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Sample records for radar transponder apparatus

  1. Radar transponder apparatus and signal processing technique

    DOEpatents

    Axline, R.M. Jr.; Sloan, G.R.; Spalding, R.E.

    1996-01-23

    An active, phase-coded, time-grating transponder and a synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) and signal processor means, in combination, allow the recognition and location of the transponder (tag) in the SAR image and allow communication of information messages from the transponder to the SAR. The SAR is an illuminating radar having special processing modifications in an image-formation processor to receive an echo from a remote transponder, after the transponder receives and retransmits the SAR illuminations, and to enhance the transponder`s echo relative to surrounding ground clutter by recognizing special transponder modulations from phase-shifted from the transponder retransmissions. The remote radio-frequency tag also transmits information to the SAR through a single antenna that also serves to receive the SAR illuminations. Unique tag-modulation and SAR signal processing techniques, in combination, allow the detection and precise geographical location of the tag through the reduction of interfering signals from ground clutter, and allow communication of environmental and status information from said tag to be communicated to said SAR. 4 figs.

  2. Radar transponder apparatus and signal processing technique

    DOEpatents

    Axline, Jr., Robert M. (Albuquerque, NM); Sloan, George R. (Albuquerque, NM); Spalding, Richard E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1996-01-01

    An active, phase-coded, time-grating transponder and a synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) and signal processor means, in combination, allow the recognition and location of the transponder (tag) in the SAR image and allow communication of information messages from the transponder to the SAR. The SAR is an illuminating radar having special processing modifications in an image-formation processor to receive an echo from a remote transponder, after the transponder receives and retransmits the SAR illuminations, and to enhance the transponder's echo relative to surrounding ground clutter by recognizing special transponder modulations from phase-shifted from the transponder retransmissions. The remote radio-frequency tag also transmits information to the SAR through a single antenna that also serves to receive the SAR illuminations. Unique tag-modulation and SAR signal processing techniques, in combination, allow the detection and precise geographical location of the tag through the reduction of interfering signals from ground clutter, and allow communication of environmental and status information from said tag to be communicated to said SAR.

  3. Removing interfering clutter associated with radar pulses that an airborne radar receives from a radar transponder

    DOEpatents

    Ormesher, Richard C. (Albuquerque, NM); Axline, Robert M. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-12-02

    Interfering clutter in radar pulses received by an airborne radar system from a radar transponder can be suppressed by developing a representation of the incoming echo-voltage time-series that permits the clutter associated with predetermined parts of the time-series to be estimated. These estimates can be used to estimate and suppress the clutter associated with other parts of the time-series.

  4. Transponder-Aided Joint Calibration and Synchronization Compensation for Distributed Radar Systems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen-Qin

    2015-01-01

    High-precision radiometric calibration and synchronization compensation must be provided for distributed radar system due to separate transmitters and receivers. This paper proposes a transponder-aided joint radiometric calibration, motion compensation and synchronization for distributed radar remote sensing. As the transponder signal can be separated from the normal radar returns, it is used to calibrate the distributed radar for radiometry. Meanwhile, the distributed radar motion compensation and synchronization compensation algorithms are presented by utilizing the transponder signals. This method requires no hardware modifications to both the normal radar transmitter and receiver and no change to the operating pulse repetition frequency (PRF). The distributed radar radiometric calibration and synchronization compensation require only one transponder, but the motion compensation requires six transponders because there are six independent variables in the distributed radar geometry. Furthermore, a maximum likelihood method is used to estimate the transponder signal parameters. The proposed methods are verified by simulation results. PMID:25794158

  5. Radar transponder operation with compensation for distortion due to amplitude modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Ormesher, Richard C.; Tise, Bertice L.; Axline, Jr., Robert M.

    2011-01-04

    In radar transponder operation, a variably delayed gating signal is used to gate a received radar pulse and thereby produce a corresponding gated radar pulse for transmission back to the source of the received radar pulse. This compensates for signal distortion due to amplitude modulation on the retransmitted pulse.

  6. Real-time 3-d localization using radar and passive surface acoustic wave transponders

    E-print Network

    LaPenta, Jason Michael

    2007-01-01

    This thesis covers ongoing work into the design, fabrication, implementation, and characterization of novel passive transponders that allow range measurements at short range and at high update rates. Multiple RADAR measurement ...

  7. 14 CFR 99.13 - Transponder-on requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...that aircraft is equipped with an operable radar beacon transponder, shall operate the...that aircraft is equipped with a coded radar beacon transponder. (c) ATC transponder...that aircraft is equipped with a coded radar beacon transponder and automatic...

  8. 14 CFR 99.13 - Transponder-on requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...that aircraft is equipped with an operable radar beacon transponder, shall operate the...that aircraft is equipped with a coded radar beacon transponder. (c) ATC transponder...that aircraft is equipped with a coded radar beacon transponder and automatic...

  9. 14 CFR 99.13 - Transponder-on requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...that aircraft is equipped with an operable radar beacon transponder, shall operate the...that aircraft is equipped with a coded radar beacon transponder. (c) ATC transponder...that aircraft is equipped with a coded radar beacon transponder and automatic...

  10. 14 CFR 99.13 - Transponder-on requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...that aircraft is equipped with an operable radar beacon transponder, shall operate the...that aircraft is equipped with a coded radar beacon transponder. (c) ATC transponder...that aircraft is equipped with a coded radar beacon transponder and automatic...

  11. 14 CFR 99.13 - Transponder-on requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...that aircraft is equipped with an operable radar beacon transponder, shall operate the...that aircraft is equipped with a coded radar beacon transponder. (c) ATC transponder...that aircraft is equipped with a coded radar beacon transponder and automatic...

  12. Methods and apparatus for switching a transponder to an active state, and asset management systems employing same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mickle, Marlin H. (Inventor); Jones, Alex K. (Inventor); Cain, James T. (Inventor); Hawrylak, Peter J. (Inventor); Marx, Frank (Inventor); Hoare, Raymond R. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A transponder that may be used as an RFID tag includes a passive circuit to eliminate the need for an "always on" active RF receiving element to anticipate a wake-up signal for the balance of the transponder electronics. This solution allows the entire active transponder to have all circuit elements in a sleep (standby) state, thus drastically extending battery life or other charge storage device life. Also, a wake-up solution that reduces total energy consumption of an active transponder system by allowing all non-addressed transponders to remain in a sleep (standby) state, thereby reducing total system or collection energy. Also, the transponder and wake-up solution are employed in an asset tracking system.

  13. Methods and apparatus for switching a transponder to an active state, and asset management systems employing same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mickle, Marlin H. (Inventor); Jones, Alex K. (Inventor); Cain, James T. (Inventor); Hawrylak, Peter J. (Inventor); Marx, Frank (Inventor); Hoare, Raymond R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A transponder that may be used as an RFID tag includes a passive circuit to eliminate the need for an "always on" active RF receiving element to anticipate a wake-up signal for the balance of the transponder electronics. This solution allows the entire active transponder to have all circuit elements in a sleep (standby) state, thus drastically extending battery life or other charge storage device life. Also, a wake-up solution that reduces total energy consumption of an active transponder system by allowing all non-addressed transponders to remain in a sleep (standby) state, thereby reducing total system or collection energy. Also, the transponder and wake-up solution are employed in an asset tracking system.

  14. 14 CFR 99.13 - Transponder-on requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... equipped with an operable radar beacon transponder, shall operate the transponder, including altitude... designated in subpart B of this part unless that aircraft is equipped with a coded radar beacon transponder..., within, or across the contiguous U.S. ADIZ unless that aircraft is equipped with a coded radar...

  15. 14 CFR 99.13 - Transponder-on requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... equipped with an operable radar beacon transponder, shall operate the transponder, including altitude... designated in subpart B of this part unless that aircraft is equipped with a coded radar beacon transponder..., within, or across the contiguous U.S. ADIZ unless that aircraft is equipped with a coded radar...

  16. 14 CFR 99.13 - Transponder-on requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... equipped with an operable radar beacon transponder, shall operate the transponder, including altitude... designated in subpart B of this part unless that aircraft is equipped with a coded radar beacon transponder..., within, or across the contiguous U.S. ADIZ unless that aircraft is equipped with a coded radar...

  17. 14 CFR 99.13 - Transponder-on requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... equipped with an operable radar beacon transponder, shall operate the transponder, including altitude... designated in subpart B of this part unless that aircraft is equipped with a coded radar beacon transponder..., within, or across the contiguous U.S. ADIZ unless that aircraft is equipped with a coded radar...

  18. 14 CFR 99.13 - Transponder-on requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... equipped with an operable radar beacon transponder, shall operate the transponder, including altitude... designated in subpart B of this part unless that aircraft is equipped with a coded radar beacon transponder..., within, or across the contiguous U.S. ADIZ unless that aircraft is equipped with a coded radar...

  19. Automatic transponder. [measurement of the internal delay time of a transponder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. E.; Brisken, A. F.; Lewis, J. R. (inventors)

    1977-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the automatic, remote measurement of the internal delay time of a transponder at the time of operation is provided. A small portion of the transmitted signal of the transponder is converted to the receive signal frequency of the transponder and supplied to the input of the transponder. The elapsed time between the receive signal locally generated and the receive signal causing the transmission of the transmitted signal is measured, said time being representative of or equal to the internal delay time of the transponder at the time of operation.

  20. Moving receive beam method and apparatus for synthetic aperture radar

    DOEpatents

    Kare, Jordin T. (San Ramon, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving the performance of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems by reducing the effect of "edge losses" associated with nonuniform receiver antenna gain. By moving the receiver antenna pattern in synchrony with the apparent motion of the transmitted pulse along the ground, the maximum available receiver antenna gain can be used at all times. Also, the receiver antenna gain for range-ambiguous return signals may be reduced, in some cases, by a large factor. The beam motion can be implemented by real-time adjustment of phase shifters in an electronically-steered phased-array antenna or by electronic switching of feed horns in a reflector antenna system.

  1. Method and Apparatus for Reading Two Dimensional Identification Symbols Using Radar Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Harry F., Jr. (Inventor); Roxby, Donald L. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for sensing two-dimensional identification marks provided on a substrate or embedded within a substrate below a surface of the substrate. Micropower impulse radar is used to transmit a high risetime, short duration pulse to a focussed radar target area of the substrate having the two dimensional identification marks. The method further includes the steps of listening for radar echoes returned from the identification marks during a short listening period window occurring a predetermined time after transmission of the radar pulse. If radar echoes are detected, an image processing step is carried out. If no radar echoes are detected, the method further includes sequentially transmitting further high risetime, short duration pulses, and listening for radar echoes from each of said further pulses after different elapsed times for each of the further pulses until radar echoes are detected. When radar echoes are detected, data based on the detected echoes is processed to produce an image of the identification marks.

  2. Transponder data processing methods and systems

    DOEpatents

    Axline, Robert M.

    2003-06-10

    This invention is a radar/tag system where pulses from a radar cause a tag (or transponder) to respond to the radar. The radar, along with its conventional pulse transmissions, sends a reference signal to the tag. The tag recovers the reference signal and uses it to shift the center frequency of the received radar pulse to a different frequency. This shift causes the frequencies of the tag response pulses to be disjoint from those of the transmit pulse. In this way, radar clutter can be eliminated from the tag responses. The radar predicts, to within a small Doppler offset, the center frequency of tag response pulses. The radar can create synthetic-aperture-radar-like images and moving-target-indicator-radar-like maps containing the signature of the tag against a background of thermal noise and greatly attenuated radar clutter. The radar can geolocate the tag precisely and accurately (to within better than one meter of error). The tag can encode status and environmental data onto its response pulses, and the radar can receive and decode this information.

  3. Method and apparatus for measuring distance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichtenberg, Christopher L. (inventor); Shores, Paul W. (inventor); Kobayashi, Herbert S. (inventor)

    1988-01-01

    The invention employs a continuous wave radar technique and apparatus which can be used as a distance measuring system in the presence of background clutter by utilizing small passive transponders. A first continuous electromagnetic wave signal S sub 1 at a first frequency f sub 1 is transmitted from a first location. A transponder carried by a target object positioned at a second (remote) location receives the transmitted signal, phase-coherently divides the f sub 1 frequency and its phase, and re-transmits the transmitted signal as a second continuous electromagnetic wave signal S sub 2 at a lower frequency f sub 2 which is a subharmonic of f sub 1. The re-transmitted signal is received at the first location where a measurement of the phase difference is made between the signals S sub 1 and S sub 2, such measuremnt being indicative of the distance between the first and second locations.

  4. SHORT-PULSE ELECTROMAGNETIC TRANSPONDER FOR HOLE-TO-HOLE USE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, David L.; Watts, Raymond D.; Bramsoe, Erik

    1983-01-01

    Hole-to-hole observations were made through nearly 20 m of granite using an electromagnetic transponder (an active reflector) in one borehole and a single-hole short-pulse radar in another. The transponder is inexpensive, operationally simple, and effective in extending the capability of a short-pulse borehole radar system to allow hole-to-hole operation without requiring timing cables. A detector in the transponder senses the arrival of each pulse from the radar. Each pulse detection triggers a kilovolt-amplitude pulse for retransmission. The transponder 'echo' may be stronger than that of a passive reflector by a factor of as much as 120 db. The result is an increase in range capability by a factor which depends on attenuation in the medium and hole-to-hole wavepath geometry.

  5. Digital Baseband Architecture For Transponder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Tien M.; Yeh, Hen-Geul

    1995-01-01

    Proposed advanced transponder for long-distance radio communication system with turnaround ranging contains carrier-signal-tracking loop including baseband digital "front end." For reduced cost, transponder includes analog intermediate-frequency (IF) section and analog automatic gain control (AGC) loop at first of two IF mixers. However, second IF mixer redesigned to ease digitization of baseband functions. To conserve power and provide for simpler and smaller transponder hardware, baseband digital signal-processing circuits designed to implement undersampling scheme. Furthermore, sampling scheme and sampling frequency chosen so redesign involves minimum modification of command-detector unit (CDU).

  6. Validation of an active transponder for KOMPSAT-5 SAR image calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Durk Jong; Yeom, Kyung Whan; Ahn, Sang Il; Lim, Hyo Suk

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of a transportable active transponder designed for the image calibration of Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-5 (KOMPSAT-5) with a synthetic aperture radar (SAR). Ground targets are essential in SAR image calibration. The environment for the deployment of ground targets for SAR image calibration should provide uniformity and minimum interference. The Amazon or deserts are regarded as desirable environments. However, such environments for SAR image calibration are difficult to find in Korea. Thus, it will be advantageous to have an active transponder whose performance will not be severely limited by the absence of such uniform environment. We have therefore developed an active transponder which has an adjustable internal delay and into which the orbit data of an arbitrary satellite can be loaded. The stored obit data with the aid of an internal global positioning system (GPS) receiver and gyroscope enables the active transponder to point to a selected satellite. In addition, a virtual deployment of the active transponder is possible due to its adjustable internal delay. Thus, the developed active transponder can be deployed at any place without environmental constraint. The performance of the developed active transponder is validated using the satellite TerraSAR-X, which is already in operation. The test results show that the active transponder is successfully compliant with the requirements for KOMPSAT-5 image calibration.

  7. Study to investigate and evaluate means of optimizing the radar function. [systems engineering of pulse radar for the space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The investigations for a rendezvous radar system design and an integrated radar/communication system design are presented. Based on these investigations, system block diagrams are given and system parameters are optimized for the noncoherent pulse and coherent pulse Doppler radar modulation types. Both cooperative (transponder) and passive radar operation are examined including the optimization of the corresponding transponder design for the cooperative mode of operation.

  8. The 30/20 Gigahertz transponder study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-12-01

    Design features and performance parameters are described for three types of wideband multiple channel satellite transponders for use in a 30/20 GHz communications satellite, which provides high data rate trunking service to ten ground station terminals. The three types of transponder are frequency division multiplex (FDM), time division multiplex (TDM), and a hybrid transponder using a combination of FDM and TDM techniques. The wideband multiple beam trunking concept, the traffic distribution between the trunking terminals, and system design constraints are discussed. The receiver front end design, the frequency conversion scheme, and the local oscillator design are described including the thermal interface between the transponders and the satellite. The three designs are compared with regard to performance, weight, power, cost and initial technology. Simplified block diagrams of the baseline transponder designs are included.

  9. Transponders For Use Aboard Distant Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Tien M.; Kayalar, Selahattin; Yeh, Hen-Geul; Kyriacou, Charles

    1995-01-01

    Report proposes three advanced architectures for transponders used in deep space. Offer greater reliability, faster acquisition of and better performance in tracking weak signals, and better telemetry performance on downlinks.

  10. Method and apparatus for reducing range ambiguity in synthetic aperture radar

    DOEpatents

    Kare, Jordin T. (San Ramon, CA)

    1999-10-26

    A modified Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system with reduced sensitivity to range ambiguities, and which uses secondary receiver channels to detect the range ambiguous signals and subtract them from the signal received by the main channel. Both desired and range ambiguous signals are detected by a main receiver and by one or more identical secondary receivers. All receivers are connected to a common antenna with two or more feed systems offset in elevation (e.g., a reflector antenna with multiple feed horns or a phased array with multiple phase shift networks. The secondary receiver output(s) is (are) then subtracted from the main receiver output in such a way as to cancel the ambiguous signals while only slightly attenuating the desired signal and slightly increasing the noise in the main channel, and thus does not significantly affect the desired signal. This subtraction may be done in real time, or the outputs of the receivers may be recorded separately and combined during signal processing.

  11. The 30/20 Gigahertz transponder study. [wideband multichannel transponders for a communications satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Design features and performance parameters are described for three types of wideband multiple channel satellite transponders for use in a 30/20 GHz communications satellite, which provides high data rate trunking service to ten ground station terminals. The three types of transponder are frequency division multiplex (FDM), time division multiplex (TDM), and a hybrid transponder using a combination of FDM and TDM techniques. The wideband multiple beam trunking concept, the traffic distribution between the trunking terminals, and system design constraints are discussed. The receiver front end design, the frequency conversion scheme, and the local oscillator design are described including the thermal interface between the transponders and the satellite. The three designs are compared with regard to performance, weight, power, cost and initial technology. Simplified block diagrams of the baseline transponder designs are included.

  12. System for Configuring Modular Telemetry Transponders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varnavas, Kosta A. (Inventor); Sims, William Herbert, III (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A system for configuring telemetry transponder cards uses a database of error checking protocol data structures, each containing data to implement at least one CCSDS protocol algorithm. Using a user interface, a user selects at least one telemetry specific error checking protocol from the database. A compiler configures an FPGA with the data from the data structures to implement the error checking protocol.

  13. VCO PLL Frequency Synthesizers for Spacecraft Transponders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott; Mysoor, Narayan; Lux, James; Cook, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Two documents discuss a breadboard version of advanced transponders that, when fully developed, would be installed on future spacecraft to fly in deep space. These transponders will be required to be capable of operation on any deepspace- communications uplink frequency channel between 7,145 and 7,235 MHz, and any downlink frequency channel between 8,400 and 8,500 MHz. The document focuses on the design and operation of frequency synthesizers for the receiver and transmitter. Heretofore, frequency synthesizers in deep-space transponders have been based on dielectric resonator oscillators (DROs), which do not have the wide tuning bandwidth necessary to tune over all channels in the uplink or downlink frequency bands. To satisfy the requirement for tuning bandwidth, the present frequency synthesizers are based on voltage-controlled-oscillator (VCO) phase-locked loops (PLLs) implemented by use of monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) implemented using inGaP heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) technology. MMIC VCO PLL frequency synthesizers similar to the present ones have been used in commercial and military applications but, until now, have exhibited too much phase noise for use in deep-space transponders. The present frequency synthesizers contain advanced MMIC VCOs, which use HBT technology and have lower levels of flicker (1/f) phase noise. When these MMIC VCOs are used with high-speed MMIC frequency dividers, it becomes possible to obtain the required combination of frequency agility and low phase noise.

  14. Advanced transponders for deep space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Tien M.; Kayalar, Selahattin; Yeh, Hen-Geul; Kyriacou, Charles

    1993-01-01

    Three architectures for advanced deep space transponders are proposed. The architectures possess various digital techniques such as fast Fourier transform (FFT), digital phase-locked loop (PLL), and digital sideband aided carrier detection with analog or digital turn-around ranging. Preliminary results on the design and conceptual implementation are presented. Modifications to the command detector unit (CDU) are also presented.

  15. Personal communications via ACTS satellite HBR transponders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, Russell J. F.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of a fully meshed network of briefcase-sized terminals is presented for personal communications over Ka-band satellite transponders. In this concept, undesirable double-hop delays are avoided for voice communications. The bandwidth and power resources of the transponder are efficiently shared by users in a simple demand-assigned manner via code-division multiple access (CDMA). Voice, data, and facsimile are statistically multiplexed at each terminal. In order to minimize terminal costs, frequency-precorrected, and level-preadjusted continuous-wave tones are sent from the central network control station in each beam so that the terminals in each down-link beam can use these pilots as references for antenna acquisition and tracking, as reliable frequency sources, and as indicators of signal fade for up-link power control (ULPC). The potential CDMA 'near-far' problem due to up-link fades is mitigated by using ULPC. Quasi-burst mode transmission is employed to minimize the potential clock and pseudorandom number code synchronization.

  16. An electro-optical communications satellite transponder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, A. M., Jr.

    The design concept of an electrooptical transponder for communications satellites operating in C-band or Ku-band is presented. A system comprising 12 single-polarization transponders 36-MHz wide is illustrated with a block diagram. The RF carrier uplink signal passes through a low-noise GaAs FET amplifier and is translated to the downlink RF frequency by a mixer and local oscillator; this signal then serves as a subcarrier to intensity modulate an 850-nm GaAlAs semiconductor laser, and the optical signal is optically switched via fiber, demodulated by pin diode or avalanche photodiode, and passed through a GaAs FET preamplifier and amplifier for downlink transmission. Both prefiber and postfiber component groups can be integrated onto monolithic electrooptical chips operating at very low power. Additional features and design options are discussed; the frequency variation involved (12 decades) is illustrated; and the optical switching speed is shown to be noncritical in present TDMA, SS/TDMA, or FDMA configurations.

  17. On Passive Data Link Layer Fingerprinting of Aircraft Transponders

    E-print Network

    Murawski, Andrzej

    On Passive Data Link Layer Fingerprinting of Aircraft Transponders Martin Strohmeier, Ivan-B to broadcast data to their surroundings. In this paper, we use differences in the implementation of aircraft transponders to fingerprint their wireless drivers. In particular, without any modification to either aircraft

  18. Detecting and mitigating wind turbine clutter for airspace radar systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Qin

    2013-01-01

    It is well recognized that a wind turbine has a large radar cross-section (RCS) and, due to the movement of the blades, the wind turbine will generate a Doppler frequency shift. This scattering behavior may cause severe interferences on existing radar systems including static ground-based radars and spaceborne or airborne radars. To resolve this problem, efficient techniques or algorithms should be developed to mitigate the effects of wind farms on radars. Herein, one transponder-based mitigation technique is presented. The transponder is not a new concept, which has been proposed for calibrating high-resolution imaging radars. It modulates the radar signal in a manner that the retransmitted signals can be separated from the scene echoes. As wind farms often occupy only a small area, mitigation processing in the whole radar operation will be redundant and cost inefficient. Hence, this paper uses a transponder to determine whether the radar is impacted by the wind farms. If so, the effects of wind farms are then mitigated with subsequent Kalman filtering or plot target extraction algorithms. Taking airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and pulse Doppler radar as the examples, this paper provides the corresponding system configuration and processing algorithms. The effectiveness of the mitigation technique is validated by numerical simulation results. PMID:24385880

  19. Asynchronous Laser Transponders for Precise Interplanetary Ranging and Time Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degnan, John J.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The feasibility of a two-way asynchronous (i.e. independently firing) interplanetary laser transponder pair, capable of decimeter ranging and subnanosecond time transfer from Earth to a spacecraft anywhere within the inner Solar System, is discussed. In the Introduction, we briefly discuss the current state-of-the-art in Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) and Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) which use single-ended range measurements to a passive optical reflector, and the limitations of this approach in ranging beyond the Moon to the planets. In Section 2 of this paper, we describe two types of transponders (echo and asynchronous), introduce the transponder link equation and the concept of "balanced" transponders, describe how range and time can be transferred between terminals, and preview the potential advantages of photon counting asynchronous transponders for interplanetary applications. In Section 3, we discuss and provide mathematical models for the various sources of noise in an interplanetary transponder link including planetary albedo, solar or lunar illumination of the local atmosphere, and laser backscatter off the local atmosphere. In Section 4, we introduce the key engineering elements of an interplanetary laser transponder and develop an operational scenario for the acquisition and tracking of the opposite terminal. In Section 5, we use the theoretical models of th previous sections to perform an Earth-Mars link analysis over a full synodic period of 780 days under the simplifying assumption of coaxial, coplanar, circular orbits. We demonstrate that, using slightly modified versions of existing space and ground based laser systems, an Earth-Mars transponder link is not only feasible but quite robust. We also demonstrate through analysis the advantages and feasibility of compact, low output power (<300 mW photon-counting transponders using NASA's developmental SLR2000 satellite laser ranging system as the Earth terminal. Section 6 provides a summary of the results and some concluding remarks regarding future applications.

  20. Using Transponders on the Moon to Increase Accuracy of GPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penanen, Konstantin; Chui, Talso

    2008-01-01

    It has been proposed to place laser or radio transponders at suitably chosen locations on the Moon to increase the accuracy achievable using the Global Positioning System (GPS) or other satellite-based positioning system. The accuracy of GPS position measurements depends on the accuracy of determination of the ephemerides of the GPS satellites. These ephemerides are determined by means of ranging to and from Earth-based stations and consistency checks among the satellites. Unfortunately, ranging to and from Earth is subject to errors caused by atmospheric effects, notably including unpredictable variations in refraction. The proposal is based on exploitation of the fact that ranging between a GPS satellite and another object outside the atmosphere is not subject to error-inducing atmospheric effects. The Moon is such an object and is a convenient place for a ranging station. The ephemeris of the Moon is well known and, unlike a GPS satellite, the Moon is massive enough that its orbit is not measurably affected by the solar wind and solar radiation. According to the proposal, each GPS satellite would repeatedly send a short laser or radio pulse toward the Moon and the transponder(s) would respond by sending back a pulse and delay information. The GPS satellite could then compute its distance from the known position(s) of the transponder(s) on the Moon. Because the same hemisphere of the Moon faces the Earth continuously, any transponders placed there would remain continuously or nearly continuously accessible to GPS satellites, and so only a relatively small number of transponders would be needed to provide continuous coverage. Assuming that the transponders would depend on solar power, it would be desirable to use at least two transponders, placed at diametrically opposite points on the edges of the Moon disk as seen from Earth, so that all or most of the time, at least one of them would be in sunlight.

  1. Inductively coupled MEMS-based micro RFID transponder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Hong M.; Goldsmith, Chuck; Lee, Jeong-Bong

    2007-05-01

    In this paper, we present the design, fabrication and characterization of an inductively-coupled miniaturized RFID transponder using MEMS technology. The micromachined miniaturized transponder consists of a small solenoid inductor with a high permeability magnetic core, a chip capacitor and a RFID chip. They are integrated onto a micromachined SU-8 polymer substrate and it is operated in the frequency range of 13.56 to 27 MHz. Induced voltages of up to 4 V were obtained with a miniaturized 500 nH transponder coil from a 2.2 ?H reader coil at 5 mm distance based on a resonant magnetic coupling mechanism. The assembled transponder was tested using a commercial RFID reader at 13.56 MHz and successful communication was established at a distance of 10 mm.

  2. Wide Tuning Capability for Spacecraft Transponders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lux, James; Mysoor, Narayan; Shah, Biren; Cook, Brian; Smith, Scott

    2007-01-01

    A document presents additional information on the means of implementing a capability for wide tuning of microwave receiver and transmitter frequencies in the development reported in the immediately preceding article, VCO PLL Frequency Synthesizers for Spacecraft Transponders (NPO- 42909). The reference frequency for a PLL-based frequency synthesizer is derived from a numerically controlled oscillator (NCO) implemented in digital logic, such that almost any reference frequency can be derived from a fixed crystal reference oscillator with microhertz precision. The frequency of the NCO is adjusted to track the received signal, then used to create another NCO frequency used to synthesize the transmitted signal coherent with, and at a specified frequency ratio to, the received signal. The frequencies can be changed, even during operation, through suitable digital programming. The NCOs and the related tracking loops and coherent turnaround logic are implemented in a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The interface between the analog microwave receiver and transmitter circuits and the FPGA includes analog-to-digital and digital-toanalog converters, the sampling rates of which are chosen to minimize spurious signals and otherwise optimize performance. Several mixers and filters are used to properly route various signals.

  3. Simulation of a weather radar display for over-water airborne radar approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clary, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    Airborne radar approach (ARA) concepts are being investigated as a part of NASA's Rotorcraft All-Weather Operations Research Program on advanced guidance and navigation methods. This research is being conducted using both piloted simulations and flight test evaluations. For the piloted simulations, a mathematical model of the airborne radar was developed for over-water ARAs to offshore platforms. This simulated flight scenario requires radar simulation of point targets, such as oil rigs and ships, distributed sea clutter, and transponder beacon replies. Radar theory, weather radar characteristics, and empirical data derived from in-flight radar photographs are combined to model a civil weather/mapping radar typical of those used in offshore rotorcraft operations. The resulting radar simulation is realistic and provides the needed simulation capability for ongoing ARA research.

  4. Standardized accuracy assessment of the calypso wireless transponder tracking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, A. M.; Schmitt, D.; Seitel, A.; Chatrasingh, M.; Echner, G.; Oelfke, U.; Nill, S.; Birkfellner, W.; Maier-Hein, L.

    2014-11-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) tracking allows localization of small EM sensors in a magnetic field of known geometry without line-of-sight. However, this technique requires a cable connection to the tracked object. A wireless alternative based on magnetic fields, referred to as transponder tracking, has been proposed by several authors. Although most of the transponder tracking systems are still in an early stage of development and not ready for clinical use yet, Varian Medical Systems Inc. (Palo Alto, California, USA) presented the Calypso system for tumor tracking in radiation therapy which includes transponder technology. But it has not been used for computer-assisted interventions (CAI) in general or been assessed for accuracy in a standardized manner, so far. In this study, we apply a standardized assessment protocol presented by Hummel et al (2005 Med. Phys. 32 2371-9) to the Calypso system for the first time. The results show that transponder tracking with the Calypso system provides a precision and accuracy below 1 mm in ideal clinical environments, which is comparable with other EM tracking systems. Similar to other systems the tracking accuracy was affected by metallic distortion, which led to errors of up to 3.2 mm. The potential of the wireless transponder tracking technology for use in many future CAI applications can be regarded as extremely high.

  5. Person-Locator System Based On Wristband Radio Transponders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mintz, Frederick W.; Blaes, Brent R.; Chandler, Charles W.

    1995-01-01

    Computerized system based on wristband radio frequency (RF), passive transponders is being developed for use in real-time tracking of individuals in custodial institutions like prisons and mental hospitals. Includes monitoring system that contains central computer connected to low-power, high-frequency central transceiver. Transceiver connected to miniature transceiver nodes mounted unobtrusively at known locations throughout the institution. Wristband transponders embedded in common hospital wristbands. Wristbands tamperproof: each contains embedded wire loop which, when broken or torn off and discarded, causes wristband to disappear from system, thus causing alarm. Individuals could be located in a timely fashion at relatively low cost.

  6. The Effect of Transponder Motion on the Accuracy of the Calypso Electromagnetic Localization System

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Martin J. Eidens, Richard; Vertatschitsch, Edward; Wright, J. Nelson

    2008-09-01

    Purpose: To determine position and velocity-dependent effects in the overall accuracy of the Calypso Electromagnetic localization system, under conditions that emulate transponder motion during normal free breathing. Methods and Materials: Three localization transponders were mounted on a remote-controlled turntable that could move the transponders along a circular trajectory at speeds up to 3 cm/s. A stationary calibration established the coordinates of multiple points on each transponder's circular path. Position measurements taken while the transponders were in motion at a constant speed were then compared with the stationary coordinates. Results: No statistically significant changes in the transponder positions in (x,y,z) were detected when the transponders were in motion. Conclusions: The accuracy of the localization system is unaffected by transponder motion.

  7. 21 CFR 880.6300 - Implantable radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and health information. 880.6300...radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and health information. (a) Identification...corresponding health information. This system may...

  8. 21 CFR 880.6300 - Implantable radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and health information. 880.6300...radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and health information. (a) Identification...corresponding health information. This system may...

  9. 21 CFR 880.6300 - Implantable radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and health information. 880.6300...radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and health information. (a) Identification...corresponding health information. This system may...

  10. 21 CFR 880.6300 - Implantable radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and health information. 880.6300...radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and health information. (a) Identification...corresponding health information. This system may...

  11. 21 CFR 880.6300 - Implantable radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and health information. 880.6300...radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and health information. (a) Identification...corresponding health information. This system may...

  12. LORAN-C TETROON TRANSPONDER AND TRACKING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    An advanced system for tracking multiple regional scale Lagrangian markers was developed. The system consists of a miniature tetroon-borne transponder and a small computerized receiving station capable of providing continuous real-time data on tetroon location (latitude/longitude...

  13. Ka-Band Transponder for Deep-Space Radio Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Matthew S.; Mysoor, Narayan R.; Folkner, William M.; Mendoza, Ricardo; Venkatesan, Jaikrishna

    2008-01-01

    A one-page document describes a Ka-band transponder being developed for use in deep-space radio science. The transponder receives in the Deep Space Network (DSN) uplink frequency band of 34.2 to 34.7 GHz, transmits in the 31.8- to 32.3 GHz DSN downlink band, and performs regenerative ranging on a DSN standard 4-MHz ranging tone subcarrier phase-modulated onto the uplink carrier signal. A primary consideration in this development is reduction in size, relative to other such transponders. The transponder design is all-analog, chosen to minimize not only the size but also the number of parts and the design time and, thus, the cost. The receiver features two stages of frequency down-conversion. The receiver locks onto the uplink carrier signal. The exciter signal for the transmitter is derived from the same source as that used to generate the first-stage local-oscillator signal. The ranging-tone subcarrier is down-converted along with the carrier to the second intermediate frequency, where the 4-MHz tone is demodulated from the composite signal and fed into a ranging-tone-tracking loop, which regenerates the tone. The regenerated tone is linearly phase-modulated onto the downlink carrier.

  14. 78 FR 69318 - Airworthiness Directives; Rockwell Collins, Inc. Transponders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... 12866, (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034.... investigated the deficiency with the transponders and determined that age and lack of depot-level maintenance may cause a shift in the sync phase reversal tolerance causing intermittent replies to the Mode S...

  15. A Full Wave Voltage Multiplier for RFID Transponders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Shiho; Cho, Jung-Hyun; Hong, Suk-Kyung

    A full wave voltage multiplier for passive RFID transponders is presented. The current driving capability of the proposed rectifier is remarkably improved at the cost of only a small increase in layout area compared to the widely used conventional half wave voltage multiplier. The communication distance of RFID systems can be extended due to the improved RF carrier to DC power conversion capability of the proposed voltage multiplier.

  16. 3-D transponder antennas for future SHF RFID applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zichner, R.; Baumann, R. R.

    2011-12-01

    The radio frequency identification (RFID) technology is omnipresent since a few years. Some of the most popular fields of application are the use for security tasks, for logistics and for the consumer segment. For example, chip card or key ring sized RFID transponders can allow wireless access to secured rooms. The number of applications for wireless data transmission for the identification and tracking of objects increases every year. There is a large development need for highly functional and inexpensive RFID transponders due to the ever-increasing demand on improved reliability, higher data rates and read and write ranges of the RFID systems. Therefore, research was performed on new 3-D transponder antennas for the Super High Frequency Band around 5.8 GHz. Additionally, wave propagation effects and the influence of different dielectric environments were considered. Parallel to the design of the novel antenna structures, the printing process for inexpensive manufacturing was investigated. The gained results are the basis for prospective RFID applications.

  17. A passive integrated transponder system for tracking animal movements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boarman, W.I.; Beigel, M.L.; Goodlett, G.C.; Sazaki, M.

    1999-01-01

    We describe an automated system that uses passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags to track movements of animals past specific locations. The system was designed to operate maintenance free for several months, be secure from vandalism and environmental damage, and record the identity, date, and time of passage of animals past a 2.4-m wide area. We used the system to monitor effectively the movements of 172 desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) through 2 storm drain culverts that pass beneath a state highway in the Mojave Desert, California. Four tortoises entered or passed through the culverts on 60 occasions. The system can be easily adapted to other species.

  18. Traffic-Light-Preemption Vehicle-Transponder Software Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachelder, Aaron; Foster, Conrad

    2005-01-01

    A prototype wireless data-communication and control system automatically modifies the switching of traffic lights to give priority to emergency vehicles. The system, which was reported in several NASA Tech Briefs articles at earlier stages of development, includes a transponder on each emergency vehicle, a monitoring and control unit (an intersection controller) at each intersection equipped with traffic lights, and a central monitoring subsystem. An essential component of the system is a software module executed by a microcontroller in each transponder. This module integrates and broadcasts data on the position, velocity, acceleration, and emergency status of the vehicle. The position, velocity, and acceleration data are derived partly from the Global Positioning System, partly from deductive reckoning, and partly from a diagnostic computer aboard the vehicle. The software module also monitors similar broadcasts from other vehicles and from intersection controllers, informs the driver of which intersections it controls, and generates visible and audible alerts to inform the driver of any other emergency vehicles that are close enough to create a potential hazard. The execution of the software module can be monitored remotely and the module can be upgraded remotely and, hence, automatically

  19. 14 CFR Appendix F to Part 43 - ATC Transponder Tests and Inspections

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false ATC Transponder Tests and Inspections F Appendix F to Part 43 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE, REBUILDING, AND ALTERATION Pt. 43, App. F Appendix F to Part 43—ATC Transponder Tests and...

  20. C-band radar pulse Doppler error: Its discovery, modeling, and elimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabill, W. B.; Dempsey, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    The discovery of a C Band radar pulse Doppler error is discussed and use of the GEOS 3 satellite's coherent transponder to isolate the error source is described. An analysis of the pulse Doppler tracking loop is presented and a mathematical model for the error was developed. Error correction techniques were developed and are described including implementation details.

  1. Bronchoscopic Implantation of a Novel Wireless Electromagnetic Transponder in the Canine Lung: A Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Mayse, Martin L.; Parikh, Parag J. Lechleiter, Kristen M.; Dimmer, Steven; Park, Mia; Chaudhari, Amir; Talcott, Michael; Low, Daniel A.; Bradley, Jeffrey D.

    2008-09-01

    Purpose: The success of targeted radiation therapy for lung cancer treatment is limited by tumor motion during breathing. A real-time, objective, nonionizing, electromagnetic localization system using implanted electromagnetic transponders has been developed (Beacon electromagnetic transponder, Calypso Medical Technologies, Inc., Seattle, WA). We evaluated the feasibility and fixation of electromagnetic transponders bronchoscopically implanted in small airways of canine lungs and compared to results using gold markers. Methods and Materials: After approval of the Animal Studies Committee, five mongrel dogs were anesthetized, intubated, and ventilated. Three transponders were inserted into the tip of a plastic catheter, passed through the working channel of a flexible bronchoscope, and implanted into small airways of a single lobe using fluoroscopic guidance. This procedure was repeated for three spherical gold markers in the opposite lung. One, 7, 14, 28, and 60 days postimplantation imaging was used to assess implant fixation. Results: Successful bronchoscopic implantation was possible for 15 of 15 transponders and 12 of 15 gold markers; 3 markers were deposited in the pleural space. Fixation at 1 day was 15 of 15 for transponders and 12 of 12 for gold markers. Fixation at 60 days was 6 of 15 for transponders and 7 of 12 for gold markers, p value = 0.45. Conclusions: Bronchoscopic implantation of both transponders and gold markers into the canine lung is feasible, but fixation rates are low. If fixation rates can be improved, implantable electromagnetic transponders may allow improved radiation therapy for lung cancer by providing real-time continuous target tracking. Developmental work is under way to improve the fixation rates and to reduce sensitivity to implantation technique.

  2. Apparatus Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Describes three pieces of scientific apparatus and their demonstrational use: a high temperature apparatus for positron annihilation studies, a digitally synthesized classroom variable star, and a demonstration of plasma laser-beam focusing using paint stripper flames. (GA)

  3. Virtual long baseline (VLBL) autonomous underwater vehicle navigation using a single transponder

    E-print Network

    LaPointe, Cara Elizabeth Grupe

    2006-01-01

    (cont.) Therefore, accurate underwater navigation using a single location transponder would provide dramatic time and cost savings for underwater vehicle operations. This thesis presents a simulation of autonomous underwater ...

