regulator, and routed through an ejector (venturi device). A regulated source of water vapor in the form of steam from a heated reservoir is coupled to a low pressure region of the ejector which mixes with high velocity gas flow through the ejector. This mixture is sampled by a dew point sensor to obtain dew point thereof (ratio of water vapor to gas) and the apparatus adjusted by varying gas pressure or water vapor to provide a mixture at a connector having selected humidity content.

  19. Refrigerant reclaim apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Van Steenburgh, L.R.

    1992-02-11

    This patent describes an apparatus for reclaiming refrigerant. It comprises: cleaning means for removing gaseous or liquid refrigerant from a container, vaporizing all of the liquid refrigerant and separating oil from the gaseous refrigerant, a compressor for receiving and compressing the gaseous refrigerant from the containers, a condenser for receiving and condensing the gaseous refrigerant from the compressor, storing means for receiving and storing the liquid refrigerant from the condenser, removal means for removing condensed refrigerant out from the storing means, and evacuations beans for evacuating high pressure gaseous refrigerant from the entire apparatus after all of the condenser refrigerant has been removed the storing means; the evacuation means comprised of the three-way solenoid valve and an operator activated switch functionally associated with the solenoid valve wherein the activation of the switch caused the evacuation of high pressure gaseous refrigerant; and the evacuation means located adjacent to and in fluid communication with the exit of the compressor.

  20. Portable shower apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grenier, Francis E. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A multipurpose, collapsible, shower apparatus for use almost anywhere but especially adapted for use in places somewhat remote from civilization such as recreational vehicles, campers, the outdoors, space vehicles and the like where there may be a limited amount of water or other liquid. The collapsible shower apparatus includes a curtain assembly having an inner wall, an outer wall and a porous element for separating the inner and outer walls; a series of spaced hollow hoops connected by one or more sets of hollow tubes (manifolds); one or more nozzles connected to and in communication with at least one of the hollow hoops; a source of fluid under pressure in communication with at least one of the hollow hoops; and a suction pump for withdrawing fluid from the interior of the curtain assembly.

  1. Electrowinning apparatus and process

    DOEpatents

    Buschmann, Wayne E. (Boulder, CO)

    2012-06-19

    Apparatus and processes are disclosed for electrowinning metal from a fluid stream. A representative apparatus comprises at least one spouted bed reactor wherein each said reactor includes an anolyte chamber comprising an anode and configured for containing an anolyte, a catholyte chamber comprising a current collector and configured for containing a particulate cathode bed and a flowing stream of an electrically conductive metal-containing fluid, and a membrane separating said anolyte chamber and said catholyte chamber, an inlet for an electrically conductive metal-containing fluid stream; and a particle bed churning device configured for spouting particle bed particles in the catholyte chamber independently of the flow of said metal-containing fluid stream. In operation, reduced heavy metals or their oxides are recovered from the cathode particles.

  2. Apparatus Circulates Sterilizing Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, John H.; Schwarz, Ray P.

    1991-01-01

    Apparatus circulates sterilizing gas containing ethylene oxide and chlorofluorocarbon through laboratory or medical equipment. Confines sterilizing gas, circulating it only through parts to be treated. Consists of two units. One delivers ethylene oxide/chlorofluorocarbon gas mixture and removes gas after treatment. Other warms, humidifies, and circulates gas through equipment to be treated. Process provides reliable sterilization with negligible residual toxicity from ethylene oxide. Particularly suitable for sterilization of interiors of bioreactors, heart/lung machines, dialyzers, or other equipment including complicated tubing.

  3. Lunar deep drill apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Proposed as a baseline configuration, this rotary drill apparatus is designed to produce 100-mm diameter holes in the lunar surface at depths up to 50 meters. The drill is intended to acquire samples for scientific analysis, mineral resource location, calibration of electronic exploration devices, and foundation analysis at construction sites. It is also intended to prepare holes for emplacement of scientific instruments, the setting of structural anchors, and explosive methods in excavation and mining activities. Defined as a deep drill because of the modular drill string, it incorporates an automatic rod changer. The apparatus is teleoperated from a remote location, such as earth, utilizing supervisory control techniques. It is thus suitable for unmanned and man-tended operation. Proven terrestrial drilling technology is used to the extent it is compatible with the lunar environment. Augers and drive tubes form holes in the regolith and may be used to acquire loose samples. An inertial cutting removal system operates intermittently while rock core drilling is in progress. The apparatus is carried to the work site by a three-legged mobile platform which also provides a 2-meter feed along the hole centerline, an off-hole movement of approximately .5 meters, an angular alignment of up to 20 deg. from gravity vertical, and other dexterity required in handling rods and samples. The technology can also be applied using other carriers which incorporate similar motion capabilities. The apparatus also includes storage racks for augers, rods, and ancillary devices such as the foot-plate that holds the down-hole tooling during rod changing operations.

  4. Pruning apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Dellinger, R.D.

    1997-12-09

    The present invention is an automated pruning apparatus that requires little or no follow-up hand pruning and requires no sensors to avoid supportive trunks or posts. The present invention uses at least one pair of flat, close angled toothed, counter rotating blades. Woody branches are directed to the counter rotating blades first with a lifting arm and secondly by a quilled drum. 16 figs.

  5. Demand illumination control apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Carl (Inventor); Arline, Jimmie (Inventor); LaPalme, Julius (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Solar illuminating compensating apparatus is disclosed whereby the interior of a building is illuminated to a substantially constant, predetermined level of light intensity by a combination of natural illumination from the sun and artificial illumination from electricity wherein the intensity of said artificial illumination is controlled by fully electronic means which increases the level of artificial illumination when the natural illumination is inadequate and vice versa.

  6. Ion beam generating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Ian G. (1088 Woodside Rd., Berkeley, CA 94708); Galvin, James (2 Commodore #276, Emeryville, CA 94608)

    1987-01-01

    An ion generating apparatus utilizing a vacuum chamber, a cathode and an anode in the chamber. A source of electrical power produces an arc or discharge between the cathode and anode. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma is directed to an extractor which separates the electrons from the plasma, and accelerates the ions to produce an ion beam.

  7. Portable cutting apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, Richard F. (Kennewick, WA)

    1986-01-01

    A remotely operable, portable cutting apparatus detachably secured to the workpiece by laterally spaced clamp assemblies engageable with the workpiece on opposite sides of the intended line of cut. A reciprocal cutter head is mounted between the clamp assemblies and is provided with a traveling abrasive cutting wire adapted to sever the workpiece normal to the longitudinal axis thereof. Dust and debris are withdrawn from the cutting area by a vacuum force through a nozzle mounted on the cutting head.

  8. Portable cutting apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, R.F.

    1984-07-17

    A remotely operable, portable cutting apparatus detachably secured to the workpiece by laterally spaced clamp assemblies engagable with the workpiece on opposite sides of the intended line of cut. A reciprocal cutter head is mounted between the clamp assemblies and is provided with a traveling abrasive cutting wire adapted to sever the workpiece normal to the longitudinal axis thereof. Dust and debris are withdrawn from the cutting area by a vacuum force through a nozzle mounted on the cutting head.

  9. Liquid sheet radiator apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An external flow, liquid sheet radiator apparatus adapted for space applications has as its radiating surface a thin stable liquid sheet formed by fluid flow through a very narrow slit affixed to the sheet generator. As a result of surface tension forces, the sheet has a triangular shape and is collected into a simply designed collector positioned at the apex of the triangle. The specific power for the liquid sheet is virtually the same as the droplet sheet specific power.

  10. Automatic temperature adjustment apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Chaplin, James E.

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus for increasing the efficiency of a conventional central space heating system is disclosed. The temperature of a fluid heating medium is adjusted based on a measurement of the external temperature, and a system parameter. The system parameter is periodically modified based on a closed loop process that monitors the operation of the heating system. This closed loop process provides a heating medium temperature value that is very near the optimum for energy efficiency.

  11. Ion beam generating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Brown, I.G.; Galvin, J.

    1987-12-22

    An ion generating apparatus utilizing a vacuum chamber, a cathode and an anode in the chamber. A source of electrical power produces an arc or discharge between the cathode and anode. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma is directed to an extractor which separates the electrons from the plasma, and accelerates the ions to produce an ion beam. 10 figs.

  12. Radiation therapy imaging apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, T.J.; Shoenfeld, H.; Greenway, W.C.

    1991-02-19

    This patent describes a radiation therapy imaging apparatus for providing images in a patient being treated on a radiation therapy apparatus for verification and monitoring of patient positioning and verification of alignment and shaping of the radiation field of the radiation therapy apparatus. It comprises: a high-energy treatment head for applying a radiation dose to a patient positioned on a treatment table, and a gantry rotatable about an isocentric axis and carrying the treatment head for permitting the radiation dose to be applied to the patient from any of a range of angles about the isocentric axis; the radiation therapy imaging apparatus including a radiation therapy image detector which comprises a video camera mounted on the gantry diametrically opposite the treat head, an elongated light-excluding enclosure enveloping the camera to exclude ambient light from the camera, a fluoroscopic plate positioned on a distal end of the enclosure remote from the camera and aligned with the head to produce a fluoroscopic image in response to radiation applied from the head through the patient, mirror means in the enclosure and oriented for reflecting the image to the camera to permit monitoring on a viewing screen of the position of the radiation field in respect to the patient, and means for retracting at least the distal end of the enclosure from a position in which the fluoroscopic plate is disposed opposite the treatment head without disturbing the position of the camera on the gantry, so that the enclosure can be collapsed and kept from projecting under the treatment table when the patient is being positioned on the treatment table.

  13. Fire suppressing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Buttrey, Kenneth E. (Northridge, CA)

    1982-11-02

    Apparatus for smothering a liquid sodium fire comprises a pan, a perforated cover on the pan, and tubes depending from the cover and providing communication between the interior of the pan and the ambient atmosphere through the perforations in the cover. Liquid caught in the pan rises above the lower ends of the tubes and thus serves as a barrier which limits the amount of air entering the pan.

  14. Heat exchange apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.

    2003-08-12

    A heat exchange apparatus comprising a coolant conduit or heat sink having attached to its surface a first radial array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins or needles and a second radial array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins or needles thermally coupled to a body to be cooled and meshed with, but not contacting the first radial array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins or needles.

  15. Kinesimetric method and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, W. E. (inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the determination of functional capability of bodies are disclosed. Reach as well as velocity, acceleration and force generation at various positions may be determined for a body by a three dimensional kinesimeter equipped with an ergometer. A general data package indicative of performance potential of a subject body or collection of bodies is provided for interfacing with data characteristics of various environments.

  16. Polarized internal target apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Holt, R.J.

    1984-10-10

    A polarized internal target apparatus with a polarized gas target of improved polarization and density (achieved by mixing target gas atoms with a small amount of alkali metal gas atoms, and passing a high intensity polarized light source into the mixture to cause the alkali metal gas atoms to become polarized which interact in spin exchange collisions with target gas atoms yielding polarized target gas atoms) is described.

  17. Visual examination apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, R. F.; Fitzgerald, J. W.; Rositano, S. A. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An automated visual examination apparatus for measuring visual sensitivity and mapping blind spot location including a projection system for displaying to a patient a series of visual stimuli. A response switch enables him to indicate his reaction to the stimuli, and a recording system responsive to both the visual stimuli per se and the patient's response. The recording system thereby provides a correlated permanent record of both stimuli and response from which a substantive and readily apparent visual evaluation can be made.

  18. Pyrolysis process and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Chang-Kuei (Sewell, NJ)

    1983-01-01

    This invention discloses a process and apparatus for pyrolyzing particulate coal by heating with a particulate solid heating media in a transport reactor. The invention tends to dampen fluctuations in the flow of heating media upstream of the pyrolysis zone, and by so doing forms a substantially continuous and substantially uniform annular column of heating media flowing downwardly along the inside diameter of the reactor. The invention is particularly useful for bituminous or agglomerative type coals.

  19. Micro coring apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, David; Brooks, Marshall; Chen, Paul; Dwelle, Paul; Fischer, Ben

    1989-01-01

    A micro-coring apparatus for lunar exploration applications, that is compatible with the other components of the Walking Mobile Platform, was designed. The primary purpose of core sampling is to gain an understanding of the geological composition and properties of the prescribed environment. This procedure has been used extensively for Earth studies and in limited applications during lunar explorations. The corer is described and analyzed for effectiveness.

  20. Radioactive waste processing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Robert E. (Lombard, IL); Ziegler, Anton A. (Darien, IL); Serino, David F. (Maplewood, MN); Basnar, Paul J. (Western Springs, IL)

    1987-01-01

    Apparatus for use in processing radioactive waste materials for shipment and storage in solid form in a container is disclosed. The container includes a top, and an opening in the top which is smaller than the outer circumference of the container. The apparatus includes an enclosure into which the container is placed, solution feed apparatus for adding a solution containing radioactive waste materials into the container through the container opening, and at least one rotatable blade for blending the solution with a fixing agent such as cement or the like as the solution is added into the container. The blade is constructed so that it can pass through the opening in the top of the container. The rotational axis of the blade is displaced from the center of the blade so that after the blade passes through the opening, the blade and container can be adjusted so that one edge of the blade is adjacent the cylindrical wall of the container, to insure thorough mixing. When the blade is inside the container, a substantially sealed chamber is formed to contain vapors created by the chemical action of the waste solution and fixant, and vapors emanating through the opening in the container.

  1. Vortex Apparatus and Demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakerin, Said

    2010-05-01

    Vortex flow, from millimeter to kilometer in scale, is important in many scientific and technological areas. Examples are seen in water strider locomotion, from industrial pipe flow (wastewater treatment) to air traffic control (safe distance between aircrafts on a runway ready for takeoff) to atmospheric studies.2-5 In this paper, we focus on a particular vortex known as bathtub vortex (BTV). It occurs when water is drained from a hole at the bottom of a container such as a bathtub or a sink under the action of gravity. The vortex has a funnel shape with a central air core, resembling a tornado. We have designed a portable apparatus to demonstrate bathtub vortex on a continual basis. The apparatus consists of a clear cylinder supported by a frame over a water reservoir and a submersible pump. Young and old have been equally amazed by watching the demonstrations at various public presentations held at the University of the Pacific recently. With material cost of less than 100, the apparatus can be easily fabricated and used at other universities. With a short set-up time, it is an ideal device for promoting science to the general public, and it can be used to enhance lectures in physics courses as well.

