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1

An Innovative Transponder-Based Interferometric Radar for Vibration Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground-based radar interferometry has recently emerged as an innovative technology of remote sensing, able to accurately measure the static or dynamic displacement of several points of a structure. This technique in the last couple of years has been applied to different types of structures, such as bridges, towers and chimneys. This paper presents a prototype system developed by IDS, originally aimed at measuring the structural vibrations of helicopter rotor blades, based on an interferometric technique and constituted by combination of a radar sensor and a series of transponders installed on the target structure. The main advantages of this solution with respect to conventional interferometric radars, are related to the increased spatial resolution of the system, provided by the possibility to discriminate different transponders installed within the same resolution cell of the radar sensor, and to the reduction of the ambient noise (e.g. multi-path) on the radar measurement. The first feature allows the use of the microwave technology even on target areas with limited dimensions, such as industrial facilities, while the second aspect may extend the use of radar interferometric systems to complex scenarios, where multi-reflections are expected due to the presence of natural targets with high reflectivity to the radar signal. In the paper, the system and its major characteristics are first described; subsequently, application to the measurement of ambient vibration response of a lab set-up is summarized. Then the data acquired on a rotating mock-up are reported and analyzed to identify natural frequencies and mode shapes of the investigated structure.

Coppi, F.; Cerutti, A.; Farina, P.; De Pasquale, G.; Novembrini, G.

2010-05-01

2

Radar transponder operation with compensation for distortion due to amplitude modulation  

DOEpatents

In radar transponder operation, a variably delayed gating signal is used to gate a received radar pulse and thereby produce a corresponding gated radar pulse for transmission back to the source of the received radar pulse. This compensates for signal distortion due to amplitude modulation on the retransmitted pulse.

Ormesher, Richard C. (Albuquerque, NM); Tise, Bertice L. (Albuquerque, NM); Axline, Jr., Robert M. (Albuquerque, NM)

2011-01-04

3

Real-time 3-d localization using radar and passive surface acoustic wave transponders  

E-print Network

This thesis covers ongoing work into the design, fabrication, implementation, and characterization of novel passive transponders that allow range measurements at short range and at high update rates. Multiple RADAR measurement ...

LaPenta, Jason Michael

2007-01-01

4

Methods and apparatus for switching a transponder to an active state, and asset management systems employing same  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A transponder that may be used as an RFID tag includes a passive circuit to eliminate the need for an "always on" active RF receiving element to anticipate a wake-up signal for the balance of the transponder electronics. This solution allows the entire active transponder to have all circuit elements in a sleep (standby) state, thus drastically extending battery life or other charge storage device life. Also, a wake-up solution that reduces total energy consumption of an active transponder system by allowing all non-addressed transponders to remain in a sleep (standby) state, thereby reducing total system or collection energy. Also, the transponder and wake-up solution are employed in an asset tracking system.

Mickle, Marlin H. (Inventor); Jones, Alex K. (Inventor); Cain, James T. (Inventor); Hawrylak, Peter J. (Inventor); Marx, Frank (Inventor); Hoare, Raymond R. (Inventor)

2011-01-01

5

Methods and apparatus for switching a transponder to an active state, and asset management systems employing same  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A transponder that may be used as an RFID tag includes a passive circuit to eliminate the need for an "always on" active RF receiving element to anticipate a wake-up signal for the balance of the transponder electronics. This solution allows the entire active transponder to have all circuit elements in a sleep (standby) state, thus drastically extending battery life or other charge storage device life. Also, a wake-up solution that reduces total energy consumption of an active transponder system by allowing all non-addressed transponders to remain in a sleep (standby) state, thereby reducing total system or collection energy. Also, the transponder and wake-up solution are employed in an asset tracking system.

Mickle, Marlin H. (Inventor); Jones, Alex K. (Inventor); Cain, James T. (Inventor); Hawrylak, Peter J. (Inventor); Marx, Frank (Inventor); Hoare, Raymond R. (Inventor)

2012-01-01

6

Method and Apparatus for Reading Two Dimensional Identification Symbols Using Radar Techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method and apparatus are provided for sensing two-dimensional identification marks provided on a substrate or embedded within a substrate below a surface of the substrate. Micropower impulse radar is used to transmit a high risetime, short duration pulse to a focussed radar target area of the substrate having the two dimensional identification marks. The method further includes the steps of listening for radar echoes returned from the identification marks during a short listening period window occurring a predetermined time after transmission of the radar pulse. If radar echoes are detected, an image processing step is carried out. If no radar echoes are detected, the method further includes sequentially transmitting further high risetime, short duration pulses, and listening for radar echoes from each of said further pulses after different elapsed times for each of the further pulses until radar echoes are detected. When radar echoes are detected, data based on the detected echoes is processed to produce an image of the identification marks.

Schramm, Harry F., Jr. (Inventor); Roxby, Donald L. (Inventor)

2003-01-01

7

A transponder system dedicating for the on-orbit calibration of China's new-generation satellite altimeter and scatterometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a transponder system dedicating for the on-orbit calibration of the two primary active microwave sensors: radar altimeter and radar scatterometer are designed. The three major parameters: the height measured by the altimeter, and the backscattering coefficient measured by the altimeter and the scatterometer can be fulfilled in the same system. The transponders proposed in this paper is

Guo Wei; Gong Xiao-Yan; Xu Xi-Yu; He-Guang Liu; Xu Chuan-Dong; Du Yue-Heng

2011-01-01

8

Interplanetary Microlaser Transponders  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of an asynchronous (i.e. independently firing) interplanetary laser transponder, capable of ranging between Earth and Mars and using the automated SLR2000 Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) system as an Earth base station, has been suggested. Since that time, we have received a small amount of discretionary funding to further explore the transponder concept and to develop and test an engineering breadboard. Candidate operational scenarios for acquiring and tracking the opposite laser terminal over interplanetary distances have been developed, and breadboard engineering parameters were chosen to reflect the requirements of an Earth-Mars link Laboratory tests have been devised to simulate the Earth- Mars link between two independent SLR2000 transceivers and to demonstrate the transfer of range and time in single photon mode. The present paper reviews the concept of the asynchronous microlaser transponder, the transponder breadboard design, an operational scenario recently developed for an asteroid rendezvous, and the laboratory test setup. The optical head of the transponder breadboard fits within a cylinder roughly 15 cm in diameter and 32 cm in length and is mounted in a commercial two axis gimbal driven by two computer-controlled stepper motors which allows the receiver optical axis to be centered on a simulated Earth image. The optical head is built around a small optical bench which supports a 14.7 cm diameter refractive telescope, a prototype 2 kHz SLR2000 microlaser transmitter, a quadrant microchannel plate photomultiplier (MCP/PMT), a CCD array camera, spatial and spectral filters, assorted lenses and mirrors, and protective covers and sun shields. The microlaser is end-pumped by a fiber-coupled diode laser array. An annular mirror is employed as a passive transmit/receive (T/R) switch in an aperture-sharing arrangement wherein the transmitted beam passes through the central hole and illuminates only the central 2.5 cm of the common telescope (adequate to achieve a 10 arcsecond full laser beam divergence) while the receiver uses the remainder of the 14.7 cm aperture. Additional electronic instrumentation includes the diode pump array and associated heat sink and current drivers, rubidium frequency standard, timing distribution module, range gate generator, a recently developed all-digital correlation range receiver, and system computer. Acquisition of the opposite transponder terminal requires a search within a three-dimensional volume determined by the initial pointing uncertainty and a maximum 500 microsecond uncertainty in the laser time of fire at the opposite terminal for totally uncorrelated Earth and spacecraft clocks. The angular search is aided by a sensitive CCD array capable of imaging the Earth, Moon, and surrounding stars within the nominal + 0.5 degree cone of uncertainty associated with the initial pointing of a spacecraft body or microwave communications dish.

Degnan, John J.

1999-01-01

9

Validation of an active transponder for KOMPSAT-5 SAR image calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the development and validation of a transportable active transponder designed for the image calibration of Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-5 (KOMPSAT-5) with a synthetic aperture radar (SAR). Ground targets are essential in SAR image calibration. The environment for the deployment of ground targets for SAR image calibration should provide uniformity and minimum interference. The Amazon or deserts are regarded as desirable environments. However, such environments for SAR image calibration are difficult to find in Korea. Thus, it will be advantageous to have an active transponder whose performance will not be severely limited by the absence of such uniform environment. We have therefore developed an active transponder which has an adjustable internal delay and into which the orbit data of an arbitrary satellite can be loaded. The stored obit data with the aid of an internal global positioning system (GPS) receiver and gyroscope enables the active transponder to point to a selected satellite. In addition, a virtual deployment of the active transponder is possible due to its adjustable internal delay. Thus, the developed active transponder can be deployed at any place without environmental constraint. The performance of the developed active transponder is validated using the satellite TerraSAR-X, which is already in operation. The test results show that the active transponder is successfully compliant with the requirements for KOMPSAT-5 image calibration.

Park, Durk Jong; Yeom, Kyung Whan; Ahn, Sang Il; Lim, Hyo Suk

2014-10-01

10

Study to investigate and evaluate means of optimizing the radar function. [systems engineering of pulse radar for the space shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The investigations for a rendezvous radar system design and an integrated radar/communication system design are presented. Based on these investigations, system block diagrams are given and system parameters are optimized for the noncoherent pulse and coherent pulse Doppler radar modulation types. Both cooperative (transponder) and passive radar operation are examined including the optimization of the corresponding transponder design for the cooperative mode of operation.

1975-01-01

11

Microfabricated radioisotope-powered active RFID transponder  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate a microfabricated 63Ni radioisotope-powered RFID transponder realized with a SAW (surface acoustic wave) device as the transmission frequency selector. The transponder is powered by a 1.5 milli-Ci 63Ni source which has a half-life of 100 years. We have achieved a 5mW, 10-¿s long, 100MHz carrier envelope, RF pulses which occur every 3 minutes, across a 50¿ load. The

S. Tin; A. Lal

2009-01-01

12

Method and apparatus for Delta Kappa synthetic aperture radar measurement of ocean current  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A synthetic aperture radar (SAR) employed for delta k measurement of ocean current from a spacecraft without the need for a narrow beam and long observation times. The SAR signal is compressed to provide image data for different sections of the chirp band width, equivalent to frequencies and a common area for the separate image fields is selected. The image for the selected area at each frequency is deconvolved to obtain the image signals for the different frequencies and the same area. A product of pairs of signals is formed, Fourier transformed and squared. The spectrum thus obtained from different areas for the same pair of frequencies are added to provide an improved signal to noise ratio. The shift of the peak from the center of the spectrum is measured and compared to the expected shift due to the phase velocity of the Bragg scattering wave. Any difference is a measure of current velocity v sub o (delta k).

Jain, A. (inventor)

1985-01-01

13

21 CFR 880.6300 - Implantable radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and health information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and health information...radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and health information...radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and health...

2011-04-01

14

21 CFR 880.6300 - Implantable radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and health information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and health information...radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and health information...radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and health...

2012-04-01

15

21 CFR 880.6300 - Implantable radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and health information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and health information...radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and health information...radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and health...

2010-04-01

16

21 CFR 880.6300 - Implantable radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and health information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and health information...radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and health information...radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and health...

2013-04-01

17

The 30/20 Gigahertz transponder study. [wideband multichannel transponders for a communications satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design features and performance parameters are described for three types of wideband multiple channel satellite transponders for use in a 30/20 GHz communications satellite, which provides high data rate trunking service to ten ground station terminals. The three types of transponder are frequency division multiplex (FDM), time division multiplex (TDM), and a hybrid transponder using a combination of FDM and TDM techniques. The wideband multiple beam trunking concept, the traffic distribution between the trunking terminals, and system design constraints are discussed. The receiver front end design, the frequency conversion scheme, and the local oscillator design are described including the thermal interface between the transponders and the satellite. The three designs are compared with regard to performance, weight, power, cost and initial technology. Simplified block diagrams of the baseline transponder designs are included.

1980-01-01

18

14 CFR 99.13 - Transponder-on requirements.  

...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING... SECURITY CONTROL OF AIR TRAFFIC General ...requirements. (a) Aircraft transponder-on operation...S. ADIZ unless that aircraft is equipped with a coded...transponder and automatic pressure altitude reporting...

2014-01-01

19

14 CFR 99.13 - Transponder-on requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING... SECURITY CONTROL OF AIR TRAFFIC General ...requirements. (a) Aircraft transponder-on operation...S. ADIZ unless that aircraft is equipped with a coded...transponder and automatic pressure altitude reporting...

2012-01-01

20

14 CFR 99.13 - Transponder-on requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING... SECURITY CONTROL OF AIR TRAFFIC General ...requirements. (a) Aircraft transponder-on operation...S. ADIZ unless that aircraft is equipped with a coded...transponder and automatic pressure altitude reporting...

2011-01-01

21

14 CFR 99.13 - Transponder-on requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING... SECURITY CONTROL OF AIR TRAFFIC General ...requirements. (a) Aircraft transponder-on operation...S. ADIZ unless that aircraft is equipped with a coded...transponder and automatic pressure altitude reporting...

2013-01-01

22

14 CFR 91.413 - ATC transponder tests and inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations § 91.413 ATC transponder...and (b) Following any installation or maintenance on an ATC transponder where data...

2010-01-01

23

Theory and application of passive SAW radio transponders as sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface acoustic wave (SAW) radio transponders make it possible to read identification codes or measurement values from a remote location. The decisive advantage of these SAW transponders lies in their passive operation (i.e., no power-supply), and in the possibility of wireless installation at particularly inaccessible locations. The passive SAW transponders are maintenance free. Identification marks respond to an interrogation signal

Leonhard Reindl; Gerd Scholl; Thomas Ostertag; Holger Scherr; U. Wolff; Frank Schmidt

1998-01-01

24

TDRSS multimode transponder program S-band modification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The S-Band TDRS multimode transponder and its associated ground support equipment is described. The transponder demonstrates candidate modulation techniques to provide the required information for the design of an eventual S-band transponder suitable for installation in a user satellite, capable of operating as part of a Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) system.

Mackey, J. E.

1975-01-01

25

Personal Communications via Acts Satellite Hbr Transponders.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The concept of a fully meshed network of briefcase-sized terminals is presented for personal communications over Ka-band satellite transponders. In this concept, undesirable double-hop delays are avoided for voice communications. The bandwidth and power r...