  4. Single Transponder Range Only Navigation Geometry (STRONG) applied to REMUS autonomous under water vehicles

    E-print Network

    Hartsfield, J. Carl (Jasper Carl)

    2005-01-01

    A detailed study was conducted to prove the concept of an iterative approach to single transponder navigation for REMUS Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs). Although the concept of navigation with one acoustic beacon is ...

  5. Planetary benchmarks. [structural design criteria for radar reference devices on planetary surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uphoff, C.; Staehle, R.; Kobrick, M.; Jurgens, R.; Price, H.; Slade, M.; Sonnabend, D.

    1978-01-01

    Design criteria and technology requirements for a system of radar reference devices to be fixed to the surfaces of the inner planets are discussed. Offshoot applications include the use of radar corner reflectors as landing beacons on the planetary surfaces and some deep space applications that may yield a greatly enhanced knowledge of the gravitational and electromagnetic structure of the solar system. Passive retroreflectors with dimensions of about 4 meters and weighing about 10 kg are feasible for use with orbiting radar at Venus and Mars. Earth-based observation of passive reflectors, however, would require very large and complex structures to be delivered to the surfaces. For Earth-based measurements, surface transponders offer a distinct advantage in accuracy over passive reflectors. A conceptual design for a high temperature transponder is presented. The design appears feasible for the Venus surface using existing electronics and power components.

  6. Photon-Counting Microlaser Rangers, Transponders, and Altimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degnan, John J.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Unlike current manned systems, NASA's next generation SLR2000 Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) station is fully autonomous. eye-safe, relatively compact and inexpensive. and, during daytime tracking operates at signal-to-noise ratios several orders of magnitude below unity. Tiny, passively Q-switched microlasers generate ultra-short pulses with output energies on the order of 100 micron-J at few kHz rates to achieve mm-level ranging precision to satellite altitudes of 20,000 km. Special ranging receivers, combined with Poisson statistical analysis of the received photon distribution, enable the system to rapidly and reliably identify and extract the single photon laser echoes from the solar background. The enhanced rate of return, combined with a uniform signal strength, can actually drive down both systematic and random range errors. The new SLR2000 technology has already spawned exciting new applications. Compact microlaser altimeters, capable of mapping the surface of a planet or other celestial body at multikilohertz rates, is one such application, and a high altitude, airborne version is currently being developed under NASA's Instrument Incubator Program. Interplanetary microlaser transponders would be capable of performing decimeter ranging or subnanosecond time transfer to spacecraft throughout the inner Solar System. resulting in improved knowledge of planetary motions and liberations and enhanced General Relativity experiments.

  7. Sensitive radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meer, David E.

    Prospective sensitive radar technologies with sensors operating at both RF and laser frequencies will enhance target detection, localization, classification, identification, and tracking capabilities. Ultrawideband radars operating at lower frequencies promise to detect stealthy targets and furnish simpler, lower cost, more reliable radars which can perform many of the functions of current high resolution radars. High resolution RF sensors for real-time recognition of noncooperative targets will be critical in future engagements, allowing detection of targets hidden in folliage. Laser radar technology will have its greatest impact in cruise missile and robotic vehicle navigation.

  8. Radar vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haykin, Simon

    The novel idea called radar vision is introduced. The goal of radar vision is to make radar into an intelligent remote-sensing device that is capable of cognition of the surrounding environment. The attributes of radar as an electromagnetic sensor are reviewed, and the possibility of radar learning from the environment is discussed. The issues of time and knowledge processing and the incorporation of feedback are addressed. The facilities in place at McMaster University for research into the development and perfection of a radar vision system are described. The IPIX radar and the systolic-based computing machinery, which play critical and complementary roles, are described. The IPIX radar permits the collection and invaluable real-life data on the ocean environment and radar targets of interest under varying conditions. The systolic-radar computing machinery processes this database in near real time and computes the neural-network-based algorithms that are designed to perform the different functions of radar vision.

  9. Roll-to-Roll Screen Printed Radio Frequency Identification Transponder Antennas for Vehicle Tracking Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zichner, Ralf; Baumann, Reinhard R.

    2013-05-01

    Vehicle tracking systems based on ultra high frequency (UHF) radio frequency identification (RFID) technology are already introduced to control the access to car parks and corporate premises. For this field of application so-called Windshield RFID transponder labels are used, which are applied to the inside of the windshield. State of the art for manufacturing these transponder antennas is the traditional lithography/etching approach. Furthermore the performance of these transponders is limited to a reading distance of approximately 5 m which results in car speed limit of 5 km/h for identification. However, to achieve improved performance compared to existing all-purpose transponders and a dramatic cost reduction, an optimized antenna design is needed which takes into account the special dielectric and in particular metallic car environment of the tag and an roll-to-roll (R2R) printing manufacturing process. In this paper we focus on the development of a customized UHF RFID transponder antenna design, which is adopted for vehicle geometry as well as R2R screen printing manufacturing processes.

  10. SPS pilot signal design and power transponder analysis, volume 2, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, W. C.; Scholtz, R. A.; Chie, C. M.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of pilot signal parameter optimization and the related problem of power transponder performance analysis for the Solar Power Satellite reference phase control system are addressed. Signal and interference models were established to enable specifications of the front end filters including both the notch filter and the antenna frequency response. A simulation program package was developed to be included in SOLARSIM to perform tradeoffs of system parameters based on minimizing the phase error for the pilot phase extraction. An analytical model that characterizes the overall power transponder operation was developed. From this model, the effects of different phase noise disturbance sources that contribute to phase variations at the output of the power transponders were studied and quantified. Results indicate that it is feasible to hold the antenna array phase error to less than one degree per power module for the type of disturbances modeled.

  11. The first clinical implementation of electromagnetic transponder-guided MLC tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Keall, Paul J. O’Brien, Ricky; Ng, Jin Aun; Colvill, Emma; Poulsen, Per Rugaard; Eade, Thomas; Kneebone, Andrew; Booth, Jeremy T.

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: We report on the clinical process, quality assurance, and geometric and dosimetric results of the first clinical implementation of electromagnetic transponder-guided MLC tracking which occurred on 28 November 2013 at the Northern Sydney Cancer Centre. Methods: An electromagnetic transponder-based positioning system (Calypso) was modified to send the target position output to in-house-developed MLC tracking code, which adjusts the leaf positions to optimally align the treatment beam with the real-time target position. Clinical process and quality assurance procedures were developed and performed. The first clinical implementation of electromagnetic transponder-guided MLC tracking was for a prostate cancer patient being treated with dual-arc VMAT (RapidArc). For the first fraction of the first patient treatment of electromagnetic transponder-guided MLC tracking we recorded the in-room time and transponder positions, and performed dose reconstruction to estimate the delivered dose and also the dose received had MLC tracking not been used. Results: The total in-room time was 21 min with 2 min of beam delivery. No additional time was needed for MLC tracking and there were no beam holds. The average prostate position from the initial setup was 1.2 mm, mostly an anterior shift. Dose reconstruction analysis of the delivered dose with MLC tracking showed similar isodose and target dose volume histograms to the planned treatment and a 4.6% increase in the fractional rectal V{sub 60}. Dose reconstruction without motion compensation showed a 30% increase in the fractional rectal V{sub 60} from that planned, even for the small motion. Conclusions: The real-time beam-target correction method, electromagnetic transponder-guided MLC tracking, has been translated to the clinic. This achievement represents a milestone in improving geometric and dosimetric accuracy, and by inference treatment outcomes, in cancer radiotherapy.

  12. Micropower RF transponder with superregenerative receiver and RF receiver with sampling mixer

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1997-05-13

    A micropower RF transponder employs a novel adaptation of the superregenerative receiver wherein the quench oscillator is external to the regenerative transistor. The quench oscillator applies an exponentially decaying waveform rather than the usual sinewave to achieve high sensitivity at microampere current levels. Further improvements include circuit simplifications for antenna coupling, extraction of the detected signal, and a low-voltage bias configuration that allows operation with less than a 1-volt rail voltage. The inventive transponder is expected to operate as long as the battery shelf life. 13 figs.

  13. Radiation-Hard SpaceWire/Gigabit Ethernet-Compatible Transponder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzman, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    A radiation-hard transponder was developed utilizing submicron/nanotechnology from IBM. The device consumes low power and has a low fabrication cost. This device utilizes a Plug-and-Play concept, and can be integrated into intra-satellite networks, supporting SpaceWire and Gigabit Ethernet I/O. A space-qualified, 100-pin package also was developed, allowing space-qualified (class K) transponders to be delivered within a six-month time frame. The novel, optical, radiation-tolerant transponder was implemented as a standalone board, containing the transponder ASIC (application specific integrated circuit) and optical module, with an FPGA (field-programmable gate array) friendly parallel interface. It features improved radiation tolerance; high-data-rate, low-power consumption; and advanced functionality. The transponder utilizes a patented current mode logic library of radiation-hardened-by-architecture cells. The transponder was developed, fabricated, and radhard tested up to 1 MRad. It was fabricated using 90-nm CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) 9 SF process from IBM, and incorporates full BIT circuitry, allowing a loop back test. The low-speed parallel LVCMOS (lowvoltage complementary metal oxide semiconductor) bus is compatible with Actel FPGA. The output LVDS (low-voltage differential signaling) interface operates up to 1.5 Gb/s. Built-in CDR (clock-data recovery) circuitry provides robust synchronization and incorporates two alarm signals such as synch loss and signal loss. The ultra-linear peak detector scheme allows on-line control of the amplitude of the input signal. Power consumption is less than 300 mW. The developed transponder with a 1.25 Gb/s serial data rate incorporates a 10-to-1 serializer with an internal clock multiplication unit and a 10-1 deserializer with internal clock and data recovery block, which can operate with 8B10B encoded signals. Three loop-back test modes are provided to facilitate the built-in-test functionality. The design is based on a proprietary library of differential current switching logic cells implemented in the standard 90-nm CMOS 9SF technology from IBM. The proprietary low-power LVDS physical interface is fully compatible with the SpaceWire standard, and can be directly connected to the SFP MSA (small form factor pluggable Multiple Source Agreement) optical transponder. The low-speed parallel interfaces are fully compatible with the standard 1.8 V CMOS input/output devices. The utilized proprietary annular CMOS layout structures provide TID tolerance above 1.2 MRad. The complete chip consumes less than 150 mW of power from a single 1.8-V positive supply source.

  14. Apparatus Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Includes five brief articles on: solar-heating demonstration equipment, mercury or sodium vapor lamp spectroscopy, an apparatus for simulating variable stars, a voltage-to-frequency converter, and an introductory absorption experiment for low-energy beta particles. (MLH)

  15. Rerounding apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.L.

    1988-07-12

    An apparatus is described for rerounding flexible water, sewer or other buried pipes in situ comprising: a housing having a substantially cylindrical portion with an outside diameter slightly less than the inside diameter of a pipe to be rerounded.

  16. Implant Experience and Positional Stability of AC Electromagnetic Beacon Transponders Used to Localize Patients for External Beam Radiation Therapy of the Prostate

    E-print Network

    Pouliot, Jean

    Implant Experience and Positional Stability of AC Electromagnetic Beacon® Transponders Used involves the first human use of Beacon® transponders and the Calypso® 4D Localization System. There were of the Beacon transponders in the prostate 3. Evaluate accuracy of localization relative to x-ray localization

  17. Spaceborne radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. K.; Eckerman, J.; Meneghini, R.; Atlas, D.; Boerner, W. M.; Cherry, S.; Clark, J. F.; Doviak, R. J.; Goldhirsh, J.; Lhermitte, R. M.

    1981-01-01

    The spaceborne radar panel considered how radar could be used to measure precipitation from satellites. The emphasis was on how radar could be used with radiometry (at microwave, visible (VIS), and infrared (IR) wavelengths) to reduce the uncertainties of measuring precipitation with radiometry alone. In addition, the fundamental electromagnetic interactions involved in the measurements were discussed to determine the key work areas for research and development to produce effective instruments. Various approaches to implementing radar systems on satellites were considered for both shared and dedicated instruments. Finally, a research and development strategy was proposed for establishing the parametric relations and retrieval algorithms required for extracting precipitation information from the radar and associated radiometric data.

  18. Tin Whisker Risk Assessment of TDRSS IV Transponder Units 101 and 102

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zellitti, Ron; Royse, Jeff; Jackson, Steve

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the plating requirements for the electrical and mechanical parts used in the TDRSS IV transponder manufactured by MOTOROLA, INC., SSG, SSSD. The intent of this report is to identify any electrical, electromechanical or mechanical part that does not have adequate requirements to prevent the use of a pure tin finish.

  19. 14 CFR Appendix F to Part 43 - ATC Transponder Tests and Inspections

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false ATC Transponder Tests and Inspections F Appendix F to Part 43 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE, REBUILDING, AND ALTERATION Pt. 43, App. F Appendix F to...

  20. 14 CFR Appendix F to Part 43 - ATC Transponder Tests and Inspections

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false ATC Transponder Tests and Inspections F Appendix F to Part 43 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE, REBUILDING, AND ALTERATION Pt. 43, App. F Appendix F to...

  1. 14 CFR Appendix F to Part 43 - ATC Transponder Tests and Inspections

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... interrogations when the amplitude of P2 pulse is equal to the P1 pulse. (2) Verify that the transponder replies to at least 90 percent of ATCRBS interrogations when the amplitude of the P2 pulse is 9 dB less than the P1 pulse. If the test is conducted with a radiated test signal, the interrogation rate shall...

  2. 14 CFR Appendix F to Part 43 - ATC Transponder Tests and Inspections

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... interrogations when the amplitude of P2 pulse is equal to the P1 pulse. (2) Verify that the transponder replies to at least 90 percent of ATCRBS interrogations when the amplitude of the P2 pulse is 9 dB less than the P1 pulse. If the test is conducted with a radiated test signal, the interrogation rate shall...

  3. Linearized transponder technology for satellite communications. I - Linearizer circuit development and experimental characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahana, D.; Potukuchi, J. R.; Marshalek, R. G.; Paul, D. K.

    The operational principles and design of transmission and reflection types of predistortion diode linearizers are presented. The performance of four different linearized traveling wave tubes (LTWTs) in multicarrier operation is evaluated experimentally, and the measured performance of a soft-limited LTWT is presented. Experimental results on linearization at an intermediate frequency of a transponder are also given.

  4. A zero power harmonic transponder sensor for ubiquitous wireless ?L liquid-volume monitoring.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haiyu; Chen, Pai-Yen; Hung, Cheng-Hsien; Gharpurey, Ranjit; Akinwande, Deji

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous liquid-volume monitoring is crucial in ubiquitous healthcare. However, conventional approach is based on either human visual observation or expensive detectors, which are costly for future pervasive monitoring. Here we introduce a novel approach based on passive harmonic transponder antenna sensor and frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) pattern analysis, to provide a very low cost wireless ?L-resolution liquid-volume monitoring without battery or digital circuits. In our conceptual demonstration, the harmonic transponder comprises of a passive nonlinear frequency multiplier connected to a metamaterial-inspired 3-D antenna designed to be highly sensitive to the liquid-volume within a confined region. The transponder first receives some FHSS signal from an interrogator, then converts such signal to its harmonic band and re-radiates through the antenna sensor. The harmonic signal is picked up by a sniffer receiver and decoded through pattern analysis of the high dimensional FHSS signal strength data. A robust, zero power, absolute accuracy wireless liquid-volume monitoring is realized in the presence of strong direct coupling, background scatters, distance variance as well as near-field human-body interference. The concepts of passive harmonic transponder sensor, metamaterial-inspired antenna sensor, and FHSS pattern analysis based sensor decoding may help establishing cost-effective, energy-efficient and intelligent wireless pervasive healthcare monitoring platforms. PMID:26732251

  5. Control apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derkacs, Thomas (Inventor); Fetheroff, Charles W. (Inventor); Matay, Istvan M. (Inventor); Toth, Istvan J. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    Although the method and apparatus of the present invention can be utilized to apply either a uniform or a nonuniform covering of material over many different workpieces, the apparatus (20) is advantageously utilized to apply a thermal barrier covering (64) to an airfoil (22) which is used in a turbine engine. The airfoil is held by a gripper assembly (86) while a spray gun (24) is effective to apply the covering over the airfoil. When a portion of the covering has been applied, a sensor (28) is utilized to detect the thickness of the covering. A control apparatus (32) compares the thickness of the covering of material which has been applied with the desired thickness and is subsequently effective to regulate the operation of the spray gun to adaptively apply a covering of a desired thickness with an accuracy of at least plus or minus 0.0015 inches (1.5 mils) despite unanticipated process variations.

  6. Positioning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Vogel, M.A.; Alter, P.

    1983-07-07

    An apparatus is provided for precisely adjusting the position of an article relative to a beam emerging from a neutron source disposed in a housing. The apparatus includes a support pivotably mounted on a movable base plate and freely suspended therefrom. The support is gravity biased toward the housing and carries an article holder movable in a first direction longitudinally of the axis of said beam and normally urged into engagement against said housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the suspended holder in two mutually perpendicular directions, respectively, normal to the axis of the beam.

  7. Imaging synthetic aperture radar

    DOEpatents

    Burns, Bryan L. (Tijeras, NM); Cordaro, J. Thomas (Albuquerque, NM)

    1997-01-01

    A linear-FM SAR imaging radar method and apparatus to produce a real-time image by first arranging the returned signals into a plurality of subaperture arrays, the columns of each subaperture array having samples of dechirped baseband pulses, and further including a processing of each subaperture array to obtain coarse-resolution in azimuth, then fine-resolution in range, and lastly, to combine the processed subapertures to obtain the final fine-resolution in azimuth. Greater efficiency is achieved because both the transmitted signal and a local oscillator signal mixed with the returned signal can be varied on a pulse-to-pulse basis as a function of radar motion. Moreover, a novel circuit can adjust the sampling location and the A/D sample rate of the combined dechirped baseband signal which greatly reduces processing time and hardware. The processing steps include implementing a window function, stabilizing either a central reference point and/or all other points of a subaperture with respect to doppler frequency and/or range as a function of radar motion, sorting and compressing the signals using a standard fourier transforms. The stabilization of each processing part is accomplished with vector multiplication using waveforms generated as a function of radar motion wherein these waveforms may be synthesized in integrated circuits. Stabilization of range migration as a function of doppler frequency by simple vector multiplication is a particularly useful feature of the invention; as is stabilization of azimuth migration by correcting for spatially varying phase errors prior to the application of an autofocus process.

  8. Prehensile apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Christopher M. (Richland, WA)

    1993-01-01

    The present invention relates to an apparatus for handling a workpiece comprising a vessel that is longitudinally extensible and pressurizable, and a nonextensible and laterally flexible member on the vessel. The member constrains one side of the vessel to be nonextensible, causing the vessel to bend in the direction of the nonextensible member when pressurized.

  9. Apparatus Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    This collection of notes describes (1) an optoelectronic apparatus for classroom demonstrations of mechanical laws, (2) a more efficient method for demonstrated nuclear chain reactions using electrically energized "traps" and ping-pong balls, and (3) an inexpensive demonstration for qualitative analysis of temperature-dependent resistance. (CS)

  10. Exercise apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffner, Grant (Inventor); Bentley, Jason R. (Inventor); Loehr, James A. (Inventor); Gundo, Daniel P. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An apparatus and method for exercising whereby the user is supported by various mechanisms in such as way that the user's shoulder area is free to translate and rotate; the user's pelvic area is free to translate and rotate; or in any combination.

  11. Sensor apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Deason, Vance A. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Telschow, Kenneth L. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-12-22

    A sensor apparatus and method for detecting an environmental factor is shown that includes an acoustic device that has a characteristic resonant vibrational frequency and mode pattern when exposed to a source of acoustic energy and, futher, when exposed to an environmental factor, produces a different resonant vibrational frequency and/or mode pattern when exposed to the same source of acoustic energy.

  12. Apparatus Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Presents four short articles on: a power supply for the measurement of the charge-to-mass ratio of the electron; a modified centripetal force apparatus; a black box electronic unknown for the scientific instruments laboratory; and a simple scaling model for biological systems. (MLH)

  13. Apparatus Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Reviews apparatus design and instructional uses for Fume Cupboard Monitor, Plant Tissue Culture Kit, various equipment for electronic systems course, Welwyn Microprocessor-Tutor, Sweep Function Generator SFG 606, and Harris manufacturers materials--Regulated Power Supply Units, Electronic Current and Voltage Meters, Gas Preparation Kit, and…

  14. Apparatus Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Describes some science apparatus: included are a gene kit to demonstrate aspects of population genetics and selection, an electronic thermometer for use in the field of environmental studies, an astrobrella to use in astronomy classes, and crystal display models of different substances for chemistry classes. (GA)

  15. Apparatus Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Provided are reviews of science equipment/apparatus. Items reviewed include: Harris Micro-ecology tubes; Harris chromosome investigation kit; Harris trycult slides; a pressure cooker with thermometer; digital pH meter; digital scaler timer; electrical compensation calorimeter; and Mains alternating current ammeter. (JN)

  16. Prehensile apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Smith, C.M.

    1993-10-12

    The present invention relates to an apparatus for handling a workpiece comprising a vessel that is longitudinally extensible and pressurizable, and a nonextensible and laterally flexible member on the vessel. The member constrains one side of the vessel to be nonextensible, causing the vessel to bend in the direction of the nonextensible member when pressurized. 8 figures.

  17. Design study of a HEAO-C spread spectrum transponder telemetry system for use with the TDRSS subnet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weathers, G.

    1975-01-01

    The results of a design study of a spread spectrum transponder for use on the HEAO-C satellite were given. The transponder performs the functions of code turn-around for ground range and range-rate determination, ground command receiver, and telemetry data transmitter. The spacecraft transponder and associated communication system components will allow the HEAO-C satellite to utilize the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) subnet of the post 1978 STDN. The following areas were discussed in the report: TDRSS Subnet Description, TDRSS-HEAO-C System Configuration, Gold Code Generator, Convolutional Encoder Design and Decoder Algorithm, High Speed Sequence Generators, Statistical Evaluation of Candidate Code Sequences using Amplitude and Phase Moments, Code and Carrier Phase Lock Loops, Total Spread Spectrum Transponder System, and Reference Literature Search.

  18. Sampling apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, N.R.; King, L.L.; Jackson, P.O.; Zulich, A.W.

    1989-07-18

    A sampling apparatus is provided for sampling substances from solid surfaces. The apparatus includes first and second elongated tubular bodies which telescopically and sealingly join relative to one another. An absorbent pad is mounted to the end of a rod which is slidably received through a passageway in the end of one of the joined bodies. The rod is preferably slidably and rotatably received through the passageway, yet provides a selective fluid tight seal relative thereto. A recess is formed in the rod. When the recess and passageway are positioned to be coincident, fluid is permitted to flow through the passageway and around the rod. The pad is preferably laterally orientable relative to the rod and foldably retractable to within one of the bodies. A solvent is provided for wetting of the pad and solubilizing or suspending the material being sampled from a particular surface. 15 figs.

  19. Sampling apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, Norman R. (Kennewick, WA); King, Lloyd L. (Benton, WA); Jackson, Peter O. (Richland, WA); Zulich, Alan W. (Bel Air, MD)

    1989-01-01

    A sampling apparatus is provided for sampling substances from solid surfaces. The apparatus includes first and second elongated tubular bodies which telescopically and sealingly join relative to one another. An absorbent pad is mounted to the end of a rod which is slidably received through a passageway in the end of one of the joined bodies. The rod is preferably slidably and rotatably received through the passageway, yet provides a selective fluid tight seal relative thereto. A recess is formed in the rod. When the recess and passageway are positioned to be coincident, fluid is permitted to flow through the passageway and around the rod. The pad is preferably laterally orientable relative to the rod and foldably retractable to within one of the bodies. A solvent is provided for wetting of the pad and solubilizing or suspending the material being sampled from a particular surface.

  20. Hyperthermia apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, L.E.

    2000-04-18

    A hyperthermia apparatus, suitable for transurethral application, has an energy radiating element comprising a leaky-wave antenna. The leaky wave antenna radiation pattern is characterized by a surface wave which propagates along an aperture formed by openings (small in comparison to a wavelength) in the outer conductor of a transmission line. Appropriate design of the leaky wave antenna produces a uniform, broadside pattern of temperature elevation that uniformly heats all or part of the periurethral tissues.

  1. Hyperthermia apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Larsen, Lawrence E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01

    A hyperthermia apparatus, suitable for transurethral application, has an energy radiating element comprising a leaky-wave antenna. The leaky wave antenna radiation pattern is characterized by a surface wave which propagates along an aperture formed by openings (small in comparison to a wavelength) in the outer conductor of a transmission line. Appropriate design of the leaky wave antenna produces a uniform, broadside pattern of temperature elevation that uniformly heats all or part of the periurethral tissues.

  2. Solar apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Morse, R.N.

    1987-11-03

    A solar steam generating apparatus for generating process steam in the temperature range of 100/sup 0/C to 200/sup 0/C is described comprising: (a) a solar collector comprised of tubular collectors (b) heat storage means, and first duct means communicating with the solar collector and with the heat storage means to permit the transfer of heat from the air heated by the solar collector to the heat storage means; (c) a steam generating heat exchanger, and water and steam lines directed to and from the heat exchanger; (d) second duct means communicating with the first duct means, the heat exchanger being mounted in the second duct means, (e) fans means associated with the first and second duct means for circulating air through the solar collector and the first and second duct means; (f) flow control means provided in the first and second duct means to selectively control the flow of air to and from the solar collector; (g) the air passing through the solar collector, the first and second duct means and the heat storage means is at substantially atmospheric pressure during operation of the apparatus, whereby the apparatus provides 60-80% of the annual energy required for steam generation by the heat exchanger.

  3. Doppler and range determination for deep space vehicles using active optical transponders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinman, Peter W.; Gagliardi, Robert M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes and analyzes two types of laser system employing active transponders that could accurately determine Doppler and range to deep space vehicles from earth-orbiting satellites. The first is a noncoherent optical system in which the Doppler effect on an intensity-modulating subcarrier is measured. The second is a coherent optical system in which the Doppler effect of the optical carrier itself is measured. Doppler and range measurement errors are mathematically modeled and, for three example systems, numerically evaluated.

  4. Preliminary design and implementation of the baseline digital baseband architecture for advanced deep space transponders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, T. M.; Yeh, H.-G.

    1993-01-01

    The baseline design and implementation of the digital baseband architecture for advanced deep space transponders is investigated and identified. Trade studies on the selection of the number of bits for the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and optimum sampling schemes are presented. In addition, the proposed optimum sampling scheme is analyzed in detail. Descriptions of possible implementations for the digital baseband (or digital front end) and digital phase-locked loop (DPLL) for carrier tracking are also described.

  5. Laser Transponders for High-Accuracy Interplanetary Laser Ranging and Time Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degnan, John J.

    Satellite laser ranging (SLR) and lunar laser ranging (LLR) to passive reflectors have been carried out successfully since 1964 and 1969, respectively. The single-ended SLR ranging technique, although capable of providing millimeter precision range data to satellites, is not practical over interplanetary ranges. Double-ended laser transponders for decimeter or better accuracy interplanetary ranging and subnanosecond time transfer are well within the state-of-the-art, however, as was recently demonstrated in two successful transponder experiments carried out by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center to laser altimeters onboard the Messenger spacecraft (currently enroute to Mercury) and the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft (presently in Mars Orbit). A high-accuracy interplanetary ranging capability would support a number of new scientific investigations (e.g., solar system and planetary physics, general relativity, etc.) and enhance deep-space mission operations and reliability through vastly improved navigation accuracy and time synchronization with Earth mission control centers. The performance of future lunar or interplanetary laser transponder and laser communications instruments can be simulated and tested at distances to Pluto and beyond using existing passive SLR and LLR targets already in space.

  6. Application of asynchronous laser transponders to solar system and planetary science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degnan, John J.

    2007-08-01

    Since 1964, short pulse lasers have been used to range to artificial satellites equipped with passive retroreflectors. Today, a global network of 40 satellite laser ranging (SLR) stations, under the auspices of the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS), routinely track two dozen international space missions with few millimeter precision using picosecond pulse lasers in support of Earth Science. Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) began in 1969, shortly after NASA's Apollo 11 mission placed the first of five retroreflector packages on the Moon. For the past decade, work has been underway to extend these precise ranging capabilities beyond the Moon to interplanetary distances via the use of two-way asynchronous laser transponders. In May 2005, the first two-way asynchronous laser transponder link was established between NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center and a laser altimeter instrument onboard the Messenger spacecraft enroute to Mercury. The Earth to spacecraft distance of 24.3 million km was measured with an unprecedented precision of 20 cm and was limited by the roughly 10 nanosecond pulsewidth and resolution of the onboard laser and timing receiver. The Messenger experiment was carried out in full daylight with very modest onboard laser energies (<20 mJ) and receive apertures (25 cm) and a relatively high threshold detector (300 pe). In September 2005, approximately 500 laser pulses from the same GSFC station were observed by the Mars Observer Laser Altimeter (MOLA) receiver in Mars orbit at an even greater distance of 80 million km. A second Messenger experiment is planned for mid-June 2007 while the spacecraft is in the vicinity of Venus. Compact transponder packages using readily space-qualifiable ultrashort pulse lasers, detectors, and time-of-flight receivers should permit centimeter range accuracies over interplanetary distances in the near future. In preparing for these missions, many of the passive satellite assets already in Earth orbit can be used today to test and validate interplanetary link analyses (including atmospheric effects), target acquisition and tracking strategies, and data reduction algorithms prior to spacecraft launch or even mission definition. Science applications of transponders include: characterization of the solar gravitational field, mass distribution, and rotation; centimeter accuracy planetary and lunar ephemeredes; mass distribution within the asteroid belt; and improved general relativity experiments. Planned transponder experiments to artificial satellites will also speed the development of laser communications systems, which would offer orders of magnitude more bandwidth in transferring high resolution sensor data from our planetary neighbors and their moons.

  7. Radar vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haykin, Simon

    1989-09-01

    This paper describes work undertaken at the Communications Research Laboratory (CRL) at McMaster University on a radar-based intelligent remote sensing device that is capable of developing an understanding or cognition of the surrounding environment. The proposed system has three levels of processing: (1) low level vision will perform preprocessing on incoming data; (2) intermediate level vision will perform feature extraction and target tracking; and (3) high level vision will perform knowledge processing for the purpose of target interpretation. A feedback link from this latter stage allows the radar to be automatically reconfigured for a different look at the target. Interactive probing of the potential target will continue until target recognition occurs. A sophisticated coherent cross polarizing radar with pulse compression capabilities, IPIX, has been developed and successfully tested in an ice infested marine environment off Newfoundland. Image analysis for IPIX is implemented on a Warp systolic machine, a highly parallel processor designed for vision research. A comparison between radar and human vision systems is provided.

  8. Positioning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Vogel, Max A. (Kennewick, WA); Alter, Paul (Richland, WA)

    1986-01-01

    An apparatus for precisely positioning materials test specimens within the optimum neutron flux path emerging from a neutron source located in a housing. The test specimens are retained in a holder mounted on the free end of a support pivotably mounted and suspended from a movable base plate. The support is gravity biased to urge the holder in a direction longitudinally of the flux path against the housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the holder in two mutually perpendicular directions normal to the axis of the flux path.

  9. GEOS-2 C-band radar system project. Marine study using C-band radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    One of the secondary objectives of the GEOS-2 C-band Systems Project is to study the feasibility of using geodetic satellites to both evaluate shipborne instrumentation and to determine ship positions in broad ocean areas. The purpose of this task is to determine whether shipborne C-band radar tracking, in conjunction with ground based tracking, is sufficiently accurate to provide instrumentation evaluation and ship position estimates. Data from several Apollo tracking ships, in particular the USNS Vanguard, was made available for this effort. A series of tests, using the USNS Vanguard, were carried out in the Port Canaveral and Bahama Acoustic Transponder Array Areas. The major portion of the analyses reported are the result of preliminary investigations using the data from these tests.

  10. Feasibility of Electromagnetic Transponder Use to Monitor Inter- and Intrafractional Motion in Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Shinohara, Eric T.; Kassaee, Alireza; Mitra, Nandita; Vapiwala, Neha; Plastaras, John P.; Drebin, Jeff; Wan, Fei; Metz, James M.

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: The primary objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of electromagnetic transponder implantation in patients with locally advanced unresectable pancreatic cancer. Secondarily, the use of transponders to monitor inter- and intrafractional motion, and the efficacy of breath holding for limiting target motion, were examined. Methods and Materials: During routine screening laparoscopy, 5 patients without metastatic disease were implanted with transponders peri-tumorally. The Calypso System's localization and tracking modes were used to monitor inter- and intrafractional motion, respectively. Intrafractional motion, with and without breath holding, was also examined using Calypso tracking mode. Results: Transponder implantation was well tolerated in all patients, with minimal migration, aside from 1 patient who expulsed a single transponder. Interfractional motion based on mean shifts from setup using tattoos/orthogonal imaging to transponder based localization from 164 treatments was significant in all dimensions. Mean shift (in millimeters), followed by the standard deviation and p value, were as follows: X-axis: 4.5 mm (1.0, p = 0.01); Y axis: 6.4 mm (1.9, p = 0.03); and Z-axis 3.9 mm (0.6, p = 0.002). Mean intrafractional motion was also found to be significant in all directions: superior, 7.2 mm (0.9, p = 0.01); inferior, 11.9 mm (0.9, p < 0.01); anterior: 4.9 mm (0.5, p = 0.01); posterior, 2.9 mm (0.5, p = 0.02); left, 2.2 mm (0.4, p = 0.02); and right, 3.1 mm (0.6, p = 0.04). Breath holding during treatment significantly decreased tumor motion in all directions. Conclusions: Electromagnetic transponder implantation appears to be safe and effective for monitoring inter- and intrafractional motion. Based on these results a larger clinical trial is underway.

  11. TRMM radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okamoto, Kenichi

    1993-01-01

    The results of a conceptual design study and the performance of key components of the Bread Board Model (BBM) of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) radar are presented. The radar, which operates at 13.8 GHz and is designed to meet TRMM mission objectives, has a minimum measurable rain rate of 0.5 mm/h with a range resolution of 250 m, a horizontal resolution of about 4 km, and a swath width of 220 km. A 128-element active phased array system is adopted to achieve contiguous scanning within the swath. The basic characteristics of BBM were confirmed by experiments. The development of EM started with the cooperation of NASDA and CRL.

  12. Hydrogenation apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Friedman, Joseph (Encino, CA); Oberg, Carl L. (Canoga Park, CA); Russell, Larry H. (Agoura, CA)

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogenation reaction apparatus comprising a housing having walls which define a reaction zone and conduits for introducing streams of hydrogen and oxygen into the reaction zone, the oxygen being introduced into a central portion of the hydrogen stream to maintain a boundary layer of hydrogen along the walls of the reaction zone. A portion of the hydrogen and all of the oxygen react to produce a heated gas stream having a temperature within the range of from 1100.degree. to 1900.degree. C., while the boundary layer of hydrogen maintains the wall temperature at a substantially lower temperature. The heated gas stream is introduced into a hydrogenation reaction zone and provides the source of heat and hydrogen for a hydrogenation reaction. There also is provided means for quenching the products of the hydrogenation reaction. The present invention is particularly suitable for the hydrogenation of low-value solid carbonaceous materials to provide high yields of more valuable liquid and gaseous products.

  13. Burner apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Ximpara, N.; Moriya, Y.; Xaneko, H.

    1984-01-31

    The present invention improves a conventional Bunsen burner by providing it with a primary combustion chamber which covers the primary flame forming portion of the Bunsen burner and which has a secondary flame hole immediately above the primary flame forming portion. The burner apparatus of the present invention produces reduced NO /SUB x/ since the overall combustion is divided into primary flame combustion and secondary flame combustion. Further according to the invention, an indication of incomplete combustion due to oxygen deficiency in the ambient air or blockade of the primary air passage can be dependably detected for cessation of combustion by providing a flame rod and measuring the impedance (or ion current) of the rod.

  14. Transport apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, B.R.; Lowe, D.B.; Lowe, D.W.

    1983-07-12

    Transport apparatus is disclosed comprising a drive unit and a slave unit movable in unison along a predetermined path. The slave unit is disposed beneath the drive unit to move along a tunnel with work stations located at intervals along the tunnel. The drive unit carries electromagnets which when energized levitate the slave unit within the tunnel, controls being provided to maintain the slave unit at a desired position relative to the drive unit. The roof of the tunnel is formed from a magnetically transparent material, such as glass. The slave unit is thereby physically isolated from the drive unit. As a result the drive unit is shielded from any hostile environment within the tunnel and resulting, for example, from the transport of radioactive or toxic materials by the slave units. This simplifies repair and maintenance operations on the drive unit.

  15. Collecting apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, Charles P. (Walnut Creek, CA)

    1983-01-01

    An improved collecting apparatus for small aquatic or airborne organisms such as plankton, larval fish, insects, etc. The improvement constitutes an apertured removal container within which is retained a collecting bag, and which is secured at the apex of a conical collecting net. Such collectors are towed behind a vessel or vehicle with the open end of the conical net facing forward for trapping the aquatic or airborne organisms within the collecting bag, while allowing the water or air to pass through the apertures in the container. The container is readily removable from the collecting net whereby the collecting bag can be quickly removed and replaced for further sample collection. The collecting bag is provided with means for preventing the bag from being pulled into the container by the water or air flowing therethrough.

  16. Micropower RF transponder with superregenerative receiver and RF receiver with sampling mixer

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A micropower RF transdponder employs a novel adaptation of the superregenerative receiver wherein the quench oscillator is external to the regenerative transistor. The quench oscillator applies an exponentially decaying waveform rather than the usual sinewave to achieve high sensitivity at microampere current levels. Further improvements include circuit simplifications for antenna coupling, extraction of the detected signal, and a low-voltage bias configuration that allows operation with less than a 1-volt rail voltage. The inventive transponder is expected to operate as long as the battery shelf life.

  17. Method and apparatus for remote measurement of terrestrial biomass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Patrick W. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Method and apparatus for remote measurement of terrestrial biomass contained in vegetative elements, such as large tree boles or trunks present in an area of interest. The method includes providing an airborne radar system, overflying the area of interest while directing radar energy having a frequency of under 400 MHz, and preferably between 80 and 120 MHz, toward the area of interest, using the radar system to collect backscatter data from the radar energy as a function of incidence angle and frequency, and using an inversion algorithm to determine a magnitude of the biomass from the backscatter data for each radar resolution cell. A biomass map is generated showing the magnitude of the biomass of the vegetative elements as a function of location on the map by using each resolution cell as a unique location thereon.

  18. Workover rig support apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Crist, W.W.

    1984-08-28

    An apparatus is claimed for distributing the weight of a workover or maintenance apparatus connected to a Christmas tree over the surface of the portion of the Christmas tree to which the workover apparatus is attached, including a plate which rests upon the portion of the Christmas tree to which the workover apparatus is attached, and a rigid support extending upwardly from the plate, the rigid support being connectable to said workover apparatus. The apparatus may include plugs for plugging the other strings of tubing contained in the Christmas tree to which the workover apparatus is not attached, and devices for adjusting the length of the rigid support.

  19. Piston apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Timmerman, T.; Chapman, N.V.

    1987-09-22

    This patent describes a piston apparatus comprising: (a) a first pair of spaced-part cylinders aligned along a cylinder axis; (b) a pair of pistons, each piston being slidably received in one of the cylinders for reciprocation along the axis; (c) a pair of spaced-apart crank members on opposite sides of the cylinder axis, the crank members having parallel axes of rotation; (d) a first gear wheel, a second gear wheel and a third gear wheel, (e) a crank connecting member having a longitudinal axis which is perpendicular to the cylinder axis and having opposite ends. (f) a piston connecting member interconnecting the pair of pistons and having an aperture extending perpendicular to the cylinder axis. The crank connecting member is slidably received in the aperture to permit relative movement between the piston connecting member and the crank connecting member along the longitudinal axis of the crank connecting member. The piston connecting member and the crank connecting member are carried together for movement parallel to the cylinder axis.

  20. Laser apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Owen (Fairport, NY); Stogran, Edmund M. (North Syracuse, NY)

    1980-01-01

    Laser apparatus is described wherein an active laser element, such as the disc of a face-pumped laser, is mounted in a housing such that the weight of the element is supported by glass spheres which fill a chamber defined in the housing between the walls of the housing and the edges of the laser element. The uniform support provided by the spheres enable the chamber and the pump side of the laser element to be sealed without affecting the alignment or other optical properties of the laser element. Cooling fluid may be circulated through the sealed region by way of the interstices between the spheres. The spheres, and if desired also the cooling fluid may contain material which absorbs radiation at the wavelength of parasitic emissions from the laser element. These parasitic emissions enter the spheres through the interface along the edge surface of the laser element and it is desirable that the index of refraction of the spheres and cooling fluid be near the index of refraction of the laser element. Thus support, cooling, and parasitic suppression functions are all accomplished through the use of the arrangement.