  2. Kuiper Belt Mapping Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, A.; Nilsen, E.

    2001-01-01

    Since their initial discovery in 1992, to date only a relatively small number of Kuiper Belt Objects (KBO's) have been discovered. Current detection techniques rely on frame-to-frame comparisons of images collected by optical telescopes such as Hubble, to detect KBO's as they move against the background stellar field. Another technique involving studies of KBO's through occultation of known stars has been proposed. Such techniques are serendipitous, not systematic, and may lead to an inadequate understanding of the size, range, and distribution of KBO's. In this paper, a future Kuiper Belt Mapping Radar is proposed as a solution to the problem of mapping the size distribution, extent, and range of KBO's. This approach can also be used to recover radar albedo and object rotation rates. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  3. New weather radar coming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggs, William Ward

    What would you call the next generation of radar for severe weather prediction? NEXRAD, of course. A prototype for the new system was recently completed in Norman, Okla., and by the early 1990s up to 195 stations around the United States will be tracking dangerous weather and sending faster, more accurate, and more detailed warnings to the public.NEXRAD is being built for the Departments of Commerce, Transportation, and Defense by the Unisys Corporation under a $450 million contract signed in December 1987. Th e system will be used by the National Weather Service, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the U.S. Air Force and Navy. The NEXRAD radar tower in Norman is expected to be operational in October.

  4. Radar images of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muhleman, Duane O.; Butler, Bryan J.; Grossman, Arie W.; Slade, Martin A.

    1991-01-01

    VLA radar-reflected flux-density mappings have yielded full disk images of Mars which reveal near-surface features, including a region in the Tharsis volcano area that displayed no echo to the very low level of the radar-system noise. This feature is interpreted as a deposit of dust or ash whose density is less than about 0.5 g/cu cm; it must be several meters thick, and may be much deeper. The most strongly reflecting geological feature was the south polar ice cap, which is interpretable as arising from nearly-pure CO2 or H2O ice, with less than 2 vol pct Martian dust. Only one anomalous reflecting feature was identified outside the Tharsis region.

  5. RADAR Reveals Titan Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirk, R. L.; Callahan, P.; Seu, R.; Lorenz, R. D.; Paganelli, F.; Lopes, R.; Elachi, C.

    2005-01-01

    The Cassini Titan RADAR Mapper is a K(sub u)-band (13.78 GHz, lambda = 2.17 cm) linear polarized RADAR instrument capable of operating in synthetic aperture (SAR), scatterometer, altimeter and radiometer modes. During the first targeted flyby of Titan on 26 October, 2004 (referred to as Ta) observations were made in all modes. Evidence for topographic relief based on the Ta altimetry and SAR data are presented here. Additional SAR and altimetry observations are planned for the T3 encounter on 15 February, 2005, but have not been carried out at this writing. Results from the T3 encounter relevant to topography will be included in our presentation. Data obtained in the Ta encounter include a SAR image swath

  6. Radar cross-sectional study using noise radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freundorfer, A. P.; Siddiqui, J. Y.; Antar, Y. M. M.

    2015-05-01

    A noise radar system is proposed with capabilities to measure and acquire the radar cross-section (RCS) of targets. The proposed system can cover a noise bandwidth of near DC to 50 GHz. The noise radar RCS measurements were conducted for selective targets like spheres and carpenter squares with and without dielectric bodies for a noise band of 400MHz-5000MHz. The bandwidth of operation was limited by the multiplier and the antennae used.

  7. 51. View of upper radar scanner switch in radar scanner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. View of upper radar scanner switch in radar scanner building 105 from upper catwalk level showing emanating waveguides from upper switch (upper one-fourth of photograph) and emanating waveguides from lower radar scanner switch in vertical runs. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  8. 41. Perimeter acquisition radar building radar element and coaxial display, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. Perimeter acquisition radar building radar element and coaxial display, with drawing of typical antenna section. Drawing, from left to right, shows element, aluminum ground plane, cable connectors and hardware, cable, and back-up ring. Grey area is the concrete wall - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  9. Goldstone solar system radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurgens, Raymond F.

    1991-01-01

    Caltech/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) radar astronomers made use of the Very Large Array (VLA) at Socorro, NM, during February 1990, to receive radio echoes from the planet Venus. The transmitter was the 70 meter antenna at the Goldstone complex northwest of Barstow, CA. These observations contain new information about the roughness of Venus at cm to decimeter scales and are complementary to information being obtained by the Magellan spacecraft. Asteroid observations are also discussed.

  10. Radar detection of Iapetus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, G. J.; Campbell, D. B.; Carter, L. M.; Ostro, S. J.

    2002-09-01

    We have obtained echoes from the bright, trailing hemisphere of Iapetus using the Arecibo Observatory's 13-cm radar system on three dates in January 2002. A circularly polarized signal was transmitted and an echo in the opposite circular (OC) sense to that transmitted was clearly received along with a much weaker detection of echo power in the same circular (SC) sense. Prior to this experiment, one expectation may have been that the radar scattering properties of Iapetus may behave like the similar atmosphere-less, icy surfaces of the Galilean satellites which, due to an efficient multiple scattering mechanism, are strong backscatterers with SC reflections stronger than their OC reflections. Instead we find that Iapetus' radar cross section and polarization properties are very different from those of the icy Galilean satellites, and more reminiscent of less efficient and less exotic scattering mechanisms such as dominate the echoes from inner Solar System targets. Thus these observations indicate that there is a significant difference between the surface properties of Iapetus and the icy Galileans despite their overall classification as low temperature, water ice surfaces. A plausible explanation for Iapetus' inefficient scattering is that contaminants in the water ice increase the absorption of the signal and suppress any multiple scattering. Likely contaminants on Iapetus are ammonia and the dark material from Cassini Regio embedded below the surface. Proposed observations will seek to measure Iapetus' radar scattering law and to detect the dark, leading side which was not targeted during this observing session. The Arecibo Observatory is part of the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center, which is operated by Cornell University under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  11. Comet radar explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnham, Tony; Asphaug, Erik; Barucci, Antonella; Belton, Mike; Bockelee-Morvan, Dominique; Brownlee, Donald; Capria, Maria Teresa; Carter, Lynn; Chesley, Steve; Farnham, Tony; Gaskell, Robert; Gim, Young; Heggy, Essam; Herique, Alain; Klaasen, Ken; Kofman, Wlodek; Kreslavsky, Misha; Lisse, Casey; Orosei, Roberto; Plaut, Jeff; Scheeres, Dan

    The Comet Radar Explorer (CORE) is designed to perform a comprehensive and detailed exploration of the interior, surface, and inner coma structures of a scientifically impor-tant Jupiter family comet. These structures will be used to investigate the origins of cometary nuclei, their physical and geological evolution, and the mechanisms driving their spectacular activity. CORE is a high heritage spacecraft, injected by solar electric propulsion into orbit around a comet. It is capable of coherent deep radar imaging at decameter wavelengths, high resolution stereo color imaging, and near-IR imaging spectroscopy. Its primary objective is to obtain a high-resolution map of the interior structure of a comet nucleus at a resolution of 100 elements across the diameter. This structure shall be related to the surface geology and morphology, and to the structural details of the coma proximal to the nucleus. This is an ideal complement to the science from recent comet missions, providing insight into how comets work. Knowing the structure of the interior of a comet-what's inside-and how cometary activity works, is required before we can understand the requirements for a cryogenic sample return mission. But more than that, CORE is fundamental to understanding the origin of comets and their evolution in time. The mission is made feasible at low cost by the use of now-standard MARSIS-SHARAD reflec-tion radar imaging hardware and data processing, together with proven flight heritage of solar electric propulsion. Radar flight heritage has been demonstrated by the MARSIS radar on Mars Express (Picardi et al., Science 2005; Plaut et al., Science 2007), the SHARAD radar onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (Seu et al., JGR 2007), and the LRS radar onboard Kaguya (Ono et al, EPS 2007). These instruments have discovered detailed subsurface structure to depths of several kilometers in a variety of terrains on Mars and the Moon. A reflection radar deployed in orbit about a comet will enjoy significant simplifying benefits compared to using the same instrument for Mars or lunar radar science: (1) The proximity of operations leads to a much higher signal to noise, as much as +30 dB. (2) The lack of an ionosphere simplifies data modeling and analysis. (3) The body is globally illuminated during every data acquisition, minimizing ambiguity or 'clutter' and allowing for tomographic reconstruction. What is novel is the data processing, where instead of a planar radargram approach we coherently process the data into an image of the deep interior. CORE thus uses a MARSIS-SHARAD heritage radar to make coherent reflection sounding measurements, a 'CAT SCAN' of a comet nucleus. What is unique about this mission compared to the Mars radars mentioned above, is that the target is a finite mass of dirty ice in free space, rather than a sheet of dirty ice draped on a planet surface. The depth of penetration (kilometers), attainable resolution (decameters), and the target materials, are more or less the same. This means that the science story is robust, and the radar implementation is robust. The target is comet 10P/Tempel 2, discovered by Wilhelm Tempel in 1873 and observed on most apparitions since. It has been extensively studied, in part because of interest as a CRAF target in the mid-1980s, and much is known about it. Tempel 2 is one of the largest known comet nuclei, 1688 km (about the same size as Halley) [1] and has rotation period 8.9 hours [3,5,6,7,9]. The spin state is evolving with time, spinning up by 10 sec per perihelion pass [5,7]. The comet is active, but not exceedingly so, especially given its size. The water production is measured at 4 1028 mol/sec at its peak [2], a factor of 25 lower than comet Halley, and it is active over only 2% of its surface. The dust environment is well known, producing a factor of 100 less dust than Halley. Comet References: [1] A'Hearn et al., ApJ 347, 1155, 1989 [2] Feldman and Festou, ACM 1991, p. 171, 1992 [3] Jewitt and Luu, AJ 97, 1766, 1989 [4] Lamy et al., Comets II p 223. 2009 [5] Mueller and Ferrin, Icarus 123, 463, 1996 [6] Sekanina, AJ 102, 350, 1991 [7] Schleicher et al., BAAS 41, 1028, 2009 [8] Sykes et al, Icarus 86, 236, 1990 [9] Wisniewsi, Icarus 86, 52, 1990

  12. Radar gun hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-20

    Radar guns - hand-held units used by the law to nail speeders - have been in use since the early '60s. Now they've been accused of causing cancer. Police officers in several states have so far filed eight suits against the manufacturer, claiming that they have contracted rare forms of cancer, such as of the eyelid and the testicle, from frequent proximity to the devices. Spurred by concerns expressed by police groups, researchers at the Rochester Institute of Technology are conducting what they believe to be the first research of its kind in the nation. Last month psychologist John Violanti, an expert in policy psychology and health, sent out a one-page survey to 6,000 active and retired police officers in New York State, asking them about their health and their use of radar guns. Violanti says melanoma, leukemia, and lymph node cancer may be linked to these as well as other electromagnetic devices. The Food and Drug Administration earlier this year issued a warning about radar guns, telling users not to operate them closer than 6 inches from the body. But this may not be a sufficient safeguard since the instruments can give off crisscrossing wave emissions within a police vehicle. The survey will be used to help determine if it would be safer to mount the guns, which are currently either hand-held or mounted on dashboards, outside troopers' cars.

  13. Tag loss and short-term mortality associated with passive integrated transponder tagging of juvenile Lost River suckers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burdick, Summer M.

    2011-01-01

    Passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags are commonly used to mark small catostomids, but tag loss and the effect of tagging on mortality have not been assessed for juveniles of the endangered Lost River sucker Deltistes luxatus. I evaluated tag loss and short-term (34-d) mortality associated with the PIT tagging of juvenile Lost River suckers in the laboratory by using a completely randomized design and three treatment groups (PIT tagged, positive control, and control). An empty needle was inserted into each positive control fish, whereas control fish were handled but not tagged. Only one fish expelled its PIT tag. Mortality rate averaged 9.8 3.4% (mean SD) for tagged fish; mortality was 0% for control and positive control fish. All tagging mortalities occurred in fish with standard lengths of 71 mm or less, and most of the mortalities occurred within 48 h of tagging. My results indicate that 12.45- 2.02-mm PIT tags provide a viable method of marking juvenile Lost River suckers that are 72 mm or larger.

