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1

Radar transponder apparatus and signal processing technique.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An active, phase-coded, time-grating transponder and a synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) and signal processor means, in combination, allow the recognition and location of the transponder (tag) in the SAR image and allow communication of information messages ...

R. M. Axline G. R. Sloan R. E. Spalding

1994-01-01

2

Radar transponder apparatus and signal processing technique  

DOEpatents

An active, phase-coded, time-grating transponder and a synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) and signal processor means, in combination, allow the recognition and location of the transponder (tag) in the SAR image and allow communication of information messages from the transponder to the SAR. The SAR is an illuminating radar having special processing modifications in an image-formation processor to receive an echo from a remote transponder, after the transponder receives and retransmits the SAR illuminations, and to enhance the transponder`s echo relative to surrounding ground clutter by recognizing special transponder modulations from phase-shifted from the transponder retransmissions. The remote radio-frequency tag also transmits information to the SAR through a single antenna that also serves to receive the SAR illuminations. Unique tag-modulation and SAR signal processing techniques, in combination, allow the detection and precise geographical location of the tag through the reduction of interfering signals from ground clutter, and allow communication of environmental and status information from said tag to be communicated to said SAR. 4 figs.

Axline, R.M. Jr.; Sloan, G.R.; Spalding, R.E.

1996-01-23

3

Radar transponder apparatus and signal processing technique  

DOEpatents

An active, phase-coded, time-grating transponder and a synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) and signal processor means, in combination, allow the recognition and location of the transponder (tag) in the SAR image and allow communication of information messages from the transponder to the SAR. The SAR is an illuminating radar having special processing modifications in an image-formation processor to receive an echo from a remote transponder, after the transponder receives and retransmits the SAR illuminations, and to enhance the transponder's echo relative to surrounding ground clutter by recognizing special transponder modulations from phase-shifted from the transponder retransmissions. The remote radio-frequency tag also transmits information to the SAR through a single antenna that also serves to receive the SAR illuminations. Unique tag-modulation and SAR signal processing techniques, in combination, allow the detection and precise geographical location of the tag through the reduction of interfering signals from ground clutter, and allow communication of environmental and status information from said tag to be communicated to said SAR.

Axline, Jr., Robert M. (Albuquerque, NM); Sloan, George R. (Albuquerque, NM); Spalding, Richard E. (Albuquerque, NM)

1996-01-01

4

A lighter transponder for harmonic radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lighter transponder for harmonic radar was assembled using a dipole silver plated copper wire and a Schottky diode. Diode was assembled with solder paste and weighted 0.8 mg. With a 9.41 GHz oscillator (power 10 mW) illuminating the tag, the receiver signal at the spectrum analyzer input was -6.94 dBm

F. Meloche; P. M. Albert

2006-01-01

5

Removing interfering clutter associated with radar pulses that an airborne radar receives from a radar transponder  

DOEpatents

Interfering clutter in radar pulses received by an airborne radar system from a radar transponder can be suppressed by developing a representation of the incoming echo-voltage time-series that permits the clutter associated with predetermined parts of the time-series to be estimated. These estimates can be used to estimate and suppress the clutter associated with other parts of the time-series.

Ormesher, Richard C. (Albuquerque, NM); Axline, Robert M. (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-12-02

6

An Innovative Transponder-Based Interferometric Radar for Vibration Measurements  

SciTech Connect

Ground-based radar interferometry has recently emerged as an innovative technology of remote sensing, able to accurately measure the static or dynamic displacement of several points of a structure. This technique in the last couple of years has been applied to different types of structures, such as bridges, towers and chimneys. This paper presents a prototype system developed by IDS, originally aimed at measuring the structural vibrations of helicopter rotor blades, based on an interferometric technique and constituted by combination of a radar sensor and a series of transponders installed on the target structure. The main advantages of this solution with respect to conventional interferometric radars, are related to the increased spatial resolution of the system, provided by the possibility to discriminate different transponders installed within the same resolution cell of the radar sensor, and to the reduction of the ambient noise (e.g. multi-path) on the radar measurement. The first feature allows the use of the microwave technology even on target areas with limited dimensions, such as industrial facilities, while the second aspect may extend the use of radar interferometric systems to complex scenarios, where multi-reflections are expected due to the presence of natural targets with high reflectivity to the radar signal. In the paper, the system and its major characteristics are first described; subsequently, application to the measurement of ambient vibration response of a lab set-up is summarized. Then the data acquired on a rotating mock-up are reported and analyzed to identify natural frequencies and mode shapes of the investigated structure.

Coppi, F.; Cerutti, A.; Farina, P.; De Pasquale, G.; Novembrini, G. [IDS Ingegneria dei Sistemi S.p.A., Via Livornese 1019, Pisa (Italy)

2010-05-28

7

Radar transponder operation with compensation for distortion due to amplitude modulation  

DOEpatents

In radar transponder operation, a variably delayed gating signal is used to gate a received radar pulse and thereby produce a corresponding gated radar pulse for transmission back to the source of the received radar pulse. This compensates for signal distortion due to amplitude modulation on the retransmitted pulse.

Ormesher, Richard C. (Albuquerque, NM) [Albuquerque, NM; Tise, Bertice L. (Albuquerque, NM) [Albuquerque, NM; Axline, Jr., Robert M. (Albuquerque, NM)

2011-01-04

8

Radar transponder antenna pattern analysis for the space shuttle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to improve tracking capability, radar transponder antennas will soon be mounted on the Shuttle solid rocket boosters (SRB). These four antennas, each being identical cavity-backed helices operating at 5.765 GHz, will be mounted near the top of the SRB's, adjacent to the intertank portion of the external tank. The purpose is to calculate the roll-plane pattern (the plane perpendicular to the SRB axes and containing the antennas) in the presence of this complex electromagnetic environment. The large electrical size of this problem mandates an optical (asymptotic) approach. Development of a specific code for this application is beyond the scope of a summer fellowship; thus a general purpose code, the Numerical Electromagnetics Code - Basic Scattering Code, was chosen as the computational tool. This code is based on the modern Geometrical Theory of Diffraction, and allows computation of scattering of bodies composed of canonical problems such as plates and elliptic cylinders. Apertures mounted on a curved surface (the SRB) cannot be accomplished by the code, so an antenna model consisting of wires excited by a method of moments current input was devised that approximated the actual performance of the antennas. The improvised antenna model matched well with measurements taken at the MSFC range. The SRB's, the external tank, and the shuttle nose were modeled as circular cylinders, and the code was able to produce what is thought to be a reasonable roll-plane pattern.

Radcliff, Roger

1989-12-01

9

Low Profile Harmonic Radar Transponder for Tracking Small Endangered Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fragmentation of threatened species' habitat attributable to anthropogenic activity is a major concern. Understanding these animals' dispersal ecology and range utilization can greatly aid in designing preserves for their conservation, but this data is extremely difficult to obtain for populations of small animals. Presented here is a study miniature passive harmonic radar tags which allow the tracking of an endangered

John Kiriazi; Jayson Nakakura; V. Lubecke; K. Hall

2007-01-01

10

Low profile harmonic radar transponder for tracking small endangered species.  

PubMed

Fragmentation of threatened species' habitat attributable to anthropogenic activity is a major concern. Understanding these animals' dispersal ecology and range utilization can greatly aid in designing preserves for their conservation, but this data is extremely difficult to obtain for populations of small animals. Presented here is a study miniature passive harmonic radar tags which allow the tracking of an endangered snail species without adversely affecting the tagged subjects. Whip antennas were found to be problematic through snagging and interference with snail activity. Alternative low-profile planar antennas were also tested, with bow-tie related antenna forms providing reasonable (up to 7 ft) detection range. PMID:18002461

Kiriazi, John; Nakakura, Jayson; Hall, Kevin; Hafner, Noah; Lubecke, Victor

2007-01-01

11

Methods and apparatus for switching a transponder to an active state, and asset management systems employing same  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A transponder that may be used as an RFID tag includes a passive circuit to eliminate the need for an "always on" active RF receiving element to anticipate a wake-up signal for the balance of the transponder electronics. This solution allows the entire active transponder to have all circuit elements in a sleep (standby) state, thus drastically extending battery life or other charge storage device life. Also, a wake-up solution that reduces total energy consumption of an active transponder system by allowing all non-addressed transponders to remain in a sleep (standby) state, thereby reducing total system or collection energy. Also, the transponder and wake-up solution are employed in an asset tracking system.

Mickle, Marlin H. (Inventor); Jones, Alex K. (Inventor); Cain, James T. (Inventor); Hawrylak, Peter J. (Inventor); Marx, Frank (Inventor); Hoare, Raymond R. (Inventor)

2012-01-01

12

Methods and apparatus for switching a transponder to an active state, and asset management systems employing same  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A transponder that may be used as an RFID tag includes a passive circuit to eliminate the need for an "always on" active RF receiving element to anticipate a wake-up signal for the balance of the transponder electronics. This solution allows the entire active transponder to have all circuit elements in a sleep (standby) state, thus drastically extending battery life or other charge storage device life. Also, a wake-up solution that reduces total energy consumption of an active transponder system by allowing all non-addressed transponders to remain in a sleep (standby) state, thereby reducing total system or collection energy. Also, the transponder and wake-up solution are employed in an asset tracking system.

Mickle, Marlin H. (Inventor); Jones, Alex K. (Inventor); Cain, James T. (Inventor); Hawrylak, Peter J. (Inventor); Marx, Frank (Inventor); Hoare, Raymond R. (Inventor)

2011-01-01

13

Transponder News  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Transponder News offers several articles that explore the technology of radio frequency identification (RFID) in greater detail. Topics include choosing the frequency, types of RFID systems, suppliers, trends, and technical reports. Visitors will also find links to interviews, standards, and registration for Transponder News' newsletter of site updates.

Marsh, Mike

1969-12-31

14

RaDARSAT precision transponder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the set of four RADARSAT Precision Transponders (RPTs) developed for the Canadian Space Agency for the calibration and qualification of the spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) carried on the Canadian remote sensing satellite known as RADARSAT, launched in November, 1995. The transponder system block diagram, RF diagram, and specification development are described, as well as the overall program which gives the transponder function in the calibration program for RADARSAT. The transponders are deployed at four strategically situated sites across Canada: Fredericton, NB; Ottawa, Ont.; Prince Albert, Sask.; and Resolute, NWT. Some details of the sites and their sensor visitation characteristics are given. Also provided are some early results showing the use and performance of the transponders using ERS-1/2 and RADARSAT.

Hawkins, R. K.; Teany, L. D.; Srivastava, S.; Tam, S. Y. K.

1997-05-01

15

Moving receive beam method and apparatus for synthetic aperture radar  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for improving the performance of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems by reducing the effect of "edge losses" associated with nonuniform receiver antenna gain. By moving the receiver antenna pattern in synchrony with the apparent motion of the transmitted pulse along the ground, the maximum available receiver antenna gain can be used at all times. Also, the receiver antenna gain for range-ambiguous return signals may be reduced, in some cases, by a large factor. The beam motion can be implemented by real-time adjustment of phase shifters in an electronically-steered phased-array antenna or by electronic switching of feed horns in a reflector antenna system.

Kare, Jordin T. (San Ramon, CA)

2001-01-01

16

Transponder altimetry: Precise height measurements over land  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel experiment, coordinated by the University of Newcastle and Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of measuring relative height differences using transponder altimetry. This technique used the radar altimeter onboard the first European Remote-sensing Satellite, ERS-1, in conjunction with active ground-based microwave transponders. Two transponders were placed 127 km apart, one in the foothills close to Venice and the second, 1000 m higher in the Austrian Alps. The sites were chosen to coincide with the ground track of ERS-1 and also to be within the altimeter calibration zone which provided reliable ERS-1 orbits. Coincident observations at both transponder sites were made for a total of five overpasses. These measurements were subsequently compared with a height difference determined using the Global Positioning System (GPS). The experiment has estimated the precision of the transponder derived height difference by differencing the observed and computed transponder ranges at both transponder sites. The precision of one transponder-derived height difference, based on four of the recorded passes, is estimated as ±3.5 cm and the standard deviation of the mean is ±1.7 cm. This implies that the standard deviation of one transponder range at a single site is ±2.5 cm. The precision of the height difference derived from the GPS network was ±3.1 cm and thus the ground-based transponders have performed, as a height difference measurement system, to a comparable accuracy to that of GPS. Ground-based transponders do, however, have the significant practical advantage of being able to be operated in a simpler, automatic, and possibly more economical mode of operation. Data collection takes place onboard the space vehicle and power requirements can be made such that the equipment could be left unattended for many months. This makes the equipment especially suitable for hostile environments, for example, measuring the vertical precursory motion of volcanoes and for situations where long-period observations are needed such as the monitoring of subsidence or sea level changes.

Denys, Paul; Birks, Andrew; Cross, Paul; Powell, John; Bürki, Beat

1995-12-01

17

Retrodirective Noise-Correlating (RNC) Radar Methods and Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Embodiments of the present invention provide retrodirective noise-correlating radar that include: (1) a transmit antenna array that quiescently transmits random noise; (2) a receive antenna array, in a desired spatial relationship with the transmit antenn...

E. R. Brown

2005-01-01

18

Method and Apparatus for Reading Two Dimensional Identification Symbols Using Radar Techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method and apparatus are provided for sensing two-dimensional identification marks provided on a substrate or embedded within a substrate below a surface of the substrate. Micropower impulse radar is used to transmit a high risetime, short duration pulse to a focussed radar target area of the substrate having the two dimensional identification marks. The method further includes the steps of listening for radar echoes returned from the identification marks during a short listening period window occurring a predetermined time after transmission of the radar pulse. If radar echoes are detected, an image processing step is carried out. If no radar echoes are detected, the method further includes sequentially transmitting further high risetime, short duration pulses, and listening for radar echoes from each of said further pulses after different elapsed times for each of the further pulses until radar echoes are detected. When radar echoes are detected, data based on the detected echoes is processed to produce an image of the identification marks.

Schramm, Harry F., Jr. (Inventor); Roxby, Donald L. (Inventor)

2003-01-01

19

Development of a Radar-Frequency Metamaterial Measurement and Characterization Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall purpose of this research was to design, build, and test an apparatus for the measurement and characterization of radar-frequency metamaterial performance in the S-band through Ku-band (2-18 GHz). Measurement and characterization is vital to me...

S. I. Faris

2012-01-01

20

Harmonic automotive radar for VRU classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A harmonic radar and set of passive transponders are used for detection and identification of vulnerable road users (VRU) in automotive applications. The radar system transmits a signal consisting of two distinct frequency components in the 76-81 GHz band. A small transponder is carried by the VRU. The antenna and the electric circuitry of the transponder are printed on flexible

Jone Saebboe; Ville Viikari; Timo Varpula; Heikki Seppä; Shi Cheng; M. Al-Nuaimi; P. Hallbjorner; A. Rydberg

2009-01-01

21

SHORT-PULSE ELECTROMAGNETIC TRANSPONDER FOR HOLE-TO-HOLE USE.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hole-to-hole observations were made through nearly 20 m of granite using an electromagnetic transponder (an active reflector) in one borehole and a single-hole short-pulse radar in another. The transponder is inexpensive, operationally simple, and effective in extending the capability of a short-pulse borehole radar system to allow hole-to-hole operation without requiring timing cables. A detector in the transponder senses the arrival of each pulse from the radar. Each pulse detection triggers a kilovolt-amplitude pulse for retransmission. The transponder 'echo' may be stronger than that of a passive reflector by a factor of as much as 120 db. The result is an increase in range capability by a factor which depends on attenuation in the medium and hole-to-hole wavepath geometry.

Wright, David, L.; Watts, Raymond, D.; Bramsoe, Erik

1983-01-01

22

Method and apparatus for measuring distance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The invention employs a continuous wave radar technique and apparatus which can be used as a distance measuring system in the presence of background clutter by utilizing small passive transponders. A first continuous electromagnetic wave signal S sub 1 at a first frequency f sub 1 is transmitted from a first location. A transponder carried by a target object positioned at a second (remote) location receives the transmitted signal, phase-coherently divides the f sub 1 frequency and its phase, and re-transmits the transmitted signal as a second continuous electromagnetic wave signal S sub 2 at a lower frequency f sub 2 which is a subharmonic of f sub 1. The re-transmitted signal is received at the first location where a measurement of the phase difference is made between the signals S sub 1 and S sub 2, such measuremnt being indicative of the distance between the first and second locations.

Lichtenberg, Christopher L.; Shores, Paul W.; Kobayashi, Herbert S.

1988-07-01

23

Digital Baseband Architecture For Transponder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed advanced transponder for long-distance radio communication system with turnaround ranging contains carrier-signal-tracking loop including baseband digital "front end." For reduced cost, transponder includes analog intermediate-frequency (IF) section and analog automatic gain control (AGC) loop at first of two IF mixers. However, second IF mixer redesigned to ease digitization of baseband functions. To conserve power and provide for simpler and smaller transponder hardware, baseband digital signal-processing circuits designed to implement undersampling scheme. Furthermore, sampling scheme and sampling frequency chosen so redesign involves minimum modification of command-detector unit (CDU).

Nguyen, Tien M.; Yeh, Hen-Geul

1995-01-01

24

GEOS-C C-band transponder prelaunch calibration and test data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The delay characteristics and spacecraft telemetry housekeeping data for the GEOS-C C-Band transponders are presented. The data are presented in graphical form to provide a convenient method for computing radar range measurement corrections as a function of signal strength at the transponder and spacecraft environment. The data are also presented in tabular form along with the mathematical models used to derive the curves. Also included are a list of the operating characteristics of each transponder and a description of the calibration test equipment set-up.

Selser, A. R.

1976-01-01

25

Advanced millimeter-wave transponder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A millimeter-wave satellite transponder with a 50 GHz/40 GHz through repeater is being developed. The key devices of the transponder are described, including the low-noise amplifier (LNA), high-power TWTA, and local oscillator. The design targets are a noise figure of less than 3 dB at 47 GHz for the LNA, an output power of over 20 W at 43 GHz for the TWTA, and a frequency stability within +/- 1 x 10 exp -7 at 7 MHz for the master oscillator.

Kitazume, Susumu; Takano, Eiji

1992-03-01

26

Microwave and optical lunar transponders  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The scientific areas which used data from the Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment, collected from measurements to the Apollo 11, 14, and 15 and Lunakhod 2, include lunar science (i.e., studies of variations in the lunar angular orientation from that for uniform rotation, lunar tidal displacements, and the lunar mass distribution), geodynamics, astrometry, and gravitational physics. This paper argues that the placement of microwave and optical transponders on the moon would improve the accuracy of laser range measurements by nearly two orders of magnitude and would simplify the measurements. The K-band microwave transponders would be operated at the lunar base and at two remote sites on the moon surface, yielding much improved lunar libration and tidal displacement measurements. A two-wavelength laser transponder also would be operated at the lunar base, allowing accurate tropospheric propagation corrections to be made. This would introduce major improvements in measurements of the lunar orbit and of the earth's rotation, and in tests of general relativity.

Bender, P. L.; Faller, J. E.; Hall, J. L.; Degnan, J. J.; Dickey, J. O.; Newhall, X. X.; Williams, J. G.; King, R. W.; Macknik, L. O.; O'Gara, D.

1990-01-01

27

Evaluation of transponder antenna coverage\\/ATCRBS during simulated flights of aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer model was used to analyze the effect of aircraft orientation on the performance of the Air Traffic Control Radar Beacon System (ATCRBS). Flights by Cessna 150, Boeing 727, Boeing 747, and F-4H aircraft over a common flight route out of La Guardia Airport were simulated. Transponder\\/antenna performance for various aircraft attitudes and locations along the flight path was

T. Gibson

1979-01-01

28

Study to investigate and evaluate means of optimizing the radar function. [systems engineering of pulse radar for the space shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The investigations for a rendezvous radar system design and an integrated radar/communication system design are presented. Based on these investigations, system block diagrams are given and system parameters are optimized for the noncoherent pulse and coherent pulse Doppler radar modulation types. Both cooperative (transponder) and passive radar operation are examined including the optimization of the corresponding transponder design for the cooperative mode of operation.

1975-01-01

29

The NASA Spacecraft Transponding Modem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new deep space transponder is being developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA. The Spacecraft Transponding Modem (STM) implements the standard transponder functions and the channel service functions that have previously resided in spacecraft Command/Data Subsystems. The STM uses custom ASICs, MMICs, and MCMs to reduce the active device parts count to 70, mass to I kg, and volume to 524 cc. The first STMs will be flown on missions launching in the 2003 time frame. The STM tracks an X-band uplink signal and provides both X-band and Ka-band downlinks, either coherent or non-coherent with the uplink. A NASA standard Command Detector Unit is integrated into the STM, along with a codeblock processor and a hardware command decoder. The decoded command codeblocks are output to the spacecraft command/data subsystem. Virtual Channel 0 (VC-0) (hardware) commands are processed and output as critical controller (CRC) commands. Downlink telemetry is received from the spacecraft data subsystem as telemetry frames. The STM provides the following downlink coding options: the standard CCSDS (7-1/2) convolutional coding, ReedSolomon coding with interleave depths one and five, (15-1/6) convolutional coding, and Turbo coding with rates 1/3 and 1/6. The downlink symbol rates can be linearly ramped to match the G/T curve of the receiving station, providing up to a 1 dB increase in data return. Data rates range from 5 bits per second (bps) to 24 Mbps, with three modulation modes provided: modulated subcarrier (3 different frequencies provided), biphase-L modulated direct on carrier, and Offset QPSK. Also, the capability to generate one of four non-harmonically related telemetry beacon tones is provided, to allow for a simple spacecraft status monitoring scheme for cruise phases of missions. Three ranging modes are provided: standard turn around ranging, regenerative pseudo-noise (PN) ranging, and Differential One-way Ranging (DOR) tones. The regenerative ranging provides the capability of increasing the ground received ranging SNR by up to 30 dB. Two different avionics interfaces to the command/data subsystem's data bus are provided: a MIL STD 1553B bus or an industry standard PCI interface. Digital interfaces provide the capability to control antenna selection (e.g., switching between high gain and low gain antennas) and antenna pointing (for future steered Ka-band antennas).

Berner, Jeff B.; Kayalar, Selahattin; Perret, Jonathan D.

2000-01-01

30

Radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 1,000,000 km2 of the equatorial surface of Mars west of the Arsia Mons volcano displays no 3.5-cm radar echo to the very low level of the radar system noise for the Very Large Array; the area displaying this unique property has been terms \\

James R. Zimbelman; Kenneth S. Edgett

1994-01-01

31

The 30/20 Gigahertz transponder study. [wideband multichannel transponders for a communications satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design features and performance parameters are described for three types of wideband multiple channel satellite transponders for use in a 30/20 GHz communications satellite, which provides high data rate trunking service to ten ground station terminals. The three types of transponder are frequency division multiplex (FDM), time division multiplex (TDM), and a hybrid transponder using a combination of FDM and TDM techniques. The wideband multiple beam trunking concept, the traffic distribution between the trunking terminals, and system design constraints are discussed. The receiver front end design, the frequency conversion scheme, and the local oscillator design are described including the thermal interface between the transponders and the satellite. The three designs are compared with regard to performance, weight, power, cost and initial technology. Simplified block diagrams of the baseline transponder designs are included.

1980-01-01

32

TDRS multimode transponder program. Phase 1: Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of geosynchronous tracking and data relay satellites (TDRS) which can serve both low data rate users at VHF and high data rate users at other frequencies is considered. The effects of radio frequency interference from the earth and of multipath propagation due to reflections from the earth are expected to pose problems for the TDRS system at VHF. Investigations suggest several modulation techniques that offer promise to overcome these problems. This report provides a complete design of a VHF/UHF multimode transponder and its associated ground support equipment. The transponder is designed for installation aboard an aircraft and will demonstrate candidate modulation techniques to provide the required information for the design of an eventual VHF/UHF transponder suitable for installation in a user satellite, capable of operating as part of a TDRS system.

Cnossen, R. S.

1972-01-01

33

A cooperative transponder system for improved traffic safety, localizing road users in the 5 GHz band  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a multi-user cooperative mobile transponder system which enables cars to localize pedestrians, bicyclists and other road users in order to improve traffic safety. The system operates at a center frequency of 5.768 GHz, offering the ability to test precision localization technology at frequencies close to the newly designated automotive safety related bands around 5.9 GHz. By carrying out a roundtrip time of flight measurement, the sensor can determine the distance from the onboard localization unit of a car to a road user who is equipped with an active transponder, employing the idea of a secondary radar and pulse compression. The onboard unit sends out a pseudo noise coded interrogation pulse, which is answered by one or more transponders after a short waiting time. Each transponder uses a different waiting time in order to allow for time division multiple access. We present the system setup as well as range measurement results, achieving an accuracy up to centimeters for the distance measurement and a range in the order of hundred meters. We also discuss the effect of clock drift and offset on distance accuracy for different waiting times and show how the system can be improved to further increase precision in a multiuser environment.

Schaffer, B.; Kalverkamp, G.; Chaabane, M.; Biebl, E. M.

2012-09-01

34

Recent developments and recommendations for improving harmonic radar tracking systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents some recent developments in harmonic radar tracking systems. These are widely used for monitoring and tracking of low flying insects like honey bees, butterflies, snail and carabid beetles, and come under the category of individual marking techniques and use harmonic range detection or range finding for tracking insects tagged with harmonic transponders. In most cases the transponder

Nazifa Tahir; Graham Brooker

2011-01-01

35

Theory and application of passive SAW radio transponders as sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface acoustic wave (SAW) radio transponders make it possible to read identification codes or measurement values from a remote location. The decisive advantage of these SAW transponders lies in their passive operation (i.e., no power-supply), and in the possibility of wireless installation at particularly inaccessible locations. The passive SAW transponders are maintenance free. Identification marks respond to an interrogation signal

Leonhard Reindl; Gerd Scholl; Thomas Ostertag; Holger Scherr; U. Wolff; Frank Schmidt

1998-01-01

36

TDRSS multimode transponder program S-band modification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The S-Band TDRS multimode transponder and its associated ground support equipment is described. The transponder demonstrates candidate modulation techniques to provide the required information for the design of an eventual S-band transponder suitable for installation in a user satellite, capable of operating as part of a Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) system.

Mackey, J. E.

1975-01-01

37

Method and apparatus for Delta Kappa synthetic aperture radar measurement of ocean current  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A synthetic aperture radar (SAR) employed for delta k measurement of ocean current from a spacecraft without the need for a narrow beam and long observation times. The SAR signal is compressed to provide image data for different sections of the chirp band width, equivalent to frequencies and a common area for the separate image fields is selected. The image for the selected area at each frequency is deconvolved to obtain the image signals for the different frequencies and the same area. A product of pairs of signals is formed, Fourier transformed and squared. The spectrum thus obtained from different areas for the same pair of frequencies are added to provide an improved signal to noise ratio. The shift of the peak from the center of the spectrum is measured and compared to the expected shift due to the phase velocity of the Bragg scattering wave. Any difference is a measure of current velocity v sub o (delta k).

Jain, A. (inventor)

1985-01-01

38

Advanced transponders for deep space applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three architectures for advanced deep space transponders are proposed. The architectures possess various digital techniques such as fast Fourier transform (FFT), digital phase-locked loop (PLL), and digital sideband aided carrier detection with analog or digital turn-around ranging. Preliminary results on the design and conceptual implementation are presented. Modifications to the command detector unit (CDU) are also presented.

Nguyen, Tien M.; Kayalar, Selahattin; Yeh, Hen-Geul; Kyriacou, Charles

1993-01-01

39

Multifunctional Reference Cells for Multistandard RFID Transponders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper at first illustrates implementation aspects and measurement results of a subcomponent for a multistandard RF identification (RFID) transponder. It is intended to be a common reference cell, both for basic UHF requirements and advanced application fields like local positioning and wireless sensing. Different single circuit topologies shown in previous studies or literature and their applicability for that RFID

Juergen Heidrich; Daniel Brenk; Jochen Essel; Matthias Heinrich; Guenter Hofer; Gerald Holweg; Stefan Schwarzer; Johannes Meyer; René Herschmann; Bernd Geck; Robert Weigel; Georg Fischer

2011-01-01

40

Method and apparatus for reducing range ambiguity in synthetic aperture radar  

SciTech Connect

A modified Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system is disclosed with reduced sensitivity to range ambiguities, and which uses secondary receiver channels to detect the range ambiguous signals and subtract them from the signal received by the main channel. Both desired and range ambiguous signals are detected by a main receiver and by one or more identical secondary receivers. All receivers are connected to a common antenna with two or more feed systems offset in elevation e.g., a reflector antenna with multiple feed horns or a phased array with multiple phase shift networks. The secondary receiver output(s) is (are) then subtracted from the main receiver output in such a way as to cancel the ambiguous signals while only slightly attenuating the desired signal and slightly increasing the noise in the main channel, and thus does not significantly affect the desired signal. This subtraction may be done in real time, or the outputs of the receivers may be recorded separately and combined during signal processing.

Kare, J.T.

1999-10-26

41

Method and apparatus for reducing range ambiguity in synthetic aperture radar  

DOEpatents

A modified Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system with reduced sensitivity to range ambiguities, and which uses secondary receiver channels to detect the range ambiguous signals and subtract them from the signal received by the main channel. Both desired and range ambiguous signals are detected by a main receiver and by one or more identical secondary receivers. All receivers are connected to a common antenna with two or more feed systems offset in elevation (e.g., a reflector antenna with multiple feed horns or a phased array with multiple phase shift networks. The secondary receiver output(s) is (are) then subtracted from the main receiver output in such a way as to cancel the ambiguous signals while only slightly attenuating the desired signal and slightly increasing the noise in the main channel, and thus does not significantly affect the desired signal. This subtraction may be done in real time, or the outputs of the receivers may be recorded separately and combined during signal processing.

Kare, Jordin T. (San Ramon, CA)

1999-10-26

42

Vehicle Transponder for Preemption of Traffic Lights  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this article is to describe, in more detail, the transponder installed in each vehicle that participates in the emergency traffic-light-preemption system described in the immediately preceding article. The transponder (see figure) is a fully autonomous data--collection, data-processing, information-display, and communication subsystem that performs robustly in preemption of traffic lights and monitoring of the statuses of street intersections. This transponder monitors the condition of the emergency vehicle in which it is installed and determines when the vehicle has been placed in an emergency-response condition with its siren and/or warning lights activated. Upon detection of such a condition, the transponder collects real-time velocity and acceleration data from the onboard diagnostic (OBD) computer of the vehicle. For this purpose, the transponder contains an OBD interface circuit, including a microprocessor that determines the manufacturer and model of the vehicle and then sends the appropriate commands to the OBD computer requesting the speed and acceleration data. At the same time, data from an onboard navigation system are collected to determine the location and the heading of the vehicle. Then acceleration, speed, position, and heading data are processed and combined with a vehicle-identification number and the resulting set of data is transmitted to monitoring and control units located at all intersections within communication range. When the unit at an intersection determines that this vehicle is approaching and has priority to preempt the intersection, it transmits a signal declaring the priority and the preemption to all participating vehicles (including this one) in the vicinity. If the unit at the intersection has determined that other participating vehicles are also approaching the intersection, then this unit also transmits, to the vehicle that has priority, a message that the other vehicles are approaching the same intersection. The texts of these messages, plus graphical symbols that show the directions and numbers of the approaching vehicles, are presented on the display panel of a computer that is part of the transponder.

Foster, Conrad; Bachelder, Aaron

2006-01-01

43

A modular programmable digital UHF transponder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A reprogrammable digital transponder architecture allows a common product design to be scaled to meet varying user capacity requirements, match the transponder to the spacecraft resources, and maximize affordability by minimizing non-recurring costs. On-orbit frequency programmability permits the design and hardware development to proceed in parallel with the frequency coordination process, reducing schedule risks and providing operational flexibility. Leverage of digital processing technologies achieves improved channel performance characteristics compared with traditional implementations while also allowing channel characteristics such as selectivity, adjacent channel rejection, and channel frequency plans to be altered in response to the on-orbit interference environment. Channel passband shapes can also be altered for higher capacity waveforms that require different passband shapes or that need improved phase linearity over wider passbands than legacy waveforms. The ability to change these parameters on-orbit in response to upgraded ground terminal technology made possible by software-based radios will allow extended mission life without compromising communications capabilities. An ultra-high frequency (UHF) transponder with a scalable, expandable (or contractible) modular architecture, on-orbit frequency selection over entire communications bands, and functional reprogrammability through digital signal processing capabilities is described.

Harris, Mark; Dobrzanski, Joe

2005-06-01

44

Comparison of digital rectal and microchip transponder thermometry in cats.  

PubMed

This study compares the use of traditional rectal thermometry with an implantable microchip temperature transponder in cats. The microchip transponder was implanted over the shoulder blades and was programmed with cat identification information. Concurrently, the cats were involved in a study in which they were infected experimentally with feline herpesvirus 1; this situation enabled temperature comparisons in both normal and abnormal ranges. Results from the microchip transponder technique were compared with rectal thermometry by using a concordance test of agreement. These data revealed close agreement between rectal and microchip transponder thermometry in the cat at both normal and abnormal temperature ranges. PMID:19653950

Quimby, Jessica M; Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Lappin, Michael R

2009-07-01

45

Comparison of Digital Rectal and Microchip Transponder Thermometry in Cats  

PubMed Central

This study compares the use of traditional rectal thermometry with an implantable microchip temperature transponder in cats. The microchip transponder was implanted over the shoulder blades and was programmed with cat identification information. Concurrently, the cats were involved in a study in which they were infected experimentally with feline herpesvirus 1; this situation enabled temperature comparisons in both normal and abnormal ranges. Results from the microchip transponder technique were compared with rectal thermometry by using a concordance test of agreement. These data revealed close agreement between rectal and microchip transponder thermometry in the cat at both normal and abnormal temperature ranges.

Quimby, Jessica M; Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Lappin, Michael R

2009-01-01

46

Asynchronous Laser Transponders for Precise Interplanetary Ranging and Time Transfer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of a two-way asynchronous (i.e. independently firing) interplanetary laser transponder pair, capable of decimeter ranging and subnanosecond time transfer from Earth to a spacecraft anywhere within the inner Solar System, is discussed. In the Introduction, we briefly discuss the current state-of-the-art in Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) and Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) which use single-ended range measurements to a passive optical reflector, and the limitations of this approach in ranging beyond the Moon to the planets. In Section 2 of this paper, we describe two types of transponders (echo and asynchronous), introduce the transponder link equation and the concept of "balanced" transponders, describe how range and time can be transferred between terminals, and preview the potential advantages of photon counting asynchronous transponders for interplanetary applications. In Section 3, we discuss and provide mathematical models for the various sources of noise in an interplanetary transponder link including planetary albedo, solar or lunar illumination of the local atmosphere, and laser backscatter off the local atmosphere. In Section 4, we introduce the key engineering elements of an interplanetary laser transponder and develop an operational scenario for the acquisition and tracking of the opposite terminal. In Section 5, we use the theoretical models of th previous sections to perform an Earth-Mars link analysis over a full synodic period of 780 days under the simplifying assumption of coaxial, coplanar, circular orbits. We demonstrate that, using slightly modified versions of existing space and ground based laser systems, an Earth-Mars transponder link is not only feasible but quite robust. We also demonstrate through analysis the advantages and feasibility of compact, low output power (<300 mW photon-counting transponders using NASA's developmental SLR2000 satellite laser ranging system as the Earth terminal. Section 6 provides a summary of the results and some concluding remarks regarding future applications.

Degnan, John J.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

47

Using Transponders on the Moon to Increase Accuracy of GPS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has been proposed to place laser or radio transponders at suitably chosen locations on the Moon to increase the accuracy achievable using the Global Positioning System (GPS) or other satellite-based positioning system. The accuracy of GPS position measurements depends on the accuracy of determination of the ephemerides of the GPS satellites. These ephemerides are determined by means of ranging to and from Earth-based stations and consistency checks among the satellites. Unfortunately, ranging to and from Earth is subject to errors caused by atmospheric effects, notably including unpredictable variations in refraction. The proposal is based on exploitation of the fact that ranging between a GPS satellite and another object outside the atmosphere is not subject to error-inducing atmospheric effects. The Moon is such an object and is a convenient place for a ranging station. The ephemeris of the Moon is well known and, unlike a GPS satellite, the Moon is massive enough that its orbit is not measurably affected by the solar wind and solar radiation. According to the proposal, each GPS satellite would repeatedly send a short laser or radio pulse toward the Moon and the transponder(s) would respond by sending back a pulse and delay information. The GPS satellite could then compute its distance from the known position(s) of the transponder(s) on the Moon. Because the same hemisphere of the Moon faces the Earth continuously, any transponders placed there would remain continuously or nearly continuously accessible to GPS satellites, and so only a relatively small number of transponders would be needed to provide continuous coverage. Assuming that the transponders would depend on solar power, it would be desirable to use at least two transponders, placed at diametrically opposite points on the edges of the Moon disk as seen from Earth, so that all or most of the time, at least one of them would be in sunlight.

Penanen, Konstantin; Chui, Talso

2008-01-01

48

Tracking butterfly flight paths across the landscape with harmonic radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the first time, the flight paths of five butterfly species were successfully tracked using harmonic radar within an agricultural landscape. Until now, butterfly mobility has been predominantly studied using visual observations and mark-recapture experiments. Attachment of a light-weight radar transponder to the butterfly's thorax did not significantly affect behaviour or mobility. Tracks were analysed for straightness, duration, displacement, ground

E. T. Cant; A. D. Smith; D. R. Reynolds; J. L. Osborne

2005-01-01

49

Radar - The Future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Progress in civil and military radar units since the invention of radar in 1935 is summarized, noting the trend to multipurpose units. The earliest systems functioned at 10 cm, then 3 cm after development of a cavity magnetron to provide power for shorter wavelengths. Military needs are driving improvements in three-dimensional scanning capabilities, Primarily to locate aircraft in the presence of ground clutter and sea surface scattering. Autonomous, separate transmitter and receiver units are being tested. Lengthening ground-based radar wavelengths to tens of meters will permit over-the-horizon sensing with backscattering, ionospheric bounce, or induction of a potential in the sea surface as the possible techniques. Mode S monopulse radars will permit transponder queries between small and large aircraft. Finally, pulse Doppler SAR systems may afford terrain recognition with no corroborating data except an expert systems data base.

Warwick, G.

1985-02-01

50

Target Discrimination Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The target discrimination apparatus utilizes logic circuit which is positioned between the detection window and the clutter averaging cells of a conventional constant false alarm rate (CFAR) radar detector to provide better estimation of the clutter avera...

P. W. Chen

1979-01-01

51

78 FR 69318 - Airworthiness Directives; Rockwell Collins, Inc. Transponders  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Rockwell Collins, Inc. Transponders AGENCY: Federal...directive (AD) for certain Rockwell Collins TPR-720 and TPR-900 Mode select...in this proposed AD, contact Rockwell Collins, Inc., Collins Aviation...

2013-11-19

52

Detecting and mitigating wind turbine clutter for airspace radar systems.  