  1. Hydrogenation apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Friedman, J.; Oberg, C. L.; Russell, L. H.

    1981-06-23

    Hydrogenation reaction apparatus is described comprising a housing having walls which define a reaction zone and conduits for introducing streams of hydrogen and oxygen into the reaction zone, the oxygen being introduced into a central portion of the hydrogen stream to maintain a boundary layer of hydrogen along the walls of the reaction zone. A portion of the hydrogen and all of the oxygen react to produce a heated gas stream having a temperature within the range of from 1,100 to 1,900 C, while the boundary layer of hydrogen maintains the wall temperature at a substantially lower temperature. The heated gas stream is introduced into a hydrogenation reaction zone and provides the source of heat and hydrogen for a hydrogenation reaction. There also is provided means for quenching the products of the hydrogenation reaction. The present invention is particularly suitable for the hydrogenation of low-value solid carbonaceous materials to provide high yields of more valuable liquid and gaseous products. 2 figs.

  2. Improving the range of UHF RFID transponders using solar energy harvesting under low light conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascher, A.; Lehner, M.; Eberhardt, M.; Biebl, E.

    2015-11-01

    The sensitivity of passive UHF RFID transponders (Radio Frequency Identification) is the key issue, which determines the maximum read range of an UHF RFID system. During this work the ability of improving the sensitivity using solar energy harvesting, especially for low light conditions, is shown. To use the additional energy harvested from the examined silicon and organic solar cells, the passive RFID system is changed into a semi-active one. This needs no changes on the reader hardware itself, only the used RFIC (Radio Frequency Integrated Circuit) of the transponder has to possess an additional input pin for an external supply voltage. The silicon and organic cells are evaluated and compared to each other regarding their low light performance. The different cells are examined in a shielded box, which is protected from the environmental lighting. Additionally, a demonstrator is shown, which makes the measurement of the extended read range with respect to the lighting conditions possible. If the cells are completely darkened, the sensitivity gain is ascertained using high capacity super caps. Due to the measurements an enhancement in range up to 70 % could be guaranteed even under low light conditions.

  3. Investigation of sonar transponders for offshore wind farms: modeling approach, experimental setup, and results.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Moritz B; Rolfes, Raimund

    2013-11-01

    The installation of offshore wind farms in the German Exclusive Economic Zone requires the deployment of sonar transponders to prevent collisions with submarines. The general requirements for these systems have been previously worked out by the Research Department for Underwater Acoustics and Marine Geophysics of the Bundeswehr. In this article, the major results of the research project "Investigation of Sonar Transponders for Offshore Wind Farms" are presented. For theoretical investigations a hybrid approach was implemented using the boundary element method to calculate the source directivity and a three-dimensional ray-tracing algorithm to estimate the transmission loss. The angle-dependence of the sound field as well as the weather-dependence of the transmission loss are compared to experimental results gathered at the offshore wind farm alpha ventus, located 45?km north of the island Borkum. While theoretical and experimental results are in general agreement, the implemented model slightly underestimates scattering at the rough sea surface. It is found that the source level of 200?dB re 1??Pa at 1?m is adequate to satisfy the detectability of the warning sequence at distances up to 2 NM (?3.7?km) within a horizontal sector of ±60° if realistic assumptions about signal-processing and noise are made. An arrangement to enlarge the angular coverage is discussed. PMID:24180764

  4. Autonomous sensor-transponder RFID with supply energy conditioning for object navigation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoczylas, M.; Kamuda, K.; Jankowski-Mihu?owicz, P.; Kalita, W.; Weglarski, Mariusz

    2014-08-01

    The properties of energy conditioning electrical circuits that are developed for powering additional functional blocks of autonomous RFID transponders working in the HF band have been analyzed and presented in the paper. The concept of autonomy is realized by implementing extra functions in the typical transponder. First of all, the autonomous system should harvest energy, e.g. from the electromagnetic field of read/write devices but also the possibility of gathering information about environment should be available, e.g. by measuring different kind of physical quantities. In such an electrical device, the crucial problem consists in energy conditioning because the output voltage-current characteristic of an front-end (antenna with matching and harvesting circuit) as well as the total and instantaneous power load generated by internal circuits are strongly dependent on a realized function but also on energy and communication conditions in the RFID interface. The properly designed solution should improve harvesting efficiency, current leakage of supply storage, matching between antenna and input circuits, in order to save energy and increase operating time in such a battery-free system. The authors present methods how to increase the autonomous operation time even at advanced measuring algorithms. The measuring system with wide spectrum of sensors dedicated for different quantities (physical, chemical, etc.) has also been presented. The results of model calculations and experimental verifications have been also discussed on the basis of investigations conducted in the unique laboratory stand of object navigation systems.

  5. Evacuation of Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) Tags from Northern Pikeminnow Consuming Tagged Juvenile Chinook Salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, J.H.; Barfoot, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Prey fish implanted with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags can be used in predation studies if the timing of tag evacuation from the predators is understood. Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine how PIT tags in juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that were consumed by northern pikeminnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis were evacuated in relation to various parameters. The rate of evacuation was directly related to temperature, while predator size and the number of prey consumed had less effect on the timing of tag evacuation. A power model was fitted to predict the proportion of tags expected to be evacuated at different intervals after ingestion. These results could be used in planning field or laboratory predation experiments with PIT-tagged prey fish.

  6. Time-compression multiplexing (TCM) of three broadcast-quality TV signals on a satellite transponder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eng, K. Y.; Haskell, B. G.; Schmidt, R. L.

    1983-12-01

    A method to transmit three NTSC TV signals in a 36 MHz satellite transponder is described. The technique uses differential signals to reduce the bandwidth and time-compression multiplexing (TCM) to combine the three TVs into a single signal. Novel circuit configurations are used to significantly reduce the memory requirements. Differential signals are companded to markedly reduce the effect of transmission noise on picture quality. The estimated performance of the system is at or close to broadcast quality if 12-meter earth stations are used in a satellite system such as COMSTAR. Digital audio signals can be sent without interference either to or from the video TCM signal by placing it in the horizontal blanking period. Extensions to up-links from separate earth stations and non-NTSC TVs are also possible.

  7. Evaluation of Remote Delivery of Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) Technology to Mark Large Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Walter, W. David; Anderson, Charles W.; VerCauteren, Kurt C.

    2012-01-01

    Methods to individually mark and identify free-ranging wildlife without trapping and handling would be useful for a variety of research and management purposes. The use of Passive Integrated Transponder technology could be an efficient method for collecting data for mark-recapture analysis and other strategies for assessing characteristics about populations of various wildlife species. Passive Integrated Transponder tags (PIT) have unique numbered frequencies and have been used to successfully mark and identify mammals. We tested for successful injection of PIT and subsequent functioning of PIT into gelatin blocks using 4 variations of a prototype dart. We then selected the prototype dart that resulted in the least depth of penetration in the gelatin block to assess the ability of PIT to be successfully implanted into muscle tissue of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) post-mortem and long-term in live, captive Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus). The prototype dart with a 12.7 mm (0.5 inch) needle length and no powder charge resulted in the shallowest mean (± SD) penetration depth into gelatin blocks of 27.0 mm (±5.6 mm) with 2.0 psi setting on the Dan-Inject CO2-pressured rifle. Eighty percent of PIT were successfully injected in the muscle mass of white-tailed deer post-mortem with a mean (± SD) penetration depth of 22.2 mm (±3.8 mm; n?=?6). We injected PIT successfully into 13 live, captive elk by remote delivery at about 20 m that remained functional for 7 months. We successfully demonstrated that PIT could be remotely delivered in darts into muscle mass of large mammals and remain functional for >6 months. Although further research is warranted to fully develop the technique, remote delivery of PIT technology to large mammals is possible using prototype implant darts. PMID:22984572

  8. System, method, and apparatus for remote measurement of terrestrial biomass

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Patrick W (Jefferson, MD)

    2011-04-12

    A system, method, and/or apparatus for remote measurement of terrestrial biomass contained in vegetative elements, such as large tree boles or trunks present in an area of interest, are provided. The method includes providing an airborne VHF radar system in combination with a LiDAR system, overflying the area of interest while directing energy toward the area of interest, using the VHF radar system to collect backscatter data from the trees as a function of incidence angle and frequency, and determining a magnitude of the biomass from the backscatter data and data from the laser radar system for each radar resolution cell. A biomass map is generated showing the magnitude of the biomass of the vegetative elements as a function of location on the map by using each resolution cell as a unique location thereon. In certain preferred embodiments, a single frequency is used with a linear array antenna.

  9. Method and apparatus for sensor fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, Kumar (inventor); Shaw, Scott (inventor); Defigueiredo, Rui J. P. (inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Method and apparatus for fusion of data from optical and radar sensors by error minimization procedure is presented. The method was applied to the problem of shape reconstruction of an unknown surface at a distance. The method involves deriving an incomplete surface model from an optical sensor. The unknown characteristics of the surface are represented by some parameter. The correct value of the parameter is computed by iteratively generating theoretical predictions of the radar cross sections (RCS) of the surface, comparing the predicted and the observed values for the RCS, and improving the surface model from results of the comparison. Theoretical RCS may be computed from the surface model in several ways. One RCS prediction technique is the method of moments. The method of moments can be applied to an unknown surface only if some shape information is available from an independent source. The optical image provides the independent information.

  10. Doppler radar results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bracalente, Emedio M.

    1992-01-01

    The topics are covered in viewgraph form and include the following: (1) a summary of radar flight data collected; (2) a video of combined aft cockpit, nose camera, and radar hazard displays; (3) a comparison of airborne radar F-factor measurements with in situ and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) F-factors for some sample events; and (4) a summary of wind shear detection performance.

  11. Portable containment sleever apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Rea, Michael J. (North Augusta, SC); Brown, Roger A. (North Augusta, SC)

    2000-01-01

    A sleever apparatus includes an inner member with a central passage through which an item to be sleeved is passed. An outer member surrounds the inner member and defines a space between the members for holding a supply of containment material, which is preferably plastic sleeving. The apparatus has a handle which allows a user to hold the apparatus and walk the apparatus along the length of the item to be sleeved. As the user passes the item through the sleever apparatus, the containment material exits through a slit at one end of the apparatus in order to contain the item. The sleever apparatus may be formed of disposable materials, such as cardboard, and may be intended for a single use application. Alternatively, the sleever apparatus may be comprised of more permanent materials such as PVC or fiberglass. The sleever apparatus may include a serrated end for cutting the containment material and may include appropriate tubing and valves for either directing an inert gas into the containment material around the item or for withdrawing air from within the containment material in order to create a vacuum. In one embodiment, the sleever apparatus has a cartridge that can be replaced with another cartridge once the supply of the containment material has been depleted.

  12. Lunar radar backscatter studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.

    1979-01-01

    The lunar surface material in the Plato area is characterized using Earth based visual, infrared, and radar signatures. Radar scattering in the lunar regolith with an existing optical scattering computer program is modeled. Mapping with 1 to 2 km resolution of the Moon using a 70 cm Arecibo radar is presented.

  13. A comparison of radiographic techniques and electromagnetic transponders for localization of the prostate

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to compare three methodologies of prostate localization and to determine if there are significant differences in the techniques. Methods Daily prostate localization using cone beam CT or orthogonal kV imaging has been performed at UT Southwestern Medical Center since 2006. Prostate patients are implanted with gold seeds, which are matched with the planning CT or DRR before treatment. More recently, a technology using electromagnetic transponders implanted within the prostate was introduced into our clinic (Calypso®). With each technology, patients are localized initially using skin marks and the room lasers. In this study, patients were localized with Calypso and either CBCT or kV orthogonal images in the same treatment session, allowing a direct comparison of the technologies. Localization difference distributions were determined from the difference in the offsets determined by CBCT/kV imaging and Calypso. CBCT-Calypso and kV imaging-Calypso localization data were summarized from over 900 and 250 fractions each, respectively. The Wilcoxon signed rank test is used to determine if the localization differences are statistically significant. We also calculated Pearson’s product–moment correlation coefficient (R2) to determine if there is a linear relationship between the shifts determined by Calypso and the radiographic techniques. Results The differences between CBCT-Calypso and kV imaging-Calypso localizations are ?0.18?±?2.90?mm, -0.79?±?2.18?mm, -0.01?±?1.20?mm and ?0.09?±?1.40?mm, 0.48?±?1.50?mm, 0.08?±?1.04?mm, respectively, in the AP, SI, and RL directions. The Pearson product–moment correlation coefficients for the CBCT-Calypso shifts were 0.71, 0.92 and 0.88 and for the OBI-Calypso comparison were 0.95, 0.89 and 0.85. The percentage of localization differences that were less than 3?mm were 86.1%, 84.5% and 96.0% for the CBCT-Calypso comparison and 95.8%, 94.3% and 97% for the kV OBI-Calypso comparison. No trends were observed in the Bland-Altman analysis. Conclusions Localization of the prostate using electromagnetic transponders agrees well with radiographic techniques and each technology is suitable for high precision radiotherapy. This study finds that there is more uncertainty in CBCT localization of the prostate than in 2D orthogonal imaging, but the difference is not clinically significant. PMID:22720845

  14. Fault isolation detection expert (FIDEX). Part 1: Expert system diagnostics for a 30/20 Gigahertz satellite transponder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durkin, John; Schlegelmilch, Richard; Tallo, Donald

    1992-01-01

    LeRC has recently completed the design of a Ka-band satellite transponder system, as part of the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) System. To enhance the reliability of this satellite, NASA funded the University of Akron to explore the application of an expert system to provide the transponder with an autonomous diagnosis capability. The results of this research was the development of a prototype diagnosis expert system called FIDEX (fault-isolation and diagnosis expert). FIDEX is a frame-based expert system that was developed in the NEXPERT Object development environment by Neuron Data, Inc. It is a MicroSoft Windows version 3.0 application, and was designed to operate on an Intel i80386 based personal computer system.

  15. Comparison of noncontact infrared thermometry and 3 commercial subcutaneous temperature transponding microchips with rectal thermometry in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Brunell, Marla K

    2012-07-01

    This study compared a noncontact infrared laser thermometer and 3 different brands of subcutaneous temperature transponding microchips with rectal thermometry in 50 rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). The data were analyzed by using intraclass correlation coefficients and limits of agreement. In addition, the technical capabilities and practicality of the thermometers in the clinical setting were reviewed. None of the alternative techniques investigated was equivalent to rectal thermometry in rhesus macaques. Temperatures obtained by using microchips had higher correlation and agreed more closely with rectal temperatures than did those obtained by the noncontact infrared method. However, transponding microchips did not yield consistent results. Due to difficulty in positioning nonsedated macaques in their homecage, subcutaneous microchips were not practical in the clinical setting. Furthermore, pair-housed macaques may be able to break or remove microchips from their cagemates. PMID:23043815

  16. Electromagnetic Transponders Indicate Prostate Size Increase Followed by Decrease During the Course of External Beam Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    King, Benjamin L.; Butler, Wayne M.; Merrick, Gregory S.; Kurko, Brian S.; Reed, Joshua L.; Murray, Brian C.; Wallner, Kent E.

    2011-04-01

    Purpose: Real-time image guidance enables more accurate radiation therapy by tracking target movement. This study used transponder positions to monitor changes in prostate volume that may be a source of dosimetric and target inaccuracy. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four men with biopsy-proven T1c-T3a prostate cancer each had three electromagnetic transponders implanted transperineally. Their coordinates were recorded by the Calypso system, and the perimeter of the triangle formed by the transponders was used to calculate prostate volumes at sequential time points throughout the course of radiation therapy to a dose of 81 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions. Results: There was a significant decrease in mean prostate volume of 10.9% from the first to the final day of radiation therapy. The volume loss did not occur monotonically but increased in most patients (75%) during the first several weeks to a median maximum on Day 7. The volume increased by a mean of 6.1% before decreasing by a mean maximum difference of 18.4% to nadir (p < 0.001 for both increase and decrease). Glandular shrinkage was asymmetric, with the apex to right base dimension varying more than twice that of the lateral dimension. For all dimensions, the mean change was <0.5 cm. Conclusion: Real-time transponder positions indicated a volume increase during the initial days of radiation therapy and then significant and asymmetric shrinkage by the final day. Understanding and tracking volume fluctuations of the prostate during radiation therapy can help real-time imaging technology perform to its fullest potential.

  17. Cloud and Precipitation Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen, Martin; Höller, Hartmut; Schmidt, Kersten

    Precipitation or weather radar is an essential tool for research, diagnosis, and nowcasting of precipitation events like fronts or thunderstorms. Only with weather radar is it possible to gain insights into the three-dimensional structure of thunderstorms and to investigate processes like hail formation or tornado genesis. A number of different radar products are available to analyze the structure, dynamics and microphysics of precipitation systems. Cloud radars use short wavelengths to enable detection of small ice particles or cloud droplets. Their applications differ from weather radar as they are mostly orientated vertically, where different retrieval techniques can be applied.

  18. Battery cell feedthrough apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL)

    1995-01-01

    A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance.

  19. Survival and growth of age-0 steelhead after surgical implantation of 23-mm passive integrated transponders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bateman, D.S.; Gresswell, R.E.

    2006-01-01

    Little information is available on the effects of implanting 23-mm passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags in salmonids less than 90 mm fork length (FL). Using juvenile steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss (range, 73-97 mm FL), we compared instantaneous growth rates and survival among three experimental groups: control, surgery with no tag, and surgery with tag. Survival rate was lower for tagged fish (86%) than for control and surgery-no tag fish (virtually 100% in each group). Approximately 90% of the mortalities occurred during days 1-3. Growth rate for the tagged group was lower for the first two 10-d measurement intervals; however, during the third 10-d interval, growth rates for tagged fish equaled or exceeded values for the other groups. These results suggest that tagged fish recovered by day 20. Growth rates for the control and surgery-no tag groups did not differ from one another during any measurement interval. Tag retention rate was 97% over the 30-d period of the study. It appears that the combination of fish length and tag size in this study resulted in short-term negative effects on growth rate and survival; however, 23-mm PIT tags may still be useful for studies of salmonids 80-90 mm FL when survival is not the parameter of interest. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  20. Designing a ring-VCO for RFID transponders in 0.18 ?m CMOS process.

    PubMed

    Jalil, Jubayer; Reaz, Mamun Bin Ibne; Bhuiyan, Mohammad Arif Sobhan; Rahman, Labonnah Farzana; Chang, Tae Gyu

    2014-01-01

    In radio frequency identification (RFID) systems, performance degradation of phase locked loops (PLLs) mainly occurs due to high phase noise of voltage-controlled oscillators (VCOs). This paper proposes a low power, low phase noise ring-VCO developed for 2.42 GHz operated active RFID transponders compatible with IEEE 802.11 b/g, Bluetooth, and Zigbee protocols. For ease of integration and implementation of the module in tiny die area, a novel pseudodifferential delay cell based 3-stage ring oscillator has been introduced to fabricate the ring-VCO. In CMOS technology, 0.18 ?m process is adopted for designing the circuit with 1.5 V power supply. The postlayout simulated results show that the proposed oscillator works in the tuning range of 0.5-2.54 GHz and dissipates 2.47 mW of power. It exhibits a phase noise of -126.62 dBc/Hz at 25 MHz offset from 2.42 GHz carrier frequency. PMID:24587731

  1. Designing a Ring-VCO for RFID Transponders in 0.18??m CMOS Process

    PubMed Central

    Jalil, Jubayer; Reaz, Mamun Bin Ibne; Bhuiyan, Mohammad Arif Sobhan; Rahman, Labonnah Farzana; Chang, Tae Gyu

    2014-01-01

    In radio frequency identification (RFID) systems, performance degradation of phase locked loops (PLLs) mainly occurs due to high phase noise of voltage-controlled oscillators (VCOs). This paper proposes a low power, low phase noise ring-VCO developed for 2.42?GHz operated active RFID transponders compatible with IEEE 802.11?b/g, Bluetooth, and Zigbee protocols. For ease of integration and implementation of the module in tiny die area, a novel pseudodifferential delay cell based 3-stage ring oscillator has been introduced to fabricate the ring-VCO. In CMOS technology, 0.18??m process is adopted for designing the circuit with 1.5?V power supply. The postlayout simulated results show that the proposed oscillator works in the tuning range of 0.5–2.54?GHz and dissipates 2.47?mW of power. It exhibits a phase noise of ?126.62?dBc/Hz at 25?MHz offset from 2.42?GHz carrier frequency. PMID:24587731

  2. Survival and tag loss in Moapa White River springfish implanted with passive integrated transponder tags

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, Christopher J.; Mesa, Matthew G.

    2011-01-01

    We monitored survival and tag loss among Moapa White River springfish Crenichthys baileyi moapae that were surgically implanted with passive integrated transponder (PIT; 9 × 2 mm) tags. The fish used in the study ranged from 40 to 67 mm in total length and from 1.0 to 6.5 g in mass; the PIT tag: body weight ratios were 1.0–6.1%. Fish were held for 41 d in live cages within a small, warm desert stream. Survival did not differ between untagged control fish (94.5%) and tagged fish (95.6%). Survival did not appear to be influenced by fish size or PIT tag: body weight ratio, but the small number of fish that died precluded a detailed analysis. Tag retention was 100% among the 86 fish that survived over the 41 d. Our results suggest that surgically implanting 9-mm PIT tags into Moapa White River springfish as small as 40 mm is an effective method for marking them because it has minimal impacts on survival and tag retention is high. More work is needed on the effects of PIT tagging on growth and other performance metrics of springfish and other small desert fishes.

  3. Laser-Ranging Transponders for Science Investigations of the Moon and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid; Chen, Yijiang; Bimbaum, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    An active laser was developed ranging in real-time with two terminals, emulating interplanetary distances, and with submillimeter accuracy. In order to overcome the limitations to ranging accuracy from jitters and delay drifts within the transponders, architecture was proposed based on asynchronous paired one-way ranging with local references. A portion of the transmitted light is directed, via a reference path, to the local detector. This allows for compensation of any jitter in the timing of the emitted laser pulse. The same detector is used to measure the time of the received pulses emitted from the remote terminal. This approach removes any change in the delay caused by the detector or its electronics. Two separate terminals using commercial off-the-shelf hardware were built to emulate active laser ranging over interplanetary distances. The communication link for the command to start recording pulse arrival times and data transfer from one terminal to the other was achieved using a standard wireless link, emulating free space laser communication. The deviation is well below the goal of 1-mm precision. This leaves enough margin to achieve 1-mm precision when including the fluctuations due to atmospheric turbulence while ranging to Mars through the Earth s atmosphere. The two terminals are mounted on translation stages, which can be moved freely on rails to yield a wide range of distances with fine adjustment. The two terminals were separated by approximately 16 meters.

  4. Asynchronous Laser Transponders:. a New Tool for Improved Fundamental Physics Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degnan, John J.

    Since 1964, the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has been using short pulse lasers to range to artificial satellites equipped with passive retroreflectors. Today, a global network of 40 satellite laser ranging (SLR) stations, under the auspices of the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS), routinely tracks two dozen international space missions with few-millimeter precision using picosecond pulse lasers in support of Earth science. Lunar laser ranging (LLR) began in 1969, shortly after NASA's Apollo 11 mission placed the first of five retroreflector packages on the Moon. An important LLR data product has been the verification of Einstein's equivalence principle and other tests of general relativity. In 1975, the University of Maryland used a laser ranging system to continuously transfer time between two sets of atomic clocks — one set on the ground and the other in an aircraft — to observe the predicted relativistic effects of gravity and velocity on the clock rates. Two-way asynchronous laser transponders promise to extend these precise ranging and time transfer capabilities beyond the Moon to the planets, as evidenced by two successful experiments carried out in 2005 at distances of 24 and 80 million km respectively.

  5. 2. VIEW SOUTHWEST, prime search radar tower, height finder radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTHWEST, prime search radar tower, height finder radar towards, height finder radar towers, and radar tower (unknown function) - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  6. Laser beam generating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Warner, B.E.; Duncan, D.B.

    1994-02-15

    Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus is described. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect). 7 figures.

  7. Laser beam generating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Warner, B.E.; Duncan, D.B.

    1993-12-28

    Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect). 11 figures.

  8. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, G.A.; Elder, M.G.; Kemme, J.E.

    1984-03-20

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for thermally protecting sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components such as electronics to a heat sink such as ice.

  9. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Gloria A. (Los Alamos, NM); Elder, Michael G. (Los Alamos, NM); Kemme, Joseph E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus which thermally protects sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components to a heat sink such as ice.

  10. Laser beam generating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Bruce E. (Livermore, CA); Duncan, David B. (Auburn, CA)

    1994-01-01

    Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect).

  11. Radar Imaging Systems Joseph Charpentier

    E-print Network

    Radar Imaging Systems Joseph Charpentier Department of Computing Sciences Villanova University types of radar imaging systems; synthetic aperture radar (SAR), through-the-wall radar, and digital holographic near field radar. Each system surveyed experiments that improved the quality of the resulting

  12. 30. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #318, showing radar control. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #318, showing radar control. Console and line printers - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  13. 3. VIEW NORTHWEST, height finder radar towers, and radar tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW NORTHWEST, height finder radar towers, and radar tower (unknown function) - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  14. Apollo experience report: Lunar module landing radar and rendezvous radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rozas, P.; Cunningham, A. R.

    1972-01-01

    A developmental history of the Apollo lunar module landing and rendezvous radar subsystems is presented. The Apollo radar subsystems are discussed from initial concept planning to flight configuration testing. The major radar subsystem accomplishments and problems are discussed.

  15. Planetary radar studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.; Cutts, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    A catalog of lunar and radar anomalies was generated to provide a base for comparison with Venusian radar signatures. The relationships between lunar radar anomalies and regolith processes were investigated, and a consortium was formed to compare lunar and Venusian radar images of craters. Time was scheduled at the Arecibo Observatory to use the 430 MHz radar to obtain high resolution radar maps of six areas of the lunar suface. Data from 1978 observations of Mare Serenitas and Plato are being analyzed on a PDP 11/70 computer to construct the computer program library necessary for the eventual reduction of the May 1981 and subsequent data acquisitions. Papers accepted for publication are presented.

  16. Laser radar in robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Carmer, D.C.; Peterson, L.M.

    1996-02-01

    In this paper the authors describe the basic operating principles of laser radar sensors and the typical algorithms used to process laser radar imagery for robotic applications. The authors review 12 laser radar sensors to illustrate the variety of systems that have been applied to robotic applications wherein information extracted from the laser radar data is used to automatically control a mechanism or process. Next, they describe selected robotic applications in seven areas: autonomous vehicle navigation, walking machine foot placement, automated service vehicles, manufacturing and inspection, automotive, military, and agriculture. They conclude with a discussion of the status of laser radar technology and suggest trends seen in the application of laser radar sensors to robotics. Many new applications are expected as the maturity level progresses and system costs are reduced.

  17. Development and Evaluation of Passive Integrated Transponder Tag Technology, 2000-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, Sandra L.; Prentice, Earl F.; Nunnallee, Edmund P.

    2009-04-03

    Since 1984, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has conducted a research project to develop and evaluate technology for passive-integrated-transponder tags (PIT tags) throughout the Columbia River Basin (CRB). Work conducted as part of this project between October 2000 and September 2002 (FY01 and FY02) was divided into seven individual elements, which are covered separately in this report. The efforts by personnel associated with this project have produced and will continue to produce products that aid resource stakeholders in assessing the effectiveness of actions taken to enhance the survival of juvenile and adult salmonids. These products and their uses include: (1) Survival and migration timing information on stocks to evaluate water management strategies and fish passage/collection facilities; (2) Data needed for the management and restoration of salmonids and other fish stocks listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA); (3) Information required for the management of multiple species in a variety of habitats; and (4) Tools that enable fisheries researchers and managers to address previously unanswerable questions and critical uncertainties These products are also used in genetic, physiology, behavior, and captive broodstock research on endangered species. The continued development of PIT-tag technology will enable researchers and fisheries managers to address issues expressed in both of NMFS biological opinions for operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS)(NMFS 1995a, 2000) and the proposed Snake River Recovery Plan (NMFS 1995b; tasks 2.1.d, 2.3.b.4, 2.4.a, 2.6.c.2, and 2.9.d).

  18. Planetary radar astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1983-03-01

    The present investigation is concerned with planetary radar research reported during the time from 1979 to 1982. A brief synopsis of radar definitions and technical terminology is also provided. In connection with the proximity of the moon to earth, lunar radar studies have been performed over a wider range of wavelengths than radar investigations of other planetary targets. The most recent study of lunar quasispecular scattering is due to Simpson and Tyler (1982). The latest efforts to interpret the lunar radar maps focus on maria-highlands regolith differences and models of crater ejecta evolution. The highly successful Pioneer Venus Radar Mapper experiment has provided a first look at Venus' global distributions of topography, lambda 17-cm radar reflectivity, and rms surface slopes. Attention is given to recent comparisons of Viking Orbiter images of Mars to groundbased radar altimetry of the planet, the icy Galilean satellites, radar observations of asteroids and comets, and lambda 4-cm and lambda 13-cm observations of Saturn's rings.

  19. Pipe crawler apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hovis, Gregory L. (North Augusta, SC); Erickson, Scott A. (Augusta, GA); Blackmon, Bruce L. (Aiken, SC)

    2002-01-01

    A pipe crawler apparatus particularly useful for 3-inch and 4-inch diameter pipes is provided. The pipe crawler apparatus uses a gripping apparatus in which a free end of a piston rod is modified with a bearing retaining groove. Bearings, placed within the groove, are directed against a camming surface of three respective pivoting support members. The non-pivoting ends of the support members carry a foot-like gripping member that, upon pivoting of the support member, engages the interior wall of the pipe.

  20. Conduit grinding apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Nachbar, Henry D. (Ballston Lake, NY); Korytkowski, Alfred S. (Scotia, NY)

    1991-01-01

    A grinding apparatus for grinding the interior portion of a valve stem receiving area of a valve. The apparatus comprises a faceplate, a plurality of cams mounted to an interior face of the faceplate, a locking bolt to lock the faceplate at a predetermined position on the valve, a movable grinder and a guide tube for positioning an optical viewer proximate the area to be grinded. The apparatus can either be rotated about the valve for grinding an area of the inner diameter of a valve stem receiving area or locked at a predetermined position to grind a specific point in the receiving area.

  1. Cleaning method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, D.D.; Hollen, R.M.

    1981-02-27

    A method of very thoroughly and quikcly cleaning a guaze electrode used in chemical analyses is given, as well as an automobile cleaning apparatus which makes use of the method. The method generates very little waste solution, and this is very important in analyzing radioactive materials, especially in aqueous solutions. The cleaning apparatus can be used in a larger, fully automated controlled potential coulometric apparatus. About 99.98% of a 5 mg plutonium sample was removed in less than 3 minutes, using only about 60 ml of rinse solution and two main rinse steps.

  2. Cleaning method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, Darryl D. (Los Alamos, NM); Hollen, Robert M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1983-01-01

    A new automatable cleaning apparatus which makes use of a method of very thoroughly and quickly cleaning a gauze electrode used in chemical analyses is given. The method generates very little waste solution, and this is very important in analyzing radioactive materials, especially in aqueous solutions. The cleaning apparatus can be used in a larger, fully automated controlled potential coulometric apparatus. About 99.98% of a 5 mg. plutonium sample was removed in less than 3 minutes, using only about 60 ml. of rinse solution and two main rinse steps.

  3. Generalized radar/radiometry imaging problems

    E-print Network

    Paper Generalized radar/radiometry imaging problems Ivan Prudyus, Sviatoslav Voloshynovskiy, Andriy- ing simulation based on radar, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and radiometry systems are presented systems, synthetic aperture radar, spatio-temporal imaging. 1. Introduction Resolution of radar

  4. Apparatus for Teaching Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a demonstration to initiate discussion about electrostatic effects. Also describes and evaluates a Magnetic Bubble Apparatus, a device which exhibits several phenomena related to magnetic domain formation. Includes manufacturer's response to the evaluation. (JN)

  5. Gas turbine sealing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Marra, John Joseph; Wessell, Brian J.; Liang, George

    2013-03-05

    A sealing apparatus in a gas turbine. The sealing apparatus includes a seal housing apparatus coupled to a disc/rotor assembly so as to be rotatable therewith during operation of the gas turbine. The seal housing apparatus comprises a base member, a first leg portion, a second leg portion, and spanning structure. The base member extends generally axially between forward and aft rows of rotatable blades and is positioned adjacent to a row of stationary vanes. The first leg portion extends radially inwardly from the base member and is coupled to the disc/rotor assembly. The second leg portion is axially spaced from the first leg portion, extends radially inwardly from the base member, and is coupled to the disc/rotor assembly. The spanning structure extends between and is rigidly coupled to each of the base member, the first leg portion, and the second leg portion.

  6. Battery cell feedthrough apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.

    1995-03-14

    A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus is described comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance. 8 figs.

  7. NMR logging apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Walsh, David O; Turner, Peter

    2014-05-27

    Technologies including NMR logging apparatus and methods are disclosed. Example NMR logging apparatus may include surface instrumentation and one or more downhole probes configured to fit within an earth borehole. The surface instrumentation may comprise a power amplifier, which may be coupled to the downhole probes via one or more transmission lines, and a controller configured to cause the power amplifier to generate a NMR activating pulse or sequence of pulses. Impedance matching means may be configured to match an output impedance of the power amplifier through a transmission line to a load impedance of a downhole probe. Methods may include deploying the various elements of disclosed NMR logging apparatus and using the apparatus to perform NMR measurements.

  8. An Economical Electrophoresis Apparatus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, I. M.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the production of an electrophoresis apparatus from commonly discarded articles. Outlines paper and gel electrophoresis and its application to the separation of amino acids and intestinal enzymes. (GS)

  9. Apparatus for growing crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasinski, Thomas J. (Inventor); Witt, August F. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    An improved apparatus and method for growing crystals from a melt employing a heat pipe, consisting of one or more sections, each section serving to control temperature and thermal gradients in the crystal as it forms inside the pipe.

  10. Subsurface "radar" camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, A.

    1977-01-01

    Long-wave length multiple-frequency radar is used for imaging and determining depth of subsurface stratified layers. Very-low frequency radar signals pinpoint below-ground strata via direct imagery techniques. Variation of frequency and scanning angle adjusts image depth and width.

  11. Noncooperative rendezvous radar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A fire control radar system was developed, assembled, and modified. The baseline system and modified angle tracking system are described along with the performance characteristics of the baseline and modified systems. Proposed changes to provide additional techniques for radar evaluation are presented along with flight test data.

  12. The PROUST radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertin, F.; Glass, M.; Ney, R.; Petitdidier, M.

    1986-01-01

    The Stratosphere-Troposphere (ST) radar called PROUST works at 935 MHz using the same klystron and antenna as the coherent-scatter radar. The use of this equipment for ST work has required some important modifications of the transmitting system and the development of receiving, data processing and acquisition (1984,1985) equipment. The modifications are discussed.

  13. Java Radar Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaczek, Mariusz P.

    2005-01-01

    Java Radar Analysis Tool (JRAT) is a computer program for analyzing two-dimensional (2D) scatter plots derived from radar returns showing pieces of the disintegrating Space Shuttle Columbia. JRAT can also be applied to similar plots representing radar returns showing aviation accidents, and to scatter plots in general. The 2D scatter plots include overhead map views and side altitude views. The superposition of points in these views makes searching difficult. JRAT enables three-dimensional (3D) viewing: by use of a mouse and keyboard, the user can rotate to any desired viewing angle. The 3D view can include overlaid trajectories and search footprints to enhance situational awareness in searching for pieces. JRAT also enables playback: time-tagged radar-return data can be displayed in time order and an animated 3D model can be moved through the scene to show the locations of the Columbia (or other vehicle) at the times of the corresponding radar events. The combination of overlays and playback enables the user to correlate a radar return with a position of the vehicle to determine whether the return is valid. JRAT can optionally filter single radar returns, enabling the user to selectively hide or highlight a desired radar return.

  14. Infrared microscope inspection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Forman, S.E.; Caunt, J.W.

    1985-02-26

    Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface. 4 figs.

  15. Fiber pulling apparatus modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Guy A.; Workman, Gary L.

    1992-01-01

    A reduced gravity fiber pulling apparatus (FPA) was constructed in order to study the effects of gravity on glass fiber formation. The apparatus was specifically designed and built for use on NASA's KC-135 aircraft. Four flights have been completed to date during which E-glass fiber was successfully produced in simulated zero, high, and lunar gravity environments. In addition simulated lunar soil samples were tested for their fiber producing properties using the FPA.

  16. Battery formation charging apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.L.

    1987-08-04

    An apparatus is describe for charging electric storage batteries, the apparatus comprising: (a) a host computer for providing charging information to and receiving status information from at least one slave computer by means of a data link; and (b) at least one control module coupled to the slave computer for applying charging current to at least one electric storage battery in response to instructions received from the slave computer, and for providing feedback and status information to the slave computer.

  17. Spin coating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Torczynski, John R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01

    A spin coating apparatus requires less cleanroom air flow than prior spin coating apparatus to minimize cleanroom contamination. A shaped exhaust duct from the spin coater maintains process quality while requiring reduced cleanroom air flow. The exhaust duct can decrease in cross section as it extends from the wafer, minimizing eddy formation. The exhaust duct can conform to entrainment streamlines to minimize eddy formation and reduce interprocess contamination at minimal cleanroom air flow rates.

  18. Infrared microscope inspection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Forman, Steven E. (Framingham, MA); Caunt, James W. (Concord, MA)

    1985-02-26

    Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface.

  19. Vacuum pump apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Batzer, Thomas H. (Livermore, CA); Call, Wayne R. (Tracy, CA)

    1985-01-01

    An improved cryopumping apparatus which comprises a cryopumping space which may be alternately opened and closed from the surrounding area by moveable panels, trubular cryopanels within said cryopumping space through which a coolant such as liquid helium may be passed, and an apparatus for spraying liquid argon onto said cylindrical cryopanels in order to enhance the cryogenic entrapment of such low-z ions, atoms, and molecules as hydrogen and helium.

  20. Electric arc saw apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Deichelbohrer, P.R.

    1983-08-08

    A portable, hand-held electric arc saw apparatus comprising a small frame for supporting an electrically conducting rotary blade which serves as an electrode for generating an electric arc between the blade and a workpiece of opposite polarity. Electrically conducting means are provided on said frame for transmitting current to said blade. A pair of freely movable endless belts in the form of crawler treads are employed to facilitate movement of the apparatus relative to the workpiece.

  1. Equatorial MU Radar project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Mamoru; Hashiguchi, H.; Tsuda, Toshitaka; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoto University (RISH) has been studying the atmosphere by using radars. The first big facility was the MU (Middle and Upper atmosphere) radar installed in Shiga, Japan in 1984. This is one of the most powerful and multi-functional radar, and is successful of revealing importance of atmospheric waves for the dynamical vertical coupling processes. The next big radar was the Equatorial Atmosphere Radar (EAR) installed at Kototabang, West Sumatra, Indonesia in 2001. The EAR was operated under close collaboration with LAPAN (Indonesia National Institute for Aeronautics and Space), and conducted the long-term continuous observations of the equatorial atmosphere/ionosphere for more than 10 years. The MU radar and the EAR are both utilized for inter-university and international collaborative research program for long time. National Institute for Polar Research (NIPR) joined EISCAT Scientific Association together with Nagoya University, and developed the PANSY radar at Syowa base in Antarctica as a joint project with University of Tokyo. These are the efforts of radar study of the atmosphere/ionosphere in the polar region. Now we can find that Japan holds a global network of big atmospheric/ionospheric radars. The EAR has the limitation of lower sensitivity compared with the other big radars shown above. RISH now proposes a plan of Equatorial MU Radar (EMU) that is to establish the MU-radar class radar next to the EAR. The EMU will have an active phased array antenna with the 163m diameter and 1055 cross-element Yagis. Total output power of the EMU will be more than 500kW. The EMU can detect turbulent echoes from the mesosphere (60-80km). In the ionosphere incoherent-scatter observations of plasma density, drift, and temperature would be possible. Multi-channel receivers will realize radar-imaging observations. The EMU is one of the key facilities in the project "Study of coupling processes in the solar-terrestrial system" for Master Plan 2014 of the Science Council of Japan (SCJ). We show the EMU project and its science in the presentation.