R. J. F. Fang

1991-01-01

26

Vehicle Transponder for Preemption of Traffic Lights  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this article is to describe, in more detail, the transponder installed in each vehicle that participates in the emergency traffic-light-preemption system described in the immediately preceding article. The transponder (see figure) is a fully autonomous data--collection, data-processing, information-display, and communication subsystem that performs robustly in preemption of traffic lights and monitoring of the statuses of street intersections. This transponder monitors the condition of the emergency vehicle in which it is installed and determines when the vehicle has been placed in an emergency-response condition with its siren and/or warning lights activated. Upon detection of such a condition, the transponder collects real-time velocity and acceleration data from the onboard diagnostic (OBD) computer of the vehicle. For this purpose, the transponder contains an OBD interface circuit, including a microprocessor that determines the manufacturer and model of the vehicle and then sends the appropriate commands to the OBD computer requesting the speed and acceleration data. At the same time, data from an onboard navigation system are collected to determine the location and the heading of the vehicle. Then acceleration, speed, position, and heading data are processed and combined with a vehicle-identification number and the resulting set of data is transmitted to monitoring and control units located at all intersections within communication range. When the unit at an intersection determines that this vehicle is approaching and has priority to preempt the intersection, it transmits a signal declaring the priority and the preemption to all participating vehicles (including this one) in the vicinity. If the unit at the intersection has determined that other participating vehicles are also approaching the intersection, then this unit also transmits, to the vehicle that has priority, a message that the other vehicles are approaching the same intersection. The texts of these messages, plus graphical symbols that show the directions and numbers of the approaching vehicles, are presented on the display panel of a computer that is part of the transponder.

Foster, Conrad; Bachelder, Aaron

2006-01-01

27

Altimetry and transponder ground simulation experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have designed and built a compact demonstrator unit for the investigation of altimetry and transponder applications. A small light-weight breadboard carries a compact frequency doubled Nd:YAG pulse laser, an afocal beam expansion optics, a small receiver telescope with spectral and spatial filter arrangements and a sensitive photo-detector. The output laser energy can be as high as 45 mJ with a pulse-width of 3 ns and the telescope aperture is 10 cm. Simulations [Degnan, J.J., 2006. Simulating interplanetary transponder and laser communications experiments via dual station ranging to SLR satellites. In: Proceedings of the 15th International Workshop on Laser Ranging, Canberra, Australia, pp. 457-462] suggested that the link margin for low Earth orbiting satellites (LEO) is comfortable. Successful satellite laser ranging from this dual-station experiment in several different configurations was achieved up to the MEO orbit in a 10 day provisional installation.

Schreiber, K. U.; Hiener, M.; Holzapfel, B.; Michaelis, H.; Brandl, N.; Haufe, K.-H.; Lauber, P.; Neidhardt, A.

2009-10-01

28

Altimetry and transponder ground simulation experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have designed and built a compact demonstrator unit for the investigation of altimetry and transponder applications. A small light-weight breadboard carries a compact frequency doubled Nd:YAG pulse laser, an afocal beam expansion optics, a small receiver telescope with spectral and spatial filter arrangements and a sensitive photo-detector. The output laser energy can be as high as 45mJ with a

K. U. Schreiber; M. Hiener; B. Holzapfel; H. Michaelis; N. Brandl; K.-H. Haufe; P. Lauber; A. Neidhardt

2009-01-01

29

Asynchronous Laser Transponders for Precise Interplanetary Ranging and Time Transfer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of a two-way asynchronous (i.e. independently firing) interplanetary laser transponder pair, capable of decimeter ranging and subnanosecond time transfer from Earth to a spacecraft anywhere within the inner Solar System, is discussed. In the Introduction, we briefly discuss the current state-of-the-art in Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) and Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) which use single-ended range measurements to a passive optical reflector, and the limitations of this approach in ranging beyond the Moon to the planets. In Section 2 of this paper, we describe two types of transponders (echo and asynchronous), introduce the transponder link equation and the concept of "balanced" transponders, describe how range and time can be transferred between terminals, and preview the potential advantages of photon counting asynchronous transponders for interplanetary applications. In Section 3, we discuss and provide mathematical models for the various sources of noise in an interplanetary transponder link including planetary albedo, solar or lunar illumination of the local atmosphere, and laser backscatter off the local atmosphere. In Section 4, we introduce the key engineering elements of an interplanetary laser transponder and develop an operational scenario for the acquisition and tracking of the opposite terminal. In Section 5, we use the theoretical models of th previous sections to perform an Earth-Mars link analysis over a full synodic period of 780 days under the simplifying assumption of coaxial, coplanar, circular orbits. We demonstrate that, using slightly modified versions of existing space and ground based laser systems, an Earth-Mars transponder link is not only feasible but quite robust. We also demonstrate through analysis the advantages and feasibility of compact, low output power (<300 mW photon-counting transponders using NASA's developmental SLR2000 satellite laser ranging system as the Earth terminal. Section 6 provides a summary of the results and some concluding remarks regarding future applications.

Degnan, John J.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

30

Detecting and Mitigating Wind Turbine Clutter for Airspace Radar Systems  

PubMed Central

It is well recognized that a wind turbine has a large radar cross-section (RCS) and, due to the movement of the blades, the wind turbine will generate a Doppler frequency shift. This scattering behavior may cause severe interferences on existing radar systems including static ground-based radars and spaceborne or airborne radars. To resolve this problem, efficient techniques or algorithms should be developed to mitigate the effects of wind farms on radars. Herein, one transponder-based mitigation technique is presented. The transponder is not a new concept, which has been proposed for calibrating high-resolution imaging radars. It modulates the radar signal in a manner that the retransmitted signals can be separated from the scene echoes. As wind farms often occupy only a small area, mitigation processing in the whole radar operation will be redundant and cost inefficient. Hence, this paper uses a transponder to determine whether the radar is impacted by the wind farms. If so, the effects of wind farms are then mitigated with subsequent Kalman filtering or plot target extraction algorithms. Taking airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and pulse Doppler radar as the examples, this paper provides the corresponding system configuration and processing algorithms. The effectiveness of the mitigation technique is validated by numerical simulation results. PMID:24385880

2013-01-01

31

Marking transgenic Xenopus froglets with passive micro transponders.  

PubMed

Standard methods to mark Xenopus laevis individuals like tattooing or clipping toenails are inappropriate for the fast growing and regenerating small froglets and the previously used transponders are too large. In this study we successfully adapted micro transponders to tag these animals. Using these new transponders one can now tag small froglets directly after metamorphosis, which has not been possible previously. This new technique makes the breeding of transgenic frogs most efficient, because the frogs do not have to be kept separately and they grow much faster when kept together in large containers. PMID:17225070

Waldner, Christoph; Roose, Magdalena; Ryffel, Gerhart U

2007-08-01

32

Apollo 15 gravity analysis from the S -band transponder experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

TheS-Band Transponder experiment used precision doppler tracking data of the command and service module, the lunar module and the subsatellite to provide detailed information about the near side gravity field. No special instruments are required other than the existingS-Band transponder used for real time navigation. The data consists of variations in the spacecraft speed as measured by the earth-based radio

W. L. Sjogren; P. M. Muller; W. R. Wollenhaupt

1972-01-01

33

Standardized accuracy assessment of the calypso wireless transponder tracking system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromagnetic (EM) tracking allows localization of small EM sensors in a magnetic field of known geometry without line-of-sight. However, this technique requires a cable connection to the tracked object. A wireless alternative based on magnetic fields, referred to as transponder tracking, has been proposed by several authors. Although most of the transponder tracking systems are still in an early stage of development and not ready for clinical use yet, Varian Medical Systems Inc. (Palo Alto, California, USA) presented the Calypso system for tumor tracking in radiation therapy which includes transponder technology. But it has not been used for computer-assisted interventions (CAI) in general or been assessed for accuracy in a standardized manner, so far. In this study, we apply a standardized assessment protocol presented by Hummel et al (2005 Med. Phys. 32 2371–9) to the Calypso system for the first time. The results show that transponder tracking with the Calypso system provides a precision and accuracy below 1 mm in ideal clinical environments, which is comparable with other EM tracking systems. Similar to other systems the tracking accuracy was affected by metallic distortion, which led to errors of up to 3.2 mm. The potential of the wireless transponder tracking technology for use in many future CAI applications can be regarded as extremely high.

Franz, A. M.; Schmitt, D.; Seitel, A.; Chatrasingh, M.; Echner, G.; Oelfke, U.; Nill, S.; Birkfellner, W.; Maier-Hein, L.

2014-11-01

34

Standardized accuracy assessment of the calypso wireless transponder tracking system.  

PubMed

Electromagnetic (EM) tracking allows localization of small EM sensors in a magnetic field of known geometry without line-of-sight. However, this technique requires a cable connection to the tracked object. A wireless alternative based on magnetic fields, referred to as transponder tracking, has been proposed by several authors. Although most of the transponder tracking systems are still in an early stage of development and not ready for clinical use yet, Varian Medical Systems Inc. (Palo Alto, California, USA) presented the Calypso system for tumor tracking in radiation therapy which includes transponder technology. But it has not been used for computer-assisted interventions (CAI) in general or been assessed for accuracy in a standardized manner, so far. In this study, we apply a standardized assessment protocol presented by Hummel et al (2005 Med. Phys. 32 2371-9) to the Calypso system for the first time. The results show that transponder tracking with the Calypso system provides a precision and accuracy below 1 mm in ideal clinical environments, which is comparable with other EM tracking systems. Similar to other systems the tracking accuracy was affected by metallic distortion, which led to errors of up to 3.2 mm. The potential of the wireless transponder tracking technology for use in many future CAI applications can be regarded as extremely high. PMID:25332308

Franz, A M; Schmitt, D; Seitel, A; Chatrasingh, M; Echner, G; Oelfke, U; Nill, S; Birkfellner, W; Maier-Hein, L

2014-11-21

35

Person-Locator System Based On Wristband Radio Transponders  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computerized system based on wristband radio frequency (RF), passive transponders is being developed for use in real-time tracking of individuals in custodial institutions like prisons and mental hospitals. Includes monitoring system that contains central computer connected to low-power, high-frequency central transceiver. Transceiver connected to miniature transceiver nodes mounted unobtrusively at known locations throughout the institution. Wristband transponders embedded in common hospital wristbands. Wristbands tamperproof: each contains embedded wire loop which, when broken or torn off and discarded, causes wristband to disappear from system, thus causing alarm. Individuals could be located in a timely fashion at relatively low cost.

Mintz, Frederick W.; Blaes, Brent R.; Chandler, Charles W.

1995-01-01

36

A Monolithically Packaged Cordless Sensor System Embedding MEMS A\\/D Converter and Saw Transponder  

Microsoft Academic Search

A monolithically packaged SAW (Surface Acoustic Wave) radio transponder and pressure sensor is developed for the application to a TPMS (Tire Pressure Monitoring System). The device contains the wireless transponder, which converts analog signal into digital one without any auxillary electronic circuits and then transmits the converted data wirelessly. No power sources are needed for wireless transponder and pressure sensor.

Oh Jae-geun; Bumkyoo Choi; Seung-yop Lee

2004-01-01

37

Ka-Band Transponder for Deep-Space Radio Science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A one-page document describes a Ka-band transponder being developed for use in deep-space radio science. The transponder receives in the Deep Space Network (DSN) uplink frequency band of 34.2 to 34.7 GHz, transmits in the 31.8- to 32.3 GHz DSN downlink band, and performs regenerative ranging on a DSN standard 4-MHz ranging tone subcarrier phase-modulated onto the uplink carrier signal. A primary consideration in this development is reduction in size, relative to other such transponders. The transponder design is all-analog, chosen to minimize not only the size but also the number of parts and the design time and, thus, the cost. The receiver features two stages of frequency down-conversion. The receiver locks onto the uplink carrier signal. The exciter signal for the transmitter is derived from the same source as that used to generate the first-stage local-oscillator signal. The ranging-tone subcarrier is down-converted along with the carrier to the second intermediate frequency, where the 4-MHz tone is demodulated from the composite signal and fed into a ranging-tone-tracking loop, which regenerates the tone. The regenerated tone is linearly phase-modulated onto the downlink carrier.

Dennis, Matthew S.; Mysoor, Narayan R.; Folkner, William M.; Mendoza, Ricardo; Venkatesan, Jaikrishna

2008-01-01

38

LORAN-C TETROON TRANSPONDER AND TRACKING SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

An advanced system for tracking multiple regional scale Lagrangian markers was developed. The system consists of a miniature tetroon-borne transponder and a small computerized receiving station capable of providing continuous real-time data on tetroon location (latitude/longitude...

39

The AUV positioning using ranges from one transponder LBL  

Microsoft Academic Search

An autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) positioning method using the range data from one transponder of a long base line acoustic positioning system and the yaw and relative velocity information from an on board autonomous navigation system is described in the paper. The localization algorithm is based on the least squares root method. The algorithm allows one to calculate the AUV

A. P. Scherbatyuk

1995-01-01

40

Keyless entry system with radio card transponder [automobiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A keyless entry system for locking and unlocking vehicle doors, and for opening the trunk is described. This system utilizes a small (ordinary credit-card size) card transponder with a built-in personal identification code that can be carried in a pocket or a briefcase and the user does not have to take it out for use because the signal transmission is

M. Hirano; M. Takeuchi; T. Tomoda; K.-I. Nakano

1988-01-01

41

Asynchronous laser transponders for precise interplanetary ranging and time transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satellite laser ranging (SLR) and lunar laser ranging (LLR) systems are single-ended instruments, i.e. they measure the roundtrip transit time of a laser pulse to a passive optical reflector. Since such single-ended systems are incapable of ranging beyond the Moon to the planets, we consider the feasibility of a two-way asynchronous (i.e. independently firing) interplanetary laser transponder pair, capable of

John J. Degnan

2002-01-01

42

Radar applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Papers are presented on air-traffic control radar, surveillance radar, missile guidance radar, and high-performance tactical three-dimensional radar. Also considered are the airborne early warning radar, the Foxhunter airborne intercept radar, and environmental remote sensing. Other topics include spaceborne SARs, the Pioneer Orbiter radar, and a bistatic pulse-Doppler intruder-detection radar.

Skolnik, Merrill I.

43

Radar applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papers are presented on air-traffic control radar, surveillance radar, missile guidance radar, and high-performance tactical three-dimensional radar. Also considered are the airborne early warning radar, the Foxhunter airborne intercept radar, and environmental remote sensing. Other topics include spaceborne SARs, the Pioneer Orbiter radar, and a bistatic pulse-Doppler intruder-detection radar.

Merrill I. Skolnik

1988-01-01

44

Transponders as permanent identification markers for domestic ferrets, black-footed ferrets, and other wildlife  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A 0.05-g transponder implanted subcutaneously was tested to see if it provided a reliable identification method. In laboratory tests 20 domestic ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) received transponders and were monitored for a minimum of 6 months. None showed signs of inflammation, and necropsies conducted at the end of the study showed no scar tissue or transponder migration. Seven of 23 transponders failed during the test because of leakage through the plastic case, and a glass case is now being manufactured that does not have the leakage problem. During mark-recapture studies in September and October 1985, transponders were implanted in 20 black-footed ferrets (M. nigripes), 11 of which were subsequently recaptured and 9 of which were brought into captivity; none showed signs of inflammation. Transponders provide a reliable new method for identifying hard-to-mark wildlife with a unique, permanent number than can be read with the animal in-hand or by remote equipment.