PubMed

It is well recognized that a wind turbine has a large radar cross-section (RCS) and, due to the movement of the blades, the wind turbine will generate a Doppler frequency shift. This scattering behavior may cause severe interferences on existing radar systems including static ground-based radars and spaceborne or airborne radars. To resolve this problem, efficient techniques or algorithms should be developed to mitigate the effects of wind farms on radars. Herein, one transponder-based mitigation technique is presented. The transponder is not a new concept, which has been proposed for calibrating high-resolution imaging radars. It modulates the radar signal in a manner that the retransmitted signals can be separated from the scene echoes. As wind farms often occupy only a small area, mitigation processing in the whole radar operation will be redundant and cost inefficient. Hence, this paper uses a transponder to determine whether the radar is impacted by the wind farms. If so, the effects of wind farms are then mitigated with subsequent Kalman filtering or plot target extraction algorithms. Taking airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and pulse Doppler radar as the examples, this paper provides the corresponding system configuration and processing algorithms. The effectiveness of the mitigation technique is validated by numerical simulation results. PMID:24385880

Wang, Wen-Qin

2013-01-01

53

Apollo 15 gravity analysis from the S -band transponder experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

TheS-Band Transponder experiment used precision doppler tracking data of the command and service module, the lunar module and the subsatellite to provide detailed information about the near side gravity field. No special instruments are required other than the existingS-Band transponder used for real time navigation. The data consists of variations in the spacecraft speed as measured by the earth-based radio

W. L. Sjogren; P. M. Muller; W. R. Wollenhaupt

1972-01-01

54

The European Communications Satellite multi-service transponder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The various ways in which the transponder can be used are described. It is noted that the multiservice transponder must provide data channels for the following rates: 64, 128, 256, and 1920 kbit\\/s in point-to-point and point-to-multipoint mode. Attention is called to the need for simple earth stations which will minimize the earth segment cost. It is shown that a

D. McGovern; K. Hodson

1983-01-01

55

Proposed microwave transponders for early lunar robotic landers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of placing Ka-band microwave transponders on the Moon with early robotic landers is being explored. For measurements from a single observatory on Earth to transponders at two or more well-separated lunar sites, the atmospheric corrrection uncertainty for the range difference would be about 0.05 mm. With the carrier phase difference as the observable, the overall accuracy goal for

Peter L. Bender

1994-01-01

56

Report on DABS/ATCRBS (Discrete Address Beacon System/Air Traffic Control Radar Beacon System) Field Testing Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the field test program was to verify laboratory measurements of the effect of discrete address beacon system uplink signal formats on air traffic control radar beacon system transponders. The DABS interrogations tested were: (1) a combined ...

E. A. Crocker J. R. Samson

1974-01-01

57

Wide Tuning Capability for Spacecraft Transponders  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A document presents additional information on the means of implementing a capability for wide tuning of microwave receiver and transmitter frequencies in the development reported in the immediately preceding article, VCO PLL Frequency Synthesizers for Spacecraft Transponders (NPO- 42909). The reference frequency for a PLL-based frequency synthesizer is derived from a numerically controlled oscillator (NCO) implemented in digital logic, such that almost any reference frequency can be derived from a fixed crystal reference oscillator with microhertz precision. The frequency of the NCO is adjusted to track the received signal, then used to create another NCO frequency used to synthesize the transmitted signal coherent with, and at a specified frequency ratio to, the received signal. The frequencies can be changed, even during operation, through suitable digital programming. The NCOs and the related tracking loops and coherent turnaround logic are implemented in a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The interface between the analog microwave receiver and transmitter circuits and the FPGA includes analog-to-digital and digital-toanalog converters, the sampling rates of which are chosen to minimize spurious signals and otherwise optimize performance. Several mixers and filters are used to properly route various signals.

Lux, James; Mysoor, Narayan; Shah, Biren; Cook, Brian; Smith, Scott

2007-01-01

58

TDRSS multimode transponder program. Phase 2: Equipment development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report contains a complete description of the TDRS Multimode Transponder and its associated ground support equipment. The transponder will demonstrate candidate modulation techniques to provide the required information for the design of an eventual VHF/UHF transponder suitable for installation in a user satellite, capable of operating as part of a Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) systems. Use of geosynchronous TDRS which can serve both low data rate users at VHF and high data rate users at other frequencies has been considered. The effects of radio frequency interference from the earth and of multipath propagation due to reflections from the earth are expected to pose problems for the TDRS system at VHF. Investigations have suggested several modulation techniques that offer promise to overcome these problems.

Cnossen, R. S.

1974-01-01

59

Proposed microwave transponders for early lunar robotic landers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility of placing Ka-band microwave transponders on the Moon with early robotic landers is being explored. For measurements from a single observatory on Earth to transponders at two or more well-separated lunar sites, the atmospheric corrrection uncertainty for the range difference would be about 0.05 mm. With the carrier phase difference as the observable, the overall accuracy goal for the range difference is about 0.2 mm, except for a constant bias. The factor 100 accuracy improvement compared with current lunar laser range measurements would give much more definitive information on the existence and size of a fluid core, as well as highly accurate measurements of the lunar tidal distortion and possibly information on turbulent motions in the core. The estimated maximum power, average power, and mass for a transponder plus broad beam antenna are 10 W, 0.2 W, and 10 kg.

Bender, Peter L.

1994-06-01

60

Performance Measurements of the Transponders Aboard Aircraft at Bruxelles-National Airport.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The EUROCONTROL Agency, together with the Federal Aviation Administration of the United States, has developed and implemented a device for measuring the performance of transponders fitted in aircraft. The device is called MTPA - Mobile Transponder Perform...

M. Biot H. Kefferstein

1987-01-01

61

14 CFR Appendix F to Part 43 - ATC Transponder Tests and Inspections  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...used, operate the test equipment for ATCRBS transponders at a nominal rate of 235 interrogations per second to avoid possible ATCRBS interference. Operate the test equipment...Frequency: (1) For all classes of ATCRBS transponders, interrogate the...

2009-01-01

62

21 CFR 880.6300 - Implantable radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and health information.  

...transponder system for patient identification and health information. 880.6300 Section 880...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL...transponder system for patient identification and health information. (a)...

2014-04-01

63

International business communications via Intelsat K-band transponders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses how the transponder throughput and the required earth station HPA power in the Intelsat Business Services Network vary as a function of coding rate and required fade margin. The results indicate that transponder throughputs of 40 to 50 Mbit/s are achievable. A comparison of time domain simulation results with results based on a straightforward link analysis shows that the link analysis results may be fairly optimistic if the satellite traveling wave tube amplifier (TWTA) is operated near saturation; however, there is good agreement for large backoffs.

Hagmann, W.; Rhodes, S.; Fang, R.

64

Person-Locator System Based On Wristband Radio Transponders  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computerized system based on wristband radio frequency (RF), passive transponders is being developed for use in real-time tracking of individuals in custodial institutions like prisons and mental hospitals. Includes monitoring system that contains central computer connected to low-power, high-frequency central transceiver. Transceiver connected to miniature transceiver nodes mounted unobtrusively at known locations throughout the institution. Wristband transponders embedded in common hospital wristbands. Wristbands tamperproof: each contains embedded wire loop which, when broken or torn off and discarded, causes wristband to disappear from system, thus causing alarm. Individuals could be located in a timely fashion at relatively low cost.

Mintz, Frederick W.; Blaes, Brent R.; Chandler, Charles W.

1995-01-01

65

Simulation of a weather radar display for over-water airborne radar approaches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Airborne radar approach (ARA) concepts are being investigated as a part of NASA's Rotorcraft All-Weather Operations Research Program on advanced guidance and navigation methods. This research is being conducted using both piloted simulations and flight test evaluations. For the piloted simulations, a mathematical model of the airborne radar was developed for over-water ARAs to offshore platforms. This simulated flight scenario requires radar simulation of point targets, such as oil rigs and ships, distributed sea clutter, and transponder beacon replies. Radar theory, weather radar characteristics, and empirical data derived from in-flight radar photographs are combined to model a civil weather/mapping radar typical of those used in offshore rotorcraft operations. The resulting radar simulation is realistic and provides the needed simulation capability for ongoing ARA research.

Clary, G. R.

1983-01-01

66

Integration of Range, Bearing and Doppler Measurements from Transponders into Underwater Vehicle Navigation Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long Base Line (LBL) systems for surface and underwater navigation have been used for a long time. Methods for navigating with a single transponder have emerged over the last decade, and enable less costly transponder deployments. This paper discusses utilization of the information available from the transponder signal: range, direction and speed. These measurements are non-linear in nature. The choices

A. B. Willumsen; O. Hallingstad; B. Jalving

2006-01-01

67

An ASIC for transponder for radio frequency identification system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presented is a novel and effective design of a batteryless, self-powered RFID transponder. It is compatible with the TIRIS, the popular RFID system by the Texas Instruments. Data transmission uses FSK modulation and the circuit is designed such that the output frequencies are implicitly determined, independent of the load of the antenna. The major part of the design uses digital

Sau-Mou Wu; Jeng-Rern Yang; Tzen-Yi Liu

1996-01-01

68

Ka-Band Transponder for Deep-Space Radio Science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A one-page document describes a Ka-band transponder being developed for use in deep-space radio science. The transponder receives in the Deep Space Network (DSN) uplink frequency band of 34.2 to 34.7 GHz, transmits in the 31.8- to 32.3 GHz DSN downlink band, and performs regenerative ranging on a DSN standard 4-MHz ranging tone subcarrier phase-modulated onto the uplink carrier signal. A primary consideration in this development is reduction in size, relative to other such transponders. The transponder design is all-analog, chosen to minimize not only the size but also the number of parts and the design time and, thus, the cost. The receiver features two stages of frequency down-conversion. The receiver locks onto the uplink carrier signal. The exciter signal for the transmitter is derived from the same source as that used to generate the first-stage local-oscillator signal. The ranging-tone subcarrier is down-converted along with the carrier to the second intermediate frequency, where the 4-MHz tone is demodulated from the composite signal and fed into a ranging-tone-tracking loop, which regenerates the tone. The regenerated tone is linearly phase-modulated onto the downlink carrier.

Dennis, Matthew S.; Mysoor, Narayan R.; Folkner, William M.; Mendoza, Ricardo; Venkatesan, Jaikrishna

2008-01-01

69

Dual transponder time synchronization at C band using ATS-3.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of artificial satellites for time synchronization of geographically distant clocks is hindered by problems due to satellite motion or equipment delay measurements. The ATS-3 satellite with its two C-band transponder channels helps solve these problems through techniques for synchronization to accuracies of tenths of microseconds. Portable cesium clocks were used to verify the accuracy of the described system.

Mazur, W. E., Jr.

1972-01-01

70

An algebraic perspective to single-transponder underwater navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the position estimation of an underwater vehicle using a single acoustic transponder. The chosen estimation approach is based on nonlinear differential algebraic methods which allow to express very simply conditions for observability. These are then used in combination with an integrator-based time-derivative estimation technique to design an algebraic estimator, which, contrary to asymptotic observers, does not require

Jerome Jouffroy; Johann Reger

2006-01-01

71

Data collection platform services via Ku-band transponders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three data collection systems concepts are proposed that can provide cost-effective, low-data-rate, multiple point-to-single-point data collection platform (DCP) services via a current generation Ku-band domestic satellite transponder. In one concept, a large number (exceeding 10,000) of transmit-only small DCPs can transit intermittent data at 100 bit/s to a central station in a random and time-hopping mode over a transponder that also carries high-data-rate (not less than 48 Mbit/s) time-division multiple-access (TDMA) traffic. In the second concept, a large number of small DCPs can transmit at 2,400 bit/s and receive at 100 bit/s intermittently to and from the central station over a portion of a leased transponder carrying frequency-division multiple-access (FDMA) traffic. In the third concept, a large number of small DCPs can transmit and receive at 100 bit/s over a portion of a leased transponder carrying FDMA traffic and are permitted an extra foliage attenuation margin of about 14 dB when compared with the second concept. All of these system concepts employ a DCP terminal design that is suitable for low-cost quantity production via large-scale intergration techniques. The central earth station employs a computerized system for both signal and data processing.

Fang, R. J. F.; Sandrin, W. A.

72

Using text as a meander line for RFID transponder antennas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach of using text as a meander line for size reduction of dipole antennas used in passive transponders for radio frequency identification (RFID) systems is proposed. Three different structures of text dipole antennas for 869 MHz RFID applications have been examined numerically using a finite element method simulator. The impedance matching and the radiation properties of the fabricated

Mikko Keskilammi; Markku Kivikoski

2004-01-01

73

Single vs. Multiple Transponders for Radio Tomography of Asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to develop numerical inverse methods for radio tomography of asteroids in which the goal is to recover the internal electric permittivity distribution of an asteroid based on radio frequency data gathered by an orbiter. The present tomography approach with a single transponder has been utilized in the CONSERT experiment which aims at reconstruction of a comet nucleus structure as a part of the ROSETTA (comet rendezvous) mission. This study aims at progress in designing the coming missions which necessitates a through investigation of implementable data gathering setups as well as forward (data) simulation and inverse computation schemes. The current signal generation approach of utilizing multiple transponders provides one potential scenario which can even be essential to achieve an appropriate reconstruction quality. Research to find the simplest and most robust (best bang for the buck) scenarios for signal generation and measurements is of utmost importance due to the high cost and long duration of planning and implementing a space mission, necessitating a highly optimized payload. Regarding the forward and inverse approaches, this study, in particular, validated the iterative alternating sequential (IAS) inversion (reconstruction) strategy with a forward simulation relying on the wave equation of the electric potential. To enable the IAS inverse approach, a linearized forward model was utilized to find the reconstructions. The inverse problem was given a Bayesian formulation. The numerical experiments included in this study compared the single and multiple transponder signal generation approaches in localization of permittivity anomalies. Three different anomaly strengths and four levels of total noise were tested to examine the tolerance of present reconstruction strategy to different error sources. Noise due to forward simulation was estimated. The results obtained were promising regarding the combination of the current forward and inverse approaches. They suggest that reconstruction quality increases along with the number of transponders and that multiple transponders can be necessary to distinguish three separate anomalies.

Pursiainen, Sampsa; Kaasalainen, M.; TUT Inverse Problems Group led by Mikko Kaasalainen, Prof.

2013-10-01

74

Improved blind separation algorithm for overlapping secondary surveillance radar replies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The secondary surveillance radar (SSR) is a transponder system used in air-traffic control. With the increase in air-traffic, replies from airplanes may overlap in time at ground station receivers, which results in loss of all replies for classic receivers. Blind source separation algorithms were proposed to separate such a mixture by the properties of SSR replies. Two known algebraic algorithms,

Mu Zhou; Alle-Jan van der Veen

2011-01-01

75

Ku-band modern TWTA's for satellite transponders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New satellite systems require transponders equipped with TWTAs capable of delivering powers in the range 40 to 120 W in Ku-band. Flexibility and profitability of exploitation impose high efficiency and bandwidth with an operating lifetime exceeding 15 years. Based on new helix tapering concepts and use of modern cathodes this study shows that TWTAs with well proven technology now reach 50 percent overall efficiency across a 2 GHz bandwidth, and assure a thousand fits reliability figure over more than 15 years.

Pelletier, A.; Stael, C.

76

3-D transponder antennas for future SHF RFID applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radio frequency identification (RFID) technology is omnipresent since a few years. Some of the most popular fields of application are the use for security tasks, for logistics and for the consumer segment. For example, chip card or key ring sized RFID transponders can allow wireless access to secured rooms. The number of applications for wireless data transmission for the identification and tracking of objects increases every year. There is a large development need for highly functional and inexpensive RFID transponders due to the ever-increasing demand on improved reliability, higher data rates and read and write ranges of the RFID systems. Therefore, research was performed on new 3-D transponder antennas for the Super High Frequency Band around 5.8 GHz. Additionally, wave propagation effects and the influence of different dielectric environments were considered. Parallel to the design of the novel antenna structures, the printing process for inexpensive manufacturing was investigated. The gained results are the basis for prospective RFID applications.

Zichner, R.; Baumann, R. R.

2011-12-01

77

A passive integrated transponder system for tracking animal movements  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We describe an automated system that uses passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags to track movements of animals past specific locations. The system was designed to operate maintenance free for several months, be secure from vandalism and environmental damage, and record the identity, date, and time of passage of animals past a 2.4-m wide area. We used the system to monitor effectively the movements of 172 desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) through 2 storm drain culverts that pass beneath a state highway in the Mojave Desert, California. Four tortoises entered or passed through the culverts on 60 occasions. The system can be easily adapted to other species.

Boarman, W. I.; Beigel, M. L.; Goodlett, G. C.; Sazaki, M.

1999-01-01

78

Positional Stability of Electromagnetic Transponders Used for Prostate Localization and Continuous, Real-Time Tracking  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the relative positional stability of implanted glass-encapsulated circuits (transponders) used in continuous electromagnetic localization and tracking of target volumes during radiation therapy. Ideally, the distances between transponders remains constant over the course of treament. In this work, we evaluate the accuracy of these conditions. Methods and Materials: Three transponders were implanted in each of 20 patients. Images (CT scan or X-ray pair) were acquired at 13 time points. These images occurred from the day of implant (2 weeks before simulation) to 4 weeks posttreatment. The distance between transponders was determined from each dataset. The average and standard deviation of each distance were determined, and changes were evaluated over several time periods, including pretreatment and during therapy. Results: Of 60 transponders implanted, 58 showed no significant migration from their intended positions. Of the two transponders that did migrate, one appears to have been implanted in the venous plexus, and the other in the urethra, with no clinical consequences to the patients. An analysis that included the planning CT scan and all subsequent distance measurements showed that the standard deviation of intertransponder distances was {<=}1.2 mm for up to 1 month after the completion of therapy. Conclusions: Implanted transponders demonstrate the same long-term stability characteristics as implanted gold markers, within statistical uncertainties. As with gold markers, and using the same implant procedure, basic guidelines for the placement of transponders within the prostate help ensure minimal migration.

Litzenberg, Dale W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)]. E-mail: litzen@umich.edu; Willoughby, Twyla R. M.Sc. [Department of Radiation Oncology, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center Orlando, Orlando, FL (United States); Balter, James M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Sandler, Howard M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Wei, John [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Kupelian, Patrick A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center Orlando, Orlando, FL (United States); Cunningham, Alexis A. [Calypso Medical Technologies, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Bock, Andrea [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Aubin, Michele [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Roach, Mack [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Shinohara, Katsuto [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Pouliot, Jean [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States)

2007-07-15

79

C-band radar pulse Doppler error: Its discovery, modeling, and elimination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The discovery of a C Band radar pulse Doppler error is discussed and use of the GEOS 3 satellite's coherent transponder to isolate the error source is described. An analysis of the pulse Doppler tracking loop is presented and a mathematical model for the error was developed. Error correction techniques were developed and are described including implementation details.

Krabill, W. B.; Dempsey, D. J.

1978-01-01

80

Personal communications via INTELSAT Ku-band transponders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of a fully meshed network of small personal communications terminals (PCTs) capable of avoiding undesirable double-hop delays for voice communications between these terminals is described. The satellite transponder bandwidth and satellite resources are shared on demand by all spread spectrum carriers via code-division multiple access (CDMA). Voice and data activity compression gains are realized by statistically multiplexing voice and data and by using burst mode transmission. Voice communication beween any two PCTs is achieved via a single satellite hop, thus realizing a fully meshed network. The near-far problem characteristic of a Ku-band CDMA system is mitigated by using up-link power control. When interfaced with the public switched telephone networks via a large gateway station, these terminals can use flat-plate antenna technology and be packaged into a briefcase.

Fang, R. J. F.

1992-10-01

81

Radar principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic operating principles, design, and applications of radars are discussed in an introductory text intended for first-year graduate students. Topics addressed include radar measurements, radar target cross sections, radar detection, ground effects, matched filters, ambiguity functions, coded radar signals, and radar measurement accuracy. Consideration is given to processing coherent pulse trains, moving-target indicators, CFAR, SAR, and monopulse antenna tracking.

Nadav Levanon

1988-01-01

82

Single Transponder Range Only Navigation Geometry (STRONG) Applied to REMUS Autonomous Under Water Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A detailed study was conducted to prove the concept of an iterative approach to single transponder navigation for REMUS Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs). Although the concept of navigation with one acoustic beacon is not new, the objective was to dev...

J. J. Hartsfield

2005-01-01

83

Instrument Fact Sheet - Acoustic Relocation System, Model 301 and Recoverable Acoustic Transponder, Model 322.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Model 301 Acoustic Relocation System and Model 322 Recoverable Acoustic Transponder are designed to provide an acoustic link for marking, locating, and recovering instrument packages or other items from the sea floor. The 301 system consists of a code...

1975-01-01

84

Investigations of interference between electromagnetic transponders and wireless MOSFET dosimeters: A phantom study  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To evaluate both the Calypso Systems’ (Calypso Medical Technologies, Inc., Seattle, WA) localization accuracy in the presence of wireless metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeters of dose verification system (DVS, Sicel Technologies, Inc., Morrisville, NC) and the dosimeters’ reading accuracy in the presence of wireless electromagnetic transponders inside a phantom.Methods: A custom-made, solid-water phantom was fabricated with space for transponders and dosimeters. Two inserts were machined with positioning grooves precisely matching the dimensions of the transponders and dosimeters and were arranged in orthogonal and parallel orientations, respectively. To test the transponder localization accuracy with?without presence of dosimeters (hypothesis 1), multivariate analyses were performed on transponder-derived localization data with and without dosimeters at each preset distance to detect statistically significant localization differences between the control and test sets. To test dosimeter dose-reading accuracy with?without presence of transponders (hypothesis 2), an approach of alternating the transponder presence in seven identical fraction dose (100 cGy) deliveries and measurements was implemented. Two-way analysis of variance was performed to examine statistically significant dose-reading differences between the two groups and the different fractions. A relative-dose analysis method was also used to evaluate transponder impact on dose-reading accuracy after dose-fading effect was removed by a second-order polynomial fit.Results: Multivariate analysis indicated that hypothesis 1 was false; there was a statistically significant difference between the localization data from the control and test sets. However, the upper and lower bounds of the 95% confidence intervals of the localized positional differences between the control and test sets were less than 0.1 mm, which was significantly smaller than the minimum clinical localization resolution of 0.5 mm. For hypothesis 2, analysis of variance indicated that there was no statistically significant difference between the dosimeter readings with and without the presence of transponders. Both orthogonal and parallel configurations had difference of polynomial-fit dose to measured dose values within 1.75%.Conclusions: The phantom study indicated that the Calypso System’s localization accuracy was not affected clinically due to the presence of DVS wireless MOSFET dosimeters and the dosimeter-measured doses were not affected by the presence of transponders. Thus, the same patients could be implanted with both transponders and dosimeters to benefit from improved accuracy of radiotherapy treatments offered by conjunctional use of the two systems.

Su, Zhong; Zhang, Lisha; Ramakrishnan, V.; Hagan, Michael; Anscher, Mitchell

2011-01-01

85

Nonclassical determination of spatial coordinates of ocean-bottom acoustic transponders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most current methods for acoustic-transponder-array survey are based on the assumption that certain parameters are known and\\u000a held fixed. Often, however, most of these parameters are very poorly known. Using observed data, the authors outline how these\\u000a inadmissible assumptions can be eliminated using a nonclassical method for determination of the spatial coordinates of ocean-bottom\\u000a acoustic transponders and statistical analysis. The

D. M. J. Fubara; Battelle

1973-01-01

86

A study on the applicability of implantable microchip transponders for body temperature measurements in pigs  

PubMed Central

Background The applicability of an electronic monitoring system using microchip transponders for measurement of body temperatures was tested in 6-week-old conventional Danish weaners infected with classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Subcutaneous tissue temperatures obtained by the implantable transponders were compared with rectal temperatures, recorded by a conventional digital thermometer. Methods In a preliminary study, transponders were inserted subcutaneously at 6 different positions of the body of 5 pigs. The transponders positioned by the ear base provided the best correlation to rectal temperature. To test the stability of the monitoring system in a larger group of pigs, transponders were therefore inserted by the left ear base in a subsequent infection experiment with 30 pigs. Results Generally, the microchip transponders measured a subcutaneous tissue temperature, which was about 1°C lower than the rectal temperature. However, a simple linear relationship between the measures of the two methods was found. Conclusions Our study showed that the tested body monitoring system may represent a promising tool to obtain an approximate correlate of body temperatures in groups of pigs. In contrast, however, the tested system did not constitute a suitable tool to measure body temperatures of individual animals in the present pig infection experiment.

2010-01-01

87

Current test results for the Athena radar responsive tag  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sandia National Laboratories has teamed with General Atomics and Sierra Monolithics to develop the Athena tag for the Army's Radar Tag Engagement (RaTE) program. The radar-responsive Athena tag can be used for Blue Force tracking and Combat Identification (CID) as well as data collection, identification, and geolocation applications. The Athena tag is small (~4.5" x 2.4" x 4.2"), battery-powered, and has an integral antenna. Once remotely activated by a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) or Moving Target Indicator (MTI) radar, the tag transponds modulated pulses to the radar at a low transmit power. The Athena tag can operate Ku-band and X-band airborne SAR and MTI radars. This paper presents results from current tag development testing activities. Topics covered include recent field tests results from the AN/APY-8 Lynx, F16/APG-66, and F15E/APG-63 V(1) radars and other Fire Control radars. Results show that the Athena tag successfully works with multiple radar platforms, in multiple radar modes, and for multiple applications. Radar-responsive tags such as Athena have numerous applications in military and government arenas. Military applications include battlefield situational awareness, combat identification, targeting, personnel recovery, and unattended ground sensors. Government applications exist in nonproliferation, counter-drug, search-and-rescue, and land-mapping activities.

Ormesher, Richard C.; Martinez, Ana; Plummer, Kenneth W.; Erlandson, David; Delaware, Sheri; Clark, David R.

2006-06-01

88

Photon-Counting Microlaser Rangers, Transponders, and Altimeters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unlike current manned systems, NASA's next generation SLR2000 Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) station is fully autonomous. eye-safe, relatively compact and inexpensive. and, during daytime tracking operates at signal-to-noise ratios several orders of magnitude below unity. Tiny, passively Q-switched microlasers generate ultra-short pulses with output energies on the order of 100 micron-J at few kHz rates to achieve mm-level ranging precision to satellite altitudes of 20,000 km. Special ranging receivers, combined with Poisson statistical analysis of the received photon distribution, enable the system to rapidly and reliably identify and extract the single photon laser echoes from the solar background. The enhanced rate of return, combined with a uniform signal strength, can actually drive down both systematic and random range errors. The new SLR2000 technology has already spawned exciting new applications. Compact microlaser altimeters, capable of mapping the surface of a planet or other celestial body at multikilohertz rates, is one such application, and a high altitude, airborne version is currently being developed under NASA's Instrument Incubator Program. Interplanetary microlaser transponders would be capable of performing decimeter ranging or subnanosecond time transfer to spacecraft throughout the inner Solar System. resulting in improved knowledge of planetary motions and liberations and enhanced General Relativity experiments.

Degnan, John J.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

89

Planetary benchmarks. [structural design criteria for radar reference devices on planetary surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design criteria and technology requirements for a system of radar reference devices to be fixed to the surfaces of the inner planets are discussed. Offshoot applications include the use of radar corner reflectors as landing beacons on the planetary surfaces and some deep space applications that may yield a greatly enhanced knowledge of the gravitational and electromagnetic structure of the solar system. Passive retroreflectors with dimensions of about 4 meters and weighing about 10 kg are feasible for use with orbiting radar at Venus and Mars. Earth-based observation of passive reflectors, however, would require very large and complex structures to be delivered to the surfaces. For Earth-based measurements, surface transponders offer a distinct advantage in accuracy over passive reflectors. A conceptual design for a high temperature transponder is presented. The design appears feasible for the Venus surface using existing electronics and power components.

Uphoff, C.; Staehle, R.; Kobrick, M.; Jurgens, R.; Price, H.; Slade, M.; Sonnabend, D.

1978-01-01

90

Apparatus Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes three pieces of scientific apparatus and their demonstrational use: a high temperature apparatus for positron annihilation studies, a digitally synthesized classroom variable star, and a demonstration of plasma laser-beam focusing using paint stripper flames. (GA)

Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

1978-01-01

91

Radar principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basic operating principles, design, and applications of radars are discussed in an introductory text intended for first-year graduate students. Topics addressed include radar measurements, radar target cross sections, radar detection, ground effects, matched filters, ambiguity functions, coded radar signals, and radar measurement accuracy. Consideration is given to processing coherent pulse trains, moving-target indicators, CFAR, SAR, and monopulse antenna tracking. Extensive diagrams and graphs are provided.

Levanon, Nadav

92

Accident investigation: Analysis of aircraft motions from ATC radar recordings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique was developed for deriving time histories of an aircraft's motion from air traffic control (ATC) radar records. This technique uses the radar range and azimuth data, along with the downlinked altitude data (from an onboard Mode-C transponder), to derive an expanded set of data which includes airspeed, lift, thrust-drag, attitude angles (pitch, roll, and heading), etc. This method of analyzing aircraft motions was evaluated through flight experiments which used the CV-990 research aircraft and recordings from both the enroute and terminal ATC radar systems. The results indicate that the values derived from the ATC radar records are for the most part in good agreement with the corresponding values obtained from airborne measurements. In an actual accident, this analysis of ATC radar records can complement the flight-data recorders, now onboard airliners, and provide a source of recorded information for other types of aircraft that are equipped with Mode-C transponders but not with onboard recorders.

Wingrove, R. C.

1976-01-01

93

Roll-to-Roll Screen Printed Radio Frequency Identification Transponder Antennas for Vehicle Tracking Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vehicle tracking systems based on ultra high frequency (UHF) radio frequency identification (RFID) technology are already introduced to control the access to car parks and corporate premises. For this field of application so-called Windshield RFID transponder labels are used, which are applied to the inside of the windshield. State of the art for manufacturing these transponder antennas is the traditional lithography/etching approach. Furthermore the performance of these transponders is limited to a reading distance of approximately 5 m which results in car speed limit of 5 km/h for identification. However, to achieve improved performance compared to existing all-purpose transponders and a dramatic cost reduction, an optimized antenna design is needed which takes into account the special dielectric and in particular metallic car environment of the tag and an roll-to-roll (R2R) printing manufacturing process. In this paper we focus on the development of a customized UHF RFID transponder antenna design, which is adopted for vehicle geometry as well as R2R screen printing manufacturing processes.

Zichner, Ralf; Baumann, Reinhard R.

2013-05-01

94

SPS pilot signal design and power transponder analysis, volume 2, phase 3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of pilot signal parameter optimization and the related problem of power transponder performance analysis for the Solar Power Satellite reference phase control system are addressed. Signal and interference models were established to enable specifications of the front end filters including both the notch filter and the antenna frequency response. A simulation program package was developed to be included in SOLARSIM to perform tradeoffs of system parameters based on minimizing the phase error for the pilot phase extraction. An analytical model that characterizes the overall power transponder operation was developed. From this model, the effects of different phase noise disturbance sources that contribute to phase variations at the output of the power transponders were studied and quantified. Results indicate that it is feasible to hold the antenna array phase error to less than one degree per power module for the type of disturbances modeled.

Lindsey, W. C.; Scholtz, R. A.; Chie, C. M.

1980-01-01

95

The first clinical implementation of electromagnetic transponder-guided MLC tracking  

PubMed Central

Purpose: We report on the clinical process, quality assurance, and geometric and dosimetric results of the first clinical implementation of electromagnetic transponder-guided MLC tracking which occurred on 28 November 2013 at the Northern Sydney Cancer Centre. Methods: An electromagnetic transponder-based positioning system (Calypso) was modified to send the target position output to in-house-developed MLC tracking code, which adjusts the leaf positions to optimally align the treatment beam with the real-time target position. Clinical process and quality assurance procedures were developed and performed. The first clinical implementation of electromagnetic transponder-guided MLC tracking was for a prostate cancer patient being treated with dual-arc VMAT (RapidArc). For the first fraction of the first patient treatment of electromagnetic transponder-guided MLC tracking we recorded the in-room time and transponder positions, and performed dose reconstruction to estimate the delivered dose and also the dose received had MLC tracking not been used. Results: The total in-room time was 21 min with 2 min of beam delivery. No additional time was needed for MLC tracking and there were no beam holds. The average prostate position from the initial setup was 1.2 mm, mostly an anterior shift. Dose reconstruction analysis of the delivered dose with MLC tracking showed similar isodose and target dose volume histograms to the planned treatment and a 4.6% increase in the fractional rectal V60. Dose reconstruction without motion compensation showed a 30% increase in the fractional rectal V60 from that planned, even for the small motion. Conclusions: The real-time beam-target correction method, electromagnetic transponder-guided MLC tracking, has been translated to the clinic. This achievement represents a milestone in improving geometric and dosimetric accuracy, and by inference treatment outcomes, in cancer radiotherapy.

Keall, Paul J.; Colvill, Emma; O'Brien, Ricky; Ng, Jin Aun; Poulsen, Per Rugaard; Eade, Thomas; Kneebone, Andrew; Booth, Jeremy T.

2014-01-01

96

Thermal design and test of a high power spacecraft transponder platform  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The high power transponder subsystem on board the Communications Technology Satellite (CTS) requires some unique thermal control techniques to maintain the required temperature limits throughout all mission phases. The transponder subsystem includes redundant 20-W output travelling wave tubes and a single 200-W output TWT with highly concentrated thermal dissipations of 70 W and 143 W, respectively. A thermal control system which maintains all components within the required temperature ranges has been designed and verified in thermal balance testing. Included in the design are second surface quartz mirrors on an aluminum honeycomb platform, high thermal conductivity aluminum doubler plates, commandable thermal control heaters and a Variable Conductance Heat Pipe System (VCHPS).

Stipandic, E. A.; Gray, A. M.; Gedeon, L.

1975-01-01

97

Radiation-Hard SpaceWire/Gigabit Ethernet-Compatible Transponder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A radiation-hard transponder was developed utilizing submicron/nanotechnology from IBM. The device consumes low power and has a low fabrication cost. This device utilizes a Plug-and-Play concept, and can be integrated into intra-satellite networks, supporting SpaceWire and Gigabit Ethernet I/O. A space-qualified, 100-pin package also was developed, allowing space-qualified (class K) transponders to be delivered within a six-month time frame. The novel, optical, radiation-tolerant transponder was implemented as a standalone board, containing the transponder ASIC (application specific integrated circuit) and optical module, with an FPGA (field-programmable gate array) friendly parallel interface. It features improved radiation tolerance; high-data-rate, low-power consumption; and advanced functionality. The transponder utilizes a patented current mode logic library of radiation-hardened-by-architecture cells. The transponder was developed, fabricated, and radhard tested up to 1 MRad. It was fabricated using 90-nm CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) 9 SF process from IBM, and incorporates full BIT circuitry, allowing a loop back test. The low-speed parallel LVCMOS (lowvoltage complementary metal oxide semiconductor) bus is compatible with Actel FPGA. The output LVDS (low-voltage differential signaling) interface operates up to 1.5 Gb/s. Built-in CDR (clock-data recovery) circuitry provides robust synchronization and incorporates two alarm signals such as synch loss and signal loss. The ultra-linear peak detector scheme allows on-line control of the amplitude of the input signal. Power consumption is less than 300 mW. The developed transponder with a 1.25 Gb/s serial data rate incorporates a 10-to-1 serializer with an internal clock multiplication unit and a 10-1 deserializer with internal clock and data recovery block, which can operate with 8B10B encoded signals. Three loop-back test modes are provided to facilitate the built-in-test functionality. The design is based on a proprietary library of differential current switching logic cells implemented in the standard 90-nm CMOS 9SF technology from IBM. The proprietary low-power LVDS physical interface is fully compatible with the SpaceWire standard, and can be directly connected to the SFP MSA (small form factor pluggable Multiple Source Agreement) optical transponder. The low-speed parallel interfaces are fully compatible with the standard 1.8 V CMOS input/output devices. The utilized proprietary annular CMOS layout structures provide TID tolerance above 1.2 MRad. The complete chip consumes less than 150 mW of power from a single 1.8-V positive supply source.

Katzman, Vladimir

2012-01-01

98

Micropower RF transponder with superregenerative receiver and RF receiver with sampling mixer  

DOEpatents

A micropower RF transponder employs a novel adaptation of the superregenerative receiver wherein the quench oscillator is external to the regenerative transistor. The quench oscillator applies an exponentially decaying waveform rather than the usual sinewave to achieve high sensitivity at microampere current levels. Further improvements include circuit simplifications for antenna coupling, extraction of the detected signal, and a low-voltage bias configuration that allows operation with less than a 1-volt rail voltage. The inventive transponder is expected to operate as long as the battery shelf life. 13 figs.

McEwan, T.E.

1997-05-13

99

A Micromachined Electret-Based Transponder for In Situ Radiation Measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This letter reports on the development of a micromachined passive transponder for in situ measurement of ionizing radiation. gamma-ray exposure is remotely measured by monitoring the resonance frequency change correlated with a change in the surface charge of an electret. This is achieved through a micromachined capacitor with a movable plate that is partially filled with a Teflon electret and

C. Son; B. Ziaie

2006-01-01

100

Tin Whisker Risk Assessment of TDRSS IV Transponder Units 101 and 102  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents the plating requirements for the electrical and mechanical parts used in the TDRSS IV transponder manufactured by MOTOROLA, INC., SSG, SSSD. The intent of this report is to identify any electrical, electromechanical or mechanical part that does not have adequate requirements to prevent the use of a pure tin finish.

Zellitti, Ron; Royse, Jeff; Jackson, Steve

2000-01-01

101

On the Passage of High-Level Pulsed Radio Frequency Interference Through a Nonlinear Satellite Transponder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under examination in this paper is the uncoded bit error rate (BER) performance of a satellite communications system in which the modulation scheme is binary PSK, the transponder contains an arbitrary amplitude nonlinearity, and high-level pulsed radio frequency interference (RFI) is present. The RFI may be characterized as either pulsed Gaussian noise or pulsed CW, with the burst duration shorter

AARON WEINBERG

1984-01-01

102

Size at Implantation Affects Growth of Juvenile Steelhead Implanted with 12-mm Passive Integrated Transponders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags have led to greater understanding of fish growth, survival, predation, migration, behavior, and the effects of human-caused environmental manipulation. Technological advances have reduced the size of PIT tags, permitting their implantation into smaller fish. To reap the benefits of PIT tag technology, implantation must not adversely impact growth, survival, or behavior. Steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss parr

Christopher P. Tatara

2009-01-01

103

Radar Entomology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Radar tracking used to profile insect migration, mating and flight patterns. Many links to various pages include current workers in radar entomology, historical uses of the technology, and many images.

0002-11-30

104

Radar principles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discussed here is a kind of radar called atmospheric radar, which has as its target clear air echoes from the earth's atmosphere produced by fluctuations of the atmospheric index of refraction. Topics reviewed include the vertical structure of the atmosphere, the radio refractive index and its fluctuations, the radar equation (a relation between transmitted and received power), radar equations for distributed targets and spectral echoes, near field correction, pulsed waveforms, the Doppler principle, and velocity field measurements.

Sato, Toru

1989-01-01

105

Centrifuge Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method and apparatus for operating a continuous flow blood separation centrifuge are provided. The hematocrit of the entrant whole blood is continuously maintained at an optimum constant value by the addition of plasma to the entrant blood. The hematocr...

W. K. Sartory J. W. Eveleigh

1976-01-01

106

Design study of a HEAO-C spread spectrum transponder telemetry system for use with the TDRSS subnet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a design study of a spread spectrum transponder for use on the HEAO-C satellite were given. The transponder performs the functions of code turn-around for ground range and range-rate determination, ground command receiver, and telemetry data transmitter. The spacecraft transponder and associated communication system components will allow the HEAO-C satellite to utilize the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) subnet of the post 1978 STDN. The following areas were discussed in the report: TDRSS Subnet Description, TDRSS-HEAO-C System Configuration, Gold Code Generator, Convolutional Encoder Design and Decoder Algorithm, High Speed Sequence Generators, Statistical Evaluation of Candidate Code Sequences using Amplitude and Phase Moments, Code and Carrier Phase Lock Loops, Total Spread Spectrum Transponder System, and Reference Literature Search.

Weathers, G.