  2. 5. VIEW EAST, height finder radar towers, radar tower (unknown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW EAST, height finder radar towers, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar tower, operations building, and central heating plant - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  3. Browse > Conferences> Radar Conference, 2008. RADAR ... INDEX TERMS

    E-print Network

    Préaux, Jean-Philippe

    Browse > Conferences> Radar Conference, 2008. RADAR ... INDEX TERMS REFERENCES CITING DOCUMENTS Force, MorphoAnalysis in Signal Process. Lab., Salon-de-Provence This paper appears in: Radar Conference, 2008. RADAR '08. IEEE Issue Date: 26-30 May 2008 On page(s): 1 - 5 Location: Rome ISSN: 1097-5659 Print

  4. 4. VIEW NORTHEAST, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW NORTHEAST, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar tower, emergency power building, and height finder radar tower - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  5. 47 CFR 80.1101 - Performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...comply with § 80.1061. (6) 9 GHz radar transponders: (i) IMO Resolution A...Performance Standards for Survival Craft Radar Transponders for Use in Search and Rescue...Technical Characteristics for Search and Rescue Radar Transponders,” with Annexes,...

  6. 47 CFR 80.1101 - Performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...comply with § 80.1061. (6) 9 GHz radar transponders: (i) IMO Resolution A...Performance Standards for Survival Craft Radar Transponders for Use in Search and Rescue...Technical Characteristics for Search and Rescue Radar Transponders,” with Annexes,...

  7. Ultra-wideband short-pulse radar with range accuracy for short range detection

    DOEpatents

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T; Pankonin, Jeffrey; Heintzleman, Richard E; Kinzie, Nicola Jean; Popovic, Zorana P

    2014-10-07

    An ultra-wideband (UWB) radar transmitter apparatus comprises a pulse generator configured to produce from a sinusoidal input signal a pulsed output signal having a series of baseband pulses with a first pulse repetition frequency (PRF). The pulse generator includes a plurality of components that each have a nonlinear electrical reactance. A signal converter is coupled to the pulse generator and configured to convert the pulsed output signal into a pulsed radar transmit signal having a series of radar transmit pulses with a second PRF that is less than the first PRF.

  8. Technical Note: Suppression of artifacts arising from simultaneous cone-beam imaging and RF transponder tracking in prostate radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Poludniowski, Gavin; Webb, Steve; Evans, Philip M.

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: Artifacts in treatment-room cone-beam reconstructions have been observed at the authors' center when cone-beam acquisition is simultaneous with radio frequency (RF) transponder tracking using the Calypso 4D system (Calypso Medical, Seattle, WA). These artifacts manifest as CT-number modulations and increased CT-noise. The authors present a method for the suppression of the artifacts. Methods: The authors propose a three-stage postprocessing technique that can be applied to image volumes previously reconstructed by a cone-beam system. The stages are (1) segmentation of voxels into air, soft-tissue, and bone; (2) application of a 2D spatial-filter in the axial plane to the soft-tissue voxels; and (3) normalization to remove streaking along the axial-direction. The algorithm was tested on patient data acquired with Synergy XVI cone-beam CT systems (Elekta, Crawley, United Kingdom). Results: The computational demands of the suggested correction are small, taking less than 15 s per cone-beam reconstruction on a desktop PC. For a moderate loss of spatial-resolution, the artifacts are strongly suppressed and low-contrast visibility is improved. Conclusions: The correction technique proposed is fast and effective in removing the artifacts caused by simultaneous cone-beam imaging and RF-transponder tracking.

  9. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Transponder Loading Data Conversion Software. User's guide and software maintenance manual, version 1.2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mallasch, Paul G.

    1993-01-01

    This volume contains the complete software system documentation for the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Transponder Loading Data Conversion Software (FIX-FCC). This software was written to facilitate the formatting and conversion of FCC Transponder Occupancy (Loading) Data before it is loaded into the NASA Geosynchronous Satellite Orbital Statistics Database System (GSOSTATS). The information that FCC supplies NASA is in report form and must be converted into a form readable by the database management software used in the GSOSTATS application. Both the User's Guide and Software Maintenance Manual are contained in this document. This volume of documentation passed an independent quality assurance review and certification by the Product Assurance and Security Office of the Planning Research Corporation (PRC). The manuals were reviewed for format, content, and readability. The Software Management and Assurance Program (SMAP) life cycle and documentation standards were used in the development of this document. Accordingly, these standards were used in the review. Refer to the System/Software Test/Product Assurance Report for the Geosynchronous Satellite Orbital Statistics Database System (GSOSTATS) for additional information.

  10. Ground-penetrating radar methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ground-penetrating radar geophysical methods are finding greater and greater use in agriculture. With the ground-penetrating radar (GPR) method, an electromagnetic radio energy (radar) pulse is directed into the subsurface, followed by measurement of the elapsed time taken by the radar signal as it ...

  11. Spaceborne laser radar.

    PubMed

    Flom, T

    1972-02-01

    Laser radar systems are being developed to acquire and track targets in applications such as the rendezvous and docking of two spacecraft. To search effectively for and locate a target using a narrow laser beam, a scanning system is needed. This paper describes a scan technique whereby a narrow laser beam is synchronously scanned with an equally narrow receiver field-of-view without the aid of mechanical gimbals. Equations are developed in order to examine the maximum acquisition and tracking rates, and the maximum target range for a scanning laser radar system. A recently built prototype of a small, lightweight, low-power-consuming scanning laser radar is described. PMID:20111497

  12. Polarization Imaging Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zou, Yingyin K.; Chen, Qiushui

    2010-01-01

    A polarization imaging apparatus has shown promise as a prototype of instruments for medical imaging with contrast greater than that achievable by use of non-polarized light. The underlying principles of design and operation are derived from observations that light interacts with tissue ultrastructures that affect reflectance, scattering, absorption, and polarization of light. The apparatus utilizes high-speed electro-optical components for generating light properties and acquiring polarization images through aligned polarizers. These components include phase retarders made of OptoCeramic (registered TradeMark) material - a ceramic that has a high electro-optical coefficient. The apparatus includes a computer running a program that implements a novel algorithm for controlling the phase retarders, capturing image data, and computing the Stokes polarization images. Potential applications include imaging of superficial cancers and other skin lesions, early detection of diseased cells, and microscopic analysis of tissues. The high imaging speed of this apparatus could be beneficial for observing live cells or tissues, and could enable rapid identification of moving targets in astronomy and national defense. The apparatus could also be used as an analysis tool in material research and industrial processing.

  13. Biological particle identification apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Salzman, Gary C. (Los Alamos, NM); Gregg, Charles T. (Los Alamos, NM); Grace, W. Kevin (Los Alamos, NM); Hiebert, Richard D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus and method for making multiparameter light scattering measurements from suspensions of biological particles is described. Fourteen of the sixteen Mueller matrix elements describing the particles under investigation can be substantially individually determined as a function of scattering angle and probing radiations wavelength, eight elements simultaneously for each of two apparatus configurations using an apparatus which incluees, in its simplest form, two polarization modulators each operating at a chosen frequency, one polarizer, a source of monochromatic electromagnetic radiation, a detector sensitive to the wavelength of radiation employed, eight phase-sensitive detectors, and appropriate electronics. A database of known biological particle suspensions can be assembled, and unknown samples can be quickly identified once measurements are performed on it according to the teachings of the subject invention, and a comparison is made with the database.

  14. Apparatus for processing coal

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.M.

    1985-02-12

    Apparatus for processing coal to prevent the creation of extreme fines and to extract pyrites from the principal coal fractions in which there are two air circulating circuits having processing components which cooperate in their respective circuits to result initially in substantial extraction of fines in the first circuit while releasing principal granulated coal fractions and pyrites to the second circuit where specific gravity separation of the pyrites and principal coal fractions occur. The apparatus includes a source of drying heat added to the air moving in the circuits and delivered at the places where surface moisture drying is most effective. Furthermore, the apparatus is operated so as to reduce coal to a desired size without creating an excessive volume of extreme fines, to separate pyrites and hard to grind components by specific gravity in a region where fines are not present, and to use the extreme fines as a source of fuel to generate drying heat.

  15. Apparatus for fixing latency

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Bartholomew, David B. (Springville, UT); Moon, Justin (Bountiful, UT); Koehler, Roger O. (Provo, UT)

    2009-09-08

    An apparatus for fixing computational latency within a deterministic region on a network comprises a network interface modem, a high priority module and at least one deterministic peripheral device. The network interface modem is in communication with the network. The high priority module is in communication with the network interface modem. The at least one deterministic peripheral device is connected to the high priority module. The high priority module comprises a packet assembler/disassembler, and hardware for performing at least one operation. Also disclosed is an apparatus for executing at least one instruction on a downhole device within a deterministic region, the apparatus comprising a control device, a downhole network, and a downhole device. The control device is near the surface of a downhole tool string. The downhole network is integrated into the tool string. The downhole device is in communication with the downhole network.

  16. Thermal energy test apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audet, N. F.

    1991-10-01

    The Navy Clothing and Textile Research Facility (NCTRF) designed and fabricated a thermal energy test apparatus to permit evaluation of the heat protection provided by crash crew firefighter's proximity clothing materials against radiant and convective heat loads, similar to those found outside the flame zone of aircraft fuel fires. The apparatus employs electrically operated quartz lamp radiant heaters and a hot air convective heater assembly to produce the heat load conditions the materials to be subjected to, and is equipped with heat flux sensors of different sensitivities to measure the incident heat flux on the sample material as well as the heat flux transmitted by the sample. Tests of the apparatus have shown that it can produce radiant heat flux levels equivalent to those estimated to be possible in close proximity to large aircraft fuel fires, and can produce convective heat fluxes equivalent to those measured in close proximity to aircraft fuel fires at upwind and sidewind locations. Work was performed in 1974.

  17. Robot arm apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Nachbar, Henry D. (Ballston Lake, NY)

    1992-01-01

    A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for conveying inspection and/or maintenance apparatus from outside the steam generator to the interior of the steam generator. The flexible conduit has a terminal working end which is translated into and around the interior of the steam generator. Three motors located outside the steam generator are employed for moving the terminal working end inside the steam generator in "x", "y", and "z" directions, respectively. Commonly conducted inspection and maintenance operations include visual inspection for damaged areas, water jet lancing for cleaning sludge deposits, core boring for obtaining sludge deposits, and scrubbing of internal parts.

  18. Robot arm apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Nachbar, Henry D.

    1992-12-01

    A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for conveying inspection and/or maintenance apparatus from outside the steam generator to the interior of the steam generator. The flexible conduit has a terminal working end which is translated into and around the interior of the steam generator. Three motors located outside the steam generator are employed for moving the terminal working end inside the steam generator in "x", "y", and "z" directions, respectively. Commonly conducted inspection and maintenance operations include visual inspection for damaged areas, water jet lancing for cleaning sludge deposits, core boring for obtaining sludge deposits, and scrubbing of internal parts.

  19. Passive orientation apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM); Fischer, Gary J. (Albuquerque, NM); Martinez, Michael A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01

    An apparatus that can return a payload to a known orientation after unknown motion, without requiring external power or complex mechanical systems. The apparatus comprises a faceted cage that causes the system to rest in a stable position and orientation after arbitrary motion. A gimbal is mounted with the faceted cage and holds the payload, allowing the payload to move relative to the stable faceted cage. The payload is thereby placed in a known orientation by the interaction of gravity with the geometry of the faceted cage, the mass of the system, and the motion of the payload and gimbal. No additional energy, control, or mechanical actuation is required. The apparatus is suitable for use in applications requiring positioning of a payload to a known orientation after arbitrary or uncontrolled motion, including remote sensing and mobile robot applications.

  20. Aircraft radar antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrank, Helmut E.

    1987-04-01

    Many changes have taken place in airborne radar antennas since their beginnings over forty years ago. A brief historical review of the advances in technology is presented, from mechanically scanned reflectors to modern multiple function phased arrays. However, emphasis is not on history but on the state-of-the-art technology and trends for future airborne radar systems. The status of rotating surveillance antennas is illustrated by the AN/APY-1 Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) slotted waveguide array, which achieved a significant breakthrough in sidelobe suppression. Gimballed flat plate arrays in nose radomes are typified by the AN/APG-66 (F-16) antenna. Multifunction phased arrays are presented by the Electronically Agile Radar (EAR) antenna, which has achieved significant advances in performance versatility and reliability. Trends toward active aperture, adaptive, and digital beamforming arrays are briefly discussed. Antennas for future aircraft radar systems must provide multiple functions in less aperture space, and must perform more reliably.

  1. GMTI MIMO radar

    E-print Network

    Bliss, Daniel W., Jr.

    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) extensions to radar systems enable a number of advantages compared to traditional approaches. These advantages include improved angle estimation and target detection. In this paper, ...

  2. Radar Calibration Using a Student-Built Nanosatellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, L.; Fisher, N.; Jones, W.; Umeda, M.; Furumo, J.; Ah Heong, J.; Lim, T.; Shiroma, W.

    2011-09-01

    As a matter of national security, the US military must monitor and calibrate its 80+ C-band radar tracking stations on a consistent basis. These radar stations, which are distributed around the world, currently depend on two calibration satellites: RADCAL and DMSP F-15, launched in 1993 and 1999, respectively. Should either of these two satellites fail, the community of radar calibration users will no longer have a dependable means of calibration. Presented in this paper is the story behind a student-built satellite project, named Ho‘oponopono (“to make right” in the Hawaiian language), which is the first radar calibration satellite to take on a CubeSat form-factor. Led by a team of undergraduate and graduate students, this project has enabled its participants to reach their true potentials and thus act as a training ground for a class of highly competent, multi-tiered engineers. The management practices implemented throughout this project follow those used by today’s top defense contractors and engineering companies. Being involved in a project of this caliber, although time-consuming, provides the students with the experiences they need to make immediate and worthwhile contributions in today’s workforce. Juggling the multitude of commitments they have, however, makes it a challenge. Ho‘oponopono’s concept of operations calls for the collection and dissemination of ephemeris data, while simultaneously conducting transponder interrogations. After acquiring both sets of data, a radar station requesting calibration can then correlate the two and implement its calibration algorithms as needed. Ho‘oponopono and its mission were the basis for the University of Hawaii’s participation in the AFOSR University Nanosat-6 Program. After completing a rigorous two-year, six-level review process, we were awarded with the Most Improved and Third Place Awards at the January 2011 Flight Competition Review. Ho‘oponopono was also selected by NASA as a participant in its CubeSat Launch Initiative for an upcoming launch.

  3. Downhole pulse radar

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Hsi-Tien (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01

    A borehole logging tool generates a fast rise-time, short duration, high peak-power radar pulse having broad energy distribution between 30 MHz and 300 MHz through a directional transmitting and receiving antennas having barium titanate in the electromagnetically active region to reduce the wavelength to within an order of magnitude of the diameter of the antenna. Radar returns from geological discontinuities are sampled for transmission uphole.

  4. Downhole pulse radar

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Hsi-Tien

    1987-09-28

    A borehole logging tool generates a fast rise-time, short duration, high peak-power radar pulse having broad energy distribution between 30 MHz and 300 MHz through a directional transmitting and receiving antennas having barium titanate in the electromagnetically active region to reduce the wavelength to within an order of magnitude of the diameter of the antenna. Radar returns from geological discontinuities are sampled for transmission uphole. 7 figs.

  5. Expendable oceanographic sensor apparatus

    DOEpatents

    McCoy, Kim O. (Carmel, CA); Downing, Jr., John P. (Port Townsand, WA); DeRoos, Bradley G. (Worthington, OH); Riches, Michael R. (Silver Spring, MD)

    1993-01-01

    An expendable oceanographic sensor apparatus is deployed from an airplane or a ship to make oceanographic observations in a profile of the surface-to-ocean floor, while deployed on the floor, and then a second profile when returning to the ocean surface. The device then records surface conditions until on-board batteries fail. All data collected is stored and then transmitted from the surface to either a satellite or other receiving station. The apparatus is provided with an anchor that causes descent to the ocean floor and then permits ascent when the anchor is released. Anchor release is predetermined by the occurrence of a pre-programmed event.

  6. Ultrasonic drilling apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Duran, Edward L. (Santa Fe, NM); Lundin, Ralph L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry. In operation, slurry is provided into the housing, and into the spindle through inlets while the spindle is rotating and ultrasonically reciprocating. Slurry flows through the spindle and through the hollow drill bit to cleanse the cutting edge of the bit during a drilling operation.

  7. Visual examination apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, R. F.; Fitzgerald, J. W.; Rositano, S. A. (inventors)

    1973-01-01

    An automated visual examination apparatus for measuring visual sensitivity and mapping blind spot location is described. The apparatus includes a projection system for displaying to a patient a series of visual stimuli, a response switch enabling him to indicate his reaction to the stimuli, and a recording system responsive to both the visual stimuli per se and the patient's response. The recording system provides a correlated permanent record of both stimuli and response from which a substantive and readily apparent visual evaluation can be made.

  8. Microelectromechanical ratcheting apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Barnes, Stephen M. (Albuquerque, NM); Miller, Samuel L. (Albuquerque, NM); Jensen, Brian D. (Albuquerque, NM); Rodgers, M. Steven (Albuquerque, NM); Burg, Michael S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) ratcheting apparatus is disclosed which includes an electrostatic or thermal actuator that drives a moveable member in the form of a ring gear, stage, or rack. Motion is effected by one or more reciprocating pawls driven by the actuator in a direction that is parallel to, in line with, or tangential to the path. The reciprocating pawls engage indexing elements (e.g. teeth or pins) on the moveable member to incrementally move the member along a curved or straight path with the ability to precisely control and determine the position of the moveable member. The MEM apparatus can be formed on a silicon substrate by conventional surface micromachining methods.

  9. Current measurement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Umans, Stephen D. (Belmont, MA)

    2008-11-11

    Apparatus and methods are provided for a system for measurement of a current in a conductor such that the conductor current may be momentarily directed to a current measurement element in order to maintain proper current without significantly increasing an amount of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element or adding resistance to assist in current measurement. The apparatus and methods described herein are useful in superconducting circuits where it is necessary to monitor current carried by the superconducting elements while minimizing the effects of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element.

  10. Thermally Activated Joining Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Melvin A., III (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A thermally activated joining apparatus is provided for reversibly joining piping components of a fluid management system. The joining apparatus includes a thermally activated sealant layers for securing the components together in a leakage free manner. A thermal conductor includes a ring shaped contact portion disposed between the layers for transferring heat from one or more heating elements to the sealant layers. After the seal in place, the components can later be disconnected by supplying heat from the heating element or elements through the thermal conductor to the sealant layers to cause breaking of the seal and thereby enable separation of components.

  11. Ultrasonic drilling apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Duran, E.L.; Lundin, R.L.

    1988-06-20

    Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry. In operation, slurry is provided into the housing, and into the spindle through inlets while the spindle is rotating and ultrasonically reciprocating. Slurry flows through the spindle and through the hollow drill bit to cleanse the cutting edge of the bit during a drilling operation. 3 figs.

  12. Fissile solution measurement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Crane, T.W.; Collinsworth, P.R.

    1984-06-11

    An apparatus for determining the content of a fissile material within a solution by detecting delayed fission neutrons emitted by the fissile material after it is temporarily irradiated by a neutron source. The apparatus comprises a container holding the solution and having a portion defining a neutron source cavity centrally disposed within the container. The neutron source cavity temporarily receives the neutron source. The container has portions defining a plurality of neutron detector ports that form an annular pattern and surround the neutron source cavity. A plurality of neutron detectors count delayed fission neutrons emitted by the fissile material. Each neutron detector is located in a separate one of the neutron detector ports.

  13. Space Radar Image of Death Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This image shows Death Valley, California, centered at 36.629 degrees north latitude, 117.069 degrees west longitude. The image shows Furnace Creek alluvial fan and Furnace Creek Ranch at the far right, and the sand dunes near Stove Pipe Wells at the center. The dark fork-shaped feature between Furnace Creek fan and the dunes is a smooth flood-plain which encloses Cottonball Basin. This SIR-C/X-SAR supersite is an area of extensive field investigations and has been visited by both Space Radar Lab astronaut crews. Elevations in the valley range from 70 meters (230 feet) below sea level, the lowest in the United States, to more than 3,300 meters (10,800 feet) above sea level. Scientists are using SIR-C/X-SAR data from Death Valley to help answer a number of different questions about Earth's geology. One question concerns how alluvial fans are formed and change through time under the influence of climatic changes and earthquakes. Alluvial fans are gravel deposits that wash down from the mountains over time. They are visible in the image as circular, fan-shaped bright areas extending into the darker valley floor from the mountains. Information about the alluvial fans helps scientists study Earth's ancient climate. Scientists know the fans are built up through climatic and tectonic processes and they will use the SIR-C/X-SAR data to understand the nature and rates of weathering processes on the fans, soil formation and the transport of sand and dust by the wind. SIR-C/X-SAR's sensitivity to centimeter-scale (inch-scale) roughness provides detailed maps of surface texture. Such information can be used to study the occurrence and movement of dust storms and sand dunes. The goal of these studies is to gain a better understanding of the record of past climatic changes and the effects of those changes on a sensitive environment. This may lead to a better ability to predict future response of the land to different potential global climate-change scenarios. Death Valley is also one of the primary calibration sites for SIR-C/X-SAR. The bright dots near the center of the image are corner reflectors that have been set-up to calibrate the radar as the shuttle passes overhead. Thirty triangular-shaped reflectors (they look like aluminum pyramids) have been deployed by the calibration team from JPL over a 40- by 40-kilometer (25- by 25-mile) area in and around Death Valley. The calibration team will also deploy transponders (electronic reflectors) and receivers to measure the radar signals from SIR-C/X-SAR on the ground. SIR-C/X-SAR is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI).

  14. Autonomous data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M. (4675 W. 3825 S, Salt Lake City, UT 84120)

    1997-01-01

    A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters.

  15. Apparatus for Teaching Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Describes some laboratory apparatus and demonstrations; describes an electronic device to illustrate an octave synthesizer; shows how to get negative changes from an electrophorous; explains a body levers device to clarify the principles of moments and levers; and finally shows how to demonstrate acceleration in simple harmonic motion. (GA)

  16. Pruning apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Dellinger, Roger D. (Prosser, WA)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is an automated pruning apparatus that requires little or no follow-up hand pruning and requires no sensors to avoid supportive trunks or posts. The present invention uses at least one pair of flat, close angled toothed, counter rotating blades. Woody branches are directed to the counter rotating blades first with a lifting arm and secondly by a quilled drum.

  17. Apparatus for Teaching Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a few apparatuses and demonstrations for teaching physics under the headings: demonstrating resonance of the inner ear, constructing a potential well-hill for overhead projectors, rubber tube vacuum pump, improvement on the simple homemade motor, air track to demonstrate sailing into the wind, and center of gravity and stability. (GA)

  18. Positioning and locking apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hayward, M.L.; Harper, W.H.

    1985-06-19

    A positioning and locking apparatus including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member.

  19. Multitarget sequential sputtering apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shima, R. (inventor)

    1975-01-01

    The development and characteristics of a sputtering apparatus are discussed. A potential difference is applied between the cathode and anode to produce a plasma for each target which is sputtered by accelerated ions within the plasma. The process of sputtering for various materials is described. Diagrams of the unit are provided.

  20. Apparatus for Teaching Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnix, Richard B., Ed.; Carpenter, D. Rae, Jr., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Describes four body-lever models (biceps, triceps, back lever when lifting, foot lever and Achilles tendon muscle) used in noncalculus physics courses. Instructions for constructing the wooden models are provided. Also describes an improvement on a centripetal-force apparatus so that it is easier to operate. (JN)

  1. Apparatus for obstacle traversion

    DOEpatents

    Borenstein, Johann

    2004-08-10

    An apparatus for traversing obstacles having an elongated, round, flexible body that includes a plurality of drive track assemblies. The plurality of drive track assemblies cooperate to provide forward propulsion wherever a propulsion member is in contact with any feature of the environment, regardless of how many or which ones of the plurality of drive track assemblies make contact with such environmental feature.

  2. Micromachine friction test apparatus

    DOEpatents

    deBoer, Maarten P. (Albuquerque, NM); Redmond, James M. (Albuquerque, NM); Michalske, Terry A. (Cedar Crest, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) friction test apparatus is disclosed for determining static or dynamic friction in MEM devices. The friction test apparatus, formed by surface micromachining, is based on a friction pad supported at one end of a cantilevered beam, with the friction pad overlying a contact pad formed on the substrate. A first electrostatic actuator can be used to bring a lower surface of the friction pad into contact with an upper surface of the contact pad with a controlled and adjustable force of contact. A second electrostatic actuator can then be used to bend the cantilevered beam, thereby shortening its length and generating a relative motion between the two contacting surfaces. The displacement of the cantilevered beam can be measured optically and used to determine the static or dynamic friction, including frictional losses and the coefficient of friction between the surfaces. The test apparatus can also be used to assess the reliability of rubbing surfaces in MEM devices by producing and measuring wear of those surfaces. Finally, the friction test apparatus, which is small in size, can be used as an in situ process quality tool for improving the fabrication of MEM devices.

  3. Apparatus for Teaching Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnix, Richard B.; Carpenter, D. Rae

    1985-01-01

    Describes these tools for physics teaching: (1) stick with calibrations for measuring student reaction time; (2) compact high-pressure sodium lamps used to demonstrate spectra; (3) air pumps for fish tanks providing simple inexpensive motors; (4) a rotating manometer for measuring centripetal force; and (5) an apparatus for checking conservation…

  4. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    DOEpatents

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  5. Mobile lighting apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Roe, George Michael; Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott; Rea, Gerald W; Drake, Robert A; Johnson, Terry A; Wingert, Steven John; Damberger, Thomas A; Skradski, Thomas J; Radley, Christopher James; Oros, James M; Schuttinger, Paul G; Grupp, David J; Prey, Stephen Carl

    2013-05-14

    A mobile lighting apparatus includes a portable frame such as a moveable trailer or skid having a light tower thereon. The light tower is moveable from a stowed position to a deployed position. A hydrogen-powered fuel cell is located on the portable frame to provide electrical power to an array of the energy efficient lights located on the light tower.

  6. Sound attenuation apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P. (inventor); Grosveld, Ferdinand M. W. A. (inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus is disclosed for reducing acoustic transmission from mechanical or acoustic sources by means of a double wall partition, within which an acoustic pressure field is generated by at least one secondary acoustic source. The secondary acoustic source is advantageously placed within the partition, around its edges, or it may be an integral part of a wall of the partition.

  7. Apparatus for Teaching Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamola, Karl C., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses how to build an inexpensive Young's modulus apparatus and also a lens with an adjustable focal length. Describes the demonstration of moving a peeled, hard-boiled egg in and out of a flask whose neck is slightly smaller than the egg. (MVL)

  8. Holographic Animation Apparatus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Sean F.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a simple apparatus for producing strip holograms with a number of slit-shaped exposures displaced along the vertical direction. The hologram maintains full horizontal parallax, but the slit aperture reduces the vertical viewing angle of the animated object. (Author/GA)

  9. Borehole data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M. (1739 Grandview #2, Idaho Falls, ID 83402)

    1993-01-01

    A borehole data transmission apparatus whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

  10. Borehole data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, O.M.

    1993-03-23

    A borehole data transmission apparatus is described whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

  11. Superconductive electromagnet apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Mine, S.

    1982-12-14

    Disclosed is a superconductive electromagnet apparatus having a coil with a coiled conductor with a channel between adjacently disposed the paths of the coil conductor of which width is selected in accordance with amounts of heat produced at the corresponding portions of the coil section as viewed in cross section.

  12. Apparatus for Teaching Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    This section presents new ideas with regard to apparatus for teaching physics. The following four ideas are presented: (1) measuring speed of light (2) a poor man's barometer, (3) center of mass of a rotating object, and (4) minimizing glass breakage. (HM)

  13. Autonomous data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, O.M.

    1997-03-25

    A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus is described for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters. 4 figs.

  14. Positioning and locking apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hayward, Milton L. (2305 Greenbrook Blvd., Richland, WA 99352); Harper, William H. (1454 Amon Dr., Richland, WA 99352)

    1987-01-01

    A positioning and locking apparatus including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member.

  15. Positioning and locking apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hayward, M.L.; Harper, W.H.

    1987-06-30

    A positioning and locking apparatus are disclosed including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member. 6 figs.

  16. Apparatus for Teaching Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Describes an apparatus for plotting electric fields using burglar alarm window tape for electrodes and carbonized electronic stencil paper as sheet resistance. Also describes a simple pentode modulator circuit which will modulate a typical helium-neon gas laser, providing an audio channel for demonstration purposes. (SK)

  17. Apparatus for Teaching Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Presents two experimental set-ups. The first demonstrates the law of Malus using a pair of Polaroid polarizers and a monochromatic light source with an interference filter. The second describes a modification of Hilton's apparatus to demonstrate the effects of the magnetic hysteresis on an overhead projector. (CS)

  18. Development of precision acoustic transponders for GPS/Acoustic observation on the deep seafloor near the Japan Trench axis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, H.; Kido, M.

    2012-12-01

    The 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake has let most of researchers recognize the importance of seafloor geodetic observation, especially near the trench axis. Iinuma et al. (2012a) estimated the coseismic slip distribution combining onshore GPS data with the seafloor geodetic data. Their results reveal that a huge (> 50 m) slip occurred in a small area (about 40 km in width and 120 km in length) near the Japan Trench and generated the huge tsunami. After the Tohoku-oki earthquake, seismic coupling near the trench axis has become a key to understand giant earthquakes in subduction zones, and it is GPS/Acoustic (GPS/A) repeated seafloor positioning that can give an observational constraint to it. Observation of postseimic deformation is another and urgent task required in the Japan Trench. Seafloor geodetic observation indicates posteseimic deformation near the Japan Trench axis in the north and south of the huge slip area (Iinuma et al., 2012b). The result is clearly different from that of onshore GPS observation. Postseismic deformation is estimated to be a key observation that can discriminate proper models from several ones that can explain the occurrence of the mega thrust. Tohoku University plans to deploy extensive GPS/A observation array along the Japan Trench in 2012 with a fund from MEXT, Japan, to cope with these requests (Kido et al., in this meeting). Precision acoustic transponders have newly been developed for the array to enable the following three requests: (1) observation on the deep seafloor, (2) compatibility among three institutions in Japan, and (3) observation for ten years. The first is the observation on the deep seafloor near the trench. While the Japan Trench axis is deeper than 7000 m, the existing GPS/A sites along the Japan Trench have remained on the seafloor shallower than 2500 m except the one nearest to the trench, where we observed coseismic slip of 31 m (Kido et al., 2011). We deployed 4 units of the new transponders supplied by Kaiyo Denshi, Ltd., in July this year on the seafloor of water depth around 5570 m. We have confirmed reliable acoustic ranging up to a slant range of 13 km, which is necessary for GPS/A observation on the seafloor of 6000 m water depth. The depth of 6000 m is a limit of cost effective glass-sphere pressure housing. The new transponder can also be adaptable to the GPS/A observation systems of Japan Coast Guard and Nagoya University to increase the chance of observations and to realize mutual comparison of the observed results. The acoustic system of Tohoku University was not so different from that of Nagoya University, but was quite different from that of Japan Coast Guard. Stronger Doppler effect on a longer acoustic signal adopted by the Japan Coast Guard was the most critical problem. We deployed one unit of the new transponder on the seafloor of about 2000 m water depth, and Japan Coast Guard has confirmed precise acoustic ranging with it up to a slant range of about 6000 m by using the acoustic system installed on their survey vessel.

  19. Radioactive waste processing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, R.E.; Ziegler, A.A.; Serino, D.F.; Basnar, P.J.

    1985-08-30

    Apparatus for use in processing radioactive waste materials for shipment and storage in solid form in a container is disclosed. The container includes a top, and an opening in the top which is smaller than the outer circumference of the container. The apparatus includes an enclosure into which the container is placed, solution feed apparatus for adding a solution containing radioactive waste materials into the container through the container opening, and at least one rotatable blade for blending the solution with a fixing agent such as cement or the like as the solution is added into the container. The blade is constructed so that it can pass through the opening in the top of the container. The rotational axis of the blade is displaced from the center of the blade so that after the blade passes through the opening, the blade and container can be adjusted so that one edge of the blade is adjacent the cylindrical wall of the container, to insure thorough mixing. When the blade is inside the container, a substantially sealed chamber is formed to contain vapors created by the chemical action of the waste solution and fixant, and vapors emanating through the opening in the container. The chamber may be formed by placing a removable extension over the top of the container. The extension communicates with the apparatus so that such vapors are contained within the container, extension and solution feed apparatus. A portion of the chamber includes coolant which condenses the vapors. The resulting condensate is returned to the container by the force of gravity.

  20. Radar MeteorologyRadar Meteorology Feb 20, 1941 10 cm (S-band) radar used to track rain showers (Ligda)

    E-print Network

    Rutledge, Steven

    Radar MeteorologyRadar Meteorology Feb 20, 1941 10 cm (S-band) radar used to track rain showers similar observations in the early 1940's (U.S. Air Corps meteorologists receiving "radar" training at MIT in 1943 First operational weather radar, Panama, 1943 Science of radar meteorology born from WWII research

  1. Current radar-responsive tag development activities at Sandia National Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormesher, Richard C.; Plummer, Kenneth W.; Wells, Lars M.

    2004-08-01

    Over the past ten years, Sandia has developed RF radar responsive tag systems and supporting technologies for various government agencies and industry partners. RF tags can function as RF transmitters or radar transponders that enable tagging, tracking, and location determination functions. Expertise in tag architecture, microwave and radar design, signal analysis and processing techniques, digital design, modeling and simulation, and testing have been directly applicable to these tag programs. In general, the radar responsive tag designs have emphasized low power, small package size, and the ability to be detected by the radar at long ranges. Recently, there has been an interest in using radar responsive tags for Blue Force tracking and Combat ID (CID). The main reason for this interest is to allow airborne surveillance radars to easily distinguish U.S. assets from those of opposing forces. A Blue Force tracking capability would add materially to situational awareness. Combat ID is also an issue, as evidenced by the fact that approximately one-quarter of all U.S. casualties in the Gulf War took the form of ground troops killed by friendly fire. Because the evolution of warfare in the intervening decade has made asymmetric warfare the norm rather than the exception, swarming engagements in which U.S. forces will be freely intermixed with opposing forces is a situation that must be anticipated. Increasing utilization of precision munitions can be expected to drive fires progressively closer to engaged allied troops at times when visual de-confliction is not an option. In view of these trends, it becomes increasingly important that U.S. ground forces have a widely proliferated all-weather radar responsive tag that communicates to all-weather surveillance. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the recent, current, and future radar responsive research and development activities at Sandia National Laboratories that support both the Blue Force Tracking and Combat ID application. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company for the United States Departments of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  2. 66. VIEW SHOWING HOLD FOR RADAR CABLES AT RADAR SITE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. VIEW SHOWING HOLD FOR RADAR CABLES AT RADAR SITE, LOOKING NORTH Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. 33. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #320, perimeter acquisition radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #320, perimeter acquisition radar operations center (PAROC), contains the tactical command and control group equipment required to control the par site. Showing spacetrack monitor console - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  4. Phase modulating the Urbana radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrington, L. J., Jr.; Bowhill, S. A.

    1983-01-01

    The design and operation of a switched phase modulation system for the Urbana Radar System are discussed. The system is implemented and demonstrated using a simple procedure. The radar system and circuits are described and analyzed.

  5. Systems and Methods for Radar Data Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunch, Brian (Inventor); Szeto, Roland (Inventor); Miller, Brad (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A radar information processing system is operable to process high bandwidth radar information received from a radar system into low bandwidth radar information that may be communicated to a low bandwidth connection coupled to an electronic flight bag (EFB). An exemplary embodiment receives radar information from a radar system, the radar information communicated from the radar system at a first bandwidth; processes the received radar information into processed radar information, the processed radar information configured for communication over a connection operable at a second bandwidth, the second bandwidth lower than the first bandwidth; and communicates the radar information from a radar system, the radar information communicated from the radar system at a first bandwidth.

  6. Wet atmospheric generation apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamner, Richard M. (inventor); Allen, Janice K. (inventor)

    1990-01-01

    The invention described relates to an apparatus for providing a selectively humidified gas to a camera canister containing cameras and film used in space. A source of pressurized gas (leak test gas or motive gas) is selected by a valve, regulated to a desired pressure by a regulator, and routed through an ejector (venturi device). A regulated source of water vapor in the form of steam from a heated reservoir is coupled to a low pressure region of the ejector which mixes with high velocity gas flow through the ejector. This mixture is sampled by a dew point sensor to obtain dew point thereof (ratio of water vapor to gas) and the apparatus adjusted by varying gas pressure or water vapor to provide a mixture at a connector having selected humidity content.

  7. Microscope collision protection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    DeNure, Charles R. (Pocatello, ID)

    2001-10-23

    A microscope collision protection apparatus for a remote control microscope which protects the optical and associated components from damage in the event of an uncontrolled collision with a specimen, regardless of the specimen size or shape. In a preferred embodiment, the apparatus includes a counterbalanced slide for mounting the microscope's optical components. This slide replaces the rigid mounts on conventional upright microscopes with a precision ball bearing slide. As the specimen contacts an optical component, the contacting force will move the slide and the optical components mounted thereon. This movement will protect the optical and associated components from damage as the movement causes a limit switch to be actuated, thereby stopping all motors responsible for the collision.

  8. Energy conversion apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, F.J.

    1982-04-20

    An apparatus for maintaining the speed of rotation of a windmill rotor at a fixed ratio to the free flow velocity of the driving wind. This arrangement permits the windmill rotor to rotate at the speed at which its power output is maximized. The apparatus includes a plurality of interleaved rotating and stationary friction discs which convert the rotational kinetic energy of the windmill rotor shaft into thermal energy. An anemometer shaft, which rotates with a velocity which is proportional to the ambient wind velocity, drives a gear train which increases or decreases the pressure on the friction discs so that the load on the rotor is increased or decreased, in an offsetting manner, as the wind velocity changes.

  9. Portable shower apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grenier, Francis E. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A multipurpose, collapsible, shower apparatus for use almost anywhere but especially adapted for use in places somewhat remote from civilization such as recreational vehicles, campers, the outdoors, space vehicles and the like where there may be a limited amount of water or other liquid. The collapsible shower apparatus includes a curtain assembly having an inner wall, an outer wall and a porous element for separating the inner and outer walls; a series of spaced hollow hoops connected by one or more sets of hollow tubes (manifolds); one or more nozzles connected to and in communication with at least one of the hollow hoops; a source of fluid under pressure in communication with at least one of the hollow hoops; and a suction pump for withdrawing fluid from the interior of the curtain assembly.

  10. Electrowinning apparatus and process

    DOEpatents

    Buschmann, Wayne E. (Boulder, CO)

    2012-06-19

    Apparatus and processes are disclosed for electrowinning metal from a fluid stream. A representative apparatus comprises at least one spouted bed reactor wherein each said reactor includes an anolyte chamber comprising an anode and configured for containing an anolyte, a catholyte chamber comprising a current collector and configured for containing a particulate cathode bed and a flowing stream of an electrically conductive metal-containing fluid, and a membrane separating said anolyte chamber and said catholyte chamber, an inlet for an electrically conductive metal-containing fluid stream; and a particle bed churning device configured for spouting particle bed particles in the catholyte chamber independently of the flow of said metal-containing fluid stream. In operation, reduced heavy metals or their oxides are recovered from the cathode particles.

  11. Gas shielding apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Brandt, D.

    1984-06-05

    An apparatus for preventing oxidation by uniformly distributing inert shielding gas over the weld area of workpieces such as pipes being welded together. The apparatus comprises a chamber and a gas introduction element. The chamber has an annular top wall, an annular bottom wall, an inner side wall and an outer side wall connecting the top and bottom walls. One side wall is a screen and the other has a portion defining an orifice. The gas introduction element has a portion which encloses the orifice and can be one or more pipes. The gas introduction element is in fluid communication with the chamber and introduces inert shielding gas into the chamber. The inert gas leaves the chamber through the screen side wall and is dispersed evenly over the weld area.

  12. Fast shutter apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Zimmermann, Eugene L. (Santa Fe, NM); Kania, Don R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus for protecting diagnostic equipment from blast damage by rapidly interposing a shutter between the equipment and the blast area. The apparatus comprises a sensor for sensing a trigger signal associated with the blast and for converting it into a voltage pulse. The voltage pulse is received by the first end of a firing pin. A pressure chamber holds a gas under pressure. The second end of the firing pin is located inside the pressure chamber and is located above a foil member covering an orifice. When the voltage pulse reaches the second end, a point-to-plane discharge ruptures the foil, allowing the gas to enter a drive housing and quickly move a drive piston away from the foil. A drive rod connects the drive piston to a shutter and as the drive piston is moved down, the shutter moves into a closed position, protecting the equipment from debris.

  13. Fast shutter apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Zimmermann, E.L.; Kania, D.R.

    1984-06-27

    An apparatus for protecting diagnostic equipment from blast damage by rapidly interposing a shutter between the equipment and the blast area. The apparatus comprises a sensor for sensing a trigger signal associated with the blast and for converting it into a voltage pulse. The voltage pulse is received by the first end of a firing pin. A pressure chamber holds a gas under pressure. The second end of the firing pin is located inside the pressure chamber and is located above a foil member covering an orifice. When the voltage pulse reaches the second end, a point-to-plane discharge ruptures the foil, allowing the gas to enter a drive housing and quickly move a drive piston away from the foil. A drive rod connects the drive piston to a shutter and as the drive piston is moved down, the shutter moves into a closed position, protecting the equipment from debris.