  14. Designing a Ring-VCO for RFID Transponders in 0.18 μm CMOS Process

    PubMed Central

    Jalil, Jubayer; Reaz, Mamun Bin Ibne; Bhuiyan, Mohammad Arif Sobhan; Rahman, Labonnah Farzana; Chang, Tae Gyu

    2014-01-01

    In radio frequency identification (RFID) systems, performance degradation of phase locked loops (PLLs) mainly occurs due to high phase noise of voltage-controlled oscillators (VCOs). This paper proposes a low power, low phase noise ring-VCO developed for 2.42 GHz operated active RFID transponders compatible with IEEE 802.11 b/g, Bluetooth, and Zigbee protocols. For ease of integration and implementation of the module in tiny die area, a novel pseudodifferential delay cell based 3-stage ring oscillator has been introduced to fabricate the ring-VCO. In CMOS technology, 0.18 μm process is adopted for designing the circuit with 1.5 V power supply. The postlayout simulated results show that the proposed oscillator works in the tuning range of 0.5–2.54 GHz and dissipates 2.47 mW of power. It exhibits a phase noise of −126.62 dBc/Hz at 25 MHz offset from 2.42 GHz carrier frequency. PMID:24587731

  15. Designing a ring-VCO for RFID transponders in 0.18 μm CMOS process.

    PubMed

    Jalil, Jubayer; Reaz, Mamun Bin Ibne; Bhuiyan, Mohammad Arif Sobhan; Rahman, Labonnah Farzana; Chang, Tae Gyu

    2014-01-01

    In radio frequency identification (RFID) systems, performance degradation of phase locked loops (PLLs) mainly occurs due to high phase noise of voltage-controlled oscillators (VCOs). This paper proposes a low power, low phase noise ring-VCO developed for 2.42 GHz operated active RFID transponders compatible with IEEE 802.11 b/g, Bluetooth, and Zigbee protocols. For ease of integration and implementation of the module in tiny die area, a novel pseudodifferential delay cell based 3-stage ring oscillator has been introduced to fabricate the ring-VCO. In CMOS technology, 0.18 μm process is adopted for designing the circuit with 1.5 V power supply. The postlayout simulated results show that the proposed oscillator works in the tuning range of 0.5-2.54 GHz and dissipates 2.47 mW of power. It exhibits a phase noise of -126.62 dBc/Hz at 25 MHz offset from 2.42 GHz carrier frequency. PMID:24587731

  16. Hepatic heat shock protein 70 and plasma cortisol levels in rainbow trout after tagging with a passive integrated transponder

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feldhaus, J.W.; Heppell, S.A.; Mesa, M.G.; Li, H.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the potentially stressful effects of tagging juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags by measuring short-term (<120-h) changes in plasma concentrations of cortisol and hepatic heat shock protein 70 (hsp70). In a laboratory experiment, plasma cortisol levels were measured in fish before they were tagged (0 h) and at 2, 6, 24, and 120 h after being tagged. Hepatic hsp70 levels were measured at 0, 24, and 120 h. All results were compared with those for fish that were handled but not tagged. Plasma cortisol levels were significantly higher in both treatment groups (tagged and handled but not tagged) at 2 h than in the pretreatment groups (0 h). Plasma cortisol levels in the treatment groups returned to near pretreatment levels by 6 h. However, there was a significant difference in plasma cortisol levels between treatment groups at 6 h. There were no significant differences in hepatic hsp70 levels among the two treatment groups, and hepatic hsp70 levels did not change through time. Our results suggest that PIT tagging is a low-impact tagging procedure for juvenile salmonids. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  17. A model for estimating passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag antenna efficiencies for interval-specific emigration rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horton, G.E.; Dubreuil, T.L.; Letcher, B.H.

    2007-01-01

    Our goal was to understand movement and its interaction with survival for populations of stream salmonids at long-term study sites in the northeastern United States by employing passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and associated technology. Although our PIT tag antenna arrays spanned the stream channel (at most flows) and were continuously operated, we are aware that aspects of fish behavior, environmental characteristics, and electronic limitations influenced our ability to detect 100% of the emigration from our stream site. Therefore, we required antenna efficiency estimates to adjust observed emigration rates. We obtained such estimates by testing a full-scale physical model of our PIT tag antenna array in a laboratory setting. From the physical model, we developed a statistical model that we used to predict efficiency in the field. The factors most important for predicting efficiency were external radio frequency signal and tag type. For most sampling intervals, there was concordance between the predicted and observed efficiencies, which allowed us to estimate the true emigration rate for our field populations of tagged salmonids. One caveat is that the model's utility may depend on its ability to characterize external radio frequency signals accurately. Another important consideration is the trade-off between the volume of data necessary to model efficiency accurately and the difficulty of storing and manipulating large amounts of data.

  18. Low probability of intercept radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleher, D. C.

    The objective of LPI radars is defined and performance characteristics are examined. A performance criterion relating the range at which the LPI radar can detect a target to the range at which an intercept receiver aboard the target can detect the LPI radar is defined. The response of various operational and advanced intercept receivers to wideband LPI radar waveforms is explored. The performance criterion is evaluated as a function of the LPI radars time-bandwidth product and sidelobe response (both ordinary and ultralow) for a number of operational and advanced intercept receivers. An ambiguity diagram that provides the response of the intercept receiver to the LPI waveform for mismatches in receiver time and frequency response is described. The ambiguity diagram is evaluated for various mismatched receivers. A processor is discussed that improves the response of intercept receivers to pulse compression radar waveforms.

  19. Outline of the Mu radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kato, S.

    1983-01-01

    A middle and upper atmospheric radar system is described. The antenna array consists of 25 groups each of which consists of 19 crossed-Yagis with three elements; each antenna has semiconductor transmitter and receiver, called a module, and each group of 19 antennas works as an independent small radar steering its radar beam under the control of a microcomputer. Thus, the total system consists of 25 small radars of this kind, enabling one to do various sophisticated operations with the system. The system is controlled by two other computers, one for radar controlling (HP9835A) and the other for data taking and on-line analysis (VAX11/750). The computer-controlled system is simple in operation for users and reliable in observation. Very quick beam steering (as quick as in a msec) is also possible because of electronic phase-changing of each module output under control of the microcomputer which is further controlled by the radar controller.

  20. A review of array radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brookner, E.

    1981-10-01

    Achievements in the area of array radars are illustrated by such activities as the operational deployment of the large high-power, high-range-resolution Cobra Dane; the operational deployment of two all-solid-state high-power, large UHF Pave Paws radars; and the development of the SAM multifunction Patriot radar. This paper reviews the following topics: array radars steered in azimuth and elevation by phase shifting (phase-phase steered arrays); arrays steered + or - 60 deg, limited scan arrays, hemispherical coverage, and omnidirectional coverage arrays; array radars steering electronically in only one dimension, either by frequency or by phase steering; and array radar antennas which use no electronic scanning but instead use array antennas for achieving low antenna sidelobes.

  1. Cognitive processing for nonlinear radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martone, Anthony; Ranney, Kenneth; Hedden, Abigail; Mazzaro, Gregory; McNamara, David

    2013-05-01

    An increasingly cluttered electromagnetic environment (EME) is a growing problem for radar systems. This problem is becoming critical as the available frequency spectrum shrinks due to growing wireless communication device usage and changing regulations. A possible solution to these problems is cognitive radar, where the cognitive radar learns from the environment and intelligently modifies the transmit waveform. In this paper, a cognitive nonlinear radar processing framework is introduced where the main components of this framework consist of spectrum sensing processing, target detection and classification, and decision making. The emphasis of this paper is to introduce a spectrum sensing processing technique that identifies a transmit-receive frequency pair for nonlinear radar. It will be shown that the proposed technique successfully identifies a transmit-receive frequency pair for nonlinear radar from data collected from the EME.

  2. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farr, Tom G.; Rosen, Paul A.; Caro, Edward; Crippen, Robert; Duren, Riley; Hensley, Scott; Kobrick, Michael; Paller, Mimi; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Roth, Ladislav; Seal, David; Shaffer, Scott; Shimada, Joanne; Umland, Jeffrey; Werner, Marian; Oskin, Michael; Burbank, Douglas; Alsdorf, Douglas

    2007-06-01

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission produced the most complete, highest-resolution digital elevation model of the Earth. The project was a joint endeavor of NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, and the German and Italian Space Agencies and flew in February 2000. It used dual radar antennas to acquire interferometric radar data, processed to digital topographic data at 1 arc sec resolution. Details of the development, flight operations, data processing, and products are provided for users of this revolutionary data set.

  3. Radar studies of bird migration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, T. C.; Williams, J. M.

    1974-01-01

    Observations of bird migration with NASA radars were made at Wallops Island, Va. Simultaneous observations were made at a number of radar sites in the North Atlantic Ocean in an effort to discover what happened to those birds that were observed leaving the coast of North America headed toward Bermuda, the Caribbean and South America. Transatlantic migration, utilizing observations from a large number of radars is discussed. Detailed studies of bird movements at Wallops Island are presented.

  4. Goldstone radar observations of Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, P. E.; Jurgens, R. F.; Leake, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    Radar observations of Mercury were made during the past two decades at the Goldstone radar facility. Correlations of these observations with geologic maps are presented in this chapter. Topographic profiles indicate that Mercurian craters are rather shallow. Some topographic features are seen on the side of Mercury not imaged by Mariner 10. There are global correlations between topography and radar roughness. Mercury's surface may be rougher on a 1-cm scale than on a 10-cm scale, in comparison with the moon.

  5. Radar-aeolian roughness project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald; Dobrovolskis, A.; Gaddis, L.; Iversen, J. D.; Lancaster, N.; Leach, Rodman N.; Rasnussen, K.; Saunders, S.; Vanzyl, J.; Wall, S.

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to establish an empirical relationship between measurements of radar, aeolian, and surface roughness on a variety of natural surfaces and to understand the underlying physical causes. This relationship will form the basis for developing a predictive equation to derive aeolian roughness from radar backscatter. Results are given from investigations carried out in 1989 on the principal elements of the project, with separate sections on field studies, radar data analysis, laboratory simulations, and development of theory for planetary applications.

  6. Radar data processing and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ausherman, D.; Larson, R.; Liskow, C.

    1976-01-01

    Digitized four-channel radar images corresponding to particular areas from the Phoenix and Huntington test sites were generated in conjunction with prior experiments performed to collect X- and L-band synthetic aperture radar imagery of these two areas. The methods for generating this imagery are documented. A secondary objective was the investigation of digital processing techniques for extraction of information from the multiband radar image data. Following the digitization, the remaining resources permitted a preliminary machine analysis to be performed on portions of the radar image data. The results, although necessarily limited, are reported.

  7. Reconfigurable L-Band Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rincon, Rafael F.

    2008-01-01

    The reconfigurable L-Band radar is an ongoing development at NASA/GSFC that exploits the capability inherently in phased array radar systems with a state-of-the-art data acquisition and real-time processor in order to enable multi-mode measurement techniques in a single radar architecture. The development leverages on the L-Band Imaging Scatterometer, a radar system designed for the development and testing of new radar techniques; and the custom-built DBSAR processor, a highly reconfigurable, high speed data acquisition and processing system. The radar modes currently implemented include scatterometer, synthetic aperture radar, and altimetry; and plans to add new modes such as radiometry and bi-static GNSS signals are being formulated. This development is aimed at enhancing the radar remote sensing capabilities for airborne and spaceborne applications in support of Earth Science and planetary exploration This paper describes the design of the radar and processor systems, explains the operational modes, and discusses preliminary measurements and future plans.

  8. Python-ARM Radar Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-17

    The Python-ARM Radar Toolkit (Py-ART) is a collection of radar quality control and retrieval codes which all work on two unifying Python objects: the PyRadar and PyGrid objects. By building ingests to several popular radar formats and then abstracting the interface Py-ART greatly simplifies data processing over several other available utilities. In addition Py-ART makes use of Numpy arrays as its primary storage mechanism enabling use of existing and extensive community software tools.

  9. Complete liquefaction methods and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.

    2013-10-15

    A method and apparatus are described to provide complete gas utilization in the liquefaction operation from a source of gas without return of natural gas to the source thereof from the process and apparatus. The mass flow rate of gas input into the system and apparatus may be substantially equal to the mass flow rate of liquefied product output from the system, such as for storage or use.

  10. Apparatus Would Stain Microscope Slides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breeding, James D.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed apparatus meters specific amounts of fluid out of containers at specific times to stain microscope slides. Intended specifically for semiautomated staining of microbiological and hematological samples in microgravity, leakproof apparatus used in other environments in which technicians have little time to allocate to staining procedures and/or exposure to toxic staining agents or to micro-organisms to be stained hazardous. Apparatus adapted to perform almost any staining procedure and accommodates multiple staining reagents, useful for small or remote clinical laboratories.

  11. A restraining apparatus for Chelonians.

    PubMed

    Rummler, G; Bell, A A

    1983-10-01

    A restraining system for the head and neck of tortoises or turtles is described which, when associated with a standard electrode carrier, can be used as a stereotaxic apparatus for Chelonians. The apparatus designed has two basic systems: one for holding the neck, the other for holding the head. They are associated with a standard electrode carrier in a common platform. Restraining apparatus. PMID:6361818

  12. Optoelectronic Apparatus Measures Glucose Noninvasively

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Rovati, Luigi L.

    2003-01-01

    An optoelectronic apparatus has been invented as a noninvasive means of measuring the concentration of glucose in the human body. The apparatus performs polarimetric and interferometric measurements of the human eye to acquire data from which the concentration of glucose in the aqueous humor can be computed. Because of the importance of the concentration of glucose in human health, there could be a large potential market for instruments based on this apparatus.

  13. Pellet inspection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Wilks, Robert S. (Plum Borough, PA); Taleff, Alexander (Churchill Borough, PA); Sturges, Jr., Robert H. (Plum Borough, PA)

    1982-01-01

    Apparatus for inspecting nuclear fuel pellets in a sealed container for diameter, flaws, length and weight. The apparatus includes, in an array, a pellet pick-up station, four pellet inspection stations and a pellet sorting station. The pellets are delivered one at a time to the pick-up station by a vibrating bowl through a vibrating linear conveyor. Grippers each associated with a successive pair of the stations are reciprocable together to pick up a pellet at the upstream station of each pair and to deposit the pellet at the corresponding downstream station. The gripper jaws are opened selectively depending on the state of the pellets at the stations and the particular cycle in which the apparatus is operating. Inspection for diameter, flaws and length is effected in each case by a laser beam projected on the pellets by a precise optical system while each pellet is rotated by rollers. Each laser and its optical system are mounted in a container which is free standing on a precise surface and is provided with locating buttons which engage locating holes in the surface so that each laser and its optical system is precisely set. The roller stands are likewise free standing and are similarly precisely positioned. The diameter optical system projects a thin beam of light which scans across the top of each pellet and is projected on a diode array. The fl GOVERNMENT CONTRACT CLAUSE The invention herein described was made in the course of or under a contract or subcontract thereunder with the Department of Energy bearing No. EY-67-14-C-2170.