Fagerstone, Kathleen A.; Johns, Brad E.

1987-01-01

45

Magnetic and EMC control of a deep-space satellite transponder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transponder section of the spacecraft used in the Helios project is examined relative to magnetic cleanliness and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) management, telecommunication system, the EMC problem, and magnetic control. Requirements are identified which are necessary for the successful accomplishment of a project such as the Helios satellite transponder which has to fulfill a space mission in the hostile RF

R. H. Evans

1976-01-01

46

Wireless Measurement of radar cross section using Surface Acoustic Wave sensors in MEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a simple and efficient numerical procedure for treating problems of radar cross section (RCS) prediction of arbitrarily shaped Perfect Electric Conductor (PEC) objects is developed using Micro-ElectroMechanicalSystems(MEMS). Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) devices perform a radar measurement using impulse response of the SAW transponder via a high frequency electromagnetic radio link. By analyzing the time delay between the

Suresh Kumar Perumal; M. Madheswaran

2008-01-01

47

Bronchoscopic Implantation of a Novel Wireless Electromagnetic Transponder in the Canine Lung: A Feasibility Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The success of targeted radiation therapy for lung cancer treatment is limited by tumor motion during breathing. A real-time, objective, nonionizing, electromagnetic localization system using implanted electromagnetic transponders has been developed (Beacon electromagnetic transponder, Calypso Medical Technologies, Inc., Seattle, WA). We evaluated the feasibility and fixation of electromagnetic transponders bronchoscopically implanted in small airways of canine lungs and compared to results using gold markers. Methods and Materials: After approval of the Animal Studies Committee, five mongrel dogs were anesthetized, intubated, and ventilated. Three transponders were inserted into the tip of a plastic catheter, passed through the working channel of a flexible bronchoscope, and implanted into small airways of a single lobe using fluoroscopic guidance. This procedure was repeated for three spherical gold markers in the opposite lung. One, 7, 14, 28, and 60 days postimplantation imaging was used to assess implant fixation. Results: Successful bronchoscopic implantation was possible for 15 of 15 transponders and 12 of 15 gold markers; 3 markers were deposited in the pleural space. Fixation at 1 day was 15 of 15 for transponders and 12 of 12 for gold markers. Fixation at 60 days was 6 of 15 for transponders and 7 of 12 for gold markers, p value = 0.45. Conclusions: Bronchoscopic implantation of both transponders and gold markers into the canine lung is feasible, but fixation rates are low. If fixation rates can be improved, implantable electromagnetic transponders may allow improved radiation therapy for lung cancer by providing real-time continuous target tracking. Developmental work is under way to improve the fixation rates and to reduce sensitivity to implantation technique.

Mayse, Martin L. [Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Parikh, Parag J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)], E-mail: pparikh@radonc.wustl.edu; Lechleiter, Kristen M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Dimmer, Steven; Park, Mia [Calypso Medical Technologies, Seattle, WA (United States); Chaudhari, Amir [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Talcott, Michael [Division of Comparative Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Low, Daniel A.; Bradley, Jeffrey D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

2008-09-01

48

Virtual long baseline (VLBL) autonomous underwater vehicle navigation using a single transponder  

E-print Network

(cont.) Therefore, accurate underwater navigation using a single location transponder would provide dramatic time and cost savings for underwater vehicle operations. This thesis presents a simulation of autonomous underwater ...

LaPointe, Cara Elizabeth Grupe

2006-01-01

49

Single Transponder Range Only Navigation Geometry (STRONG) applied to REMUS autonomous under water vehicles  

E-print Network

A detailed study was conducted to prove the concept of an iterative approach to single transponder navigation for REMUS Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs). Although the concept of navigation with one acoustic beacon is ...

Hartsfield, J. Carl (Jasper Carl)

2005-01-01

50

SAW-based radioisotope-powered wireless RFID\\/RF transponder  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate a microfabricated 63 Ni radioisotope-powered RFID transponder realized with a SAW (surface acoustic wave) device as the transmission frequency selector. The transponder is powered by a 1.5 milli-Ci 63 Ni source which has a half-life of 100 years. We have achieved a 5mW, 10-?s long, 100MHz carrier envelope, RF pulses which occur every 3 minutes, across a 50?

Steven Tin; Amit Lal

2010-01-01

51

Photon-Counting Microlaser Rangers, Transponders, and Altimeters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unlike current manned systems, NASA's next generation SLR2000 Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) station is fully autonomous. eye-safe, relatively compact and inexpensive. and, during daytime tracking operates at signal-to-noise ratios several orders of magnitude below unity. Tiny, passively Q-switched microlasers generate ultra-short pulses with output energies on the order of 100 micron-J at few kHz rates to achieve mm-level ranging precision to satellite altitudes of 20,000 km. Special ranging receivers, combined with Poisson statistical analysis of the received photon distribution, enable the system to rapidly and reliably identify and extract the single photon laser echoes from the solar background. The enhanced rate of return, combined with a uniform signal strength, can actually drive down both systematic and random range errors. The new SLR2000 technology has already spawned exciting new applications. Compact microlaser altimeters, capable of mapping the surface of a planet or other celestial body at multikilohertz rates, is one such application, and a high altitude, airborne version is currently being developed under NASA's Instrument Incubator Program. Interplanetary microlaser transponders would be capable of performing decimeter ranging or subnanosecond time transfer to spacecraft throughout the inner Solar System. resulting in improved knowledge of planetary motions and liberations and enhanced General Relativity experiments.

Degnan, John J.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

52

Planetary benchmarks. [structural design criteria for radar reference devices on planetary surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design criteria and technology requirements for a system of radar reference devices to be fixed to the surfaces of the inner planets are discussed. Offshoot applications include the use of radar corner reflectors as landing beacons on the planetary surfaces and some deep space applications that may yield a greatly enhanced knowledge of the gravitational and electromagnetic structure of the solar system. Passive retroreflectors with dimensions of about 4 meters and weighing about 10 kg are feasible for use with orbiting radar at Venus and Mars. Earth-based observation of passive reflectors, however, would require very large and complex structures to be delivered to the surfaces. For Earth-based measurements, surface transponders offer a distinct advantage in accuracy over passive reflectors. A conceptual design for a high temperature transponder is presented. The design appears feasible for the Venus surface using existing electronics and power components.

Uphoff, C.; Staehle, R.; Kobrick, M.; Jurgens, R.; Price, H.; Slade, M.; Sonnabend, D.

1978-01-01

53

Accident investigation: Analysis of aircraft motions from ATC radar recordings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique was developed for deriving time histories of an aircraft's motion from air traffic control (ATC) radar records. This technique uses the radar range and azimuth data, along with the downlinked altitude data (from an onboard Mode-C transponder), to derive an expanded set of data which includes airspeed, lift, thrust-drag, attitude angles (pitch, roll, and heading), etc. This method of analyzing aircraft motions was evaluated through flight experiments which used the CV-990 research aircraft and recordings from both the enroute and terminal ATC radar systems. The results indicate that the values derived from the ATC radar records are for the most part in good agreement with the corresponding values obtained from airborne measurements. In an actual accident, this analysis of ATC radar records can complement the flight-data recorders, now onboard airliners, and provide a source of recorded information for other types of aircraft that are equipped with Mode-C transponders but not with onboard recorders.

Wingrove, R. C.

1976-01-01

54

Sublimation Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The multiple sublimation apparatus is suitable for small batch laboratory use. It includes a pair of identical tubes arranged to be inserted partially within one another, and a plug which closes one end of the assembled tube. This apparatus may be enclose...

A. F. Armington, J. R. Weiner

1965-01-01

55

Roll-to-Roll Screen Printed Radio Frequency Identification Transponder Antennas for Vehicle Tracking Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vehicle tracking systems based on ultra high frequency (UHF) radio frequency identification (RFID) technology are already introduced to control the access to car parks and corporate premises. For this field of application so-called Windshield RFID transponder labels are used, which are applied to the inside of the windshield. State of the art for manufacturing these transponder antennas is the traditional lithography/etching approach. Furthermore the performance of these transponders is limited to a reading distance of approximately 5 m which results in car speed limit of 5 km/h for identification. However, to achieve improved performance compared to existing all-purpose transponders and a dramatic cost reduction, an optimized antenna design is needed which takes into account the special dielectric and in particular metallic car environment of the tag and an roll-to-roll (R2R) printing manufacturing process. In this paper we focus on the development of a customized UHF RFID transponder antenna design, which is adopted for vehicle geometry as well as R2R screen printing manufacturing processes.

Zichner, Ralf; Baumann, Reinhard R.

2013-05-01

56

Moling apparatus  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A moling apparatus comprises a housing having a head for penetrating ground, an anvil in the housing connected to the head, and a hammer in the housing and spaced therefrom by a spring. A vibrator unit is spaced from the hammer and arranged to transfer vibration to the housing and the hammer. In a first mode of the apparatus, vibration transmitted to the housing causes fluidization of the surrounding ground to allow progressive penetration of the apparatus. In a second mode, the braking effect of the ground on the head causes the hammer to move against the spring and impact the anvil thereby driving the head through the ground, the apparatus being operable at or between each mode.

1998-12-22

57

Apparatus Notes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes five brief articles on: solar-heating demonstration equipment, mercury or sodium vapor lamp spectroscopy, an apparatus for simulating variable stars, a voltage-to-frequency converter, and an introductory absorption experiment for low-energy beta particles. (MLH)

Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

1976-01-01

58

Apparatus Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a technique to produce samples for x-ray diffraction studies on the Tel-X-Ometer 80 x-ray apparatus from readily available crystalline powders and discusses observations of transverse modes of an optical resonator. (SK)

Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

1982-01-01

59

Radar principles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discussed here is a kind of radar called atmospheric radar, which has as its target clear air echoes from the earth's atmosphere produced by fluctuations of the atmospheric index of refraction. Topics reviewed include the vertical structure of the atmosphere, the radio refractive index and its fluctuations, the radar equation (a relation between transmitted and received power), radar equations for distributed targets and spectral echoes, near field correction, pulsed waveforms, the Doppler principle, and velocity field measurements.

Sato, Toru

1989-01-01

60

Performance of Commercially Available Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) Tag Systems Used for Fish Identification and Interjurisdictional Fisheries Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag systems are commonly used in identification and monitoring programs with fisheries applications. Transponders of different frequencies, sizes, and code formats are available from numerous manufacturers, and there is increasing concern regarding the need to coordinate tagging efforts with appropriate equipment. Given the high cost of PIT tag systems and the adverse management implications of using

S. Adam Fuller; James P. Henne; John Seals; Vincent A. Mudrak

2008-01-01

61

Integration of thin film giant magnetoimpedance sensor and surface acoustic wave transponder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Passive and remote sensing technology has many potential applications in implantable devices, automation, or structural monitoring. In this paper, a tri-layer thin film giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) sensor with the maximum sensitivity of 16%/Oe and GMI ratio of 44% was combined with a two-port surface acoustic wave (SAW) transponder on a common substrate using standard microfabrication technology resulting in a fully integrated sensor for passive and remote operation. The implementation of the two devices has been optimized by on-chip matching circuits. The measurement results clearly show a magnetic field response at the input port of the SAW transponder that reflects the impedance change of the GMI sensor.

Li, Bodong; Salem, Nedime Pelin M. H.; Giouroudi, Ioanna; Kosel, Jürgen

2012-04-01

62

Radiation-Hard SpaceWire/Gigabit Ethernet-Compatible Transponder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A radiation-hard transponder was developed utilizing submicron/nanotechnology from IBM. The device consumes low power and has a low fabrication cost. This device utilizes a Plug-and-Play concept, and can be integrated into intra-satellite networks, supporting SpaceWire and Gigabit Ethernet I/O. A space-qualified, 100-pin package also was developed, allowing space-qualified (class K) transponders to be delivered within a six-month time frame. The novel, optical, radiation-tolerant transponder was implemented as a standalone board, containing the transponder ASIC (application specific integrated circuit) and optical module, with an FPGA (field-programmable gate array) friendly parallel interface. It features improved radiation tolerance; high-data-rate, low-power consumption; and advanced functionality. The transponder utilizes a patented current mode logic library of radiation-hardened-by-architecture cells. The transponder was developed, fabricated, and radhard tested up to 1 MRad. It was fabricated using 90-nm CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) 9 SF process from IBM, and incorporates full BIT circuitry, allowing a loop back test. The low-speed parallel LVCMOS (lowvoltage complementary metal oxide semiconductor) bus is compatible with Actel FPGA. The output LVDS (low-voltage differential signaling) interface operates up to 1.5 Gb/s. Built-in CDR (clock-data recovery) circuitry provides robust synchronization and incorporates two alarm signals such as synch loss and signal loss. The ultra-linear peak detector scheme allows on-line control of the amplitude of the input signal. Power consumption is less than 300 mW. The developed transponder with a 1.25 Gb/s serial data rate incorporates a 10-to-1 serializer with an internal clock multiplication unit and a 10-1 deserializer with internal clock and data recovery block, which can operate with 8B10B encoded signals. Three loop-back test modes are provided to facilitate the built-in-test functionality. The design is based on a proprietary library of differential current switching logic cells implemented in the standard 90-nm CMOS 9SF technology from IBM. The proprietary low-power LVDS physical interface is fully compatible with the SpaceWire standard, and can be directly connected to the SFP MSA (small form factor pluggable Multiple Source Agreement) optical transponder. The low-speed parallel interfaces are fully compatible with the standard 1.8 V CMOS input/output devices. The utilized proprietary annular CMOS layout structures provide TID tolerance above 1.2 MRad. The complete chip consumes less than 150 mW of power from a single 1.8-V positive supply source.

Katzman, Vladimir

2012-01-01

63

Control apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although the method and apparatus of the present invention can be utilized to apply either a uniform or a nonuniform covering of material over many different workpieces, the apparatus (20) is advantageously utilized to apply a thermal barrier covering (64) to an airfoil (22) which is used in a turbine engine. The airfoil is held by a gripper assembly (86) while a spray gun (24) is effective to apply the covering over the airfoil. When a portion of the covering has been applied, a sensor (28) is utilized to detect the thickness of the covering. A control apparatus (32) compares the thickness of the covering of material which has been applied with the desired thickness and is subsequently effective to regulate the operation of the spray gun to adaptively apply a covering of a desired thickness with an accuracy of at least plus or minus 0.0015 inches (1.5 mils) despite unanticipated process variations.

Derkacs, Thomas (Inventor); Fetheroff, Charles W. (Inventor); Matay, Istvan M. (Inventor); Toth, Istvan J. (Inventor)

1982-01-01

64

Positioning apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is provided for precisely adjusting the position of an article relative to a beam emerging from a neutron source disposed in a housing. The apparatus includes a support pivotably mounted on a movable base plate and freely suspended therefrom. The support is gravity biased toward the housing and carries an article holder movable in a first direction longitudinally of the axis of said beam and normally urged into engagement against said housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the suspended holder in two mutually perpendicular directions, respectively, normal to the axis of the beam.