1975-01-01

107

78 FR 43262 - Use of Wireless Mobile Data Devices as Transponders for the Commercial Motor Vehicle Information...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...systems. CMRS network devices such as smartphones, tablets, fleet management systems...transponders. CMRS network devices such as smartphones, tablets, fleet management systems...cellular-enabled GPS-connected devices (such as smartphones, tablets, fleet management...

2013-07-19

108

Satellite communications service: Leased or owned transponders on domestic, regional, or global satellite systems?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today when we discuss satellite systems in a worldwide arena, the focus is no longer on just providing services to individual national markets. A truly global perspective means looking past the artificial restrictions of geographic boundaries and recognizing one large international marketplace. Therefore, in the realm of worldwide space communications, systems limited solely to the provision of domestic or even regional services may no longer be viable. Nonetheless, the construction and operation of a dedicated satellite system is a financially and technically risky investment. Satellite systems have high fixed costs and limited lives. Unless users are committed prior to launch, there is the financial risk of having to carry transponders as in-orbit inventory, as well as the risk that the transponder design will not meet customer demands. Several other aspects of global satellite communication systems are discussed. These other aspects include the following: global markets, technology access, start-up costs, carrying costs, and risk.

Daffner, Gregg

109

A 12-14 GHz-band transmit-receive multiplexer for broadcasting satellite transponders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the design and development of a transmit-receive multiplexer for high-power broadcasting satellite transponders. The proposed transmit-receive multiplexer consists of a 12 GHz-band four-channel contiguous-band multiplexer to combine high-power TWTA output signals, a 14 GHz-band bandstop filter to reject TWTA noise, and a 14 GHz-bandpass filter to receive only very weak input signals. The measured results present that the insertion-loss of the output multiplexer at each channel center frequency is about 0.7 dB and the isolation between the transmit and receive bands is greater than 80 dB. This multiplexer can satisfy the necessary characteristics for broadcasting satellite transponders.

Nomoto, Toshihiro

110

A 13.56MHz RFID System Based on Organic Transponders  

Microsoft Academic Search

RFID tags based on organic transistors are described, discussing in detail the IC blocks used to build the logic and the radio. Tags energized and read out at 13.56 MHz, de facto standard frequency for item-level identification, have been tested and enabled for the first time multiple-object identification, using different 6-bit codes. A complete 64-bit transponder, the most complex organic

Eugenio Cantatore; Thomas C. T. Geuns; Gerwin H. Gelinck; Erik van Veenendaal; Arnold F. A. Gruijthuijsen; Laurens Schrijnemakers; Steffen Drews; Dago M. de Leeuw

2007-01-01

111

An X-band spacecraft transponder for deep space applications-design concepts and breadboard performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design concepts and measured performance characteristics of an X-band breadboard deep-space transponder (DST) for future spacecraft applications are summarized. The DST consists of a double-conversion, superheterodyne, automatic phase tracking receiver, and an X-band exciter to drive redundant downlink power amplifiers. The receiver acquires and coherently phase tracks the modulated or unmodulated X-band uplink carrier signal. The exciter phase modulates

Narayan R. Mysoor; Jonathan D. Perret; Arthur W. Kermode

1992-01-01

112

A wireless powered fully integrated SU8-based implantable LC transponder  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we report a SU-8-based fully integrated miniaturized inductively powered LC transponder for generic implantable\\u000a wireless sensor applications. It consists of a 1 mm diameter octagonal spiral inductor and a micro fabricated MIM (metal insulator\\u000a metal) capacitor. Polyvinylidene Fluoride–Trifluoroethylene (PVDF–TrFE) copolymer is applied as a dielectric material for\\u000a the capacitor fabrication due to its high dielectric constant. The 1 mm

Sung-Hoon Cho; Sang-Hee Son; Hoon-Ju Chung; Jeong-Bong Lee

2010-01-01

113

A Novel Passive RFID Transponder Using Harmonic Generation of Nonlinear Transmission Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a novel RF identification transponder based on nonlinear transmission lines (NLTLs). The NLTLs provide an effective solution to self-jamming with the harmonic generation property, and they are passive, compact, and offer easy impedance. Three NLTLs are fabricated with a different Bragg cutoff frequency fT in an IBM 8RF 0.13-? m CMOS process. The 0.4 mm by 1.8 mm

Fan Yu; Keith G. Lyon; Edwin Chihchuan Kan

2010-01-01

114

Preliminary design and implementation of the baseline digital baseband architecture for advanced deep space transponders  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The baseline design and implementation of the digital baseband architecture for advanced deep space transponders is investigated and identified. Trade studies on the selection of the number of bits for the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and optimum sampling schemes are presented. In addition, the proposed optimum sampling scheme is analyzed in detail. Descriptions of possible implementations for the digital baseband (or digital front end) and digital phase-locked loop (DPLL) for carrier tracking are also described.

Nguyen, T. M.; Yeh, H.-G.

1993-01-01

115

Development and Evaluation of Passive Integrated Transponder Tag Technology, 2000-2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1984, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has conducted a research project to develop and evaluate technology for passive-integrated-transponder tags (PIT tags) throughout the Columbia River Basin (CRB). Work conducted as part of this project between October 2000 and September 2002 (FY01 and FY02) was divided into seven individual elements, which

Sandra L. Downing; Earl F. Prentice; Edmund P. Nunnallee

2009-01-01

116

Control apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although the method and apparatus of the present invention can be utilized to apply either a uniform or a nonuniform covering of material over many different workpieces, the apparatus (20) is advantageously utilized to apply a thermal barrier covering (64) to an airfoil (22) which is used in a turbine engine. The airfoil is held by a gripper assembly (86) while a spray gun (24) is effective to apply the covering over the airfoil. When a portion of the covering has been applied, a sensor (28) is utilized to detect the thickness of the covering. A control apparatus (32) compares the thickness of the covering of material which has been applied with the desired thickness and is subsequently effective to regulate the operation of the spray gun to adaptively apply a covering of a desired thickness with an accuracy of at least plus or minus 0.0015 inches (1.5 mils) despite unanticipated process variations.

Derkacs, Thomas (Inventor); Fetheroff, Charles W. (Inventor); Matay, Istvan M. (Inventor); Toth, Istvan J. (Inventor)

1982-01-01

117

Performance of a Ka-band transponder breadboard for deep-space applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This article summarizes the design concepts applied in the development of and advanced Ka-band (34.4 GHz/32 GHz) transponder breadboard for the next generation of space communications systems applications. The selected architecture upgrades the X-band (7.2 GHz/8.4 GHz) deep-space transponder (DST) to provide Da-band up/Ka- and X-band down capability. The Ka-band transponder breadboard incorporates several state-of-the-art components, including sampling mixers, a Ka-band dielectric resonator oscillator, and microwave monolithic integrated circuits (MMICs). The MMICs that were tested in the breadboard include upconverters, downconverters, automatic gain control circuits, mixers, phase modulators, and amplifiers. The measured receiver dynamic range, tracking range, acquisition rate, static phase error, and phase jitter characteristics of the Ka-band breadboard interfaced to the advanced engineering model X-band DST are in good agreement with the expected performance. The results show a receiver tracking threshold of -149 dBm with a dynamic range of 80 dB and a downlink phase jitter of 7 deg rms. The analytical results of phase noise and Allan standard deviation are in good agreement with the experimental results.

Mysoor, N. R.; Lane, J. P.; Kayalar, S.; Kermode, A. W.

1995-01-01

118

Laser Transponders for High-Accuracy Interplanetary Laser Ranging and Time Transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite laser ranging (SLR) and lunar laser ranging (LLR) to passive reflectors have been carried out successfully since 1964 and 1969, respectively. The single-ended SLR ranging technique, although capable of providing millimeter precision range data to satellites, is not practical over interplanetary ranges. Double-ended laser transponders for decimeter or better accuracy interplanetary ranging and subnanosecond time transfer are well within the state-of-the-art, however, as was recently demonstrated in two successful transponder experiments carried out by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center to laser altimeters onboard the Messenger spacecraft (currently enroute to Mercury) and the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft (presently in Mars Orbit). A high-accuracy interplanetary ranging capability would support a number of new scientific investigations (e.g., solar system and planetary physics, general relativity, etc.) and enhance deep-space mission operations and reliability through vastly improved navigation accuracy and time synchronization with Earth mission control centers. The performance of future lunar or interplanetary laser transponder and laser communications instruments can be simulated and tested at distances to Pluto and beyond using existing passive SLR and LLR targets already in space.

Degnan, John J.

119

Radar - Principles, technology, applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of modern radar is presented. The topics addressed include: functions and parameters of the radar system, the radar equation, targets and interfering signals, target echo information extraction, tracking radar, radar transmitters and microwave components, radar antennas, receivers and displays, radar signal processing, high resolution radar.

Edde, Byron

120

Positioning apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is provided for precisely adjusting the position of an article relative to a beam emerging from a neutron source disposed in a housing. The apparatus includes a support pivotably mounted on a movable base plate and freely suspended therefrom. The support is gravity biased toward the housing and carries an article holder movable in a first direction longitudinally of the axis of said beam and normally urged into engagement against said housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the suspended holder in two mutually perpendicular directions, respectively, normal to the axis of the beam.

Vogel, M.A.; Alter, P.

1983-07-07

121

Radar observables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive account is given of missile design considerations relevant to the prediction, control, and measurement of airframe radar cross sections (RCSs), with a view to the minimization of missile observability. RCS reduction may proceed through airframe shaping to deflect incident radar emissions, as well as through the use of radar-absorbing surface materials and the devision of active radar signal-cancellation methods; some combination of these is often required, due to the deficiencies of any one method. The interaction of all RCS-reduction methods with airframe aerodynamic-design criteria are stressed.

Knott, Eugene F.

122

Apparatus Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of notes describes (1) an optoelectronic apparatus for classroom demonstrations of mechanical laws, (2) a more efficient method for demonstrated nuclear chain reactions using electrically energized "traps" and ping-pong balls, and (3) an inexpensive demonstration for qualitative analysis of temperature-dependent resistance. (CS)

Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

1980-01-01

123

Apparatus Reviews.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provided are reviews of science equipment/apparatus. Items reviewed include: Harris Micro-ecology tubes; Harris chromosome investigation kit; Harris trycult slides; a pressure cooker with thermometer; digital pH meter; digital scaler timer; electrical compensation calorimeter; and Mains alternating current ammeter. (JN)

School Science Review, 1983

1983-01-01

124

Exercise apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus and method for exercising whereby the user is supported by various mechanisms in such as way that the user's shoulder area is free to translate and rotate; the user's pelvic area is free to translate and rotate; or in any combination.

Schaffner, Grant (Inventor); Bentley, Jason R. (Inventor); Loehr, James A. (Inventor); Gundo, Daniel P. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

125

Apparatus Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes experiments and apparatus to: (1) allow astronomy students to test resolution limit of their eyes at several wavelengths; (2) analyze laser mode phases by interferometry; (3) demonstrate a Cartesian diver with an overhead projector; and (4) generate conical beams of light for smoke-chamber demonstrations. (JN)

Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

1981-01-01

126

Doctoring Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention is related to a multiple-bladed doctor apparatus for doctoring a product from a rotating drum or a moving belt. In order to be economically feasible, a vacuum belt drying process for producing milk powder must be operated continuously for ma...

W. K. Heiland

1973-01-01

127

Thermoforming apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Thermoforming apparatus having a heating station and a forming station provided with upper and lower heaters for softening the thermoplastics sheet material. One of the heaters is movable between the heating and forming stations and is arranged to convey heated sheets from the heating station of the forming station.

Perryman, L.M.

1984-07-31

128

Sensor apparatus  

DOEpatents

A sensor apparatus and method for detecting an environmental factor is shown that includes an acoustic device that has a characteristic resonant vibrational frequency and mode pattern when exposed to a source of acoustic energy and, futher, when exposed to an environmental factor, produces a different resonant vibrational frequency and/or mode pattern when exposed to the same source of acoustic energy.

Deason, Vance A. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Telschow, Kenneth L. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

2009-12-22

129

Prehensile apparatus  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to an apparatus for handling a workpiece comprising a vessel that is longitudinally extensible and pressurizable, and a nonextensible and laterally flexible member on the vessel. The member constrains one side of the vessel to be nonextensible, causing the vessel to bend in the direction of the nonextensible member when pressurized.

Smith, Christopher M. (Richland, WA)

1993-01-01

130

Apparatus Reviews.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews apparatus design and instructional uses for Fume Cupboard Monitor, Plant Tissue Culture Kit, various equipment for electronic systems course, Welwyn Microprocessor-Tutor, Sweep Function Generator SFG 606, and Harris manufacturers materials--Regulated Power Supply Units, Electronic Current and Voltage Meters, Gas Preparation Kit, and…

School Science Review, 1981

1981-01-01

131

Apparatus Notes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents four short articles on: a power supply for the measurement of the charge-to-mass ratio of the electron; a modified centripetal force apparatus; a black box electronic unknown for the scientific instruments laboratory; and a simple scaling model for biological systems. (MLH)

Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

1977-01-01

132

Radar Astronomy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A general review of radar astronomy is given. Typical radar systems are described and results cited. Methods of determining elements of orbits and rotation rates of planets are discussed. A proposed test of the Einstein theory of general relativity is des...

G. H. Pettengill I. I. Shapiro

1965-01-01

133

Radar astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radar Astronomy is a new and growing branch of Astronomy. Although it seems that radio echo studies must be confined to the solar system, they can play an important part in developing our understanding of the Sun and the planets. At the present time these objects are barely detectable by radar techniques and much of the work has been concerned

J. V. Evans

1960-01-01

134

Sampling apparatus  

DOEpatents

A sampling apparatus is provided for sampling substances from solid surfaces. The apparatus includes first and second elongated tubular bodies which telescopically and sealingly join relative to one another. An absorbent pad is mounted to the end of a rod which is slidably received through a passageway in the end of one of the joined bodies. The rod is preferably slidably and rotatably received through the passageway, yet provides a selective fluid tight seal relative thereto. A recess is formed in the rod. When the recess and passageway are positioned to be coincident, fluid is permitted to flow through the passageway and around the rod. The pad is preferably laterally orientable relative to the rod and foldably retractable to within one of the bodies. A solvent is provided for wetting of the pad and solubilizing or suspending the material being sampled from a particular surface. 15 figs.

Gordon, N.R.; King, L.L.; Jackson, P.O.; Zulich, A.W.

1989-07-18

135

Hyperthermia apparatus  

DOEpatents

A hyperthermia apparatus, suitable for transurethral application, has an energy radiating element comprising a leaky-wave antenna. The leaky wave antenna radiation pattern is characterized by a surface wave which propagates along an aperture formed by openings (small in comparison to a wavelength) in the outer conductor of a transmission line. Appropriate design of the leaky wave antenna produces a uniform, broadside pattern of temperature elevation that uniformly heats all or part of the periurethral tissues.

Larsen, Lawrence E. (Albuquerque, NM)

2000-01-01

136

Step-frequency radar imaging for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a step-frequency microwave radar imaging system that is suitable for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) applications. The system includes a computer-automated microwave measurement apparatus along with nonlinear inverse scattering imaging algorithms. Through the use of an inverse Fourier transform, the SFR data is transformed into a synthetic time-domain pulse, and imaging algorithms are applied to the

William H. Weedon; Weng C. Chew; Chad A. Ruwe

1994-01-01

137

Trajectory scoring in geodetic coordinates using transponder-interrogator range data  

SciTech Connect

Range measurements taken from a transponder-interrogator ranging system are processed via an extended Kalman filter to provide an accurate time-position history of a vehicle's trajectory by estimating the errors in the vehicle's inertial navigation system. The range and Kalman filter equations are derived in geodetic coordinates to allow for coverage over a large geographic area. The equations are then verified by processing data from flight tests at Edwards Air Force Base, producing position accuracies of 3 to 4 meters 1sigma.

Owen, T.E.

1986-03-01

138

Trajectory scoring in rectangular coordinates using transponder-interrogator range and range rate data  

SciTech Connect

Range and range rate measurements taken from a transponder-interrogator ranging system are processed via an extended Kalman filter and an extended Kalman smoother to provide an accurate time-position history of a vehicle's trajectory by estimating the errors in the vehicle's inertial navigation system. The necessary equations are derived in rectangular coordinates. As such, they are only valid for low altitude flights over a small geographic area. The equations are implemented in a FORTRAN program which is used to process flight data gathered at Edgewood, NM. 5 refs., 65 figs., 3 tabs.

Hollowell, J.

1989-01-01

139

Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Support of User Spacecraft without TDRSS Transponders  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA GSFC VNS TSG personnel have proposed the use of TDRSS to obtain telemetry and/or S-band one-way return Doppler tracking data for spacecraft which do not have TDRSS-compatible transponders and therefore were never considered candidates for TDRSS support. For spacecraft with less stable local oscillators (LO), one-way return Doppler tracking data is typically of poor quality. It has been demonstrated using UARS, WIND, and NOAA-J tracking data that the simultaneous use of two TDRSS spacecraft can yield differenced one-way return Doppler data of high quality which is usable for orbit determination by differencing away the effects of oscillator instability.

Jackson, James A.; Marr, Greg C.; Maher, Michael J.

1995-01-01

140

Micropower RF transponder with superregenerative receiver and RF receiver with sampling mixer  

DOEpatents

A micropower RF transdponder employs a novel adaptation of the superregenerative receiver wherein the quench oscillator is external to the regenerative transistor. The quench oscillator applies an exponentially decaying waveform rather than the usual sinewave to achieve high sensitivity at microampere current levels. Further improvements include circuit simplifications for antenna coupling, extraction of the detected signal, and a low-voltage bias configuration that allows operation with less than a 1-volt rail voltage. The inventive transponder is expected to operate as long as the battery shelf life.

McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

1997-01-01

141

Imaging synthetic aperture radar  

DOEpatents

A linear-FM SAR imaging radar method and apparatus to produce a real-time image by first arranging the returned signals into a plurality of subaperture arrays, the columns of each subaperture array having samples of dechirped baseband pulses, and further including a processing of each subaperture array to obtain coarse-resolution in azimuth, then fine-resolution in range, and lastly, to combine the processed subapertures to obtain the final fine-resolution in azimuth. Greater efficiency is achieved because both the transmitted signal and a local oscillator signal mixed with the returned signal can be varied on a pulse-to-pulse basis as a function of radar motion. Moreover, a novel circuit can adjust the sampling location and the A/D sample rate of the combined dechirped baseband signal which greatly reduces processing time and hardware. The processing steps include implementing a window function, stabilizing either a central reference point and/or all other points of a subaperture with respect to doppler frequency and/or range as a function of radar motion, sorting and compressing the signals using a standard fourier transforms. The stabilization of each processing part is accomplished with vector multiplication using waveforms generated as a function of radar motion wherein these waveforms may be synthesized in integrated circuits. Stabilization of range migration as a function of doppler frequency by simple vector multiplication is a particularly useful feature of the invention; as is stabilization of azimuth migration by correcting for spatially varying phase errors prior to the application of an autofocus process.

Burns, Bryan L. (Tijeras, NM); Cordaro, J. Thomas (Albuquerque, NM)

1997-01-01

142

Frequency-Agile Multi-Channel X-Band Coherent Receiver/Transmitter for the Advanced Deep Space Transponder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uplink and downlink Advanced Deep Space Transponder breadboards have been constructed using voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) phase-locked loop (PLL) frequency synthesizers. Results indicate wideband frequency tuning, demonstrating a 40 percent improvement over prior dielectric resonator oscillator (DRO) components and covering the entire deep-space and near-Earth X-band allocations (7145 to 7235 MHz for uplink and 8400 to 8500 MHz for downlink). Phase noise performance is well within current transponder specifications. Coherent turnaround has been demonstrated in the Deep Space Network X-band channel allocation. Particular emphasis has been devoted to loop filter design. Results show excellent agreement between expected and observed performance and clearly indicate excellent promise for the use of VCO PLL technology in spacecraft transponder applications.

Smith, S. K.; Mysoor, N.; Lux, J.; Cook, B.; Shah, B.

2006-08-01

143

30/20 GHz and 6/4 GHz band transponder development for communications satellite CS-3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The next phase communications satellite CS-3 will be launched in 1988 as a successor to CS-2. The CS-3 is composed of two 6/4 GHz band and ten 30/20 GHz band transponders and its mission life is seven years. This paper describes the newly developed CS-3 transponder, especially a 4 GHz band 7 watt GaAs FET amplifier, Ka-band frequency single-conversion, a 30 GHz band low noise amplifier, and a 20 GHz band 10 watt TWTA. The introduction of these new technologies contributes significantly to reducing the CS-3 transponder weight and size, and to improving performance characteristics and insuring a long life.

Tanaka, Masayoshi; Nakamura, Makoto; Okamoto, Teruki; Kumazawa, Hiroyuki

144

Positioning apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for precisely positioning materials test specimens within the optimum neutron flux path emerging from a neutron source located in a housing. The test specimens are retained in a holder mounted on the free end of a support pivotably mounted and suspended from a movable base plate. The support is gravity biased to urge the holder in a direction longitudinally of the flux path against the housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the holder in two mutually perpendicular directions normal to the axis of the flux path.

Vogel, Max A. (Kennewick, WA); Alter, Paul (Richland, WA)

1986-01-01

145

Monitoring apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is described for monitoring the temperature inside a refrigeration unit that experiences periodic defrost cycles of a known duration, the apparatus including a temperature sensor located within the refrigeration unit for providing an electrical output signal indicative of the temperature level inside the unit, a comparator means for comparing the sensor output signal level with a preset signal level and providing a first output signal when the sensed temperature level is above the preset level and a second output signal when the sensed temperature level is below the preset level, a timer means connected to the output of the comparator means which is enabled when the comparator means produces the first output signal whereby the timer means generates a continuous chain of timing pulses and is disabled when the comparator means produces the second output signal, counter means being coupled to the timer means for counting the number of pulses generated by the timer means and producing a counter output signal when a preset count is reached. The duration of the counter means cycle is greater than the duration of the defrost cycle, and an audio means coupled to the output of both the timer means and the counter means. An audio transducer means provides a first audible alert signal any time the timer means is enabled and a second audible alarm signal when the counter means reaches the preset count.

Adams, W.H.

1986-12-23

146

Investigation of sonar transponders for offshore wind farms: modeling approach, experimental setup, and results.  

PubMed

The installation of offshore wind farms in the German Exclusive Economic Zone requires the deployment of sonar transponders to prevent collisions with submarines. The general requirements for these systems have been previously worked out by the Research Department for Underwater Acoustics and Marine Geophysics of the Bundeswehr. In this article, the major results of the research project "Investigation of Sonar Transponders for Offshore Wind Farms" are presented. For theoretical investigations a hybrid approach was implemented using the boundary element method to calculate the source directivity and a three-dimensional ray-tracing algorithm to estimate the transmission loss. The angle-dependence of the sound field as well as the weather-dependence of the transmission loss are compared to experimental results gathered at the offshore wind farm alpha ventus, located 45?km north of the island Borkum. While theoretical and experimental results are in general agreement, the implemented model slightly underestimates scattering at the rough sea surface. It is found that the source level of 200?dB re 1??Pa at 1?m is adequate to satisfy the detectability of the warning sequence at distances up to 2 NM (?3.7?km) within a horizontal sector of ±60° if realistic assumptions about signal-processing and noise are made. An arrangement to enlarge the angular coverage is discussed. PMID:24180764

Fricke, Moritz B; Rolfes, Raimund

2013-11-01

147

Transport apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Transport apparatus is disclosed comprising a drive unit and a slave unit movable in unison along a predetermined path. The slave unit is disposed beneath the drive unit to move along a tunnel with work stations located at intervals along the tunnel. The drive unit carries electromagnets which when energized levitate the slave unit within the tunnel, controls being provided to maintain the slave unit at a desired position relative to the drive unit. The roof of the tunnel is formed from a magnetically transparent material, such as glass. The slave unit is thereby physically isolated from the drive unit. As a result the drive unit is shielded from any hostile environment within the tunnel and resulting, for example, from the transport of radioactive or toxic materials by the slave units. This simplifies repair and maintenance operations on the drive unit.

Moody, B.R.; Lowe, D.B.; Lowe, D.W.

1983-07-12

148

Gameboard apparatus  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A gameboard apparatus picturing an advanced, economic, technological civilization throughout the solar system and beyond, a path of spaceships containing many contingency circumstances interspersed between man-made, unpurchaseable property containing many contingency circumstance, and eleven major types of purchaseable man-made properties containing many contingency circumstances. The indicia on color-coded leases describes the internal, external, vertical and horizontal development of real estate in over thirty ways, four decks of cards, Speed of Light Years Utility Service Card and Speed of Light Years Ticket Tokens color coded to work in conjunction with the path of spaceships which are path of the continuous open route with a starting point from Earth, the entire game being described by a set of rules.

1990-08-07

149

Collecting apparatus  

DOEpatents

An improved collecting apparatus for small aquatic or airborne organisms such as plankton, larval fish, insects, etc. The improvement constitutes an apertured removal container within which is retained a collecting bag, and which is secured at the apex of a conical collecting net. Such collectors are towed behind a vessel or vehicle with the open end of the conical net facing forward for trapping the aquatic or airborne organisms within the collecting bag, while allowing the water or air to pass through the apertures in the container. The container is readily removable from the collecting net whereby the collecting bag can be quickly removed and replaced for further sample collection. The collecting bag is provided with means for preventing the bag from being pulled into the container by the water or air flowing therethrough.

Duncan, Charles P. (Walnut Creek, CA)

1983-01-01

150

Tagging Juvenile Pacific Lamprey with Passive Integrated Transponders: Methodology, Short-Term Mortality, and Influence on Swimming Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine the feasibility (i.e., efficiency and nonintrusiveness) of tagging juvenile Pacific lampreys Lampetra tridentata with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and to determine any associated impacts on survivorship and swimming ability. Juvenile Pacific lampreys were obtained from the John Day Dam fish collection facility and tests were conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in

Robert P. Mueller; Russell A. Moursund; Matthew D. Bleich

2006-01-01

151

Determination of the input impedance of RFID transponder antennas with novel measurement procedure using a modified on-wafer-prober  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows a new method to determine the input impedance of RFID transponder antennas with a combination of on-wafer-prober and network analyzer. It is shown that the results are in a good agreement with FEM simulations (HFSS) for a large part of the examined antenna structures.

M. Camp; R. Herschmann; T. Zelder; H. Eul

2007-01-01

152

Radar Antenna.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An antenna is described for range-gated, pulse doppler, radar systems. The antenna includes first and second, shortened, half-wave dipoles and first and second reflecting screens. One dipole is fed through a fixed 22 1/2 degree phase-shift network while t...

O. E. Rittenback

1978-01-01

153

Radar Roadmap.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Instrumentation radar has played a very significant role in testing and training for more than 50 years. Along with optics, it has been a major supplier of time space position information (TSPI). With the advent of the Global Positioning System (GPS), the...

1998-01-01

154

Radar nomenclature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like much of the equipment used by the armed forces, both civil and military radar systems may be allocated an identification resolved from a synonym, mnemonic, project name, number, application notation, or specialised nomenclature and sometimes may even be based upon the whims of an intelligence reporting service. Of these, mnemonics are very popular; whilst of designation systems used by

J. C. Wise

2004-01-01

155

Code regenerative clean-up loop transponder for a mu-type ranging system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A loop transponder for regenerating the code of a mu type ranging system is disclosed. It includes a phase locked loop, a code generator, and a loop detector. The function of the phase locked loop is to provide phase lock between a received component wk of the range signal and a replica rafter wk of the received component, provided by the code generator. The code generator also provides a replica of the next component rafter w(w+1). The loop detector responds to wk rafler wk and rafter w(k+1) to determine when the next component w(k+1) is received and controls the code generator to supply w(k+1) to the phase locked loop and to generate a replica rafter w(k+2) of the next component.

Hurd, W. J. (inventor)

1973-01-01

156

On the passage of high-level pulsed radio frequency interference through a nonlinear satellite transponder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Attention is given to the uncoded bit error rate (BER) performance of a satellite communications system whose modulation scheme is binary PSK and whose transponder contains an arbitrary amplitude nonlinearity, all in the presence of high level pulsed radio frequency interference (RFI). A general approach is presented for direct BER evaluations, in contrast to other approaches which may employ SNR suppression factors. The computed results are based on arbitrarily specified RFI scenarios, in the presence of hard limiter, clipper, or blanker amplitude nonlinearities. Performance curves demonstrate the superiority of an appropriately chosen blanker when the RFI environment is most severe. The results obtained also pertain to the sensitivity of performance to the information bit rate, signal power variations, and the ratio of CW to noise content. The CW effects are found to be the most severe.

Weinberg, A.

1984-01-01

157

A low-loss linear analog phase modulator for 8415 MHz transponder application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A breadboard single-section low-loss analog phase modulator with good thermal stability for a spacecraft transponder application has been analyzed, fabricated, and evaluated. A linear phase shift of 70 degrees with a linearity tolerance of plus or minus 7 percent was measured for this modulator from 8257 to 8634 MHz over the temperature range -20 C to 75 C. The measured insertion loss and the static delay variation with temperature were within 2 plus or minus 0.3 dB and 0.16 ps/C, respectively. Four sections will be cascaded to provide the X-band (8415 MHz) phase modulator. The generic modulator design can also be utilized at 7950 to 8075 MHz followed by X4 multiplication to provide modulation of a Ka-band downlink signal.

Mysoor, N.

1989-01-01

158

Orbit determination and gravitational field accuracy for a Mercury transponder satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Covariance studies were performed to investigate the orbit determination problem for a small transponder satellite in a nearly circular polar orbit with 4-hour period around Mercury. With X band and Ka band Doppler and range measurements, the analysis indicates that the gravitational field through degree and order 10 can be solved for from as few as 40 separate 8-hour arcs of tracking data. In addition, the earth-Mercury distance can be determined during each ranging period with about 6-cm accuracy. The expected geoid accuracy is 10 cm up through degree 5, and 1 m through degree 8. The main error sources were the geocentric range measurement error, the uncertainties in higher degree gravity field terms, which were not solved for, and the solar radiation pressure uncertainty.

Vincent, Mark A.; Bender, Pater L.

1990-01-01

159

Windmill apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A windmill apparatus is described comprising: a frame body structure adapted to be positioned on a flat top surface of a construction such as a building; a main shaft vertically fixed in a middle position of the frame body structure; a first main-shaft sleeve rotatably coupled with a lower portion of the main shaft for being driven to rotate around the main shaft; a belt pulley fixedly connected at a lower end of the first main-shaft sleeve for providing a driving force along with the first main-shaft sleeve; a rotating means having a revolving arrangement vertically disposed therein rotatably installed around the first main-shaft sleeve within a lower open portion of the frame body structure for being driven to rotate by wind along with the first main-shaft sleeve; a second main-shaft sleeve with a first gear fixed at a lower end thereof movably connected at an upper portion of the main shaft for providing gear transmission therefrom; a direction control means installed within an upper closed portion of the frame body structure and rotatably connected to the rotating means through the second main-shaft sleeve for automatically adjusting the revolving arrangement according to wind direction; and a wind direction indicating means horizontally disposed on top of the frame body structure and rotatably connected to the direction control means so as to relay wind direction change whereby, wind force can be effectively utilized with a simplified structure.

Chen, M.J.; Hwang, L.M.

1987-11-17

160

Evaluation of Remote Delivery of Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) Technology to Mark Large Mammals  

PubMed Central

Methods to individually mark and identify free-ranging wildlife without trapping and handling would be useful for a variety of research and management purposes. The use of Passive Integrated Transponder technology could be an efficient method for collecting data for mark-recapture analysis and other strategies for assessing characteristics about populations of various wildlife species. Passive Integrated Transponder tags (PIT) have unique numbered frequencies and have been used to successfully mark and identify mammals. We tested for successful injection of PIT and subsequent functioning of PIT into gelatin blocks using 4 variations of a prototype dart. We then selected the prototype dart that resulted in the least depth of penetration in the gelatin block to assess the ability of PIT to be successfully implanted into muscle tissue of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) post-mortem and long-term in live, captive Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus). The prototype dart with a 12.7 mm (0.5 inch) needle length and no powder charge resulted in the shallowest mean (± SD) penetration depth into gelatin blocks of 27.0 mm (±5.6 mm) with 2.0 psi setting on the Dan-Inject CO2-pressured rifle. Eighty percent of PIT were successfully injected in the muscle mass of white-tailed deer post-mortem with a mean (± SD) penetration depth of 22.2 mm (±3.8 mm; n?=?6). We injected PIT successfully into 13 live, captive elk by remote delivery at about 20 m that remained functional for 7 months. We successfully demonstrated that PIT could be remotely delivered in darts into muscle mass of large mammals and remain functional for >6 months. Although further research is warranted to fully develop the technique, remote delivery of PIT technology to large mammals is possible using prototype implant darts.

Walter, W. David; Anderson, Charles W.; VerCauteren, Kurt C.

2012-01-01

161

Method and apparatus for remote measurement of terrestrial biomass  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method and apparatus for remote measurement of terrestrial biomass contained in vegetative elements, such as large tree boles or trunks present in an area of interest. The method includes providing an airborne radar system, overflying the area of interest while directing radar energy having a frequency of under 400 MHz, and preferably between 80 and 120 MHz, toward the area of interest, using the radar system to collect backscatter data from the radar energy as a function of incidence angle and frequency, and using an inversion algorithm to determine a magnitude of the biomass from the backscatter data for each radar resolution cell. A biomass map is generated showing the magnitude of the biomass of the vegetative elements as a function of location on the map by using each resolution cell as a unique location thereon.

Johnson, Patrick W. (Inventor)

1999-01-01

162

Equatorial radar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large clear air radar with the sensitivity of an incoherent scatter radar for observing the whole equatorial atmosphere up to 1000 km altitude is now being designed in Japan. The radar, called the Equatorial Radar, will be built in Pontianak, Kalimantan Island, Indonesia (0.03 N, 109.3 E). The system is a 47 MHz monostatic Doppler radar with an active

S. Rukao; T. Tsuda; T. Sato; S. Kato

1989-01-01

163

Radars in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The capabilities of active microwave devices operating from space (typically, radar, scatterometers, interferometers, and altimeters) are discussed. General radar parameters and basic radar principles are explained. Applications of these parameters and principles are also explained. Trends in space radar technology, and where space radars and active microwave sensors in orbit are going are discussed.

Delnore, Victor E.

1990-01-01

164

TRMM radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of a conceptual design study and the performance of key components of the Bread Board Model (BBM) of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) radar are presented. The radar, which operates at 13.8 GHz and is designed to meet TRMM mission objectives, has a minimum measurable rain rate of 0.5 mm/h with a range resolution of 250 m, a horizontal resolution of about 4 km, and a swath width of 220 km. A 128-element active phased array system is adopted to achieve contiguous scanning within the swath. The basic characteristics of BBM were confirmed by experiments. The development of EM started with the cooperation of NASDA and CRL.

Okamoto, Kenichi

1993-05-01

165

TRMM radar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a conceptual design study and the performance of key components of the Bread Board Model (BBM) of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) radar are presented. The radar, which operates at 13.8 GHz and is designed to meet TRMM mission objectives, has a minimum measurable rain rate of 0.5 mm/h with a range resolution of 250 m, a horizontal resolution of about 4 km, and a swath width of 220 km. A 128-element active phased array system is adopted to achieve contiguous scanning within the swath. The basic characteristics of BBM were confirmed by experiments. The development of EM started with the cooperation of NASDA and CRL.

Okamoto, Kenichi

1993-01-01

166

Planetary Radar Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A catalog of lunar and radar anomalies was generated to provide a base for comparison with Venusian radar signatures. The relationships between lunar radar anomalies and regolith processes were investigated, and a consortium was formed to compare lunar an...

T. W. Thompson J. A. Cutts

1981-01-01

167

Design and Analysis of a Low-Loss Linear Analog Phase Modulator for Deep Space Spacecraft X-Band Transponder Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This article summarizes the design concepts, analyses, and development of an X-band (8145 MHz) transponder low-loss linear phase modulator for deep space spacecraft applications. A single-section breadboard circulator-coupled reflection phase modulator ha...

N. R. Mysoor R. O. Mueller

1991-01-01

168

Electromagnetic Transponders Indicate Prostate Size Increase Followed by Decrease During the Course of External Beam Radiation Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Real-time image guidance enables more accurate radiation therapy by tracking target movement. This study used transponder positions to monitor changes in prostate volume that may be a source of dosimetric and target inaccuracy. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four men with biopsy-proven T1c-T3a prostate cancer each had three electromagnetic transponders implanted transperineally. Their coordinates were recorded by the Calypso system, and the perimeter of the triangle formed by the transponders was used to calculate prostate volumes at sequential time points throughout the course of radiation therapy to a dose of 81 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions. Results: There was a significant decrease in mean prostate volume of 10.9% from the first to the final day of radiation therapy. The volume loss did not occur monotonically but increased in most patients (75%) during the first several weeks to a median maximum on Day 7. The volume increased by a mean of 6.1% before decreasing by a mean maximum difference of 18.4% to nadir (p < 0.001 for both increase and decrease). Glandular shrinkage was asymmetric, with the apex to right base dimension varying more than twice that of the lateral dimension. For all dimensions, the mean change was <0.5 cm. Conclusion: Real-time transponder positions indicated a volume increase during the initial days of radiation therapy and then significant and asymmetric shrinkage by the final day. Understanding and tracking volume fluctuations of the prostate during radiation therapy can help real-time imaging technology perform to its fullest potential.

King, Benjamin L. [Radiation Oncology Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Butler, Wayne M., E-mail: wbutler@wheelinghospital.or [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling Hospital, Wheeling, WV (United States); Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Merrick, Gregory S. [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling Hospital, Wheeling, WV (United States); Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Kurko, Brian S.; Reed, Joshua L.; Murray, Brian C. [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling Hospital, Wheeling, WV (United States); Wallner, Kent E. [Puget Sound Health Care System, Department of Veteran's Affairs, Seattle, VA (United States)

2011-04-01

169

A comparison of radiographic techniques and electromagnetic transponders for localization of the prostate  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study is to compare three methodologies of prostate localization and to determine if there are significant differences in the techniques. Methods Daily prostate localization using cone beam CT or orthogonal kV imaging has been performed at UT Southwestern Medical Center since 2006. Prostate patients are implanted with gold seeds, which are matched with the planning CT or DRR before treatment. More recently, a technology using electromagnetic transponders implanted within the prostate was introduced into our clinic (Calypso®). With each technology, patients are localized initially using skin marks and the room lasers. In this study, patients were localized with Calypso and either CBCT or kV orthogonal images in the same treatment session, allowing a direct comparison of the technologies. Localization difference distributions were determined from the difference in the offsets determined by CBCT/kV imaging and Calypso. CBCT-Calypso and kV imaging-Calypso localization data were summarized from over 900 and 250 fractions each, respectively. The Wilcoxon signed rank test is used to determine if the localization differences are statistically significant. We also calculated Pearson’s product–moment correlation coefficient (R2) to determine if there is a linear relationship between the shifts determined by Calypso and the radiographic techniques. Results The differences between CBCT-Calypso and kV imaging-Calypso localizations are ?0.18?±?2.90?mm, -0.79?±?2.18?mm, -0.01?±?1.20?mm and ?0.09?±?1.40?mm, 0.48?±?1.50?mm, 0.08?±?1.04?mm, respectively, in the AP, SI, and RL directions. The Pearson product–moment correlation coefficients for the CBCT-Calypso shifts were 0.71, 0.92 and 0.88 and for the OBI-Calypso comparison were 0.95, 0.89 and 0.85. The percentage of localization differences that were less than 3?mm were 86.1%, 84.5% and 96.0% for the CBCT-Calypso comparison and 95.8%, 94.3% and 97% for the kV OBI-Calypso comparison. No trends were observed in the Bland-Altman analysis. Conclusions Localization of the prostate using electromagnetic transponders agrees well with radiographic techniques and each technology is suitable for high precision radiotherapy. This study finds that there is more uncertainty in CBCT localization of the prostate than in 2D orthogonal imaging, but the difference is not clinically significant.