  14. Borehole sealing method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hartley, James N.; Jansen, Jr., George

    1977-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for sealing boreholes in the earth. The borehole is blocked at the sealing level, and a sealing apparatus capable of melting rock and earth is positioned in the borehole just above seal level. The apparatus is heated to rock-melting temperature and powdered rock or other sealing material is transported down the borehole to the apparatus where it is melted, pooling on the mechanical block and allowed to cool and solidify, sealing the hole. Any length of the borehole can be sealed by slowly raising the apparatus in the borehole while continuously supplying powdered rock to the apparatus to be melted and added to the top of the column of molten and cooling rock, forming a continuous borehole seal. The sealing apparatus consists of a heater capable of melting rock, including means for supplying power to the heater, means for transporting powdered rock down the borehole to the heater, means for cooling the apparatus and means for positioning the apparatus in the borehole.

  15. Apparatus for chemical synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Herring, J. Stephen (Idaho Falls, ID); Grandy, Jon D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-05-10

    A method and apparatus for forming a chemical hydride is described and which includes a pseudo-plasma-electrolysis reactor which is operable to receive a solution capable of forming a chemical hydride and which further includes a cathode and a movable anode, and wherein the anode is moved into and out of fluidic, ohmic electrical contact with the solution capable of forming a chemical hydride and which further, when energized produces an oxygen plasma which facilitates the formation of a chemical hydride in the solution.

  16. Intracranial surgical operative apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, Charles H. (Inventor); Frazer, Robert E. (Inventor); Lutes, Harold R. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Apparatus for operating on the brain with minimal disturbances thereto, including a bullet-shaped expandable device with an end that can be closed for insertion through a small hole in the brain. The device can be expanded after insertion to leave an air pocket through which to extend viewing and cutting devices which enable operation on tumors or the like that lie at the end of the expanded device. A set of probes of varying diameters are also provided, to progressively enlarge a passage leading to the tumor, prior to inserting the expandable device.

  17. Vapor Diffusion Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Vapor Diffusion Apparatus (VDA-2) was developed by the University of Alabama in Birmingham for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. In the original VDA, a protein solution and a precipitant are extruded by two plungers onto the tip of a small syringe and allowed to evaporate, raising the concentration and prompting protein molecules to crystallize. In the VDA-2 version, a third plunger was added to mix the two solutions before returning the mix to the syringe tip. The principal investigator is Dr. Larry Delucas of the University of Alabama in Birmingham.

  18. Vapor Diffusion Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Vapor Diffusion Apparatus (VDA and VDA-2) was developed by the University of Alabama in Birmingham for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. In the original VDA, a protein solution and a precipitant are extruded by two plungers onto the tip of a small syringe and allowed to evaporate, raising the concentration and prompting protein molecules to crystallize. In the VDA-2 version, a third plunger was added to mix the two solutions before returning the mix to the syringe tip. The principal investigator is Dr. Larry Delucas of the University of Alabama in Birmingham

  19. APPARATUS FOR ARC WELDING

    DOEpatents

    Lingafelter, J.W.

    1960-04-01

    An apparatus is described in which a welding arc created between an annular electrode and a workpiece moves under the influence of an electromagnetic field about the electrode in a closed or annular path. This mode of welding is specially suited to the enclosing of nuclear-fuel slugs in a protective casing. For example, a uranium slug is placed in an aluminum can, and an aluminum closure is welded to the open end of the can along a closed or annular path conforming to the periphery of the end closure.

  20. Thermal stir welding apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A welding method and apparatus are provided for forming a weld joint between first and second elements of a workpiece. The method includes heating the first and second elements to form an interface of material in a plasticized or melted state interface between the elements. The interface material is then allowed to cool to a plasticized state if previously in a melted state. The interface material, while in the plasticized state, is then mixed, for example, using a grinding/extruding process, to remove any dendritic-type weld microstructures introduced into the interface material during the heating process.

  1. Compact refrigerant reclaim apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Van Steenburgh, L.R. Jr.

    1992-04-07

    This patent describes an oil separator in an apparatus for reclaiming refrigerant. It comprises an oil separation chamber, and a separate, substantially self-enclosed oil accumulator chamber held within the oil separation chamber, the oil separation chamber comprising an elongated tank, baffle means mounted in the upper portion of the interior wall of the tank, means in the lower portion of the tank permitting entry of gaseous refrigerant into the tank means above the baffle having an opening permitting gaseous refrigerant to enter the oil accumulator chamber, and means for permitting the gaseous refrigerant to leave the oil accumulator chamber and the tank.

  2. Foil changing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Crist, Charles E.; Ives, Harry C.; Leifeste, Gordon T.; Miller, Robert B.

    1988-01-01

    A self-contained hermetically sealed foil changer for advancing a portion of foil web into a position normal to the path of a high energy particle beam. The path of the beam is defined generally by an aperture plate and cooperating axially movable barrel such that the barrel can be advanced toward the plate thereby positioning a portion of the foil across the beam path and sealing the foil between the barrel and the plate to form a membrane across said beam path. A spooling apparatus contained in the foil changer permits selectively advancing a fresh supply of foil across the beam path without breaking the foil changer seal.

  3. DNA Sequencing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Tabor, Stanley; Richardson, Charles C.

    1992-01-01

    An automated DNA sequencing apparatus having a reactor for providing at least two series of DNA products formed from a single primer and a DNA strand, each DNA product of a series differing in molecular weight and having a chain terminating agent at one end; separating means for separating the DNA products to form a series bands, the intensity of substantially all nearby bands in a different series being different, band reading means for determining the position an This invention was made with government support including a grant from the U.S. Public Health Service, contract number AI-06045. The U.S. government has certain rights in the invention.

  4. Stack sampling apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Lind, Randall F; Lloyd, Peter D; Love, Lonnie J; Noakes, Mark W; Pin, Francois G; Richardson, Bradley S; Rowe, John C

    2014-09-16

    An apparatus for obtaining samples from a structure includes a support member, at least one stabilizing member, and at least one moveable member. The stabilizing member has a first portion coupled to the support member and a second portion configured to engage with the structure to restrict relative movement between the support member and the structure. The stabilizing member is radially expandable from a first configuration where the second portion does not engage with a surface of the structure to a second configuration where the second portion engages with the surface of the structure.

  5. Nitrogen fixation apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Hao-Lin (Walnut Creek, CA)

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for achieving nitrogen fixation includes a volumetric electric discharge chamber. The volumetric discharge chamber provides an even distribution of an electron beam, and enables the chamber to be maintained at a controlled energy to pressure (E/p) ratio. An E/p ratio of from 5 to 15 kV/atm of O.sub.2 /cm promotes the formation of vibrationally excited N.sub.2. Atomic oxygen interacts with vibrationally excited N.sub.2 at a much quicker rate than unexcited N.sub.2, greatly improving the rate at which NO is formed.

  6. Apparatus Impregnates Weak Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanfield, Clarence E.; Wilson, Maywood L.

    1989-01-01

    Low-cost apparatus developed for use in conventional drum winding machine to impregnate fibrous materials having very low tensile strengths. Fiber fitted onto freely-spinning unwinding creel. Unwinds from creel between two tension bars onto guide spools, aligns fiber so properly enters sealed reservoir of resin. Stainless-steel metering die at entrance to reservoir aligns fiber and seals reservoir. Beneficial results obtained by use of reservoir made of polyethylene. Composite material made from resin matrices reinforced by fibers have great potential for solving challenging and often critical problems in design of spacecraft, space structures, and terrestrial structures.

  7. Mixing method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Green, Norman W. (Redwood City, CA)

    1982-06-15

    Method of mixing particulate materials comprising contacting a primary source and a secondary source thereof whereby resulting mixture ensues; preferably at least one of the two sources has enough motion to insure good mixing and the particulate materials may be heat treated if desired. Apparatus for such mixing comprising an inlet for a primary source, a reactor communicating therewith, a feeding means for supplying a secondary source to the reactor, and an inlet for the secondary source. Feeding means is preferably adapted to supply fluidized materials.

  8. Compression test apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shanks, G. C. (inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An apparatus for compressive testing of a test specimen may comprise vertically spaced upper and lower platen members between which a test specimen may be placed. The platen members are supported by a fixed support assembly. A load indicator is interposed between the upper platen member and the support assembly for supporting the total weight of the upper platen member and any additional weight which may be placed on it. Operating means are provided for moving the lower platen member upwardly toward the upper platen member whereby an increasing portion of the total weight is transferred from the load indicator to the test specimen.

  9. Municipal waste processing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Mayberry, J.L.

    1988-04-13

    This invention relates to apparatus for processing municipal waste, and more particularly to vibrating mesh screen conveyor systems for removing grit, glass, and other noncombustible materials from dry municipal waste. Municipal waste must be properly processed and disposed of so that it does not create health risks to the community. Generally, municipal waste, which may be collected in garbage trucks, dumpsters, or the like, is deposited in processing areas such as landfills. Land and environmental controls imposed on landfill operators by governmental bodies have increased in recent years, however, making landfill disposal of solid waste materials more expensive. 6 figs.

  10. Millimeter Wave Cloud Radar (MMCR) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    KB Widener; K Johnson

    2005-01-30

    The millimeter cloud radar (MMCR) systems probe the extent and composition of clouds at millimeter wavelengths. The MMCR is a zenith-pointing radar that operates at a frequency of 35 GHz. The main purpose of this radar is to determine cloud boundaries (e.g., cloud bottoms and tops). This radar will also report radar reflectivity (dBZ) of the atmosphere up to 20 km. The radar possesses a doppler capability that will allow the measurement of cloud constituent vertical velocities.

  11. Planetary radar studies. [radar mapping of the Moon and radar signatures of lunar and Venus craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.; Cutts, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Progress made in studying the evolution of Venusian craters and the evolution of infrared and radar signatures of lunar crater interiors is reported. Comparison of radar images of craters on Venus and the Moon present evidence for a steady state Venus crater population. Successful observations at the Arecibo Observatory yielded good data on five nights when data for a mix of inner and limb areas were acquired. Lunar craters with radar bright ejects are discussed. An overview of infrared radar crater catalogs in the data base is included.

  12. Doppler radar flowmeter

    DOEpatents

    Petlevich, Walter J.; Sverdrup, Edward F.

    1978-01-01

    A Doppler radar flowmeter comprises a transceiver which produces an audio frequency output related to the Doppler shift in frequency between radio waves backscattered from particulate matter carried in a fluid and the radiated radio waves. A variable gain amplifier and low pass filter are provided for amplifying and filtering the transceiver output. A frequency counter having a variable triggering level is also provided to determine the magnitude of the Doppler shift. A calibration method is disclosed wherein the amplifier gain and frequency counter trigger level are adjusted to achieve plateaus in the output of the frequency counter and thereby allow calibration without the necessity of being able to visually observe the flow.

  13. Gas scrubbing apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, J.D.; Graves, K.M.

    1982-06-15

    Gas scrubbing apparatus for removing sulfur dioxide from a gas stream with a cleaning liquid capable of absorbing the sulfur dioxide in the gas stream comprising a housing defining scrubbing chamber therein, a plurality of baffles in the scrubbing chamber at longitudinally spaced positions therealong for generating turbulence in the gas stream and rotating the gas stream about the central axis of the scrubbing chamber, spray means for spraying the cleaning liquid into the scrubbing chamber between the baffles to absorb the sulfur dioxide from the gas stream, and a mist eliminator downstream of the baffles to remove liquid droplets from the gas stream. The baffles are oriented so that each baffle rotates the gas stream approximately ninety degrees about the central axis of the scrubbing chamber as the gas stream flows thereby with all of the baffles rotating the gas stream in the same direction about said central axis. The apparatus also includes quenching means for cooling and saturating the gas stream prior to passage into the scrubbing chamber. Filtration means may also be provided for removing submicron and larger particulates from the gas stream after passage through the scrubbing chamber.

  14. Percussive arc welding apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hollar, Jr., Donald L.

    2002-01-01

    A percussive arc welding apparatus includes a generally cylindrical actuator body having front and rear end portions and defining an internal recess. The front end of the body includes an opening. A solenoid assembly is provided in the rear end portion in the internal recess of the body, and an actuator shaft assembly is provided in the front end portion in the internal recess of the actuator body. The actuator shaft assembly includes a generally cylindrical actuator block having first and second end portions, and an actuator shaft having a front end extending through the opening in the actuator body, and the rear end connected to the first end portion of the actuator block. The second end portion of the actuator block is in operational engagement with the solenoid shaft by a non-rigid connection to reduce the adverse rebound effects of the actuator shaft. A generally transversely extending pin is rigidly secured to the rear end of the shaft. One end of the pin is received in a slot in the nose housing sleeve to prevent rotation of the actuator shaft during operation of the apparatus.

  15. Fluidized bed calciner apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Thomas J. (West Richland, WA); Klem, Jr., Michael J. (Richland, WA); Cash, Robert J. (Richland, WA)

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely calcining a slurry or solution feed stream of toxic or hazardous material, such as ammonium diurante slurry or uranyl nitrate solution, is disclosed. The calcining apparatus includes a vertical substantially cylindrical inner shell disposed in a vertical substantially cylindrical outer shell, in which inner shell is disposed a fluidized bed comprising the feed stream material to be calcined and spherical beads to aid in heat transfer. Extending through the outer and inner shells is a feed nozzle for delivering feed material or a cleaning chemical to the beads. Disposed in and extending across the lower portion of the inner shell and upstream of the fluidized bed is a support member for supporting the fluidized bed, the support member having uniform slots for directing uniform gas flow to the fluidized bed from a fluidizing gas orifice disposed upstream of the support member. Disposed in the lower portion of the inner shell are a plurality of internal electric resistance heaters for heating the fluidized bed. Disposed circumferentially about the outside length of the inner shell are a plurality of external heaters for heating the inner shell thereby heating the fluidized bed. Further, connected to the internal and external heaters is a means for maintaining the fluidized bed temperature to within plus or minus approximately 25.degree. C. of a predetermined bed temperature. Disposed about the external heaters is the outer shell for providing radiative heat reflection back to the inner shell.