Vogel, M.A.; Alter, P.

1983-07-07

65

Tin Whisker Risk Assessment of TDRSS IV Transponder Units 101 and 102  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents the plating requirements for the electrical and mechanical parts used in the TDRSS IV transponder manufactured by MOTOROLA, INC., SSG, SSSD. The intent of this report is to identify any electrical, electromechanical or mechanical part that does not have adequate requirements to prevent the use of a pure tin finish.

Zellitti, Ron; Royse, Jeff; Jackson, Steve

2000-01-01

66

analysis and design of metal-surface mounted radio frequency identification (RFID) transponders  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of the radio frequency integrated circuit (RFIC), contactless radio frequency identification (RFID) technology, as one of the fastest growing sectors of automatic identification procedures (Auto-ID), gains broad application in tracking assets in supply chain management. However, one of the largest challenges for the RFID industry is that the ultra high frequency (UHF) RFID transponder doesn't function well

Sanyi Zhan

2008-01-01

67

Passive Integrated Transponder Tag Retention Rates in Headwater Populations of Coastal Cutthroat Trout  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags have desirable qualities (e.g., unique identification, indefinite tag life, and capacity for remote detection) that make them useful for evaluating survival, growth, and movement of fish, but low tag retention rates can confound data interpretation. Although the effects of PIT tags on short-term growth and survival have been minimal and tag retention rates in laboratory

Douglas S. Bateman; Robert E. Gresswell; Aaron M. Berger

2009-01-01

68

Advantages of orthogonal hopped waveforms in a hardlimited SHF satellite transponder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spread-spectrum multiple access (SSMA) and electronic counter-counter measures (ECCM) are techniques used by many military satellite communications systems to allow simultaneous operation of multiple antijam waveforms in a single transponder. The maximum achievable data throughput is determined for the orthogonal and nonorthogonal cases, and the ratio of these two throughputs is obtained. This ratio predicts that orthogonal hopping will result

A. M. Soobert; J. W. Marshall

1990-01-01

69

Evacuation of Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) Tags from Northern Pikeminnow Consuming Tagged Juvenile Chinook Salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prey fish implanted with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags can be used in predation studies if the timing of tag evacuation from the predators is understood. Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine how PIT tags in juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that were consumed by northern pikeminnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis were evacuated in relation to various parameters. The rate of evacuation

James H. Petersen; Craig A. Barfoot

2003-01-01

70

BIT-ORIENTED GENERATORS FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS AND LOW COST RFID TRANSPONDERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) nodes and passive RFID transponders (tags) have severe constraints in computing power and hence offer particular challenges in the provision of e-Security. Passive RFID tags are at the lowest end of the spectrum in the family of devices with constrained computing power and memory. New approaches, differing from the traditional cryptosystems such as RSA or Diffie-Hellman,

Raja Ghosal; Damith C. Ranasinghe; Peter H. Cole

2008-01-01

71

GEOS-C coherent C-band transponder test procedure for spacecraft level tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Procedures for the performance of two tests (electrical and airlink) for the transponder are outlined. The C-band test console used in performing the above tests is described (circuit diagrams and block diagrams), and equipment specifications are given. Calibration of the test equipment is also discussed.

Selser, A. R.

1973-01-01

72

Space based radar application to air traffic control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future control of increasing air traffic on international routes will require significant advances in techniques employed. Development is underway, but at this time does not include addition of radar coverage of vast areas of oceanic traffic. This paper addresses the potential for a space-based radar to provide detection and track of aircraft in future traffic scenarios. Factors that must be considered in further tradeoff and concept optimization are discussed. These include: (1) satellite constellation characteristics and associated coverage, (2) efficient use of available energy in track-while-scan strategies, (3) development of tracker approaches to accommodate inherent system constraints, and (4) the application of transponders to assist in dense traffic environments. The analysis assumes the continued development and availability of technology required for high spacecraft power systems (hundreds of kilowatts), and for radar subclutter visibility.

Caime, W. J.

1985-01-01

73

Apparatus Reviews.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes some science apparatus: included are a gene kit to demonstrate aspects of population genetics and selection, an electronic thermometer for use in the field of environmental studies, an astrobrella to use in astronomy classes, and crystal display models of different substances for chemistry classes. (GA)

School Science Review, 1978

1978-01-01

74

Thermoforming apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Thermoforming apparatus having a heating station and a forming station provided with upper and lower heaters for softening the thermoplastics sheet material. One of the heaters is movable between the heating and forming stations and is arranged to convey heated sheets from the heating station of the forming station.

Perryman, L.M.

1984-07-31

75

Apparatus Reviews.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provided are reviews of science equipment/apparatus. Items reviewed include: Harris Micro-ecology tubes; Harris chromosome investigation kit; Harris trycult slides; a pressure cooker with thermometer; digital pH meter; digital scaler timer; electrical compensation calorimeter; and Mains alternating current ammeter. (JN)

School Science Review, 1983

1983-01-01

76

Exercise apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus and method for exercising whereby the user is supported by various mechanisms in such as way that the user's shoulder area is free to translate and rotate; the user's pelvic area is free to translate and rotate; or in any combination.

Schaffner, Grant (Inventor); Bentley, Jason R. (Inventor); Loehr, James A. (Inventor); Gundo, Daniel P. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

77

Sampling apparatus  

DOEpatents

A sampling apparatus is provided for sampling substances from solid surfaces. The apparatus includes first and second elongated tubular bodies which telescopically and sealingly join relative to one another. An absorbent pad is mounted to the end of a rod which is slidably received through a passageway in the end of one of the joined bodies. The rod is preferably slidably and rotatably received through the passageway, yet provides a selective fluid tight seal relative thereto. A recess is formed in the rod. When the recess and passageway are positioned to be coincident, fluid is permitted to flow through the passageway and around the rod. The pad is preferably laterally orientable relative to the rod and foldably retractable to within one of the bodies. A solvent is provided for wetting of the pad and solubilizing or suspending the material being sampled from a particular surface.

Gordon, Norman R. (Kennewick, WA); King, Lloyd L. (Benton, WA); Jackson, Peter O. (Richland, WA); Zulich, Alan W. (Bel Air, MD)

1989-01-01

78

Passive Optically Encoded Transponder (POET) An Acquisition And Alignment Target For Autonomous Robotics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relative position information concerning an object that is to be acquired, attached to, or manipulated in some way by a robotic system is usually supplied by a known database or through vision information of some kind. Vision systems normally require some degree of intelligence to produce complete position information and therefore are relatively sophisticated, slow, or both. Simple "targets" require some amount of pattern recognition in autonomous operations and do not usually lend themselves to precision applications. This paper describes work on a discrete optical element prototype target which when interrogated by a video camera system, will provide noncontact relative position information about all 6 degrees-of-freedom (DOF). This information is available within the active field of view (FOV) of the transponder and could be processed by microprocessor-based, software algorithms with simple pattern recognition capabilities. The interrogation system (camera) is composed of a standard charge injection device (CID) array video camera, a controllable macrozoom lens, a liquid crystal shutter (LCS), and a point-source multispectral illuminator. This allows the transponder to be used where a standard video camera vision system is needed, or already implemented, and results in a relatively fast system (approximately 10 Hz). A passive optically encoded transponder (POET) implemented in a "stick-on" holographic optical element (HOE) is proposed as a next generation target, to supply relative position information in all 6 DOF for acquisition and precision alignment. In applications requiring maximum bandwidth and resolution, the fact that no "pattern recognition" is required in the proposed system results in the ability to interrogate the transponder in real time with a dedicated nonvision, interrogation system, resulting in a multiorder of magnitude increase in speed. The transponder (target) is configured to provide optimum information for the intended use. Being configurable, it can provide an acquisition signal and alignment information within a wide, operational field of view. The fact that this transponder is a simple, straightforward optical design opens the possibility to implement it in a lightweight, small, economical, "stick-on" holographic alignment target to be used in many industrial and space robotic applications where a classical, standard device is needed.

White, G. K.

1987-02-01

79

Laser radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general theory of laser tracking and ranging and the principles governing the design of laser radar systems are examined. Major problems related to optimum reception of laser radar signals and parameter measurement are analyzed from the standpoint of the theory of statistical solutions. Attention is given to methods for processing trajectory measurements and various methods for obtaining noncoordinate information,

I. N. Matveev; V. V. Protopopov; I. N. Troitskii; N. D. Ustinov

1984-01-01

80

Design study of a HEAO-C spread spectrum transponder telemetry system for use with the TDRSS subnet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a design study of a spread spectrum transponder for use on the HEAO-C satellite were given. The transponder performs the functions of code turn-around for ground range and range-rate determination, ground command receiver, and telemetry data transmitter. The spacecraft transponder and associated communication system components will allow the HEAO-C satellite to utilize the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) subnet of the post 1978 STDN. The following areas were discussed in the report: TDRSS Subnet Description, TDRSS-HEAO-C System Configuration, Gold Code Generator, Convolutional Encoder Design and Decoder Algorithm, High Speed Sequence Generators, Statistical Evaluation of Candidate Code Sequences using Amplitude and Phase Moments, Code and Carrier Phase Lock Loops, Total Spread Spectrum Transponder System, and Reference Literature Search.

Weathers, G.

1975-01-01

81

Spatial Diffusion of Innovation: A Spatial Panel Analysis of Electronic Toll Collecting Transponders in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial panel model is applied to a new data set: monthly data of the number of ETC (Electronic Toll Collecting) transponders newly installed in 47 Japanese prefectures. The model incorporates marketing variables and highway-related variables. Regarding the spatial panel model, this work estimates fixed-effect and random-effect model for spatial-lag model and spatial-error model. For each formulation, four types of

Yutaka Hamaoka

2009-01-01

82

Initial Mortality and Retention Associated with Using Passive Integrated Transponders in Black Crappies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed initial retention and mortality associated with using passive integrated transponders (PITs) for marking black crappies Pomoxis nigromaculatus by conducting 48-h net-pen trials (N = 4 trials) in April–May 2007 and one 14-d trial in October 2007. Black crappies (N = 175; total length (TL) range = 175–328 mm; mean TL = 265 mm; SE = 2.1 mm) were

Daniel A. Isermann; Andrew J. Carlson

2008-01-01

83

Efficacy of passive integrated transponder tags to determine spawning-site visitations by a tropical fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual identification of organisms is a crucial part of assessing the processes that influence small-scale distribution patterns and the maintenance of social organizations. This study evaluates the use of passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags to quantify small-scale space use in a marine damselfish, Pomacentrus amboinensis (Pomacentridae). Implanting small PIT tags in the body cavity of fish down to 5.2 g with

Mark I. McCormick; Shawn Smith

2004-01-01

84

Laser Transponders for High-Accuracy Interplanetary Laser Ranging and Time Transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Satellite laser ranging (SLR) and lunar laser ranging (LLR) to passive reflectors have been carried out successfully since\\u000a 1964 and 1969, respectively. The single-ended SLR ranging technique, although capable of providing millimeter precision range\\u000a data to satellites, is not practical over interplanetary ranges. Double-ended laser transponders for decimeter or better accuracy\\u000a interplanetary ranging and subnanosecond time transfer are well within

John J. Degnan

2008-01-01

85

Monitoring apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is described for monitoring the temperature inside a refrigeration unit that experiences periodic defrost cycles of a known duration, the apparatus including a temperature sensor located within the refrigeration unit for providing an electrical output signal indicative of the temperature level inside the unit, a comparator means for comparing the sensor output signal level with a preset signal level and providing a first output signal when the sensed temperature level is above the preset level and a second output signal when the sensed temperature level is below the preset level, a timer means connected to the output of the comparator means which is enabled when the comparator means produces the first output signal whereby the timer means generates a continuous chain of timing pulses and is disabled when the comparator means produces the second output signal, counter means being coupled to the timer means for counting the number of pulses generated by the timer means and producing a counter output signal when a preset count is reached. The duration of the counter means cycle is greater than the duration of the defrost cycle, and an audio means coupled to the output of both the timer means and the counter means. An audio transducer means provides a first audible alert signal any time the timer means is enabled and a second audible alarm signal when the counter means reaches the preset count.

Adams, W.H.

1986-12-23

86

Imaging synthetic aperture radar  

DOEpatents

A linear-FM SAR imaging radar method and apparatus to produce a real-time image by first arranging the returned signals into a plurality of subaperture arrays, the columns of each subaperture array having samples of dechirped baseband pulses, and further including a processing of each subaperture array to obtain coarse-resolution in azimuth, then fine-resolution in range, and lastly, to combine the processed subapertures to obtain the final fine-resolution in azimuth. Greater efficiency is achieved because both the transmitted signal and a local oscillator signal mixed with the returned signal can be varied on a pulse-to-pulse basis as a function of radar motion. Moreover, a novel circuit can adjust the sampling location and the A/D sample rate of the combined dechirped baseband signal which greatly reduces processing time and hardware. The processing steps include implementing a window function, stabilizing either a central reference point and/or all other points of a subaperture with respect to doppler frequency and/or range as a function of radar motion, sorting and compressing the signals using a standard fourier transforms. The stabilization of each processing part is accomplished with vector multiplication using waveforms generated as a function of radar motion wherein these waveforms may be synthesized in integrated circuits. Stabilization of range migration as a function of doppler frequency by simple vector multiplication is a particularly useful feature of the invention; as is stabilization of azimuth migration by correcting for spatially varying phase errors prior to the application of an autofocus process.

Burns, Bryan L. (Tijeras, NM); Cordaro, J. Thomas (Albuquerque, NM)

1997-01-01

87

Collecting apparatus  

DOEpatents

An improved collecting apparatus for small aquatic or airborne organisms such as plankton, larval fish, insects, etc. The improvement constitutes an apertured removal container within which is retained a collecting bag, and which is secured at the apex of a conical collecting net. Such collectors are towed behind a vessel or vehicle with the open end of the conical net facing forward for trapping the aquatic or airborne organisms within the collecting bag, while allowing the water or air to pass through the apertures in the container. The container is readily removable from the collecting net whereby the collecting bag can be quickly removed and replaced for further sample collection. The collecting bag is provided with means for preventing the bag from being pulled into the container by the water or air flowing therethrough.

Duncan, Charles P. (Walnut Creek, CA)

1983-01-01

88

Well apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus comprising: a well packer having at least two flow ways therethrough, a conduit providing a first control pressure, vent valve means connected to the conduit and controlling one of the flow ways and having a flow member reciprocal in both directions between open and closed positions for multiple cycles in response to a first control pressure in the conduit. The valve means remains closed in the absence of first control pressure and when subjected to a second ambient pressure less than a selected value, and kill valve means associated with the packer and vent valve and in combination with one of the flow ways, the kill valve means opening in response to a second ambient pressure above the selected value.

Echols, R.H.; Patel, B.H.; Renfroe, J.B. Jr.