2012-01-01

170

Timing Apparatuur (Timing Apparatus).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The apparatus required for bundle-synchronous timing is described. Bundle-synchronous timing signals are used along accelerators and in experimental stations. The apparatus consists of a trigger modulator, a trigger detector, a delayed pulse generator, an...

P. Timmer

1985-01-01

171

Apparatus for Teaching Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a collection of articles from "The Physics Teacher" that deal with laboratory/demonstration apparatus and includes descriptions of new apparatus as well as discussions of innovative uses of standard, well-known equipment. Emphasis is on apparatus that is useful primarily in the introductory physics course.

2007-06-08

172

Apparatus for superheating steam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparatus for superheating steam. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, the apparatus is provided with two banks of inclined tubes extending upwardly from an outlet header to respective inlet headers. The banks of tubes are disposed in the flow path of main steam through the apparatus and provide a flow of vapor for adding superheat to the main

Schluderberg

1985-01-01

173

Unified Approach to Photon-Counting Microlaser Rangers, Transponders, and Altimeters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unlike current manned systems, NASA''s next generation SLR2000 Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) station is fully autonomous, eye-safe, relatively compact and inexpensive, and, during daytime tracking, operates at signal-to-noise ratios several orders of magnitude below unity. Tiny, passivelyQ-switched microlasers generate ultra-short pulses with output energies on the order of 100 J at few kHz rates to achieve mm-levelranging precision to satellite altitudesof 20,000 km. Special ranging receivers, combined with Poisson statistical analysis of the received photon distribution, enable the system to rapidly and reliably identify and extract the single photon laser echoes from the solar background. The enhanced rate of return, combined with a uniform signal strength, can actually drive down both systematic and random range errors. The new SLR2000 technology has already spawned exciting new applications. Compact microlaser altimeters, capable of mapping the surface of a planet or other celestial body at multikilohertz rates, is one such application, and a high altitude, airborne version is currently being developed under NASA''s Instrument Incubator Program. Interplanetary microlaser transponders would be capable of performing decimeter ranging or subnanosecond time transfer to spacecraft throughout the inner Solar System, resulting in improved knowledge of planetary motions and librations and enhanced General Relativity experiments.

Degnan, John J.

174

A voltage regulator system with dynamic bandwidth boosting for passive UHF RFID transponders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a voltage regulator system for passive UHF RFID transponders, which contains a rectifier, a limiter, and a regulator. The rectifier achieves power by rectifying the incoming RF energy. Due to the huge variation of the rectified voltage, a limiter at the rectifier output is used to clamp the rectified voltage. In this paper, the design of a limiter circuit is discussed in detail, which can provide a stable limiting voltage with low sensitivity to temperature variation and process dispersion. The key aspect of the voltage regulator system is the dynamic bandwidth boosting in the regulator. By sensing the excess current that is bypassed in the limiter during periods of excess energy, the bias current as well as the bandwidth of the regulator are increased, the output supply voltage can recover quickly from line transients during the periods of no RF energy to a full blast of RF energy. This voltage regulator system is implemented in a 0.18 ?m CMOS process.

Jinpeng, Shen; Xin'an, Wang; Shan, Liu; Shoucheng, Li; Zhengkun, Ruan

2013-10-01

175

Designing a ring-VCO for RFID transponders in 0.18 ?m CMOS process.  

PubMed

In radio frequency identification (RFID) systems, performance degradation of phase locked loops (PLLs) mainly occurs due to high phase noise of voltage-controlled oscillators (VCOs). This paper proposes a low power, low phase noise ring-VCO developed for 2.42 GHz operated active RFID transponders compatible with IEEE 802.11 b/g, Bluetooth, and Zigbee protocols. For ease of integration and implementation of the module in tiny die area, a novel pseudodifferential delay cell based 3-stage ring oscillator has been introduced to fabricate the ring-VCO. In CMOS technology, 0.18 ?m process is adopted for designing the circuit with 1.5 V power supply. The postlayout simulated results show that the proposed oscillator works in the tuning range of 0.5-2.54 GHz and dissipates 2.47 mW of power. It exhibits a phase noise of -126.62 dBc/Hz at 25 MHz offset from 2.42 GHz carrier frequency. PMID:24587731

Jalil, Jubayer; Reaz, Mamun Bin Ibne; Bhuiyan, Mohammad Arif Sobhan; Rahman, Labonnah Farzana; Chang, Tae Gyu

2014-01-01

176

Laser-Ranging Transponders for Science Investigations of the Moon and Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An active laser was developed ranging in real-time with two terminals, emulating interplanetary distances, and with submillimeter accuracy. In order to overcome the limitations to ranging accuracy from jitters and delay drifts within the transponders, architecture was proposed based on asynchronous paired one-way ranging with local references. A portion of the transmitted light is directed, via a reference path, to the local detector. This allows for compensation of any jitter in the timing of the emitted laser pulse. The same detector is used to measure the time of the received pulses emitted from the remote terminal. This approach removes any change in the delay caused by the detector or its electronics. Two separate terminals using commercial off-the-shelf hardware were built to emulate active laser ranging over interplanetary distances. The communication link for the command to start recording pulse arrival times and data transfer from one terminal to the other was achieved using a standard wireless link, emulating free space laser communication. The deviation is well below the goal of 1-mm precision. This leaves enough margin to achieve 1-mm precision when including the fluctuations due to atmospheric turbulence while ranging to Mars through the Earth s atmosphere. The two terminals are mounted on translation stages, which can be moved freely on rails to yield a wide range of distances with fine adjustment. The two terminals were separated by approximately 16 meters.

Hemmati, Hamid; Chen, Yijiang; Bimbaum, Kevin

2012-01-01

177

MMIC linear-phase and digital modulators for deep space spacecraft X-band transponder applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design concepts, analyses, and development of GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) linear-phase and digital modulators for the next generation of space-borne communications systems are summarized. The design approach uses a compact lumped element quadrature hybrid and Metal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MESFET)-varactors to provide low loss and well-controlled phase performance for deep space transponder (DST) applications. The measured results of the MESFET-diode show a capacitance range of 2:1 under reverse bias, and a Q of 38 at 10 GHz. Three cascaded sections of hybrid-coupled reflection phase shifters were modeled and simulations performed to provide an X-band (8415 +/- 50 MHz) DST phase modulator with +/- 2.5 radians of peak phase deviation. The modulator will accommodate downlink signal modulation with composite telemetry and ranging data, with a deviation linearity tolerance of +/- 8 percent and insertion loss of less than 8 +/- 0.5 dB. The MMIC digital modulator is designed to provide greater than 10 Mb/s of bi-phase modulation at X-band.

Mysoor, Narayan R.; Ali, Fazal

1991-01-01

178

Equatorial Radar System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A large clear air radar with the sensitivity of an incoherent scatter radar for observing the whole equatorial atmosphere up to 1000 km altitude is now being designed in Japan. The radar, called the Equatorial Radar, will be built in Pontianak, Kalimantan...

S. Rukao T. Tsuda T. Sato S. Kato

1989-01-01

179

Wind shear radar simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs used in a presentation on wind shear radar simulation are given. Information on a microburst model of radar reflectivity and wind velocity, radar pulse output, the calculation of radar return, microburst power spectrum, and simulation plans are given. A question and answer session is transcribed.

Britt, Charles L.

1988-01-01

180

Radar cross section  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technological evolution in signal processing that has been made in last decades led to improvements in radar performances. Increasing the radar range by improving its sensitivity has been made by the designers of aircraft and other military systems to try to decrease the radar cross section of these types of equipment. The radar cross section is a matter of

L. Nicolaescu; Teofil Oroian

2001-01-01

181

System, method, and apparatus for remote measurement of terrestrial biomass  

DOEpatents

A system, method, and/or apparatus for remote measurement of terrestrial biomass contained in vegetative elements, such as large tree boles or trunks present in an area of interest, are provided. The method includes providing an airborne VHF radar system in combination with a LiDAR system, overflying the area of interest while directing energy toward the area of interest, using the VHF radar system to collect backscatter data from the trees as a function of incidence angle and frequency, and determining a magnitude of the biomass from the backscatter data and data from the laser radar system for each radar resolution cell. A biomass map is generated showing the magnitude of the biomass of the vegetative elements as a function of location on the map by using each resolution cell as a unique location thereon. In certain preferred embodiments, a single frequency is used with a linear array antenna.

Johnson, Patrick W (Jefferson, MD)

2011-04-12

182

Contiguous subcarrier barrage jamming method and apparatus  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method and apparatus for providing a radar jamming signal by simultaneously frequency-modulating a voltage-tunable oscillator with a large-amplitude, periodic, sawtooth waveform and a small-amplitude random waveform. The periodic, sawtooth modulation produces a series of radio frequency spectral lines (subcarriers) of nearly uniform amplitude over a frequency range proportional to the peak-to-peak sawtooth amplitude. The spacing between adjacent subcarriers is equal to the fundamental sawtooth frequency. The secondary random modulation added to the primary sawtooth modulation produce simultaneous, random, frequency modulation of each of the subcarriers created by the primary modulation.

1997-04-22

183

Portable containment sleever apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A sleever apparatus includes an inner member with a central passage through which an item to be sleeved is passed. An outer member surrounds the inner member and defines a space between the members for holding a supply of containment material, which is preferably plastic sleeving. The apparatus has a handle which allows a user to hold the apparatus and walk the apparatus along the length of the item to be sleeved. As the user passes the item through the sleever apparatus, the containment material exits through a slit at one end of the apparatus in order to contain the item. The sleever apparatus may be formed of disposable materials, such as cardboard, and may be intended for a single use application. Alternatively, the sleever apparatus may be comprised of more permanent materials such as PVC or fiberglass. The sleever apparatus may include a serrated end for cutting the containment material and may include appropriate tubing and valves for either directing an inert gas into the containment material around the item or for withdrawing air from within the containment material in order to create a vacuum. In one embodiment, the sleever apparatus has a cartridge that can be replaced with another cartridge once the supply of the containment material has been depleted.

Rea, M.J.; Brown, R.A.

2000-04-25

184

Portable containment sleever apparatus  

DOEpatents

A sleever apparatus includes an inner member with a central passage through which an item to be sleeved is passed. An outer member surrounds the inner member and defines a space between the members for holding a supply of containment material, which is preferably plastic sleeving. The apparatus has a handle which allows a user to hold the apparatus and walk the apparatus along the length of the item to be sleeved. As the user passes the item through the sleever apparatus, the containment material exits through a slit at one end of the apparatus in order to contain the item. The sleever apparatus may be formed of disposable materials, such as cardboard, and may be intended for a single use application. Alternatively, the sleever apparatus may be comprised of more permanent materials such as PVC or fiberglass. The sleever apparatus may include a serrated end for cutting the containment material and may include appropriate tubing and valves for either directing an inert gas into the containment material around the item or for withdrawing air from within the containment material in order to create a vacuum. In one embodiment, the sleever apparatus has a cartridge that can be replaced with another cartridge once the supply of the containment material has been depleted.

Rea, Michael J. (North Augusta, SC); Brown, Roger A. (North Augusta, SC)

2000-01-01

185

Development and Evaluation of Passive Integrated Transponder Tag Technology, 2000-2002.  

SciTech Connect

Since 1984, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has conducted a research project to develop and evaluate technology for passive-integrated-transponder tags (PIT tags) throughout the Columbia River Basin (CRB). Work conducted as part of this project between October 2000 and September 2002 (FY01 and FY02) was divided into seven individual elements, which are covered separately in this report. The efforts by personnel associated with this project have produced and will continue to produce products that aid resource stakeholders in assessing the effectiveness of actions taken to enhance the survival of juvenile and adult salmonids. These products and their uses include: (1) Survival and migration timing information on stocks to evaluate water management strategies and fish passage/collection facilities; (2) Data needed for the management and restoration of salmonids and other fish stocks listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA); (3) Information required for the management of multiple species in a variety of habitats; and (4) Tools that enable fisheries researchers and managers to address previously unanswerable questions and critical uncertainties These products are also used in genetic, physiology, behavior, and captive broodstock research on endangered species. The continued development of PIT-tag technology will enable researchers and fisheries managers to address issues expressed in both of NMFS biological opinions for operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS)(NMFS 1995a, 2000) and the proposed Snake River Recovery Plan (NMFS 1995b; tasks 2.1.d, 2.3.b.4, 2.4.a, 2.6.c.2, and 2.9.d).

Downing, Sandra L.; Prentice, Earl F.; Nunnallee, Edmund P. [National Marine Fisheries Service

2009-04-03

186

Fifty years of radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A development history of radar technology is presented, with attention to the driving of radar system design advances by the emergence of such weapon systems as long range aircraft and cruise missiles in World War II and the range of current applications for state-of-the-art radar techniques. The applications noted encompass over-the-horizon backscatter radars for aircraft detection at 500-1800 nmi ranges, ultralow sidelobe antenna military radars, a long range, frequency scanning three-dimensional S-band radar, a shipborne phased array radar for the collection of exoatmospheric and endoatmospheric data on ballistic missile reentry vehicles, multimission/multimode X-band fighter aircraft radars, and phased array air defense radars.

Skolnik, M. I.

1985-02-01

187

Battery cell feedthrough apparatus  

DOEpatents

A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance.

Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL)

1995-01-01

188

Radar, Target and Ranging.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Test Operations Procedure (TOP) provides conventional test methods employing conventional test instrumentation for testing conventional radars. Single tests and subtests designed to test radar components, transmitters, receivers, antennas, etc., and ...

1984-01-01

189

Radar Absorbing Material Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Low observable platforms have extremely low radar cross section specifications that cannot be achieved by shaping alone. The application of radar absorbing material is necessary, in which case the appropriate constitutive parameters and thickness must be ...

C. K. Yuzcelik

2003-01-01

190

The MST radar technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The coherent radar technique is reviewed with special emphasis to mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radars operating in the VHF band. Some basic introduction to Doppler radar measurements and the radar equation is followed by an outline of the characteristics of atmospheric turbulence, viewed from the scattering and reflection processes of radar signals. Radar signal acquisition and preprocessing, namely coherent detection, digital sampling, pre-integration and coding, is briefly discussed. The data analysis is represented in terms of the correlation and spectrum analysis, yielding the essential parameters: power, signal-to-noise ratio, average and fluctuating velocity and persistency. The techniques to measure wind velocities, viz. the different modes of the Doppler method as well as the space antenna method are surveyed and the feasibilities of the MST radar interferometer technique are elucidated. A general view on the criteria to design phased array antennas is given. An outline of the hardware of a typical MST radar system is presented.

Roettger, J.

1984-01-01

191

Equatorial radar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large clear air radar with the sensitivity of an incoherent scatter radar for observing the whole equatorial atmosphere up to 1000 km altitude is now being designed in Japan. The radar will be built in Pontianak, West Kalimantan, Indonesia (0.03 deg N, 109.29 deg E). The system is a 47-MHz monostatic Doppler radar with an active phased array configuration

Shoichiro Fukao; Toshitaka Tsuda; Toru Sato; Susumu Kato

1990-01-01

192

Radar observations of asteroids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The type of information that can be obtained from radar observations of asteroids includes sizes, shapes, spin vectors, and such surface characteristics as the decimeter-scale morphology, topographic relief, regolith porosity, and metal concentration. This paper describes the two radar facilities active in asteroid studies (the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico and the Goldstone Radar in California) and techniques used in radar observations of asteroids. Results available for main-belt and near-earth asteroids are discussed.

Ostro, Steven J.

1989-01-01

193

Fifty years of radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A development history of radar technology is presented, with attention to the driving of radar system design advances by the emergence of such weapon systems as long range aircraft and cruise missiles in World War II and the range of current applications for state-of-the-art radar techniques. The applications noted encompass over-the-horizon backscatter radars for aircraft detection at 500-1800 nmi ranges,

M. I. Skolnik

1985-01-01

194

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes: (1) a variable inductor suitable for an inductance-capacitance bridge consisting of a fixed cylindrical solenoid and a moveable solenoid; (2) long-range apparatus for demonstrating falling bodies; and (3) an apparatus using two lasers to demonstrate ray optics. (SK)

Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

1981-01-01

195

Apparatus for handling ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ash-handling apparatus is described comprising: a container having a substantially planar surface formed therein, the container being filled with liquid for receiving ash when the apparatus is in operative condition; an elongate paddle element for sweeping across the planar surface thereby collecting such ash along the front thereof, the paddle element being pivotally mounted on the planar surface; means

D. W. Pressnall; M. R. Keller; R. E. Schwartz

1989-01-01

196

Laser beam generating apparatus  

DOEpatents

Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect). 11 figures.

Warner, B.E.; Duncan, D.B.

1993-12-28

197

Bearing Lubrication Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent described apparatus for lubrication of anti-friction bearings which uses the oil bleeding characteristics of grease. The apparatus consists of a housing for attachment to a bearing and a grease reservoir wherein the grease is retained in a slop...

K. H. Warren

1970-01-01

198

Solar energy apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy apparatus for gathering and transmitting solar radiation to an energy storage area. Wide-angle lens apparatus is used to focus solar radiation on an end of an optical fiber bundle. The other end of the optical fiber bundle is placed in the energy storage area and has a radiating device attached thereto to more efficiently remove the solar

1977-01-01

199

Robot arm apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for co...

H. D. Nachbar

1990-01-01

200

Robot ARM Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for co...

H. D. Nachbar

1990-01-01

201

Apparatus for cleaning pipe  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus for cleaning pipe having a pipe interior, the apparatus comprising: a rigid, longitudinally extending stem; a motor stationarily mounted on the stem; an outer body which surrounds the motor; drive means for connecting the motor to the outer body; a power coupling connected to the stem for supplying power to the motor.

Allison, A.; Tarsha, S.; McMillan, J.S.

1992-02-25

202

Harmonic Radar Literature Harmonisk Radar - en Litteraturstudie.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A harmonic radar sends on a given frequency f sub o and receives on another frequency usually 3 f sub o. The overtone is generated on joints between the metal parts of the radar target. The generated high harmonic frequency is very weak, which is why this...

B. Jansson

1980-01-01

203

Harmonic radar literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

A harmonic radar sends on a given frequency f sub o and receives on another frequency usually 3 f sub o. The overtone is generated on joints between the metal parts of the radar target. The generated high harmonic frequency is very weak, which is why this radar has an extremely low range of detection. Natural objects in the target

B. Jansson

1980-01-01

204

Lunar radar backscatter studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lunar surface material in the Plato area is characterized using Earth based visual, infrared, and radar signatures. Radar scattering in the lunar regolith with an existing optical scattering computer program is modeled. Mapping with 1 to 2 km resolution of the Moon using a 70 cm Arecibo radar is presented.

Thompson, T. W.

1979-01-01

205

Radar cross section measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present status of radar cross section (RCS) measurements is addressed. The fundamental considerations and definitions associated with RCS measurements are reviewed, including radar waveform, polarization requirements, far-field requirements, and target dimensional scaling. Different types of measurement facilities are examined, including their range geometries, target support systems, calibration standards, and facility evaluation. Instrumentation radar requirements and designs are reviewed, and

Robert B. Dybdal

1987-01-01

206

Automatic Radar Waveform Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a system for automatically recognizing radar waveforms is introduced. This type of techniques are needed in various spectrum management, surveillance and cognitive radio or radar applications. The intercepted radar signal is classified to eight classes based on the pulse compression waveform: linear frequency modulation (LFM), discrete frequency codes (Costas codes), binary phase, and Frank, P1, P2, P3,

Jarmo Lundn; Visa Koivunen

2007-01-01

207

Controlling radar signature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low observable technologies for military and tactical aircraft are reviewed including signature-reduction techniques and signal detection\\/jamming. Among the applications considered are low-signature sensors and the reduction of radar cross section in conjunction with radar-absorbing structures and materials. Technologies for reducing radar cross section are shown to present significant technological challenges, although they afford enhanced aircraft survivability.

Foulke

1992-01-01

208

Technical Note: Suppression of artifacts arising from simultaneous cone-beam imaging and RF transponder tracking in prostate radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Artifacts in treatment-room cone-beam reconstructions have been observed at the authors' center when cone-beam acquisition is simultaneous with radio frequency (RF) transponder tracking using the Calypso 4D system (Calypso Medical, Seattle, WA). These artifacts manifest as CT-number modulations and increased CT-noise. The authors present a method for the suppression of the artifacts. Methods: The authors propose a three-stage postprocessing technique that can be applied to image volumes previously reconstructed by a cone-beam system. The stages are (1) segmentation of voxels into air, soft-tissue, and bone; (2) application of a 2D spatial-filter in the axial plane to the soft-tissue voxels; and (3) normalization to remove streaking along the axial-direction. The algorithm was tested on patient data acquired with Synergy XVI cone-beam CT systems (Elekta, Crawley, United Kingdom). Results: The computational demands of the suggested correction are small, taking less than 15 s per cone-beam reconstruction on a desktop PC. For a moderate loss of spatial-resolution, the artifacts are strongly suppressed and low-contrast visibility is improved. Conclusions: The correction technique proposed is fast and effective in removing the artifacts caused by simultaneous cone-beam imaging and RF-transponder tracking.

Poludniowski, Gavin; Webb, Steve; Evans, Philip M. [Joint Department of Physics, Division of Radiotherapy and Imaging, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Downs Road, Sutton, Surrey, SM2 5PT (United Kingdom)

2012-03-15

209

Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Transponder Loading Data Conversion Software. User's guide and software maintenance manual, version 1.2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This volume contains the complete software system documentation for the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Transponder Loading Data Conversion Software (FIX-FCC). This software was written to facilitate the formatting and conversion of FCC Transponder Occupancy (Loading) Data before it is loaded into the NASA Geosynchronous Satellite Orbital Statistics Database System (GSOSTATS). The information that FCC supplies NASA is in report form and must be converted into a form readable by the database management software used in the GSOSTATS application. Both the User's Guide and Software Maintenance Manual are contained in this document. This volume of documentation passed an independent quality assurance review and certification by the Product Assurance and Security Office of the Planning Research Corporation (PRC). The manuals were reviewed for format, content, and readability. The Software Management and Assurance Program (SMAP) life cycle and documentation standards were used in the development of this document. Accordingly, these standards were used in the review. Refer to the System/Software Test/Product Assurance Report for the Geosynchronous Satellite Orbital Statistics Database System (GSOSTATS) for additional information.

Mallasch, Paul G.

1993-01-01

210

Tracking butterfly flight paths across the landscape with harmonic radar.  

PubMed

For the first time, the flight paths of five butterfly species were successfully tracked using harmonic radar within an agricultural landscape. Until now, butterfly mobility has been predominantly studied using visual observations and mark-recapture experiments. Attachment of a light-weight radar transponder to the butterfly's thorax did not significantly affect behaviour or mobility. Tracks were analysed for straightness, duration, displacement, ground speed, foraging and the influence of linear landscape features on flight direction. Two main styles of track were identified: (A) fast linear flight and (B) slower nonlinear flights involving a period of foraging and/or looped sections of flight. These loops potentially perform an orientation function, and were often associated with areas of forage. In the absence of forage, linear features did not provide a guiding effect on flight direction, and only dense treelines were perceived as barriers. The results provide tentative support for non-random dispersal and a perceptual range of 100-200 m for these species. This study has demonstrated a methodology of significant value for future investigation of butterfly mobility and dispersal. PMID:15888410

Cant, E T; Smith, A D; Reynolds, D R; Osborne, J L

2005-04-22

211

Tracking butterfly flight paths across the landscape with harmonic radar  

PubMed Central

For the first time, the flight paths of five butterfly species were successfully tracked using harmonic radar within an agricultural landscape. Until now, butterfly mobility has been predominantly studied using visual observations and mark–recapture experiments. Attachment of a light-weight radar transponder to the butterfly's thorax did not significantly affect behaviour or mobility. Tracks were analysed for straightness, duration, displacement, ground speed, foraging and the influence of linear landscape features on flight direction. Two main styles of track were identified: (A) fast linear flight and (B) slower nonlinear flights involving a period of foraging and/or looped sections of flight. These loops potentially perform an orientation function, and were often associated with areas of forage. In the absence of forage, linear features did not provide a guiding effect on flight direction, and only dense treelines were perceived as barriers. The results provide tentative support for non-random dispersal and a perceptual range of 100–200?m for these species. This study has demonstrated a methodology of significant value for future investigation of butterfly mobility and dispersal.

Cant, E.T; Smith, A.D; Reynolds, D.R; Osborne, J.L

2005-01-01

212

Radar Meteorology Tutorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Brian McNoldy at Multi-community Environmental Storm Observatory (MESO) educates the public about the use of radar in meteorology in this pdf document. After reading about the history of radar, visitors can find out how radar can detect storms by transmitting a high-power beam of radiation. Students can learn how scatter, absorption, frequencies, scan angles, and moments impact the radar display. With the help of many example images, the author also discusses how to interpret the images collected. At the end of the online document, visitors can learn about the characteristics and capabilities of NEXRAD WSR-88D, the radar used throughout the United States.

Mcnoldy, Brian

2007-08-16

213

Multidimensional radar picture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In marine navigation systems, the three-dimensional (3D) visualization is often and often used. Echosonders and sonars working in hydroacustic systems can present pictures in three dimensions. Currently, vector maps also offer 3D presentation. This presentation is used in aviation and underwater navigation. In the nearest future three-dimensional presentation may be obligatory presentation in displays of navigation systems. A part of these systems work with radar and communicates with it transmitting data in a digital form. 3D presentation of radar picture require a new technology to develop. In the first step it is necessary to compile digital form of radar signal. The modern navigation radar do not present data in three-dimensional form. Progress in technology of digital signal processing make it possible to create multidimensional radar pictures. For instance, the RSC (Radar Scan Converter) - digital radar picture recording and transforming tool can be used to create new picture online. Using RSC and techniques of modern computer graphics multidimensional radar pictures can be generated. The radar pictures mentioned should be readable for ECDIS. The paper presents a method for generating multidimensional radar picture from original signal coming from radar receiver.

Waz, Mariusz

2010-05-01

214

Cleaning method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A method of very thoroughly and quikcly cleaning a guaze electrode used in chemical analyses is given, as well as an automobile cleaning apparatus which makes use of the method. The method generates very little waste solution, and this is very important in analyzing radioactive materials, especially in aqueous solutions. The cleaning apparatus can be used in a larger, fully automated controlled potential coulometric apparatus. About 99.98% of a 5 mg plutonium sample was removed in less than 3 minutes, using only about 60 ml of rinse solution and two main rinse steps.

Jackson, D.D.; Hollen, R.M.

1981-02-27

215

Conduit grinding apparatus  

DOEpatents

A grinding apparatus for grinding the interior portion of a valve stem receiving area of a valve. The apparatus comprises a faceplate, a plurality of cams mounted to an interior face of the faceplate, a locking bolt to lock the faceplate at a predetermined position on the valve, a movable grinder and a guide tube for positioning an optical viewer proximate the area to be grinded. The apparatus can either be rotated about the valve for grinding an area of the inner diameter of a valve stem receiving area or locked at a predetermined position to grind a specific point in the receiving area.

Nachbar, Henry D. (Ballston Lake, NY); Korytkowski, Alfred S. (Scotia, NY)

1991-01-01

216

Solar energy collecting apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A solar energy collecting apparatus is described which is integrally incorporated into a conventional building structure so that it does not protrude from the normal contour of the building, and which utilizes components of the building structure as a part of the collecting apparatus to thereby minimize the cost thereof. The collecting apparatus includes a solar energy absorptive panel which is adapted to be mounted between the conventional support members in the wall or roof of a building, and which includes an outwardly facing dark collecting surface, and an opposite inner surface having fins integrally formed therein to facilitate transfer of heat to air passed therealong.

Mcarthur, W.H.

1980-01-22

217

Doubly Adaptive CFAR Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The doubly adaptive constant false alarm rate (CFAR) apparatus uses a doubly adaptive detector which is based upon the use of an auxiliary parallel adaptive detector in addition to the conventional main adaptive detector. The auxiliary adaptive detector h...

L. G. Cole

1979-01-01

218

Emission Tube Apparatus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an image of an emission tube apparatus with tube in place. When plugged in and turned on the gas in the tube will become excited and emit a specific color of light depending upon the type of gas.

Ward, Charles

2003-01-16

219

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a demonstration to initiate discussion about electrostatic effects. Also describes and evaluates a Magnetic Bubble Apparatus, a device which exhibits several phenomena related to magnetic domain formation. Includes manufacturer's response to the evaluation. (JN)

Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

1982-01-01

220

Gas turbine sealing apparatus  

DOEpatents

A sealing apparatus in a gas turbine. The sealing apparatus includes a seal housing apparatus coupled to a disc/rotor assembly so as to be rotatable therewith during operation of the gas turbine. The seal housing apparatus comprises a base member, a first leg portion, a second leg portion, and spanning structure. The base member extends generally axially between forward and aft rows of rotatable blades and is positioned adjacent to a row of stationary vanes. The first leg portion extends radially inwardly from the base member and is coupled to the disc/rotor assembly. The second leg portion is axially spaced from the first leg portion, extends radially inwardly from the base member, and is coupled to the disc/rotor assembly. The spanning structure extends between and is rigidly coupled to each of the base member, the first leg portion, and the second leg portion.

Marra, John Joseph; Wessell, Brian J.; Liang, George

2013-03-05

221

Glucose Determination Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent describes an electrochemical apparatus especially applicable for clinical use in determining glucose concentrations in solutions. The invention monitors the reaction of glucose oxidase on a buffered solution of glucose in the presence of a quin...

D. L. Williams

1971-01-01

222

An Economical Electrophoresis Apparatus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the production of an electrophoresis apparatus from commonly discarded articles. Outlines paper and gel electrophoresis and its application to the separation of amino acids and intestinal enzymes. (GS)

Andrews, I. M.

1975-01-01

223

Simulated Oxygen Breathing Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A filter replaces the oxygen canister of an oxygen breathing apparatus and the air flow path is modified to provide a realistic simulation for training Personnel. in the use of closed circuit breathing units. (Author)

E. Swiatosz W. V. Dykes

1979-01-01

224

Roller Infusion Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention is an infusion apparatus consisting of a housing containing an electric motor, the housing having a channel-shaped chassis integrally connected thereto and laterally offset therefrom. A toothed drive roller is transversely journalled in the ...

C. F. G. Dore G. R. Chambers

1983-01-01

225

Apparatus for growing crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved apparatus and method for growing crystals from a melt employing a heat pipe, consisting of one or more sections, each section serving to control temperature and thermal gradients in the crystal as it forms inside the pipe.

Jasinski, Thomas J. (Inventor); Witt, August F. (Inventor)

1986-01-01

226

Battery cell feedthrough apparatus  

DOEpatents

A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus is described comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance. 8 figs.

Kaun, T.D.

1995-03-14

227

Sound Attenuation Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An apparatus is disclosed for reducing acoustic transmission from mechanical or acoustic sources by means of a double wall partition, within which an acoustic pressure field is generated by at least one secondary acoustic source. The secondary acoustic so...

K. P. Shepherd M. W. A. F. Grosveld

1989-01-01

228

Spin coating apparatus  

DOEpatents

A spin coating apparatus requires less cleanroom air flow than prior spin coating apparatus to minimize cleanroom contamination. A shaped exhaust duct from the spin coater maintains process quality while requiring reduced cleanroom air flow. The exhaust duct can decrease in cross section as it extends from the wafer, minimizing eddy formation. The exhaust duct can conform to entrainment streamlines to minimize eddy formation and reduce interprocess contamination at minimal cleanroom air flow rates.

Torczynski, John R. (Albuquerque, NM)

2000-01-01

229

Electric arc saw apparatus  

DOEpatents

A portable, hand-held electric arc saw apparatus comprising a small frame for supporting an electrically conducting rotary blade which serves as an electrode for generating an electric arc between the blade and a workpiece of opposite polarity. Electrically conducting means are provided on said frame for transmitting current to said blade. A pair of freely movable endless belts in the form of crawler treads are employed to facilitate movement of the apparatus relative to the workpiece.

Deichelbohrer, P.R.

1983-08-08

230

Mining apparatus and method  

SciTech Connect

A mining apparatus and method for dislodging material from a mine face. The dislodged material is transported from the front to the rear of the mine for further handling. The apparatus has a lifting mechanism for raising cross beams to the roof of the mine wherein beam jacks are permitted to engage the cross beams to provide support to the mine roof. The temporary roof support permits advancement of miner as dislodged material is removed.

Hakes, G.A.; Mccracken, W.E.

1982-05-11

231

Battery formation charging apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is describe for charging electric storage batteries, the apparatus comprising: (a) a host computer for providing charging information to and receiving status information from at least one slave computer by means of a data link; and (b) at least one control module coupled to the slave computer for applying charging current to at least one electric storage battery in response to instructions received from the slave computer, and for providing feedback and status information to the slave computer.

Stewart, J.L.

1987-08-04

232

Infrared microscope inspection apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface.

Forman, Steven E. (Framingham, MA); Caunt, James W. (Concord, MA)

1985-02-26

233

Infrared microscope inspection apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface. 4 figs.

Forman, S.E.; Caunt, J.W.

1985-02-26

234

Apollo experience report: Lunar module landing radar and rendezvous radar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A developmental history of the Apollo lunar module landing and rendezvous radar subsystems is presented. The Apollo radar subsystems are discussed from initial concept planning to flight configuration testing. The major radar subsystem accomplishments and problems are discussed.

Rozas, P.; Cunningham, A. R.

1972-01-01

235

Development of precision acoustic transponders for GPS/Acoustic observation on the deep seafloor near the Japan Trench axis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake has let most of researchers recognize the importance of seafloor geodetic observation, especially near the trench axis. Iinuma et al. (2012a) estimated the coseismic slip distribution combining onshore GPS data with the seafloor geodetic data. Their results reveal that a huge (> 50 m) slip occurred in a small area (about 40 km in width and 120 km in length) near the Japan Trench and generated the huge tsunami. After the Tohoku-oki earthquake, seismic coupling near the trench axis has become a key to understand giant earthquakes in subduction zones, and it is GPS/Acoustic (GPS/A) repeated seafloor positioning that can give an observational constraint to it. Observation of postseimic deformation is another and urgent task required in the Japan Trench. Seafloor geodetic observation indicates posteseimic deformation near the Japan Trench axis in the north and south of the huge slip area (Iinuma et al., 2012b). The result is clearly different from that of onshore GPS observation. Postseismic deformation is estimated to be a key observation that can discriminate proper models from several ones that can explain the occurrence of the mega thrust. Tohoku University plans to deploy extensive GPS/A observation array along the Japan Trench in 2012 with a fund from MEXT, Japan, to cope with these requests (Kido et al., in this meeting). Precision acoustic transponders have newly been developed for the array to enable the following three requests: (1) observation on the deep seafloor, (2) compatibility among three institutions in Japan, and (3) observation for ten years. The first is the observation on the deep seafloor near the trench. While the Japan Trench axis is deeper than 7000 m, the existing GPS/A sites along the Japan Trench have remained on the seafloor shallower than 2500 m except the one nearest to the trench, where we observed coseismic slip of 31 m (Kido et al., 2011). We deployed 4 units of the new transponders supplied by Kaiyo Denshi, Ltd., in July this year on the seafloor of water depth around 5570 m. We have confirmed reliable acoustic ranging up to a slant range of 13 km, which is necessary for GPS/A observation on the seafloor of 6000 m water depth. The depth of 6000 m is a limit of cost effective glass-sphere pressure housing. The new transponder can also be adaptable to the GPS/A observation systems of Japan Coast Guard and Nagoya University to increase the chance of observations and to realize mutual comparison of the observed results. The acoustic system of Tohoku University was not so different from that of Nagoya University, but was quite different from that of Japan Coast Guard. Stronger Doppler effect on a longer acoustic signal adopted by the Japan Coast Guard was the most critical problem. We deployed one unit of the new transponder on the seafloor of about 2000 m water depth, and Japan Coast Guard has confirmed precise acoustic ranging with it up to a slant range of about 6000 m by using the acoustic system installed on their survey vessel.

Fujimoto, H.; Kido, M.

2012-12-01

236

Laser radar in robotics  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the authors describe the basic operating principles of laser radar sensors and the typical algorithms used to process laser radar imagery for robotic applications. The authors review 12 laser radar sensors to illustrate the variety of systems that have been applied to robotic applications wherein information extracted from the laser radar data is used to automatically control a mechanism or process. Next, they describe selected robotic applications in seven areas: autonomous vehicle navigation, walking machine foot placement, automated service vehicles, manufacturing and inspection, automotive, military, and agriculture. They conclude with a discussion of the status of laser radar technology and suggest trends seen in the application of laser radar sensors to robotics. Many new applications are expected as the maturity level progresses and system costs are reduced.

Carmer, D.C.; Peterson, L.M. [Environmental Research Inst. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

1996-02-01

237

Planetary radar studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A catalog of lunar and radar anomalies was generated to provide a base for comparison with Venusian radar signatures. The relationships between lunar radar anomalies and regolith processes were investigated, and a consortium was formed to compare lunar and Venusian radar images of craters. Time was scheduled at the Arecibo Observatory to use the 430 MHz radar to obtain high resolution radar maps of six areas of the lunar suface. Data from 1978 observations of Mare Serenitas and Plato are being analyzed on a PDP 11/70 computer to construct the computer program library necessary for the eventual reduction of the May 1981 and subsequent data acquisitions. Papers accepted for publication are presented.

Thompson, T. W.; Cutts, J. A.

1981-01-01

238

Multifunction laser radar: II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser radar systems are required for various military applications including obstacle detection, target recognition, and terrain mapping. Each application requires different system parameters such as pulse energy, repetition rate, and field of view. This paper is the second in a series of papers describing the progress toward a multifunction laser radar system under construction for the Cooperative Eyesafe Laser Radar Program (CELRAP) of the U.S. Army CECOM Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate.

Hutchinson, James A.; Trussell, Charlie W.; Allik, Toomas H.; Hamlin, Scott J.; McCarthy, John C.; Jack, Michael D.

2000-09-01

239

Radar Imaging and Feature Extraction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Advanced spectral estimation methods are presented for radar imaging and target feature extraction. We study problems involved in inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) autofocus and imaging, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) autofocus and motion compensati...

J. Li

1999-01-01

240

Stepped Frequency Imaging Radar Simulation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this thesis, a technique involving Stepped Frequency and Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) processing have been employed to develop two- dimensional radar images of an aircraft target. Radar returns from prominent scatterers of various parts of t...

K. L. Mun

2000-01-01

241

Review of Radar Absorbing Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Radar is a sensitive detection tool and since its development, methods for reducing microwave reflections have been explored. Radar absorbers can be classified as impedance matching or resonant absorbers. Radar absorbing materials are made from resistive ...

P. Saville

2005-01-01

242

Landform Identification: Lunar Radar Images.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three sets of polarized radar-echo images of the Moon were examined to establish the relation between radar resolution and landform-identification resolution. After comparison with lunar maps and photographs, real and apparent landforms on the radar image...

H. J. Moore T. W. Thompson

1987-01-01

243

Equatorial radar system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large clear air radar with the sensitivity of an incoherent scatter radar for observing the whole equatorial atmosphere up to 1000 km altitude is now being designed in Japan. The radar, called the Equatorial Radar, will be built in Pontianak, Kalimantan Island, Indonesia (0.03 N, 109.3 E). The system is a 47 MHz monostatic Doppler radar with an active phased array configuration similar to that of the MU radar in Japan, which has been in successful operation since 1983. It will have a PA product of more than 5 x 10(9) sq. Wm (P = average transmitter power, A = effective antenna aperture) with sensitivity more than 10 times that of the MU radar. This system configuration enables pulse-to-pulse beam steering within 25 deg from the zenith. As is the case of the MU radar, a variety of sophisticated operations will be made feasible under the supervision of the radar controller. A brief description of the system configuration is presented.