  14. Refrigerant reclaim apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Van Steenburgh, L.R.

    1992-02-11

    This patent describes an apparatus for reclaiming refrigerant. It comprises: cleaning means for removing gaseous or liquid refrigerant from a container, vaporizing all of the liquid refrigerant and separating oil from the gaseous refrigerant, a compressor for receiving and compressing the gaseous refrigerant from the containers, a condenser for receiving and condensing the gaseous refrigerant from the compressor, storing means for receiving and storing the liquid refrigerant from the condenser, removal means for removing condensed refrigerant out from the storing means, and evacuations beans for evacuating high pressure gaseous refrigerant from the entire apparatus after all of the condenser refrigerant has been removed the storing means; the evacuation means comprised of the three-way solenoid valve and an operator activated switch functionally associated with the solenoid valve wherein the activation of the switch caused the evacuation of high pressure gaseous refrigerant; and the evacuation means located adjacent to and in fluid communication with the exit of the compressor.

  15. Gas shielding apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Brandt, D.

    1985-12-31

    An apparatus is disclosed for preventing oxidation by uniformly distributing inert shielding gas over the weld area of workpieces such as pipes being welded together. The apparatus comprises a chamber and a gas introduction element. The chamber has an annular top wall, an annular bottom wall, an inner side wall and an outer side wall connecting the top and bottom walls. One side wall is a screen and the other has a portion defining an orifice. The gas introduction element has a portion which encloses the orifice and can be one or more pipes. The gas introduction element is in fluid communication with the chamber and introduces inert shielding gas into the chamber. The inert gas leaves the chamber through the screen side wall and is dispersed evenly over the weld area. 3 figs.

  16. Gas turbine sealing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Wiebe, David J; Wessell, Brian J; Ebert, Todd; Beeck, Alexander; Liang, George; Marussich, Walter H

    2013-02-19

    A gas turbine includes forward and aft rows of rotatable blades, a row of stationary vanes between the forward and aft rows of rotatable blades, an annular intermediate disc, and a seal housing apparatus. The forward and aft rows of rotatable blades are coupled to respective first and second portions of a disc/rotor assembly. The annular intermediate disc is coupled to the disc/rotor assembly so as to be rotatable with the disc/rotor assembly during operation of the gas turbine. The annular intermediate disc includes a forward side coupled to the first portion of the disc/rotor assembly and an aft side coupled to the second portion of the disc/rotor assembly. The seal housing apparatus is coupled to the annular intermediate disc so as to be rotatable with the annular intermediate disc and the disc/rotor assembly during operation of the gas turbine.

  17. Analysis of Random Radar Networks

    E-print Network

    Adve, Raviraj

    , detection using distributed radar apertures has received renewed attention. Such a system avails of geometry in distributed radar systems. We first analyze unistatic systems with a single receiver selected of a noise-limited distributed radar system. This notion allows a system designer to evaluate the trade

  18. Spaceborne Imaging Radar Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elachi, C.

    1983-01-01

    An overview of the present state of the art in the different scientific and technological fields related to spaceborne imaging radars was presented. The data acquired with the SEASAT SAR (1978) and Shuttle Imaging Radar, SIR-A (1981) clearly demonstrated the important emphasis in the 80's is going to be on in-depth research investigations conducted with the more flexible and sophisticated SIR series instruments and on long term monitoring of geophysical phenomena conducted from free-flying platforms such as ERS-1 and RADARSAT.

  19. Spaceborne laser radar.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flom, T.

    1972-01-01

    Development of laser systems to acquire and track targets in applications such as the rendezvous and docking of two spacecraft. A scan technique is described whereby a narrow laser beam is simultaneously scanned with an equally narrow receiver field-of-view without the aid of mechanical gimbals. Equations are developed in order to examine the maximum acquisition and tracking rates, and the maximum target range for a scanning laser radar system. A recently built prototype of a small, lightweight, low-power-consuming scanning laser radar is described.

  20. Apparatus Circulates Sterilizing Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, John H.; Schwarz, Ray P.

    1991-01-01

    Apparatus circulates sterilizing gas containing ethylene oxide and chlorofluorocarbon through laboratory or medical equipment. Confines sterilizing gas, circulating it only through parts to be treated. Consists of two units. One delivers ethylene oxide/chlorofluorocarbon gas mixture and removes gas after treatment. Other warms, humidifies, and circulates gas through equipment to be treated. Process provides reliable sterilization with negligible residual toxicity from ethylene oxide. Particularly suitable for sterilization of interiors of bioreactors, heart/lung machines, dialyzers, or other equipment including complicated tubing.

  1. Portable cutting apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, Richard F. (Kennewick, WA)

    1986-01-01

    A remotely operable, portable cutting apparatus detachably secured to the workpiece by laterally spaced clamp assemblies engageable with the workpiece on opposite sides of the intended line of cut. A reciprocal cutter head is mounted between the clamp assemblies and is provided with a traveling abrasive cutting wire adapted to sever the workpiece normal to the longitudinal axis thereof. Dust and debris are withdrawn from the cutting area by a vacuum force through a nozzle mounted on the cutting head.

  2. Portable cutting apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, R.F.

    1984-07-17

    A remotely operable, portable cutting apparatus detachably secured to the workpiece by laterally spaced clamp assemblies engagable with the workpiece on opposite sides of the intended line of cut. A reciprocal cutter head is mounted between the clamp assemblies and is provided with a traveling abrasive cutting wire adapted to sever the workpiece normal to the longitudinal axis thereof. Dust and debris are withdrawn from the cutting area by a vacuum force through a nozzle mounted on the cutting head.

  3. Fire suppressing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Buttrey, Kenneth E. (Northridge, CA)

    1982-11-02

    Apparatus for smothering a liquid sodium fire comprises a pan, a perforated cover on the pan, and tubes depending from the cover and providing communication between the interior of the pan and the ambient atmosphere through the perforations in the cover. Liquid caught in the pan rises above the lower ends of the tubes and thus serves as a barrier which limits the amount of air entering the pan.

  4. Visual examination apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, R. F.; Fitzgerald, J. W.; Rositano, S. A. (inventors)

    1976-01-01

    An automated visual examination apparatus for measuring visual sensitivity and mapping blind spot location including a projection system for displaying to a patient a series of visual stimuli. A response switch enables him to indicate his reaction to the stimuli, and a recording system responsive to both the visual stimuli per se and the patient's response. The recording system thereby provides a correlated permanent record of both stimuli and response from which a substantive and readily apparent visual evaluation can be made.

  5. Kinesimetric method and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, W. E. (inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the determination of functional capability of bodies are disclosed. Reach as well as velocity, acceleration and force generation at various positions may be determined for a body by a three dimensional kinesimeter equipped with an ergometer. A general data package indicative of performance potential of a subject body or collection of bodies is provided for interfacing with data characteristics of various environments.

  6. Pruning apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Dellinger, R.D.

    1997-12-09

    The present invention is an automated pruning apparatus that requires little or no follow-up hand pruning and requires no sensors to avoid supportive trunks or posts. The present invention uses at least one pair of flat, close angled toothed, counter rotating blades. Woody branches are directed to the counter rotating blades first with a lifting arm and secondly by a quilled drum. 16 figs.

  7. Ion beam generating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Brown, I.G.; Galvin, J.

    1987-12-22

    An ion generating apparatus utilizing a vacuum chamber, a cathode and an anode in the chamber. A source of electrical power produces an arc or discharge between the cathode and anode. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma is directed to an extractor which separates the electrons from the plasma, and accelerates the ions to produce an ion beam. 10 figs.

  8. Polarized internal target apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Holt, R.J.

    1984-10-10

    A polarized internal target apparatus with a polarized gas target of improved polarization and density (achieved by mixing target gas atoms with a small amount of alkali metal gas atoms, and passing a high intensity polarized light source into the mixture to cause the alkali metal gas atoms to become polarized which interact in spin exchange collisions with target gas atoms yielding polarized target gas atoms) is described.

  9. Pyrolysis process and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Chang-Kuei (Sewell, NJ)

    1983-01-01

    This invention discloses a process and apparatus for pyrolyzing particulate coal by heating with a particulate solid heating media in a transport reactor. The invention tends to dampen fluctuations in the flow of heating media upstream of the pyrolysis zone, and by so doing forms a substantially continuous and substantially uniform annular column of heating media flowing downwardly along the inside diameter of the reactor. The invention is particularly useful for bituminous or agglomerative type coals.

  10. Ion beam generating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Ian G. (1088 Woodside Rd., Berkeley, CA 94708); Galvin, James (2 Commodore #276, Emeryville, CA 94608)

    1987-01-01

    An ion generating apparatus utilizing a vacuum chamber, a cathode and an anode in the chamber. A source of electrical power produces an arc or discharge between the cathode and anode. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma is directed to an extractor which separates the electrons from the plasma, and accelerates the ions to produce an ion beam.

  11. Radioactive waste processing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Robert E. (Lombard, IL); Ziegler, Anton A. (Darien, IL); Serino, David F. (Maplewood, MN); Basnar, Paul J. (Western Springs, IL)

    1987-01-01

    Apparatus for use in processing radioactive waste materials for shipment and storage in solid form in a container is disclosed. The container includes a top, and an opening in the top which is smaller than the outer circumference of the container. The apparatus includes an enclosure into which the container is placed, solution feed apparatus for adding a solution containing radioactive waste materials into the container through the container opening, and at least one rotatable blade for blending the solution with a fixing agent such as cement or the like as the solution is added into the container. The blade is constructed so that it can pass through the opening in the top of the container. The rotational axis of the blade is displaced from the center of the blade so that after the blade passes through the opening, the blade and container can be adjusted so that one edge of the blade is adjacent the cylindrical wall of the container, to insure thorough mixing. When the blade is inside the container, a substantially sealed chamber is formed to contain vapors created by the chemical action of the waste solution and fixant, and vapors emanating through the opening in the container.

  12. Impulse radar studfinder

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    An impulse radar studfinder propagates electromagnetic pulses and detects reflected pulses from a fixed range. Unmodulated pulses, about 200 ps wide, are emitted. A large number of reflected pulses are sampled and averaged. Background reflections are subtracted. Reflections from wall studs or other hidden objects are detected and displayed using light emitting diodes.

  13. Impulse radar studfinder

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1995-10-10

    An impulse radar studfinder propagates electromagnetic pulses and detects reflected pulses from a fixed range. Unmodulated pulses, about 200 ps wide, are emitted. A large number of reflected pulses are sampled and averaged. Background reflections are subtracted. Reflections from wall studs or other hidden objects are detected and displayed using light emitting diodes. 9 figs.

  14. Complete liquefaction methods and apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.

    2013-10-15

    A method and apparatus are described to provide complete gas utilization in the liquefaction operation from a source of gas without return of natural gas to the source thereof from the process and apparatus. The mass flow rate of gas input into the system and apparatus may be substantially equal to the mass flow rate of liquefied product output from the system, such as for storage or use.

  15. Optoelectronic Apparatus Measures Glucose Noninvasively

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Rovati, Luigi L.

    2003-01-01

    An optoelectronic apparatus has been invented as a noninvasive means of measuring the concentration of glucose in the human body. The apparatus performs polarimetric and interferometric measurements of the human eye to acquire data from which the concentration of glucose in the aqueous humor can be computed. Because of the importance of the concentration of glucose in human health, there could be a large potential market for instruments based on this apparatus.

  16. Apparatus Would Stain Microscope Slides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breeding, James D.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed apparatus meters specific amounts of fluid out of containers at specific times to stain microscope slides. Intended specifically for semiautomated staining of microbiological and hematological samples in microgravity, leakproof apparatus used in other environments in which technicians have little time to allocate to staining procedures and/or exposure to toxic staining agents or to micro-organisms to be stained hazardous. Apparatus adapted to perform almost any staining procedure and accommodates multiple staining reagents, useful for small or remote clinical laboratories.

  17. A restraining apparatus for Chelonians.

    PubMed

    Rummler, G; Belló, A A

    1983-10-01

    A restraining system for the head and neck of tortoises or turtles is described which, when associated with a standard electrode carrier, can be used as a stereotaxic apparatus for Chelonians. The apparatus designed has two basic systems: one for holding the neck, the other for holding the head. They are associated with a standard electrode carrier in a common platform. Restraining apparatus. PMID:6361818

  18. Pellet inspection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Wilks, Robert S. (Plum Borough, PA); Taleff, Alexander (Churchill Borough, PA); Sturges, Jr., Robert H. (Plum Borough, PA)

    1982-01-01

    Apparatus for inspecting nuclear fuel pellets in a sealed container for diameter, flaws, length and weight. The apparatus includes, in an array, a pellet pick-up station, four pellet inspection stations and a pellet sorting station. The pellets are delivered one at a time to the pick-up station by a vibrating bowl through a vibrating linear conveyor. Grippers each associated with a successive pair of the stations are reciprocable together to pick up a pellet at the upstream station of each pair and to deposit the pellet at the corresponding downstream station. The gripper jaws are opened selectively depending on the state of the pellets at the stations and the particular cycle in which the apparatus is operating. Inspection for diameter, flaws and length is effected in each case by a laser beam projected on the pellets by a precise optical system while each pellet is rotated by rollers. Each laser and its optical system are mounted in a container which is free standing on a precise surface and is provided with locating buttons which engage locating holes in the surface so that each laser and its optical system is precisely set. The roller stands are likewise free standing and are similarly precisely positioned. The diameter optical system projects a thin beam of light which scans across the top of each pellet and is projected on a diode array. The fl GOVERNMENT CONTRACT CLAUSE The invention herein described was made in the course of or under a contract or subcontract thereunder with the Department of Energy bearing No. EY-67-14-C-2170.

  19. Solder dross removal apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, Winston S. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An automatic dross removal apparatus (10) is disclosed for removing dross from the surface of a solder bath (22) in an automated electric component handling system. A rotatable wiper blade (14) is positioned adjacent the solder bath (22) which skims the dross off of the surface prior to the dipping of a robot conveyed component into the bath. An electronic control circuit (34) causes a motor (32) to rotate the wiper arm (14) one full rotational cycle each time a pulse is received from a robot controller (44) as a component approaches the solder bath (22).

  20. Solder dross removal apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, Winston S. (inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An automatic dross removal apparatus is disclosed for removing dross from the surface of a solder bath in an automated electric component handling system. A rotatable wiper blade is positioned adjacent the solder bath which skims the dross off of the surface prior to the dipping of a robot conveyed component into the bath. An electronic control circuit causes a motor to rotate the wiper arm one full rotational cycle each time a pulse is received from a robot controller as a component approaches the solder bath.

  1. Intracranial surgical operative apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, Charles H. (Inventor); Frazer, Robert E. (Inventor); Lutes, Harold R. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Apparatus for operating on the brain with minimal disturbances thereto, including a bullet-shaped expandable device with an end that can be closed for insertion through a small hole in the brain. The device can be expanded after insertion to leave an air pocket through which to extend viewing and cutting devices which enable operation on tumors or the like that lie at the end of the expanded device. A set of probes of varying diameters are also provided, to progressively enlarge a passage leading to the tumor, prior to inserting the expandable device.

  2. Nitrogen fixation apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Hao-Lin (Walnut Creek, CA)

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for achieving nitrogen fixation includes a volumetric electric discharge chamber. The volumetric discharge chamber provides an even distribution of an electron beam, and enables the chamber to be maintained at a controlled energy to pressure (E/p) ratio. An E/p ratio of from 5 to 15 kV/atm of O.sub.2 /cm promotes the formation of vibrationally excited N.sub.2. Atomic oxygen interacts with vibrationally excited N.sub.2 at a much quicker rate than unexcited N.sub.2, greatly improving the rate at which NO is formed.

  3. Stack sampling apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Lind, Randall F; Lloyd, Peter D; Love, Lonnie J; Noakes, Mark W; Pin, Francois G; Richardson, Bradley S; Rowe, John C

    2014-09-16

    An apparatus for obtaining samples from a structure includes a support member, at least one stabilizing member, and at least one moveable member. The stabilizing member has a first portion coupled to the support member and a second portion configured to engage with the structure to restrict relative movement between the support member and the structure. The stabilizing member is radially expandable from a first configuration where the second portion does not engage with a surface of the structure to a second configuration where the second portion engages with the surface of the structure.

  4. Apparatus for chemical synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Herring, J. Stephen (Idaho Falls, ID); Grandy, Jon D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-05-10

    A method and apparatus for forming a chemical hydride is described and which includes a pseudo-plasma-electrolysis reactor which is operable to receive a solution capable of forming a chemical hydride and which further includes a cathode and a movable anode, and wherein the anode is moved into and out of fluidic, ohmic electrical contact with the solution capable of forming a chemical hydride and which further, when energized produces an oxygen plasma which facilitates the formation of a chemical hydride in the solution.

  5. Vapor Diffusion Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Vapor Diffusion Apparatus (VDA-2) was developed by the University of Alabama in Birmingham for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. In the original VDA, a protein solution and a precipitant are extruded by two plungers onto the tip of a small syringe and allowed to evaporate, raising the concentration and prompting protein molecules to crystallize. In the VDA-2 version, a third plunger was added to mix the two solutions before returning the mix to the syringe tip. The principal investigator is Dr. Larry Delucas of the University of Alabama in Birmingham.

  6. Vapor Diffusion Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Vapor Diffusion Apparatus (VDA and VDA-2) was developed by the University of Alabama in Birmingham for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. In the original VDA, a protein solution and a precipitant are extruded by two plungers onto the tip of a small syringe and allowed to evaporate, raising the concentration and prompting protein molecules to crystallize. In the VDA-2 version, a third plunger was added to mix the two solutions before returning the mix to the syringe tip. The principal investigator is Dr. Larry Delucas of the University of Alabama in Birmingham

  7. Municipal waste processing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Mayberry, J.L.

    1988-04-13

    This invention relates to apparatus for processing municipal waste, and more particularly to vibrating mesh screen conveyor systems for removing grit, glass, and other noncombustible materials from dry municipal waste. Municipal waste must be properly processed and disposed of so that it does not create health risks to the community. Generally, municipal waste, which may be collected in garbage trucks, dumpsters, or the like, is deposited in processing areas such as landfills. Land and environmental controls imposed on landfill operators by governmental bodies have increased in recent years, however, making landfill disposal of solid waste materials more expensive. 6 figs.

  8. Thermal stir welding apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A welding method and apparatus are provided for forming a weld joint between first and second elements of a workpiece. The method includes heating the first and second elements to form an interface of material in a plasticized or melted state interface between the elements. The interface material is then allowed to cool to a plasticized state if previously in a melted state. The interface material, while in the plasticized state, is then mixed, for example, using a grinding/extruding process, to remove any dendritic-type weld microstructures introduced into the interface material during the heating process.

  9. DNA Sequencing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Tabor, Stanley (Cambridge, MA); Richardson, Charles C. (Chestnut Hill, MA)

    1992-01-01

    An automated DNA sequencing apparatus having a reactor for providing at least two series of DNA products formed from a single primer and a DNA strand, each DNA product of a series differing in molecular weight and having a chain terminating agent at one end; separating means for separating the DNA products to form a series bands, the intensity of substantially all nearby bands in a different series being different, band reading means for determining the position an This invention was made with government support including a grant from the U.S. Public Health Service, contract number AI-06045. The U.S. government has certain rights in the invention.

  10. Nuclear reactor control apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Sridhar, Bettadapur N. (Cupertino, CA)

    1983-11-01

    Nuclear reactor core safety rod release apparatus comprises a control rod having a detent notch in the form of an annular peripheral recess at its upper end, a control rod support tube for raising and lowering the control rod under normal conditions, latches pivotally mounted on the control support tube with free ends thereof normally disposed in the recess in the control rod, and cam means for pivoting the latches out of the recess in the control rod when a scram condition occurs. One embodiment of the invention comprises an additional magnetically-operated latch for releasing the control rod under two different conditions, one involving seismic shock.

  11. Foil changing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Crist, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Ives, Harry C. (Albuquerque, NM); Leifeste, Gordon T. (Albuquerque, NM); Miller, Robert B. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1988-01-01

    A self-contained hermetically sealed foil changer for advancing a portion of foil web into a position normal to the path of a high energy particle beam. The path of the beam is defined generally by an aperture plate and cooperating axially movable barrel such that the barrel can be advanced toward the plate thereby positioning a portion of the foil across the beam path and sealing the foil between the barrel and the plate to form a membrane across said beam path. A spooling apparatus contained in the foil changer permits selectively advancing a fresh supply of foil across the beam path without breaking the foil changer seal.

  12. The ATHENA Antihydrogen Apparatus

    E-print Network

    Amoretti, M; Bonomi, G; Bouchta, A; Bowe, P; Carraro, C; Charlton, M; Collier, M; Doser, Michael; Filippini, V; Fine, K S; Fontana, A; Fujiwara, M C; Funakoshi, R; Genova, P; Glauser, A; Grögler, D; Hangst, Jeffrey S; Hayano, R S; Higaki, H; Holzscheiter, Michael H; Joffrain, W; Jørgensen, L V; Lagomarsino, V; Landua, Rolf; Cesar, C L; Lindelöf, D; Lodi-Rizzini, E; Macri, M; Madsen, N; Manuzio, D; Manuzio, G; Marchesotti, M; Montagna, P; Pruys, H S; Regenfus, C; Riedler, P; Rochet, J; Rotondi, A; Rouleau, G; Testera, G; Van der Werf, D P; Variola, A; Watson, T L; Yamazaki, T; Yamazaki, Y

    2004-01-01

    The ATHENA apparatus that recently produced and detected the first cold antihydrogen atoms is described. Its main features, which are described herein, are: an external positron accumulator, making it possible to accumulate large numbers of positrons; a separate antiproton catching trap, optimizing the catching, colling and handling of antiprotons: a unique high resolution antihydrogen annihilation detector, allowing a clear determination that antihydrogen has been produced; an open, modular design making variations in the experimental approach possible and a "nested" Penning trap situated in a cryogenic, 3T magnetic field environment used for the mixing of the antiprotons and positrons.

  13. An MSK Radar Waveform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quirk, Kevin J.; Srinivasan, Meera

    2012-01-01

    The minimum-shift-keying (MSK) radar waveform is formed by periodically extending a waveform that separately modulates the in-phase and quadrature- phase components of the carrier with offset pulse-shaped pseudo noise (PN) sequences. To generate this waveform, a pair of periodic PN sequences is each passed through a pulse-shaping filter with a half sinusoid impulse response. These shaped PN waveforms are then offset by half a chip time and are separately modulated on the in-phase and quadrature phase components of an RF carrier. This new radar waveform allows an increase in radar resolution without the need for additional spectrum. In addition, it provides self-interference suppression and configurable peak sidelobes. Compared strictly on the basis of the expressions for delay resolution, main-lobe bandwidth, effective Doppler bandwidth, and peak ambiguity sidelobe, it appears that bi-phase coded (BPC) outperforms the new MSK waveform. However, a radar waveform must meet certain constraints imposed by the transmission and reception of the modulation, as well as criteria dictated by the observation. In particular, the phase discontinuity of the BPC waveform presents a significant impediment to the achievement of finer resolutions in radar measurements a limitation that is overcome by using the continuous phase MSK waveform. The phase continuity, and the lower fractional out-of-band power of MSK, increases the allowable bandwidth compared with BPC, resulting in a factor of two increase in the range resolution of the radar. The MSK waveform also has been demonstrated to have an ambiguity sidelobe structure very similar to BPC, where the sidelobe levels can be decreased by increasing the length of the m-sequence used in its generation. This ability to set the peak sidelobe level is advantageous as it allows the system to be configured to a variety of targets, including those with a larger dynamic range. Other conventionally used waveforms that possess an even greater spectral efficiency than the MSK waveform, such as linear frequency modulation (LFM) and Costas frequency hopping, have a fixed peak sidelobe level that is therefore not configurable, and can be exceeded by high contrast targets. Furthermore, in the case of a multistatic experiment observing a target in motion, self-interference from the transmitter to the receiver is mitigated by the MSK waveform. Waveforms that have delay Doppler coupling, such as LFM, provide no such protection.

  14. Hepatic heat shock protein 70 and plasma cortisol levels in rainbow trout after tagging with a passive integrated transponder

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feldhaus, J.W.; Heppell, S.A.; Mesa, M.G.; Li, H.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the potentially stressful effects of tagging juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags by measuring short-term (<120-h) changes in plasma concentrations of cortisol and hepatic heat shock protein 70 (hsp70). In a laboratory experiment, plasma cortisol levels were measured in fish before they were tagged (0 h) and at 2, 6, 24, and 120 h after being tagged. Hepatic hsp70 levels were measured at 0, 24, and 120 h. All results were compared with those for fish that were handled but not tagged. Plasma cortisol levels were significantly higher in both treatment groups (tagged and handled but not tagged) at 2 h than in the pretreatment groups (0 h). Plasma cortisol levels in the treatment groups returned to near pretreatment levels by 6 h. However, there was a significant difference in plasma cortisol levels between treatment groups at 6 h. There were no significant differences in hepatic hsp70 levels among the two treatment groups, and hepatic hsp70 levels did not change through time. Our results suggest that PIT tagging is a low-impact tagging procedure for juvenile salmonids. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  15. A model for estimating passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag antenna efficiencies for interval-specific emigration rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horton, G.E.; Dubreuil, T.L.; Letcher, B.H.

    2007-01-01

    Our goal was to understand movement and its interaction with survival for populations of stream salmonids at long-term study sites in the northeastern United States by employing passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and associated technology. Although our PIT tag antenna arrays spanned the stream channel (at most flows) and were continuously operated, we are aware that aspects of fish behavior, environmental characteristics, and electronic limitations influenced our ability to detect 100% of the emigration from our stream site. Therefore, we required antenna efficiency estimates to adjust observed emigration rates. We obtained such estimates by testing a full-scale physical model of our PIT tag antenna array in a laboratory setting. From the physical model, we developed a statistical model that we used to predict efficiency in the field. The factors most important for predicting efficiency were external radio frequency signal and tag type. For most sampling intervals, there was concordance between the predicted and observed efficiencies, which allowed us to estimate the true emigration rate for our field populations of tagged salmonids. One caveat is that the model's utility may depend on its ability to characterize external radio frequency signals accurately. Another important consideration is the trade-off between the volume of data necessary to model efficiency accurately and the difficulty of storing and manipulating large amounts of data.

  16. MODELING VESTA'S RADAR E. M. Palmer (UCLA)

    E-print Network

    Strangeway, Robert J.

    MODELING VESTA'S RADAR PROPERTIES E. M. Palmer (UCLA) E. Heggy (JPL), M. T. Capria (INAFIAPS), ( ) ll ( )F. Tosi (INAFIAPS), C. T. Russell (UCLA) #12;Observing Asteroids with Radar The Issue with Radar · We measure the radar backscatter · Can get shape and spin Transmitting Earthbased Radar

  17. Heat pump apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Horowitz, Jeffrey S. (Woodridge, IL)

    1983-01-01

    A heat pump apparatus including a compact arrangement of individual tubular reactors containing hydride-dehydride beds in opposite end sections, each pair of beds in each reactor being operable by sequential and coordinated treatment with a plurality of heat transfer fluids in a plurality of processing stages, and first and second valves located adjacent the reactor end sections with rotatable members having multiple ports and associated portions for separating the hydride beds at each of the end sections into groups and for simultaneously directing a plurality of heat transfer fluids to the different groups. As heat is being generated by a group of beds, others are being regenerated so that heat is continuously available for space heating. As each of the processing stages is completed for a hydride bed or group of beds, each valve member is rotated causing the heat transfer fluid for the heat processing stage to be directed to that bed or group of beds. Each of the end sections are arranged to form a closed perimeter and the valve member may be rotated repeatedly about the perimeter to provide a continuous operation. Both valves are driven by a common motor to provide a coordinated treatment of beds in the same reactors. The heat pump apparatus is particularly suitable for the utilization of thermal energy supplied by solar collectors and concentrators but may be used with any source of heat, including a source of low-grade heat.

  18. Polarization imaging apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zou, Yingyin Kevin (Inventor); Chen, Qiushui (Inventor); Zhao, Hongzhi (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A polarization imaging apparatus measures the Stokes image of a sample. The apparatus consists of an optical lens set 11, a linear polarizer 14 with its optical axis 18, a first variable phase retarder 12 with its optical axis 16 aligned 22.5.degree. to axis 18, a second variable phase retarder 13 with its optical axis 17 aligned 45.degree. to axis 18, a imaging sensor 15 for sensing the intensity images of the sample, a controller 101 and a computer 102. Two variable phase retarders 12 and 13 were controlled independently by a computer 102 through a controller unit 101 which generates a sequential of voltages to control the phase retardations of VPRs 12 and 13. A set of four intensity images, I.sub.0, I.sub.1, I.sub.2 and I.sub.3 of the sample were captured by imaging sensor 15 when the phase retardations of VPRs 12 and 13 were set at (0,0), (.pi.,0), (.pi.,.pi.) and (.pi./2,.pi.), respectively Then four Stokes components of a Stokes image, S.sub.0, S.sub.1, S.sub.2 and S.sub.3 were calculated using the four intensity images.

  19. Percussive arc welding apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hollar, Jr., Donald L. (Overland Park, KS)

    2002-01-01

    A percussive arc welding apparatus includes a generally cylindrical actuator body having front and rear end portions and defining an internal recess. The front end of the body includes an opening. A solenoid assembly is provided in the rear end portion in the internal recess of the body, and an actuator shaft assembly is provided in the front end portion in the internal recess of the actuator body. The actuator shaft assembly includes a generally cylindrical actuator block having first and second end portions, and an actuator shaft having a front end extending through the opening in the actuator body, and the rear end connected to the first end portion of the actuator block. The second end portion of the actuator block is in operational engagement with the solenoid shaft by a non-rigid connection to reduce the adverse rebound effects of the actuator shaft. A generally transversely extending pin is rigidly secured to the rear end of the shaft. One end of the pin is received in a slot in the nose housing sleeve to prevent rotation of the actuator shaft during operation of the apparatus.

  20. Fluidized bed calciner apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Thomas J. (West Richland, WA); Klem, Jr., Michael J. (Richland, WA); Cash, Robert J. (Richland, WA)

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely calcining a slurry or solution feed stream of toxic or hazardous material, such as ammonium diurante slurry or uranyl nitrate solution, is disclosed. The calcining apparatus includes a vertical substantially cylindrical inner shell disposed in a vertical substantially cylindrical outer shell, in which inner shell is disposed a fluidized bed comprising the feed stream material to be calcined and spherical beads to aid in heat transfer. Extending through the outer and inner shells is a feed nozzle for delivering feed material or a cleaning chemical to the beads. Disposed in and extending across the lower portion of the inner shell and upstream of the fluidized bed is a support member for supporting the fluidized bed, the support member having uniform slots for directing uniform gas flow to the fluidized bed from a fluidizing gas orifice disposed upstream of the support member. Disposed in the lower portion of the inner shell are a plurality of internal electric resistance heaters for heating the fluidized bed. Disposed circumferentially about the outside length of the inner shell are a plurality of external heaters for heating the inner shell thereby heating the fluidized bed. Further, connected to the internal and external heaters is a means for maintaining the fluidized bed temperature to within plus or minus approximately 25.degree. C. of a predetermined bed temperature. Disposed about the external heaters is the outer shell for providing radiative heat reflection back to the inner shell.

  1. Agitation apparatus. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Beets, A.L.; Lewis, B.E. Jr.

    1982-03-12

    Agitation apparatus includes a tank with a cylindrical upper portion, a frustoconical intermediate portion, and a cylindrical lower portion, a lift tube extending from the upper portion of the tank to a point near an end cap attached to the lower portion of the tank, the lift tube being concentric with the lower portion of the tank to provide a flow passage there between, and a plurality of air supply conduits extending along the lift tube and spaced apart around its perimeter, these air supply conduits terminating adjacent the lower end of the lift tube. Air discharged from the lower ends of the air supply conduits causes liquid in the tank to flow upwardly through the lift tube and out of apertures in the upper portion thereof. Due to the unique properties of nuclear fuel dissolver solutions and the constraint placed on the amount of air that can be injected therein by conventional apparatus, there has been a need for a more effective means for agitating liquid in nuclear fuel digester tanks.

  2. Radar cross-sectional study using noise radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freundorfer, A. P.; Siddiqui, J. Y.; Antar, Y. M. M.

    2015-05-01

    A noise radar system is proposed with capabilities to measure and acquire the radar cross-section (RCS) of targets. The proposed system can cover a noise bandwidth of near DC to 50 GHz. The noise radar RCS measurements were conducted for selective targets like spheres and carpenter squares with and without dielectric bodies for a noise band of 400MHz-5000MHz. The bandwidth of operation was limited by the multiplier and the antennae used.

  3. 41. Perimeter acquisition radar building radar element and coaxial display, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. Perimeter acquisition radar building radar element and coaxial display, with drawing of typical antenna section. Drawing, from left to right, shows element, aluminum ground plane, cable connectors and hardware, cable, and back-up ring. Grey area is the concrete wall - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  4. 51. View of upper radar scanner switch in radar scanner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. View of upper radar scanner switch in radar scanner building 105 from upper catwalk level showing emanating waveguides from upper switch (upper one-fourth of photograph) and emanating waveguides from lower radar scanner switch in vertical runs. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  5. RADAR Reveals Titan Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirk, R. L.; Callahan, P.; Seu, R.; Lorenz, R. D.; Paganelli, F.; Lopes, R.; Elachi, C.

    2005-01-01

    The Cassini Titan RADAR Mapper is a K(sub u)-band (13.78 GHz, lambda = 2.17 cm) linear polarized RADAR instrument capable of operating in synthetic aperture (SAR), scatterometer, altimeter and radiometer modes. During the first targeted flyby of Titan on 26 October, 2004 (referred to as Ta) observations were made in all modes. Evidence for topographic relief based on the Ta altimetry and SAR data are presented here. Additional SAR and altimetry observations are planned for the T3 encounter on 15 February, 2005, but have not been carried out at this writing. Results from the T3 encounter relevant to topography will be included in our presentation. Data obtained in the Ta encounter include a SAR image swath

  6. Kuiper Belt Mapping Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, A.; Nilsen, E.

    2001-01-01

    Since their initial discovery in 1992, to date only a relatively small number of Kuiper Belt Objects (KBO's) have been discovered. Current detection techniques rely on frame-to-frame comparisons of images collected by optical telescopes such as Hubble, to detect KBO's as they move against the background stellar field. Another technique involving studies of KBO's through occultation of known stars has been proposed. Such techniques are serendipitous, not systematic, and may lead to an inadequate understanding of the size, range, and distribution of KBO's. In this paper, a future Kuiper Belt Mapping Radar is proposed as a solution to the problem of mapping the size distribution, extent, and range of KBO's. This approach can also be used to recover radar albedo and object rotation rates. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  7. Simple turbine balancing test apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vavra, M. H.; Hammer, J. E.; Bell, L. E.

    1972-01-01

    Simple, inexpensive apparatus has been devised for testing dynamic balance of turbine rotors. No elaborate instrumentation is required and rotor is spun by directing jet of air against blades. Basic principle involved is that of the vibration of a mass on a spring. Apparatus can be used where conventional, expensive, balance facilities are not readily available.

  8. Goldstone solar system radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurgens, Raymond F.

    1991-01-01

    Caltech/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) radar astronomers made use of the Very Large Array (VLA) at Socorro, NM, during February 1990, to receive radio echoes from the planet Venus. The transmitter was the 70 meter antenna at the Goldstone complex northwest of Barstow, CA. These observations contain new information about the roughness of Venus at cm to decimeter scales and are complementary to information being obtained by the Magellan spacecraft. Asteroid observations are also discussed.

  9. Spaceborne Imaging Radar Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Neil

    1986-01-01

    In June of 1985 the Project Initiation Agreement was signed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the NASA Office of Space Science and Applications for the Spaceborne Imaging Radar Project (SIR). The thrust of the Spaceborne Imaging Radar Project is to continue the evolution of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) science and technology developed during SEASAT, SIR-A and SIR-B missions to meet the needs of the Earth Observing System (EOS) in the mid 1990's. As originally formulated, the Project plans were for a reflight of the SIR-B in 1987, the development of a new SAR, SIR-C, for missions in mid 1989 and early 1990, and the upgrade of SIR-C to EOS configuration with a qualification flight aboard the shuttle in the 1993 time frame (SIR-D). However, the loss of the shuttle Challenger has delayed the first manifest for SIR to early 1990. This delay prompted the decision to drop SIR-B reflight plans and move ahead with SIR-C to more effectively utilize this first mission opportunity. The planning for this project is discussed.

  10. Cognitive processing for nonlinear radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martone, Anthony; Ranney, Kenneth; Hedden, Abigail; Mazzaro, Gregory; McNamara, David

    2013-05-01

    An increasingly cluttered electromagnetic environment (EME) is a growing problem for radar systems. This problem is becoming critical as the available frequency spectrum shrinks due to growing wireless communication device usage and changing regulations. A possible solution to these problems is cognitive radar, where the cognitive radar learns from the environment and intelligently modifies the transmit waveform. In this paper, a cognitive nonlinear radar processing framework is introduced where the main components of this framework consist of spectrum sensing processing, target detection and classification, and decision making. The emphasis of this paper is to introduce a spectrum sensing processing technique that identifies a transmit-receive frequency pair for nonlinear radar. It will be shown that the proposed technique successfully identifies a transmit-receive frequency pair for nonlinear radar from data collected from the EME.

  11. Microelectromechanical acceleration-sensing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Robb M. (Albuquerque, NM); Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Polosky, Marc A. (Albuquerque, NM); Hoke, Darren A. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, George E. (Rio Rancho, NM)

    2006-12-12

    An acceleration-sensing apparatus is disclosed which includes a moveable shuttle (i.e. a suspended mass) and a latch for capturing and holding the shuttle when an acceleration event is sensed above a predetermined threshold level. The acceleration-sensing apparatus provides a switch closure upon sensing the acceleration event and remains latched in place thereafter. Examples of the acceleration-sensing apparatus are provided which are responsive to an acceleration component in a single direction (i.e. a single-sided device) or to two oppositely-directed acceleration components (i.e. a dual-sided device). A two-stage acceleration-sensing apparatus is also disclosed which can sense two acceleration events separated in time. The acceleration-sensing apparatus of the present invention has applications, for example, in an automotive airbag deployment system.

  12. Automatic insulation resistance testing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Wyant, Francis J.; Nowlen, Steven P.; Luker, Spencer M.

    2005-06-14

    An apparatus and method for automatic measurement of insulation resistances of a multi-conductor cable. In one embodiment of the invention, the apparatus comprises a power supply source, an input measuring means, an output measuring means, a plurality of input relay controlled contacts, a plurality of output relay controlled contacts, a relay controller and a computer. In another embodiment of the invention the apparatus comprises a power supply source, an input measuring means, an output measuring means, an input switching unit, an output switching unit and a control unit/data logger. Embodiments of the apparatus of the invention may also incorporate cable fire testing means. The apparatus and methods of the present invention use either voltage or current for input and output measured variables.

  13. Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jenkins, Charles F. (Aiken, SC); Howard, Boyd D. (Augusta, GA)

    1998-01-01

    A flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus, comprising a flexible, hollow shaft that carries a plurality of modules, including at least one rotatable ultrasonic transducer, a motor/gear unit, and a position/signal encoder. The modules are connected by flexible knuckle joints that allow each module of the apparatus to change its relative orientation with respect to a neighboring module, while the shaft protects electrical wiring from kinking or buckling while the apparatus moves around a tight corner. The apparatus is moved through a pipe by any suitable means, including a tether or drawstring attached to the nose or tail, differential hydraulic pressure, or a pipe pig. The rotational speed of the ultrasonic transducer and the forward velocity of the apparatus are coordinated so that the beam sweeps out the entire interior surface of the pipe, enabling the operator to accurately assess the condition of the pipe wall and determine whether or not leak-prone corrosion damage is present.

  14. Apparatus for assembling space structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, J. D.; Tuggle, R. H., Jr.; Burch, J. L.; Clark, K. H. (inventors)

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus for producing a structure in outer space from rolls of prepunched ribbon or sheet material that are transported from the earth to the apparatus located in outer space is described. The apparatus spins the space structure similar to a spider spinning a web utilizing the prepunched ribbon material. The prepunched ribbon material is fed through the apparatus and is shaped into a predetermined channel-shaped configuration. Trusses are punched out of the ribbon and are bent downwardly and attached to a track which normally is a previously laid sheet of material. The size of the overall space structure may be increased by merely attaching an additional roll of sheet material to the apparatus.