1986-11-25

89

Hydrogenation apparatus  

DOEpatents

Hydrogenation reaction apparatus comprising a housing having walls which define a reaction zone and conduits for introducing streams of hydrogen and oxygen into the reaction zone, the oxygen being introduced into a central portion of the hydrogen stream to maintain a boundary layer of hydrogen along the walls of the reaction zone. A portion of the hydrogen and all of the oxygen react to produce a heated gas stream having a temperature within the range of from 1100.degree. to 1900.degree. C., while the boundary layer of hydrogen maintains the wall temperature at a substantially lower temperature. The heated gas stream is introduced into a hydrogenation reaction zone and provides the source of heat and hydrogen for a hydrogenation reaction. There also is provided means for quenching the products of the hydrogenation reaction. The present invention is particularly suitable for the hydrogenation of low-value solid carbonaceous materials to provide high yields of more valuable liquid and gaseous products.

Friedman, Joseph (Encino, CA); Oberg, Carl L. (Canoga Park, CA); Russell, Larry H. (Agoura, CA)

1981-01-01

90

Drive apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A drive apparatus is described comprising: an input shaft operatively connected to an engine; an output shaft operatively connected to travelling means; a transmission line operatively interconnected between the input and output shafts, the line including first and second intermediate shafts; clutch means disposed between the first and second intermediate shafts for operatively interconnecting and disconnecting the first and second intermediate shafts; change speed means including at least one change speed shift means for effecting speed changes between the input shaft and the first intermediate shaft. The shift means includes synchro shift means and a first hydraulic switch valve moveable between neutral, first and second change speed positions, the change speed means further including a shift selector for selective operation of the first switch valve; the clutch means being responsive to the neutral position of the shift means for effecting the operative disconnection, and responsive to the change speed positions of the shift means for effecting the operative interconnection of the first and second intermediate shafts; a source of pressurized fluid, the shift selector and clutch means being hydraulically connected in parallel to the source of pressurized fluid; and a first pilot fluid operated switch valve hydraulically connected between the fluid source and clutch means.

Hasegawa, S.; Fukui, T.

1987-01-20

91

Hydrogenation apparatus  

DOEpatents

Hydrogenation reaction apparatus is described comprising a housing having walls which define a reaction zone and conduits for introducing streams of hydrogen and oxygen into the reaction zone, the oxygen being introduced into a central portion of the hydrogen stream to maintain a boundary layer of hydrogen along the walls of the reaction zone. A portion of the hydrogen and all of the oxygen react to produce a heated gas stream having a temperature within the range of from 1,100 to 1,900 C, while the boundary layer of hydrogen maintains the wall temperature at a substantially lower temperature. The heated gas stream is introduced into a hydrogenation reaction zone and provides the source of heat and hydrogen for a hydrogenation reaction. There also is provided means for quenching the products of the hydrogenation reaction. The present invention is particularly suitable for the hydrogenation of low-value solid carbonaceous materials to provide high yields of more valuable liquid and gaseous products. 2 figs.

Friedman, J.; Oberg, C. L.; Russell, L. H.

1981-06-23

92

Trajectory scoring in geodetic coordinates using transponder-interrogator range data  

SciTech Connect

Range measurements taken from a transponder-interrogator ranging system are processed via an extended Kalman filter to provide an accurate time-position history of a vehicle's trajectory by estimating the errors in the vehicle's inertial navigation system. The range and Kalman filter equations are derived in geodetic coordinates to allow for coverage over a large geographic area. The equations are then verified by processing data from flight tests at Edwards Air Force Base, producing position accuracies of 3 to 4 meters 1sigma.

Owen, T.E.

1986-03-01

93

Trajectory scoring in rectangular coordinates using transponder-interrogator range and range rate data  

SciTech Connect

Range and range rate measurements taken from a transponder-interrogator ranging system are processed via an extended Kalman filter and an extended Kalman smoother to provide an accurate time-position history of a vehicle's trajectory by estimating the errors in the vehicle's inertial navigation system. The necessary equations are derived in rectangular coordinates. As such, they are only valid for low altitude flights over a small geographic area. The equations are implemented in a FORTRAN program which is used to process flight data gathered at Edgewood, NM. 5 refs., 65 figs., 3 tabs.

Hollowell, J.

1989-01-01

94

Autonomous sensor-transponder RFID with supply energy conditioning for object navigation systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The properties of energy conditioning electrical circuits that are developed for powering additional functional blocks of autonomous RFID transponders working in the HF band have been analyzed and presented in the paper. The concept of autonomy is realized by implementing extra functions in the typical transponder. First of all, the autonomous system should harvest energy, e.g. from the electromagnetic field of read/write devices but also the possibility of gathering information about environment should be available, e.g. by measuring different kind of physical quantities. In such an electrical device, the crucial problem consists in energy conditioning because the output voltage-current characteristic of an front-end (antenna with matching and harvesting circuit) as well as the total and instantaneous power load generated by internal circuits are strongly dependent on a realized function but also on energy and communication conditions in the RFID interface. The properly designed solution should improve harvesting efficiency, current leakage of supply storage, matching between antenna and input circuits, in order to save energy and increase operating time in such a battery-free system. The authors present methods how to increase the autonomous operation time even at advanced measuring algorithms. The measuring system with wide spectrum of sensors dedicated for different quantities (physical, chemical, etc.) has also been presented. The results of model calculations and experimental verifications have been also discussed on the basis of investigations conducted in the unique laboratory stand of object navigation systems.

Skoczylas, M.; Kamuda, K.; Jankowski-Mihu?owicz, P.; Kalita, W.; Weglarski, Mariusz

2014-08-01

95

Performance evaluation of digital phase-locked loops for advanced deep space transponders  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performances of the digital phase-locked loops (DPLL's) for the advanced deep-space transponders (ADT's) are investigated. DPLL's considered in this article are derived from the analog phase-locked loop, which is currently employed by the NASA standard deep space transponder, using S-domain to Z-domain mapping techniques. Three mappings are used to develop digital approximations of the standard deep space analog phase-locked loop, namely the bilinear transformation (BT), impulse invariant transformation (IIT), and step invariant transformation (SIT) techniques. The performance in terms of the closed loop phase and magnitude responses, carrier tracking jitter, and response of the loop to the phase offset (the difference between in incoming phase and reference phase) is evaluated for each digital approximation. Theoretical results of the carrier tracking jitter for command-on and command-off cases are then validated by computer simulation. Both theoretical and computer simulation results show that at high sampling frequency, the DPLL's approximated by all three transformations have the same tracking jitter. However, at low sampling frequency, the digital approximation using BT outperforms the others. The minimum sampling frequency for adequate tracking performance is determined for each digital approximation of the analog loop. In addition, computer simulation shows that the DPLL developed by BT provides faster response to the phase offset than IIT and SIT.

Nguyen, T. M.; Hinedi, S. M.; Yeh, H.-G.; Kyriacou, C.

1994-01-01

96

2412 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 43, NO. 6, JUNE 2007 MEMS-Based Inductively Coupled RFID Transponder for  

E-print Network

2412 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 43, NO. 6, JUNE 2007 MEMS-Based Inductively Coupled RFID the development of an inductively coupled mini RFID transponder using MEMS technology for implantable wireless inductor with a high-per- meability magnetic core (dia = 750 m), a chip capacitor and a RFID chip

Lee, Jeong-Bong

97

A Model for Estimating Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) Tag Antenna Efficiencies for Interval-Specific Emigration Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our goal was to understand movement and its interaction with survival for populations of stream salmonids at long-term study sites in the northeastern United States by employing passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and associated technology. Although our PIT tag antenna arrays spanned the stream channel (at most flows) and were continuously operated, we are aware that aspects of fish behavior,

Gregg E. Horton; Todd L. Dubreuil; Benjamin H. Letcher

2007-01-01

98

Use of Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) Tags to Monitor Migration Timing of Snake River Chinook Salmon Smolts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before 1989, there was little detailed knowledge of the migrational timing of wild smolts of Snake River spring and summer chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from individual streams. With the development of the passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag and methods for collecting and tagging parr, acquisition of information on migrational timing became feasible. We PIT-tagged wild chinook salmon parr in several

Stephen Achord; Gene M. Matthews; Orlay W. Johnson; Douglas M. Marsh

1996-01-01

99

Weather Radar Fundamentals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 2-hour module presents the fundamental principles of Doppler weather radar operation and how to interpret common weather phenomena using radar imagery. This is accomplished via conceptual animations and many interactive radar examples in which the user can practice interpreting both radar reflectivity and radar velocity imagery. Although intended as an accelerated introduction to understanding and using basic Doppler weather radar products, the module can also serve as an excellent refresher for more experienced users.

Comet

2012-03-21

100

Solar energy collecting apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy collecting apparatus is described which is integrally incorporated into a conventional building structure so that it does not protrude from the normal contour of the building, and which utilizes components of the building structure as a part of the collecting apparatus to thereby minimize the cost thereof. The collecting apparatus includes a solar energy absorptive panel which

Mcarthur

1980-01-01

101

Solar energy conversion apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparatus is disclosed for converting solar energy to useful energy principally for home use. The apparatus provides a complete system for receiving solar energy over a large area, e.g. 1,000 square feet; concentrating the energy; and directing the energy toward a target of a few square feet at an extremely high temperature. The receiving, concentrating and transmitting apparatus consists of

Thompson

1983-01-01

102

Code regenerative clean-up loop transponder for a mu-type ranging system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A loop transponder for regenerating the code of a mu type ranging system is disclosed. It includes a phase locked loop, a code generator, and a loop detector. The function of the phase locked loop is to provide phase lock between a received component wk of the range signal and a replica rafter wk of the received component, provided by the code generator. The code generator also provides a replica of the next component rafter w(w+1). The loop detector responds to wk rafler wk and rafter w(k+1) to determine when the next component w(k+1) is received and controls the code generator to supply w(k+1) to the phase locked loop and to generate a replica rafter w(k+2) of the next component.

Hurd, W. J. (inventor)

1973-01-01

103

Evacuation of Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) Tags from Northern Pikeminnow Consuming Tagged Juvenile Chinook Salmon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Prey fish implanted with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags can be used in predation studies if the timing of tag evacuation from the predators is understood. Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine how PIT tags in juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that were consumed by northern pikeminnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis were evacuated in relation to various parameters. The rate of evacuation was directly related to temperature, while predator size and the number of prey consumed had less effect on the timing of tag evacuation. A power model was fitted to predict the proportion of tags expected to be evacuated at different intervals after ingestion. These results could be used in planning field or laboratory predation experiments with PIT-tagged prey fish.

Petersen, J.H.; Barfoot, C.A.

2003-01-01

104

Nonlinear penalties in long-haul optical networks employing dynamic transponders.  

PubMed

We report for the first time, the impact of cross phase modulation in WDM optical transport networks employing dynamic 28 Gbaud PM-mQAM transponders (m = 4, 16, 64, 256). We demonstrate that if the order of QAM is adjusted to maximize the capacity of a given route, there may be a significant degradation in the transmission performance of existing traffic for a given dynamic network architecture. We further report that such degradations are correlated to the accumulated peak-to-average power ratio of the added traffic along a given path, and that managing this ratio through pre-distortion reduces the impact of adjusting the constellation size of neighboring channels. PMID:21643158

Rafique, Danish; Ellis, Andrew D

2011-05-01

105

Evaluation of Remote Delivery of Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) Technology to Mark Large Mammals  

PubMed Central

Methods to individually mark and identify free-ranging wildlife without trapping and handling would be useful for a variety of research and management purposes. The use of Passive Integrated Transponder technology could be an efficient method for collecting data for mark-recapture analysis and other strategies for assessing characteristics about populations of various wildlife species. Passive Integrated Transponder tags (PIT) have unique numbered frequencies and have been used to successfully mark and identify mammals. We tested for successful injection of PIT and subsequent functioning of PIT into gelatin blocks using 4 variations of a prototype dart. We then selected the prototype dart that resulted in the least depth of penetration in the gelatin block to assess the ability of PIT to be successfully implanted into muscle tissue of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) post-mortem and long-term in live, captive Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus). The prototype dart with a 12.7 mm (0.5 inch) needle length and no powder charge resulted in the shallowest mean (± SD) penetration depth into gelatin blocks of 27.0 mm (±5.6 mm) with 2.0 psi setting on the Dan-Inject CO2-pressured rifle. Eighty percent of PIT were successfully injected in the muscle mass of white-tailed deer post-mortem with a mean (± SD) penetration depth of 22.2 mm (±3.8 mm; n?=?6). We injected PIT successfully into 13 live, captive elk by remote delivery at about 20 m that remained functional for 7 months. We successfully demonstrated that PIT could be remotely delivered in darts into muscle mass of large mammals and remain functional for >6 months. Although further research is warranted to fully develop the technique, remote delivery of PIT technology to large mammals is possible using prototype implant darts. PMID:22984572

Walter, W. David; Anderson, Charles W.; VerCauteren, Kurt C.

2012-01-01

106

Radar electronic warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of radar and electronic warfare is given. Definitions, common terms, and principles of radar and electronic warfare, and simple analyses of interactions between radar systems and electronic countermeasures (ECM) are presented. Electronic counter-countermeasure and electronic support measures are discussed. Background material in mathematics, electromagnetics, and probability necessary for an understanding of radar and electronic warfare is given and

August Golden Jr.

1987-01-01

107

Radar cross section  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technological evolution in signal processing that has been made in last decades led to improvements in radar performances. Increasing the radar range by improving its sensitivity has been made by the designers of aircraft and other military systems to try to decrease the radar cross section of these types of equipment. The radar cross section is a matter of

L. Nicolaescu; Teofil Oroian

2001-01-01

108

Wind shear radar simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs used in a presentation on wind shear radar simulation are given. Information on a microburst model of radar reflectivity and wind velocity, radar pulse output, the calculation of radar return, microburst power spectrum, and simulation plans are given. A question and answer session is transcribed.

Britt, Charles L.

1988-01-01

109

System, method, and apparatus for remote measurement of terrestrial biomass  

DOEpatents

A system, method, and/or apparatus for remote measurement of terrestrial biomass contained in vegetative elements, such as large tree boles or trunks present in an area of interest, are provided. The method includes providing an airborne VHF radar system in combination with a LiDAR system, overflying the area of interest while directing energy toward the area of interest, using the VHF radar system to collect backscatter data from the trees as a function of incidence angle and frequency, and determining a magnitude of the biomass from the backscatter data and data from the laser radar system for each radar resolution cell. A biomass map is generated showing the magnitude of the biomass of the vegetative elements as a function of location on the map by using each resolution cell as a unique location thereon. In certain preferred embodiments, a single frequency is used with a linear array antenna.