Rukao, S.; Tsuda, T.; Sato, T.; Kato, S.

1989-04-01

244

Equatorial radar system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A large clear air radar with the sensitivity of an incoherent scatter radar for observing the whole equatorial atmosphere up to 1000 km altitude is now being designed in Japan. The radar, called the Equatorial Radar, will be built in Pontianak, Kalimantan Island, Indonesia (0.03 N, 109.3 E). The system is a 47 MHz monostatic Doppler radar with an active phased array configuration similar to that of the MU radar in Japan, which has been in successful operation since 1983. It will have a PA product of more than 5 x 10(9) sq. Wm (P = average transmitter power, A = effective antenna aperture) with sensitivity more than 10 times that of the MU radar. This system configuration enables pulse-to-pulse beam steering within 25 deg from the zenith. As is the case of the MU radar, a variety of sophisticated operations will be made feasible under the supervision of the radar controller. A brief description of the system configuration is presented.

Rukao, S.; Tsuda, T.; Sato, T.; Kato, S.

1989-01-01

245

Harmonic radar literature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A harmonic radar sends on a given frequency f sub o and receives on another frequency usually 3 f sub o. The overtone is generated on joints between the metal parts of the radar target. The generated high harmonic frequency is very weak, which is why this radar has an extremely low range of detection. Natural objects in the target area do not disturb the high frequency harmonics. The radar becomes clutter free. The principals of generating high frequency harmonics cover tunneling, semiconductor and microwave effects. Signal generation is most powerful when f sub o is between 100 and 1000 MHz.

Jansson, B.

1980-07-01

246

Polarization Imaging Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A polarization imaging apparatus has shown promise as a prototype of instruments for medical imaging with contrast greater than that achievable by use of non-polarized light. The underlying principles of design and operation are derived from observations that light interacts with tissue ultrastructures that affect reflectance, scattering, absorption, and polarization of light. The apparatus utilizes high-speed electro-optical components for generating light properties and acquiring polarization images through aligned polarizers. These components include phase retarders made of OptoCeramic (registered TradeMark) material - a ceramic that has a high electro-optical coefficient. The apparatus includes a computer running a program that implements a novel algorithm for controlling the phase retarders, capturing image data, and computing the Stokes polarization images. Potential applications include imaging of superficial cancers and other skin lesions, early detection of diseased cells, and microscopic analysis of tissues. The high imaging speed of this apparatus could be beneficial for observing live cells or tissues, and could enable rapid identification of moving targets in astronomy and national defense. The apparatus could also be used as an analysis tool in material research and industrial processing.

Zou, Yingyin K.; Chen, Qiushui

2010-01-01

247

Biological particle identification apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for making multiparameter light scattering measurements from suspensions of biological particles is described. Fourteen of the sixteen Mueller matrix elements describing the particles under investigation can be substantially individually determined as a function of scattering angle and probing radiations wavelength, eight elements simultaneously for each of two apparatus configurations using an apparatus which incluees, in its simplest form, two polarization modulators each operating at a chosen frequency, one polarizer, a source of monochromatic electromagnetic radiation, a detector sensitive to the wavelength of radiation employed, eight phase-sensitive detectors, and appropriate electronics. A database of known biological particle suspensions can be assembled, and unknown samples can be quickly identified once measurements are performed on it according to the teachings of the subject invention, and a comparison is made with the database.

Salzman, Gary C. (Los Alamos, NM); Gregg, Charles T. (Los Alamos, NM); Grace, W. Kevin (Los Alamos, NM); Hiebert, Richard D. (Los Alamos, NM)

1989-01-01

248

Gas compression apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus for transferring gas from a first container to a second container of higher pressure was devised. A free-piston compressor having a driving piston and cylinder, and a smaller diameter driven piston and cylinder, comprise the apparatus. A rod member connecting the driving and driven pistons functions for mutual reciprocation in the respective cylinders. A conduit may be provided for supplying gas to the driven cylinder from the first container. Also provided is apparatus for introducing gas to the driving piston, to compress gas by the driven piston for transfer to the second higher pressure container. The system is useful in transferring spacecraft cabin oxygen into higher pressure containers for use in extravehicular activities.

Terp, L. S. (inventor)

1977-01-01

249

Robot arm apparatus  

DOEpatents

A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for conveying inspection and/or maintenance apparatus from outside the steam generator to the interior of the steam generator. The flexible conduit has a terminal working end which is translated into and around the interior of the steam generator. Three motors located outside the steam generator are employed for moving the terminal working end inside the steam generator in "x", "y", and "z" directions, respectively. Commonly conducted inspection and maintenance operations include visual inspection for damaged areas, water jet lancing for cleaning sludge deposits, core boring for obtaining sludge deposits, and scrubbing of internal parts.

Nachbar, Henry D. (Ballston Lake, NY)

1992-01-01

250

Apparatus for processing coal  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus for processing coal to prevent the creation of extreme fines and to extract pyrites from the principal coal fractions in which there are two air circulating circuits having processing components which cooperate in their respective circuits to result initially in substantial extraction of fines in the first circuit while releasing principal granulated coal fractions and pyrites to the second circuit where specific gravity separation of the pyrites and principal coal fractions occur. The apparatus includes a source of drying heat added to the air moving in the circuits and delivered at the places where surface moisture drying is most effective. Furthermore, the apparatus is operated so as to reduce coal to a desired size without creating an excessive volume of extreme fines, to separate pyrites and hard to grind components by specific gravity in a region where fines are not present, and to use the extreme fines as a source of fuel to generate drying heat.

Williams, R.M.

1985-02-12

251

Passive orientation apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus that can return a payload to a known orientation after unknown motion, without requiring external power or complex mechanical systems. The apparatus comprises a faceted cage that causes the system to rest in a stable position and orientation after arbitrary motion. A gimbal is mounted with the faceted cage and holds the payload, allowing the payload to move relative to the stable faceted cage. The payload is thereby placed in a known orientation by the interaction of gravity with the geometry of the faceted cage, the mass of the system, and the motion of the payload and gimbal. No additional energy, control, or mechanical actuation is required. The apparatus is suitable for use in applications requiring positioning of a payload to a known orientation after arbitrary or uncontrolled motion, including remote sensing and mobile robot applications.

Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM); Fischer, Gary J. (Albuquerque, NM); Martinez, Michael A. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01

252

Fuel assembly locking apparatus  

SciTech Connect

The fuel assembly locking apparatus comprises a rotatable plate capable of simultaneously and positively engaging all four legs of the bottom nozzle of a fuel assembly for uniformly holding the fuel assembly while the spent fuel rods are pulled from the fuel assembly. The rotatable plate has four notched corners arranged to be rotated over a ledge on each leg of the bottom nozzle of the fuel assembly thereby preventing movement of the fuel assembly. The rotatable plate is also capable of being rotated 45/sup 0/ so that the four corners of the plate are rotated clear of the legs of the bottom nozzle of the fuel assembly thereby allowing the fuel assembly to be placed on or removed from the locking apparatus. The locking apparatus is also provided with a torque actuator for remotely rotating the plate.

Tolino, R. W.; Toler Sr., C. E.

1984-10-02

253

Active radar stealth device  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent discloses an active radar stealth device mounted on a host platform for minimizing the radar cross-section of the host platform. A coating which is essentially microwave transparent is attached to the surface of a host platform and is exposed to an incident microwave field. A plurality of detector\\/emitter pairs contained within the coating detect and actively cancel, respectively,

R. N. Cain; Albert J. Corda

1991-01-01

254

Researches on radar technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Electronic Systems Research Center (ESRC), various researches have been conducted to realize defense radars with excellent functions and performance. This presentation introduces some of those radar research programs. Especially, the research concerning active phased array antenna started in an early stage of the 1970s. Successive various basic research programs have been conducted and finally led to successful development of

T. Itoh

2009-01-01

255

Equatorial radar system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large clear air radar with the sensitivity of an incoherent scatter radar for observing the whole equatorial atmosphere up to 1000 km altitude is now being designed in Japan. The radar will be built in Pontianak, West Kalimantan, Indonesia (0.03 deg N, 109.29 deg E). The system is a 47-MHz monostatic Doppler radar with an active phased array configuration similar to that of the MU radar in Japan, which has been in successful operation since 1983. It will have a PA product of about 3 x 10 to the 9th W sq m (P = average transmitter power, A = effective antenna aperture) with a sensitivity of approximately 10 times that of the MU radar. This system configuration enables pulse-to-pulse beam steering within 20 deg from the zenith. As is the case of the MU radar, a variety of operations will be made feasible under the supervision of the radar controller. A brief description of the system configuration is presented.

Fukao, Shoichiro; Tsuda, Toshitaka; Sato, Toru; Kato, Susumu

256

The Cloud Radar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improvement in our understanding of the radiative impact of clouds on the climate system requires a comprehensive view of clouds including their physical dimensions, dynamical generation processes, and detailed microphysical properties. To this end, millimeter vave radar is a powerful tool by which clouds can be remotely sensed. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has developed the Cloud Radar System (CRS). CRS is a highly sensitive 94 GHz (W-band) pulsed-Doppler polarimetric radar that is designed to fly on board the NASA high-altitude ER-2 aircraft. The instrument is currently the only millimeter wave radar capable of cloud and precipitation measurements from above most all clouds. Because it operates from high-altitude, the CRS provides a unique measurement perspective for cirrus cloud studies. The CRS emulates a satellite view of clouds and precipitation systems thus providing valuable measurements for the implementation and algorithm validation for the upcoming NASA CloudSat mission that is designed to measure ice cloud distributions on the global scale using a spaceborne 94 GHz radar. This paper describes the CRS instrument and preliminary data from the recent Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers - Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE). The radar design is discussed. Characteristics of the radar are given. A block diagram illustrating functional components of the radar is shown. The performance of the CRS during the CRYSTAL-FACE campaign is discussed.

Racette, Paul; Heymsfield, Gerald; Li, Lihua; Tian, Lin; Zenker, Ed

2003-01-01

257

Digital LPI Radar Detector.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The function of a Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) radar is to prevent its interception by an Electronic Support (ES) receiver. This objective is generally achieved through the use of a radar waveform that is mismatched to those waveforms for which an E...

P. G. Ong H. K. Teng

2001-01-01

258

Radar illusion via metamaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optical illusion is an image of a real target perceived by the eye that is deceptive or misleading due to a physiological illusion or a specific visual trick. The recently developed metamaterials provide efficient approaches to generate a perfect optical illusion. However, all existing research on metamaterial illusions has been limited to theory and numerical simulations. Here, we propose the concept of a radar illusion, which can make the electromagnetic (EM) image of a target gathered by radar look like a different target, and we realize a radar illusion device experimentally to change the radar image of a metallic target into a dielectric target with predesigned size and material parameters. It is well known that the radar signatures of metallic and dielectric objects are significantly different. However, when a metallic target is enclosed by the proposed illusion device, its EM scattering characteristics will be identical to that of a predesigned dielectric object under the illumination of radar waves. Such an illusion device will confuse the radar, and hence the real EM properties of the metallic target cannot be perceived. We designed and fabricated the radar illusion device using artificial metamaterials in the microwave frequency, and good illusion performances are observed in the experimental results.

Jiang, Wei Xiang; Cui, Tie Jun

2011-02-01

259

HWL radar system analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research is reported relating to the weapons-location problem as it relates to Marine Corps Hostile Weapons Locating (HWL) radar and lightweight mortar locator requirements. Several technical system problems are discussed, including a review of the HWL system mechanical design. A detailed description is also given of the EES computer modeling program (ballistic trajectory model and radar operational simulation) that was

F. R. Williamson; R. R. Sheppard; C. E. Summers; E. K. Reedy

1976-01-01

260

Advances in Radar Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the clutter received by L, S, C, X, and Ku band radars obeys a Weibull ditribution. To suppress such Weibull-distributed sea and weather clutter, Weibull CFAR techniques are applied to data taken by an X-band radar using computer in real time. The results show the usefulness of Weibull CFAR.

Sekine, Matsuo

261

F-22 radar development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The USAF F-22 Engineering, Manufacturing and Development (EMD) program has pushed the state of airborne fire control radar technology well beyond that found in today's fielded systems. Advancements in performance, reliability, and low observability have been realized in the design of the F-22's new APG-77 Radar through the implementation of active array technology, low noise receiver components, high density packaging,

J. A. Malas

1997-01-01

262

Chaotic signals in radar?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chaotic signals add to the design repertoire for radar. This paper discusses the properties of chaotic signals, their generation and use, including transmitter hardware and efficiency, with reference to results in communications research and recent theoretical and practical results in sonar, and development throughout the world for radar. Practical issues arising from the unique properties of chaotic systems are considered.

S. A. Harman; A. J. Fenwick; C. Williams

2006-01-01

263

Noncooperative rendezvous radar system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fire control radar system was developed, assembled, and modified. The baseline system and modified angle tracking system are described along with the performance characteristics of the baseline and modified systems. Proposed changes to provide additional techniques for radar evaluation are presented along with flight test data.

1974-01-01

264

Decoders for MST radars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Decoding techniques and equipment used by MST radars are described and some recommendations for new systems are presented. Decoding can be done either by software in special-purpose (array processors, etc.) or general-purpose computers or in specially designed digital decoders. Both software and hardware decoders are discussed and the special case of decoding for bistatic radars is examined.

Woodman, R. F.

1983-01-01

265

Radar applications overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the fifty years since its initial development as a means of providing early warning of airborne attacks against allied countries during World War II, radar systems have developed to the point of being highly mobile and versatile systems capable of supporting a wide variety of remote sensing applications. Instead of being tied to stationary land-based sites, radar systems have

Marshall Greenspan

1996-01-01

266

Radar - The Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress in civil and military radar units since the invention of radar in 1935 is summarized, noting the trend to multipurpose units. The earliest systems functioned at 10 cm, then 3 cm after development of a cavity magnetron to provide power for shorter wavelengths. Military needs are driving improvements in three-dimensional scanning capabilities, Primarily to locate aircraft in the presence

G. Warwick

1985-01-01

267

Radar Frequency Radiation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method is presented for the determination of radar frequency radiation power densities that the PAVE PAWS radar system could produce in its air and ground environment. The effort was prompted by the concern of the people in the vicinity of OTIS AFB MA a...

E. Malowicki

1981-01-01

268

Fissile solution measurement apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for determining the content of a fissile material within a solution by detecting delayed fission neutrons emitted by the fissile material after it is temporarily irradiated by a neutron source. The apparatus comprises a container holding the solution and having a portion defining a neutron source cavity centrally disposed within the container. The neutron source cavity temporarily receives the neutron source. The container has portions defining a plurality of neutron detector ports that form an annular pattern and surround the neutron source cavity. A plurality of neutron detectors count delayed fission neutrons emitted by the fissile material. Each neutron detector is located in a separate one of the neutron detector ports.

Crane, T.W.; Collinsworth, P.R.

1984-06-11

269

Microelectromechanical ratcheting apparatus  

DOEpatents

A microelectromechanical (MEM) ratcheting apparatus is disclosed which includes an electrostatic or thermal actuator that drives a moveable member in the form of a ring gear, stage, or rack. Motion is effected by one or more reciprocating pawls driven by the actuator in a direction that is parallel to, in line with, or tangential to the path. The reciprocating pawls engage indexing elements (e.g. teeth or pins) on the moveable member to incrementally move the member along a curved or straight path with the ability to precisely control and determine the position of the moveable member. The MEM apparatus can be formed on a silicon substrate by conventional surface micromachining methods.

Barnes, Stephen M. (Albuquerque, NM); Miller, Samuel L. (Albuquerque, NM); Jensen, Brian D. (Albuquerque, NM); Rodgers, M. Steven (Albuquerque, NM); Burg, Michael S. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01

270

Current measurement apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and methods are provided for a system for measurement of a current in a conductor such that the conductor current may be momentarily directed to a current measurement element in order to maintain proper current without significantly increasing an amount of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element or adding resistance to assist in current measurement. The apparatus and methods described herein are useful in superconducting circuits where it is necessary to monitor current carried by the superconducting elements while minimizing the effects of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element.

Umans, Stephen D. (Belmont, MA)

2008-11-11

271

Thermally Activated Joining Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thermally activated joining apparatus is provided for reversibly joining piping components of a fluid management system. The joining apparatus includes a thermally activated sealant layers for securing the components together in a leakage free manner. A thermal conductor includes a ring shaped contact portion disposed between the layers for transferring heat from one or more heating elements to the sealant layers. After the seal in place, the components can later be disconnected by supplying heat from the heating element or elements through the thermal conductor to the sealant layers to cause breaking of the seal and thereby enable separation of components.

Bryant, Melvin A., III (Inventor)

2002-01-01

272

Expendable oceanographic sensor apparatus  

DOEpatents

An expendable oceanographic sensor apparatus is deployed from an airplane or a ship to make oceanographic observations in a profile of the surface-to-ocean floor, while deployed on the floor, and then a second profile when returning to the ocean surface. The device then records surface conditions until on-board batteries fail. All data collected is stored and then transmitted from the surface to either a satellite or other receiving station. The apparatus is provided with an anchor that causes descent to the ocean floor and then permits ascent when the anchor is released. Anchor release is predetermined by the occurrence of a pre-programmed event.

McCoy, Kim O. (Carmel, CA); Downing, Jr., John P. (Port Townsand, WA); DeRoos, Bradley G. (Worthington, OH); Riches, Michael R. (Silver Spring, MD)

1993-01-01

273

Ultrasonic drilling apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry. In operation, slurry is provided into the housing, and into the spindle through inlets while the spindle is rotating and ultrasonically reciprocating. Slurry flows through the spindle and through the hollow drill bit to cleanse the cutting edge of the bit during a drilling operation. 3 figs.

Duran, E.L.; Lundin, R.L.

1988-06-20

274

Laser radar improvements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A short history of the uses of various laser radars is presented, and appropriate applications of laser and microwave radars are discussed. CO2 laser radar, operating at 10.6 microns, is considered for use in aircraft navigation systems, fire-control systems for armored vehicle and aircraft, missile guidance, severe storm research, line-of-sight command of missiles, wind turbine site surveys, clear-air turbulence monitors for aircraft, and satellite tracking. Microwave radar is all-weather, but is subject to multipath inaccuracies, countermeasures, and angular resolution limitations, so hybrid laser microwave systems look promising for microwave target acquisition and laser tracking. Advantages and disadvantages of the use of ruby, YAG, and CO2 lasers in varying atmospheric conditions are discussed. Development of a laser radar pod for obstacle detection, Doppler navigation, automatic terrain following, hover control, weapon delivery, and precision searching is noted.

Jelalian, A. V.

1981-11-01

275

Looking at Radar Images  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These activities pertain to the value of the different types of images, including a false color mosaic, a Compressed Stokes image, a vegetation map and key, and various ground photographs. Students are given specific directions on how to decide what features of a radar image indicate such structures as upland forest, clear-cut areas, and roads. In a second activity, students look at the radar images to see if they can produce a vegetation map similar to the one they have been given. The third activity introduces 15 Decade Volcanoes that pose a particular threat to humans. Using the Decade Volcanoes as examples, students view radar images of volcanoes that occur around the world. The final exercise is aimed at helping students distinguish the differences between radar image data and visible photographs. Students will look at radar data and photographs of three sites taken by the astronauts.

276

Radar Cross Section (RCS) Data Base Deduced from Radar Images.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The creation of radar cross section (RCS) catalogs using existing radar images is discussed. Analysis of SIR-B images shows that spatial resolution has a significant impact on the radar data information content. Interpretation of radar data must be based ...

A. J. Sieber

1986-01-01

277

Radar Calibration Using a Student-Built Nanosatellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a matter of national security, the US military must monitor and calibrate its 80+ C-band radar tracking stations on a consistent basis. These radar stations, which are distributed around the world, currently depend on two calibration satellites: RADCAL and DMSP F-15, launched in 1993 and 1999, respectively. Should either of these two satellites fail, the community of radar calibration users will no longer have a dependable means of calibration. Presented in this paper is the story behind a student-built satellite project, named Ho‘oponopono (“to make right” in the Hawaiian language), which is the first radar calibration satellite to take on a CubeSat form-factor. Led by a team of undergraduate and graduate students, this project has enabled its participants to reach their true potentials and thus act as a training ground for a class of highly competent, multi-tiered engineers. The management practices implemented throughout this project follow those used by today’s top defense contractors and engineering companies. Being involved in a project of this caliber, although time-consuming, provides the students with the experiences they need to make immediate and worthwhile contributions in today’s workforce. Juggling the multitude of commitments they have, however, makes it a challenge. Ho‘oponopono’s concept of operations calls for the collection and dissemination of ephemeris data, while simultaneously conducting transponder interrogations. After acquiring both sets of data, a radar station requesting calibration can then correlate the two and implement its calibration algorithms as needed. Ho‘oponopono and its mission were the basis for the University of Hawaii’s participation in the AFOSR University Nanosat-6 Program. After completing a rigorous two-year, six-level review process, we were awarded with the Most Improved and Third Place Awards at the January 2011 Flight Competition Review. Ho‘oponopono was also selected by NASA as a participant in its CubeSat Launch Initiative for an upcoming launch.

Martin, L.; Fisher, N.; Jones, W.; Umeda, M.; Furumo, J.; Ah Heong, J.; Lim, T.; Shiroma, W.

2011-09-01

278

Apparatus for Controlling Pressure Recovery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An apparatus for controlling fluid pressure recovery includes an elongated housing having an opening at a first end thereof, an opening at a second end thereof, an inner peripheral surface, and a fluid flow passageway therethrough. The apparatus further i...

S. A. Jordan

2001-01-01

279

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a low-cost apparatus for measuring moment of inertia utilizing an interval timer, induction coil, battery eliminator, and ball bearing mounted disk. Also provides a method for demonstrating vectors using a cardboard box and a piece of string. (JM)

Minnix, Richard B.; Carpenter, D. Rae, Jr.

1984-01-01

280

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six different pieces of physics apparatus are described: Telsa Coil for instant ignition of sodium arc lamps, Timekube, Magnetic Maps of the United States, a slinky with vertical mounting, a wave generator power supply, and a long-period timer power switch. Price and supplier are included. (BT)

Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

1979-01-01

281

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides the apparatus setup, experimental method, necessary formulas, and references for three measurement experiments: (1) "Determine the Magnetic Induction of a Coil with a Hall Element"; (2) "Measuring Magnetic Force and Magnetic Field of Small Permanent Magnets"; and (3) "Measurements of Sound Velocity by Means of PZT" (piezoelectric…

Connolly, Walter, Ed.

1990-01-01

282

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a simple apparatus and provides instructions to do relative index of refraction measurements/calculations and to show mathematical relationships betwen indices when light travels from one liquid to another. A listing of a computer program (in BASIC) which will analyze data is available from the author. (JM)

Minnix, Richard B.; Carpenter, D. Rae, Jr.

1983-01-01

283

Positioning and locking apparatus  

DOEpatents

A positioning and locking apparatus are disclosed including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member. 6 figs.

Hayward, M.L.; Harper, W.H.

1987-06-30

284

Positioning and locking apparatus  

DOEpatents

A positioning and locking apparatus including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member.

Hayward, Milton L. (2305 Greenbrook Blvd., Richland, WA 99352); Harper, William H. (1454 Amon Dr., Richland, WA 99352)

1987-01-01

285

Borehole data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A borehole data transmission apparatus is described whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

Kotlyar, O.M.

1993-03-23

286

Borehole data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A borehole data transmission apparatus whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

Kotlyar, Oleg M. (1739 Grandview #2, Idaho Falls, ID 83402)

1993-01-01

287

Doctoring Apparatus and System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application is concerned with an apparatus and system comprised of a plurality of doctoring units, each of which is a pivotally supported combination doctor blade and V-shaped member. In each unit the leading edge of the doctor blade is paralle...

J. F. Sullivan R. P. Konstance

1976-01-01

288

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an apparatus for plotting electric fields using burglar alarm window tape for electrodes and carbonized electronic stencil paper as sheet resistance. Also describes a simple pentode modulator circuit which will modulate a typical helium-neon gas laser, providing an audio channel for demonstration purposes. (SK)

Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

1981-01-01

289

Fuel control apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fuel control apparatus for calculating the quantity of fuel required for operating an internal combustion engines is described based on an output of a hot-wire type intake air quantity sensor disposed in an air intake passage for the internal combustion engine. It supplies the optimum amount of the fuel to the engine by controlling a fuel control valve in

S. Shimomura; Y. Nishimura

1989-01-01

290

Fuel control apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a fuel control apparatus comprising: (a) a hot-wire type intake air quantity sensor disposed in an air intake passage for an internal combustion engine to detect the quantity of air passing therethrough; (b) a fuel control valve placed in the air intake passage to inject fuel into the air intake passage; (c) first means for actuating the

Shimomura

1988-01-01

291

Fuel control apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fuel control apparatus is described which comprises a fuel supplying means for supplying fuel to an internal combustion engine depending on the operation of a fuel control valve, a hot-wire type intake air quantity sensor disposed in an air-intake passage for the internal combustion engine to detect the quantity of air passing therethrough, means for heating a hot wire

S. Shimomura; Y. Tada

1988-01-01

292

Autonomous data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus is described for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters. 4 figs.

Kotlyar, O.M.

1997-03-25

293

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a few apparatuses and demonstrations for teaching physics under the headings: demonstrating resonance of the inner ear, constructing a potential well-hill for overhead projectors, rubber tube vacuum pump, improvement on the simple homemade motor, air track to demonstrate sailing into the wind, and center of gravity and stability. (GA)

Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

1978-01-01

294

Improved Ultraviolet Microbeam Apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ultraviolet microbeam apparatus utilizing the principle of incident ; illumination has been developed for the irradiation of small parts of living ; cells or other microscopic objects. A reflecting microscope objective is used ; simultaneously in a visible light viewing-aiming system and in a bombardment ; system to focus a spot of ultraviolet light (as small as one micron

Robert B. Uretz; Robert P. Perry

1957-01-01

295

Improved Ultraviolet Microbeam Apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ultraviolet microbeam apparatus utilizing the principle of incident illumination has been developed for the irradiation of small parts of living cells or other microscopic objects. A reflecting microscope objective is used simultaneously in a visible light viewing-aiming system and in a bombardment system to focus a spot of ultraviolet light (as small as one micron in diameter) onto part

Robert B. Uretz; Robert P. Perry

1957-01-01

296

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a coriolis simulator which uses a carbon paper trace technique and a simple specific-heat apparatus, emphasizing instructional considerations. Also indicates that a variac and an ordinary electric drill can be used to wind coil if a lathe or coil winder are unavailable. (JN)

Minnix, Richard B.; Carpenter, D. Rae, Jr.

1983-01-01

297

Pruning apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

The present invention is an automated pruning apparatus that requires little or no follow-up hand pruning and requires no sensors to avoid supportive trunks or posts. The present invention uses at least one pair of flat, close angled toothed, counter rotating blades. Woody branches are directed to the counter rotating blades first with a lifting arm and secondly by a quilled drum.

Dellinger, Roger D. (Prosser, WA)

1997-01-01

298

Apparatus for Planting Seeds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application relates to a process whereby seeds are punch planted by an apparatus comprising a disk equipped with a plurality of punches rotatably mounted on a frame. The punch disk is eccentrically driven to insure that the punches are perpendi...

D. E. Wilkins W. J. Conley

1979-01-01

299

Positioning and locking apparatus  

DOEpatents

A positioning and locking apparatus including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member.

Hayward, M.L.; Harper, W.H.

1985-06-19

300

Portable appliance security apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus for securing a small computer, or other portable appliance, against theft is described. It is comprised of a case having an open back through which the computer is installed or removed. Guide members in the form of slots are formed in a rear portion of opposite walls of the case for receiving a back plate to cover the

J. J. Kerley

1981-01-01

301

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Standing transverse waves in homogeneous strings have been demonstrated in lectures and used in experiments (called Melde's experiment). A variation to this experiment is discussed. Also discusses the use of the speed-of-sound resonance-tube apparatus to clean mercury. (Author/JN)

Minnix, Richard B., Ed.; Carpenter, D. Rae, Jr., Ed.

1983-01-01

302

Mobile lighting apparatus  

DOEpatents

A mobile lighting apparatus includes a portable frame such as a moveable trailer or skid having a light tower thereon. The light tower is moveable from a stowed position to a deployed position. A hydrogen-powered fuel cell is located on the portable frame to provide electrical power to an array of the energy efficient lights located on the light tower.

Roe, George Michael; Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott; Rea, Gerald W; Drake, Robert A; Johnson, Terry A; Wingert, Steven John; Damberger, Thomas A; Skradski, Thomas J; Radley, Christopher James; Oros, James M; Schuttinger, Paul G; Grupp, David J; Prey, Stephen Carl

2013-05-14

303

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes making laboratory apparatus such as a heavy-duty turntable; a hand-held milk-carton accelerometer; an inverted air table; free-fall measurement with a solenoid as a starting device; and a bright point source. Presents an evaluation of "The Champ Universal Interface and Sensor Pack Software." (YP)

Connolly, Walter, Ed.

1989-01-01

304

Multipurpose binocular scanning apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optical gimballing apparatus directs narrow fields of view throughout solid angle approaching 4 pi steradians. Image rotation produced by scanning can be eliminated or altered by gear trains directly linked to the scanning drive assembly. It provides the basis for a binocular scanning capability.

Chamberlain, F. R.; Parker, G. L.

1969-01-01

305

Hydrogen-Detection Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus continuously monitors concentration of hydrogen, at level ranging from few parts per million to several percent, in mixture of gases. Simple and fast, providing high sensitivity and linear response. Used to alert technicians to potentially explosive concentrations of residual hydrogen.

Ross, H. Richard; Bourgeois, Chris M.

1995-01-01

306

Micromachine friction test apparatus  

DOEpatents

A microelectromechanical (MEM) friction test apparatus is disclosed for determining static or dynamic friction in MEM devices. The friction test apparatus, formed by surface micromachining, is based on a friction pad supported at one end of a cantilevered beam, with the friction pad overlying a contact pad formed on the substrate. A first electrostatic actuator can be used to bring a lower surface of the friction pad into contact with an upper surface of the contact pad with a controlled and adjustable force of contact. A second electrostatic actuator can then be used to bend the cantilevered beam, thereby shortening its length and generating a relative motion between the two contacting surfaces. The displacement of the cantilevered beam can be measured optically and used to determine the static or dynamic friction, including frictional losses and the coefficient of friction between the surfaces. The test apparatus can also be used to assess the reliability of rubbing surfaces in MEM devices by producing and measuring wear of those surfaces. Finally, the friction test apparatus, which is small in size, can be used as an in situ process quality tool for improving the fabrication of MEM devices.

deBoer, Maarten P. (Albuquerque, NM); Redmond, James M. (Albuquerque, NM); Michalske, Terry A. (Cedar Crest, NM)

2002-01-01

307

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents two experimental set-ups. The first demonstrates the law of Malus using a pair of Polaroid polarizers and a monochromatic light source with an interference filter. The second describes a modification of Hilton's apparatus to demonstrate the effects of the magnetic hysteresis on an overhead projector. (CS)

Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

1980-01-01

308

Apparatus for Teaching Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes: how to measure index of refraction by the thickness method; how to teach the concept of torque using a torque wrench; how to produce a real image with a concave mirror; how to eliminate the interface effects of a Pyrex containers; and an apparatus to illustrate Bernoulli's Principle. (MLH)

Gottlieb, Herbert H.

1977-01-01

309

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This section presents new ideas with regard to apparatus for teaching physics. The following four ideas are presented: (1) measuring speed of light (2) a poor man's barometer, (3) center of mass of a rotating object, and (4) minimizing glass breakage. (HM)

Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

1980-01-01

310

Holographic Animation Apparatus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a simple apparatus for producing strip holograms with a number of slit-shaped exposures displaced along the vertical direction. The hologram maintains full horizontal parallax, but the slit aperture reduces the vertical viewing angle of the animated object. (Author/GA)

Johnston, Sean F.

1979-01-01

311

Wind-driven generator apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disclosed is a wind-driven generator apparatus with variable pitch blades. The apparatus includes a yaw damping arrangement for resisting weathervaning rotation of a head assembly of the apparatus about a vertical axis and the apparatus further includes a pitch control mechanism for the blades which maintains the pitch substantially constant during normal operating r.p.m. of the blades but allows the

J. W. Carter Jr; J. W. Carter Sr

1985-01-01

312

FMCW radars for snow research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radars have been used by snow scientists for the past 30 years. This radar technology provides a promising alternative to point measurements, as properties such as snow depth can be measured quickly and non-destructively. Recent advances in microwave FMCW radar technology have resulted in lightweight, portable instrumentation. This is in contrast to the early FMCW radar

Hans-Peter Marshall; Gary Koh

2008-01-01

313

30/20 GHz band compact earth station for DYANET-LSI-implemented TDMA terminal, transponder hopping HPA and dual beam antenna  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors propose a 30/20-GHz highly reliable and compact earth station to realize DYANET cost-effectively. DYANET is a network that uses both terrestrial networks for high-capacity transmission and satellite networks for diversified traffic transmission. To realize a reliable and cost-effective earth station, a phase-compensated carrier filter and a TDMA (time-division multiple-access) frame have been developed to realize transponder hopping systems by a single TDMA terminal per earth station. The authors describe the synchronization unit, the burst modem, and the terrestrial interface module. Using high-efficiency helix TWTA (traveling-wave to be amplifier) operating in the 30-GHz band, a high-efficiency power supply and up-and-down converters with transponder hopping capability have been developed.

Kato, Shuzo; Inoue, Takeo; Hori, Toshikazu

314

Space Radar Image of Death Valley, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image shows Death Valley, California, centered at 36.629 degrees north latitude, 117.069 degrees west longitude. The image shows Furnace Creek alluvial fan and Furnace Creek Ranch at the far right, and the sand dunes near Stove Pipe Wells at the center. The dark fork-shaped feature between Furnace Creek fan and the dunes is a smooth flood-plain which encloses Cottonball Basin. This SIR-C/X-SAR supersite is an area of extensive field investigations and has been visited by both Space Radar Lab astronaut crews. Elevations in the valley range from 70 meters (230 feet) below sea level, the lowest in the United States, to more than 3,300 meters (10,800 feet) above sea level. Scientists are using SIR-C/X-SAR data from Death Valley to help answer a number of different questions about Earth's geology. One question concerns how alluvial fans are formed and change through time under the influence of climatic changes and earthquakes. Alluvial fans are gravel deposits that wash down from the mountains over time. They are visible in the image as circular, fan-shaped bright areas extending into the darker valley floor from the mountains. Information about the alluvial fans helps scientists study Earth's ancient climate. Scientists know the fans are built up through climatic and tectonic processes and they will use the SIR-C/X-SAR data to understand the nature and rates of weathering processes on the fans, soil formation and the transport of sand and dust by the wind. SIR-C/X-SAR's sensitivity to centimeter-scale (inch-scale) roughness provides detailed maps of surface texture. Such information can be used to study the occurrence and movement of dust storms and sand dunes. The goal of these studies is to gain a better understanding of the record of past climatic changes and the effects of those changes on a sensitive environment. This may lead to a better ability to predict future response of the land to different potential global climate-change scenarios. Death Valley is also one of the primary calibration sites for SIR-C/X-SAR. The bright dots near the center of the image are corner reflectors that have been set-up to calibrate the radar as the shuttle passes overhead. Thirty triangular-shaped reflectors (they look like aluminum pyramids) have been deployed by the calibration team from JPL over a 40- by 40-kilometer (25- by 25-mile) area in and around Death Valley. The calibration team will also deploy transponders (electronic reflectors) and receivers to measure the radar signals from SIR-C/X-SAR on the ground. SIR-C/X-SAR is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI).

1999-01-01

315

Survival Estimates for Migrant Yearling Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Tagged with Passive Integrated Transponders in the Lower Snake and Lower Columbia Rivers, 1993–1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precise, up-to-date survival estimates for salmonids that migrate through reservoirs, hydroelectric dams, and free-flowing sections of the Snake and Columbia rivers are essential to develop effective strategies for recovering depressed stocks. To provide this information, survival was estimated for yearling chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags that migrated through Snake River dams

William D. Muir; Steven G. Smith; John G. Williams; Eric E. Hockersmith; John R. Skalski

2001-01-01

316

Radar applications overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the fifty years since its initial development as a means of providing early warning of airborne attacks against allied countries during World War II, radar systems have developed to the point of being highly mobile and versatile systems capable of supporting a wide variety of remote sensing applications. Instead of being tied to stationary land-based sites, radar systems have found their way into highly mobile land vehicles as well as into aircraft, missiles, and ships of all sizes. Of all these applications, however, the most exciting revolution has occurred in the airborne platform arena where advanced technology radars can be found in all shapes and sizes...ranging from the large AWACS and Joint STARS long range surveillance and targeting systems to small millimeter wave multi-spectral sensors on smart weapons that can detect and identify their targets through the use of highly sophisticated digital signal processing hardware and software. This paper presents an overview of these radar applications with the emphasis on modern airborne sensors that span the RF spectrum. It will identify and describe the factors that influence the parameters of low frequency and ultra wide band radars designed to penetrate ground and dense foliage environments and locate within them buried mines, enemy armor, and other concealed or camouflaged weapons of war. It will similarly examine the factors that lead to the development of airborne radar systems that support long range extended endurance airborne surveillance platforms designed to detect and precision-located both small high speed airborne threats as well as highly mobile time critical moving and stationary surface vehicles. The mission needs and associated radar design impacts will be contrasted with those of radar systems designed for high maneuverability rapid acquisition tactical strike warfare platforms, and shorter range cued air-to-surface weapons with integral smart radar sensors.

Greenspan, Marshall

1996-06-01

317

Radar frequency radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method is presented for the determination of radar frequency radiation power densities that the PAVE PAWS radar system could produce in its air and ground environment. The effort was prompted by the concern of the people in the vicinity of OTIS AFB MA and BEALE AFB CA about the possible radar frequency radiation hazard of the PAVE PAWS radar. The method is based on the following main assumptions that: (a) the total field can be computed as the vector summation of the individual fields due to each antenna element; (b) the individual field can be calculated using distances for which the field point is in the far field of the antenna element. An RFR computer program was coded for the RADC HE 6180 digital computer and exercised to calculate the radiation levels in the air and ground space for the present baseline and the possible Six DB and 10 DB growth systems of the PAVE PAWS radar system at OTIS AFB MA. The average radiation levels due to the surveillance fence were computed for three regions: in the air space in front of the radar, at the radar hazard fence at OTIS AFB MA and at representative ground points in the OTIS AFB vicinity. It was concluded that the radar frequency radiation of PAVE PAWS does not present a hazard to personnel provided there is no entry to the air hazard zone or to the area within the hazard fence. The method developed offers a cost effective way to determine radiation levels from a phased array radar especially in the near field and transition regions.

Malowicki, E.