  16. Fine particle separation apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Berriman, L.P.; Paul, D.G.

    1981-07-21

    An apparatus is claimed for separating almost all fine particles, including particles less than 10 microns in diameter, from a gas stream, which requires the input of only a small amount of water and which discharges a correspondingly small amount of particle-water slurry. The apparatus includes a vertical cylindrical chamber having a relatively wide upstream portion that gradually narrows in a transition portion into an elongated throat portion. A central core member extends axially along the throat portion and forms an elongated annular passage. A high velocity gas stream containing fine particles is generally tangentially introduced into the wide upstream portion of the conduit to provide a circulatory flow. Water is introduced through a plurality of parts in the transition portion downstream therefrom, to provide a thin layer of water along the outer walls of the throat. The high velocity circulatory flow of the particle-laden gas along the annular throat region causes fine particles to migrate radially outwardly under high centrifugal forces into the water layer. The water-particle slurry is discharged through a slot in the outer wall of the lower portion of the throat region. The substantially particle-free gas passes through a radial diffuser section therebelow.

  17. Heat pump apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Horowitz, Jeffrey S. (Woodridge, IL)

    1983-01-01

    A heat pump apparatus including a compact arrangement of individual tubular reactors containing hydride-dehydride beds in opposite end sections, each pair of beds in each reactor being operable by sequential and coordinated treatment with a plurality of heat transfer fluids in a plurality of processing stages, and first and second valves located adjacent the reactor end sections with rotatable members having multiple ports and associated portions for separating the hydride beds at each of the end sections into groups and for simultaneously directing a plurality of heat transfer fluids to the different groups. As heat is being generated by a group of beds, others are being regenerated so that heat is continuously available for space heating. As each of the processing stages is completed for a hydride bed or group of beds, each valve member is rotated causing the heat transfer fluid for the heat processing stage to be directed to that bed or group of beds. Each of the end sections are arranged to form a closed perimeter and the valve member may be rotated repeatedly about the perimeter to provide a continuous operation. Both valves are driven by a common motor to provide a coordinated treatment of beds in the same reactors. The heat pump apparatus is particularly suitable for the utilization of thermal energy supplied by solar collectors and concentrators but may be used with any source of heat, including a source of low-grade heat.

  18. Agitation apparatus. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Beets, A.L.; Lewis, B.E. Jr.

    1982-03-12

    Agitation apparatus includes a tank with a cylindrical upper portion, a frustoconical intermediate portion, and a cylindrical lower portion, a lift tube extending from the upper portion of the tank to a point near an end cap attached to the lower portion of the tank, the lift tube being concentric with the lower portion of the tank to provide a flow passage there between, and a plurality of air supply conduits extending along the lift tube and spaced apart around its perimeter, these air supply conduits terminating adjacent the lower end of the lift tube. Air discharged from the lower ends of the air supply conduits causes liquid in the tank to flow upwardly through the lift tube and out of apertures in the upper portion thereof. Due to the unique properties of nuclear fuel dissolver solutions and the constraint placed on the amount of air that can be injected therein by conventional apparatus, there has been a need for a more effective means for agitating liquid in nuclear fuel digester tanks.

  19. Polarization imaging apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zou, Yingyin Kevin (Inventor); Chen, Qiushui (Inventor); Zhao, Hongzhi (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A polarization imaging apparatus measures the Stokes image of a sample. The apparatus consists of an optical lens set 11, a linear polarizer 14 with its optical axis 18, a first variable phase retarder 12 with its optical axis 16 aligned 22.5.degree. to axis 18, a second variable phase retarder 13 with its optical axis 17 aligned 45.degree. to axis 18, a imaging sensor 15 for sensing the intensity images of the sample, a controller 101 and a computer 102. Two variable phase retarders 12 and 13 were controlled independently by a computer 102 through a controller unit 101 which generates a sequential of voltages to control the phase retardations of VPRs 12 and 13. A set of four intensity images, I.sub.0, I.sub.1, I.sub.2 and I.sub.3 of the sample were captured by imaging sensor 15 when the phase retardations of VPRs 12 and 13 were set at (0,0), (.pi.,0), (.pi.,.pi.) and (.pi./2,.pi.), respectively Then four Stokes components of a Stokes image, S.sub.0, S.sub.1, S.sub.2 and S.sub.3 were calculated using the four intensity images.

  20. Hydraulic well pumping apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, C.P.

    1987-03-03

    This patent describes a hydraulic powered well pumping apparatus for operation of a sucker rod well pump in a well borehole, the apparatus comprising: (a) an elongate polished rod having upper and lower ends, the rod being aligned above and adapted to connect to a string of sucker rods in a well borehole therebelow; (b) an adjustably positioned sleeve means aligned above and enclosing a portion of the polished rod and having a shorter length than the polished rod to enable the polished rod to extend above the sleeve means and below the sleeve means for connection to the string of sucker rods in the well borehole; (c) an axially hollow upstanding cylinder slideably receiving the sleeve means therethrough and enclosing a piston therein, the piston being: (1) moved on admitting hydraulic oil to the cylinder, and (2) joined to the sleeve means for moving the sleeve means and thereby moving the polished rod; (d) means for mounting the upstanding cylinder directly aligned with and above a casing at the top of a well adapted to have a sucker rod string positioned therein; (e) means for adjusting the stroke length imparted to the sucker rod string between minimum and maximum stroke lengths; and (f) means for adjusting the location of the sleeve means relative to the polished rod to vary the relative length of polished rod below the sleeve means and wherein a portion of the polished rod extends above the sleeve means dependent on the relative respective portions thereof.

  1. SMAP's Radar OBP Algorithm Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, Charles; Spencer, Michael W.; Veilleux, Louise; Chan, Samuel; He, Yutao; Zheng, Jason; Nguyen, Kayla

    2009-01-01

    An approach for algorithm specifications and development is described for SMAP's radar onboard processor with multi-stage demodulation and decimation bandpass digital filter. Point target simulation is used to verify and validate the filter design with the usual radar performance parameters. Preliminary FPGA implementation is also discussed.

  2. Review of United Kingdom radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, J.; Davies, D. E. N.; Radford, M. F.

    1984-09-01

    A review of primary radar systems in the United Kingdom that have recently entered service or are at an advanced stage of development is presented. Naval, airborn, and land-based types are all discussed covering both civil and military interests, although particular emphasis is given to airborne equipments. Some general supporting radar technology including university programs is also covered.

  3. Cassini Radar Investigation of Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, S.; Elachi, C.; Roth, L.

    1995-01-01

    Saturn's largest moon, Titan, boasts organic chemistry that may hold clues to how life formed on the primitive Earth. The Cassini Mission, to be launched in October 1997, will explore Saturn and its moons, especially Titan. Mapping the surface of Titan will be accomplished with a radar instrument that acts as a 14 GHz synthetic aperture radar, microwave radiometer, altimeter, and scatterometer.

  4. Imaging Radar for Ecosystem Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waring, Richard H.; Way, JoBea; Hunt, E. Raymond J.; Morrissey, Leslie; Ranson, K. Jon; Weishampel, John F.; Oren, Ram; Franklin, Steven E.

    1996-01-01

    Recently a number of satellites have been launched with radar sensors, thus expanding opportunities for global assessment. In this article we focus on the applications of imaging radar, which is a type of sensor that actively generates pulses of microwaves and, in the interval between sending pulses, records the returning signals reflected back to an antenna.

  5. Millimeter radar improves target identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAulay, Alastair D.

    2011-06-01

    Recently developed millimeter wave radar has advantages for target identification over conventional microwave radar which typically use lower frequencies. We describe the pertinent features involved in the construction of the new millimeter wave radar, the pseudo-optical cavity source and the quasi-optical duplexer. The long wavelength relative to light allows the radar beam to penetrate through most weather because the wavelength is larger than the particle size for dust, drizzle rain, fog. Further the mm wave beam passes through an atmospheric transmission window that provides a dip in attenuation. The higher frequency than conventional radar provides higher Doppler frequencies, for example, than X-band radar. We show by simulation that small characteristic vibrations and slow turns of an aircraft become visible so that the Doppler signature improves identification. The higher frequency also reduces beam width, which increases transmit and receive antenna gains. For the same power the transmit beam extends to farther range and the increase in receive antenna gain increases signal to noise ratio for improved detection and identification. The narrower beam can also reduce clutter and reject other noise more readily. We show by simulation that the radar can be used at lower elevations over the sea than conventional radar.

  6. An Inexpensive, Foolproof Apparatus for Flash Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Wayne J.; Hanson, Bryan A.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a new, modified "flash chromatography" apparatus which overcomes difficulties found in conventional apparatus. For example, an expensive teflon pressure valve is not necessary in the modified version. The apparatus is suitable as an instructional tool in undergraduate courses. (JN)

  7. Tagging Juvenile Pacific Lamprey with Passive Integrated Transponders: Methodology, Short-Term Mortality, and Influence on Swimming Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Robert P.; Moursund, Russell A.; Bleich, Matthew D.

    2006-05-31

    Populations of Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) in the Columbia River basin have declined drastically over the past 20 years. Possible causes include habitat degradation and instream flow obstacles, such as the mainstem hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River. To determine why lamprey populations have declined a monitoring system to track their movements was needed to determine possible impacts. Juvenile lamprey were implanted with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and their detection rates determined while migrating through fish bypass facilities at McNary in 2001 and 2005 and John Day Dam in 2002. Juvenile Pacific lamprey (115178 mm) were obtained from the John Day Dam fish collection facility, transported to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and surgically PIT-tagged. Lamprey were allowed to recover for 3 to 4 days following PIT tag implantation and subsequently were released upstream of the PIT tag detectors at both dams. Primary detector efficiency was 98% at McNary Dam and 97% at John Day Dam. Average in-river travel time for fish released at McNary Dam and detected at John Day Dam was 16.1 d in 2001 and 10 d in 2005. Mean detection rates at McNary Dam varied from 74% for gatewell releases to 69% for the collection channel. Follow up tests in 2005 at McNary Dam showed detections rates near 100% from collection channel releases. Detection rates from forebay releases at McNary Dam were lower, ranging from 0% to 38% (mean = 21%). Mean travel times from release point to the primary detectors at McNary Dam were; forebay (492 min), gatewell (323 min), and collection channel (245 min). The detection efficiency at the primary detectors was similar to that of PIT-tagged smolts and travel time within the bypass system showed that lamprey can hold in the bypass system for prolonged periods.

  8. Tagging Juvenile Pacific Lamprey with Passive Integrated Transponders: Methodology, Short-Term Mortality, and Influence on Swimming Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Robert P.; Moursund, Russell A.; Bleich, Matthew D.

    2006-05-01

    This study was conducted to determine the feasibility (i.e., efficiency and onintrusiveness) of tagging juvenile Pacific lampreys Lampetra tridentata with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and to determine any associated impacts on survivorship and swimming ability. Juvenile Pacific lampreys were obtained from the John Day Dam fish collection facility and tests were conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in 2001 and 2002. A new PIT-tagging procedure was used to inject 12-mm tags 5 mm posterior to the gill openings. ampreys were allowed to recover for 34 d following surgery before postmortality and swimming tests were conducted. The PIT tagging procedure during 2001 did not include a suture, and 2.6% of the tags were shed after 40 d. During 2002 a single suture was used to close the opening after inserting a tag, and no tag shedding was observed. Overall short-term mortality rates for lampreys 120155 mm (total length) held for 40 d at 88C was 2.2% for tagged and 2.7% for untagged fish. Mortality increased significantly when tagged and untagged groups were held in warmer (19238C) river water: 50% for tagged and 60% for untagged animals. Lengths did not significantly affect survival for either the tagged or untagged group held in warm water. A fungal infection was observed to be the cause of death when water temperature increased. Swimming tests to determine any adverse effects due to tag insertion showed no significant difference (P 0.12) between tagged and untagged lampreys for mean burst speed; however, maximum burst speeds were significantly lower for the PIT-tagged group.

  9. Tagging Frogs with Passive Integrated Transponders Causes Disruption of the Cutaneous Bacterial Community and Proliferation of Opportunistic Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Gerardo; Fidgett, Andrea L.; Preziosi, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    Symbiotic bacterial communities play a key role in protecting amphibians from infectious diseases including chytridiomycosis, caused by the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Events that lead to the disruption of the bacterial community may have implications for the susceptibility of amphibians to such diseases. Amphibians are often marked both in the wild and in captivity for a variety of reasons, and although existing literature indicates that marking techniques have few negative effects, the response of cutaneous microbial communities has not yet been investigated. Here we determine the effects of passive integrated transponder (PIT) tagging on culturable cutaneous microbial communities of captive Morelet's tree frogs (Agalychnis moreletii) and assess the isolated bacterial strains for anti-B. dendrobatidis activity in vitro. We find that PIT tagging causes a major disruption to the bacterial community associated with the skin of frogs (?12-fold increase in abundance), as well as a concurrent proliferation in resident fungi (up to ?200-fold increase). Handling also caused a disruption the bacterial community, although to a lesser extent than PIT tagging. However, the effects of both tagging and handling were temporary, and after 2 weeks, the bacterial communities were similar to their original compositions. We also identify two bacterial strains that inhibit B. dendrobatidis, one of which increased in abundance on PIT-tagged frogs at 1 day postmarking, while the other was unaffected. These results show that PIT tagging has previously unobserved consequences for cutaneous microbial communities of frogs and may be particularly relevant for studies that intend to use PIT tagging to identify individuals involved in trials to develop probiotic treatments. PMID:24878599

  10. Estimating movement and survival rates of a small saltwater fish using autonomous antenna receiver arrays and passive integrated transponder tags

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rudershausen, Paul J.; Buckel, Jeffery A.; Dubreuil, Todd; O'Donnell, Matthew J.; Hightower, Joseph E.; Poland, Steven J.; Letcher, Benjamin H.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of small (12.5 mm long) passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and custom detection antennas for obtaining fine-scale movement and demographic data of mummichog Fundulus heteroclitus in a salt marsh creek. Apparent survival and detection probability were estimated using a Cormack Jolly Seber (CJS) model fitted to detection data collected by an array of 3 vertical antennas from November 2010 to March 2011 and by a single horizontal antenna from April to August 2011. Movement of mummichogs was monitored during the period when the array of vertical antennas was used. Antenna performance was examined in situ using tags placed in wooden dowels (drones) and in live mummichogs. Of the 44 tagged fish, 42 were resighted over the 9 mo monitoring period. The in situ detection probabilities of the drone and live mummichogs were high (~80-100%) when the ambient water depth was less than ~0.8 m. Upstream and downstream movement of mummichogs was related to hourly water depth and direction of tidal current in a way that maximized time periods over which mummichogs utilized the intertidal vegetated marsh. Apparent survival was lower during periods of colder water temperatures in December 2010 and early January 2011 (median estimate of daily apparent survival = 0.979) than during other periods of the study (median estimate of daily apparent survival = 0.992). During late fall and winter, temperature had a positive effect on the CJS detection probability of a tagged mummichog, likely due to greater fish activity over warmer periods. During the spring and summer, this pattern reversed possibly due to mummichogs having reduced activity during the hottest periods. This study demonstrates the utility of PIT tags and continuously operating autonomous detection systems for tracking fish at fine temporal scales, and improving estimates of demographic parameters in salt marsh creeks that are difficult or impractical to sample with active fishing gear.