Johnson, Patrick W (Jefferson, MD)

2011-04-12

110

Portable containment sleever apparatus  

DOEpatents

A sleever apparatus includes an inner member with a central passage through which an item to be sleeved is passed. An outer member surrounds the inner member and defines a space between the members for holding a supply of containment material, which is preferably plastic sleeving. The apparatus has a handle which allows a user to hold the apparatus and walk the apparatus along the length of the item to be sleeved. As the user passes the item through the sleever apparatus, the containment material exits through a slit at one end of the apparatus in order to contain the item. The sleever apparatus may be formed of disposable materials, such as cardboard, and may be intended for a single use application. Alternatively, the sleever apparatus may be comprised of more permanent materials such as PVC or fiberglass. The sleever apparatus may include a serrated end for cutting the containment material and may include appropriate tubing and valves for either directing an inert gas into the containment material around the item or for withdrawing air from within the containment material in order to create a vacuum. In one embodiment, the sleever apparatus has a cartridge that can be replaced with another cartridge once the supply of the containment material has been depleted.

Rea, Michael J. (North Augusta, SC); Brown, Roger A. (North Augusta, SC)

2000-01-01

111

Fault isolation detection expert (FIDEX). Part 1: Expert system diagnostics for a 30/20 Gigahertz satellite transponder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LeRC has recently completed the design of a Ka-band satellite transponder system, as part of the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) System. To enhance the reliability of this satellite, NASA funded the University of Akron to explore the application of an expert system to provide the transponder with an autonomous diagnosis capability. The results of this research was the development of a prototype diagnosis expert system called FIDEX (fault-isolation and diagnosis expert). FIDEX is a frame-based expert system that was developed in the NEXPERT Object development environment by Neuron Data, Inc. It is a MicroSoft Windows version 3.0 application, and was designed to operate on an Intel i80386 based personal computer system.

Durkin, John; Schlegelmilch, Richard; Tallo, Donald

1992-01-01

112

Systemwide Evaluation of Avian Predation on Juvenile Salmonids from the Columbia River Based on Recoveries of Passive Integrated Transponder Tags  

Microsoft Academic Search

We recovered passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags from nine piscivorous waterbird colonies in the Columbia River basin to evaluate avian predation on Endangered Species Act (ESA)-listed salmonid Oncorhynchus spp. populations during 2007–2010. Avian predation rates were calculated based on the percentage of PIT-tagged juvenile salmonids that were detected as passing hydroelectric dams and subsequently were consumed and deposited by birds

Allen F. Evans; Nathan J. Hostetter; Daniel D. Roby; Ken Collis; Donald E. Lyons; Benjamin P. Sandford; Richard D. Ledgerwood; Scott Sebring

2012-01-01

113

Battery cell feedthrough apparatus  

DOEpatents

A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance.

Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL)

1995-01-01

114

MMIC linear-phase and digital modulators for deep space spacecraft X-band transponder applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design concepts, analyses, and development of GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) linear-phase and digital modulators for the next generation of space-borne communications systems are summarized. The design approach uses a compact lumped element quadrature hybrid and Metal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MESFET)-varactors to provide low loss and well-controlled phase performance for deep space transponder (DST) applications. The measured results of the MESFET-diode show a capacitance range of 2:1 under reverse bias, and a Q of 38 at 10 GHz. Three cascaded sections of hybrid-coupled reflection phase shifters were modeled and simulations performed to provide an X-band (8415 +/- 50 MHz) DST phase modulator with +/- 2.5 radians of peak phase deviation. The modulator will accommodate downlink signal modulation with composite telemetry and ranging data, with a deviation linearity tolerance of +/- 8 percent and insertion loss of less than 8 +/- 0.5 dB. The MMIC digital modulator is designed to provide greater than 10 Mb/s of bi-phase modulation at X-band.

Mysoor, Narayan R.; Ali, Fazal

1991-01-01

115

Designing a ring-VCO for RFID transponders in 0.18 ?m CMOS process.  

PubMed

In radio frequency identification (RFID) systems, performance degradation of phase locked loops (PLLs) mainly occurs due to high phase noise of voltage-controlled oscillators (VCOs). This paper proposes a low power, low phase noise ring-VCO developed for 2.42 GHz operated active RFID transponders compatible with IEEE 802.11 b/g, Bluetooth, and Zigbee protocols. For ease of integration and implementation of the module in tiny die area, a novel pseudodifferential delay cell based 3-stage ring oscillator has been introduced to fabricate the ring-VCO. In CMOS technology, 0.18 ?m process is adopted for designing the circuit with 1.5 V power supply. The postlayout simulated results show that the proposed oscillator works in the tuning range of 0.5-2.54 GHz and dissipates 2.47 mW of power. It exhibits a phase noise of -126.62 dBc/Hz at 25 MHz offset from 2.42 GHz carrier frequency. PMID:24587731

Jalil, Jubayer; Reaz, Mamun Bin Ibne; Bhuiyan, Mohammad Arif Sobhan; Rahman, Labonnah Farzana; Chang, Tae Gyu

2014-01-01

116

Survival and tag loss in Moapa White River springfish implanted with passive integrated transponder tags  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We monitored survival and tag loss among Moapa White River springfish Crenichthys baileyi moapae that were surgically implanted with passive integrated transponder (PIT; 9 × 2 mm) tags. The fish used in the study ranged from 40 to 67 mm in total length and from 1.0 to 6.5 g in mass; the PIT tag: body weight ratios were 1.0–6.1%. Fish were held for 41 d in live cages within a small, warm desert stream. Survival did not differ between untagged control fish (94.5%) and tagged fish (95.6%). Survival did not appear to be influenced by fish size or PIT tag: body weight ratio, but the small number of fish that died precluded a detailed analysis. Tag retention was 100% among the 86 fish that survived over the 41 d. Our results suggest that surgically implanting 9-mm PIT tags into Moapa White River springfish as small as 40 mm is an effective method for marking them because it has minimal impacts on survival and tag retention is high. More work is needed on the effects of PIT tagging on growth and other performance metrics of springfish and other small desert fishes.

Dixon, Christopher J.; Mesa, Matthew G.

2011-01-01

117

Designing a Ring-VCO for RFID Transponders in 0.18 ?m CMOS Process  

PubMed Central

In radio frequency identification (RFID) systems, performance degradation of phase locked loops (PLLs) mainly occurs due to high phase noise of voltage-controlled oscillators (VCOs). This paper proposes a low power, low phase noise ring-VCO developed for 2.42?GHz operated active RFID transponders compatible with IEEE 802.11?b/g, Bluetooth, and Zigbee protocols. For ease of integration and implementation of the module in tiny die area, a novel pseudodifferential delay cell based 3-stage ring oscillator has been introduced to fabricate the ring-VCO. In CMOS technology, 0.18??m process is adopted for designing the circuit with 1.5?V power supply. The postlayout simulated results show that the proposed oscillator works in the tuning range of 0.5–2.54?GHz and dissipates 2.47?mW of power. It exhibits a phase noise of ?126.62?dBc/Hz at 25?MHz offset from 2.42?GHz carrier frequency. PMID:24587731

Jalil, Jubayer; Reaz, Mamun Bin Ibne; Bhuiyan, Mohammad Arif Sobhan; Rahman, Labonnah Farzana; Chang, Tae Gyu

2014-01-01

118

Radar electronic warfare  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of radar and electronic warfare is given. Definitions, common terms, and principles of radar and electronic warfare, and simple analyses of interactions between radar systems and electronic countermeasures (ECM) are presented. Electronic counter-countermeasure and electronic support measures are discussed. Background material in mathematics, electromagnetics, and probability necessary for an understanding of radar and electronic warfare is given and radar tracking models are examined. The effects of various ECM emissions on radar systems are analyzed, including discussion of active ECM and angle scanning systems, angle measurement in monopulse, and automatic gain control.

Golden, August, Jr.

119

CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHOD AND APPARATUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automatic scanning and recording apparatus is designed for scanning a ; chromatographic strip for radioactivity. The apparatus comprises a sealable ; chamber, scanning means within the chamber, a drum for carrying a spirally wound ; chromatographic strip, means for moving the drum to align successive portions of ; the strip with the scanner, detection means, and means for evacuating

E. B. Fowler; W. A. Rhinehart

1962-01-01

120

Variable volume calibration apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus is provided for determining the volume of a closed chamber. The apparatus includes a body having a cylindrical cavity therein including a threaded rear portion and a closed front end, and a piston having a threaded portion which mates with threaded rear portion of the cavity and which reciprocates in the cavity. A gas-impermeable seal, which is carried

R. L. Hallman Jr.; R. L. Jr

1991-01-01

121

Mobile drilling apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inventiond discloses a drilling apparatus mounted on a self-propelled base quipped with a joint to permit use on uneven terrain and drilling at various angles with respect to the terrain surface; embodiments of the invention feature suction apparatus for removing drill cuttings, and foldable masts.

C. C. Brown; J. R. Brown

1978-01-01

122

Rain-Mapping Radar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orbiting radar system measures rates of rainfall from 0.5 to 60 mm/h. Radar waves scattered and absorbed by rainfall to extents depending on wavelength, polarization, rate of rainfall, and distribution of sizes and shapes of raindrops. Backscattered radar signal as function of length of path through rain used to infer detailed information about rain. Accumulated radar return signals processed into global maps of monthly average rainfall for use in climatological studies.

Im, K. E.; Li, F. K.; Wilson, W. J.; Rosing, D.

1988-01-01

123

Radar augmentation device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The radar augmentation device (RAD) serves to increase the radar response of a target body and thus expedite radar acquisition. The design and development of the RAD are discussed with particular emphasis on technical problems that were encountered and solved. Discussions of the mode of operation of the RAD and the ground test history are also included.

Riedel, J. K.

1972-01-01

124

Micropower impulse radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invented and developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is an inexpensive and highly sensitive, low-power radar system that produces and samples extremely short pulses of energy at the rate of 2 million per second. Called micropower impulse radar (MIR), it can detect objects at a greater variety of distances with greater sensitivity than conventional radar. Its origins in the Laboratory`s

S. Azevedo; T. E. McEwan

1996-01-01

125

Lunar radar backscatter studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lunar surface material in the Plato area is characterized using Earth based visual, infrared, and radar signatures. Radar scattering in the lunar regolith with an existing optical scattering computer program is modeled. Mapping with 1 to 2 km resolution of the Moon using a 70 cm Arecibo radar is presented.

Thompson, T. W.

1979-01-01

126

Controlling radar signature  

SciTech Connect

Low observable technologies for military and tactical aircraft are reviewed including signature-reduction techniques and signal detection/jamming. Among the applications considered are low-signature sensors and the reduction of radar cross section in conjunction with radar-absorbing structures and materials. Technologies for reducing radar cross section are shown to present significant technological challenges, although they afford enhanced aircraft survivability.

Foulke, K.W. (U.S. Navy, Naval Air Warfare Center, China Lake, CA (United States))

1992-08-01

127

Controlling radar signature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low observable technologies for military and tactical aircraft are reviewed including signature-reduction techniques and signal detection\\/jamming. Among the applications considered are low-signature sensors and the reduction of radar cross section in conjunction with radar-absorbing structures and materials. Technologies for reducing radar cross section are shown to present significant technological challenges, although they afford enhanced aircraft survivability.

Foulke

1992-01-01

128

Radar hydrology: rainfall estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radar observations of rainfall and their use in hydrologic research provide the focus for the paper. Radar-rainfall products are crucial for input to runoff and flood prediction models, validation of satellite remote sensing algorithms, and for statistical characterization of extreme rainfall frequency. In this context we discuss the issues of radar-rainfall product development, and the theoretical and practical requirements of

W. F. Krajewski; J. A. Smith

2002-01-01

129

Cleaning method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A method of very thoroughly and quikcly cleaning a guaze electrode used in chemical analyses is given, as well as an automobile cleaning apparatus which makes use of the method. The method generates very little waste solution, and this is very important in analyzing radioactive materials, especially in aqueous solutions. The cleaning apparatus can be used in a larger, fully automated controlled potential coulometric apparatus. About 99.98% of a 5 mg plutonium sample was removed in less than 3 minutes, using only about 60 ml of rinse solution and two main rinse steps.

Jackson, D.D.; Hollen, R.M.

1981-02-27

130

Mirror plasma apparatus  

DOEpatents

A mirror plasma apparatus which utilizes shielding by arc discharge to form a blanket plasma and lithium walls to reduce neutron damage to the wall of the apparatus. An embodiment involves a rotating liquid lithium blanket for a tandem mirror plasma apparatus wherein the first wall of the central mirror cell is made of liquid lithium which is spun with angular velocity great enough to keep the liquid lithium against the first material wall, a blanket plasma preventing the lithium vapor from contaminating the plasma.

Moir, Ralph W. (Livermore, CA)

1981-01-01

131

Space Radar Image of Flevoland, Netherlands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a three-frequency false color image of Flevoland, The Netherlands, centered at 52.4 degrees north latitude, 5.4 degrees east longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard space shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994. It was produced by combining data from the X-band, C-band and L-band radars. The area shown is approximately 25 kilometers by 28 kilometers (15-1/2 by 17-1/2 miles). Flevoland, which fills the lower two-thirds of the image, is a very flat area that is made up of reclaimed land that is used for agriculture and forestry. At the top of the image, across the canal from Flevoland, is an older forest shown in red; the city of Harderwijk is shown in white on the shore of the canal. At this time of the year, the agricultural fields are bare soil, and they show up in this image in blue. The changes in the brightness of the blue areas are equal to the changes in roughness. The dark blue areas are water and the small dots in the canal are boats. This SIR-C/X-SAR supersite is being used for both calibration and agricultural studies. Several soil and crop ground-truth studies will be conducted during the shuttle flight. In addition, about 10calibration devices and 10 corner reflectors have been deployed to calibrate and monitor the radar signal. One of these transponders can be seen as a bright star in the lower right quadrant of the image. This false-color image was made using L-band total power in the red channel, C-band total power in the green channel, and X-band VV polarization in the blue channel. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrte.v. (DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

1999-01-01

132

Cloud and Precipitation Radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precipitation or weather radar is an essential tool for research, diagnosis, and nowcasting of precipitation events like fronts or thunderstorms. Only with weather radar is it possible to gain insights into the three-dimensional structure of thunderstorms and to investigate processes like hail formation or tornado genesis. A number of different radar products are available to analyze the structure, dynamics and microphysics of precipitation systems. Cloud radars use short wavelengths to enable detection of small ice particles or cloud droplets. Their applications differ from weather radar as they are mostly orientated vertically, where different retrieval techniques can be applied.

Hagen, Martin; Höller, Hartmut; Schmidt, Kersten

133

Emission Tube Apparatus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an image of an emission tube apparatus with tube in place. When plugged in and turned on the gas in the tube will become excited and emit a specific color of light depending upon the type of gas.

Ward, Charles

2003-01-16

134

Apparatus for growing crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved apparatus and method for growing crystals from a melt employing a heat pipe, consisting of one or more sections, each section serving to control temperature and thermal gradients in the crystal as it forms inside the pipe.

Jasinski, Thomas J. (Inventor); Witt, August F. (Inventor)

1986-01-01

135

Battery cell feedthrough apparatus  

DOEpatents

A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus is described comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance. 8 figs.

Kaun, T.D.

1995-03-14

136

Infrared microscope inspection apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface.