1981-11-01

318

Current radar-responsive tag development activities at Sandia National Laboratories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past ten years, Sandia has developed RF radar responsive tag systems and supporting technologies for various government agencies and industry partners. RF tags can function as RF transmitters or radar transponders that enable tagging, tracking, and location determination functions. Expertise in tag architecture, microwave and radar design, signal analysis and processing techniques, digital design, modeling and simulation, and testing have been directly applicable to these tag programs. In general, the radar responsive tag designs have emphasized low power, small package size, and the ability to be detected by the radar at long ranges. Recently, there has been an interest in using radar responsive tags for Blue Force tracking and Combat ID (CID). The main reason for this interest is to allow airborne surveillance radars to easily distinguish U.S. assets from those of opposing forces. A Blue Force tracking capability would add materially to situational awareness. Combat ID is also an issue, as evidenced by the fact that approximately one-quarter of all U.S. casualties in the Gulf War took the form of ground troops killed by friendly fire. Because the evolution of warfare in the intervening decade has made asymmetric warfare the norm rather than the exception, swarming engagements in which U.S. forces will be freely intermixed with opposing forces is a situation that must be anticipated. Increasing utilization of precision munitions can be expected to drive fires progressively closer to engaged allied troops at times when visual de-confliction is not an option. In view of these trends, it becomes increasingly important that U.S. ground forces have a widely proliferated all-weather radar responsive tag that communicates to all-weather surveillance. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the recent, current, and future radar responsive research and development activities at Sandia National Laboratories that support both the Blue Force Tracking and Combat ID application. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company for the United States Departments of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Ormesher, Richard C.; Plummer, Kenneth W.; Wells, Lars M.

2004-08-01

319

RADAR IMAGING FOR COMBATTING TERRORISM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radar, and in particular imaging radar, have many and varied applications to counterterrorism. Radar is a day\\/night all-weather\\u000a sensor, and imaging radars carried by aircraft or satellites are routinely able to achieve high-resolution images of target\\u000a scenes, and to detect and classify stationary and moving targets at operational ranges. Short-range radar techniques may be\\u000a used to identify small targets, even

Hugh D. Griffiths; Chris J. Baker

320

Multitone harmonic radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonlinear radar exploits the electronic response from a target whose reflected frequencies are different from those transmitted. Reception of frequencies that are not part of the transmitted probe distinguishes the received signal from a linear return produced by clutter and indicates the presence of electronics. Presented in this paper is a type of nonlinear radar that transmits multiple frequencies and listens for a harmonic of these frequencies as well as other frequencies near that harmonic. A laboratory test-bed has been constructed to demonstrate the multitone radar concept. Measurements of nonlinear responses from RF devices probed by multiple tones are reported.

Mazzaro, Gregory J.; Martone, Anthony F.

2013-05-01

321

A microprogrammable radar controller  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Wave Propagation Lab. has completed the design and construction of a microprogrammable radar controller for atmospheric wind profiling. Unlike some radar controllers using state machines or hardwired logic for radar timing, this design is a high speed programmable sequencer with signal processing resources. A block diagram of the device is shown. The device is a single 8 1/2 inch by 10 1/2 inch printed circuit board and consists of three main subsections: (1) the host computer interface; (2) the microprogram sequencer; and (3) the signal processing circuitry. Each of these subsections are described in detail.

Law, D. C.

1986-01-01

322

New airborne Doppler radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

U.S. and French research establishments will build and share an airborne Doppler radar that they will design to gather data on large-scale storm structures and global atmospheric processes.The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), Boulder, Colo., the Centre National d'Etudes des Telecommunications (CNET) and the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers in Paris, France, have signed an $11 million agreement for joint development, operation and research use of the radar. The scheduled completion date of the Electra Doppler Radar (ELDORA) system is November 1, 1992.

323

Radar Remote Sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This lecture was just a taste of radar remote sensing techniques and applications. Other important areas include Stereo radar grammetry. PolInSAR for volumetric structure mapping. Agricultural monitoring, soil moisture, ice-mapping, etc. The broad range of sensor types, frequencies of observation and availability of sensors have enabled radar sensors to make significant contributions in a wide area of earth and planetary remote sensing sciences. The range of applications, both qualitative and quantitative, continue to expand with each new generation of sensors.

Rosen, Paul A.

2012-01-01

324

A Dual Channel Correlator for an FM-CW Ranging Radar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This abstract discloses a method and apparatus for eliminating the sidelobe ambiguity in the range response of an FM-CW radar. An FM-CW signal with a periodic modulation frequency is transmitted and reflected from a target, received and combined with a sa...

R. A. Parkhurst, D. L. Rodkey, J. O. Wedel

1980-01-01

325

A model for estimating passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag antenna efficiencies for interval-specific emigration rates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Our goal was to understand movement and its interaction with survival for populations of stream salmonids at long-term study sites in the northeastern United States by employing passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and associated technology. Although our PIT tag antenna arrays spanned the stream channel (at most flows) and were continuously operated, we are aware that aspects of fish behavior, environmental characteristics, and electronic limitations influenced our ability to detect 100% of the emigration from our stream site. Therefore, we required antenna efficiency estimates to adjust observed emigration rates. We obtained such estimates by testing a full-scale physical model of our PIT tag antenna array in a laboratory setting. From the physical model, we developed a statistical model that we used to predict efficiency in the field. The factors most important for predicting efficiency were external radio frequency signal and tag type. For most sampling intervals, there was concordance between the predicted and observed efficiencies, which allowed us to estimate the true emigration rate for our field populations of tagged salmonids. One caveat is that the model's utility may depend on its ability to characterize external radio frequency signals accurately. Another important consideration is the trade-off between the volume of data necessary to model efficiency accurately and the difficulty of storing and manipulating large amounts of data.

Horton, G. E.; Dubreuil, T. L.; Letcher, B. H.

2007-01-01

326

Hepatic heat shock protein 70 and plasma cortisol levels in rainbow trout after tagging with a passive integrated transponder  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study examined the potentially stressful effects of tagging juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags by measuring short-term (<120-h) changes in plasma concentrations of cortisol and hepatic heat shock protein 70 (hsp70). In a laboratory experiment, plasma cortisol levels were measured in fish before they were tagged (0 h) and at 2, 6, 24, and 120 h after being tagged. Hepatic hsp70 levels were measured at 0, 24, and 120 h. All results were compared with those for fish that were handled but not tagged. Plasma cortisol levels were significantly higher in both treatment groups (tagged and handled but not tagged) at 2 h than in the pretreatment groups (0 h). Plasma cortisol levels in the treatment groups returned to near pretreatment levels by 6 h. However, there was a significant difference in plasma cortisol levels between treatment groups at 6 h. There were no significant differences in hepatic hsp70 levels among the two treatment groups, and hepatic hsp70 levels did not change through time. Our results suggest that PIT tagging is a low-impact tagging procedure for juvenile salmonids. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

Feldhaus, J. W.; Heppell, S. A.; Mesa, M. G.; Li, H.

2008-01-01

327

RADAR performance experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Theoretical studies and experimental results obtained at Coulommiers airport showed the capability of Proust radar to detect wind shears, in clear air condition as well as in presence of clouds or rain. Several examples are presented: in a blocking highs situation an atmospheric wave system at the Brunt-Vaisala frequency can be clearly distinguished; in a situation of clouds without rain the limit between clear air and clouds can be easily seen; and a windshear associated with a gust front in rainy conditions is shown. A comparison of 30 cm clear air radar Proust and 5 cm weather Doppler radar Ronsard will allow to select the best candidate for wind shear detection, taking into account the low sensibility to ground clutter of Ronsard radar.

Leroux, C.; Bertin, F.; Mounir, H.

1991-01-01

328

Phase Signature Radars.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The identification and classification of radar targets is facilitated by a newly developed technique based on measurements of the differential phase shift of the target scattering obtained at harmonic phase-locked frequencies. These phase differences are ...

W. B. Goggins P. Blacksmith C. J. Sletten

1974-01-01

329

Netted LPI RADARs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A significant number of Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) radars are used in various military applications, from guided weapons (such anti-ship missile), to large platforms (aircrafts, ships), to large systems (Integrated Air Defense Systems - IADS). The...

C. Fougias C. Menychtas

2011-01-01

330

Passive MIMO Radar Detection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Passive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar is a sensor network comprised of multiple distributed receivers that detects and localizes targets using the emissions from multiple non-cooperative radio frequency transmitters. This dissertation advanc...

D. E. Hack

2013-01-01

331

Laser Radar Animation  

NASA Video Gallery

Laser and radar instruments aboard NASA aircraft provide measurements of the snow and ice surface and down to the bedrock under the ice. Lasers, with a shorter wavelength, measure the surface eleva...

332

Imaging with Radar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive activity from NOVA features synthetic aperture radar (SAR), which uses radio waves to create high-quality images. Examine SAR images of Washington, D.C., and learn about this technology's unique advantages.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2004-01-29

333

Radar Target Approach Simulator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A technique employed to generate nondispersive, continuously variable microwave time delay for the simulation of the approach of a radar to its target is described. A bulk elastic wave excited in a transparent crystal enables thousands of feet of propagat...

H. A. Cook

1971-01-01

334

The radon EDM apparatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The observation of a permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) at current experimentally accessible levels would provide clear evidence of physics beyond the Standard Model. EDMs violate CP symmetry, making them a possible route to explaining the size of the observed baryon asymmetry in the universe. The Radon EDM Experiment aims to search for an EDM in radon isotopes whose sensitivity to CP-odd interactions is enhanced by octupole-deformed nuclei. A prototype apparatus currently installed in the ISAC hall at TRIUMF includes a gas handling system to move radon from a collection foil to a measurement cell and auxiliary equipment for polarization diagnostics and validation. The features and capabilities of the apparatus are described and an overview of the experimental design for a gamma-ray-anisotropy based EDM measurement is provided.

Tardiff, E. R.; Rand, E. T.; Ball, G. C.; Chupp, T. E.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Garrett, P.; Hayden, M. E.; Kierans, C. A.; Lorenzon, W.; Pearson, M. R.; Schaub, C.; Svensson, C. E.

2014-01-01

335

Energy conversion apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus for maintaining the speed of rotation of a windmill rotor at a fixed ratio to the free flow velocity of the driving wind. This arrangement permits the windmill rotor to rotate at the speed at which its power output is maximized. The apparatus includes a plurality of interleaved rotating and stationary friction discs which convert the rotational kinetic energy of the windmill rotor shaft into thermal energy. An anemometer shaft, which rotates with a velocity which is proportional to the ambient wind velocity, drives a gear train which increases or decreases the pressure on the friction discs so that the load on the rotor is increased or decreased, in an offsetting manner, as the wind velocity changes.

Fuchs, F.J.

1982-04-20

336

Thermal protection apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for thermally protecting heat sensitive components of tools. The apparatus comprises a Dewar holding the heat sensitive components. The Dewar has spaced-apart inside walls, an open top end and a bottom end. A plug is located in the top end. The inside wall has portions defining an inside wall aperture located at the bottom of the Dewar and the outside wall has portions defining an outside wall aperture located at the bottom of the Dewar. A bottom connector has inside and outside components. The inside component sealably engages the inside wall aperture and the outside component sealably engages the outside wall aperture. The inside component is operatively connected to the heat sensitive components and to the outside component. The connections can be made with optical fibers or with electrically conducting wires.

Bennett, G.A.; Moore, T.K.

1986-08-20

337

Wet atmospheric generation apparatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The invention described relates to an apparatus for providing a selectively humidified gas to a camera canister containing cameras and film used in space. A source of pressurized gas (leak test gas or motive gas) is selected by a valve, regulated to a desired pressure by a regulator, and routed through an ejector (venturi device). A regulated source of water vapor in the form of steam from a heated reservoir is coupled to a low pressure region of the ejector which mixes with high velocity gas flow through the ejector. This mixture is sampled by a dew point sensor to obtain dew point thereof (ratio of water vapor to gas) and the apparatus adjusted by varying gas pressure or water vapor to provide a mixture at a connector having selected humidity content.

Hamner, Richard M.; Allen, Janice K.

1990-03-01

338

Throttle valve controlling apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is described for controlling an open degree of a throttle valve fixed to a throttle valve shaft for swing movement around an axis of the throttle valve shaft so as to control an air-fuel mixture flow to be supplied to an engine. The apparatus consists of: a motor including a rotor portion which is associated with the throttle valve shaft to swing the throttle valve; means for detecting an amount of swing movement of the throttle valve and for producing a signal corresponding to the opening degree of the throttle valve; a control unit for receiving and judging the signal from the detecting means and for outputting a command to the motor so as to swing the throttle valve in a desired opening degree; a one piece throttle valve shaft on which the throttle valve and the rotor portion of the motor are separately disposed; and wherein the rotor portion and the one piece shaft are molded together.

Ejiri, Y.; Kamifuji, H.

1986-07-22

339

Gas turbine sealing apparatus  

DOEpatents

A gas turbine includes forward and aft rows of rotatable blades, a row of stationary vanes between the forward and aft rows of rotatable blades, an annular intermediate disc, and a seal housing apparatus. The forward and aft rows of rotatable blades are coupled to respective first and second portions of a disc/rotor assembly. The annular intermediate disc is coupled to the disc/rotor assembly so as to be rotatable with the disc/rotor assembly during operation of the gas turbine. The annular intermediate disc includes a forward side coupled to the first portion of the disc/rotor assembly and an aft side coupled to the second portion of the disc/rotor assembly. The seal housing apparatus is coupled to the annular intermediate disc so as to be rotatable with the annular intermediate disc and the disc/rotor assembly during operation of the gas turbine.

Wiebe, David J; Wessell, Brian J; Ebert, Todd; Beeck, Alexander; Liang, George; Marussich, Walter H

2013-02-19

340

Wet atmospheric generation apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The invention described relates to an apparatus for providing a selectively humidified gas to a camera canister containing cameras and film used in space. A source of pressurized gas (leak test gas or motive gas) is selected by a valve, regulated to a desired pressure by a regulator, and routed through an ejector (venturi device). A regulated source of water vapor in the form of steam from a heated reservoir is coupled to a low pressure region of the ejector which mixes with high velocity gas flow through the ejector. This mixture is sampled by a dew point sensor to obtain dew point thereof (ratio of water vapor to gas) and the apparatus adjusted by varying gas pressure or water vapor to provide a mixture at a connector having selected humidity content.

Hamner, Richard M. (inventor); Allen, Janice K. (inventor)

1990-01-01

341

Gas shielding apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for preventing oxidation by uniformly distributing inert shielding gas over the weld area of workpieces such as pipes being welded together. The apparatus comprises a chamber and a gas introduction element. The chamber has an annular top wall, an annular bottom wall, an inner side wall and an outer side wall connecting the top and bottom walls. One side wall is a screen and the other has a portion defining an orifice. The gas introduction element has a portion which encloses the orifice and can be one or more pipes. The gas introduction element is in fluid communication with the chamber and introduces inert shielding gas into the chamber. The inert gas leaves the chamber through the screen side wall and is dispersed evenly over the weld area.

Brandt, Daniel (Los Alamos, NM)

1985-01-01

342

Electrowinning apparatus and process  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and processes are disclosed for electrowinning metal from a fluid stream. A representative apparatus comprises at least one spouted bed reactor wherein each said reactor includes an anolyte chamber comprising an anode and configured for containing an anolyte, a catholyte chamber comprising a current collector and configured for containing a particulate cathode bed and a flowing stream of an electrically conductive metal-containing fluid, and a membrane separating said anolyte chamber and said catholyte chamber, an inlet for an electrically conductive metal-containing fluid stream; and a particle bed churning device configured for spouting particle bed particles in the catholyte chamber independently of the flow of said metal-containing fluid stream. In operation, reduced heavy metals or their oxides are recovered from the cathode particles.

Buschmann, Wayne E. (Boulder, CO)

2012-06-19

343

Fast shutter apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for protecting diagnostic equipment from blast damage by rapidly interposing a shutter between the equipment and the blast area. The apparatus comprises a sensor for sensing a trigger signal associated with the blast and for converting it into a voltage pulse. The voltage pulse is received by the first end of a firing pin. A pressure chamber holds a gas under pressure. The second end of the firing pin is located inside the pressure chamber and is located above a foil member covering an orifice. When the voltage pulse reaches the second end, a point-to-plane discharge ruptures the foil, allowing the gas to enter a drive housing and quickly move a drive piston away from the foil. A drive rod connects the drive piston to a shutter and as the drive piston is moved down, the shutter moves into a closed position, protecting the equipment from debris.

Zimmermann, Eugene L. (Santa Fe, NM); Kania, Don R. (Los Alamos, NM)

1985-01-01

344

Fast shutter apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for protecting diagnostic equipment from blast damage by rapidly interposing a shutter between the equipment and the blast area. The apparatus comprises a sensor for sensing a trigger signal associated with the blast and for converting it into a voltage pulse. The voltage pulse is received by the first end of a firing pin. A pressure chamber holds a gas under pressure. The second end of the firing pin is located inside the pressure chamber and is located above a foil member covering an orifice. When the voltage pulse reaches the second end, a point-to-plane discharge ruptures the foil, allowing the gas to enter a drive housing and quickly move a drive piston away from the foil. A drive rod connects the drive piston to a shutter and as the drive piston is moved down, the shutter moves into a closed position, protecting the equipment from debris.

Zimmermann, E.L.; Kania, D.R.

1984-06-27

345

Thermal protection apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for thermally protecting heat sensitive components of tools. The apparatus comprises a Dewar for holding the heat sensitive components. The Dewar has spaced-apart inside and outside walls, an open top end and a bottom end. An insulating plug is located in the top end. The inside wall has portions defining an inside wall aperture located at the bottom of the Dewar and the outside wall has portions defining an outside wall aperture located at the bottom of the Dewar. A bottom connector has inside and outside components. The inside component sealably engages the inside wall aperture and the outside component sealably engages the outside wall aperture. The inside component is operatively connected to the heat sensitive components and to the outside component. The connections can be made with optical fibers or with electrically conducting wires.

Bennett, Gloria A. (Los Alamos, NM); Moore, Troy K. (Los Alamos, NM)

1988-01-01

346

Planar oscillatory stirring apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention is directed to an apparatus for stirring materials using planar orthogonal axes oscillations. The apparatus has a movable slide plate sandwiched between two fixed parallel support plates. Pressurized air is supplied to the movable slide plate which employs a tri-arm air bearing vent structure which allows the slide plate to float and to translate between the parallel support plates. The container having a material to be stirred is secured to the upper surface of the slide plate through an aperture in the upper support plate. A motor driven eccentric shaft loosely extends into a center hole bearing of the slide plate to cause the horizontal oscillations. Novelty lies in the combination of elements which exploits the discovery that low frequency, orthogonal oscillations applied horizontally to a Bridgman crucible provides a very rigorous stirring action, comparable with and more effective by an order of magnitude than the accelerated crucible rotation technique.

Wolf, M. F. (inventor)

1985-01-01

347

Determination of embryonic temperature profiles and eggshell water vapor conductance constants in incubating Ross x Ross 708 broiler hatching eggs using temperature transponders.  

PubMed

The comprehensive profiles of the internal and external temperatures of embryonated Ross × Ross 708 broiler hatching eggs during incubation were determined using temperature transponders, and eggshell water vapor conductance (G(H2O)), specific G(H2O) (g(H2O); G(H2O) adjusted to a 100 g set egg weight basis), and G(H2O) constants (K(H2O)) were calculated. On each of 8 replicate tray levels of an incubator, 2 nonembryonated and 4 embryonated eggs were each implanted with a transponder on d 10.5 of incubation for the determination of internal (air cell) temperatures of nonembryonated (T(nem)) and embryonated (T(emb)) eggs, respectively. In addition, 2 water-filled vials, each containing a transponder, were used on each tray level for the determination of the external microenvironment temperatures (T(ext)) of the embryonated and nonembryonated eggs. Between 10.5 and 18 d of incubation, incubator data logger temperatures were determined every 5 min; and incubator dry bulb temperature, T(ext), T(nem), T(emb), and the difference between T(emb) and T(nem) (T) were determined every 12 h. Over the days of incubation, regression coefficients for T(emb) and T were positive, whereas the regression coefficient for T(nem) was negative. There was a significant day of incubation × type of temperature measurement (T(ext), T(nem), and T(emb)) interaction for temperature. Between 13 and 18 d of incubation, mean values of T(emb) readings that were recorded every 12 h were consistently higher than those of T(ext) and T(nem), indicating the importance of air cell transponder implantation for the efficient estimation of broiler embryo temperature. Furthermore, mean values of the percentage of daily incubational egg weight loss, G(H2O), g(H2O), and K(H2O) of the embryonated eggs were 0.54 ± 0.019%, 14.4 ± 0.56 mg of H?O/d per Torr, 25.0 ± 0.96 mg of H?O/d per Torr per 100 g, and 5.20 ± 0.205, respectively. The results suggest that transponders may be implanted in the air cells of broiler hatching eggs to detect incubational variations in T(emb) and to subsequently calculate G(H2O), g(H2O), and K(H2O). PMID:22184428

Pulikanti, R; Peebles, E D; Zhai, W; Gerard, P D

2012-01-01

348

Hollow cathode apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hollow cathode apparatus is described, which can be rapidly and reliably started. An ignitor positioned upstream from the hollow cathode, generates a puff of plasma that flows with the primary gas to be ionized through the cathode. The plasma puff creates a high voltage breakdown between the downstream end of the cathode and a keeper electrode, to heat the cathode to an electron-emitting temperature.

Aston, G. (inventor)

1984-01-01

349

Induction spray charging apparatus  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Induction charging apparatus for HVLP spray guns includes an air cap having a central fluid exit orifice for receiving the spray gun nozzle. The cap includes one or more charging electrodes surrounding the orifice and carrying a voltage sufficiently large to induce on the spray droplets charges of a polarity opposite to that on the electrodes. The cap includes a rotatable electrical connector to enable the cap to rotate 360.degree., while maintaining electrical connections between the electrodes and a power supply.

1995-04-25

350

Lunar deep drill apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed as a baseline configuration, this rotary drill apparatus is designed to produce 100-mm diameter holes in the lunar surface at depths up to 50 meters. The drill is intended to acquire samples for scientific analysis, mineral resource location, calibration of electronic exploration devices, and foundation analysis at construction sites. It is also intended to prepare holes for emplacement of scientific instruments, the setting of structural anchors, and explosive methods in excavation and mining activities. Defined as a deep drill because of the modular drill string, it incorporates an automatic rod changer. The apparatus is teleoperated from a remote location, such as earth, utilizing supervisory control techniques. It is thus suitable for unmanned and man-tended operation. Proven terrestrial drilling technology is used to the extent it is compatible with the lunar environment. Augers and drive tubes form holes in the regolith and may be used to acquire loose samples. An inertial cutting removal system operates intermittently while rock core drilling is in progress. The apparatus is carried to the work site by a three-legged mobile platform which also provides a 2-meter feed along the hole centerline, an off-hole movement of approximately .5 meters, an angular alignment of up to 20 deg. from gravity vertical, and other dexterity required in handling rods and samples. The technology can also be applied using other carriers which incorporate similar motion capabilities. The apparatus also includes storage racks for augers, rods, and ancillary devices such as the foot-plate that holds the down-hole tooling during rod changing operations.

1989-01-01

351

Gas cleaning apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of an apparatus and method for removing very finely divided alkali fumes and other particulate material from a coal-gasifier make-gas comprising the introduction of char granules into the constricted passage of a venturi-shaped gas duct to adsorb the very fine particulate from the make-gas flowing therethrough, and centrifugally separating the fume-laden char granules from the make-gas.

R. H. Boll; W. C. Lapple

1980-01-01

352

Gas cleaning apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A description is given of an apparatus and method for removing very finely divided alkali fumes and other particulate material from a coal-gasifier make-gas comprising the introduction of char granules into the constricted passage of a venturi-shaped gas duct to adsorb the very fine particulate from the make-gas flowing therethrough, and centrifugally separating the fume-laden char granules from the make-gas.

Boll, R.H.; Lapple, W.C.

1980-03-04

353

Ion beam generating apparatus  

DOEpatents

An ion generating apparatus utilizing a vacuum chamber, a cathode and an anode in the chamber. A source of electrical power produces an arc or discharge between the cathode and anode. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma is directed to an extractor which separates the electrons from the plasma, and accelerates the ions to produce an ion beam.

Brown, Ian G. (1088 Woodside Rd., Berkeley, CA 94708); Galvin, James (2 Commodore #276, Emeryville, CA 94608)

1987-01-01

354

Apparatus for photographing meteors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus for photographing meteors in a selected area of the sky is described. A photomultiplier is pointed in the direction of the area. When a meteor passes through the area the signal output of the photomultiplier increases. Means are provided that activate a camera, pointed at the area, in response to an increased signal from the photomultiplier. Hence, the camera photographs the selected are only while meteors are likely to be passing through the area.

Harvey, G. A. (inventor)

1973-01-01

355

Micro coring apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A micro-coring apparatus for lunar exploration applications, that is compatible with the other components of the Walking Mobile Platform, was designed. The primary purpose of core sampling is to gain an understanding of the geological composition and properties of the prescribed environment. This procedure has been used extensively for Earth studies and in limited applications during lunar explorations. The corer is described and analyzed for effectiveness.

Collins, David; Brooks, Marshall; Chen, Paul; Dwelle, Paul; Fischer, Ben

1989-01-01

356

Pyrolysis process and apparatus  

DOEpatents

This invention discloses a process and apparatus for pyrolyzing particulate coal by heating with a particulate solid heating media in a transport reactor. The invention tends to dampen fluctuations in the flow of heating media upstream of the pyrolysis zone, and by so doing forms a substantially continuous and substantially uniform annular column of heating media flowing downwardly along the inside diameter of the reactor. The invention is particularly useful for bituminous or agglomerative type coals.

Lee, Chang-Kuei (Sewell, NJ)

1983-01-01

357

Portable cutting apparatus  

DOEpatents

A remotely operable, portable cutting apparatus detachably secured to the workpiece by laterally spaced clamp assemblies engagable with the workpiece on opposite sides of the intended line of cut. A reciprocal cutter head is mounted between the clamp assemblies and is provided with a traveling abrasive cutting wire adapted to sever the workpiece normal to the longitudinal axis thereof. Dust and debris are withdrawn from the cutting area by a vacuum force through a nozzle mounted on the cutting head.

Gilmore, R.F.

1984-07-17

358

Portable cutting apparatus  

DOEpatents

A remotely operable, portable cutting apparatus detachably secured to the workpiece by laterally spaced clamp assemblies engageable with the workpiece on opposite sides of the intended line of cut. A reciprocal cutter head is mounted between the clamp assemblies and is provided with a traveling abrasive cutting wire adapted to sever the workpiece normal to the longitudinal axis thereof. Dust and debris are withdrawn from the cutting area by a vacuum force through a nozzle mounted on the cutting head.

Gilmore, Richard F. (Kennewick, WA)

1986-01-01

359

Hummingbird feeding apparatus  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A hummingbird feeding apparatus for use in providing feed formula to hummingbirds. This may be accomplished by providing a reservoir for holding ready to consume and preservative free nectar formula for hummingbirds. The reservoir may have an opening that is configured to couple to a dispensing member for delivering the formula to hummingbirds. The reservoir may have an attachment member on one end for placing the dispensing member in a hummingbird-accessible location.

2013-03-05

360

Fire suppressing apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for smothering a liquid sodium fire comprises a pan, a perforated cover on the pan, and tubes depending from the cover and providing communication between the interior of the pan and the ambient atmosphere through the perforations in the cover. Liquid caught in the pan rises above the lower ends of the tubes and thus serves as a barrier which limits the amount of air entering the pan.

Buttrey, Kenneth E. (Northridge, CA)

1982-11-02

361

Demand illumination control apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar illuminating compensating apparatus is disclosed whereby the interior of a building is illuminated to a substantially constant, predetermined level of light intensity by a combination of natural illumination from the sun and artificial illumination from electricity wherein the intensity of said artificial illumination is controlled by fully electronic means which increases the level of artificial illumination when the natural illumination is inadequate and vice versa.

Warren, Carl (Inventor); Arline, Jimmie (Inventor); LaPalme, Julius (Inventor)

1981-01-01

362

Ion beam generating apparatus  

DOEpatents

An ion generating apparatus utilizing a vacuum chamber, a cathode and an anode in the chamber. A source of electrical power produces an arc or discharge between the cathode and anode. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma is directed to an extractor which separates the electrons from the plasma, and accelerates the ions to produce an ion beam. 10 figs.

Brown, I.G.; Galvin, J.

1987-12-22

363

Pruning apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

The present invention is an automated pruning apparatus that requires little or no follow-up hand pruning and requires no sensors to avoid supportive trunks or posts. The present invention uses at least one pair of flat, close angled toothed, counter rotating blades. Woody branches are directed to the counter rotating blades first with a lifting arm and secondly by a quilled drum. 16 figs.

Dellinger, R.D.

1997-12-09

364

Active radar stealth device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This patent discloses an active radar stealth device mounted on a host platform for minimizing the radar cross-section of the host platform. A coating which is essentially microwave transparent is attached to the surface of a host platform and is exposed to an incident microwave field. A plurality of detector/emitter pairs contained within the coating detect and actively cancel, respectively, the microwave field at each respective detector/emitter pair.

Cain, R. N.; Corda, Albert J.

1991-07-01

365

Radar Imaging of Mercury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earth-based radar has been one of the few, and one of the most important, sources of new information about Mercury during\\u000a the three decades since the Mariner 10 encounters. The emphasis during the past 15 years has been on full-disk, dual-polarization\\u000a imaging of the planet, an effort that has been facilitated by the development of novel radar techniques and by

John K. Harmon

2007-01-01

366

Radar Imaging of Mercury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earth-based radar has been one of the few, and one of the most important, sources of new information about Mercury during\\u000a the three decades since the Mariner 10 encounters. The emphasis during the past 15 years has been on full-disk, dual-polarization\\u000a imaging of the planet, an effort that has been facilitated by the development of novel radar techniques and by

J. Harmon

2004-01-01

367

Radar Imaging of Mercury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earth-based radar has been one of the few, and one of the most important, sources of new information about Mercury during the three decades since the Mariner 10 encounters. The emphasis during the past 15 years has been on full-disk, dual-polarization imaging of the planet, an effort that has been facilitated by the development of novel radar techniques and by

John K. Harmon

2007-01-01

368

Downhole pulse radar  

SciTech Connect

A borehole logging tool generates a fast rise-time, short duration, high peak-power radar pulse having broad energy distribution between 30 MHz and 300 MHz through a directional transmitting and receiving antennas having barium titanate in the electromagnetically active region to reduce the wavelength to within an order of magnitude of the diameter of the antenna. Radar returns from geological discontinuities are samples for transmission uphole.

Chang, H.T.

1989-03-21

369

Downhole pulse radar  

DOEpatents

A borehole logging tool generates a fast rise-time, short duration, high peak-power radar pulse having broad energy distribution between 30 MHz and 300 MHz through a directional transmitting and receiving antennas having barium titanate in the electromagnetically active region to reduce the wavelength to within an order of magnitude of the diameter of the antenna. Radar returns from geological discontinuities are sampled for transmission uphole. 7 figs.

Chang, Hsi-Tien

1987-09-28

370

Downhole pulse radar  

DOEpatents

A borehole logging tool generates a fast rise-time, short duration, high peak-power radar pulse having broad energy distribution between 30 MHz and 300 MHz through a directional transmitting and receiving antennas having barium titanate in the electromagnetically active region to reduce the wavelength to within an order of magnitude of the diameter of the antenna. Radar returns from geological discontinuities are sampled for transmission uphole.

Chang, Hsi-Tien (Albuquerque, NM)

1989-01-01

371

Doppler Radar Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides an introduction to the function and uses of the The National Weather Service's (NWS) Weather Surveillance Doppler Radar (WSR-88D). Topics include the components of the system, an overview of the products and overlays the system creates, and some example images with captions explaining what is being shown. There are also links to radar meteorology tutorials and to information on training to use the system and interpret its imagery.

372

Phased-array radars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The operating principles, technology, and applications of phased-array radars are reviewed and illustrated with diagrams and photographs. Consideration is given to the antenna elements, circuitry for time delays, phase shifters, pulse coding and compression, and hybrid radars combining phased arrays with lenses to alter the beam characteristics. The capabilities and typical hardware of phased arrays are shown using the US military systems COBRA DANE and PAVE PAWS as examples.

Brookner, E.

1985-02-01

373

Radioactive waste processing apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for use in processing radioactive waste materials for shipment and storage in solid form in a container is disclosed. The container includes a top, and an opening in the top which is smaller than the outer circumference of the container. The apparatus includes an enclosure into which the container is placed, solution feed apparatus for adding a solution containing radioactive waste materials into the container through the container opening, and at least one rotatable blade for blending the solution with a fixing agent such as cement or the like as the solution is added into the container. The blade is constructed so that it can pass through the opening in the top of the container. The rotational axis of the blade is displaced from the center of the blade so that after the blade passes through the opening, the blade and container can be adjusted so that one edge of the blade is adjacent the cylindrical wall of the container, to insure thorough mixing. When the blade is inside the container, a substantially sealed chamber is formed to contain vapors created by the chemical action of the waste solution and fixant, and vapors emanating through the opening in the container.

Nelson, Robert E. (Lombard, IL); Ziegler, Anton A. (Darien, IL); Serino, David F. (Maplewood, MN); Basnar, Paul J. (Western Springs, IL)

1987-01-01

374

Vortex Apparatus and Demonstrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vortex flow, from millimeter to kilometer in scale, is important in many scientific and technological areas.1 Examples are seen in water strider locomotion, from industrial pipe flow (wastewater treatment) to air traffic control (safe distance between aircrafts on a runway ready for takeoff) to atmospheric studies.2-5 In this paper, we focus on a particular vortex known as bathtub vortex (BTV). It occurs when water is drained from a hole at the bottom of a container such as a bathtub or a sink under the action of gravity. The vortex has a funnel shape with a central air core, resembling a tornado. We have designed a portable apparatus to demonstrate bathtub vortex on a continual basis. The apparatus consists of a clear cylinder supported by a frame over a water reservoir and a submersible pump. Young and old have been equally amazed by watching the demonstrations at various public presentations held at the University of the Pacific recently. With material cost of less than $100, the apparatus can be easily fabricated and used at other universities. With a short set-up time, it is an ideal device for promoting science to the general public, and it can be used to enhance lectures in physics courses as well.

Shakerin, Said

2010-05-01

375

Passive radar augmented projectile (PRAP)  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The invention disclosed relates to gun-launched target projectiles wherein a radar-augmentor is included to increase the radar cross-section of the projectile to simulate on radar, an actual airborne threat such as aircraft and missiles. The radar augmentor comprises a base member, a uniform dielectric lens attached to said base member and a resilient support means between said base member and said lens. The dielectric lens is configured to provide a frontal radar return echo which simulates the actual airborne threat on radar.

1991-01-29

376

Polarimetric Borehole Radar System for Fracture Measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radar polarimetry is a technology that overcomes the limitation between the radar resolution and the penetration depth of borehole radar. We have developed a stepped-frequency polarimetric borehole radar system. This is a polarimetric borehole radar system which measures the full-radar polarimetry in a borehole by changing the antenna arrangements. By using a network analyzer and an optical analog signal link,

Motoyuki Sato; Takashi Miwa

2000-01-01

377

High Resolution Capabilities of MIMO Radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar is a multistatic architecture composed of multiple transmitters and receivers, which seeks to exploit the spatial diversity of radar backscatter. In conjunction with centralized processing, MIMO radar has the potential to significantly improve radar functions such as detection and parameter estimation. MIMO radar is distinct from other types of array radars such as phased array or

Nikolaus H. Lehmann; Alexander M. Haimovich; Rick S. Blum; Len Cimini

2006-01-01

378

Apparatus Would Stain Microscope Slides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed apparatus meters specific amounts of fluid out of containers at specific times to stain microscope slides. Intended specifically for semiautomated staining of microbiological and hematological samples in microgravity, leakproof apparatus used in other environments in which technicians have little time to allocate to staining procedures and/or exposure to toxic staining agents or to micro-organisms to be stained hazardous. Apparatus adapted to perform almost any staining procedure and accommodates multiple staining reagents, useful for small or remote clinical laboratories.

Breeding, James D.

1993-01-01

379

Optoelectronic Apparatus Measures Glucose Noninvasively  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optoelectronic apparatus has been invented as a noninvasive means of measuring the concentration of glucose in the human body. The apparatus performs polarimetric and interferometric measurements of the human eye to acquire data from which the concentration of glucose in the aqueous humor can be computed. Because of the importance of the concentration of glucose in human health, there could be a large potential market for instruments based on this apparatus.

Ansari, Rafat R.; Rovati, Luigi L.

2003-01-01

380

Mars Radar Observations with the Goldstone Solar System Radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Goldstone Solar System Radar (GSSR) has successfully collected radar echo data from Mars over the past 30 years. As such, the GSSR has played a role as a specific mission element within Mars exploration. The older data provided local elevation information for Mars, along with radar scattering information with global resolution. Since the upgrade to the 70-m Deep Space

A. F. C. Haldemann; R. F. Jurgens; K. W. Larsen; R. E. Arvidson; M. A. Slade

2002-01-01

381

Microphysical cross validation of spaceborne radar and ground polarimetric radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground-based polarimetric radar observations along the beam path of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR), matched in resolution volume and aligned to PR measurements, are used to estimate the parameters of a gamma raindrop size distribution (RSD) model along the radar beam in the presence of rain. The PR operates at 13.8 GHz, and its signal returns

V. Chandrasekar; Steven M. Bolen; Eugenio Gorgucci

2003-01-01

382

Solder dross removal apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automatic dross removal apparatus (10) is disclosed for removing dross from the surface of a solder bath (22) in an automated electric component handling system. A rotatable wiper blade (14) is positioned adjacent the solder bath (22) which skims the dross off of the surface prior to the dipping of a robot conveyed component into the bath. An electronic control circuit (34) causes a motor (32) to rotate the wiper arm (14) one full rotational cycle each time a pulse is received from a robot controller (44) as a component approaches the solder bath (22).

Webb, Winston S. (Inventor)

1992-01-01

383

Solder dross removal apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automatic dross removal apparatus is disclosed for removing dross from the surface of a solder bath in an automated electric component handling system. A rotatable wiper blade is positioned adjacent the solder bath which skims the dross off of the surface prior to the dipping of a robot conveyed component into the bath. An electronic control circuit causes a motor to rotate the wiper arm one full rotational cycle each time a pulse is received from a robot controller as a component approaches the solder bath.

Webb, Winston S. (inventor)

1990-01-01

384

DNA Sequencing apparatus  

DOEpatents

An automated DNA sequencing apparatus having a reactor for providing at least two series of DNA products formed from a single primer and a DNA strand, each DNA product of a series differing in molecular weight and having a chain terminating agent at one end; separating means for separating the DNA products to form a series bands, the intensity of substantially all nearby bands in a different series being different, band reading means for determining the position an This invention was made with government support including a grant from the U.S. Public Health Service, contract number AI-06045. The U.S. government has certain rights in the invention.

Tabor, Stanley (Cambridge, MA); Richardson, Charles C. (Chestnut Hill, MA)

1992-01-01

385

Foil changing apparatus  

DOEpatents

A self-contained hermetically sealed foil changer for advancing a portion of foil web into a position normal to the path of a high energy particle beam. The path of the beam is defined generally by an aperture plate and cooperating axially movable barrel such that the barrel can be advanced toward the plate thereby positioning a portion of the foil across the beam path and sealing the foil between the barrel and the plate to form a membrane across said beam path. A spooling apparatus contained in the foil changer permits selectively advancing a fresh supply of foil across the beam path without breaking the foil changer seal.

Crist, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Ives, Harry C. (Albuquerque, NM); Leifeste, Gordon T. (Albuquerque, NM); Miller, Robert B. (Albuquerque, NM)

1988-01-01

386

Apparatus for chemical synthesis  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for forming a chemical hydride is described and which includes a pseudo-plasma-electrolysis reactor which is operable to receive a solution capable of forming a chemical hydride and which further includes a cathode and a movable anode, and wherein the anode is moved into and out of fluidic, ohmic electrical contact with the solution capable of forming a chemical hydride and which further, when energized produces an oxygen plasma which facilitates the formation of a chemical hydride in the solution.

Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Herring, J. Stephen (Idaho Falls, ID); Grandy, Jon D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-05-10

387

Apparatus Impregnates Weak Fibers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low-cost apparatus developed for use in conventional drum winding machine to impregnate fibrous materials having very low tensile strengths. Fiber fitted onto freely-spinning unwinding creel. Unwinds from creel between two tension bars onto guide spools, aligns fiber so properly enters sealed reservoir of resin. Stainless-steel metering die at entrance to reservoir aligns fiber and seals reservoir. Beneficial results obtained by use of reservoir made of polyethylene. Composite material made from resin matrices reinforced by fibers have great potential for solving challenging and often critical problems in design of spacecraft, space structures, and terrestrial structures.

Stanfield, Clarence E.; Wilson, Maywood L.

1989-01-01

388

Vapor Diffusion Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vapor Diffusion Apparatus (VDA-2) was developed by the University of Alabama in Birmingham for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. In the original VDA, a protein solution and a precipitant are extruded by two plungers onto the tip of a small syringe and allowed to evaporate, raising the concentration and prompting protein molecules to crystallize. In the VDA-2 version, a third plunger was added to mix the two solutions before returning the mix to the syringe tip. The principal investigator is Dr. Larry Delucas of the University of Alabama in Birmingham.

2001-01-01

389

Vapor Diffusion Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vapor Diffusion Apparatus (VDA and VDA-2) was developed by the University of Alabama in Birmingham for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. In the original VDA, a protein solution and a precipitant are extruded by two plungers onto the tip of a small syringe and allowed to evaporate, raising the concentration and prompting protein molecules to crystallize. In the VDA-2 version, a third plunger was added to mix the two solutions before returning the mix to the syringe tip. The principal investigator is Dr. Larry Delucas of the University of Alabama in Birmingham

2001-01-01

390

Nitrogen fixation apparatus  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for achieving nitrogen fixation includes a volumetric electric discharge chamber. The volumetric discharge chamber provides an even distribution of an electron beam, and enables the chamber to be maintained at a controlled energy to pressure (E/p) ratio. An E/p ratio of from 5 to 15 kV/atm of O.sub.2 /cm promotes the formation of vibrationally excited N.sub.2. Atomic oxygen interacts with vibrationally excited N.sub.2 at a much quicker rate than unexcited N.sub.2, greatly improving the rate at which NO is formed.

Chen, Hao-Lin (Walnut Creek, CA) [Walnut Creek, CA

1984-01-01

391

Analysis of Microhabitat Use for Two Trout Species Using a Combination of Remote Sensing and Passive Integrated transponder Tags  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Logan River and its tributaries in northern Utah sustain a significant population of the imperiled Bonneville cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki Utah) as well as invasive brown trout (Salmo trutta). In general, the upper reaches of the system are populated by cutthroat trout and the lower reaches by brown trout. Spawn Creek is a unique tributary in that it supports both of these species throughout the year. The purpose of this study is to identify differences in fine-scale microhabitat that explain utilization patterns of each species of fish. Passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags have been placed in trout over the last 3 years throughout Spawn Creek. Repeat GPS observations of these fish in their habitat during both spawning and non-spawning periods have been acquired over the last 4 years. Non-spawning activity has been captured using mobile PIT tag antennae. GPS observations of cutthroat trout spawning locations have also been recorded. From these observations both spawning and non-spawning "hotspots" have emerged, which appear to be highly correlated with specific microhabitat characteristics. The entire 2.5 km study reach on lower Spawn Creek has been scanned using ground-based light detection and ranging (LiDAR) which covers all observed "hotspots." LiDAR data provides sub-centimeter resolution point clouds from which detailed geometric measurements and topographic analyses can be used to reveal specific aspects of trout habitat. Where bathymetric data is needed, total station bathymetric surveys have been completed at sub-meter resolution. The combination of these data types at known "hotspot" locations provides an opportunity to quantify aspects of the physical environment at a uniquely fine scale relevant to individual fish. New metrics, as well as old metrics resolved at finer scales, will be presented to explain species and life-stage specific habitat "hotspots" in mountain streams.

Lokteff, R.; Wheaton, J. M.; Roper, B.; DeMeurichy, K.; Randall, J.

2011-12-01

392

Estimating movement and survival rates of a small saltwater fish using autonomous antenna receiver arrays and passive integrated transponder tags  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We evaluated the performance of small (12.5 mm long) passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and custom detection antennas for obtaining fine-scale movement and demographic data of mummichog Fundulus heteroclitus in a salt marsh creek. Apparent survival and detection probability were estimated using a Cormack Jolly Seber (CJS) model fitted to detection data collected by an array of 3 vertical antennas from November 2010 to March 2011 and by a single horizontal antenna from April to August 2011. Movement of mummichogs was monitored during the period when the array of vertical antennas was used. Antenna performance was examined in situ using tags placed in wooden dowels (drones) and in live mummichogs. Of the 44 tagged fish, 42 were resighted over the 9 mo monitoring period. The in situ detection probabilities of the drone and live mummichogs were high (~80-100%) when the ambient water depth was less than ~0.8 m. Upstream and downstream movement of mummichogs was related to hourly water depth and direction of tidal current in a way that maximized time periods over which mummichogs utilized the intertidal vegetated marsh. Apparent survival was lower during periods of colder water temperatures in December 2010 and early January 2011 (median estimate of daily apparent survival = 0.979) than during other periods of the study (median estimate of daily apparent survival = 0.992). During late fall and winter, temperature had a positive effect on the CJS detection probability of a tagged mummichog, likely due to greater fish activity over warmer periods. During the spring and summer, this pattern reversed possibly due to mummichogs having reduced activity during the hottest periods. This study demonstrates the utility of PIT tags and continuously operating autonomous detection systems for tracking fish at fine temporal scales, and improving estimates of demographic parameters in salt marsh creeks that are difficult or impractical to sample with active fishing gear.

Rudershausen, Paul J.; Buckel, Jeffery A.; Dubreuil, Todd; O'Donnell, Matthew J.; Hightower, Joseph E.; Poland, Steven J.; Letcher, Benjamin H.

2014-01-01

393

Tagging Juvenile Pacific Lamprey with Passive Integrated Transponders: Methodology, Short-Term Mortality, and Influence on Swimming Performance  

SciTech Connect

Populations of Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) in the Columbia River basin have declined drastically over the past 20 years. Possible causes include habitat degradation and instream flow obstacles, such as the mainstem hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River. To determine why lamprey populations have declined a monitoring system to track their movements was needed to determine possible impacts. Juvenile lamprey were implanted with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and their detection rates determined while migrating through fish bypass facilities at McNary in 2001 and 2005 and John Day Dam in 2002. Juvenile Pacific lamprey (115–178 mm) were obtained from the John Day Dam fish collection facility, transported to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and surgically PIT-tagged. Lamprey were allowed to recover for 3 to 4 days following PIT tag implantation and subsequently were released upstream of the PIT tag detectors at both dams. Primary detector efficiency was 98% at McNary Dam and 97% at John Day Dam. Average in-river travel time for fish released at McNary Dam and detected at John Day Dam was 16.1 d in 2001 and 10 d in 2005. Mean detection rates at McNary Dam varied from 74% for gatewell releases to 69% for the collection channel. Follow up tests in 2005 at McNary Dam showed detections rates near 100% from collection channel releases. Detection rates from forebay releases at McNary Dam were lower, ranging from 0% to 38% (mean = 21%). Mean travel times from release point to the primary detectors at McNary Dam were; forebay (492 min), gatewell (323 min), and collection channel (245 min). The detection efficiency at the primary detectors was similar to that of PIT-tagged smolts and travel time within the bypass system showed that lamprey can hold in the bypass system for prolonged periods.

Mueller, Robert P.; Moursund, Russell A.; Bleich, Matthew D.

2006-05-31

394

Tagging Juvenile Pacific Lamprey with Passive Integrated Transponders: Methodology, Short-Term Mortality, and Influence on Swimming Performance  

SciTech Connect

This study was conducted to determine the feasibility (i.e., efficiency and onintrusiveness) of tagging juvenile Pacific lampreys Lampetra tridentata with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and to determine any associated impacts on survivorship and swimming ability. Juvenile Pacific lampreys were obtained from the John Day Dam fish collection facility and tests were conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in 2001 and 2002. A new PIT-tagging procedure was used to inject 12-mm tags 5 mm posterior to the gill openings. ampreys were allowed to recover for 3–4 d following surgery before postmortality and swimming tests were conducted. The PIT tagging procedure during 2001 did not include a suture, and 2.6% of the tags were shed after 40 d. During 2002 a single suture was used to close the opening after inserting a tag, and no tag shedding was observed. Overall short-term mortality rates for lampreys 120–155 mm (total length) held for 40 d at 88C was 2.2% for tagged and 2.7% for untagged fish. Mortality increased significantly when tagged and untagged groups were held in warmer (19–238C) river water: 50% for tagged and 60% for untagged animals. Lengths did not significantly affect survival for either the tagged or untagged group held in warm water. A fungal infection was observed to be the cause of death when water temperature increased. Swimming tests to determine any adverse effects due to tag insertion showed no significant difference (P ¼ 0.12) between tagged and untagged lampreys for mean burst speed; however, maximum burst speeds were significantly lower for the PIT-tagged group.

Mueller, Robert P.; Moursund, Russell A.; Bleich, Matthew D.

2006-05-01

395

Survival and growth of juvenile Pacific lampreys tagged with passive integrated transponders (PIT) in freshwater and seawater  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tagging methods are needed for both adult and juvenile life stages of Pacific lampreys Lampetra tridentata to better understand their biology and factors contributing to their decline. We developed a safe and efficient technique for tagging juvenile Pacific lampreys with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. We tested the short-term survival of PIT-tagged juvenile lampreys in freshwater at four temperatures (9, 12, 15, and 18°C) and their long-term growth and survival in seawater. For both experiments there was little to no tag loss, and juvenile lampreys in freshwater showed high survival at all temperatures at 7 d (95–100%) and 14 d (88–100%) posttagging. Prolonged holding (40 d) resulted in significantly lower survival (28–79%) at warmer temperatures (12–18°C). For juvenile lampreys tagged in freshwater and then transitioned to seawater, survival was 97% for tagged fish until day 94, and at the end of 6 months, survival was about 58% for both tagged and control fish. About half of the tagged and control fish that survived in seawater grew, but there was no difference in growth between the two groups. In freshwater, but not in seawater, most fish that died had an aquatic fungal infection. In both experiments, survival increased with increasing fish length at tagging. Our results indicate that tags similar in size to a 9-mm PIT tag are a feasible option for tagging metamorphosed juvenile lampreys migrating downstream and that when fungal infections are mitigated—as in seawater—long-term (at least 6 months) survival of tagged juvenile lampreys is high.

Mesa, Matthew G.; Copeland, Elizabeth S.; Christiansen, Helena E.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Roon, Sean R.; Hershberger, Paul K.

2012-01-01

396

Tagging frogs with passive integrated transponders causes disruption of the cutaneous bacterial community and proliferation of opportunistic fungi.  

PubMed

Symbiotic bacterial communities play a key role in protecting amphibians from infectious diseases including chytridiomycosis, caused by the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Events that lead to the disruption of the bacterial community may have implications for the susceptibility of amphibians to such diseases. Amphibians are often marked both in the wild and in captivity for a variety of reasons, and although existing literature indicates that marking techniques have few negative effects, the response of cutaneous microbial communities has not yet been investigated. Here we determine the effects of passive integrated transponder (PIT) tagging on culturable cutaneous microbial communities of captive Morelet's tree frogs (Agalychnis moreletii) and assess the isolated bacterial strains for anti-B. dendrobatidis activity in vitro. We find that PIT tagging causes a major disruption to the bacterial community associated with the skin of frogs (?12-fold increase in abundance), as well as a concurrent proliferation in resident fungi (up to ?200-fold increase). Handling also caused a disruption the bacterial community, although to a lesser extent than PIT tagging. However, the effects of both tagging and handling were temporary, and after 2 weeks, the bacterial communities were similar to their original compositions. We also identify two bacterial strains that inhibit B. dendrobatidis, one of which increased in abundance on PIT-tagged frogs at 1 day postmarking, while the other was unaffected. These results show that PIT tagging has previously unobserved consequences for cutaneous microbial communities of frogs and may be particularly relevant for studies that intend to use PIT tagging to identify individuals involved in trials to develop probiotic treatments. PMID:24878599

Antwis, Rachael E; Garcia, Gerardo; Fidgett, Andrea L; Preziosi, Richard F

2014-08-01

397

Phase Modulating the Urbana Radar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design and operation of a switched phase modulation system for the Urbana Radar System are discussed. The system is implemented and demonstrated using a simple procedure. The radar system and circuits are described and analyzed.

L. J. Herrington S. A. Bowhill

1983-01-01

398

Phase modulating the Urbana radar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and operation of a switched phase modulation system for the Urbana Radar System are discussed. The system is implemented and demonstrated using a simple procedure. The radar system and circuits are described and analyzed.

Herrington, L. J., Jr.; Bowhill, S. A.

1983-01-01

399

Radar Background Signal Reduction Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes a study whose objective was to identify materials and/or techniques to reduce radar background signals for ground plane radar cross section (RCS) ranges. Background signal reduction is essential for improving the accuracy of RCS mea...

E. F. Knott C. J. Ray M. S. West R. J. Wohlers

1980-01-01

400

Helicopter obstacle detection radar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have analyzed and experimentally tested the feasibility of thin wire detection using millimeter wave radar. The radar system includes a novel, fast scanning antenna and a transceiver\\/signal processor unit from BAE systems.

Lev S. Sadovnik; Vladimir A. Manasson; Robert M. Mino

2000-01-01

401

CFAR detection for multistatic radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multistatic radar system with n transmitters and one receiver is modelled. Several CFAR algorithms for detection are introduced. The proposed CFAR detectors are simulated and the performances are compared with the performance of a monostatic radar of higher power.

Vahideh Amanipour; Ali Olfat

2008-01-01

402

The UK radar scene today  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary radar systems in the United Kingdom that recently entered service or are at an advanced stage of development are presented. Naval, airborne, and land-based types and civil and military radars, especially airborne equipment, are discussed.

J. Clarke

1985-01-01

403

The UK radar scene today  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Primary radar systems in the United Kingdom that recently entered service or are at an advanced stage of development are presented. Naval, airborne, and land-based types and civil and military radars, especially airborne equipment, are discussed.

Clarke, J.

404

Polarimetric radar modified  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modification of 11-cm Doppler radar, to permit measurement of the complete polari-metric matrix of signals backscattered from meteorological media, was recently completed by the Ground Based Remote Sensing Branch of the Geophysics Laboratory, U.S. Air Force Base, Hanscom, Mass. It is believed that this radar is the only meteorological research radar in the world having such a capability at this wavelength. Signals can be transmitted with either linear or circular polarization and switched pulse-to-pulse either between horizontal and vertical or between right and left circular polarization.Backscattered signals with polarizations identical and orthogonal to that of the transmitted signal pass through coherent and logarithmic receivers and are recorded as time series in 40 selectable range gates. The resulting data archive supports a wide range of analyses, including auto- and cross-covariance calculations and spectral analyses.

405

Fluidized bed calciner apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for remotely calcining a slurry or solution feed stream of toxic or hazardous material, such as ammonium diurante slurry or uranyl nitrate solution, is disclosed. The calcining apparatus includes a vertical substantially cylindrical inner shell disposed in a vertical substantially cylindrical outer shell, in which inner shell is disposed a fluidized bed comprising the feed stream material to be calcined and spherical beads to aid in heat transfer. Extending through the outer and inner shells is a feed nozzle for delivering feed material or a cleaning chemical to the beads. Disposed in and extending across the lower portion of the inner shell and upstream of the fluidized bed is a support member for supporting the fluidized bed, the support member having uniform slots for directing uniform gas flow to the fluidized bed from a fluidizing gas orifice disposed upstream of the support member. Disposed in the lower portion of the inner shell are a plurality of internal electric resistance heaters for heating the fluidized bed. Disposed circumferentially about the outside length of the inner shell are a plurality of external heaters for heating the inner shell thereby heating the fluidized bed. Further, connected to the internal and external heaters is a means for maintaining the fluidized bed temperature to within plus or minus approximately 25.degree. C. of a predetermined bed temperature. Disposed about the external heaters is the outer shell for providing radiative heat reflection back to the inner shell.

Owen, Thomas J. (West Richland, WA); Klem, Jr., Michael J. (Richland, WA); Cash, Robert J. (Richland, WA)

1988-01-01

406

Polarization imaging apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A polarization imaging apparatus measures the Stokes image of a sample. The apparatus consists of an optical lens set 11, a linear polarizer 14 with its optical axis 18, a first variable phase retarder 12 with its optical axis 16 aligned 22.5.degree. to axis 18, a second variable phase retarder 13 with its optical axis 17 aligned 45.degree. to axis 18, a imaging sensor 15 for sensing the intensity images of the sample, a controller 101 and a computer 102. Two variable phase retarders 12 and 13 were controlled independently by a computer 102 through a controller unit 101 which generates a sequential of voltages to control the phase retardations of VPRs 12 and 13. A set of four intensity images, I.sub.0, I.sub.1, I.sub.2 and I.sub.3 of the sample were captured by imaging sensor 15 when the phase retardations of VPRs 12 and 13 were set at (0,0), (.pi.,0), (.pi.,.pi.) and (.pi./2,.pi.), respectively Then four Stokes components of a Stokes image, S.sub.0, S.sub.1, S.sub.2 and S.sub.3 were calculated using the four intensity images.

Zou, Yingyin Kevin (Inventor); Chen, Qiushui (Inventor); Zhao, Hongzhi (Inventor)

2010-01-01

407

Hydraulic well pumping apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a hydraulic powered well pumping apparatus for operation of a sucker rod well pump in a well borehole, the apparatus comprising: (a) an elongate polished rod having upper and lower ends, the rod being aligned above and adapted to connect to a string of sucker rods in a well borehole therebelow; (b) an adjustably positioned sleeve means aligned above and enclosing a portion of the polished rod and having a shorter length than the polished rod to enable the polished rod to extend above the sleeve means and below the sleeve means for connection to the string of sucker rods in the well borehole; (c) an axially hollow upstanding cylinder slideably receiving the sleeve means therethrough and enclosing a piston therein, the piston being: (1) moved on admitting hydraulic oil to the cylinder, and (2) joined to the sleeve means for moving the sleeve means and thereby moving the polished rod; (d) means for mounting the upstanding cylinder directly aligned with and above a casing at the top of a well adapted to have a sucker rod string positioned therein; (e) means for adjusting the stroke length imparted to the sucker rod string between minimum and maximum stroke lengths; and (f) means for adjusting the location of the sleeve means relative to the polished rod to vary the relative length of polished rod below the sleeve means and wherein a portion of the polished rod extends above the sleeve means dependent on the relative respective portions thereof.

Wright, C.P.

1987-03-03

408

Heat pump apparatus  

DOEpatents

A heat pump apparatus including a compact arrangement of individual tubular reactors containing hydride-dehydride beds in opposite end sections, each pair of beds in each reactor being operable by sequential and coordinated treatment with a plurality of heat transfer fluids in a plurality of processing stages, and first and second valves located adjacent the reactor end sections with rotatable members having multiple ports and associated portions for separating the hydride beds at each of the end sections into groups and for simultaneously directing a plurality of heat transfer fluids to the different groups. As heat is being generated by a group of beds, others are being regenerated so that heat is continuously available for space heating. As each of the processing stages is completed for a hydride bed or group of beds, each valve member is rotated causing the heat transfer fluid for the heat processing stage to be directed to that bed or group of beds. Each of the end sections are arranged to form a closed perimeter and the valve member may be rotated repeatedly about the perimeter to provide a continuous operation. Both valves are driven by a common motor to provide a coordinated treatment of beds in the same reactors. The heat pump apparatus is particularly suitable for the utilization of thermal energy supplied by solar collectors and concentrators but may be used with any source of heat, including a source of low-grade heat.

Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Horowitz, Jeffrey S. (Woodridge, IL)

1983-01-01

409

Percussive arc welding apparatus  

DOEpatents

A percussive arc welding apparatus includes a generally cylindrical actuator body having front and rear end portions and defining an internal recess. The front end of the body includes an opening. A solenoid assembly is provided in the rear end portion in the internal recess of the body, and an actuator shaft assembly is provided in the front end portion in the internal recess of the actuator body. The actuator shaft assembly includes a generally cylindrical actuator block having first and second end portions, and an actuator shaft having a front end extending through the opening in the actuator body, and the rear end connected to the first end portion of the actuator block. The second end portion of the actuator block is in operational engagement with the solenoid shaft by a non-rigid connection to reduce the adverse rebound effects of the actuator shaft. A generally transversely extending pin is rigidly secured to the rear end of the shaft. One end of the pin is received in a slot in the nose housing sleeve to prevent rotation of the actuator shaft during operation of the apparatus.

Hollar, Jr., Donald L. (Overland Park, KS)

2002-01-01

410

Valve tappet apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a valve tappet apparatus for use with an internal combustion engine having a plurality of valve members and cam means for causing reciprocating movement of the valve members, the apparatus comprising: a first tappet body associated with one of the valve members and with the cam means, at least a portion of the first tappet body having a curved outer circumference; a second tappet body associated with another of the valve members and with the cam means, at least a portion of the second tappet body having a curved outer circumference; an elongated, rigid link bar having a first end and a second end; a first attachment means attaching the first end of the link bar to the fist tappet body, and a second attachment means attaching the second end of the link bar to the second tappet body, the second attachment means including a screw for extending through at least a portion of the second tappet body, the second attachment means including a nut member for attaching the second end of the link bar to the distal end of the screw of the second attachment means, the nut member having a face side for engaging the outer circumference of the second tappet body, the face surface of the nut member having a concaved portion for engaging a portion of the outer circumference of the second tappet body.

Gerchow, J.R.; Russell, D.K.

1989-03-07

411

Target identification from radar signatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern high resolution radar techniques and real time digital signal processing advances indicate the feasibility of extracting characteristic features of aircraft targets from their radar signatures. Two basic approaches have been suggested. The low frequency approach utilizes harmonically related radar frequencies with wavelengths comparable to the target dimensions. The microwave approach utilizes spread spectrum techniques to achieve high range resolution.

R. Strattan

1978-01-01

412

Interception of LPI Radar Signals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Most current radars are designed to transmit short duration pulses with relatively high peak power. These radars can be detected easily by the use of relatively modest EW intercept receivers. Three radar functions, namely search, anti-ship missile (ASM) s...

J. P. Lee

1991-01-01

413

Side looking radar calibration study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calibration of an airborne sidelooking radar is accomplished by the use of a model that relates the radar parameters to the physical mapping situation. Topics discussed include: characteristics of the transmitters; the antennas; target absorption and reradiation; the receiver and map making or radar data processing; and the calibration process.

Edwards, W. D.

1975-01-01

414

Radar Cross Section of Ships  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory method to determine the magnitude and position of radar reflection sources on complex targets is described. In addition the method provides a way to measure the modification of the radar cross section (RCS) due to multipath. The method has application in modeling RCS for radar and electronic countermeasure (ECM) system performance analysis and in the study of the

F. C. Paddison; C. A. Shipley; A. L. Maffett; M. H. Dawson

1978-01-01

415

Spaceborne Imaging Radar Symposium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of the present state of the art in the different scientific and technological fields related to spaceborne imaging radars was presented. The data acquired with the SEASAT SAR (1978) and Shuttle Imaging Radar, SIR-A (1981) clearly demonstrated the important emphasis in the 80's is going to be on in-depth research investigations conducted with the more flexible and sophisticated SIR series instruments and on long term monitoring of geophysical phenomena conducted from free-flying platforms such as ERS-1 and RADARSAT.

Elachi, C.

1983-01-01

416

Radar wind profilers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Continuous, automated measurement of tropospheric wind profiles with UHF and VHF Doppler radars has been demonstrated. Ground-based networks of these radars will be available as part of a global wind measurement system, and remote single stations could be built to further complement a spaceborne measurement device. A number of ground-based wind profilers will be in place by the time a space system is tested so the global wind measurement system should be designed with these ground-based profilers providing part of the picture.

Strauch, R. G.

1985-01-01

417

Servomechanism for Doppler shift compensation in optical correlator for synthetic aperture radar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method and apparatus for correcting Doppler shifts in synthetic aperture radar data is described. An optical correlator for synthetic aperture radar data has a means for directing a laser beam at a signal film having radar return pulse intensity information recorded on it. A resultant laser beam passes through a range telescope, an azimuth telescope, and a Fourier transform filter located between the range and azimuth telescopes, and forms an image for recording on an image film. A compensation means for Doppler shift in the radar return pulse intensity information includes a beam splitter for reflecting the modulated laser beam, after having passed through the Fourier transform filter, to a detection screen having two photodiodes mounted on it.

Constaninides, N. J.; Bicknell, T. J. (inventors)

1980-01-01

418

Method and apparatus for solution mining  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Evaporite mineral solution mining process and apparatus comprising the steps of undercutting a bed or massive deposit by in-air jetting with an aqueous solution followed by solution mining of the mineral above the undercut with monitoring and control to cease the solution mining when the roof rock is adequately exposed to maintain a stable roof and stable pillar support. The resulting cavity exhibits steeply angled, nearly vertical sidewalls, flared upwardly and outwardly only 10.degree. to 15.degree. from the vertical plane normal to the edges of the undercut as compared to 45.degree. typical for morning glory cavities. A first plan vertical production well is drilled with a sump provided substantially adjacent to the floor rock. A second horizontal well is developed up dip to intersect and communicate with the production well. The air jet tool mechanism provides horizontal, slightly upwardly inclined jets (0.degree.-15.degree.) which cut the mineral laterally on both sides of the tool which is gradually withdrawn up dip as the undercut progresses. The tool also includes and EMR ranging system, preferably a radar system, and a MWD unit to transmit data to the surface. This permits undercut width control to develop a substantially rectangular undercut profile. The subsequent controlled solution mining provides a substantially rectangular room throughout the entire horizontal length which provides improved mineral recovery, steeply angled pillar wall profiles controlled roof span and increased dissolution rate. The method and apparatus is applicable to beds having dips from 0.degree.-90.degree. and multiple beds with or without partings.

1993-09-21

419

Wire line soil sampler apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wire-line coring apparatus is described. The apparatus has a head assembly having a latch body with extendable latches for engaging the latch seat of a drill stem. A latch release member extends into the latch body to retract the latches. A fitting is mounted by the latch body. A locking ring axially movable on the fitting a limited amount

J. R. Cooper; W. W. Svendsen

1975-01-01

420

Microelectromechanical safing and arming apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-stage acceleration sensing apparatus is disclosed which has applications for use in a fuze assembly for a projected munition. The apparatus, which can be formed by bulk micromachining or LIGA, can sense acceleration components along two orthogonal directions to enable movement of a shuttle from an \\

David R. Koehler; Darren A. Hoke; Louis S. Weichman; George E. Vernon; Randy J. Shul; Michael H. Beggans

2008-01-01

421

Microelectromechanical safing and arming apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-stage acceleration sensing apparatus is disclosed which has applications for use in a fuze assembly for a projected munition. The apparatus, which can be formed by bulk micromachining or LIGA, can sense acceleration components along two orthogonal directions to enable movement of a shuttle from an \\

David R. Koehler; Darren A. Hoke; Louis S. Weichman; George E. Vernon; Randy J. Shul; Michael H. Beggans

2006-01-01

422

An Apparatus for Photochemical Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an apparatus developed for photochemical studies, particularly those involving the fluorescence of halogenated acetones. The apparatus is constructed from equipment normally found in a moderately sized physical chemical laboratory. Also provides background information on some aspects of the photophysics of halogenated propanones. (JN)

Winter, M. J.; Winter, P. V.

1984-01-01

423

An elutriation apparatus for macroinvertebrates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An inexpensive hydropneumatic apparatus screens macroinvertebrates from bottom samples containing silt, mud, or clay. The elutriator, an acrylic cylinder with screened windows, cemented on an upright plastic funnel, retains benthic fauna while the sediment is washed away. The apparatus yields clean samples and has reduced the time required to sort benthos samples by more than 80%.

Worswick, Joseph M., Jr.; Barbour, Michael T.

1974-01-01

424

Grid crusher apparatus and method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A grid crusher apparatus and method are provided for a nuclear fuel rod consolidation system. Spacer grids are crushed within a basket which is then placed in a storage canister. The grid crusher apparatus has a ram assembly and a basket driving mechanism. The ram assembly has a sleeve ram and a central ram. The sleeve ram surrounds the central

McDaniels; J. D. Jr

1994-01-01

425

An Inexpensive, Foolproof Apparatus for Flash Chromatography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a new, modified "flash chromatography" apparatus which overcomes difficulties found in conventional apparatus. For example, an expensive teflon pressure valve is not necessary in the modified version. The apparatus is suitable as an instructional tool in undergraduate courses. (JN)

Thompson, Wayne J.; Hanson, Bryan A.

1984-01-01

426

21 CFR 868.5830 - Autotransfusion apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Autotransfusion apparatus. 868.5830 Section...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5830 Autotransfusion apparatus. (a) Identification. An autotransfusion apparatus is a device used to...

2010-04-01

427

21 CFR 868.5830 - Autotransfusion apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Autotransfusion apparatus. 868.5830 Section...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5830 Autotransfusion apparatus. (a) Identification. An autotransfusion apparatus is a device used to...

2009-04-01

428

Distillation Apparatuses Using Household Items  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple apparatus to demonstrate distillation principles can be very difficult to build without the specialty glassware found in chemistry laboratories. We have built inexpensive but effective distillation apparatuses from equipment that can be easily purchased at local department, grocery, or hardware stores. In one apparatus, colored water is heated to boiling and the condensed vapors drip into another container. In another apparatus, acetone is heated to boiling with hot water and the acetone vapors condense onto a Styrofoam cup. The Styrofoam cup is softened by the acetone and collapses. Rubbing alcohol can be used instead of acetone, but the cup is not softened and the boiling point is much higher. Both apparatuses can be used in a classroom. Both are simple, cost-effective ways of demonstrating distillation, evaporation, and condensation. They would be ideal to use in elementary and middle school classrooms when explaining these concepts.

Campanizzi, Danielle R. D.; Mason, Brenda; Hermann, Christine K. F.

1999-08-01

429

Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus  

DOEpatents

A flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus, comprising a flexible, hollow shaft that carries a plurality of modules, including at least one rotatable ultrasonic transducer, a motor/gear unit, and a position/signal encoder. The modules are connected by flexible knuckle joints that allow each module of the apparatus to change its relative orientation with respect to a neighboring module, while the shaft protects electrical wiring from kinking or buckling while the apparatus moves around a tight corner. The apparatus is moved through a pipe by any suitable means, including a tether or drawstring attached to the nose or tail, differential hydraulic pressure, or a pipe pig. The rotational speed of the ultrasonic transducer and the forward velocity of the apparatus are coordinated so that the beam sweeps out the entire interior surface of the pipe, enabling the operator to accurately assess the condition of the pipe wall and determine whether or not leak-prone corrosion damage is present.

Jenkins, Charles F. (Aiken, SC); Howard, Boyd D. (Augusta, GA)

1998-01-01

430

Fuel injection pumping apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A liquid fuel injection pumping apparatus is described comprising a rotary and axially movable fuel distributor member housed within a body, a reciprocable pumping plunger housed within a bore formed in the distributor member, cam means mounted in the body for effecting inward movement of the plunger as the distributor member rotates, passage means in the body and distributor member and stop means for limiting the extent of outward movement of the plunger. The extent of outward movement depends on the axial setting of the distributor member in the body, resilient means biasing the distributor member in one axial direction, a chamber defined in the body, means for controlling the fluid pressure in the chamber to control the axial setting of the distributor member.

Rouse, J.A.; Mowbray, D.F.

1987-10-13

431

Isotope separation apparatus  

DOEpatents

Isotope separation apparatus consisting of a plurality of cells disposed adjacent to each other in an evacuated container. A common magnetic field is established extending through all of the cells. A source of energetic electrons at one end of the container generates electrons which pass through the cells along the magnetic field lines. Each cell includes an array of collector plates arranged in parallel or in tandem within a common magnetic field. Sets of collector plates are disposed adjacent to each other in each cell. Means are provided for differentially energizing ions of a desired isotope by applying energy at the cyclotron resonant frequency of the desired isotope. As a result, the energized desired ions are preferentially collected by the collector plates.

Arnush, Donald (Rancho Palos Verdes, CA); MacKenzie, Kenneth R. (Pacific Palisades, CA); Wuerker, Ralph F. (Palos Verdes Estates, CA)

1980-01-01

432

Micronized grinding apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus for grinding coal to micron fineness having a grinding chamber with a grinding surface supported by a circumferential wall in the grinding chamber, a plurality of grinding rolls orbiting in the grinding chamber for grinding the coal, air supply bustle surrounding the grinding chamber, air flow restrictor means opening from the air supply bustle to the grinding chamber to create a back pressure in the air supply bustle for substantially evenly distributing the air supplied to the grinding chamber around the circumference of the grinding chamber, and wherein the restrictor means directs the air flow tangentially relative to the circumferential wall of the grinding chamber so that the coal particles are caught up in a cyclonic movement having a large initial horizontally directed force to maintain a body of coal particles in the orbit of the grinding rolls, which horizontal force gradually diminishes as the vertical force component of the air flow lifts the ground coal particles out of the grinding chamber.

Williams, R.M.

1985-06-11

433

Freeze drying apparatus  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

Coppa, Nicholas V. (Malvern, PA); Stewart, Paul (Youngstown, NY); Renzi, Ernesto (Youngstown, NY)

2001-01-01

434

Image forming apparatus  

DOEpatents

In an image forming apparatus having a detachable process cartridge in which an image carrier on which an electrostatic latent image is formed, and a developing unit which develops the electrostatic latent image so that a toner image can be formed, both integrally formed into one unit. There is provided a developer container including a discharge section which can be inserted into a supply opening of the developing unit, and a container in which a predetermined amount of developer is contained, wherein the developer container is provided to the toner supply opening of the developing unit and the developer is supplied into the developing unit housing when a toner stirring screw of the developing unit is rotated.

Satoh, Hisao (Hachioji, JP); Haneda, Satoshi (Hachioji, JP); Ikeda, Tadayoshi (Hachioji, JP); Morita, Shizuo (Hachioji, JP); Fukuchi, Masakazu (Hachioji, JP)

1996-01-01

435

Emergency Response Breathing Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerospace Design & Development, Inc.'s (ADD's) SCAMP was developed under an SBIR contract through Kennedy Space Center. SCAMP stands for Supercritical Air Mobility Pack. The technology came from the life support fuel cell support systems used for the Apollo and Space Shuttle programs. It uses supercritical cryogenic air and is able to function in microgravity environments. SCAMP's self-contained breathing apparatus(SCBA) systems are also ground-based and can provide twice as much air than traditional SCBA's due to its high-density capacity. The SCAMP system was designed for use in launch pad emergency rescues. ADD also developed a protective suit for use with SCAMP that is smaller and lighter system than the old ones. ADD's SCAMP allows for body cooling and breathing from the supercritical cryogenic air, requiring no extra systems. The improvement over the traditional SCBA allows for a reduction of injuries, such as heat stress, and makes it easier for rescuers to save lives.

2000-01-01

436

Packer locking apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus for locking a packer in a run-in position and preventing premature actuation of the packer in a wellbore. It comprises: a sleeve connectable to an outer portion of the packer; mandrel means disposed in the sleeve for connecting to an actuating mandrel of the packer; a locking member having a portion adjacent to the sleeve. The locking member being longitudinally and rotatably fixed with respect to the mandrel means; a lug extending from one of the sleeve and locking member; lug receiving means on the other of the sleeve and locking member for receiving the lug therein when in a locked position such that relative longitudinal movement between the mandrel means and the sleeve is prevented; and lock disengaging means for disengaging the lug from the lug receiving means at a predetermined position in the wellbore, thereby allowing relative longitudinal movement between the mandrel means and the sleeve.

Burns, T.D.; Caskey, K.D.; Winslow, D.W.

1991-02-05

437

Thermal synthesis apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for thermal conversion of one or more reactants to desired end products includes an insulated reactor chamber having a high temperature heater such as a plasma torch at its inlet end and, optionally, a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. In a thermal conversion method, reactants are injected upstream from the reactor chamber and thoroughly mixed with the plasma stream before entering the reactor chamber. The reactor chamber has a reaction zone that is maintained at a substantially uniform temperature. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle, which "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage, or is discharged through an outlet pipe without the convergent-divergent nozzle. The desired end products are then separated from the gaseous stream.

Fincke, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

2009-08-18

438

Apparatus for dispensing material  

DOEpatents

An apparatus capable of dispensing drops of material with volumes on the order of zeptoliters is described. In some embodiments of the inventive pipette the size of the droplets so dispensed is determined by the size of a hole, or channel, through a carbon shell encapsulating a reservoir that contains material to be dispensed. The channel may be formed by irradiation with an electron beam or other high-energy beam capable of focusing to a spot size less than about 5 nanometers. In some embodiments, the dispensed droplet remains attached to the pipette by a small thread of material, an atomic scale meniscus, forming a virtually free-standing droplet. In some embodiments the droplet may wet the pipette tip and take on attributes of supported drops. Methods for fabricating and using the pipette are also described.

Sutter, Peter Werner (Beach, NY) [Beach, NY; Sutter, Eli Anguelova (Beach, NY) [Beach, NY

2011-07-05

439

Cryogenic cooler apparatus  

DOEpatents

A Malone-type final stage for utilization in a Stirling cycle cryogenic cooler apparatus includes a displacer slidable within a vessel. .sup.4 He, .sup.3 He, or a mixture thereof is made to flow in a pulsating unidirectional manner through a regenerator in the displacer by utilization of check valves in separate fluid channels. Stacked copper screen members extend through the channels and through a second static thermodynamic medium within the displacer to provide efficient lateral heat exchange and enable cooling to temperatures in the range of 3-4 K. Another embodiment utilizes sintered copper particles in the regenerator. Also described is a final stage that has a non-thermally conducting displacer having passages with check valves for directing fluid past a regenerator formed in the surrounding vessel.

Wheatley, John C. (Del Mar, CA); Paulson, Douglas N. (Del Mar, CA); Allen, Paul C. (Sunnyvale, CA)

1983-01-01

440

Spine immobilization apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The apparatus makes use of a normally flat, flexible bladder filled with beads or micro-balloons that form a rigid mass when the pressure within the bladder is decreased below ambient through the use of a suction pump so that the bladder can be conformed to the torso of the victim and provide the desired restraint. The bladder is strapped to the victim prior to being rigidified by an arrangement of straps which avoid the stomach area. The bladder is adapted to be secured to a rigid support, i.e., a rescue chair, so as to enable removal of a victim after the bladder has been made rigid. A double sealing connector is used to connect the bladder to the suction pump and a control valve is employed to vary the pressure within the bladder so as to soften and harden the bladder as desired.

Lambson, K. H.; Vykukal, H. C. (inventors)

1981-01-01

441

Cryogenic cooler apparatus  

DOEpatents

A Malone-type final stage for utilization in a Stirling cycle cryogenic cooler apparatus includes a displacer slidable within a vessel. [sup 4]He, [sup 3]He, or a mixture thereof is made to flow in a pulsating unidirectional manner through a regenerator in the displacer by utilization of check valves in separate fluid channels. Stacked copper screen members extend through the channels and through a second static thermodynamic medium within the displacer to provide efficient lateral heat exchange and enable cooling to temperatures in the range of 3--4 K. Another embodiment utilizes sintered copper particles in the regenerator. Also described is a final stage that has a non-thermally conducting displacer having passages with check valves for directing fluid past a regenerator formed in the surrounding vessel. 10 figs.