  11. Tagging frogs with passive integrated transponders causes disruption of the cutaneous bacterial community and proliferation of opportunistic fungi.

    PubMed

    Antwis, Rachael E; Garcia, Gerardo; Fidgett, Andrea L; Preziosi, Richard F

    2014-08-01

    Symbiotic bacterial communities play a key role in protecting amphibians from infectious diseases including chytridiomycosis, caused by the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Events that lead to the disruption of the bacterial community may have implications for the susceptibility of amphibians to such diseases. Amphibians are often marked both in the wild and in captivity for a variety of reasons, and although existing literature indicates that marking techniques have few negative effects, the response of cutaneous microbial communities has not yet been investigated. Here we determine the effects of passive integrated transponder (PIT) tagging on culturable cutaneous microbial communities of captive Morelet's tree frogs (Agalychnis moreletii) and assess the isolated bacterial strains for anti-B. dendrobatidis activity in vitro. We find that PIT tagging causes a major disruption to the bacterial community associated with the skin of frogs (?12-fold increase in abundance), as well as a concurrent proliferation in resident fungi (up to ?200-fold increase). Handling also caused a disruption the bacterial community, although to a lesser extent than PIT tagging. However, the effects of both tagging and handling were temporary, and after 2 weeks, the bacterial communities were similar to their original compositions. We also identify two bacterial strains that inhibit B. dendrobatidis, one of which increased in abundance on PIT-tagged frogs at 1 day postmarking, while the other was unaffected. These results show that PIT tagging has previously unobserved consequences for cutaneous microbial communities of frogs and may be particularly relevant for studies that intend to use PIT tagging to identify individuals involved in trials to develop probiotic treatments. PMID:24878599

  12. Analysis of Microhabitat Use for Two Trout Species Using a Combination of Remote Sensing and Passive Integrated transponder Tags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokteff, R.; Wheaton, J. M.; Roper, B.; DeMeurichy, K.; Randall, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Logan River and its tributaries in northern Utah sustain a significant population of the imperiled Bonneville cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki Utah) as well as invasive brown trout (Salmo trutta). In general, the upper reaches of the system are populated by cutthroat trout and the lower reaches by brown trout. Spawn Creek is a unique tributary in that it supports both of these species throughout the year. The purpose of this study is to identify differences in fine-scale microhabitat that explain utilization patterns of each species of fish. Passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags have been placed in trout over the last 3 years throughout Spawn Creek. Repeat GPS observations of these fish in their habitat during both spawning and non-spawning periods have been acquired over the last 4 years. Non-spawning activity has been captured using mobile PIT tag antennae. GPS observations of cutthroat trout spawning locations have also been recorded. From these observations both spawning and non-spawning "hotspots" have emerged, which appear to be highly correlated with specific microhabitat characteristics. The entire 2.5 km study reach on lower Spawn Creek has been scanned using ground-based light detection and ranging (LiDAR) which covers all observed "hotspots." LiDAR data provides sub-centimeter resolution point clouds from which detailed geometric measurements and topographic analyses can be used to reveal specific aspects of trout habitat. Where bathymetric data is needed, total station bathymetric surveys have been completed at sub-meter resolution. The combination of these data types at known "hotspot" locations provides an opportunity to quantify aspects of the physical environment at a uniquely fine scale relevant to individual fish. New metrics, as well as old metrics resolved at finer scales, will be presented to explain species and life-stage specific habitat "hotspots" in mountain streams.

  13. Radar SLAM using visual features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callmer, Jonas; Trnqvist, David; Gustafsson, Fredrik; Svensson, Henrik; Carlbom, Pelle

    2011-12-01

    A vessel navigating in a critical environment such as an archipelago requires very accurate movement estimates. Intentional or unintentional jamming makes GPS unreliable as the only source of information and an additional independent supporting navigation system should be used. In this paper, we suggest estimating the vessel movements using a sequence of radar images from the preexisting body-fixed radar. Island landmarks in the radar scans are tracked between multiple scans using visual features. This provides information not only about the position of the vessel but also of its course and velocity. We present here a navigation framework that requires no additional hardware than the already existing naval radar sensor. Experiments show that visual radar features can be used to accurately estimate the vessel trajectory over an extensive data set.

  14. Radar image registration and rectification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naraghi, M.; Stromberg, W. D.

    1983-01-01

    Two techniques for radar image registration and rectification are presented. In the registration method, a general 2-D polynomial transform is defined to accomplish the geometric mapping from one image into the other. The degree and coefficients of the polynomial are obtained using an a priori found tiepoint data set. In the second part of the paper, a rectification procedure is developed that models the distortion present in the radar image in terms of the radar sensor's platform parameters and the topographic variations of the imaged scene. This model, the ephemeris data and the digital topographic data are then used in rectifying the radar image. The two techniques are then used in registering and rectifying two examples of radar imagery. Each method is discussed as to its benefits, shortcomings and registration accuracy.

  15. Low-brightness quantum radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzagorta, Marco

    2015-05-01

    One of the major scientific thrusts from recent years has been to try to harness quantum phenomena to dramatically increase the performance of a wide variety of classical information processing devices. These advances in quantum information science have had a considerable impact on the development of standoff sensors such as quantum radar. In this paper we analyze the theoretical performance of low-brightness quantum radar that uses entangled photon states. We use the detection error probability as a measure of sensing performance and the interception error probability as a measure of stealthiness. We compare the performance of quantum radar against a coherent light sensor (such as lidar) and classical radar. In particular, we restrict our analysis to the performance of low-brightness standoff sensors operating in a noisy environment. We show that, compared to the two classical standoff sensing devices, quantum radar is stealthier, more resilient to jamming, and more accurate for the detection of low reflectivity targets.

  16. Push drill guidance indication apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Bockhorst, R.W.; Elenburg, J.H.

    1984-06-05

    The present invention relates to a program controlled apparatus for providing rapid calibration and update of sensor parameters in a push drill guidance apparatus which is remotely controllable from microprocessor circuitry. A special calibration program is set into nonvolatile memory for coaction with the control processor to compute sensor parameters for storage and recall during normal programmed guidance operation.

  17. Simple turbine balancing test apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vavra, M. H.; Hammer, J. E.; Bell, L. E.

    1972-01-01

    Simple, inexpensive apparatus has been devised for testing dynamic balance of turbine rotors. No elaborate instrumentation is required and rotor is spun by directing jet of air against blades. Basic principle involved is that of the vibration of a mass on a spring. Apparatus can be used where conventional, expensive, balance facilities are not readily available.

  18. An Apparatus for Photochemical Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, M. J.; Winter, P. V.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an apparatus developed for photochemical studies, particularly those involving the fluorescence of halogenated acetones. The apparatus is constructed from equipment normally found in a moderately sized physical chemical laboratory. Also provides background information on some aspects of the photophysics of halogenated propanones. (JN)

  19. An elutriation apparatus for macroinvertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Worswick, Joseph M., Jr.; Barbour, Michael T.

    1974-01-01

    An inexpensive hydropneumatic apparatus screens macroinvertebrates from bottom samples containing silt, mud, or clay. The elutriator, an acrylic cylinder with screened windows, cemented on an upright plastic funnel, retains benthic fauna while the sediment is washed away. The apparatus yields clean samples and has reduced the time required to sort benthos samples by more than 80%.

  20. Microelectromechanical acceleration-sensing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Robb M. (Albuquerque, NM); Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Polosky, Marc A. (Albuquerque, NM); Hoke, Darren A. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, George E. (Rio Rancho, NM)

    2006-12-12

    An acceleration-sensing apparatus is disclosed which includes a moveable shuttle (i.e. a suspended mass) and a latch for capturing and holding the shuttle when an acceleration event is sensed above a predetermined threshold level. The acceleration-sensing apparatus provides a switch closure upon sensing the acceleration event and remains latched in place thereafter. Examples of the acceleration-sensing apparatus are provided which are responsive to an acceleration component in a single direction (i.e. a single-sided device) or to two oppositely-directed acceleration components (i.e. a dual-sided device). A two-stage acceleration-sensing apparatus is also disclosed which can sense two acceleration events separated in time. The acceleration-sensing apparatus of the present invention has applications, for example, in an automotive airbag deployment system.

  1. Distillation Apparatuses Using Household Items

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campanizzi, Danielle R. D.; Mason, Brenda; Hermann, Christine K. F.

    1999-08-01

    A simple apparatus to demonstrate distillation principles can be very difficult to build without the specialty glassware found in chemistry laboratories. We have built inexpensive but effective distillation apparatuses from equipment that can be easily purchased at local department, grocery, or hardware stores. In one apparatus, colored water is heated to boiling and the condensed vapors drip into another container. In another apparatus, acetone is heated to boiling with hot water and the acetone vapors condense onto a Styrofoam cup. The Styrofoam cup is softened by the acetone and collapses. Rubbing alcohol can be used instead of acetone, but the cup is not softened and the boiling point is much higher. Both apparatuses can be used in a classroom. Both are simple, cost-effective ways of demonstrating distillation, evaporation, and condensation. They would be ideal to use in elementary and middle school classrooms when explaining these concepts.

  2. Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jenkins, Charles F. (Aiken, SC); Howard, Boyd D. (Augusta, GA)

    1998-01-01

    A flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus, comprising a flexible, hollow shaft that carries a plurality of modules, including at least one rotatable ultrasonic transducer, a motor/gear unit, and a position/signal encoder. The modules are connected by flexible knuckle joints that allow each module of the apparatus to change its relative orientation with respect to a neighboring module, while the shaft protects electrical wiring from kinking or buckling while the apparatus moves around a tight corner. The apparatus is moved through a pipe by any suitable means, including a tether or drawstring attached to the nose or tail, differential hydraulic pressure, or a pipe pig. The rotational speed of the ultrasonic transducer and the forward velocity of the apparatus are coordinated so that the beam sweeps out the entire interior surface of the pipe, enabling the operator to accurately assess the condition of the pipe wall and determine whether or not leak-prone corrosion damage is present.

  3. Apparatus for assembling space structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, J. D.; Tuggle, R. H., Jr.; Burch, J. L.; Clark, K. H. (inventors)

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus for producing a structure in outer space from rolls of prepunched ribbon or sheet material that are transported from the earth to the apparatus located in outer space is described. The apparatus spins the space structure similar to a spider spinning a web utilizing the prepunched ribbon material. The prepunched ribbon material is fed through the apparatus and is shaped into a predetermined channel-shaped configuration. Trusses are punched out of the ribbon and are bent downwardly and attached to a track which normally is a previously laid sheet of material. The size of the overall space structure may be increased by merely attaching an additional roll of sheet material to the apparatus.

  4. Automatic insulation resistance testing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Wyant, Francis J.; Nowlen, Steven P.; Luker, Spencer M.

    2005-06-14

    An apparatus and method for automatic measurement of insulation resistances of a multi-conductor cable. In one embodiment of the invention, the apparatus comprises a power supply source, an input measuring means, an output measuring means, a plurality of input relay controlled contacts, a plurality of output relay controlled contacts, a relay controller and a computer. In another embodiment of the invention the apparatus comprises a power supply source, an input measuring means, an output measuring means, an input switching unit, an output switching unit and a control unit/data logger. Embodiments of the apparatus of the invention may also incorporate cable fire testing means. The apparatus and methods of the present invention use either voltage or current for input and output measured variables.

  5. Hydraulic oil well pumping apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    McDuffie, T.F.

    1983-09-27

    The preferred embodiment is directed to an oil well pumping apparatus incorporating a walking beam having a horsehead at one end which connects to the sucker rods in the oil well. The opposite end of the walking beam is supported on a fixed pivot. A hydraulic and pneumatic combination unit connects from a supporting platform to a central point on the beam to raise and lower the beam. The improved apparatus utilizes air pressure to balance the static load on the apparatus and dynamically strokes the sucker rod string by imparting a reciprocating motion through hydraulic power applied at a specified rate to raise and lower the walking beam. A pump and motor system for a closed hydraulic loop is included. Alternate preferred embodiments are disclosed. In one form, a lubricating system is incorporated. First and second alternate forms of pickoff apparatus which powers the pneumatically balanced pumping apparatus is also included.

  6. Mars Radar Observations with the Goldstone Solar System Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haldemann, A. F. C.; Jurgens, R. F.; Larsen, K. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Slade, M. A.