  15. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farr, Tom G.; Rosen, Paul A.; Caro, Edward; Crippen, Robert; Duren, Riley; Hensley, Scott; Kobrick, Michael; Paller, Mimi; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Roth, Ladislav; Seal, David; Shaffer, Scott; Shimada, Joanne; Umland, Jeffrey; Werner, Marian; Oskin, Michael; Burbank, Douglas; Alsdorf, Douglas

    2007-06-01

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission produced the most complete, highest-resolution digital elevation model of the Earth. The project was a joint endeavor of NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, and the German and Italian Space Agencies and flew in February 2000. It used dual radar antennas to acquire interferometric radar data, processed to digital topographic data at 1 arc sec resolution. Details of the development, flight operations, data processing, and products are provided for users of this revolutionary data set.

  16. Radar-aeolian roughness project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald; Dobrovolskis, A.; Gaddis, L.; Iversen, J. D.; Lancaster, N.; Leach, Rodman N.; Rasnussen, K.; Saunders, S.; Vanzyl, J.; Wall, S.

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to establish an empirical relationship between measurements of radar, aeolian, and surface roughness on a variety of natural surfaces and to understand the underlying physical causes. This relationship will form the basis for developing a predictive equation to derive aeolian roughness from radar backscatter. Results are given from investigations carried out in 1989 on the principal elements of the project, with separate sections on field studies, radar data analysis, laboratory simulations, and development of theory for planetary applications.

  17. Radar studies of bird migration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, T. C.; Williams, J. M.

    1974-01-01

    Observations of bird migration with NASA radars were made at Wallops Island, Va. Simultaneous observations were made at a number of radar sites in the North Atlantic Ocean in an effort to discover what happened to those birds that were observed leaving the coast of North America headed toward Bermuda, the Caribbean and South America. Transatlantic migration, utilizing observations from a large number of radars is discussed. Detailed studies of bird movements at Wallops Island are presented.

  18. Python-ARM Radar Toolkit

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-03-17

    The Python-ARM Radar Toolkit (Py-ART) is a collection of radar quality control and retrieval codes which all work on two unifying Python objects: the PyRadar and PyGrid objects. By building ingests to several popular radar formats and then abstracting the interface Py-ART greatly simplifies data processing over several other available utilities. In addition Py-ART makes use of Numpy arrays as its primary storage mechanism enabling use of existing and extensive community software tools.

  19. 47 CFR 80.273 - Radar standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radar standards. 80.273 Section 80.273 Telecommunication...Authorization for Compulsory Ships § 80.273 Radar standards. (a) Radar installations on board ships that are...

  20. 47 CFR 80.273 - Radar standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radar standards. 80.273 Section 80.273 Telecommunication...Authorization for Compulsory Ships § 80.273 Radar standards. (a) Radar installations on board ships that are...

  1. 47 CFR 80.273 - Radar standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radar standards. 80.273 Section 80.273 Telecommunication...Authorization for Compulsory Ships § 80.273 Radar standards. (a) Radar installations on board ships that are...

  2. Overview of Radar Data Compression Valliappa Lakshmanan

    E-print Network

    Lakshmanan, Valliappa

    Overview of Radar Data Compression Valliappa Lakshmanan Cooperative Institute of Mesoscale Meteorological Studies University of Oklahoma & National Severe Storms Laboratory Abstract Radar data is routinely transmitted in real-time from the coterminous United States (CONUS) radar sites and placed

  3. REVIEW ARTICLE Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar

    E-print Network

    Kansas, University of

    REVIEW ARTICLE Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar Christopher T. Allen Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and Radar Systems and Remote Sensing Laboratory University of Kansas Abstract. This paper provides a brief review of interferometric synthetic aperture radar (In

  4. Anomolous Radar Backscatter from Titan's Xanadu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, M. A.; Le Gall, A.; Wye, L. C.; Zebker, H. A.; Lorenz, R. D.; Paillou, P.; Paganelli, F.; Cassini RADAR Team

    2009-03-01

    We use simultaneously measured radar reflectivity and microwave emission from the Cassini Radar instrument to show that the radar backscattering seen across Titan's Xanadu region is too high to be explained by any known surface model.

  5. Apparatus for dispensing material

    DOEpatents

    Sutter, Peter Werner (Beach, NY); Sutter, Eli Anguelova (Beach, NY)

    2011-07-05

    An apparatus capable of dispensing drops of material with volumes on the order of zeptoliters is described. In some embodiments of the inventive pipette the size of the droplets so dispensed is determined by the size of a hole, or channel, through a carbon shell encapsulating a reservoir that contains material to be dispensed. The channel may be formed by irradiation with an electron beam or other high-energy beam capable of focusing to a spot size less than about 5 nanometers. In some embodiments, the dispensed droplet remains attached to the pipette by a small thread of material, an atomic scale meniscus, forming a virtually free-standing droplet. In some embodiments the droplet may wet the pipette tip and take on attributes of supported drops. Methods for fabricating and using the pipette are also described.

  6. Fluid pumping apparatus

    DOEpatents

    West, Phillip B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2006-01-17

    A method and apparatus suitable for coupling seismic or other downhole sensors to a borehole wall in high temperature and pressure environments. In one embodiment, one or more metal bellows mounted to a sensor module are inflated to clamp the sensor module within the borehole and couple an associated seismic sensor to a borehole wall. Once the sensing operation is complete, the bellows are deflated and the sensor module is unclamped by deflation of the metal bellows. In a further embodiment, a magnetic drive pump in a pump module is used to supply fluid pressure for inflating the metal bellows using borehole fluid or fluid from a reservoir. The pump includes a magnetic drive motor configured with a rotor assembly to be exposed to borehole fluid pressure including a rotatable armature for driving an impeller and an associated coil under control of electronics isolated from borehole pressure.

  7. Cryogenic cooler apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, John C. (Del Mar, CA); Paulson, Douglas N. (Del Mar, CA); Allen, Paul C. (Sunnyvale, CA)

    1983-01-01

    A Malone-type final stage for utilization in a Stirling cycle cryogenic cooler apparatus includes a displacer slidable within a vessel. .sup.4 He, .sup.3 He, or a mixture thereof is made to flow in a pulsating unidirectional manner through a regenerator in the displacer by utilization of check valves in separate fluid channels. Stacked copper screen members extend through the channels and through a second static thermodynamic medium within the displacer to provide efficient lateral heat exchange and enable cooling to temperatures in the range of 3-4 K. Another embodiment utilizes sintered copper particles in the regenerator. Also described is a final stage that has a non-thermally conducting displacer having passages with check valves for directing fluid past a regenerator formed in the surrounding vessel.

  8. Induction melter apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Roach, Jay A [Idaho Falls, ID; Richardson, John G [Idaho Falls, ID; Raivo, Brian D [Idaho Falls, ID; Soelberg, Nicholas R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2008-06-17

    Apparatus and methods of operation are provided for a cold-crucible-induction melter for vitrifying waste wherein a single induction power supply may be used to effect a selected thermal distribution by independently energizing at least two inductors. Also, a bottom drain assembly may be heated by an inductor and may include an electrically resistive heater. The bottom drain assembly may be cooled to solidify molten material passing therethrough to prevent discharge of molten material therefrom. Configurations are provided wherein the induction flux skin depth substantially corresponds with the central longitudinal axis of the crucible. Further, the drain tube may be positioned within the induction flux skin depth in relation to material within the crucible or may be substantially aligned with a direction of flow of molten material within the crucible. An improved head design including four shells forming thermal radiation shields and at least two gas-cooled plenums is also disclosed.

  9. Nuclear reactor control apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Sridhar, Bettadapur N. (Cupertino, CA)

    1983-10-25

    Nuclear reactor safety rod release apparatus comprises a ring which carries detents normally positioned in an annular recess in outer side of the rod, the ring being held against the lower end of a drive shaft by magnetic force exerted by a solenoid carried by the drive shaft. When the solenoid is de-energized, the detent-carrying ring drops until the detents contact a cam surface associated with the lower end of the drive shaft, at which point the detents are cammed out of the recess in the safety rod to release the rod from the drive shaft. In preferred embodiments of the invention, an additional latch is provided to release a lower portion of a safety rod under conditions that may interfere with movement of the entire rod.

  10. Power generating apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Vukovic, M.

    1981-02-10

    Power generating apparatus comprising a float mounted on a support which is pivotally mounted to a base the support being secured to a beam extending rearwardly of the base to a vertically extending elongated structure carrying a pair of vertically moveable gear racks in guideways. Each rack is engaged by a gear wheel driven by movement of the racks and one-way drive means connects each gear wheel to an output shaft. Driving weights are secured to each rack to drive the racks in opposite directions under the action of gravity forces acting on the weights, the driving motion causing the output shaft to rotate in a given direction. The free end of the beam is connected to a cross-arm vertically moveable on a guide on the elongate structure, the cross-arm having motion transmitting means to raise each of the weights during vertical movement of the crossarm resulting from movement of the float.

  11. Oil shale retort apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Reeves, Adam A. (Grand Junction, CO); Mast, Earl L. (Norman, OK); Greaves, Melvin J. (Littleton, CO)

    1990-01-01

    A retorting apparatus including a vertical kiln and a plurality of tubes for delivering rock to the top of the kiln and removal of processed rock from the bottom of the kiln so that the rock descends through the kiln as a moving bed. Distributors are provided for delivering gas to the kiln to effect heating of the rock and to disturb the rock particles during their descent. The distributors are constructed and disposed to deliver gas uniformly to the kiln and to withstand and overcome adverse conditions resulting from heat and from the descending rock. The rock delivery tubes are geometrically sized, spaced and positioned so as to deliver the shale uniformly into the kiln and form symmetrically disposed generally vertical paths, or "rock chimneys", through the descending shale which offer least resistance to upward flow of gas. When retorting oil shale, a delineated collection chamber near the top of the kiln collects gas and entrained oil mist rising through the kiln.

  12. Freeze drying apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Coppa, Nicholas V. (Malvern, PA); Stewart, Paul (Youngstown, NY); Renzi, Ernesto (Youngstown, NY)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

  13. Slurry mixing apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Berryman, L.W.; Horinek, H.J.; Phillippi, M.L.; Prucha, D.A.; Reidenbach, V.G.; Stephenson, S.V.

    1991-02-05

    This paper discusses a mixing apparatus. It comprises a mixing tub having upper and lower fluid outlets defined therein; a pump having a centrifugal impeller rotating about a generally vertical axis within a pump housing and having upper and lower suction inlets defined in the housing on axially opposite sides of the impeller; a lower suction conduit connecting the lower fluid outlet of the tub with the lower suction inlet of the pump; and a standpipe having a lower end connected to the upper suction inlet of the pump and having a fluid inlet communicated with the upper fluid outlet of the tub so that fluids can fill the tub and the standpipe to substantially equal elevations.

  14. Water heating apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, K.

    1984-11-20

    A water heating apparatus comprising a refrigerant loop for natural circulation which includes a hot water storage tank for holding water to be heated, a heat collecting plate for collecting solar heat, and refrigerant tubes having a refrigerant sealed therein and extending to unite the hot water storage tank with the heat collecting plate and another refrigerant loop for refrigeration cycle which includes a compressor and an expansion valve which are connected in the refrigerant tube uniting the hot water storage tank with the heat collecting plate. The water in the hot water storage tank is elevated in temperature selectively by the natural circulation action where there is a sufficient amount of sunshine or by the refrigeration cycle where the amount of sunshine is insufficient.

  15. Spine immobilization apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambson, K. H.; Vykukal, H. C. (inventors)

    1981-01-01

    The apparatus makes use of a normally flat, flexible bladder filled with beads or micro-balloons that form a rigid mass when the pressure within the bladder is decreased below ambient through the use of a suction pump so that the bladder can be conformed to the torso of the victim and provide the desired restraint. The bladder is strapped to the victim prior to being rigidified by an arrangement of straps which avoid the stomach area. The bladder is adapted to be secured to a rigid support, i.e., a rescue chair, so as to enable removal of a victim after the bladder has been made rigid. A double sealing connector is used to connect the bladder to the suction pump and a control valve is employed to vary the pressure within the bladder so as to soften and harden the bladder as desired.

  16. Thermal synthesis apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Fincke, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-08-18

    An apparatus for thermal conversion of one or more reactants to desired end products includes an insulated reactor chamber having a high temperature heater such as a plasma torch at its inlet end and, optionally, a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. In a thermal conversion method, reactants are injected upstream from the reactor chamber and thoroughly mixed with the plasma stream before entering the reactor chamber. The reactor chamber has a reaction zone that is maintained at a substantially uniform temperature. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle, which "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage, or is discharged through an outlet pipe without the convergent-divergent nozzle. The desired end products are then separated from the gaseous stream.

  17. Image forming apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Satoh, Hisao (Hachioji, JP); Haneda, Satoshi (Hachioji, JP); Ikeda, Tadayoshi (Hachioji, JP); Morita, Shizuo (Hachioji, JP); Fukuchi, Masakazu (Hachioji, JP)

    1996-01-01

    In an image forming apparatus having a detachable process cartridge in which an image carrier on which an electrostatic latent image is formed, and a developing unit which develops the electrostatic latent image so that a toner image can be formed, both integrally formed into one unit. There is provided a developer container including a discharge section which can be inserted into a supply opening of the developing unit, and a container in which a predetermined amount of developer is contained, wherein the developer container is provided to the toner supply opening of the developing unit and the developer is supplied into the developing unit housing when a toner stirring screw of the developing unit is rotated.

  18. Laser dividing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    English, Jr., R. Edward (Tracy, CA); Johnson, Steve A. (Tracy, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A laser beam dividing apparatus (10) having a first beam splitter (14) with an aperture (16) therein positioned in the path of a laser beam (12) such that a portion of the laser beam (12) passes through the aperture (16) onto a second beam splitter (20) and a portion of the laser beam (12) impinges upon the first beam splitter (14). Both the first beam splitter (14) and the second beam splitter (20) are, optionally, made from a dichroic material such that a green component (24) of the laser beam (12) is reflected therefrom and a yellow component (26) is refracted therethrough. The first beam splitter (14) and the second beam splitter (20) further each have a plurality of facets (22) such that the components (24, 26) are reflected and refracted in a number equaling the number of facets (22).

  19. Multiparameter vision testing apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, S. R., Jr.; Homkes, R. J.; Poteate, W. B.; Sturgis, A. C. (inventors)

    1975-01-01

    Compact vision testing apparatus is described for testing a large number of physiological characteristics of the eyes and visual system of a human subject. The head of the subject is inserted into a viewing port at one end of a light-tight housing containing various optical assemblies. Visual acuity and other refractive characteristics and ocular muscle balance characteristics of the eyes of the subject are tested by means of a retractable phoroptor assembly carried near the viewing port and a film cassette unit carried in the rearward portion of the housing (the latter selectively providing a variety of different visual targets which are viewed through the optical system of the phoroptor assembly). The visual dark adaptation characteristics and absolute brightness threshold of the subject are tested by means of a projector assembly which selectively projects one or both of a variable intensity fixation target and a variable intensity adaptation test field onto a viewing screen located near the top of the housing.

  20. Heat Treating Apparatus

    DOEpatents

    De Saro, Robert (Annandale, NJ); Bateman, Willis (Sutton Colfield, GB)

    2002-09-10

    Apparatus for heat treating a heat treatable material including a housing having an upper opening for receiving a heat treatable material at a first temperature, a lower opening, and a chamber therebetween for heating the heat treatable material to a second temperature higher than the first temperature as the heat treatable material moves through the chamber from the upper to the lower opening. A gas supply assembly is operatively engaged to the housing at the lower opening, and includes a source of gas, a gas delivery assembly for delivering the gas through a plurality of pathways into the housing in countercurrent flow to movement of the heat treatable material, whereby the heat treatable material passes through the lower opening at the second temperature, and a control assembly for controlling conditions within the chamber to enable the heat treatable material to reach the second temperature and pass through the lower opening at the second temperature as a heated material.

  1. Cryogenic cooler apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, J.C.; Paulson, D.N.; Allen, P.C.

    1983-01-04

    A Malone-type final stage for utilization in a Stirling cycle cryogenic cooler apparatus includes a displacer slidable within a vessel. [sup 4]He, [sup 3]He, or a mixture thereof is made to flow in a pulsating unidirectional manner through a regenerator in the displacer by utilization of check valves in separate fluid channels. Stacked copper screen members extend through the channels and through a second static thermodynamic medium within the displacer to provide efficient lateral heat exchange and enable cooling to temperatures in the range of 3--4 K. Another embodiment utilizes sintered copper particles in the regenerator. Also described is a final stage that has a non-thermally conducting displacer having passages with check valves for directing fluid past a regenerator formed in the surrounding vessel. 10 figs.

  2. Isotope separation apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Arnush, Donald (Rancho Palos Verdes, CA); MacKenzie, Kenneth R. (Pacific Palisades, CA); Wuerker, Ralph F. (Palos Verdes Estates, CA)

    1980-01-01

    Isotope separation apparatus consisting of a plurality of cells disposed adjacent to each other in an evacuated container. A common magnetic field is established extending through all of the cells. A source of energetic electrons at one end of the container generates electrons which pass through the cells along the magnetic field lines. Each cell includes an array of collector plates arranged in parallel or in tandem within a common magnetic field. Sets of collector plates are disposed adjacent to each other in each cell. Means are provided for differentially energizing ions of a desired isotope by applying energy at the cyclotron resonant frequency of the desired isotope. As a result, the energized desired ions are preferentially collected by the collector plates.

  3. Geodetic distance measuring apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, J. B. (inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A geodetic distance measuring apparatus which compensates for the refractive index of the atmosphere is discussed. A mode locked laser system with a laser device and its peripheral components is utilized to derive two mutually phase locked optical wavelength signals and one phase locked microwave CW signal which respectively traverse the same distance measurement path. The optical signals are comprised of pulse type signals. Phase comparison of the two optical wavelength pulse signals is used to provide the dry air density while phase comparison of one of the optical wavelength pulse signals and the microwave CW signal issued to provide wet or water vapor density of the air. The distance to be measured corrected for the atmospheric dry air and water vapor densities in the measurement path is computed from these measurements. A time interval unit is included for measuring transit time of individual optical pulses for resolving the phase ambiguity needed with the phase measurements to give the true target distance.

  4. Millimeter Wave Cloud Radar (MMCR) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    KB Widener; K Johnson

    2005-01-30

    The millimeter cloud radar (MMCR) systems probe the extent and composition of clouds at millimeter wavelengths. The MMCR is a zenith-pointing radar that operates at a frequency of 35 GHz. The main purpose of this radar is to determine cloud boundaries (e.g., cloud bottoms and tops). This radar will also report radar reflectivity (dBZ) of the atmosphere up to 20 km. The radar possesses a doppler capability that will allow the measurement of cloud constituent vertical velocities.

  5. Apparatus for transporting hazardous materials

    DOEpatents

    Osterman, Robert A. (Canonsburg, PA); Cox, Robert (West Mifflin, PA)

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus and method are provided for selectively receiving, transporting, and releasing one or more radioactive or other hazardous samples for analysis on a differential thermal analysis (DTA) apparatus. The apparatus includes a portable sample transporting apparatus for storing and transporting the samples and includes a support assembly for supporting the transporting apparatus when a sample is transferred to the DTA apparatus. The transporting apparatus includes a storage member which includes a plurality of storage chambers arrayed circumferentially with respect to a central axis. An adjustable top door is located on the top side of the storage member, and the top door includes a channel capable of being selectively placed in registration with the respective storage chambers thereby permitting the samples to selectively enter the respective storage chambers. The top door, when closed, isolates the respective samples within the storage chambers. A plurality of spring-biased bottom doors are located on the bottom sides of the respective storage chambers. The bottom doors isolate the samples in the respective storage chambers when the bottom doors are in the closed position. The bottom doors permit the samples to leave the respective storage chambers from the bottom side when the respective bottom doors are in respective open positions. The bottom doors permit the samples to be loaded into the respective storage chambers after the analysis for storage and transport to a permanent storage location.

  6. Planetary radar studies. [radar mapping of the Moon and radar signatures of lunar and Venus craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.; Cutts, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Progress made in studying the evolution of Venusian craters and the evolution of infrared and radar signatures of lunar crater interiors is reported. Comparison of radar images of craters on Venus and the Moon present evidence for a steady state Venus crater population. Successful observations at the Arecibo Observatory yielded good data on five nights when data for a mix of inner and limb areas were acquired. Lunar craters with radar bright ejects are discussed. An overview of infrared radar crater catalogs in the data base is included.

  7. Tagging Juvenile Pacific Lamprey with Passive Integrated Transponders: Methodology, Short-Term Mortality, and Influence on Swimming Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Robert P.; Moursund, Russell A.; Bleich, Matthew D.

    2006-05-01

    This study was conducted to determine the feasibility (i.e., efficiency and onintrusiveness) of tagging juvenile Pacific lampreys Lampetra tridentata with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and to determine any associated impacts on survivorship and swimming ability. Juvenile Pacific lampreys were obtained from the John Day Dam fish collection facility and tests were conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in 2001 and 2002. A new PIT-tagging procedure was used to inject 12-mm tags 5 mm posterior to the gill openings. ampreys were allowed to recover for 3–4 d following surgery before postmortality and swimming tests were conducted. The PIT tagging procedure during 2001 did not include a suture, and 2.6% of the tags were shed after 40 d. During 2002 a single suture was used to close the opening after inserting a tag, and no tag shedding was observed. Overall short-term mortality rates for lampreys 120–155 mm (total length) held for 40 d at 88C was 2.2% for tagged and 2.7% for untagged fish. Mortality increased significantly when tagged and untagged groups were held in warmer (19–238C) river water: 50% for tagged and 60% for untagged animals. Lengths did not significantly affect survival for either the tagged or untagged group held in warm water. A fungal infection was observed to be the cause of death when water temperature increased. Swimming tests to determine any adverse effects due to tag insertion showed no significant difference (P ¼ 0.12) between tagged and untagged lampreys for mean burst speed; however, maximum burst speeds were significantly lower for the PIT-tagged group.

  8. Tagging Frogs with Passive Integrated Transponders Causes Disruption of the Cutaneous Bacterial Community and Proliferation of Opportunistic Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Gerardo; Fidgett, Andrea L.; Preziosi, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    Symbiotic bacterial communities play a key role in protecting amphibians from infectious diseases including chytridiomycosis, caused by the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Events that lead to the disruption of the bacterial community may have implications for the susceptibility of amphibians to such diseases. Amphibians are often marked both in the wild and in captivity for a variety of reasons, and although existing literature indicates that marking techniques have few negative effects, the response of cutaneous microbial communities has not yet been investigated. Here we determine the effects of passive integrated transponder (PIT) tagging on culturable cutaneous microbial communities of captive Morelet's tree frogs (Agalychnis moreletii) and assess the isolated bacterial strains for anti-B. dendrobatidis activity in vitro. We find that PIT tagging causes a major disruption to the bacterial community associated with the skin of frogs (?12-fold increase in abundance), as well as a concurrent proliferation in resident fungi (up to ?200-fold increase). Handling also caused a disruption the bacterial community, although to a lesser extent than PIT tagging. However, the effects of both tagging and handling were temporary, and after 2 weeks, the bacterial communities were similar to their original compositions. We also identify two bacterial strains that inhibit B. dendrobatidis, one of which increased in abundance on PIT-tagged frogs at 1 day postmarking, while the other was unaffected. These results show that PIT tagging has previously unobserved consequences for cutaneous microbial communities of frogs and may be particularly relevant for studies that intend to use PIT tagging to identify individuals involved in trials to develop probiotic treatments. PMID:24878599

  9. Tagging Juvenile Pacific Lamprey with Passive Integrated Transponders: Methodology, Short-Term Mortality, and Influence on Swimming Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Robert P.; Moursund, Russell A.; Bleich, Matthew D.

    2006-05-31

    Populations of Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) in the Columbia River basin have declined drastically over the past 20 years. Possible causes include habitat degradation and instream flow obstacles, such as the mainstem hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River. To determine why lamprey populations have declined a monitoring system to track their movements was needed to determine possible impacts. Juvenile lamprey were implanted with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and their detection rates determined while migrating through fish bypass facilities at McNary in 2001 and 2005 and John Day Dam in 2002. Juvenile Pacific lamprey (115–178 mm) were obtained from the John Day Dam fish collection facility, transported to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and surgically PIT-tagged. Lamprey were allowed to recover for 3 to 4 days following PIT tag implantation and subsequently were released upstream of the PIT tag detectors at both dams. Primary detector efficiency was 98% at McNary Dam and 97% at John Day Dam. Average in-river travel time for fish released at McNary Dam and detected at John Day Dam was 16.1 d in 2001 and 10 d in 2005. Mean detection rates at McNary Dam varied from 74% for gatewell releases to 69% for the collection channel. Follow up tests in 2005 at McNary Dam showed detections rates near 100% from collection channel releases. Detection rates from forebay releases at McNary Dam were lower, ranging from 0% to 38% (mean = 21%). Mean travel times from release point to the primary detectors at McNary Dam were; forebay (492 min), gatewell (323 min), and collection channel (245 min). The detection efficiency at the primary detectors was similar to that of PIT-tagged smolts and travel time within the bypass system showed that lamprey can hold in the bypass system for prolonged periods.

  10. Microelectromechanical safing and arming apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Koehler, David R. (Placitas, NM); Hoke, Darren A. (Albuquerque, NM); Weichman, Louis S. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, George E. (Rio Rancho, NM); Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Beggans, Michael H. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-05-30

    A two-stage acceleration sensing apparatus is disclosed which has applications for use in a fuze assembly for a projected munition. The apparatus, which can be formed by bulk micromachining or LIGA, can sense acceleration components along two orthogonal directions to enable movement of a shuttle from an "as-fabricated" position to a final position and locking of the shuttle in the final position. With the shuttle moved to the final position, the apparatus can perform one or more functions including completing an explosive train or an electrical switch closure, or allowing a light beam to be transmitted through the device.

  11. Microelectromechanical safing and arming apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Koehler, David R. (Sherwood, OR); Hoke, Darren A. (Albuquerque, NM); Weichman, Louis S. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, George E. (Rio Rancho, NM); Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Beggans, Michael H. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-06-10

    A two-stage acceleration sensing apparatus is disclosed which has applications for use in a fuze assembly for a projected munition. The apparatus, which can be formed by bulk micromachining or LIGA, can sense acceleration components along two orthogonal directions to enable movement of a shuttle from an "as-fabricated" position to a final position and locking of the shuttle in the final position. With the shuttle moved to the final position, the apparatus can perform one or more functions including completing an explosive train or an electrical switch closure, or allowing a light beam to be transmitted through the device.

  12. Apparatus for measuring particle properties

    DOEpatents

    Rader, Daniel J. (Albuquerque, NM); Castaneda, Jaime N. (Albuquerque, NM); Grasser, Thomas W. (Albuquerque, NM); Brockmann, John E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus for determining particle properties from detected light scattered by the particles. The apparatus uses a light beam with novel intensity characteristics to discriminate between particles that pass through the beam and those that pass through an edge of the beam. The apparatus can also discriminate between light scattered by one particle and light scattered by multiple particles. The particle's size can be determined from the intensity of the light scattered. The particle's velocity can be determined from the elapsed time between various intensities of the light scattered.

  13. Apparatus for measuring particle properties

    DOEpatents

    Rader, D.J.; Castaneda, J.N.; Grasser, T.W.; Brockmann, J.E.

    1998-08-11

    An apparatus is described for determining particle properties from detected light scattered by the particles. The apparatus uses a light beam with novel intensity characteristics to discriminate between particles that pass through the beam and those that pass through an edge of the beam. The apparatus can also discriminate between light scattered by one particle and light scattered by multiple particles. The particle`s size can be determined from the intensity of the light scattered. The particle`s velocity can be determined from the elapsed time between various intensities of the light scattered. 11 figs.

  14. Site survey method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Oldham, J.G.; Spencer, C.R.; Begley, C.L.; Meyer, H.R.

    1991-06-18

    The disclosure of the invention is directed to a site survey ground vehicle based apparatus and method for automatically detecting source materials, such as radioactivity, marking the location of the source materials, such as with paint, and mapping the location of the source materials on a site. The apparatus of the invention is also useful for collecting and analyzing samples. The apparatus includes a ground vehicle, detectors mounted at the front of the ground vehicle, and individual detector supports which follow somewhat irregular terrain to allow consistent and accurate detection, and autolocation equipment. 19 figures.

  15. Site survey method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Oldham, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); Spencer, Charles R. (Boise, ID); Begley, Carl L. (Albuquerque, NM); Meyer, H. Robert (Albuquerque, NM)

    1991-06-18

    The disclosure of the invention is directed to a site survey ground vehicle based apparatus and method for automatically detecting source materials, such as radioactivity, marking the location of the source materials, such as with paint, and mapping the location of the source materials on a site. The apparatus of the invention is also useful for collecting and analyzing samples. The apparatus includes a ground vehicle, detectors mounted at the front of the ground vehicle, and individual detector supports which follow somewhat irregular terrain to allow consistent and accurate detection, and autolocation equipment.

  16. Thermal-wave radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabatabaei, N.; Mandelis, A.

    2010-03-01

    Using matched-filtering principles and linear frequency modulation a powerful photothermal depth-profilometry method is introduced. Unlike FD-PTR, in thermal-wave radar (TWR) the frequency of the optical excitation increases linearly within the chirp period, enabling the method to scan a depth range in a single iteration. Simulations and experimental results suggest a significant improvement in the dynamic range when using TWR instead of conventional PTR. Analytical solutions to the TWR heat diffusion problem for both opaque and transparent solids are provided.

  17. Imaging Radar for Ecosystem Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waring, Richard H.; Way, JoBea; Hunt, E. Raymond J.; Morrissey, Leslie; Ranson, K. Jon; Weishampel, John F.; Oren, Ram; Franklin, Steven E.

    1996-01-01

    Recently a number of satellites have been launched with radar sensors, thus expanding opportunities for global assessment. In this article we focus on the applications of imaging radar, which is a type of sensor that actively generates pulses of microwaves and, in the interval between sending pulses, records the returning signals reflected back to an antenna.

  18. Automated Desalting Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, Maegan K.; Liu, De-Ling; Kanik, Isik; Beegle, Luther

    2010-01-01

    Because salt and metals can mask the signature of a variety of organic molecules (like amino acids) in any given sample, an automated system to purify complex field samples has been created for the analytical techniques of electrospray ionization/ mass spectroscopy (ESI/MS), capillary electrophoresis (CE), and biological assays where unique identification requires at least some processing of complex samples. This development allows for automated sample preparation in the laboratory and analysis of complex samples in the field with multiple types of analytical instruments. Rather than using tedious, exacting protocols for desalting samples by hand, this innovation, called the Automated Sample Processing System (ASPS), takes analytes that have been extracted through high-temperature solvent extraction and introduces them into the desalting column. After 20 minutes, the eluent is produced. This clear liquid can then be directly analyzed by the techniques listed above. The current apparatus including the computer and power supplies is sturdy, has an approximate mass of 10 kg, and a volume of about 20 20 20 cm, and is undergoing further miniaturization. This system currently targets amino acids. For these molecules, a slurry of 1 g cation exchange resin in deionized water is packed into a column of the apparatus. Initial generation of the resin is done by flowing sequentially 2.3 bed volumes of 2N NaOH and 2N HCl (1 mL each) to rinse the resin, followed by .5 mL of deionized water. This makes the pH of the resin near neutral, and eliminates cross sample contamination. Afterward, 2.3 mL of extracted sample is then loaded into the column onto the top of the resin bed. Because the column is packed tightly, the sample can be applied without disturbing the resin bed. This is a vital step needed to ensure that the analytes adhere to the resin. After the sample is drained, oxalic acid (1 mL, pH 1.6-1.8, adjusted with NH4OH) is pumped into the column. Oxalic acid works as a chelating reagent to bring out metal ions, such as calcium and iron, which would otherwise interfere with amino acid analysis. After oxalic acid, 1 mL 0.01 N HCl and 1 mL deionized water is used to sequentially rinse the resin. Finally, the amino acids attached to the resin, and the analytes are eluted using 2.5 M NH4OH (1 mL), and the NH4OH eluent is collected in a vial for analysis.

  19. Low-brightness quantum radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzagorta, Marco

    2015-05-01

    One of the major scientific thrusts from recent years has been to try to harness quantum phenomena to dramatically increase the performance of a wide variety of classical information processing devices. These advances in quantum information science have had a considerable impact on the development of standoff sensors such as quantum radar. In this paper we analyze the theoretical performance of low-brightness quantum radar that uses entangled photon states. We use the detection error probability as a measure of sensing performance and the interception error probability as a measure of stealthiness. We compare the performance of quantum radar against a coherent light sensor (such as lidar) and classical radar. In particular, we restrict our analysis to the performance of low-brightness standoff sensors operating in a noisy environment. We show that, compared to the two classical standoff sensing devices, quantum radar is stealthier, more resilient to jamming, and more accurate for the detection of low reflectivity targets.

  20. Shuttle Imaging Radar - Geologic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, H.; Bridges, L.; Waite, W.; Kaupp, V.

    1982-01-01

    The Space Shuttle, on its second flight (November 12, 1981), carried the first science and applications payload which provided an early demonstration of Shuttle's research capabilities. One of the experiments, the Shuttle Imaging Radar-A (SIR-A), had as a prime objective to evaluate the capability of spaceborne imaging radars as a tool for geologic exploration. The results of the experiment will help determine the value of using the combination of space radar and Landsat imagery for improved geologic analysis and mapping. Preliminary analysis of the Shuttle radar imagery with Seasat and Landsat imagery from similar areas provides evidence that spaceborne radars can significantly complement Landsat interpretation, and vastly improve geologic reconnaissance mapping in those areas of the world that are relatively unmapped because of perpetual cloud cover.

  1. Radar image registration and rectification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naraghi, M.; Stromberg, W. D.

    1983-01-01

    Two techniques for radar image registration and rectification are presented. In the registration method, a general 2-D polynomial transform is defined to accomplish the geometric mapping from one image into the other. The degree and coefficients of the polynomial are obtained using an a priori found tiepoint data set. In the second part of the paper, a rectification procedure is developed that models the distortion present in the radar image in terms of the radar sensor's platform parameters and the topographic variations of the imaged scene. This model, the ephemeris data and the digital topographic data are then used in rectifying the radar image. The two techniques are then used in registering and rectifying two examples of radar imagery. Each method is discussed as to its benefits, shortcomings and registration accuracy.

  2. Radar SLAM using visual features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callmer, Jonas; Törnqvist, David; Gustafsson, Fredrik; Svensson, Henrik; Carlbom, Pelle

    2011-12-01

    A vessel navigating in a critical environment such as an archipelago requires very accurate movement estimates. Intentional or unintentional jamming makes GPS unreliable as the only source of information and an additional independent supporting navigation system should be used. In this paper, we suggest estimating the vessel movements using a sequence of radar images from the preexisting body-fixed radar. Island landmarks in the radar scans are tracked between multiple scans using visual features. This provides information not only about the position of the vessel but also of its course and velocity. We present here a navigation framework that requires no additional hardware than the already existing naval radar sensor. Experiments show that visual radar features can be used to accurately estimate the vessel trajectory over an extensive data set.

  3. Liquid-Air Breathing Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, Robert D.

    1990-01-01

    Compact unit supplies air longer than compressed-air unit. Emergency breathing apparatus stores air as cryogenic liquid instead of usual compressed gas. Intended for firefighting or rescue operations becoming necessary during planned potentially hazardous procedures.

  4. Radioactive waste material melter apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Newman, Darrell F. (Richland, WA); Ross, Wayne A. (Richland, WA)

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another.

  5. Bi-stem gripping apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Fred G. (inventor)

    1988-01-01

    This invention relates to devices which grip cylindrical structures and more particularly to a device which has three arcuate gripping members having frictional surfaces for gripping and compressing a bi-stem. The bi-stem gripping apparatus is constructed having a pair of side gripping members, and an intermediate gripping member disposed between them. Sheets of a gum stock silicone rubber with frictional gripping surfaces are bonded to the inner region of the gripping members and provide frictional engagement between the bi-stem and the apparatus. A latch secures the gripping apparatus to a bi-stem, and removable handles are attached, allowing an astronaut to pull the bi-stem from its cassette. A tethering ring on the outside of the gripping apparatus provides a convenient point to which a lanyard may be attached.

  6. Apparatus: The Beginning of Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horak, Willis

    1980-01-01

    Illustrated and described is a convection box for classroom use to stimulate concept development in elementary school children. Other equipment and apparatus that may be used in open-ended science activites are listed. (CS)

  7. Continuous steel production and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Peaslee, Kent D. (Rolla, MO); Peter, Jorg J. (McMinnville, OR); Robertson, David G. C. (Rolla, MO); Thomas, Brian G. (Champaign, IL); Zhang, Lifeng (Trondheim, NO)

    2009-11-17

    A process for continuous refining of steel via multiple distinct reaction vessels for melting, oxidation, reduction, and refining for delivery of steel continuously to, for example, a tundish of a continuous caster system, and associated apparatus.

  8. Apparatus for photon excited catalysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saffren, M. M. (inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An apparatus is described for increasing the yield of photonically excited gas phase reactions by extracting excess energy from unstable, excited species by contacting the species with the surface of a finely divided solid.

  9. Cherry-Slush-Candling Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, James B.; Weiss, James R.; Hoover, Gordon

    1996-01-01

    Proposed infrared-scanning apparatus for use in bakeries making cherry pies detect cherry pits remaining in cherry slush after pitting process. Pits detected via their relative opacity to infrared radiation.

  10. Radioactive waste material melter apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Newman, D.F.; Ross, W.A.

    1990-04-24

    An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another. 8 figs.

  11. Oil shale retort apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, A.A.; Mast, E.L.; Greaves, M.J.

    1990-08-14

    A retorting apparatus is described including a vertical kiln and a plurality of tubes for delivering rock to the top of the kiln and removal of processed rock from the bottom of the kiln so that the rock descends through the kiln as a moving bed. Distributors are provided for delivering gas to the kiln to effect heating of the rock and to disturb the rock particles during their descent. The distributors are constructed and disposed to deliver gas uniformly to the kiln and to withstand and overcome adverse conditions resulting from heat and from the descending rock. The rock delivery tubes are geometrically sized, spaced and positioned so as to deliver the shale uniformly into the kiln and form symmetrically disposed generally vertical paths, or rock chimneys'', through the descending shale which offer least resistance to upward flow of gas. When retorting oil shale, a delineated collection chamber near the top of the kiln collects gas and entrained oil mist rising through the kiln. 29 figs.

  12. Fluid driven reciprocating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Whitehead, J.C.

    1997-04-01

    An apparatus is described comprising a pair of fluid driven pump assemblies in a back-to-back configuration to yield a bi-directional pump. Each of the pump assemblies includes a piston or diaphragm which divides a chamber therein to define a power section and a pumping section. An intake-exhaust valve is connected to each of the power sections of the pump chambers, and function to direct fluid, such as compressed air, into the power section and exhaust fluid therefrom. At least one of the pistons or diaphragms is connected by a rod assembly which is constructed to define a signal valve, whereby the intake-exhaust valve of one pump assembly is controlled by the position or location of the piston or diaphragm in the other pump assembly through the operation of the rod assembly signal valve. Each of the pumping sections of the pump assemblies are provided with intake and exhaust valves to enable filling of the pumping section with fluid and discharging fluid therefrom when a desired pressure has been reached. 13 figs.

  13. Fluid driven recipricating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Whitehead, John C. (Davis, CA)

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus comprising a pair of fluid driven pump assemblies in a back-to-back configuration to yield a bi-directional pump. Each of the pump assemblies includes a piston or diaphragm which divides a chamber therein to define a power section and a pumping section. An intake-exhaust valve is connected to each of the power sections of the pump chambers, and function to direct fluid, such as compressed air, into the power section and exhaust fluid therefrom. At least one of the pistons or diaphragms is connected by a rod assembly which is constructed to define a signal valve, whereby the intake-exhaust valve of one pump assembly is controlled by the position or location of the piston or diaphragm in the other pump assembly through the operation of the rod assembly signal valve. Each of the pumping sections of the pump assemblies are provided with intake and exhaust valves to enable filling of the pumping section with fluid and discharging fluid therefrom when a desired pressure has been reached.

  14. Vehicle suspension apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, T.; Chikamori, S.; Harara, M.; Taniguchi, Y.; Suzumura, M.; Tatemoto, M.; Kumagai, N.; Abe, H.