Wheatley, J.C.; Paulson, D.N.; Allen, P.C.

1983-01-04

442

Solar powered refrigeration apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Solar powered refrigeration apparatus is disclosed in which an absorption refrigeration system is operated directly by solar energy. One end of a heat pipe is thermally connected to the boiler of the absorption refrigeration system, and a solar collector is thermally coupled to the other remote end of the heat pipe. The heat pipe is a sealed, evacuated metal tube partially filled with water. The solar collector is a double walled glass vacuum tube with a central axial opening for accommodating the remote end of the heat pipe. Heat energy collected by the solar collector boils the water in the heat pipe to subsequently condense in the area of the boiler thus transferring heat energy along the heat pipe to the boiler. The heat pipe is installed sloping downwardly away from the boiler to permit the return of condensate down the pipe to the solar collector area thus permitting continuous operation.

Theakston, F.H.

1982-12-07

443

Fluid pumping apparatus  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus suitable for coupling seismic or other downhole sensors to a borehole wall in high temperature and pressure environments. In one embodiment, one or more metal bellows mounted to a sensor module are inflated to clamp the sensor module within the borehole and couple an associated seismic sensor to a borehole wall. Once the sensing operation is complete, the bellows are deflated and the sensor module is unclamped by deflation of the metal bellows. In a further embodiment, a magnetic drive pump in a pump module is used to supply fluid pressure for inflating the metal bellows using borehole fluid or fluid from a reservoir. The pump includes a magnetic drive motor configured with a rotor assembly to be exposed to borehole fluid pressure including a rotatable armature for driving an impeller and an associated coil under control of electronics isolated from borehole pressure.

West, Phillip B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2006-01-17

444

Laser dividing apparatus  

DOEpatents

A laser beam dividing apparatus (10) having a first beam splitter (14) with an aperture (16) therein positioned in the path of a laser beam (12) such that a portion of the laser beam (12) passes through the aperture (16) onto a second beam splitter (20) and a portion of the laser beam (12) impinges upon the first beam splitter (14). Both the first beam splitter (14) and the second beam splitter (20) are, optionally, made from a dichroic material such that a green component (24) of the laser beam (12) is reflected therefrom and a yellow component (26) is refracted therethrough. The first beam splitter (14) and the second beam splitter (20) further each have a plurality of facets (22) such that the components (24, 26) are reflected and refracted in a number equaling the number of facets (22).

English, Jr., R. Edward (Tracy, CA); Johnson, Steve A. (Tracy, CA)

1995-01-01

445

Solar collector apparatus  

SciTech Connect

There is provided a solar collector apparatus comprising a rotatable platen supporting a solar collector, means for rotating the platen such that the solar collector follows the wandering of the sun, said solar collector comprising a plurality of elongated parallel sun radiation concentrators, each concentrator being associated with an elongated conduit which is arranged to be subjected to the radiation concentrated by the concentrator, and pump and control means for circulating a liquid through the conduits via a liquid magazine, the concentrators being located on the platen with their longitudinal axes aligned in the vertical plane of the solar direction, said means for rotating the platen being adapted to maintain such alignment of the concentrators.

Margen, P.H.; Roseen, R.A.; Zinko, H.

1980-10-14

446

Dilution air dispensing apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a dilution air dispensing apparatus for a double dome combustor. It comprises: a first dome combustor having an inlet opening and an exhaust opening, a first fuel nozzle operatively arranged in the inlet opening to dispense fuel to the first dome combustor, a second dome combustor having an inlet opening and an exhaust opening, a second fuel nozzle operatively arranged in the inlet opening to dispense fuel to the second dome combustor. The first and second dome combustor being joined towards their inlet ends to form a dilution air dispensing cavity therebetween. The dilution air dispensing cavity being formed by the inner adjacent walls of the first and second dome combustors. The dilution air dispensing cavity having a rearward portion which is located approximately one-third of the dome length from the inlets to the first and second dome combustors.

King, R.C.

1990-02-27

447

Wind turbine apparatus  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A wind turbine apparatus including a shaft, two wind turbines, and a two-piece alternator. The turbines and the alternator are mounted on the shaft. The alternator is located between the turbines. The alternator includes a circular permanent magnet component fixed to the first turbine, and a circular electrical winding component fixed to the second turbine so that, when an effective wind blows in a direction perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the shaft, the first turbine and the circular magnet component will rotate around the shaft in a first direction and the second turbine and the circular winding component will rotate around the shaft in a second direction opposite the first direction, thereby generating electrical energy.

2013-01-22

448

Exhaust emission control apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an exhaust control apparatus for muffling noise and treating odors and pollutants, including solid particulate and gases in the exhaust of an internal combustion engine. It comprises an exhaust inlet tube for receiving the exhaust generated by an internal combustion engine; a cyclone barrier concentrically surrounding the exhaust inlet tube, a ring cavity between the cyclone tube and exhaust inlet tube defining a cyclone chamber in which the exhaust is treated; means for directing the exhaust from the exhaust inlet tube into the cyclone chamber; electrode means having small openings through which the exhaust passes to enter the cyclone chamber, the electrode means generating electrostatic forces which charge the solid particulate in the exhaust, ionize air and generate ozone in the cyclone chamber near the electrode; means for injecting air into the cyclone chamber causing centrifugal flow of the air and the exhausted within the cyclone chamber and increasing a dwell time of the exhaust within the cyclone chamber.

Eng, J.W.

1991-09-24

449

Multiparameter vision testing apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compact vision testing apparatus is described for testing a large number of physiological characteristics of the eyes and visual system of a human subject. The head of the subject is inserted into a viewing port at one end of a light-tight housing containing various optical assemblies. Visual acuity and other refractive characteristics and ocular muscle balance characteristics of the eyes of the subject are tested by means of a retractable phoroptor assembly carried near the viewing port and a film cassette unit carried in the rearward portion of the housing (the latter selectively providing a variety of different visual targets which are viewed through the optical system of the phoroptor assembly). The visual dark adaptation characteristics and absolute brightness threshold of the subject are tested by means of a projector assembly which selectively projects one or both of a variable intensity fixation target and a variable intensity adaptation test field onto a viewing screen located near the top of the housing.

Hunt, S. R., Jr.; Homkes, R. J.; Poteate, W. B.; Sturgis, A. C. (inventors)

1975-01-01

450

Heat Treating Apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for heat treating a heat treatable material including a housing having an upper opening for receiving a heat treatable material at a first temperature, a lower opening, and a chamber therebetween for heating the heat treatable material to a second temperature higher than the first temperature as the heat treatable material moves through the chamber from the upper to the lower opening. A gas supply assembly is operatively engaged to the housing at the lower opening, and includes a source of gas, a gas delivery assembly for delivering the gas through a plurality of pathways into the housing in countercurrent flow to movement of the heat treatable material, whereby the heat treatable material passes through the lower opening at the second temperature, and a control assembly for controlling conditions within the chamber to enable the heat treatable material to reach the second temperature and pass through the lower opening at the second temperature as a heated material.

De Saro, Robert (Annandale, NJ); Bateman, Willis (Sutton Colfield, GB)

2002-09-10

451

Oil shale retort apparatus  

DOEpatents

A retorting apparatus including a vertical kiln and a plurality of tubes for delivering rock to the top of the kiln and removal of processed rock from the bottom of the kiln so that the rock descends through the kiln as a moving bed. Distributors are provided for delivering gas to the kiln to effect heating of the rock and to disturb the rock particles during their descent. The distributors are constructed and disposed to deliver gas uniformly to the kiln and to withstand and overcome adverse conditions resulting from heat and from the descending rock. The rock delivery tubes are geometrically sized, spaced and positioned so as to deliver the shale uniformly into the kiln and form symmetrically disposed generally vertical paths, or "rock chimneys", through the descending shale which offer least resistance to upward flow of gas. When retorting oil shale, a delineated collection chamber near the top of the kiln collects gas and entrained oil mist rising through the kiln.

Reeves, Adam A. (Grand Junction, CO); Mast, Earl L. (Norman, OK); Greaves, Melvin J. (Littleton, CO)

1990-01-01

452

Nuclear reactor control apparatus  

DOEpatents

Nuclear reactor safety rod release apparatus comprises a ring which carries detents normally positioned in an annular recess in outer side of the rod, the ring being held against the lower end of a drive shaft by magnetic force exerted by a solenoid carried by the drive shaft. When the solenoid is de-energized, the detent-carrying ring drops until the detents contact a cam surface associated with the lower end of the drive shaft, at which point the detents are cammed out of the recess in the safety rod to release the rod from the drive shaft. In preferred embodiments of the invention, an additional latch is provided to release a lower portion of a safety rod under conditions that may interfere with movement of the entire rod.

Sridhar, Bettadapur N. (Cupertino, CA)

1983-10-25

453

Shuttle Imaging Radar Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shuttle imaging radar (SIR-A) acquired images of a variety of the earth's geologic areas covering about 10 million square kilometers. Structural and geomorphic features such as faults, folds, outcrops, and dunes are clearly visible in both tropical and arid regions. The combination of SIR-A and Seasat images provides additional information about the surface physical properties: topography and roughness. Ocean

C. Elachi; J. B. Cimino; T. Dixon; D. L. Evans; J. P. Ford; R. S. Saunders; C. Breed; H. Masursky; J. F. McCauley; G. Schaber; L. Dellwig; A. England; H. MacDonald; P. Martin-Kaye; F. Sabins

1982-01-01

454

Strategies for FMCW radars  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a comparison of two strategies for FMCW radars. The potential presence of multiple targets implies using specific waveforms for beat frequencies association. Here, we compare performance of two such waveforms in terms of targets distance and velocity estimation. Our comparison, based on theoretical bounds derivation is validated by Monte Carlo simulations. In particular we show

Ali Bazzi; Thierry Chonavel; Camilla Karnfelt; Alain Péden; Frantz Bodereau

2009-01-01

455

Directional borehole radar calibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are developing an innovative low-noise directional borehole radar system. Harsh and changing operating environments are a challenge to the low-noise sensitive electronic design. Additionally a system with such high sensitivity is susceptible to temperature changes and to component parameter variations. Therefore a calibration module was developed to calibrate the overall measurement system with a test signal generator. This calibration

O. Borchert; K. Behaimanot; A. Glasmachers

2009-01-01

456

Impulse radar studfinder  

DOEpatents

An impulse radar studfinder propagates electromagnetic pulses and detects reflected pulses from a fixed range. Unmodulated pulses, about 200 ps wide, are emitted. A large number of reflected pulses are sampled and averaged. Background reflections are subtracted. Reflections from wall studs or other hidden objects are detected and displayed using light emitting diodes. 9 figs.

McEwan, T.E.

1995-10-10

457

Impulse radar studfinder  

DOEpatents

An impulse radar studfinder propagates electromagnetic pulses and detects reflected pulses from a fixed range. Unmodulated pulses, about 200 ps wide, are emitted. A large number of reflected pulses are sampled and averaged. Background reflections are subtracted. Reflections from wall studs or other hidden objects are detected and displayed using light emitting diodes.

McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

1995-01-01

458

Radar track extraction systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main constituents of a largely automatic radar track-while-scan system are described. It contains a plot extractor, clutter map, stationary plot filter, and automatic tracking software. The system is designed to operate in high false alarm conditions without formation of false tracks. The clutter map is used to select the optimum video for processes by the plot extractor, which is

A. L. C. Quigley; J. E. Holmes; R. J. Tunnicliffe

1977-01-01

459

Wind Farms and Radar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of its 2008 Winter Study, JASON was asked by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) to review the current status of the conflict between the ever-growing number of wind-turbine farms and air-security radars that are located within some tens of ...

D. Eardley F. Dyson M. Brenner M. J. Cornwall S. Cazares

2008-01-01

460

Rain radar instrument definition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a result of a pre-phase a study, founded by ESA, this paper presents the definition of a spaceborne Rain Radar, candidate instrument for earth explorer precipitation mission. Based upon the description of user requirements for such a dedicated mission, a mission analysis defines the most suitable space segment. At system level, a parametric analysis compares pros and cons of instrument concepts associated with rain rate retrieval algorithms in order to select the most performing one. Several trade-off analysis at subsystem level leads then to the definition of the proposed design. In particular, as pulse compression is implemented in order to increase the radar sensitivity, the selected method to achieve a pulse response with a side-lobe level below--60 dB is presented. Antenna is another critical rain radar subsystem and several designs are com pared: direct radiating array, single or dual reflector illuminated by single or dual feed arrays. At least, feasibility of centralized amplification using TWTA is compared with criticality of Tx/Rx modules for distributed amplification. Mass and power budgets of the designed instrument are summarized as well as standard deviations and bias of simulated rain rate retrieval profiles. The feasibility of a compliant rain radar instrument is therefore demonstrated.

Vincent, Nicolas; Chenebault, J.; Suinot, Noel; Mancini, Paolo L.

1996-12-01

461

Radar guidance of missiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of antiaircraft guided missile systems along two lines: guided missile seeker improvements and the development of supporting weapon control radars for land and ship based systems. The contribution of the inverse receiver to improved tracking (e.g., the Improved Hawk Program) is explained. Weapon control ground equipment for the Improved Hawk Battery, the Tartar MK 74 shipboard fire control

J. J. Long; A. Ivanov

1974-01-01

462

Retrodirective Radar Calibration Nanosatellite.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For more than eight years, the DMSP F-15 and RADCAL satellites have been operating past their operational lifetimes and are facing imminent failure, leaving the US military without a reliable means for C-Band radar calibration and performance monitoring. ...

L. K. Martin N. G. Fisher W. A. Shiroma

2013-01-01

463

Apparatus for transporting hazardous materials  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method are provided for selectively receiving, transporting, and releasing one or more radioactive or other hazardous samples for analysis on a differential thermal analysis (DTA) apparatus. The apparatus includes a portable sample transporting apparatus for storing and transporting the samples and includes a support assembly for supporting the transporting apparatus when a sample is transferred to the DTA apparatus. The transporting apparatus includes a storage member which includes a plurality of storage chambers arrayed circumferentially with respect to a central axis. An adjustable top door is located on the top side of the storage member, and the top door includes a channel capable of being selectively placed in registration with the respective storage chambers thereby permitting the samples to selectively enter the respective storage chambers. The top door, when closed, isolates the respective samples within the storage chambers. A plurality of spring-biased bottom doors are located on the bottom sides of the respective storage chambers. The bottom doors isolate the samples in the respective storage chambers when the bottom doors are in the closed position. The bottom doors permit the samples to leave the respective storage chambers from the bottom side when the respective bottom doors are in respective open positions. The bottom doors permit the samples to be loaded into the respective storage chambers after the analysis for storage and transport to a permanent storage location.

Osterman, Robert A. (Canonsburg, PA); Cox, Robert (West Mifflin, PA)

1992-01-01

464

Design and analysis of a low-loss linear analog phase modulator for deep space spacecraft X-band transponder applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This article summarizes the design concepts, analyses, and development of an X-band (8145 MHz) transponder low-loss linear phase modulator for deep space spacecraft applications. A single-section breadboard circulator-coupled reflection phase modulator has been analyzed, fabricated, and evaluated. A linear phase deviation of 92 deg with a linearity tolerance of +/- 8 percent was measured for this modulator from 8257 MHz to 8634 MHz over the temperature range -20 to 75 C. The measured insertion loss and the static delay variation with temperature were 2 +/- 0.3 dB and 0.16 psec/ C, respectively. Based on this design, cascaded sections have been modeled, and simulations were performed to provide an X-band deep space transponder (DST) phase modulator with +/- 2.5 radians (+/- 143 deg) of peak phase deviation to accommodate downlink signal modulation with composite telemetry data and ranging, with a deviation linearity tolerance of +/- 8 percent and insertion loss of less than 10 +/- 0.5 dB. A two-section phase modulator using constant gamma hyperabrupt varactors and an efficient modulator driver circuit was breadboarded. The measured results satisfy the DST phase-modulator requirements and show excellent agreement with the predicted results.

Mysoor, N. R.; Mueller, R. O.

1991-01-01

465

Microelectromechanical safing and arming apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A two-stage acceleration sensing apparatus is disclosed which has applications for use in a fuze assembly for a projected munition. The apparatus, which can be formed by bulk micromachining or LIGA, can sense acceleration components along two orthogonal directions to enable movement of a shuttle from an "as-fabricated" position to a final position and locking of the shuttle in the final position. With the shuttle moved to the final position, the apparatus can perform one or more functions including completing an explosive train or an electrical switch closure, or allowing a light beam to be transmitted through the device.

Koehler, David R. (Placitas, NM); Hoke, Darren A. (Albuquerque, NM); Weichman, Louis S. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, George E. (Rio Rancho, NM); Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Beggans, Michael H. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-05-30

466

Microelectromechanical safing and arming apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A two-stage acceleration sensing apparatus is disclosed which has applications for use in a fuze assembly for a projected munition. The apparatus, which can be formed by bulk micromachining or LIGA, can sense acceleration components along two orthogonal directions to enable movement of a shuttle from an "as-fabricated" position to a final position and locking of the shuttle in the final position. With the shuttle moved to the final position, the apparatus can perform one or more functions including completing an explosive train or an electrical switch closure, or allowing a light beam to be transmitted through the device.

Koehler, David R. (Sherwood, OR); Hoke, Darren A. (Albuquerque, NM); Weichman, Louis S. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, George E. (Rio Rancho, NM); Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Beggans, Michael H. (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-06-10

467

Site survey method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

The disclosure of the invention is directed to a site survey ground vehicle based apparatus and method for automatically detecting source materials, such as radioactivity, marking the location of the source materials, such as with paint, and mapping the location of the source materials on a site. The apparatus of the invention is also useful for collecting and analyzing samples. The apparatus includes a ground vehicle, detectors mounted at the front of the ground vehicle, and individual detector supports which follow somewhat irregular terrain to allow consistent and accurate detection, and autolocation equipment. 19 figures.

Oldham, J.G.; Spencer, C.R.; Begley, C.L.; Meyer, H.R.

1991-06-18

468

Site survey method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

The disclosure of the invention is directed to a site survey ground vehicle based apparatus and method for automatically detecting source materials, such as radioactivity, marking the location of the source materials, such as with paint, and mapping the location of the source materials on a site. The apparatus of the invention is also useful for collecting and analyzing samples. The apparatus includes a ground vehicle, detectors mounted at the front of the ground vehicle, and individual detector supports which follow somewhat irregular terrain to allow consistent and accurate detection, and autolocation equipment.

Oldham, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); Spencer, Charles R. (Boise, ID); Begley, Carl L. (Albuquerque, NM); Meyer, H. Robert (Albuquerque, NM)

1991-06-18

469

Apparatus for measuring particle properties  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for determining particle properties from detected light scattered by the particles. The apparatus uses a light beam with novel intensity characteristics to discriminate between particles that pass through the beam and those that pass through an edge of the beam. The apparatus can also discriminate between light scattered by one particle and light scattered by multiple particles. The particle's size can be determined from the intensity of the light scattered. The particle's velocity can be determined from the elapsed time between various intensities of the light scattered.

Rader, Daniel J. (Albuquerque, NM); Castaneda, Jaime N. (Albuquerque, NM); Grasser, Thomas W. (Albuquerque, NM); Brockmann, John E. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01

470

Snow Cover Characterization Using Multiband Fmcw Radars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of radars to characterize the physical properties of a snow cover offers an attractive alternative to manual snow pit measurements. Radar techniques are non-invasive and have the potential to cover large areas of a snow-covered terrain. A promising radar technique for snow cover studies is the frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radar. The use of a multiband radar

Gary Koh; Norbert E. Yankielun; Ana I. Baptista

1996-01-01

471

MIMO Radar with Widely Separated Antennas  

Microsoft Academic Search

MIMO (multiple-input multiple-output) radar refers to an architecture that employs multiple, spatially distributed transmitters and receivers. While, in a general sense, MIMO radar can be viewed as a type of multistatic radar, the separate nomenclature suggests unique features that set MIMO radar apart from the multistatic radar literature and that have a close relation to MIMO communications. This article reviews

Alexander Haimovich; Rick Blum; Leonard Cimini

2008-01-01

472

An MSK Radar Waveform  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The minimum-shift-keying (MSK) radar waveform is formed by periodically extending a waveform that separately modulates the in-phase and quadrature- phase components of the carrier with offset pulse-shaped pseudo noise (PN) sequences. To generate this waveform, a pair of periodic PN sequences is each passed through a pulse-shaping filter with a half sinusoid impulse response. These shaped PN waveforms are then offset by half a chip time and are separately modulated on the in-phase and quadrature phase components of an RF carrier. This new radar waveform allows an increase in radar resolution without the need for additional spectrum. In addition, it provides self-interference suppression and configurable peak sidelobes. Compared strictly on the basis of the expressions for delay resolution, main-lobe bandwidth, effective Doppler bandwidth, and peak ambiguity sidelobe, it appears that bi-phase coded (BPC) outperforms the new MSK waveform. However, a radar waveform must meet certain constraints imposed by the transmission and reception of the modulation, as well as criteria dictated by the observation. In particular, the phase discontinuity of the BPC waveform presents a significant impediment to the achievement of finer resolutions in radar measurements a limitation that is overcome by using the continuous phase MSK waveform. The phase continuity, and the lower fractional out-of-band power of MSK, increases the allowable bandwidth compared with BPC, resulting in a factor of two increase in the range resolution of the radar. The MSK waveform also has been demonstrated to have an ambiguity sidelobe structure very similar to BPC, where the sidelobe levels can be decreased by increasing the length of the m-sequence used in its generation. This ability to set the peak sidelobe level is advantageous as it allows the system to be configured to a variety of targets, including those with a larger dynamic range. Other conventionally used waveforms that possess an even greater spectral efficiency than the MSK waveform, such as linear frequency modulation (LFM) and Costas frequency hopping, have a fixed peak sidelobe level that is therefore not configurable, and can be exceeded by high contrast targets. Furthermore, in the case of a multistatic experiment observing a target in motion, self-interference from the transmitter to the receiver is mitigated by the MSK waveform. Waveforms that have delay Doppler coupling, such as LFM, provide no such protection.

Quirk, Kevin J.; Srinivasan, Meera

2012-01-01

473

Survey of radar target identification for noise polluted radar measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Itpsilas important to develop reliable approach of radar target identification for low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) situation, especially when the radar is used in battle field. A feature selection method is proposed in this paper. The one nearest-neighbor (1-NN) classifier is used as classifier. The effectiveness of radar target identification based on the methods is investigated in computer simulation for both

Zhou De-Quan

2008-01-01

474

Integrated-magnetic apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Disclosure is made of an integrated-magnetic apparatus, comprising: winding structure for insulatingly carrying at least two generally flat, laterally offset and spaced apart electrical windings of a power converter around an aperture; a core having a flat exterior face, an interior cavity and an un-gapped core-column that is located within the cavity and that passes through the aperture of the winding structure; flat-sided surface carried by the core and forming an interior chamber that is located adjacent to the flat face of the core and forming a core-column that has a gap and that is located within the chamber; and structure, located around the gapped core-column, for carrying a third electrical winding of the power converter. The first two electrical windings are substantially located within the cavity and are adapted to be transformingly coupled together through the core. The third electrical winding is adapted to be inductively coupled through the gapped core-column to the other electrical windings, and is phased to have the magnetic flux passing through the gapped core-column substantially in the same direction as the magnetic flux passing through the un-gapped core-column and to have substantially the same AC components of flux in the gapped core-column and in the un-gapped core-column.

Bloom, Gordon E. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

475

Flow cytometry apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an apparatus for orienting cells in a sheath fluid in a otometer/sorter. It comprises: flow chamber; means for flowing the sheath fluid through the flow chamber along a direction of flow; means for obstructing the flow of the sheath fluid in the flow chamber with a first dimension, which extends substantially across the flow chamber and is substantially perpendicular to the direction of flow and with a thickness perpendicular to the first dimension of the obstructing means wherein the sheath fluid flows around the thickness so that the sheath fluid converges in only one dimension at the downstream edge of the means for obstructing; and means for introducing the cells through the means for obstructing the flow to the region where the sheath fluid converges in only one dimension in the sheath fluid to orient the cells, with an aperture wherein as the cells pass from the means for introducing the cells to the region where the sheath fluid converges the cells pass through the aperture with a cross-sectional length substantially less than or equal to the thickness of the means for obstructing the flow.

Pinkel, D.

1991-01-29

476

Thermal energy storage apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A thermal energy storage apparatus and method employs a container formed of soda lime glass and having a smooth, defectfree inner wall. The container is filled substantially with a material that can be supercooled to a temperature greater than 5* F., such as ethylene carbonate, benzophenone, phenyl sulfoxide, di-2-pyridyl ketone, phenyl ether, diphenylmethane, ethylene trithiocarbonate, diphenyl carbonate, diphenylamine, 2benzoylpyridine, 3-benzoylpyridine, 4-benzoylpyridine, 4methylbenzophenone, 4-bromobenzophenone, phenyl salicylate, diphenylcyclopropenone, benzyl sulfoxide, 4-methoxy-4prmethylbenzophenone, n-benzoylpiperidine, 3,3pr,4,4pr,5 pentamethoxybenzophenone, 4,4'-bis-(Dimethylamino)-benzophenone, diphenylboron bromide, benzalphthalide, benzophenone oxime, azobenzene. A nucleating means such as a seed crystal, a cold finger or pointed member is movable into the supercoolable material. A heating element heats the supercoolable material above the melting temperature to store heat. The material is then allowed to cool to a supercooled temperature below the melting temperature, but above the natural, spontaneous nucleating temperature. The liquid in each container is selectively initiated into nucleation to release the heat of fusion. The heat may be transferred directly or through a heat exchange unit within the material.

Thoma, P.E.

1980-04-22

477

Apparatus for coating powders  

DOEpatents

A process and apparatus for coating small particles and fibers. The process involves agitation by vibrating or tumbling the particles or fibers to promote coating uniformly, removing adsorbed gases and static charges from the particles or fibers by an initial plasma cleaning, and coating the particles or fibers with one or more coatings, a first coating being an adhesion coating, and with subsequent coatings being deposited in-situ to prevent contamination at layer interfaces. The first coating is of an adhesion forming element (i.e. W, Zr, Re, Cr, Ti) of a 100-10,000 .ANG. thickness and the second coating or final coating of a multiple (0.1-10 microns) being Cu or Ag, for example for brazing processes, or other desired materials that defines the new surface related properties of the particles. An essential feature of the coating process is the capability to deposit in-situ without interruption to prevent the formation of a contaminated interface that could adversely affect the coating adhesion. The process may include screening of the material to be coated and either continuous or intermittent vibration to prevent agglomeration of the material to be coated.

Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Kerns, John A. (Livermore, CA); Alford, Craig S. (Tracy, CA); McKernan, Mark A. (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01

478

Apparatus for forming targets  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and method for cryoinduced uniform deposition of cryogenic materials, such as deuterium-tritium (DT) mixtures, on the inner surface of hollow spherical members, such as inertially imploded targets. By vaporizing and quickly refreezing cryogenic materials contained within a hollow spherical member, a uniform layer of the materials is formed on the inner surface of the spherical member. Heating of the cryogenic material, located within a non-isothermal compact freezing cell, is accomplished by an electrical heat pulse, whereafter the material is quickly frozen forming a uniform layer on the inner surface of the spherical member. The method is not restricted to producing a frozen layer on only the inner surface of the innermost hollow member, but where multiple concentric hollow spheres are involved, such as in multiple shell targets for lasers, electron beams, etc., layers of cryogenic material may also be formed on the inner surface of intermediate or outer spherical members, thus providing the capability of forming targets having multiple concentric layers or shells of frozen DT.

Woerner, Robert L. (Livermore, CA)

1980-01-01

479

Fluid energy conversion apparatus  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A fluid energy conversion apparatus including a fluid path assembly having an outside guide assembly, a cylindrical wall inside surface and at least one inside guide assembly is provided. There is also a cylindrical partition wall which extends between the outside guide assembly and the inside guide assembly with its central axis set on the central axis of the cylindrical wall inside surface, the cylindrical wall inside surface of the outside guide assembly and the cylindrical partition wall defining an annular outside path therebetween and the outside peripheral surface of the inside guide assembly and the cylindrical partition wall defining an annular inside path therebetween. There is a plurality of support struts connecting the outside guide assembly, the inside guide assembly and the cylindrical partition wall. Also included is a first rotary member that include an annular hub located adjacent a first end portion of the inside guide assembly and a second rotary member having a second annular hub located adjacent a second end portion of said inside guide assembly. Also included are stator blades, a fluid pressurizing-accelerating device and exhaust nozzles formed in both sides of each of the first turbine rotor blades in a position adjacent to a trailing edge of each of the first turbine rotor blades.

1996-12-31

480

Concealed wire tracing apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface is disclosed. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receivers position with respect to the wiring. The receivers audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receivers coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring's concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest. 4 figs.

Kronberg, J.W.

1994-05-31

481

Microelectromechanical flow control apparatus  

DOEpatents

A microelectromechanical (MEM) flow control apparatus is disclosed which includes a fluid channel formed on a substrate from a first layer of a nonconducting material (e.g. silicon nitride). A first electrode is provided on the first layer of the nonconducting material outside the flow channel; and a second electrode is located on a second layer of the nonconducting material above the first layer. A voltage applied between the first and second electrodes deforms the fluid channel to increase its cross-sectional size and thereby increase a flow of a fluid through the channel. In certain embodiments of the present invention, the fluid flow can be decreased or stopped by applying a voltage between the first electrode and the substrate. A peristaltic pumping of the fluid through the channel is also possible when the voltage is applied in turn between a plurality of first electrodes and the substrate. A MEM flow control assembly can also be formed by providing one or more MEM flow control devices on a common substrate together with a submicron filter. The MEM flow control assembly can optionally include a plurality of pressure sensors for monitoring fluid pressure and determining flow rates through the assembly.

Okandan, Murat (NE Albuquerque, NM)

2009-06-02

482

Fluid driven reciprocating apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is described comprising a pair of fluid driven pump assemblies in a back-to-back configuration to yield a bi-directional pump. Each of the pump assemblies includes a piston or diaphragm which divides a chamber therein to define a power section and a pumping section. An intake-exhaust valve is connected to each of the power sections of the pump chambers, and function to direct fluid, such as compressed air, into the power section and exhaust fluid therefrom. At least one of the pistons or diaphragms is connected by a rod assembly which is constructed to define a signal valve, whereby the intake-exhaust valve of one pump assembly is controlled by the position or location of the piston or diaphragm in the other pump assembly through the operation of the rod assembly signal valve. Each of the pumping sections of the pump assemblies are provided with intake and exhaust valves to enable filling of the pumping section with fluid and discharging fluid therefrom when a desired pressure has been reached. 13 figs.

Whitehead, J.C.

1997-04-01

483

Belt conveyor apparatus  

DOEpatents

A belt conveyor apparatus according to this invention defines a conveyance path including a first pulley and at least a second pulley. An endless belt member is adapted for continuous travel about the pulleys and comprises a lower portion which engages the pulleys and an integral upper portion adapted to receive objects therein at a first location on said conveyance path and transport the objects to a second location for discharge. The upper belt portion includes an opposed pair of longitudinally disposed crest-like members, biased towards each other in a substantially abutting relationship. The crest-like members define therebetween a continuous, normally biased closed, channel along the upper belt portion. Means are disposed at the first and second locations and operatively associated with the belt member for urging the normally biased together crest-like members apart in order to provide access to the continuous channel whereby objects can be received into, or discharged from the channel. Motors are in communication with the conveyance path for effecting the travel of the endless belt member about the conveyance path. The conveyance path can be configured to include travel through two or more elevations and one or more directional changes in order to convey objects above, below and/or around existing structures.

Oakley, David J. (Richland, WA); Bogart, Rex L. (Kennewick, WA)

1987-01-01

484

Fluid driven recipricating apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus comprising a pair of fluid driven pump assemblies in a back-to-back configuration to yield a bi-directional pump. Each of the pump assemblies includes a piston or diaphragm which divides a chamber therein to define a power section and a pumping section. An intake-exhaust valve is connected to each of the power sections of the pump chambers, and function to direct fluid, such as compressed air, into the power section and exhaust fluid therefrom. At least one of the pistons or diaphragms is connected by a rod assembly which is constructed to define a signal valve, whereby the intake-exhaust valve of one pump assembly is controlled by the position or location of the piston or diaphragm in the other pump assembly through the operation of the rod assembly signal valve. Each of the pumping sections of the pump assemblies are provided with intake and exhaust valves to enable filling of the pumping section with fluid and discharging fluid therefrom when a desired pressure has been reached.

Whitehead, John C. (Davis, CA)

1997-01-01

485

MTBF of radar system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of the quality of components on the reliability of a radar system, measured as MTBF, is examined. It is shown that to achieve an MTBF of 1000 hr for radar used in ground mobile applications, only certain selective combinations of various professional grade components are permissible. A portion of the additional cost of these components is compensated in the form of a reduction in the number of likely repairs during the warranty period. The use of components, such as switches, semiconductor devices, and ICs, of commercial grade deteriorate the system MTBF to a considerable extent and therefore should be avoided. A proper choice of the type of soldering is also important in optimizing the system MTBF.

Dutta Gupta, R. R.; Ahmad, A.

1983-10-01

486

Advanced ground penetrating radar  

SciTech Connect

An advanced Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) system has the potential for efficiently and reliably providing high resolution images for inspecting concrete civil structures for defects and damage assessment. To achieve the required performance, improvements in radar hardware, and development and adaptation of advanced 2- and 3-dimensional synthetic aperture imaging techniques are needed. Recent and continuing advancement in computer and computer-related technology areas have made it possible to consider more complex and capable systems for a variety of imaging applications not previously conceived. The authors developed conceptual designs, analyzed system requirements, and performed experiments, modeling, and image reconstructions to study the feasibility of improving GPR technology for non-destructive evaluation of bridge decks and other high-value concrete structures. An overview and summary of practical system concepts and requirements, are presented.

Warhus, J.P.; Mast, J.E.; Johansson, E.M.; Nelson, S.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Electronics Engineering Dept.

1994-07-26

487

RADAR Reveals Titan Topography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cassini Titan RADAR Mapper is a K(sub u)-band (13.78 GHz, lambda = 2.17 cm) linear polarized RADAR instrument capable of operating in synthetic aperture (SAR), scatterometer, altimeter and radiometer modes. During the first targeted flyby of Titan on 26 October, 2004 (referred to as Ta) observations were made in all modes. Evidence for topographic relief based on the Ta altimetry and SAR data are presented here. Additional SAR and altimetry observations are planned for the T3 encounter on 15 February, 2005, but have not been carried out at this writing. Results from the T3 encounter relevant to topography will be included in our presentation. Data obtained in the Ta encounter include a SAR image swath

Kirk, R. L.; Callahan, P.; Seu, R.; Lorenz, R. D.; Paganelli, F.; Lopes, R.; Elachi, C.

2005-01-01

488

Continuous steel production and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A process for continuous refining of steel via multiple distinct reaction vessels for melting, oxidation, reduction, and refining for delivery of steel continuously to, for example, a tundish of a continuous caster system, and associated apparatus.

Peaslee, Kent D. (Rolla, MO) [Rolla, MO; Peter, Jorg J. (McMinnville, OR) [McMinnville, OR; Robertson, David G. C. (Rolla, MO) [Rolla, MO; Thomas, Brian G. (Champaign, IL) [Champaign, IL; Zhang, Lifeng (Trondheim, NO) [Trondheim, NO

2009-11-17

489

Liquid-Air Breathing Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compact unit supplies air longer than compressed-air unit. Emergency breathing apparatus stores air as cryogenic liquid instead of usual compressed gas. Intended for firefighting or rescue operations becoming necessary during planned potentially hazardous procedures.

Mills, Robert D.

1990-01-01

490

Pulse Generator Utilizing Superconducting Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High power, phase coherent pulses are generated by superconducting apparatus which includes a superconducting cavity resonator that is pumped by a low power microwave source while being isolated from a load. Switching of the cavity to an emitting mode is ...

D. B. Birx

1978-01-01

491

Filling Apparatuses, Chemical Land Mine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The engineering test procedure describes test methods and techniques for evaluating technical performance and characteristics of chemical land mine filling apparatuses. The evaluation is related to criteria established by applicable qualitative materiel r...

1970-01-01

492

Apparatus: The Beginning of Inquiry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Illustrated and described is a convection box for classroom use to stimulate concept development in elementary school children. Other equipment and apparatus that may be used in open-ended science activites are listed. (CS)

Horak, Willis

1980-01-01

493

Bi-stem gripping apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This invention relates to devices which grip cylindrical structures and more particularly to a device which has three arcuate gripping members having frictional surfaces for gripping and compressing a bi-stem. The bi-stem gripping apparatus is constructed having a pair of side gripping members, and an intermediate gripping member disposed between them. Sheets of a gum stock silicone rubber with frictional gripping surfaces are bonded to the inner region of the gripping members and provide frictional engagement between the bi-stem and the apparatus. A latch secures the gripping apparatus to a bi-stem, and removable handles are attached, allowing an astronaut to pull the bi-stem from its cassette. A tethering ring on the outside of the gripping apparatus provides a convenient point to which a lanyard may be attached.

Sanders, Fred G. (inventor)

1988-01-01

494

Apparatus for photon excited catalysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus is described for increasing the yield of photonically excited gas phase reactions by extracting excess energy from unstable, excited species by contacting the species with the surface of a finely divided solid.

Saffren, M. M. (inventor)

1977-01-01

495

Molecular separation method and apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method and apparatus are disclosed for separating a gaseous mixture of chemically identical but physically different molecules based on their polarities. The gaseous mixture of molecules is introduced in discrete quantities into the proximal end of a po...

E. Villa-Aleman

1995-01-01

496

Remote sensing with MST radars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Woodman and Guillen (1974), have conducted measurements of winds, atmospheric gravity waves, and turbulence in the stratosphere and mesosphere by making use of a high-power radar located in Peru. The radar has an operational frequency of 50 MHz. This investigation led to the planning and establishment of a number of VHF radars which are specifically suited for measurements in the mesosphere, stratosphere, and troposphere. These Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere (MST) radars can provide altitude profiles of wind velocities, tidal and gravity waves, shear instabilities, and convective instabilities. In connection with the feasibility of a simultaneous measurement of several processes, the MST radars are suited for the study of nonlinear interaction effects. Attention is given to radar echoes related to frozen turbulence and the study of micro-scale and meso-scale processes of motion.

Klostermeyer, J.

497

A review of array radars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Achievements in the area of array radars are illustrated by such activities as the operational deployment of the large high-power, high-range-resolution Cobra Dane; the operational deployment of two all-solid-state high-power, large UHF Pave Paws radars; and the development of the SAM multifunction Patriot radar. This paper reviews the following topics: array radars steered in azimuth and elevation by phase shifting (phase-phase steered arrays); arrays steered + or - 60 deg, limited scan arrays, hemispherical coverage, and omnidirectional coverage arrays; array radars steering electronically in only one dimension, either by frequency or by phase steering; and array radar antennas which use no electronic scanning but instead use array antennas for achieving low antenna sidelobes.

Brookner, E.

1981-10-01

498

Radar technology in ITT  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the introduction in the late 1980s and 1990s of such technologies as VLSI, GaAs monolithic circuits, integrated electrooptics, coherent fiber optics, high-power solid-state millimeter-wave sources, and specialized materials, the performance, packaging, and cost of radar systems will undergo radical changes. It is noted by way of example that low-cost GaAs monolithic transmitter\\/receivers (employing integrated optics technology) coherently fed by

R. Palmer

1982-01-01