    2002-01-01

    The Goldstone Solar System Radar (GSSR) has successfully collected radar echo data from Mars over the past 30 years. As such, the GSSR has played a role as a specific mission element within Mars exploration. The older data provided local elevation information for Mars, along with radar scattering information with global resolution. Since the upgrade to the 70-m Deep Space Network (DSN) antenna at Goldstone completed in 1986, Mars data has been collected during all but the 1997 Mars opposition. Radar data, and non-imaging delay-Doppler data in particular, requires significant data processing to extract elevation, reflectivity and roughness of the reflecting surface. The spatial resolution of these experiments is typically some 20 km in longitude by some 150 km in latitude. The interpretation of these parameters while limited by the complexities of electromagnetic scattering, do provide information directly relevant to geophysical and geomorphic analyses of Mars. The usefulness of radar data for Mars exploration has been demonstrated in the past. Radar data were critical in assessing the Viking Lander 1 site as well as, more recently, the Pathfinder landing site. In general, radar data have not been available to the Mars exploration community at large. A project funded initially by the Mars Exploration Directorate Science Office at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and later funded by NASA's Mars Data Analysis Program has reprocessed to a common format a decade's worth of raw GSSR Mars delay-Doppler data in aid of landing site characterization for the Mars Program. These data will soon be submitted to the Planetary Data System (PDS). The radar data used were obtained between 1988 and 1995 by the GSSR, and comprise some 63 delay-Doppler radar tracks. Of these, 15 have yet to be recovered from old 9-track tapes, and some of the data may be permanently lost.

  7. APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING SHADOWGRAPHS

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, R.R.

    1959-08-11

    An apparatus is presented for obtaining shadowgraphs or radiographs of an object exposed to x rays or the like. The device includes the combination of a cloud chamber having the interior illuminated and a portion thereof transparent to light rays and x'rays, a controlled source of x rays spaced therefrom, photographic recording disposed laterally of the linear path intermediate the source and the chamber portion in oblique angularity in aspect to the path. The object to be studied is disposed intermediate the x-ray source and chamber in the linear path to provide an x-ray transmission barrier therebetween. The shadowgraph is produced in the cloud chamber in response to initiation of the x- ray source and recorded photographically.

  8. Isotope separation apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Arnush, Donald (Rancho Palos Verdes, CA); MacKenzie, Kenneth R. (Pacific Palisades, CA); Wuerker, Ralph F. (Palos Verdes Estates, CA)

    1980-01-01

    Isotope separation apparatus consisting of a plurality of cells disposed adjacent to each other in an evacuated container. A common magnetic field is established extending through all of the cells. A source of energetic electrons at one end of the container generates electrons which pass through the cells along the magnetic field lines. Each cell includes an array of collector plates arranged in parallel or in tandem within a common magnetic field. Sets of collector plates are disposed adjacent to each other in each cell. Means are provided for differentially energizing ions of a desired isotope by applying energy at the cyclotron resonant frequency of the desired isotope. As a result, the energized desired ions are preferentially collected by the collector plates.

  9. Spine immobilization apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambson, K. H.; Vykukal, H. C. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    The apparatus makes use of a normally flat, flexible bladder filled with beads or micro-balloons that form a rigid mass when the pressure within the bladder is decreased below ambient through the use of a suction pump so that the bladder can be conformed to the torso of the victim and provide the desired restraint. The bladder is strapped to the victim prior to being rigidified by an arrangement of straps which avoid the stomach area. The bladder is adapted to be secured to a rigid support, i.e., a rescue chair, so as to enable removal of a victim after the bladder has been made rigid. A double sealing connector is used to connect the bladder to the suction pump and a control valve is employed to vary the pressure within the bladder so as to soften and harden the bladder as desired.

  10. Induction melter apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Roach, Jay A [Idaho Falls, ID; Richardson, John G [Idaho Falls, ID; Raivo, Brian D [Idaho Falls, ID; Soelberg, Nicholas R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2008-06-17

    Apparatus and methods of operation are provided for a cold-crucible-induction melter for vitrifying waste wherein a single induction power supply may be used to effect a selected thermal distribution by independently energizing at least two inductors. Also, a bottom drain assembly may be heated by an inductor and may include an electrically resistive heater. The bottom drain assembly may be cooled to solidify molten material passing therethrough to prevent discharge of molten material therefrom. Configurations are provided wherein the induction flux skin depth substantially corresponds with the central longitudinal axis of the crucible. Further, the drain tube may be positioned within the induction flux skin depth in relation to material within the crucible or may be substantially aligned with a direction of flow of molten material within the crucible. An improved head design including four shells forming thermal radiation shields and at least two gas-cooled plenums is also disclosed.

  11. Nuclear reactor control apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Sridhar, Bettadapur N. (Cupertino, CA)

    1983-10-25

    Nuclear reactor safety rod release apparatus comprises a ring which carries detents normally positioned in an annular recess in outer side of the rod, the ring being held against the lower end of a drive shaft by magnetic force exerted by a solenoid carried by the drive shaft. When the solenoid is de-energized, the detent-carrying ring drops until the detents contact a cam surface associated with the lower end of the drive shaft, at which point the detents are cammed out of the recess in the safety rod to release the rod from the drive shaft. In preferred embodiments of the invention, an additional latch is provided to release a lower portion of a safety rod under conditions that may interfere with movement of the entire rod.

  12. Freeze drying apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Coppa, Nicholas V. (Malvern, PA); Stewart, Paul (Youngstown, NY); Renzi, Ernesto (Youngstown, NY)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

  13. Cryogenic cooler apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, John C. (Del Mar, CA); Paulson, Douglas N. (Del Mar, CA); Allen, Paul C. (Sunnyvale, CA)

    1983-01-01

    A Malone-type final stage for utilization in a Stirling cycle cryogenic cooler apparatus includes a displacer slidable within a vessel. .sup.4 He, .sup.3 He, or a mixture thereof is made to flow in a pulsating unidirectional manner through a regenerator in the displacer by utilization of check valves in separate fluid channels. Stacked copper screen members extend through the channels and through a second static thermodynamic medium within the displacer to provide efficient lateral heat exchange and enable cooling to temperatures in the range of 3-4 K. Another embodiment utilizes sintered copper particles in the regenerator. Also described is a final stage that has a non-thermally conducting displacer having passages with check valves for directing fluid past a regenerator formed in the surrounding vessel.

  14. Cryogenic cooler apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, J.C.; Paulson, D.N.; Allen, P.C.

    1983-01-04

    A Malone-type final stage for utilization in a Stirling cycle cryogenic cooler apparatus includes a displacer slidable within a vessel. [sup 4]He, [sup 3]He, or a mixture thereof is made to flow in a pulsating unidirectional manner through a regenerator in the displacer by utilization of check valves in separate fluid channels. Stacked copper screen members extend through the channels and through a second static thermodynamic medium within the displacer to provide efficient lateral heat exchange and enable cooling to temperatures in the range of 3--4 K. Another embodiment utilizes sintered copper particles in the regenerator. Also described is a final stage that has a non-thermally conducting displacer having passages with check valves for directing fluid past a regenerator formed in the surrounding vessel. 10 figs.

  15. Sludge thickening apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Mixon, J.A.

    1981-03-31

    Sludge thickening apparatus is disclosed that is comprised of a vertical tank including sludge inlet and outlet pipes, and a discharge pipe weir; a vertical hopper within the tank having walls which diverge outwardly from a hopper bottom toward a top opening wherein the weir has openings communicating with the hopper interior; a cover plate closing the top opening and having a raised central portion with an opening; and a baffle plate spaced from the bottom opening and having an opening therethrough. A vertical airlift member is supported by the bottom of the tank and extends through the baffle opening, the bottom opening and communicates with the cover opening. An assembly including an air shut-off valve selectively controls air to the airlift member whereby the shutoff valve is closed when the outlet pipe is opened.

  16. Water heating apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, K.

    1984-11-20

    A water heating apparatus comprising a refrigerant loop for natural circulation which includes a hot water storage tank for holding water to be heated, a heat collecting plate for collecting solar heat, and refrigerant tubes having a refrigerant sealed therein and extending to unite the hot water storage tank with the heat collecting plate and another refrigerant loop for refrigeration cycle which includes a compressor and an expansion valve which are connected in the refrigerant tube uniting the hot water storage tank with the heat collecting plate. The water in the hot water storage tank is elevated in temperature selectively by the natural circulation action where there is a sufficient amount of sunshine or by the refrigeration cycle where the amount of sunshine is insufficient.

  17. Concealed wire tracing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receivers position with respect to the wiring. The receivers audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receivers coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring's concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest.

  18. Engine control apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Akiyama, S.; Ito, K.; Hirabayashi, Y.; Kinugawa, M.; Omori, N.

    1987-06-09

    This patent describes an engine control apparatus, comprising: an intake condition measuring device for measuring a parameter representing an intake air flow condition and generating a measurement output signal (T); one-dimensional memory map means for storing specific intake condition data (t0) as a function of an engine speed N, each intake condition data representing a specific value of an intake condition of an engine; means for subtracting the specific intake condition data (t0) from the measurement output signal (T) to calculate an intake condition (t); two-dimensional map memory means for storing a predetermined correspondence between control data (G/N) and intake conditions (t) as a function of each preset engine speed.

  19. Image forming apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Satoh, Hisao; Haneda, Satoshi; Ikeda, Tadayoshi; Morita, Shizuo; Fukuchi, Masakazu

    1996-01-01

    In an image forming apparatus having a detachable process cartridge in which an image carrier on which an electrostatic latent image is formed, and a developing unit which develops the electrostatic latent image so that a toner image can be formed, both integrally formed into one unit. There is provided a developer container including a discharge section which can be inserted into a supply opening of the developing unit, and a container in which a predetermined amount of developer is contained, wherein the developer container is provided to the toner supply opening of the developing unit and the developer is supplied into the developing unit housing when a toner stirring screw of the developing unit is rotated.

  20. Heat Treating Apparatus

    DOEpatents

    De Saro, Robert (Annandale, NJ); Bateman, Willis (Sutton Colfield, GB)

    2002-09-10

    Apparatus for heat treating a heat treatable material including a housing having an upper opening for receiving a heat treatable material at a first temperature, a lower opening, and a chamber therebetween for heating the heat treatable material to a second temperature higher than the first temperature as the heat treatable material moves through the chamber from the upper to the lower opening. A gas supply assembly is operatively engaged to the housing at the lower opening, and includes a source of gas, a gas delivery assembly for delivering the gas through a plurality of pathways into the housing in countercurrent flow to movement of the heat treatable material, whereby the heat treatable material passes through the lower opening at the second temperature, and a control assembly for controlling conditions within the chamber to enable the heat treatable material to reach the second temperature and pass through the lower opening at the second temperature as a heated material.

  1. Improved collecting apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, C.P.

    1981-03-05

    An improved collecting apparatus for small aquatic or airborne organisms such as plankton, larval fish, insects, etc. The improvement constitutes an apertured removal container within which is retained a collecting bag, and which is secured at the apex of a conical collecting net. Such collectors are towed behind a vessel or vehicle with the open end of the conical net facing forward for trapping the aquatic or airborne organisms within the collecting bag, while allowing the water or air to pass through the apertures in the container. The container is readily removable from the collecting net whereby the collecting bag can be quickly removed and replaced for further sample collection. The collecting bag is provided with means for preventing the bag from being pulled into the container by the water or air following therethrough.

  2. Multiparameter vision testing apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, S. R., Jr.; Homkes, R. J.; Poteate, W. B.; Sturgis, A. C. (inventors)

    1975-01-01

    Compact vision testing apparatus is described for testing a large number of physiological characteristics of the eyes and visual system of a human subject. The head of the subject is inserted into a viewing port at one end of a light-tight housing containing various optical assemblies. Visual acuity and other refractive characteristics and ocular muscle balance characteristics of the eyes of the subject are tested by means of a retractable phoroptor assembly carried near the viewing port and a film cassette unit carried in the rearward portion of the housing (the latter selectively providing a variety of different visual targets which are viewed through the optical system of the phoroptor assembly). The visual dark adaptation characteristics and absolute brightness threshold of the subject are tested by means of a projector assembly which selectively projects one or both of a variable intensity fixation target and a variable intensity adaptation test field onto a viewing screen located near the top of the housing.

  3. Portable appliance security apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerley, J. J. (inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An apparatus for securing a small computer, or other portable appliance, against theft is described. It is comprised of a case having an open back through which the computer is installed or removed. Guide members in the form of slots are formed in a rear portion of opposite walls of the case for receiving a back plate to cover the opening and thereby secure the computer within the case. An opening formed in the top wall of the case exposes the keyboard and display of the computer. The back plate is locked in the closed position by a key-operated plug type lock. The lock is attached to one end of a hold down cable, the opposite end thereof being secured to a desk top or other stationary object. Thus, the lock simultaneously secures the back plate to the case and retains the case to the stationary object.

  4. Emergency Response Breathing Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Aerospace Design & Development, Inc.'s (ADD's) SCAMP was developed under an SBIR contract through Kennedy Space Center. SCAMP stands for Supercritical Air Mobility Pack. The technology came from the life support fuel cell support systems used for the Apollo and Space Shuttle programs. It uses supercritical cryogenic air and is able to function in microgravity environments. SCAMP's self-contained breathing apparatus(SCBA) systems are also ground-based and can provide twice as much air than traditional SCBA's due to its high-density capacity. The SCAMP system was designed for use in launch pad emergency rescues. ADD also developed a protective suit for use with SCAMP that is smaller and lighter system than the old ones. ADD's SCAMP allows for body cooling and breathing from the supercritical cryogenic air, requiring no extra systems. The improvement over the traditional SCBA allows for a reduction of injuries, such as heat stress, and makes it easier for rescuers to save lives.

  5. Oil shale retort apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Reeves, Adam A.; Mast, Earl L.; Greaves, Melvin J.