Forman, Steven E. (Framingham, MA); Caunt, James W. (Concord, MA)

1985-02-26

137

Vacuum pump apparatus  

DOEpatents

An improved cryopumping apparatus which comprises a cryopumping space which may be alternately opened and closed from the surrounding area by moveable panels, trubular cryopanels within said cryopumping space through which a coolant such as liquid helium may be passed, and an apparatus for spraying liquid argon onto said cylindrical cryopanels in order to enhance the cryogenic entrapment of such low-z ions, atoms, and molecules as hydrogen and helium.

Batzer, Thomas H. (Livermore, CA); Call, Wayne R. (Tracy, CA)

1985-01-01

138

2. VIEW SOUTHWEST, prime search radar tower, height finder radar ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW SOUTHWEST, prime search radar tower, height finder radar towards, height finder radar towers, and radar tower (unknown function) - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

139

Tracking butterfly flight paths across the landscape with harmonic radar  

PubMed Central

For the first time, the flight paths of five butterfly species were successfully tracked using harmonic radar within an agricultural landscape. Until now, butterfly mobility has been predominantly studied using visual observations and mark–recapture experiments. Attachment of a light-weight radar transponder to the butterfly's thorax did not significantly affect behaviour or mobility. Tracks were analysed for straightness, duration, displacement, ground speed, foraging and the influence of linear landscape features on flight direction. Two main styles of track were identified: (A) fast linear flight and (B) slower nonlinear flights involving a period of foraging and/or looped sections of flight. These loops potentially perform an orientation function, and were often associated with areas of forage. In the absence of forage, linear features did not provide a guiding effect on flight direction, and only dense treelines were perceived as barriers. The results provide tentative support for non-random dispersal and a perceptual range of 100–200?m for these species. This study has demonstrated a methodology of significant value for future investigation of butterfly mobility and dispersal. PMID:15888410

Cant, E.T; Smith, A.D; Reynolds, D.R; Osborne, J.L

2005-01-01

140

3. VIEW NORTHWEST, height finder radar towers, and radar tower ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. VIEW NORTHWEST, height finder radar towers, and radar tower (unknown function) - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

141

Polarization Imaging Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A polarization imaging apparatus has shown promise as a prototype of instruments for medical imaging with contrast greater than that achievable by use of non-polarized light. The underlying principles of design and operation are derived from observations that light interacts with tissue ultrastructures that affect reflectance, scattering, absorption, and polarization of light. The apparatus utilizes high-speed electro-optical components for generating light properties and acquiring polarization images through aligned polarizers. These components include phase retarders made of OptoCeramic (registered TradeMark) material - a ceramic that has a high electro-optical coefficient. The apparatus includes a computer running a program that implements a novel algorithm for controlling the phase retarders, capturing image data, and computing the Stokes polarization images. Potential applications include imaging of superficial cancers and other skin lesions, early detection of diseased cells, and microscopic analysis of tissues. The high imaging speed of this apparatus could be beneficial for observing live cells or tissues, and could enable rapid identification of moving targets in astronomy and national defense. The apparatus could also be used as an analysis tool in material research and industrial processing.

Zou, Yingyin K.; Chen, Qiushui

2010-01-01

142

Planetary radar studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A catalog of lunar and radar anomalies was generated to provide a base for comparison with Venusian radar signatures. The relationships between lunar radar anomalies and regolith processes were investigated, and a consortium was formed to compare lunar and Venusian radar images of craters. Time was scheduled at the Arecibo Observatory to use the 430 MHz radar to obtain high resolution radar maps of six areas of the lunar suface. Data from 1978 observations of Mare Serenitas and Plato are being analyzed on a PDP 11/70 computer to construct the computer program library necessary for the eventual reduction of the May 1981 and subsequent data acquisitions. Papers accepted for publication are presented.

Thompson, T. W.; Cutts, J. A.

1981-01-01

143

Laser radar in robotics  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the authors describe the basic operating principles of laser radar sensors and the typical algorithms used to process laser radar imagery for robotic applications. The authors review 12 laser radar sensors to illustrate the variety of systems that have been applied to robotic applications wherein information extracted from the laser radar data is used to automatically control a mechanism or process. Next, they describe selected robotic applications in seven areas: autonomous vehicle navigation, walking machine foot placement, automated service vehicles, manufacturing and inspection, automotive, military, and agriculture. They conclude with a discussion of the status of laser radar technology and suggest trends seen in the application of laser radar sensors to robotics. Many new applications are expected as the maturity level progresses and system costs are reduced.

Carmer, D.C.; Peterson, L.M. [Environmental Research Inst. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

1996-02-01

144

Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Transponder Loading Data Conversion Software. User's guide and software maintenance manual, version 1.2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This volume contains the complete software system documentation for the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Transponder Loading Data Conversion Software (FIX-FCC). This software was written to facilitate the formatting and conversion of FCC Transponder Occupancy (Loading) Data before it is loaded into the NASA Geosynchronous Satellite Orbital Statistics Database System (GSOSTATS). The information that FCC supplies NASA is in report form and must be converted into a form readable by the database management software used in the GSOSTATS application. Both the User's Guide and Software Maintenance Manual are contained in this document. This volume of documentation passed an independent quality assurance review and certification by the Product Assurance and Security Office of the Planning Research Corporation (PRC). The manuals were reviewed for format, content, and readability. The Software Management and Assurance Program (SMAP) life cycle and documentation standards were used in the development of this document. Accordingly, these standards were used in the review. Refer to the System/Software Test/Product Assurance Report for the Geosynchronous Satellite Orbital Statistics Database System (GSOSTATS) for additional information.

Mallasch, Paul G.

1993-01-01

145

Caribbean Radar Cases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module presents radar case studies taken from events in the Caribbean that highlight radar signatures of severe weather. These cases include examples of deep convection, squall lines, bow echoes, tornadoes, and heavy rain resulting in flooding. Each case study includes a discussion of the conceptual models of each type of event as a review before showing the radar signatures and allowing the learner to analyze each one.

Comet

2013-12-31

146

Biological particle identification apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for making multiparameter light scattering measurements from suspensions of biological particles is described. Fourteen of the sixteen Mueller matrix elements describing the particles under investigation can be substantially individually determined as a function of scattering angle and probing radiations wavelength, eight elements simultaneously for each of two apparatus configurations using an apparatus which incluees, in its simplest form, two polarization modulators each operating at a chosen frequency, one polarizer, a source of monochromatic electromagnetic radiation, a detector sensitive to the wavelength of radiation employed, eight phase-sensitive detectors, and appropriate electronics. A database of known biological particle suspensions can be assembled, and unknown samples can be quickly identified once measurements are performed on it according to the teachings of the subject invention, and a comparison is made with the database.

Salzman, Gary C. (Los Alamos, NM); Gregg, Charles T. (Los Alamos, NM); Grace, W. Kevin (Los Alamos, NM); Hiebert, Richard D. (Los Alamos, NM)

1989-01-01

147

Thermal energy test apparatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Navy Clothing and Textile Research Facility (NCTRF) designed and fabricated a thermal energy test apparatus to permit evaluation of the heat protection provided by crash crew firefighter's proximity clothing materials against radiant and convective heat loads, similar to those found outside the flame zone of aircraft fuel fires. The apparatus employs electrically operated quartz lamp radiant heaters and a hot air convective heater assembly to produce the heat load conditions the materials to be subjected to, and is equipped with heat flux sensors of different sensitivities to measure the incident heat flux on the sample material as well as the heat flux transmitted by the sample. Tests of the apparatus have shown that it can produce radiant heat flux levels equivalent to those estimated to be possible in close proximity to large aircraft fuel fires, and can produce convective heat fluxes equivalent to those measured in close proximity to aircraft fuel fires at upwind and sidewind locations. Work was performed in 1974.

Audet, N. F.

1991-10-01

148

Robot arm apparatus  

DOEpatents

A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for conveying inspection and/or maintenance apparatus from outside the steam generator to the interior of the steam generator. The flexible conduit has a terminal working end which is translated into and around the interior of the steam generator. Three motors located outside the steam generator are employed for moving the terminal working end inside the steam generator in "x", "y", and "z" directions, respectively. Commonly conducted inspection and maintenance operations include visual inspection for damaged areas, water jet lancing for cleaning sludge deposits, core boring for obtaining sludge deposits, and scrubbing of internal parts.

Nachbar, Henry D. (Ballston Lake, NY)

1992-01-01

149

Passive orientation apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus that can return a payload to a known orientation after unknown motion, without requiring external power or complex mechanical systems. The apparatus comprises a faceted cage that causes the system to rest in a stable position and orientation after arbitrary motion. A gimbal is mounted with the faceted cage and holds the payload, allowing the payload to move relative to the stable faceted cage. The payload is thereby placed in a known orientation by the interaction of gravity with the geometry of the faceted cage, the mass of the system, and the motion of the payload and gimbal. No additional energy, control, or mechanical actuation is required. The apparatus is suitable for use in applications requiring positioning of a payload to a known orientation after arbitrary or uncontrolled motion, including remote sensing and mobile robot applications.

Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM); Fischer, Gary J. (Albuquerque, NM); Martinez, Michael A. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01

150

The Invisible Radar Triangle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about radar imaging and its various military and civilian applications that include recognition and detection of human-made targets, and the monitoring of space, deforestation and oil spills. They learn how the concepts of similarity and scaling are used in radar imaging to create three-dimensional models of various targets. Students apply the critical attributes of similar figures to create scale models of a radar imaging scenario using infrared range sensors (to emulate radar functions) and toy airplanes (to emulate targets). They use technology tools to measure angles and distances, and relate the concept of similar figures to real-world applications.

RET-ENET Program, Electrical Engineering Department,

151

Visual examination apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automated visual examination apparatus for measuring visual sensitivity and mapping blind spot location is described. The apparatus includes a projection system for displaying to a patient a series of visual stimuli, a response switch enabling him to indicate his reaction to the stimuli, and a recording system responsive to both the visual stimuli per se and the patient's response. The recording system provides a correlated permanent record of both stimuli and response from which a substantive and readily apparent visual evaluation can be made.

Haines, R. F.; Fitzgerald, J. W.; Rositano, S. A. (inventors)

1973-01-01

152

Ultrasonic drilling apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry. In operation, slurry is provided into the housing, and into the spindle through inlets while the spindle is rotating and ultrasonically reciprocating. Slurry flows through the spindle and through the hollow drill bit to cleanse the cutting edge of the bit during a drilling operation. 3 figs.

Duran, E.L.; Lundin, R.L.

1988-06-20

153

Suspension apparatus for vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A suspension apparatus is described for a vehicle provided between a pair of left and right wheels of the vehicle and the vehicle body, comprising: telescopic members integrally connected to suspension springs and expanded and contracted by means of fluid pressure, fluid passages for feeding fluid pressurized by a pump to the telescopic members and discharging the fluid from the

H. Fujita; K. Honma; M. Ogawa

1987-01-01

154

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a coriolis simulator which uses a carbon paper trace technique and a simple specific-heat apparatus, emphasizing instructional considerations. Also indicates that a variac and an ordinary electric drill can be used to wind coil if a lathe or coil winder are unavailable. (JN)

Minnix, Richard B.; Carpenter, D. Rae, Jr.

1983-01-01

155

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a "no-cost" apparatus designed to demonstrate rotational inertia. Also describes and evaluates a microprocessor-based instrument (Versatile Laboratory Aid) that performs a large variety of timing and data acquisition tasks encountered in introductory and advanced physics laboratories. (JN)

Minnix, Richard B., Ed.; Carpenter, D. Rae, Jr., Ed.

1984-01-01

156

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a simple apparatus and provides instructions to do relative index of refraction measurements/calculations and to show mathematical relationships betwen indices when light travels from one liquid to another. A listing of a computer program (in BASIC) which will analyze data is available from the author. (JM)

Minnix, Richard B.; Carpenter, D. Rae, Jr.

1983-01-01

157

Oil skimming apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparatus for removing a film of oil from a large body of water consists of a pair of generally similar funnel assemblies, one positioned behind and in the wake of the other with a harness for towing them along their common central axis. Each funnel assembly has an impermeable cover with spaced floats to support its wide leading edge above

H. J. Fitzgerald; E. H. Koepf

1971-01-01

158

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a few apparatuses and demonstrations for teaching physics under the headings: demonstrating resonance of the inner ear, constructing a potential well-hill for overhead projectors, rubber tube vacuum pump, improvement on the simple homemade motor, air track to demonstrate sailing into the wind, and center of gravity and stability. (GA)

Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

1978-01-01

159

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains: (1) use of piezoelectric film (connected to power supply and oscilloscope) to reveal force-versus-time curves of bouncing balls; (2) use of bound wood splints or meter sticks to illustrate tree or tower stability; and (3) apparatus of co-axial discs with connected linking rods and suspended bobs to simulate waves. (DH)

Minnix, Richard B.; Carpenter, D. Rae, Jr.

1985-01-01

160

Autonomous data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus is described for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters. 4 figs.

Kotlyar, O.M.

1997-03-25

161

Autonomous data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters.

Kotlyar, Oleg M. (4675 W. 3825 S, Salt Lake City, UT 84120)

1997-01-01

162

Borehole data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A borehole data transmission apparatus whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

Kotlyar, Oleg M. (1739 Grandview #2, Idaho Falls, ID 83402)

1993-01-01

163

Borehole data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A borehole data transmission apparatus is described whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

Kotlyar, O.M.

1993-03-23

164

Gait-locomotor apparatus  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The gait-locomotor apparatus of the present invention is a device for overcoming impeded locomotion in humans and is aimed at enabling people with handicapped lower limbs to walk. The gait-locomotor apparatus that is wore on a disabled user comprises a brace having a plurality of jointed segments that are adapted to fit the lower body of the disabled user and propulsion means that is adapted to provide relative movement between the plurality of jointed segments. The gait-locomotor apparatus further comprises at least one sensor adapted to monitor the angular position of at least one of the plurality of jointed segments and a control unit that is adapted to supervise the propulsion means and to receive feedback information from the sensors so as to facilitate the brace to perform walking patterns. The disabled user that wears the gait-locomotor apparatus of the present invention is able to steadily stand in a stance position supported by the brace, and is able to walk in various walking patterns using the control unit while fully participating in the process.

2006-12-26

165

Hydrogen-Detection Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus continuously monitors concentration of hydrogen, at level ranging from few parts per million to several percent, in mixture of gases. Simple and fast, providing high sensitivity and linear response. Used to alert technicians to potentially explosive concentrations of residual hydrogen.

Ross, H. Richard; Bourgeois, Chris M.