    1986-07-29

    A vehicle suspension apparatus is described comprising: front and rear wheel suspension units arranged at wheel positions and having fluid spring chambers, respectively; fluid supply means for supplying a fluid to the fluid spring chambers in the front and rear wheel suspension units, respectively, through front and rear wheel fluid supply valves; fluid exhaust means for exhausting the fluid from the fluid spring chambers in the front and rear wheel suspension units, respectively, through front and rear wheel suspension units, respectively, through front and rear wheel fluid exhaust valves; position control means for controlling the front and rear wheel fluid supply valves and the front and rear wheel fluid exhaust valves; an accelerator pedal sensor for detecting a state of an accelerator pedal of a vehicle engine and supplying a detection signal to the position control means; and a gear position sensor for detecting a gear change position of a transmission of a vehicle and supplying a detection signal to the position control means. The position control means supplies a control start signal to open the front wheel fluid exhaust valves and the rear wheel fluid supply valves for a predetermined period of time when a rapid acceleration of the vehicle is detected by the accelerator pedal sensor and the gear position sensor.

  15. Gravitational Wave Generator Apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Robert M. L.; Baker, Bonnie Sue

    An apparatus or structure is proposed for generating high-frequency gravitational waves (HFGWs) between pairs of force-producing elements by means of the simultaneous production of a third time derivative of mass motion of the pair of force-producing elements. The elements are configured as a cylindrical array in the proposed structure and are activated by a radiation wavefront moving along the axis of symmetry of the array. The force-producing elements can be micro-electromechanical systems or MEMS resonators such as film-bulk acoustic resonators or FBARs. A preferred cylindrical array is in the form of a double helix and the activating radiation can be electromagnetic as generated by microwave transmitters such as Magnetrons. As the activating radiation wavefront moves along the axis of the structure it simultaneously activates force elements on opposite sides of the structure and thereby generates a gravitational wave between the pair of force elements. It is also indicated that the Earth is completely transparent to the HFGWs. Thus a sensitive HFGW detector, such as the Li-Baker under development by the Chinese, can sense the generated HFGW at an Earth-diameter distance and could, in theory, be a means for implementing transglobal HFGW communications.

  16. Thermal Insulation Test Apparatuses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berman, Brion

    2005-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) seeks to license its Thermal Insulation Test Apparatuses. Designed by the Cryogenics Test Laboratory at the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida, these patented technologies (U.S. Patent Numbers: Cryostat 1 - 6,742,926, Cryostat 2 - 6,487,866, and Cryostat 4 - 6,824,306) allow manufacturers to fabricate and test cryogenic insulation at their production and/or laboratory facilities. These new inventions allow for the thermal performance characterization of cylindrical and flat specimens (e.g., bulk-fill, flat-panel, multilayer, or continuously rolled) over the full range of pressures, from high vacuum to no vacuum, and over the full range of temperatures from 77K to 300K. In today's world, efficient, low-maintenance, low-temperature refrigeration is taking a more significant role, from the food industry, transportation, energy, and medical applications to the Space Shuttle. Most countries (including the United States) have laws requiring commercially available insulation materials to be tested and rated by an accepted methodology. The new Cryostat methods go beyond the formal capabilities of the ASTM methods to provide testing for real systems, including full-temperature differences plus full-range vacuum conditions.

  17. Apparatus for coating powders

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Kerns, John A. (Livermore, CA); Alford, Craig S. (Tracy, CA); McKernan, Mark A. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A process and apparatus for coating small particles and fibers. The process involves agitation by vibrating or tumbling the particles or fibers to promote coating uniformly, removing adsorbed gases and static charges from the particles or fibers by an initial plasma cleaning, and coating the particles or fibers with one or more coatings, a first coating being an adhesion coating, and with subsequent coatings being deposited in-situ to prevent contamination at layer interfaces. The first coating is of an adhesion forming element (i.e. W, Zr, Re, Cr, Ti) of a 100-10,000 .ANG. thickness and the second coating or final coating of a multiple (0.1-10 microns) being Cu or Ag, for example for brazing processes, or other desired materials that defines the new surface related properties of the particles. An essential feature of the coating process is the capability to deposit in-situ without interruption to prevent the formation of a contaminated interface that could adversely affect the coating adhesion. The process may include screening of the material to be coated and either continuous or intermittent vibration to prevent agglomeration of the material to be coated.

  18. Laser oscillating apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Hoag, E.D.

    1988-03-08

    This patent describes a laser oscillating apparatus of type having a hollow cylindrical housing, gas flow generating means for generating a circulatory gas flow within the housing, paired discharge electrode assemblies opposedly disposed in spaced relationship to define a lasing region therebetween traversed by the circulatory gas flow for carrying out a predetermined discharge within the gas flow traversing the lasing region thereby generating a ray of radiation, and optical resonator means disposed within the housing for resonating the ray of radiation generated in the discharge. Each of the paired discharge electrode assemblies comprises: a. an insulated substrate having a molded base portion and an insulated ceramic surface portion disposed adjacent the molded base portion; b. pin-shaped electrodes; c. a ballast capacitor disposed within the molded base portion of the insulated substrate; d. cooling tube means disposed within the molded base portion of the insulated substrate so as to pass between each pair of adjacent rows of the capacitor units forming the ballast capacitor; and e. at least one heat absorbing plate disposed between each pair of adjacent rows of capacitor units forming the ballast capacitor in contact with the cooling tube means passing therebetween.

  19. Apparatus for forming targets

    DOEpatents

    Woerner, Robert L. (Livermore, CA)

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus and method for cryoinduced uniform deposition of cryogenic materials, such as deuterium-tritium (DT) mixtures, on the inner surface of hollow spherical members, such as inertially imploded targets. By vaporizing and quickly refreezing cryogenic materials contained within a hollow spherical member, a uniform layer of the materials is formed on the inner surface of the spherical member. Heating of the cryogenic material, located within a non-isothermal compact freezing cell, is accomplished by an electrical heat pulse, whereafter the material is quickly frozen forming a uniform layer on the inner surface of the spherical member. The method is not restricted to producing a frozen layer on only the inner surface of the innermost hollow member, but where multiple concentric hollow spheres are involved, such as in multiple shell targets for lasers, electron beams, etc., layers of cryogenic material may also be formed on the inner surface of intermediate or outer spherical members, thus providing the capability of forming targets having multiple concentric layers or shells of frozen DT.

  20. Thermal energy storage apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Thoma, P.E.

    1980-04-22

    A thermal energy storage apparatus and method employs a container formed of soda lime glass and having a smooth, defectfree inner wall. The container is filled substantially with a material that can be supercooled to a temperature greater than 5* F., such as ethylene carbonate, benzophenone, phenyl sulfoxide, di-2-pyridyl ketone, phenyl ether, diphenylmethane, ethylene trithiocarbonate, diphenyl carbonate, diphenylamine, 2benzoylpyridine, 3-benzoylpyridine, 4-benzoylpyridine, 4methylbenzophenone, 4-bromobenzophenone, phenyl salicylate, diphenylcyclopropenone, benzyl sulfoxide, 4-methoxy-4prmethylbenzophenone, n-benzoylpiperidine, 3,3pr,4,4pr,5 pentamethoxybenzophenone, 4,4'-bis-(Dimethylamino)-benzophenone, diphenylboron bromide, benzalphthalide, benzophenone oxime, azobenzene. A nucleating means such as a seed crystal, a cold finger or pointed member is movable into the supercoolable material. A heating element heats the supercoolable material above the melting temperature to store heat. The material is then allowed to cool to a supercooled temperature below the melting temperature, but above the natural, spontaneous nucleating temperature. The liquid in each container is selectively initiated into nucleation to release the heat of fusion. The heat may be transferred directly or through a heat exchange unit within the material.

  1. Belt conveyor apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Oakley, David J. (Richland, WA); Bogart, Rex L. (Kennewick, WA)

    1987-01-01

    A belt conveyor apparatus according to this invention defines a conveyance path including a first pulley and at least a second pulley. An endless belt member is adapted for continuous travel about the pulleys and comprises a lower portion which engages the pulleys and an integral upper portion adapted to receive objects therein at a first location on said conveyance path and transport the objects to a second location for discharge. The upper belt portion includes an opposed pair of longitudinally disposed crest-like members, biased towards each other in a substantially abutting relationship. The crest-like members define therebetween a continuous, normally biased closed, channel along the upper belt portion. Means are disposed at the first and second locations and operatively associated with the belt member for urging the normally biased together crest-like members apart in order to provide access to the continuous channel whereby objects can be received into, or discharged from the channel. Motors are in communication with the conveyance path for effecting the travel of the endless belt member about the conveyance path. The conveyance path can be configured to include travel through two or more elevations and one or more directional changes in order to convey objects above, below and/or around existing structures.

  2. Flow cytometry apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Pinkel, D.

    1991-01-29

    This paper describes an apparatus for orienting cells in a sheath fluid in a otometer/sorter. It comprises: flow chamber; means for flowing the sheath fluid through the flow chamber along a direction of flow; means for obstructing the flow of the sheath fluid in the flow chamber with a first dimension, which extends substantially across the flow chamber and is substantially perpendicular to the direction of flow and with a thickness perpendicular to the first dimension of the obstructing means wherein the sheath fluid flows around the thickness so that the sheath fluid converges in only one dimension at the downstream edge of the means for obstructing; and means for introducing the cells through the means for obstructing the flow to the region where the sheath fluid converges in only one dimension in the sheath fluid to orient the cells, with an aperture wherein as the cells pass from the means for introducing the cells to the region where the sheath fluid converges the cells pass through the aperture with a cross-sectional length substantially less than or equal to the thickness of the means for obstructing the flow.

  3. Mars Radar Observations with the Goldstone Solar System Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haldemann, A. F. C.; Jurgens, R. F.; Larsen, K. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Slade, M. A.

    2002-01-01

    The Goldstone Solar System Radar (GSSR) has successfully collected radar echo data from Mars over the past 30 years. As such, the GSSR has played a role as a specific mission element within Mars exploration. The older data provided local elevation information for Mars, along with radar scattering information with global resolution. Since the upgrade to the 70-m Deep Space Network (DSN) antenna at Goldstone completed in 1986, Mars data has been collected during all but the 1997 Mars opposition. Radar data, and non-imaging delay-Doppler data in particular, requires significant data processing to extract elevation, reflectivity and roughness of the reflecting surface. The spatial resolution of these experiments is typically some 20 km in longitude by some 150 km in latitude. The interpretation of these parameters while limited by the complexities of electromagnetic scattering, do provide information directly relevant to geophysical and geomorphic analyses of Mars. The usefulness of radar data for Mars exploration has been demonstrated in the past. Radar data were critical in assessing the Viking Lander 1 site as well as, more recently, the Pathfinder landing site. In general, radar data have not been available to the Mars exploration community at large. A project funded initially by the Mars Exploration Directorate Science Office at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and later funded by NASA's Mars Data Analysis Program has reprocessed to a common format a decade's worth of raw GSSR Mars delay-Doppler data in aid of landing site characterization for the Mars Program. These data will soon be submitted to the Planetary Data System (PDS). The radar data used were obtained between 1988 and 1995 by the GSSR, and comprise some 63 delay-Doppler radar tracks. Of these, 15 have yet to be recovered from old 9-track tapes, and some of the data may be permanently lost.

  4. Airborne Doppler radar observations of convective plumes and radar `fine-lines' ERAD02-A-00007

    E-print Network

    Geerts, Bart

    Airborne Doppler radar observations of convective plumes and radar `fine-lines' ERAD02-A-00007 Bart; email: geerts@uwyo.edu #12;Airborne Doppler radar observations of convective plumes and radar `fine-lines' Abstract Reflectivities and Doppler velocities from an airborne 95 GHz radar are used to describe

  5. P15R.1 THE DETECTABILITY OF TORNADIC SIGNATURES WITH DOPPLER RADAR: A RADAR EMULATOR STUDY

    E-print Network

    Xue, Ming

    P15R.1 THE DETECTABILITY OF TORNADIC SIGNATURES WITH DOPPLER RADAR: A RADAR EMULATOR STUDY Ryan M of WSR-88D (Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler) scanning strategies on the sampling of mesocyclones describes a radar emulator designed to simulate the returns from a scanning Doppler radar on a pulse

  6. A 100 GHz Polarimetric Compact Radar Range for Scale-Model Radar Cross Section Measurements

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

    A 100 GHz Polarimetric Compact Radar Range for Scale-Model Radar Cross Section Measurements Guy B for obtaining radar cross section, inverse synthetic aperture radar imagery and high range resolution profiles-- A fully polarimetric compact radar range operating at a center frequency of 100 GHz has been developed

  7. Radar, Insect Population Ecology, and Pest Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, C. R. (editor); Wolf, W. (editor); Klassen, W. (editor)

    1979-01-01

    Discussions included: (1) the potential role of radar in insect ecology studies and pest management; (2) the potential role of radar in correlating atmospheric phenomena with insect movement; (3) the present and future radar systems; (4) program objectives required to adapt radar to insect ecology studies and pest management; and (5) the specific action items to achieve the objectives.

  8. 46 CFR 121.404 - Radars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radars. 121.404 Section 121.404 Shipping COAST GUARD... Navigation Equipment § 121.404 Radars. (a) Except as allowed by paragraph (b) of this section, all self... radar system for surface navigation with a radar screen mounted at the primary operating station....

  9. 47 CFR 80.273 - Radar standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radar standards. 80.273 Section 80.273... MARITIME SERVICES Equipment Authorization for Compulsory Ships § 80.273 Radar standards. (a) Radar... with radar must comply with the following standards (all incorporated by reference, see § 80.7):...

  10. 46 CFR 121.404 - Radars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radars. 121.404 Section 121.404 Shipping COAST GUARD... Navigation Equipment § 121.404 Radars. (a) Except as allowed by paragraph (b) of this section, all self... radar system for surface navigation with a radar screen mounted at the primary operating station....

  11. 47 CFR 80.273 - Radar standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radar standards. 80.273 Section 80.273... MARITIME SERVICES Equipment Authorization for Compulsory Ships § 80.273 Radar standards. (a) Radar... with radar must comply with the following standards (all incorporated by reference, see § 80.7):...

  12. FIRE_CI2_ETL_RADAR

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-11-25

    FIRE_CI2_ETL_RADAR Project Title:  FIRE II CIRRUS Discipline:  ... Platform:  Ground Station Instrument:  Radar Spatial Coverage:  (37.06, -95.34) Spatial ... Search Guide Documents:  ETL_RADAR Guide Readme Files:  Readme ETL_RADAR (PS) ...

  13. 46 CFR 121.404 - Radars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radars. 121.404 Section 121.404 Shipping COAST GUARD... Navigation Equipment § 121.404 Radars. (a) Except as allowed by paragraph (b) of this section, all self... radar system for surface navigation with a radar screen mounted at the primary operating station....

  14. Understanding Radar Refractivity: Sources of Uncertainty

    E-print Network

    Gao, Jidong

    Understanding Radar Refractivity: Sources of Uncertainty David Bodine1,2 , Dan Michaud1,2 , Robert Radar Research Center, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA 3 NOAA/OAR National Severe Storms validation of WSR-88D radar refractiv- ity retrievals, and discusses some challenges to implementing radar

  15. 46 CFR 121.404 - Radars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radars. 121.404 Section 121.404 Shipping COAST GUARD... Navigation Equipment § 121.404 Radars. (a) Except as allowed by paragraph (b) of this section, all self... radar system for surface navigation with a radar screen mounted at the primary operating station....

  16. 47 CFR 80.273 - Radar standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radar standards. 80.273 Section 80.273... MARITIME SERVICES Equipment Authorization for Compulsory Ships § 80.273 Radar standards. (a) Radar... with radar must comply with the following standards (all incorporated by reference, see § 80.7):...

  17. 46 CFR 121.404 - Radars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radars. 121.404 Section 121.404 Shipping COAST GUARD... Navigation Equipment § 121.404 Radars. (a) Except as allowed by paragraph (b) of this section, all self... radar system for surface navigation with a radar screen mounted at the primary operating station....

  18. The Qweak experimental apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, T.; Anderson, M.; Androi?, D.; Armstrong, D. S.; Asaturyan, A.; Averett, T.; Averill, R.; Balewski, J.; Beaufait, J.; Beminiwattha, R. S.; Benesch, J.; Benmokhtar, F.; Bessuille, J.; Birchall, J.; Bonnell, E.; Bowman, J. D.; Brindza, P.; Brown, D. B.; Carlini, R. D.; Cates, G. D.; Cavness, B.; Clark, G.; Cornejo, J. C.; Dusa, S. Covrig; Dalton, M. M.; Davis, C. A.; Dean, D. C.; Deconinck, W.; Diefenbach, J.; Dow, K.; Dowd, J. F.; Dunne, J. A.; Dutta, D.; Duvall, W. S.; Echols, J. R.; Elaasar, M.; Falk, W. R.; Finelli, K. D.; Finn, J. M.; Gaskell, D.; Gericke, M. T. W.; Grames, J.; Gray, V. M.; Grimm, K.; Guo, F.; Hansknecht, J.; Harrison, D. J.; Henderson, E.; Hoskins, J. R.; Ihloff, E.; Johnston, K.; Jones, D.; Jones, M.; Jones, R.; Kargiantoulakis, M.; Kelsey, J.; Khan, N.; King, P. M.; Korkmaz, E.; Kowalski, S.; Kubera, A.; Leacock, J.; Leckey, J. P.; Lee, A. R.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, L.; Liang, Y.; MacEwan, S.; Mack, D.; Magee, J. A.; Mahurin, R.; Mammei, J.; Martin, J. W.; McCreary, A.; McDonald, M. H.; McHugh, M. J.; Medeiros, P.; Meekins, D.; Mei, J.; Michaels, R.; Micherdzinska, A.; Mkrtchyan, A.; Mkrtchyan, H.; Morgan, N.; Musson, J.; Mesick, K. E.; Narayan, A.; Ndukum, L. Z.; Nelyubin, V.; Nuruzzaman; van Oers, W. T. H.; Opper, A. K.; Page, S. A.; Pan, J.; Paschke, K. D.; Phillips, S. K.; Pitt, M. L.; Poelker, M.; Rajotte, J. F.; Ramsay, W. D.; Roberts, W. R.; Roche, J.; Rose, P. W.; Sawatzky, B.; Seva, T.; Shabestari, M. H.; Silwal, R.; Simicevic, N.; Smith, G. R.; Sobczynski, S.; Solvignon, P.; Spayde, D. T.; Stokes, B.; Storey, D. W.; Subedi, A.; Subedi, R.; Suleiman, R.; Tadevosyan, V.; Tobias, W. A.; Tvaskis, V.; Urban, E.; Waidyawansa, B.; Wang, P.; Wells, S. P.; Wood, S. A.; Yang, S.; Zhamkochyan, S.; Zielinski, R. B.

    2015-05-01

    The Jefferson Lab Qweak experiment determined the weak charge of the proton by measuring the parity-violating elastic scattering asymmetry of longitudinally polarized electrons from an unpolarized liquid hydrogen target at small momentum transfer. A custom apparatus was designed for this experiment to meet the technical challenges presented by the smallest and most precise e ? p asymmetry ever measured. Technical milestones were achieved at Jefferson Lab in target power, beam current, beam helicity reversal rate, polarimetry, detected rates, and control of helicity-correlated beam properties. The experiment employed 180 ?A of 89% longitudinally polarized electrons whose helicity was reversed 960 times per second. The electrons were accelerated to 1.16 GeV and directed to a beamline with extensive instrumentation to measure helicity-correlated beam properties that can induce false asymmetries. Møller and Compton polarimetry were used to measure the electron beam polarization to better than 1%. The electron beam was incident on a 34.4 cm liquid hydrogen target. After passing through a triple collimator system, scattered electrons between 5.8° and 11.6° were bent in the toroidal magnetic field of a resistive copper-coil magnet. The electrons inside this acceptance were focused onto eight fused silica Cherenkov detectors arrayed symmetrically around the beam axis. A total scattered electron rate of about 7 GHz was incident on the detector array. The detectors were read out in integrating mode by custom-built low-noise pre-amplifiers and 18-bit sampling ADC modules. The momentum transfer Q2=0.025 GeV2 was determined using dedicated low-current (~ 100 pA) measurements with a set of drift chambers before (and a set of drift chambers and trigger scintillation counters after) the toroidal magnet.

  19. The Clementine Bistatic Radar Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nozette, S.; Lichtenberg, C. L.; Spudis, P.; Bonner, R.; Ort, W.; Malaret, E.; Robinson, M.; Shoemaker, E. M.

    1996-01-01

    During the Clementine 1 mission, a bistatic radar experiment measured the magnitude and polarization of the radar echo versus bistatic angle, beta, for selected lunar areas. Observations of the lunar south pole yield a same-sense polarization enhancement around beta = 0. Analysis shows that the observed enhancement is localized to the permanently shadowed regions of the lunar south pole. Radar observations of periodically solar-illuminated lunar surfaces, including the north pole, yielded no such enhancement. A probable explanation for these differences is the presence of low-loss volume scatterers, such as water ice, in the permanently shadowed region at the south pole.

  20. Ganymede: observations by radar.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, R M; Morris, G A

    1975-06-20

    Radar cross-section measurements indicate that Ganymede scatters to Earth 12 percent of the power expected from a conducting sphere of the same size and distance. This compares with 8 percent for Mars, 12 percent for Venus, 6 percent for Mercury, and about 8 percent for the asteroid Toro. Furthermore, Ganymede is considerably rougher (to the scale of the wavelength used, 12.6 centimeters) than Mars, Venus, or Mercury. Roughness is made evident in this experiment by the presence of echoes away from the center of the disk. A perfectly smooth target would reflect only a glint from the center, whereas a very rough target would reflect power from over the entire disk. PMID:17818164

  1. Multistatic radar resource management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horridge, Paul R.; Hernandez, Marcel L.

    2003-12-01

    In this paper, we implement a previously developed sensor management framework within the domain of multistatic radar resource management. The methodology is based on controlling the Posterior Cram³er-Rao Lower Bound (PCRLB) which provides a bound on the performance of any unbiased target state estimator. In the second part of the paper, the additional complication of the Doppler Blind Zone, inside which the target cannot be detected, is considered. In the case of missed detections, the PCRLB has been shown to be overly optimistic, so we use a performance measure which more accurately accounts for missed detections. However, existing measures fail to accommodate constraints arising from the blind zone, so we modify the measure to incorporate this extra information. The modified measure is shown to give a more accurate estimate of tracking performance, facilitating efficient resource management.

  2. Multistatic radar resource management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horridge, Paul R.; Hernandez, Marcel L.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we implement a previously developed sensor management framework within the domain of multistatic radar resource management. The methodology is based on controlling the Posterior Cra?er-Rao Lower Bound (PCRLB) which provides a bound on the performance of any unbiased target state estimator. In the second part of the paper, the additional complication of the Doppler Blind Zone, inside which the target cannot be detected, is considered. In the case of missed detections, the PCRLB has been shown to be overly optimistic, so we use a performance measure which more accurately accounts for missed detections. However, existing measures fail to accommodate constraints arising from the blind zone, so we modify the measure to incorporate this extra information. The modified measure is shown to give a more accurate estimate of tracking performance, facilitating efficient resource management.

  3. Historical aspects of radar atmospheric dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kato, Susumu

    1989-01-01

    A review of the history of radar techniques which have been applied to atmospheric observation is given. The author starts with ionosphere observation with the ionosonde, symbolizing as it does the earliest history of radar observation, and proceeds to later developments in radar observation such as the use of partial reflection, meteor, and incoherent scatter radars. Mesosphere stratosphere troposphere (MST) radars are discussed in terms of lower atmosphere observation.

  4. Monolith filter apparatus and membrane apparatus, and method using same

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, Robert L.

    2012-04-03

    A filtration apparatus that separates a liquid feedstock mixed with a gas into filtrate and retentate, the apparatus including at least one filtration device comprised of at least one monolith segment of porous material that defines a plurality of passageways extending longitudinally from a feed face of the structure to a retentate end face. The filtration device contains at least one filtrate conduit within it for carrying filtrate toward a filtrate collection zone, the filtrate conduit providing a path of lower flow resistance than that of alternative flow paths through the porous material of the device. The filtration device can also be utilized as a membrane support for a device for microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis, or pervaporation. Also disclosed is a method for using such a filtration apparatus.

  5. Fly eye radar or micro-radar sensor technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molchanov, Pavlo; Asmolova, Olga

    2014-05-01

    To compensate for its eye's inability to point its eye at a target, the fly's eye consists of multiple angularly spaced sensors giving the fly the wide-area visual coverage it needs to detect and avoid the threats around him. Based on a similar concept a revolutionary new micro-radar sensor technology is proposed for detecting and tracking ground and/or airborne low profile low altitude targets in harsh urban environments. Distributed along a border or around a protected object (military facility and buildings, camp, stadium) small size, low power unattended radar sensors can be used for target detection and tracking, threat warning, pre-shot sniper protection and provides effective support for homeland security. In addition it can provide 3D recognition and targets classification due to its use of five orders more pulses than any scanning radar to each space point, by using few points of view, diversity signals and intelligent processing. The application of an array of directional antennas eliminates the need for a mechanical scanning antenna or phase processor. It radically decreases radar size and increases bearing accuracy several folds. The proposed micro-radar sensors can be easy connected to one or several operators by point-to-point invisible protected communication. The directional antennas have higher gain, can be multi-frequency and connected to a multi-functional network. Fly eye micro-radars are inexpensive, can be expendable and will reduce cost of defense.

  6. Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jenkins, C.F.; Howard, B.D.

    1998-06-23

    A flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus, comprises a flexible, hollow shaft that carries a plurality of modules, including at least one rotatable ultrasonic transducer, a motor/gear unit, and a position/signal encoder. The modules are connected by flexible knuckle joints that allow each module of the apparatus to change its relative orientation with respect to a neighboring module, while the shaft protects electrical wiring from kinking or buckling while the apparatus moves around a tight corner. The apparatus is moved through a pipe by any suitable means, including a tether or drawstring attached to the nose or tail, differential hydraulic pressure, or a pipe pig. The rotational speed of the ultrasonic transducer and the forward velocity of the apparatus are coordinated so that the beam sweeps out the entire interior surface of the pipe, enabling the operator to accurately assess the condition of the pipe wall and determine whether or not leak-prone corrosion damage is present. 7 figs.

  7. Theory of Solar Radar Experiments

    E-print Network

    wave-kinetic theory, we obtain expressions for the frequency shift, the scattering cross-section experimental results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 3.2.1 Effective cross-sectionsTheory of Solar Radar Experiments: Combination Scattering by Anisotropic Langmuir Turbulence

  8. Ground Penetrating Radar, Barrow, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    John Peterson

    2015-03-06

    This is 500 MHz Ground Penetrating Radar collected along the AB Line in Intensive Site 1 beginning in October 2012 and collected along L2 in Intensive Site 0 beginning in September 2011. Both continue to the present.

  9. Advanced Borehole Radar for Hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, M.

    2014-12-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar is a useful tool for monitoring the hydrogeological environment. We have developed GPR systems which can be applied to these purposes, and we will demonstrate examples borehole radar measurements. In order to have longer radar detection range, frequency lower than100MHz has been normally adopted in borehole radar. Typical subsurface fractures of our interests have a few mm aperture and radar resolution is much poorer than a few cm in this frequency range. We are proposing and demonstrating to use radar polarimetry to solve this problem. We have demonstrated that a full-polarimetry borehole radar can be used for characterization of subsurface fractures. Together with signal processing for antenna characteristic compensation to equalize the signal by a dipole antenna and slot antennas, we could demonstrate that polarimetric borehole radar can estimate the surface roughness of subsurface fractures, We believe the surface roughness is closely related to water permeability through the fractures. We then developed a directional borehole radar, which uses optical field sensor. A dipole antenna in a borehole has omni-directional radiation pattern, and we cannot get azimuthal information about the scatterers. We use multiple dipole antennas set around the borehole axis, and from the phase differences, we can estimate the 3-diemnational orientation of subsurface structures. We are using optical electric field sensor for receiver of borehole radar. This is a passive sensor and connected only with optical fibers and does not require any electric power supply to operate the receiver. It has two major advantages; the first one is that the receiver can be electrically isolated from other parts, and wave coupling to a logging cable is avoided. Then, secondary, it can operate for a long time, because it does not require battery installed inside the system. It makes it possible to set sensors in fixed positions to monitor the change of environmental conditions for a long period. We demonstrated this idea using cross- hole borehole radar measurement. We think this method is useful for detecting any changes in hydrogeological situations, which will be useful for subsurface storage such as LNG and nuclear waste.

  10. The NASA Polarimetric Radar (NPOL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Walter A.; Wolff, David B.

    2013-01-01

    Characteristics of the NASA NPOL S-band dual-polarimetric radar are presented including its operating characteristics, field configuration, scanning capabilities and calibration approaches. Examples of precipitation science data collections conducted using various scan types, and associated products, are presented for different convective system types and previous field campaign deployments. Finally, the NASA NPOL radar location is depicted in its home base configuration within the greater Wallops Flight Facility precipitation research array supporting NASA Global Precipitation Measurement Mission ground validation.

  11. Rotating Apparatus for Isoelectric Focusing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bier, M.

    1986-01-01

    Remixing of separated fractions prevented. Improved isoelectric focusing apparatus helps to prevent electro-osmosis and convection, both of which cause remixing of separated fractions. Fractionating column segmented and rotated about horizontal axis: Only combined effects of both features fully effective in making good separations. Improved apparatus slowly rotated continuously or rocked (at rotational amplitude of at least 180 degrees) about its horizontal axis so average gravitational vector experienced by fluid is zero and convection is therefore suppressed. Electro-osmosis suppressed and convection further suppressed by separating column into disklike compartments along its length with filters. Experiments have shown dimensions of apparatus not critical. Typical compartment and column volumes are 2 and 40 ml, respectively. Rotation speeds lie between 3 and 30 rpm.

  12. Optical fiber stripper positioning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Fyfe, Richard W. (Las Vegas, NV); Sanchez, Jr., Amadeo (Las Vegas, NV)

    1990-01-01

    An optical fiber positioning apparatus for an optical fiber stripping device is disclosed which is capable of providing precise axial alignment between an optical fiber to be stripped of its outer jacket and the cutting blades of a stripping device. The apparatus includes a first bore having a width approximately equal to the diameter of an unstripped optical fiber and a counter bore axially aligned with the first bore and dimensioned to precisely receive a portion of the stripping device in axial alignment with notched cutting blades within the stripping device to thereby axially align the notched cutting blades of the stripping device with the axis of the optical fiber to permit the notched cutting blades to sever the jacket on the optical fiber without damaging the cladding on the optical fiber. In a preferred embodiment, the apparatus further includes a fiber stop which permits determination of the length of jacket to be removed from the optical fiber.

  13. Locking apparatus for gate valves

    DOEpatents

    Fabyan, Joseph (Livermore, CA); Williams, Carl W. (Manteca, CA)

    1988-01-01

    A locking apparatus for fluid operated valves having a piston connected to the valve actuator which moves in response to applied pressure within a cylinder housing having a cylinder head, a catch block is secured to the piston, and the cylinder head incorporates a catch pin. Pressure applied to the cylinder to open the valve moves the piston adjacent to the cylinder head where the catch pin automatically engages the catch block preventing futher movement of the piston or premature closure of the valve. Application of pressure to the cylinder to close the valve, retracts the catch pin, allowing the valve to close. Included are one or more selector valves, for selecting pressure application to other apparatus depending on the gate valve position, open or closed, protecting such apparatus from damage due to premature closing caused by pressure loss or operational error.

  14. Ultrasonic inspection and deployment apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Michaels, Jennifer E. (Ithaca, NY); Michaels, Thomas E. (Ithaca, NY); Mech, Jr., Stephen J. (Pasco, WA)

    1984-01-01

    An ultrasonic inspection apparatus for the inspection of metal structures, especially installed pipes. The apparatus combines a specimen inspection element, an acoustical velocity sensing element, and a surface profiling element, all in one scanning head. A scanning head bellows contains a volume of oil above the pipe surface, serving as acoustical couplant between the scanning head and the pipe. The scanning head is mounted on a scanning truck which is mobile around a circular track surrounding the pipe. The scanning truck has sufficient motors, gears, and position encoders to allow the scanning head six degrees of motion freedom. A computer system continually monitors acoustical velocity, and uses that parameter to process surface profiling and inspection data. The profiling data is used to automatically control scanning head position and alignment and to define a coordinate system used to identify and interpret inspection data. The apparatus is suitable for highly automated, remote application in hostile environments, particularly high temperature and radiation areas.

  15. Sodium purification apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Gould, M.I.

    1980-03-04

    An apparatus for and method of collecting and storing oxide impurities contained in high-temperature liquid alkali metal are disclosed. A method and apparatus are provided for nucleating and precipitating oxide impurities by cooling, wherein the nucleation and precipitation are enhanced by causing a substantial increase in pressure drop and corresponding change in the velocity head of the alkali metal. Thereafter the liquid alkali metal is introduced into a quiescent zone wherein the liquid velocity is maintained below a specific maximum whereby it is possible to obtain high oxide removal efficiencies without the necessity of a mesh or filter. 1 fig.

  16. Sodium purification apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Gould, Marc I. [Van Nuys, CA

    1980-03-04

    An apparatus for and method of collecting and storing oxide impurities contained in high-temperature liquid alkali metal. A method and apparatus are provided for nucleating and precipitating oxide impurities by cooling, wherein the nucleation and precipitation are enhanced by causing a substantial increase in pressure drop and corresponding change in the velocity head of the alkali metal. Thereafter the liquid alkali metal is introduced into a quiescent zone wherein the liquid velocity is maintained below a specific maximum whereby it is possible to obtain high oxide removal efficiencies without the necessity of a mesh or filter.

  17. Apparatus for controlling fluidized beds

    DOEpatents

    Rehmat, A.G.; Patel, J.G.

    1987-05-12

    An apparatus and process are disclosed for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance. 2 figs.

  18. Dual rotating shaft seal apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Griggs, J.E.; Newman, H.J.

    1983-06-16

    The report is directed to apparatus suitable for transferring torque and rotary motion through a wall in a manner which is essentially gas impermeable. The apparatus can be used for pressurizing, agitating, and mixing fluids and features two ferrofluidic, i.e., ferrometic seals. Each seal is disposed on one of two supported shafts and each shaft is operably connected at one end to a gear mechanism and at its other end to an adjustable coupling means which is to be connected to a rotatable shaft extending through a wall through which torque and rotary motion are to be transferred.

  19. Alarm sensor apparatus for closures

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, James A. (Thornton, CO); Stoddard, Lawrence M. (Arvada, CO)

    1986-01-01

    An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or frame work and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

  20. Alarm sensor apparatus for closures

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, J.A.; Stoddard, L.M.

    1984-01-31

    An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or framework and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

  1. Apparatus for control of mercury

    DOEpatents

    Downs, William (Alliance, OH); Bailey, Ralph T. (Uniontown, OH)

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reducing mercury in industrial gases such as the flue gas produced by the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal adds hydrogen sulfide to the flue gas in or just before a scrubber of the industrial process which contains the wet scrubber. The method and apparatus of the present invention is applicable to installations employing either wet or dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization systems. The present invention uses kraft green liquor as a source for hydrogen sulfide and/or the injection of mineral acids into the green liquor to release vaporous hydrogen sulfide in order to form mercury sulfide solids.

  2. Pole pulling apparatus and method

    SciTech Connect

    McIntire, Gary L.

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus for removal of embedded utility-type poles which removes the poles quickly and efficiently from their embedded position without damage to the pole or surrounding structures. The apparatus includes at least 2 piston/cylinder members equally spaced about the pole, and a head member affixed to the top of each piston. Elongation of the piston induces rotation of the head into the pole to increase the gripping action and reduce slippage. Repeated actuation and retraction of the piston and head member will "jack" the pole from its embedded position.

  3. 47 CFR 80.7 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Performance Standards for Survival Craft Radar Transponders for Use in Search and Rescue...Performance Standards for Survival Craft Radar Transponders for Use in Search and Rescue...Recommendation on Performance Standards for Radar Equipment,” adopted 6 December...

  4. Waste Water Treatment Apparatus and Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An improved draft tube spout fluid bed (DTSFB) mixing, handling, conveying, and treating apparatus and systems, and methods for operating are provided. The apparatus and systems can accept particulate material and pneumatically or hydraulically conveying the material to mix and/or treat the material. In addition to conveying apparatus, a collection and separation apparatus adapted to receive the conveyed particulate material is also provided. The collection apparatus may include an impaction plate against which the conveyed material is directed to improve mixing and/or treatment. The improved apparatus are characterized by means of controlling the operation of the pneumatic or hydraulic transfer to enhance the mixing and/or reacting by controlling the flow of fluids, for example, air, into and out of the apparatus. The disclosed apparatus may be used to mix particulate material, for example, mortar; react fluids with particulate material; coat particulate material, or simply convey particulate material.

  5. 21 CFR 868.5400 - Electroanesthesia apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...apparatus. (a) Identification. An electroanesthesia apparatus is a device used for the induction and maintenance of anesthesia during surgical procedures by means of an alternating or pulsed electric current that is passed through electrodes fixed...

  6. 21 CFR 868.5400 - Electroanesthesia apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...apparatus. (a) Identification. An electroanesthesia apparatus is a device used for the induction and maintenance of anesthesia during surgical procedures by means of an alternating or pulsed electric current that is passed through electrodes fixed...

  7. 21 CFR 868.5400 - Electroanesthesia apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...apparatus. (a) Identification. An electroanesthesia apparatus is a device used for the induction and maintenance of anesthesia during surgical procedures by means of an alternating or pulsed electric current that is passed through electrodes fixed...

  8. 21 CFR 868.5400 - Electroanesthesia apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...apparatus. (a) Identification. An electroanesthesia apparatus is a device used for the induction and maintenance of anesthesia during surgical procedures by means of an alternating or pulsed electric current that is passed through electrodes fixed...

  9. 21 CFR 868.5400 - Electroanesthesia apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...apparatus. (a) Identification. An electroanesthesia apparatus is a device used for the induction and maintenance of anesthesia during surgical procedures by means of an alternating or pulsed electric current that is passed through electrodes fixed...

  10. Multiparameter radar analysis using wavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawfik, Ben Bella Sayed

    Multiparameter radars have been used in the interpretation of many meteorological phenomena. Rainfall estimates can be obtained from multiparameter radar measurements. Studying and analyzing spatial variability of different rainfall algorithms, namely R(ZH), the algorithm based on reflectivity, R(ZH, ZDR), the algorithm based on reflectivity and differential reflectivity, R(KDP), the algorithm based on specific differential phase, and R(KDP, Z DR), the algorithm based on specific differential phase and differential reflectivity, are important for radar applications. The data used in this research were collected using CSU-CHILL, CP-2, and S-POL radars. In this research multiple objectives are addressed using wavelet analysis namely, (1)space time variability of various rainfall algorithms, (2)separation of convective and stratiform storms based on reflectivity measurements, (3)and detection of features such as bright bands. The bright band is a multiscale edge detection problem. In this research, the technique of multiscale edge detection is applied on the radar data collected using CP-2 radar on August 23, 1991 to detect the melting layer. In the analysis of space/time variability of rainfall algorithms, wavelet variance introduces an idea about the statistics of the radar field. In addition, multiresolution analysis of different rainfall estimates based on four algorithms, namely R(ZH), R( ZH, ZDR), R(K DP), and R(KDP, Z DR), are analyzed. The flood data of July 29, 1997 collected by CSU-CHILL radar were used for this analysis. Another set of S-POL radar data collected on May 2, 1997 at Wichita, Kansas were used as well. At each level of approximation, the detail and the approximation components are analyzed. Based on this analysis, the rainfall algorithms can be judged. From this analysis, an important result was obtained. The Z-R algorithms that are widely used do not show the full spatial variability of rainfall. In addition another intuitively obvious result was observed namely, R( KDP) has reduced the spatial variability due to smoothing of KDP estimates. The convective and stratiform separation was studied using multiresolution analysis. The June 22, 1995 data collected by CSU-CHILL radar were used to evaluate the technique. Another set of data collected on August 23, 1991 representing stratiform conditions were also studied.

  11. Investigating fish hydraulic habitat preferences using a passive integrated transponder antenna network: Scope on spatial scales and individual mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, M. L.; Roy, A. G.