    1990-01-01

    A retorting apparatus including a vertical kiln and a plurality of tubes for delivering rock to the top of the kiln and removal of processed rock from the bottom of the kiln so that the rock descends through the kiln as a moving bed. Distributors are provided for delivering gas to the kiln to effect heating of the rock and to disturb the rock particles during their descent. The distributors are constructed and disposed to deliver gas uniformly to the kiln and to withstand and overcome adverse conditions resulting from heat and from the descending rock. The rock delivery tubes are geometrically sized, spaced and positioned so as to deliver the shale uniformly into the kiln and form symmetrically disposed generally vertical paths, or "rock chimneys", through the descending shale which offer least resistance to upward flow of gas. When retorting oil shale, a delineated collection chamber near the top of the kiln collects gas and entrained oil mist rising through the kiln.

  6. Geodetic distance measuring apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, J. B. (inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A geodetic distance measuring apparatus which compensates for the refractive index of the atmosphere is discussed. A mode locked laser system with a laser device and its peripheral components is utilized to derive two mutually phase locked optical wavelength signals and one phase locked microwave CW signal which respectively traverse the same distance measurement path. The optical signals are comprised of pulse type signals. Phase comparison of the two optical wavelength pulse signals is used to provide the dry air density while phase comparison of one of the optical wavelength pulse signals and the microwave CW signal issued to provide wet or water vapor density of the air. The distance to be measured corrected for the atmospheric dry air and water vapor densities in the measurement path is computed from these measurements. A time interval unit is included for measuring transit time of individual optical pulses for resolving the phase ambiguity needed with the phase measurements to give the true target distance.

  7. Fluid pumping apparatus

    DOEpatents

    West, Phillip B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2006-01-17

    A method and apparatus suitable for coupling seismic or other downhole sensors to a borehole wall in high temperature and pressure environments. In one embodiment, one or more metal bellows mounted to a sensor module are inflated to clamp the sensor module within the borehole and couple an associated seismic sensor to a borehole wall. Once the sensing operation is complete, the bellows are deflated and the sensor module is unclamped by deflation of the metal bellows. In a further embodiment, a magnetic drive pump in a pump module is used to supply fluid pressure for inflating the metal bellows using borehole fluid or fluid from a reservoir. The pump includes a magnetic drive motor configured with a rotor assembly to be exposed to borehole fluid pressure including a rotatable armature for driving an impeller and an associated coil under control of electronics isolated from borehole pressure.

  8. Apparatus for dispensing material

    DOEpatents

    Sutter, Peter Werner (Beach, NY); Sutter, Eli Anguelova (Beach, NY)

    2011-07-05

    An apparatus capable of dispensing drops of material with volumes on the order of zeptoliters is described. In some embodiments of the inventive pipette the size of the droplets so dispensed is determined by the size of a hole, or channel, through a carbon shell encapsulating a reservoir that contains material to be dispensed. The channel may be formed by irradiation with an electron beam or other high-energy beam capable of focusing to a spot size less than about 5 nanometers. In some embodiments, the dispensed droplet remains attached to the pipette by a small thread of material, an atomic scale meniscus, forming a virtually free-standing droplet. In some embodiments the droplet may wet the pipette tip and take on attributes of supported drops. Methods for fabricating and using the pipette are also described.

  9. Exhaust purification apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Shinzawa, M.; Ushimura, S.

    1987-05-05

    An exhaust purification apparatus is described for use in an internal combustion engine having an exhaust conduit through which exhaust particles are discharged together with exhaust gas to the atmosphere. Included is an outer shell having an inlet connected to the exhaust conduit and an outlet connected to the atmosphere. The outer shell contains a trap element and a regenerative burner located upstream of the trap element, the regenerative burner comprising: a cylindrical hollow member fixed to the liner and extending within a combustion chamber to define an evaporation chamber, a glow plug for igniting the mixture supplied into the evaporated chamber when actuated; and a control unit responsive to a regeneration requirement for actuating the glow plug and supplying an air-fuel mixture into the evaporation chamber through the mixture conduit.

  10. Thermal synthesis apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Fincke, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-08-18

    An apparatus for thermal conversion of one or more reactants to desired end products includes an insulated reactor chamber having a high temperature heater such as a plasma torch at its inlet end and, optionally, a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. In a thermal conversion method, reactants are injected upstream from the reactor chamber and thoroughly mixed with the plasma stream before entering the reactor chamber. The reactor chamber has a reaction zone that is maintained at a substantially uniform temperature. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle, which "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage, or is discharged through an outlet pipe without the convergent-divergent nozzle. The desired end products are then separated from the gaseous stream.

  11. POLCAL - POLARIMETRIC RADAR CALIBRATION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanzyl, J.

    1994-01-01

    Calibration of polarimetric radar systems is a field of research in which great progress has been made over the last few years. POLCAL (Polarimetric Radar Calibration) is a software tool intended to assist in the calibration of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems. In particular, POLCAL calibrates Stokes matrix format data produced as the standard product by the NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) airborne imaging synthetic aperture radar (AIRSAR). POLCAL was designed to be used in conjunction with data collected by the NASA/JPL AIRSAR system. AIRSAR is a multifrequency (6 cm, 24 cm, and 68 cm wavelength), fully polarimetric SAR system which produces 12 x 12 km imagery at 10 m resolution. AIRSTAR was designed as a testbed for NASA's Spaceborne Imaging Radar program. While the images produced after 1991 are thought to be calibrated (phase calibrated, cross-talk removed, channel imbalance removed, and absolutely calibrated), POLCAL can and should still be used to check the accuracy of the calibration and to correct it if necessary. Version 4.0 of POLCAL is an upgrade of POLCAL version 2.0 released to AIRSAR investigators in June, 1990. New options in version 4.0 include automatic absolute calibration of 89/90 data, distributed target analysis, calibration of nearby scenes with calibration parameters from a scene with corner reflectors, altitude or roll angle corrections, and calibration of errors introduced by known topography. Many sources of error can lead to false conclusions about the nature of scatterers on the surface. Errors in the phase relationship between polarization channels result in incorrect synthesis of polarization states. Cross-talk, caused by imperfections in the radar antenna itself, can also lead to error. POLCAL reduces cross-talk and corrects phase calibration without the use of ground calibration equipment. Removing the antenna patterns during SAR processing also forms a very important part of the calibration of SAR data. Errors in the processing altitude or in the aircraft roll angle are possible causes of error in computing the antenna patterns inside the processor. POLCAL uses an altitude error correction algorithm to correctly remove the antenna pattern from the SAR images. POLCAL also uses a topographic calibration algorithm to reduce calibration errors resulting from ground topography. By utilizing the backscatter measurements from either the corner reflectors or a well-known distributed target, POLCAL can correct the residual amplitude offsets in the various polarization channels and correct for the absolute gain of the radar system. POLCAL also gives the user the option of calibrating a scene using the calibration data from a nearby site. This allows precise calibration of all the scenes acquired on a flight line where corner reflectors were present. Construction and positioning of corner reflectors is covered extensively in the program documentation. In an effort to keep the POLCAL code as transportable as possible, the authors eliminated all interactions with a graphics display system. For this reason, it is assumed that users will have their own software for doing the following: (1) synthesize an image using HH or VV polarization, (2) display the synthesized image on any display device, and (3) read the pixel locations of the corner reflectors from the image. The only inputs used by the software (in addition to the input Stokes matrix data file) is a small data file with the corner reflector information. POLCAL is written in FORTRAN 77 for use on Sun series computers running SunOS and DEC VAX computers running VMS. It requires 4Mb of RAM under SunOS and 3.7Mb of RAM under VMS for execution. The standard distribution medium for POLCAL is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format. It is also available on a 9-track 1600 BPI magnetic tape in DEC VAX FILES-11 format or on a TK50 tape cartridge in DEC VAX FILES-11 format. Other distribution media may be available upon request. Documentation is included in the price of the program. POLCAL 4.0 was released in 1992 and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA.

  12. Radar Imaging of Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1996-09-01

    Measurements of the distribution of echo power in time delay (range) and Doppler frequency (line-of-sight velocity) can synthesize images of near-Earth and main-belt asteroids (NEAs and MBAs) that traverse the detectability windows of groundbased radar telescopes. Under ideal circumstances, current radar waveforms can achieve decameter surface resolution. The number of useful pixels obtainable in an imaging data set is of the same order as the signal-to-noise ratio, SNR, of an optimally filtered, weighted sum of all the data. (SNR increases as the square root of the integration time.) The upgraded Arecibo telescope which is about to become operational, should be able to achieve single-date SNRs {\\underline>} (20,100) for an average of (35,5) MBAs per year and single-date SNRs {\\underline>} (20,100,1000) for an average of (10,6,2) of the currently catalogued NEAs per year; optical surveying of the NEA population could increase the frequency of opportunities by an order of magnitude. The strongest imaging opportunities predicted for Arecibo between now and the end of 1997 include (the peak SNR/date is in parentheses): 9 Metis (110), 27 Euterpe (170), 80 Sappho (100), 139 Juewa (140), 144 Vibilia (140), 253 Mathilde (100), 2102 Tantalus (570), 3671 Dionysus (170), 3908 1980PA (4400), 4179 Toutatis (16000), 4197 1982TA (1200), 1991VK (700), and 1994PC1 (7400). A delay-Doppler image projects the echo power distribution onto the target's apparent equatorial plane. One cannot know a priori whether one or two (or more) points on the asteroid contributed power to a given pixel, so accurate interpretation of delay-Doppler images requires modeling (Hudson, 1993, Remote Sensing Rev. 8, 195-203). Inversion of an imaging sequence with enough orientational coverage can remove "north/south" ambiguities and can provide estimates of the target's three-dimensional shape, spin state, radar scattering properties, and delay-Doppler trajectory (e.g., Ostro et al. 1995, Science 270, 80-83; Hudson and Ostro 1995, Science 270, 84-86).

  13. A Bistatic Parasitical Radar (BIPAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartl, Philipp; Braun, Hans Martin

    1989-01-01

    After decades of remote sensing from aircraft and satellites with cameras and other optical sensors, earth observation by imaging radars becomes more and more suitable because of their night and day and all weather operations capability and their information content being complementary to those of optical sensors. The major problem with microwave sensors (radars) is that there are not enough of them presently in operation and therefore not enough data available for effective radar signature research for civil applications. It is shown that airborne bistatic real aperture radar receivers can be operated with spaceborne transmitters of opportunity. Famous candidates for those systems are high power communications or direct TV satellites illuminating the earth surface with a power denisty of more than 10(-12) Watt/sq meter. The high sophisticated status of signal processing technology today allows the realization of receivers correlating the received direct path signal from a communications satellite with its avoidable reflection on the ground. Coherent integration can improve the signal to noise ratio up to values where the radiometric resolution can satisfy users needs. The development of such parasitic radar receivers could even provide a cost effective way to open up new frequency bands for radar signature research. Advantages of these quiet systems for the purpose of classical radar reconnaissance are evident.

  14. Interception of LPI radar signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jim P.

    1991-11-01

    Most current radars are designed to transmit short duration pulses with relatively high peak power. These radars can be detected easily by the use of relatively modest EW intercept receivers. Three radar functions (search, anti-ship missile (ASM) seeker, and navigation) are examined to evaluate the effectiveness of potential low probability of intercept (LPI) techniques, such as waveform coding, antenna profile control, and power management that a radar may employ against current Electronic Warfare (EW) receivers. The general conclusion is that it is possible to design a LPI radar which is effective against current intercept EW receivers. LPI operation is most easily achieved at close ranges and against a target with a large radar cross section. The general system sensitivity requirement for the detection of current and projected LPI radars is found to be on the order of -100 dBmi which cannot be met by current EW receivers. Finally, three potential LPI receiver architectures, using channelized, superhet, and acousto-optic receivers with narrow RF and video bandwidths are discussed. They have shown some potential in terms of providing the sensitivity and capability in an environment where both conventional and LPI signals are present.

  15. Large phased-array radars

    SciTech Connect

    Brookner, D.E.

    1988-12-15

    Large phased-array radars can play a very important part in arms control. They can be used to determine the number of RVs being deployed, the type of targeting of the RVs (the same or different targets), the shape of the deployed objects, and possibly the weight and yields of the deployed RVs. They can provide this information at night as well as during the day and during rain and cloud covered conditions. The radar can be on the ground, on a ship, in an airplane, or space-borne. Airborne and space-borne radars can provide high resolution map images of the ground for reconnaissance, of anti-ballistic missile (ABM) ground radar installations, missile launch sites, and tactical targets such as trucks and tanks. The large ground based radars can have microwave carrier frequencies or be at HF (high frequency). For a ground-based HF radar the signal is reflected off the ionosphere so as to provide over-the-horizon (OTH) viewing of targets. OTH radars can potentially be used to monitor stealth targets and missile traffic.

  16. Radar, Insect Population Ecology, and Pest Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, C. R. (Editor); Wolf, W. (Editor); Klassen, W. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Discussions included: (1) the potential role of radar in insect ecology studies and pest management; (2) the potential role of radar in correlating atmospheric phenomena with insect movement; (3) the present and future radar systems; (4) program objectives required to adapt radar to insect ecology studies and pest management; and (5) the specific action items to achieve the objectives.

  17. 47 CFR 80.273 - Radar standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radar standards. 80.273 Section 80.273... MARITIME SERVICES Equipment Authorization for Compulsory Ships § 80.273 Radar standards. (a) Radar... with radar must comply with the following standards (all incorporated by reference, see § 80.7):...

  18. 46 CFR 121.404 - Radars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radars. 121.404 Section 121.404 Shipping COAST GUARD... Navigation Equipment § 121.404 Radars. (a) Except as allowed by paragraph (b) of this section, all self... radar system for surface navigation with a radar screen mounted at the primary operating station....

  19. 46 CFR 121.404 - Radars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radars. 121.404 Section 121.404 Shipping COAST GUARD... Navigation Equipment § 121.404 Radars. (a) Except as allowed by paragraph (b) of this section, all self... radar system for surface navigation with a radar screen mounted at the primary operating station....

  20. 47 CFR 80.273 - Radar standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radar standards. 80.273 Section 80.273... MARITIME SERVICES Equipment Authorization for Compulsory Ships § 80.273 Radar standards. (a) Radar... with radar must comply with the following standards (all incorporated by reference, see § 80.7):...