    2009-12-01

    Flow velocity is a major feature of fluvial fish habitat. It affects swimming energy expenditures, resource distribution and efficiency of prey capture, thus exerting a major influence on fish distribution. Preferences of juvenile salmonids for ranges of flow velocity are well documented. Preference curves are usually generated by comparing velocities measured at the precise location of captured fish (nose velocity) with velocities measured at random locations where fish are absent. However, these preferences tend to be specific to sites and rivers and show important variability with time. Recent biotelemetry studies have revealed that juvenile salmonids are more mobile than previously assumed and use larger home ranges and multiple micro-habitats. Therefore, fish might select habitats based on the characteristics of a microhabitat, but also based on the properties of the surrounding area. Furthermore, mobile fish could present temporal variability in their habitat preferences. Recent advances in biotelemetry provide new ways to monitor fish locations and to obtain habitat preferences both at the individual and the population levels at high temporal and spatial resolutions for extended periods. In this study, we seek to identify the most relevant spatial scales defining habitat preferences of juvenile Atlantic salmon. We emphasize both the group and individual temporal variability in hydraulic habitat preferences. During a three month period, we monitored the location and movements of 61 juveniles marked with 23-mm passive integrated transponders (PIT) using a network of 186 antennas buried into the bed of a natural river reach in Saguenay, Canada. Each antenna was scanned every 33 seconds to detect and record the presence or absence of tagged fish. The reach was 70 m long and 9 m wide on average and presented a very clear morphological sequence consisting of two pools separated by a riffle. Mean flow velocity and turbulent flow properties were measured at 3500 velocity locations across the reach with ADVs on a regular grid at 10 cm above the bed at low flow. We examined fish preferences at the microhabitat scale (nose velocity), at the feeding habitat scale (1.5 X 1.5 m), at a scale of surrounding feeding habitats (2.5 X 2.5 m) and at a scale of morphological units (pools and riffles). Over the study period, the antenna grid generated 106208 detections. Fish monitoring revealed a variability of spatial behaviors among individuals, some fish showing strong attachment to a small number of adjacent micro-habitats whereas others used a large number of micro-habitats located far apart, in both pools and riffles. Juvenile salmon exhibited preferences for medium to high velocity micro-habitats. However, fish presented hydraulic habitat preferences occurring at the scale of flow patches (? 6 m2). Furthermore, juvenile Atlantic salmon also showed an active habitat selection dynamics, where temporal individual preference curves for several hours were similar to that of the entire group of fish for a short time period. These observations highlight the importance of patch scale habitat features which provide valuable information for fish management.

  12. Space Radar Image of Long Island Optical/Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This pair of images of the Long Island, New York region is a comparison of an optical photograph (top) and a radar image (bottom), both taken in darkness in April 1994. The photograph at the top was taken by the Endeavour astronauts at about 3 a.m. Eastern time on April 20, 1994. The image at the bottom was acquired at about the same time four days earlier on April 16,1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) system aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. Both images show an area approximately 100 kilometers by 40 kilometers (62 miles by 25 miles) that is centered at 40.7 degrees North latitude and 73.5 degrees West longitude. North is toward the upper right. The optical image is dominated by city lights, which are particularly bright in the densely developed urban areas of New York City located on the left half of the photo. The brightest white zones appear on the island of Manhattan in the left center, and Central Park can be seen as a darker area in the middle of Manhattan. To the northeast (right) of the city, suburban Long Island appears as a less densely illuminated area, with the brightest zones occurring along major transportation and development corridors. Since radar is an active sensing system that provides its own illumination, the radar image shows a great amount of surface detail, despite the night-time acquisition. The colors in the radar image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). In this image, the water surface - the Atlantic Ocean along the bottom edge and Long Island Sound shown at the top edge - appears red because small waves at the surface strongly reflect the horizontally transmitted and received L-band radar signal. Networks of highways and railroad lines are clearly visible in the radar image; many of them can also be seen as bright lines i the optical image. The runways of John F. Kennedy International Airport appear as a dark rectangle in Jamaica Bay on the left side of the image. Developed areas appear generally as bright green and orange, while agricultural, protected and undeveloped areas appear darker blue or purple. This contrast can be seen on the barrier islands along the south coast of Long Island, which are heavily developed in the Rockaway and Long Beach areas south and east of Jamaica Bay, but further to the east, the islands are protected and undeveloped.

  13. High resolution radar map of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.

    1987-01-01

    Previous radar mappings of the Moon at 70 cm wavelength in the late 1960's by Thompson have been replaced with a new set of observations using the 430 MHz radar at the Arecibo Observatory, Puerto Rico. Radar resolution was reduced to 2 to 5 km radar cell size and a beam-sweep, limb-to-limb calibration was conducted. Advances in computer technology provided the principle means of improving lunar radar mapping at this wavelength. Observation techniques and data processing are described and scattering differences found in the orthographic projection of the radar data are discussed.

  14. Radar reflectivity calibration using differential propagation phase measurement

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Guifu

    Radar reflectivity calibration using differential propagation phase measurement J. Vivekanandan,1 June 2002; accepted 12 June 2002; published 12 March 2003. [1] A method for calibrating radar reflectivity using polarization radar measurements in rain is described. Accurate calibration of radar

  15. Forecasting weather radar propagation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bech, J.; Codina, B.; Lorente, J.

    2007-06-01

    The increasing use of weather radar quantitative precipitation estimates, particularly in automatic applications such as operational hydrometeorological modelling or assimilation in numerical weather prediction (NWP) models, has promoted the development of quality control procedures on radar data. Anomalous propagation (AP) of the radar beam due to deviation from the standard refractivity vertical profile, is one of the factors that may affect seriously the quality of radar observations because of the increase in quantity and intensity of non-precipitating clutter echoes and consequent contamination of the estimated rainfall field. Another undesired effect of AP is the change in the expected radar echo height, which may be relevant when correcting for beam blockage in radar rainfall estimation in complex terrain. The aim of this paper is to study the use of NWP mesoscale forecasts to predict and monitor AP events. A nested 15-km grid resolution version of the MASS model has been used to retrieve refractivity profiles in the coastal area of Barcelona, near a weather radar and a radiosonde station. Using the refractivity profiles two different magnitudes were computed: the vertical refractivity profile of the lowest 1000 m layer and a ducting index which describes the existence and intensity of the most super-refractive layer contained in the lowest 3-km layer. A comparison between model forecasts and radiosonde diagnostics during a six-month period showed that the model tended to underestimate the degree of super-refraction, with a bias of 4 km-1 and RMSE of 11 km-1 in the 1-km vertical refractivity gradient. Further analysis of the data showed that a combination of previous observations and forecasts allowed to produce modified forecasts improving the original direct model output, decreasing substantially the bias, reducing the RMSE by 20% and improving the skill by 40%, beating also radiosonde observations persistence.

  16. All-digital radar architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molchanov, Pavlo A.

    2014-10-01

    All digital radar architecture requires exclude mechanical scan system. The phase antenna array is necessarily large because the array elements must be co-located with very precise dimensions and will need high accuracy phase processing system for aggregate and distribute T/R modules data to/from antenna elements. Even phase array cannot provide wide field of view. New nature inspired all digital radar architecture proposed. The fly's eye consists of multiple angularly spaced sensors giving the fly simultaneously thee wide-area visual coverage it needs to detect and avoid the threats around him. Fly eye radar antenna array consist multiple directional antennas loose distributed along perimeter of ground vehicle or aircraft and coupled with receiving/transmitting front end modules connected by digital interface to central processor. Non-steering antenna array allows creating all-digital radar with extreme flexible architecture. Fly eye radar architecture provides wide possibility of digital modulation and different waveform generation. Simultaneous correlation and integration of thousands signals per second from each point of surveillance area allows not only detecting of low level signals ((low profile targets), but help to recognize and classify signals (targets) by using diversity signals, polarization modulation and intelligent processing. Proposed all digital radar architecture with distributed directional antenna array can provide a 3D space vector to the jammer by verification direction of arrival for signals sources and as result jam/spoof protection not only for radar systems, but for communication systems and any navigation constellation system, for both encrypted or unencrypted signals, for not limited number or close positioned jammers.

  17. Apparatus Named After Our Academic Ancestors — II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2011-01-01

    In my previous article on apparatus named after physicists and physics teachers, I discussed five relatively common pieces of apparatus from the 1875-1910 era. Now I will go back to the 18th and early-19th centuries to discuss eponymous2 apparatus that we are still using in lecture demonstrations.

  18. Method and apparatus for separating material

    DOEpatents

    Oder, Robin R.; Jamison, Russell E.

    2004-11-23

    An apparatus for sorting particles composed of a mixture of particles with differing physical and chemical characteristics. The apparatus includes a comminutor or a pulverizer for reducing the size of the particles. The apparatus includes a mechanism for separating undesired material from desired material.

  19. Hazardous Fluids Compatibility Test Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flores, Frank; Daniel, James

    1995-01-01

    Document describes test apparatus designed to hold test tubes containing hazardous fluids such as hydrazine, nitrogen tetroxide, or ammonia. Test tube suspended over water bath or other solution or mixture. Control of test sample performed by one-hand operation within fume hood or glove box. System adaptable for automated control of lowering and raising of test samples.

  20. Apparatus for washing drill cuttings

    SciTech Connect

    Lott, W. G.

    1985-10-15

    An apparatus for cleansing a stream of drilling fluid fouled drill cuttings having a housing divided into a plurality of compartments each designed to retain cleansing fluid. A spinning force is imparted into the incoming fouled drill cuttings in an inlet chamber wherein cleansing fluid is intimately mixed with the fouled drill cuttings. A decanting chamber removes liberated drilling fluid from the cuttings and disposes of such drilling fluid from the apparatus via a drain trough assembly. The underflow from the decanter is passed through a solids concentrating assembly wherein the coarse solids are deposited in a concentrating assembly bottoms chamber wherein the settled drill cuttings are removed from the apparatus. The overhead stream from the solids concentrating assembly is driected to a second decanter for removal of any remaining drilling fluid and fine drill cuttings entrained therein from the apparatus via the drain trough assembly. The remaining fluid in the concentrating assembly bottoms chamber is recirculated to the second decanting chamber and the inlet chamber.

  1. Apparatus for particulate matter analysis

    DOEpatents

    Gundel, Lara A.; Apte, Michael G.; Hansen, Anthony D.; Black, Douglas R.

    2007-01-30

    The apparatus described herein is a miniaturized system for particle exposure assessment (MSPEA) for the quantitative measurement and qualitative identification of particulate content in gases. The present invention utilizes a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) or other mass-sensitive temperature compensated acoustic wave resonator for mass measurement. Detectors and probes and light sources are used in combination for the qualitative determination of particulate matter.

  2. Duplex sampling apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Paul E. (Pittsburgh, PA); Lloyd, Robert (West Mifflin, PA)

    1992-01-01

    An improved apparatus is provided for sampling a gaseous mixture and for measuring mixture components. The apparatus includes two sampling containers connected in series serving as a duplex sampling apparatus. The apparatus is adapted to independently determine the amounts of condensable and noncondensable gases in admixture from a single sample. More specifically, a first container includes a first port capable of selectively connecting to and disconnecting from a sample source and a second port capable of selectively connecting to and disconnecting from a second container. A second container also includes a first port capable of selectively connecting to and disconnecting from the second port of the first container and a second port capable of either selectively connecting to and disconnecting from a differential pressure source. By cooling a mixture sample in the first container, the condensable vapors form a liquid, leaving noncondensable gases either as free gases or dissolved in the liquid. The condensed liquid is heated to drive out dissolved noncondensable gases, and all the noncondensable gases are transferred to the second container. Then the first and second containers are separated from one another in order to separately determine the amount of noncondensable gases and the amount of condensable gases in the sample.

  3. Apparatus for measuring fluid flow

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jack E. (Knoxville, TN); Thomas, David G. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1984-01-01

    Flow measuring apparatus includes a support loop having strain gages mounted thereon and a drag means which is attached to one end of the support loop and which bends the sides of the support loop and induces strains in the strain gages when a flow stream impacts thereon.

  4. Fractional screen video enhancement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM); Davidson, George S. (Albuquerque, NM); Zimmerer, Daniel J. (Tijeras, NM); Marron, Lisa C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2005-07-19

    The present invention provides a method and apparatus for displaying two portions of an image at two resolutions. For example, the invention can display an entire image at a first resolution, and a subset of the image at a second, higher resolution. Two inexpensive, low resolution displays can be used to produce a large image with high resolution only where needed.

  5. DESIGNING NEW APPARATUS FOR LEARNING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FLORY, JOHN; AND OTHERS

    A 3-DAY CONFERENCE BROUGHT TOGETHER A GROUP OF SCIENTISTS, ENGINEERS, MANUFACTURERS, AND EDUCATORS TO DISCUSS THE STATUS OF AUDIOVISUAL EQUIPMENT AND THE KINDS OF NEW APPARATUS WHICH COULD BE DEVELOPED TO SERVE THE NEEDS OF EDUCATION. THE CONFEREES DISCUSSED SPECIFIC RESISTANCES TO INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGY AND THE VARIOUS EDUCATIONAL AND…

  6. Extended range chemical sensing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hughes, R.C.; Schubert, W.K.

    1994-01-18

    An apparatus is described for sensing chemicals over extended range of concentrations. In particular, first and second sensors each having separate, but overlapping ranges for sensing concentrations of hydrogen are provided. Preferably, the first sensor is a MOS solid state device wherein the metal electrode or gate is a nickel alloy. The second sensor is a chemiresistor comprising a nickel alloy. 6 figures.

  7. Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jenkins, C.F.; Howard, B.D.

    1994-01-01

    Pipe crawlers, pipe inspection {open_quotes}rabbits{close_quotes} and similar vehicles are widely used for inspecting the interior surfaces of piping systems, storage tanks and process vessels for damaged or flawed structural features. This paper describes the design of a flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus.

  8. Extended range chemical sensing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hughes, Robert C. (Albuquerque, NM); Schubert, W. Kent (Albuquerque, NM)

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for sensing chemicals over extended range of concentrations. In particular, first and second sensors each having separate, but overlapping ranges for sensing concentrations of hydrogen are provided. Preferably, the first sensor is a MOS solid state device wherein the metal electrode or gate is a nickel alloy. The second sensor is a chemiresistor comprising a nickel alloy.

  9. Gearshift apparatus for an automobile

    SciTech Connect

    Makita, F.

    1986-01-21

    This patent describes a gearshift apparatus for an automobile with an electromagnetic clutch and a transmission operatively connected to the clutch and having four forward gear trains and an output shaft. This apparatus consists of a first synchronizing means for selectively engaging a second speed gear train and a fourth speed gear train respectively with transmission output shaft. The second speed gear train has a gear ratio such that sufficient torque is produced to start the automobile on an ordinary road. Another feature of the apparatus is a second synchronizing means for selectively engaging a first speed gear train and a third speed gear train respectively with the output shaft. The first gear has a gear ratio producing sufficient torque to start the automobile on an uphill and heavy road. A shift lever means for operating the first and second synchronization means is characterized in the patent. This shaft lever is described as being rotated to a first or second plane for the operation of the respective synchronizing means and as being responsive a means elucidated in the patent for holding it in the respective plane for proper operation. The last component of the apparatus described is a gear select means including a select lever specifically operationally engageable with one of the synchronizing means by rotation of the shift lever to the respective plane and an actuating rod connecting it to the proper shift lever for respective synchronization device operation.

  10. Material transport method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, J. Michael (Knoxville, TN); Ramsey, Roswitha S. (Knoxville, TN)

    2000-01-01

    An electrospray apparatus uses a microchannel formed in a microchip. Fluid is pumped through the channel to an outlet orifice using either hydraulic or electrokinetic means. An electrospray is generated by establishing a sufficient potential difference between the fluid at the outlet orifice and a target electrode spaced from the outlet orifice. Electrokinetic pumping is also utilized to provide additional benefits to microchip devices.

  11. Material transport method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, J. Michael (Knoxville, TN); Ramsey, Roswitha S. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    An electrospray apparatus uses a microchannel formed in a microchip. Fluid is pumped through the channel to an outlet orifice using either hydraulic or electrokinetic means. An electrospray is generated by establishing a sufficient potential difference between the fluid at the outlet orifice and a target electrode spaced from the outlet orifice. Electrokinetic pumping is also utilized to provide additional benefits to microchip devices.

  12. Automated Target Recognition Using Passive Radar and Coordinated Flight Models

    E-print Network

    Lanterman, Aaron

    approach to ATR compares the Radar Cross Section (RCS) of targets detected by a passive radar system, Passive Radar, Coordinated Flight Model, Radar Cross Section 1. INTRODUCTION Passive radar systems which if the Radar Cross Section (RCS) of the targets vary "slowly" with small changes in these components

  13. Radar Mosaic of Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is an image of equatorial Africa, centered on the equator at longitude 15degrees east. This image is a mosaic of almost 4,000 separate images obtained in 1996 by the L-band imaging radar onboard the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite. Using radar to penetrate the persistent clouds prevalent in tropical forests, the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite was able for the first time to image at high resolution this continental scale region during single flooding seasons. The area shown covers about 7.4 million square kilometers (2.8 million square miles) of land surface, spans more than 5,000 kilometers(3,100 miles) east and west and some 2,000 kilometers (1,240 miles) north and south. North is up in this image. At the full resolution of the mosaic (100 meters or 330 feet), this image is more than 500 megabytes in size, and was processed from imagery totaling more than 60 gigabytes.

    Central Africa was imaged twice in 1996, once between January and March, which is the major low-flood season in the Congo Basin, and once between October and November, which is the major high-flood season in the Congo Basin. The red color corresponds to the data from the low-flood season, the green to the high-flood season, and the blue to the 'texture' of the low-flood data. The forests appear green as a result, the flooded and palm forests, as well as urban areas, appear yellow, the ocean and lakes appear black, and savanna areas appear blue, black or green, depending on the savanna type, surface topography and other factors. The areas of the image that are black and white were mapped only between January and March 1996. In these areas, the black areas are savanna or open water, the gray are forests, and the white areas are flooded forests or urban areas. The Congo River dominates the middle of the image, where the nearby forests that are periodically flooded by the Congo and its tributaries stand out as yellow. The Nile River flows north from Lake Victoria in the middle right of the color portion of the mosaic.

    This image is one of the products resulting from the Global Rain Forest Mapping project, a joint project between the National Space Development Agency of Japan, the Space Applications Institute of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and an international team of scientists. The goal of the Global Rain Forest Mapping mission is to map with the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite the world's tropical rain forests. The Japanese satellite was launched in 1992 by the National Space Development Agency of Japan and the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry, with support from the Remote Sensing Technology Center of Japan.

  14. Bistatic synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, Gillian

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) allows all-weather, day and night, surface surveillance and has the ability to detect, classify and geolocate objects at long stand-off ranges. Bistatic SAR, where the transmitter and the receiver are on separate platforms, is seen as a potential means of countering the vulnerability of conventional monostatic SAR to electronic countermeasures, particularly directional jamming, and avoiding physical attack of the imaging platform. As the receiving platform can be totally passive, it does not advertise its position by RF emissions. The transmitter is not susceptible to jamming and can, for example, operate at long stand-off ranges to reduce its vulnerability to physical attack. This thesis examines some of the complications involved in producing high-resolution bistatic SAR imagery. The effect of bistatic operation on resolution is examined from a theoretical viewpoint and analytical expressions for resolution are developed. These expressions are verified by simulation work using a simple 'point by point' processor. This work is extended to look at using modern practical processing engines for bistatic geometries. Adaptations of the polar format algorithm and range migration algorithm are considered. The principal achievement of this work is a fully airborne demonstration of bistatic SAR. The route taken in reaching this is given, along with some results. The bistatic SAR imagery is analysed and compared to the monostatic imagery collected at the same time. Demonstrating high-resolution bistatic SAR imagery using two airborne platforms represents what I believe to be a European first and is likely to be the first time that this has been achieved outside the US (the UK has very little insight into US work on this topic). Bistatic target characteristics are examined through the use of simulations. This also compares bistatic imagery with monostatic and gives further insight into the utility of bistatic SAR.

  15. The Accuracy of Radar Estimates of Ice Terminal Fall Speed from Vertically Pointing Doppler Radar Measurements

    E-print Network

    Protat, Alain

    vertically pointing cloud radar. For the observed vertical air motions, it is found that the mean vertical as a reference. It is found that the variability of the terminal fall speed­radar reflectivity relationship (VtThe Accuracy of Radar Estimates of Ice Terminal Fall Speed from Vertically Pointing Doppler Radar

  16. Imaging coherent scatter radar, incoherent scatter radar, and optical observations of quasiperiodic structures associated with sporadic

    E-print Network

    Mendillo, Michael

    Imaging coherent scatter radar, incoherent scatter radar, and optical observations of quasiperiodic; published 20 June 2007. [1] During June and July 2002, a 30-MHz imaging coherent scatter radar was installed scatter radar. In six of those events, simultaneous measurements were made with the Arecibo 430-MHz

  17. VALIDATION OF A RADAR DOPPLER SPECTRA SIMULATOR USING MEASUREMENTS FROM THE ARM CLOUD RADARS

    E-print Network

    VALIDATION OF A RADAR DOPPLER SPECTRA SIMULATOR USING MEASUREMENTS FROM THE ARM CLOUD RADARS to compare models with observations contains advantages and challenges. Radar Doppler spectra simulators model output with the Doppler spectra recorded from the vertically pointing cloud radars at the ARM

  18. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AEROSPACE AND ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS 1 MIMO-MC Radar: A MIMO Radar Approach

    E-print Network

    Bajwa, Waheed U.

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AEROSPACE AND ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS 1 MIMO-MC Radar: A MIMO Radar Approach Based. Petropulu, Fellow, IEEE Abstract--In a typical MIMO radar scenario, transmit nodes transmit orthogonal, leads to target detection and parameter estimation. In MIMO radars with compressive sensing (MIMO- CS

  19. 46 CFR 15.815 - Radar observers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... onboard radar-equipped vessels of 300 GRT or over must hold an endorsement as radar observer. (c) Each... service as master or mate onboard an uninspected towing vessel of 8 meters (26 feet) or more in...

  20. Extended target recognition in cognitive radar networks.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yimin; Meng, Huadong; Liu, Yimin; Wang, Xiqin

    2010-01-01

    We address the problem of adaptive waveform design for extended target recognition in cognitive radar networks. A closed-loop active target recognition radar system is extended to the case of a centralized cognitive radar network, in which a generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) based sequential hypothesis testing (SHT) framework is employed. Using Doppler velocities measured by multiple radars, the target aspect angle for each radar is calculated. The joint probability of each target hypothesis is then updated using observations from different radar line of sights (LOS). Based on these probabilities, a minimum correlation algorithm is proposed to adaptively design the transmit waveform for each radar in an amplitude fluctuation situation. Simulation results demonstrate performance improvements due to the cognitive radar network and adaptive waveform design. Our minimum correlation algorithm outperforms the eigen-waveform solution and other non-cognitive waveform design approaches. PMID:22163464

  1. Obstacle penetrating dynamic radar imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Romero, Carlos E. (Livermore, CA); Zumstein, James E. (Livermore, CA); Chang, John T. (Danville, CA); Leach, Jr.. Richard R. (Castro Valley, CA)

    2006-12-12

    An obstacle penetrating dynamic radar imaging system for the detection, tracking, and imaging of an individual, animal, or object comprising a multiplicity of low power ultra wideband radar units that produce a set of return radar signals from the individual, animal, or object, and a processing system for said set of return radar signals for detection, tracking, and imaging of the individual, animal, or object. The system provides a radar video system for detecting and tracking an individual, animal, or object by producing a set of return radar signals from the individual, animal, or object with a multiplicity of low power ultra wideband radar units, and processing said set of return radar signals for detecting and tracking of the individual, animal, or object.

  2. Signal processing for airborne bistatic radar 

    E-print Network

    Ong, Kian P

    The major problem encountered by an airborne bistatic radar is the suppression of bistatic clutter. Unlike clutter echoes for a sidelooking airborne monostatic radar, bistatic clutter echoes are range dependent. Using ...

  3. MIMO Radar Waveform Constraints for GMTI

    E-print Network

    Forsythe, Keith W.

    Ground moving-target indication (GMTI) provides both an opportunity and challenge for coherent multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar. MIMO techniques can improve a radar's angle estimation and the minimum detectable ...

  4. A Through-Dielectric Radar Imaging System

    E-print Network

    Charvat, Gregory L.

    Through-lossy-slab radar imaging will be shown at stand-off ranges using a low-power, ultrawideband (UWB), frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radar system. FMCW is desirable for through-slab applications because ...

  5. Electrochemical apparatus comprising modified disposable rectangular cuvette

    DOEpatents

    Dattelbaum, Andrew M; Gupta, Gautam; Morris, David E

    2013-09-10

    Electrochemical apparatus includes a disposable rectangular cuvette modified with at least one hole through a side and/or the bottom. Apparatus may include more than one cuvette, which in practice is a disposable rectangular glass or plastic cuvette modified by drilling the hole(s) through. The apparatus include two plates and some means of fastening one plate to the other. The apparatus may be interfaced with a fiber optic or microscope objective, and a spectrometer for spectroscopic studies. The apparatus are suitable for a variety of electrochemical experiments, including surface electrochemistry, bulk electrolysis, and flow cell experiments.

  6. Design and implementation of a hybrid digital phase-locked loop with a TMS320C25: An application to a transponder receiver breadboard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, H.-G.; Nguyen, T. M.

    1994-01-01

    Design, modeling, analysis, and simulation of a phase-locked loop (PLL) with a digital loop filter are presented in this article. A TMS320C25 digital signal processor (DSP) is used to implement this digital loop filter. In order to keep the compatibility, the main design goal was to replace the analog PLL (APLL) of the Deep-Space Transponder (DST) receiver breadboard's loop filter with a digital loop filter without changing anything else. This replacement results in a hybrid digital PLL (HDPLL). Both the original APLL and the designed HDPLL are Type I second-order systems. The real-time performance of the HDPLL and the receiver is provided and evaluated.

  7. SMAP RADAR Processing and Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, R. D.; Jaruwatanadilok, S.; Kwoun, O.; Chaubell, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission uses L-band radar and radiometer measurements to estimate soil moisture with 4% volumetric accuracy at a resolution of 10 km, and freeze-thaw state at a resolution of 1-3 km. Model sensitivities translate the soil moisture accuracy to a radar backscatter accuracy of 1 dB at 3 km resolution and a brightness temperature accuracy of 1.3 K at 40 km resolution. This presentation will describe the level 1 radar processing and calibration challenges and the choices made so far for the algorithms and software implementation. To obtain the desired high spatial resolution the level 1 radar ground processor employs synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging techniques. Part of the challenge of the SMAP data processing comes from doing SAR imaging on a conically scanned system with rapidly varying squint angles. The radar echo energy will be divided into range/Doppler bins using time domain processing algorithms that can easily follow the varying squint angle. For SMAP, projected range resolution is about 250 meters, while azimuth resolution varies from 400 meters to 1.2 km. Radiometric calibration of the SMAP radar means measuring, characterizing, and where necessary correcting the gain and noise contributions from every part of the system from the antenna radiation pattern all the way to the ground processing algorithms. The SMAP antenna pattern will be computed using an accurate antenna model, and then validated post-launch using homogeneous external targets such as the Amazon rain forest to look for uncorrected gain variation. Noise subtraction is applied after image processing using measurements from a noise only channel. Variations of the internal electronics are tracked by a loopback measurement which will capture most of the time and temperature variations of the transmit power and receiver gain. Long-term variations of system performance due to component aging will be tracked and corrected using stable external reference targets. Candidate targets include the Amazon rain forest and a model-corrected global ocean measurement. Radio frequency interference (RFI) signals are expected in the L-band frequency window used by the SMAP radar because many other users also operate in this band. Based on results of prior studies at JPL, SMAP L1 radar processing will use a "Slow-time thresholding" or STT algorithm to handle RFI contamination. The STT technique looks at the slow-time series associated with a given range sample, sets an appropriate threshold, and identifies any samples that rise above this threshold as RFI events. The RFI events are removed and the data are azimuth compressed without those samples. Faraday rotation affects L-band signals by rotating the polarization vector during propagation through the ionosphere. This mixes HH, VV, HV, and VH results with each other introducing another source of error. The SMAP radar is not fully polarimetric so the radar data do not provide a correction by themselves. Instead a correction must be derived from other sources. L1 radar processing will use estimates of Faraday rotation derived from externally supplied GPS-based measurements of the ionosphere total electron content (TEC). This work is supported by the SMAP project at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology.

  8. Airborne Differential Doppler Weather Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meneghini, R.; Bidwell, S.; Liao, L.; Rincon, R.; Heymsfield, G.; Hildebrand, Peter H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Precipitation Radar aboard the Tropical Rain Measuring Mission (TRMM) Satellite has shown the potential for spaceborne sensing of snow and rain by means of an incoherent pulsed radar operating at 13.8 GHz. The primary advantage of radar relative to passive instruments arises from the fact that the radar can image the 3-dimensional structure of storms. As a consequence, the radar data can be used to determine the vertical rain structure, rain type (convective/stratiform) effective storm height, and location of the melting layer. The radar, moreover, can be used to detect snow and improve the estimation of rain rate over land. To move toward spaceborne weather radars that can be deployed routinely as part of an instrument set consisting of passive and active sensors will require the development of less expensive, lighter-weight radars that consume less power. At the same time, the addition of a second frequency and an upgrade to Doppler capability are features that are needed to retrieve information on the characteristics of the drop size distribution, vertical air motion and storm dynamics. One approach to the problem is to use a single broad-band transmitter-receiver and antenna where two narrow-band frequencies are spaced apart by 5% to 10% of the center frequency. Use of Ka-band frequencies (26.5 GHz - 40 GHz) affords two advantages: adequate spatial resolution can be attained with a relatively small antenna and the differential reflectivity and mean Doppler signals are directly related to the median mass diameter of the snow and raindrop size distributions. The differential mean Doppler signal has the additional property that this quantity depends only on that part of the radial speed of the hydrometeors that is drop-size dependent. In principle, the mean and differential mean Doppler from a near-nadir viewing radar can be used to retrieve vertical air motion as well as the total mean radial velocity. In the paper, we present theoretical calculations for the differential reflectivity and Doppler as functions of the center frequency, frequency difference, and median mass diameter. For a fixed pair of frequencies, the detectability of the differential signals can be expressed as the number of independent samples required to detect rain or snow with a particular median mass diameter. Because sampling numbers on the order of 1000 are needed to detect the differential signal over a range of size distributions, the instrument must be confined to a near-nadir, narrow swath. Radar measurements from a zenith directed radar operated at 9.1 GHz and 10 GHz are used to investigate the qualitative characteristics of the differential signals. Disdrometer and rain gauge data taken at the surface, just below the radar, are used to test whether the differential signals can be used to estimate characteristics of the raindrop size distribution.

  9. Scanning ARM Cloud Radar Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Widener, K; Bharadwaj, N; Johnson, K

    2012-06-18

    The scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) is a polarimetric Doppler radar consisting of three different radar designs based on operating frequency. These are designated as follows: (1) X-band SACR (X-SACR); (2) Ka-band SACR (Ka-SACR); and (3) W-band SACR (W-SACR). There are two SACRs on a single pedestal at each site where SACRs are deployed. The selection of the operating frequencies at each deployed site is predominantly determined by atmospheric attenuation at the site. Because RF attenuation increases with atmospheric water vapor content, ARM's Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites use the X-/Ka-band frequency pair. The Southern Great Plains (SGP) and North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites field the Ka-/W-band frequency pair. One ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1) has a Ka/W-SACR and the other (AMF2) has a X/Ka-SACR.

  10. GMTI radar minimum detectable velocity.

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, John Alfred

    2011-04-01

    Minimum detectable velocity (MDV) is a fundamental consideration for the design, implementation, and exploitation of ground moving-target indication (GMTI) radar imaging modes. All single-phase-center air-to-ground radars are characterized by an MDV, or a minimum radial velocity below which motion of a discrete nonstationary target is indistinguishable from the relative motion between the platform and the ground. Targets with radial velocities less than MDV are typically overwhelmed by endoclutter ground returns, and are thus not generally detectable. Targets with radial velocities greater than MDV typically produce distinct returns falling outside of the endoclutter ground returns, and are thus generally discernible using straightforward detection algorithms. This document provides a straightforward derivation of MDV for an air-to-ground single-phase-center GMTI radar operating in an arbitrary geometry.

  11. Goldstone solar system radar signal processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurgens, R.; Satorius, E.; Sanchez, O.

    1992-01-01

    A performance analysis of the planetary radar data acquisition system is presented. These results extend previous computer simulation analysis and are facilitated by the development of a simple analytical model that predicts radar system performance over a wide range of operational parameters. The results of this study are useful to both the radar system designer and the science investigator in establishing operational radar data acquisition parameters which result in the best systems performance for a given set of input conditions.

  12. Goldstone solar system radar signal processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurgens, R. F.; Satorius, E.; Sanchez, O.

    1992-01-01

    A performance analysis of the planetary radar data acquisition system is presented. These results extend previous computer simulation analysis and are facilitated by the development of a simple analytical model that predicts radar system performance over a wide range of operational parameters. The results of this study are useful to both the radar systems designer and the science investigator in establishing operational radar data acquisition parameters which result in the best systems performance for a given set of input conditions.

  13. Radar reflection off extensive air showers

    E-print Network

    Stasielak, J; Bertaina, M; Blümer, J; Chiavassa, A; Engel, R; Haungs, A; Huege, T; Kampert, K -H; Klages, H; Kleifges, M; Krömer, O; Ludwig, M; Mathys, S; Neunteufel, P; Pekala, J; Rautenberg, J; Riegel, M; Roth, M; Salamida, F; Schieler, H; Šmída, R; Unger, M; Weber, M; Werner, F; Wilczy?ski, H; Wochele, J

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of detecting extensive air showers by the radar technique. Considering a bistatic radar system and different shower geometries, we simulate reflection of radio waves off the static plasma produced by the shower in the air. Using the Thomson cross-section for radio wave reflection, we obtain the time evolution of the signal received by the antennas. The frequency upshift of the radar echo and the power received are studied to verify the feasibility of the radar detection technique.

  14. Shuttle orbiter radar cross-sectional analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, D. W.; James, R.

    1979-01-01

    Theoretical and model simulation studies on signal to noise levels and shuttle radar cross section are described. Pre-mission system calibrations, system configuration, and postmission system calibration of the tracking radars are described. Conversion of target range, azimuth, and elevation into radar centered east north vertical position coordinates are evaluated. The location of the impinging rf energy with respect to the target vehicles body axis triad is calculated. Cross section correlation between the two radars is presented.

  15. Radar operation in a hostile electromagnetic environment

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2014-03-01

    Radar ISR does not always involve cooperative or even friendly targets. An adversary has numerous techniques available to him to counter the effectiveness of a radar ISR sensor. These generally fall under the banner of jamming, spoofing, or otherwise interfering with the EM signals required by the radar sensor. Consequently mitigation techniques are prudent to retain efficacy of the radar sensor. We discuss in general terms a number of mitigation techniques.

  16. Process for removing PCB's from electrical apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, D.E.

    1987-08-11

    A process is described for removing polychlorinated biphenyls from an electrical apparatus comprising: (a) filling the electrical apparatus with a dielectric fluid in liquid state in which polychlorinated biphenyls are soluble, thereby providing adequate insulation during the operation of the electrical apparatus; (b) dissolving polychlorinated biphenyls contained within the electrical apparatus into the dielectric fluid to form a solution; (c) conducting the solution from the electrical apparatus to a cleansing means; (d) cleansing the solution to thereby separate polychlorinated biphenyls from the dielectric fluid so that the dielectric fluid is re-usable; and (e) recirculating the dielectric fluid back to the electrical apparatus for reuse, the steps effectively and substantially removing the polychlorinated biphenyls from the electrical apparatus so that the leaching of residual polychlorinated biphenyls into the dielectric fluid will not exceed 50 ppm.

  17. Course Syllabus Course name: Radar Meteorology

    E-print Network

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    Course Syllabus Course name: Radar Meteorology Course number: AT741 Instructor: Prof. Steven a foundational understanding of radar meteorology. Topics presented include microwave scattering theory, Doppler is to provide the student with a working knowledge of radar meteorology including applications to remote sensing

  18. Radar Soundings of the Ionosphere of Mars

    E-print Network

    Gurnett, Donald A.

    Radar Soundings of the Ionosphere of Mars D. A. Gurnett,1 * D. L. Kirchner,1 R. L. Huff,1 D. D4 We report the first radar soundings of the ionosphere of Mars with the MARSIS (Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding) instrument on board the orbiting Mars Express spacecraft. Several types

  19. 46 CFR 184.404 - Radars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radars. 184.404 Section 184.404 Shipping... Navigation Equipment § 184.404 Radars. (a) A vessel must be fitted with...Commission (FCC) type accepted general marine radar system for surface navigation with...

  20. 46 CFR 121.404 - Radars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radars. 121.404 Section 121.404 Shipping... Navigation Equipment § 121.404 Radars. (a) Except as allowed by paragraph...Commission (FCC) type accepted general marine radar system for surface navigation with...

  1. 46 CFR 121.404 - Radars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radars. 121.404 Section 121.404 Shipping... Navigation Equipment § 121.404 Radars. (a) Except as allowed by paragraph...Commission (FCC) type accepted general marine radar system for surface navigation with...

  2. 46 CFR 108.717 - Radar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radar. 108.717 Section 108.717 Shipping...Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.717 Radar. Each self-propelled unit of 1...coastwise service must have— (a) A marine radar system for surface navigation; and...

  3. 46 CFR 184.404 - Radars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radars. 184.404 Section 184.404 Shipping... Navigation Equipment § 184.404 Radars. (a) A vessel must be fitted with...Commission (FCC) type accepted general marine radar system for surface navigation with...

  4. 46 CFR 169.726 - Radar reflector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radar reflector. 169.726 Section 169...Systems, and Equipment § 169.726 Radar reflector. Each nonmetallic vessel less than 90 feet in length must exhibit a radar reflector of suitable size and design...

  5. 46 CFR 130.310 - Radar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radar. 130.310 Section 130.310 Shipping... Navigational Equipment § 130.310 Radar. Each vessel of 100 or more gross tons must be fitted with a general marine radar in the...

  6. 46 CFR 169.726 - Radar reflector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radar reflector. 169.726 Section 169...Systems, and Equipment § 169.726 Radar reflector. Each nonmetallic vessel less than 90 feet in length must exhibit a radar reflector of suitable size and design...

  7. 46 CFR 167.40-40 - Radar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radar. 167.40-40 Section 167.40-40...Equipment Requirements § 167.40-40 Radar. All mechanically propelled vessels...coastwise service must be fitted with a marine radar system for surface navigation....

  8. 46 CFR 15.815 - Radar observers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radar observers. 15.815 Section 15.815...REQUIREMENTS Computations § 15.815 Radar observers. (a) Each person in...vessels of 300 gross tons or over which are radar equipped, shall hold an endorsement...

  9. 46 CFR 130.310 - Radar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radar. 130.310 Section 130.310 Shipping... Navigational Equipment § 130.310 Radar. Each vessel of 100 or more gross tons must be fitted with a general marine radar in the...

  10. 46 CFR 121.404 - Radars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radars. 121.404 Section 121.404 Shipping... Navigation Equipment § 121.404 Radars. (a) Except as allowed by paragraph...Commission (FCC) type accepted general marine radar system for surface navigation with...

  11. 46 CFR 11.480 - Radar observer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radar observer. 11.480 Section 11.480...Requirements for Deck Officers § 11.480 Radar observer. (a) This section contains...that an applicant must meet to qualify as a radar observer. (Part 15 of this chapter...

  12. 46 CFR 121.404 - Radars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radars. 121.404 Section 121.404 Shipping... Navigation Equipment § 121.404 Radars. (a) Except as allowed by paragraph...Commission (FCC) type accepted general marine radar system for surface navigation with...

  13. 46 CFR 184.404 - Radars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radars. 184.404 Section 184.404 Shipping... Navigation Equipment § 184.404 Radars. (a) A vessel must be fitted with...Commission (FCC) type accepted general marine radar system for surface navigation with...

  14. 46 CFR 130.310 - Radar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radar. 130.310 Section 130.310 Shipping... Navigational Equipment § 130.310 Radar. Each vessel of 100 or more gross tons must be fitted with a general marine radar in the...

  15. 46 CFR 167.40-40 - Radar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radar. 167.40-40 Section 167.40-40...Equipment Requirements § 167.40-40 Radar. All mechanically propelled vessels...coastwise service must be fitted with a marine radar system for surface navigation....

  16. 46 CFR 167.40-40 - Radar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radar. 167.40-40 Section 167.40-40...Equipment Requirements § 167.40-40 Radar. All mechanically propelled vessels...coastwise service must be fitted with a marine radar system for surface navigation....

  17. 46 CFR 11.480 - Radar observer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radar observer. 11.480 Section 11.480...Requirements for Deck Officers § 11.480 Radar observer. (a) This section contains...that an applicant must meet to qualify as a radar observer. (Part 15 of this chapter...

  18. 46 CFR 184.404 - Radars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radars. 184.404 Section 184.404 Shipping... Navigation Equipment § 184.404 Radars. (a) A vessel must be fitted with...Commission (FCC) type accepted general marine radar system for surface navigation with...

  19. 46 CFR 11.480 - Radar observer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radar observer. 11.480 Section 11.480...Requirements for Deck Officers § 11.480 Radar observer. (a) This section contains...that an applicant must meet to qualify as a radar observer. (Part 15 of this chapter...

  20. 46 CFR 184.404 - Radars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radars. 184.404 Section 184.404 Shipping... Navigation Equipment § 184.404 Radars. (a) A vessel must be fitted with...Commission (FCC) type accepted general marine radar system for surface navigation with...