1995-01-01

166

Fluidized coal pyrolysis apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Method and apparatus are claimed for pyrolyzing agglomerative coals. The method comprises introducing a fluidized bed of hot char particles into a pyrolysis chamber or reactor, and injecting upwardly into the chamber a high velocity jet of agglomerative coal particles in a carrier gas, the fluidized hot char particles surrounding the high velocity coal jet and heating the coal particles

1982-01-01

167

Controlled nuclear fusion apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fusion power generating device is disclosed having a relatively small and inexpensive core region which may be contained within an energy absorbing blanket region. The fusion power core region contains apparatus of the toroidal type for confining a high density plasma. The fusion power core is removable from the blanket region and may be disposed and\\/or recycled for subsequent

R. W. Bussard; B. Coppi

1982-01-01

168

Transient detector apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A transient detector apparatus utilizing peak and slope detectors to determine the presence of transient signal in a logic signal. Individual slope measurements of the input signal are compared with a logic criteria to establish the occurrence of a transient. The peak voltage and pulse width of a transient are digitized in order to time tag or isolate a transient

Lapeyrolerie

1985-01-01

169

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents two experimental set-ups. The first demonstrates the law of Malus using a pair of Polaroid polarizers and a monochromatic light source with an interference filter. The second describes a modification of Hilton's apparatus to demonstrate the effects of the magnetic hysteresis on an overhead projector. (CS)

Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

1980-01-01

170

Positioning and locking apparatus  

DOEpatents

A positioning and locking apparatus including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member.

Hayward, Milton L. (2305 Greenbrook Blvd., Richland, WA 99352); Harper, William H. (1454 Amon Dr., Richland, WA 99352)

1987-01-01

171

Positioning and locking apparatus  

DOEpatents

A positioning and locking apparatus are disclosed including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member. 6 figs.

Hayward, M.L.; Harper, W.H.

1987-06-30

172

Noncooperative rendezvous radar system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fire control radar system was developed, assembled, and modified. The baseline system and modified angle tracking system are described along with the performance characteristics of the baseline and modified systems. Proposed changes to provide additional techniques for radar evaluation are presented along with flight test data.

1974-01-01

173

Micropower impulse radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invented and developed at LLNL (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory), this inexpensive and highly sensitive radar system produces and samples extremely short pulses of energy. This novel technology is finding dozens of new uses in Laboratory programs and in sensor devices for homes, automobiles, factories, and hospitals. We have invented and patented a fundamentally different type of compact, low-power radar system

S. Azevedo; T. E. McEwan

1997-01-01

174

Radar illusion via metamaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optical illusion is an image of a real target perceived by the eye that is deceptive or misleading due to a physiological illusion or a specific visual trick. The recently developed metamaterials provide efficient approaches to generate a perfect optical illusion. However, all existing research on metamaterial illusions has been limited to theory and numerical simulations. Here, we propose the concept of a radar illusion, which can make the electromagnetic (EM) image of a target gathered by radar look like a different target, and we realize a radar illusion device experimentally to change the radar image of a metallic target into a dielectric target with predesigned size and material parameters. It is well known that the radar signatures of metallic and dielectric objects are significantly different. However, when a metallic target is enclosed by the proposed illusion device, its EM scattering characteristics will be identical to that of a predesigned dielectric object under the illumination of radar waves. Such an illusion device will confuse the radar, and hence the real EM properties of the metallic target cannot be perceived. We designed and fabricated the radar illusion device using artificial metamaterials in the microwave frequency, and good illusion performances are observed in the experimental results.

Jiang, Wei Xiang; Cui, Tie Jun

2011-02-01

175

Java Radar Analysis Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Java Radar Analysis Tool (JRAT) is a computer program for analyzing two-dimensional (2D) scatter plots derived from radar returns showing pieces of the disintegrating Space Shuttle Columbia. JRAT can also be applied to similar plots representing radar returns showing aviation accidents, and to scatter plots in general. The 2D scatter plots include overhead map views and side altitude views. The superposition of points in these views makes searching difficult. JRAT enables three-dimensional (3D) viewing: by use of a mouse and keyboard, the user can rotate to any desired viewing angle. The 3D view can include overlaid trajectories and search footprints to enhance situational awareness in searching for pieces. JRAT also enables playback: time-tagged radar-return data can be displayed in time order and an animated 3D model can be moved through the scene to show the locations of the Columbia (or other vehicle) at the times of the corresponding radar events. The combination of overlays and playback enables the user to correlate a radar return with a position of the vehicle to determine whether the return is valid. JRAT can optionally filter single radar returns, enabling the user to selectively hide or highlight a desired radar return.

Zaczek, Mariusz P.

2005-01-01

176

Colonial Waterbird Predation on Juvenile Salmonids Tagged with Passive Integrated Transponders in the Columbia River Estuary: Vulnerability of Different Salmonid Species, Stocks, and Rearing Types  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags implanted in Columbia River basin juvenile salmonids Oncorhyncus spp. were recovered from breeding colonies of Caspian terns Sterna caspia and double-crested cormorants Phalacrocorax auritus on Rice Island, a dredge spoil island in the Columbia River estuary. Tags were recovered to assess the relative vulnerability of different salmonid species, stocks, and rearing types to avian predators.

Ken Collis; Daniel D. Roby; David P. Craig; Brad A. Ryan; Richard D. Ledgerwood

2001-01-01

177

Colonial Waterbird Predation on Juvenile Salmonids Tagged with Passive Integrated Transponders in the Columbia River Estuary: Vulnerability of Different Salmonid Species, Stocks, and Rearing Types  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags implanted in Columbia River basin juvenile salmonids Oncorhyncusspp. were recovered from breeding colonies of Caspian terns Sterna caspia and double-crested cormorants Phalacrocorax aurituson Rice Island, a dredge spoil island in the Columbia River estuary. Tags were recovered to assess the relative vulnerability of different salmonid species, stocks, and rearing types to avian predators. We detected

Ken Collis; Daniel D. Roby; David P. Craig; Brad A. Ryan; Richard D. Ledgerwood

2001-01-01

178

Concept for an accurate calibration of long baseline two-way satellite time and frequency transfer (TWSTFT) links via two separated transponders on one telecommunication satellite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-way satellite time and frequency transfer (TWSTFT) is the technique which allows time scale comparisons at the nanosecond level. Until now, this uncertainty level is restricted to those institutes which both can exchange signals through the same single transponder of one telecommunication satellite. Only in this case the calibration scheme of circulating a portable TWSTFT reference station is applicable. This

D. Piester; T. Feldmann; A. Bauch; M. Fujieda; T. Gotoh

2009-01-01

179

Equatorial MU Radar project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoto University (RISH) has been studying the atmosphere by using radars. The first big facility was the MU (Middle and Upper atmosphere) radar installed in Shiga, Japan in 1984. This is one of the most powerful and multi-functional radar, and is successful of revealing importance of atmospheric waves for the dynamical vertical coupling processes. The next big radar was the Equatorial Atmosphere Radar (EAR) installed at Kototabang, West Sumatra, Indonesia in 2001. The EAR was operated under close collaboration with LAPAN (Indonesia National Institute for Aeronautics and Space), and conducted the long-term continuous observations of the equatorial atmosphere/ionosphere for more than 10 years. The MU radar and the EAR are both utilized for inter-university and international collaborative research program for long time. National Institute for Polar Research (NIPR) joined EISCAT Scientific Association together with Nagoya University, and developed the PANSY radar at Syowa base in Antarctica as a joint project with University of Tokyo. These are the efforts of radar study of the atmosphere/ionosphere in the polar region. Now we can find that Japan holds a global network of big atmospheric/ionospheric radars. The EAR has the limitation of lower sensitivity compared with the other big radars shown above. RISH now proposes a plan of Equatorial MU Radar (EMU) that is to establish the MU-radar class radar next to the EAR. The EMU will have an active phased array antenna with the 163m diameter and 1055 cross-element Yagis. Total output power of the EMU will be more than 500kW. The EMU can detect turbulent echoes from the mesosphere (60-80km). In the ionosphere incoherent-scatter observations of plasma density, drift, and temperature would be possible. Multi-channel receivers will realize radar-imaging observations. The EMU is one of the key facilities in the project "Study of coupling processes in the solar-terrestrial system" for Master Plan 2014 of the Science Council of Japan (SCJ). We show the EMU project and its science in the presentation.

Yamamoto, Mamoru; Hashiguchi, H.; Tsuda, Toshitaka; Yamamoto, Masayuki

180

Spaceborne weather radar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present work on the development status of spaceborne weather radar systems and services discusses radar instrument complementarities, the current forms of equations for the characterization of such aspects of weather radar performance as surface and mirror-image returns, polarimetry, and Doppler considerations, and such essential factors in spaceborne weather radar design as frequency selection, scanning modes, and the application of SAR to rain detection. Attention is then given to radar signal absorption by the various atmospheric gases, rain drop size distribution and wind velocity determinations, and the characteristics of clouds, as well as the range of available estimation methods for backscattering, single- and dual-wavelength attenuation, and polarimetric and climatological characteristics.

Meneghini, Robert; Kozu, Toshiaki

1990-01-01

181

Micropower impulse radar imaging  

SciTech Connect

From designs developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in radar and imaging technologies, there exists the potential for a variety of applications in both public and private sectors. Presently tests are being conducted for the detection of buried mines and the analysis of civil structures. These new systems use a patented ultra-wide band (impulse) radar technology known as Micropower Impulse Radar (GPR) imaging systems. LLNL has also developed signal processing software capable of producing 2-D and 3-D images of objects embedded in materials such as soil, wood and concrete. My assignment while at LLNL has focused on the testing of different radar configurations and applications, as well as assisting in the creation of computer algorithms which enable the radar to scan target areas of different geometeries.

Hall, M.S.

1995-11-01

182

Laser radar improvements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A short history of the uses of various laser radars is presented, and appropriate applications of laser and microwave radars are discussed. CO2 laser radar, operating at 10.6 microns, is considered for use in aircraft navigation systems, fire-control systems for armored vehicle and aircraft, missile guidance, severe storm research, line-of-sight command of missiles, wind turbine site surveys, clear-air turbulence monitors for aircraft, and satellite tracking. Microwave radar is all-weather, but is subject to multipath inaccuracies, countermeasures, and angular resolution limitations, so hybrid laser microwave systems look promising for microwave target acquisition and laser tracking. Advantages and disadvantages of the use of ruby, YAG, and CO2 lasers in varying atmospheric conditions are discussed. Development of a laser radar pod for obstacle detection, Doppler navigation, automatic terrain following, hover control, weapon delivery, and precision searching is noted.

Jelalian, A. V.

1981-11-01

183

4. VIEW NORTHEAST, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. VIEW NORTHEAST, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar tower, emergency power building, and height finder radar tower - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

184

5. VIEW EAST, height finder radar towers, radar tower (unknown ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. VIEW EAST, height finder radar towers, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar tower, operations building, and central heating plant - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

185

Spaceborne meteorological radar studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various radar designs and methods are studied for the estimation of rainfall parameters from space. An immediate goal is to support the development of the spaceborne radar that has been proposed for the Tropical Rain Measuring Mission (TRMM). The effort is divided into two activities: a cooperative airborne rain measuring experiment with the Radio Research Laboratory of Japan (RRL), and the modelling of spaceborne weather radars. An airborne rain measuring experiment was conducted at Wallops Flight Facility in 1985 to 1986 using the dual-wavelength radar/radiometer developed by RRL. The data are presently being used to test a number of methods that are relevant to spaceborne weather radars. An example is shown of path-averaged rain rates as estimated from three methods: the standard reflectivity rain rate method (Z-R), a dual-wavelength method, and a surface reference method. The results from the experiment shows for the first time the feasibility of using attenuation methods from space. The purposes of the modelling are twofold: to understand in a quantitative manner the relationships between a particular radar design and its capability for estimating precipitation parameters and to help devise and test new methods. The models are being used to study the impact of various TRMM radar designs on the accuracy of rain rate estimation as well as to test the performance of range-profiling algorithms, the mirror-image method, and some recently devised graphical methods for the estimation of the drop size distribution.

Meneghini, R.

1988-01-01

186

Planetary Radar Astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radar is a powerful technique that has furnished otherwise unavailable information about solar system bodies for three decades. The advantages of radar in planetary astronomy result from: (1) the observer's control of all the attributes of the coherent signal used to illuminate the target, especially the wave form's time/frequency modulation and polarization; (2) the ability of radar to resolve objects spatially via measurements of the distribution of echo power in time delay and Doppler frequency; (3) the pronounced degree to which delay-Doppler measurements constrain orbits and spin vectors; and (4) centimeter-to-meter wavelengths, which easily penetrate optically opaque planetary clouds and cometary comae, permit investigation of near-surface macrostructure and bulk density, and are sensitive to high concentrations of metal or, in certain situations, ice. Planetary radar astronomy has primarily involved observations with Earth-based radar telescopes, but also includes some experiments with a spaceborne transmitter or receiver. In addition to providing a wealth of information about the geological and dynamical properties of asteroids, comets, the inner planets, and natural satellites, radar experiments have established the scale of the solar system, have contributed significantly to the accuracy of planetary ephemerides, and have helped to constrain theories of gravitation. This review outlines radar astronomical techniques and describes principal observational results.

Ostro, Steven J.

1993-01-01

187

Radar Calibration Using a Student-Built Nanosatellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a matter of national security, the US military must monitor and calibrate its 80+ C-band radar tracking stations on a consistent basis. These radar stations, which are distributed around the world, currently depend on two calibration satellites: RADCAL and DMSP F-15, launched in 1993 and 1999, respectively. Should either of these two satellites fail, the community of radar calibration users will no longer have a dependable means of calibration. Presented in this paper is the story behind a student-built satellite project, named Ho‘oponopono (“to make right” in the Hawaiian language), which is the first radar calibration satellite to take on a CubeSat form-factor. Led by a team of undergraduate and graduate students, this project has enabled its participants to reach their true potentials and thus act as a training ground for a class of highly competent, multi-tiered engineers. The management practices implemented throughout this project follow those used by today’s top defense contractors and engineering companies. Being involved in a project of this caliber, although time-consuming, provides the students with the experiences they need to make immediate and worthwhile contributions in today’s workforce. Juggling the multitude of commitments they have, however, makes it a challenge. Ho‘oponopono’s concept of operations calls for the collection and dissemination of ephemeris data, while simultaneously conducting transponder interrogations. After acquiring both sets of data, a radar station requesting calibration can then correlate the two and implement its calibration algorithms as needed. Ho‘oponopono and its mission were the basis for the University of Hawaii’s participation in the AFOSR University Nanosat-6 Program. After completing a rigorous two-year, six-level review process, we were awarded with the Most Improved and Third Place Awards at the January 2011 Flight Competition Review. Ho‘oponopono was also selected by NASA as a participant in its CubeSat Launch Initiative for an upcoming launch.

Martin, L.; Fisher, N.; Jones, W.; Umeda, M.; Furumo, J.; Ah Heong, J.; Lim, T.; Shiroma, W.

2011-09-01

188

Space object observation with radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

FGAN developed a High Power Radar System, able to track and image low Earth orbiting objects, for experimental radar research. The system is unique in Germany; it consists of a narrow band tracking radar and a high resolution imaging radar. The radars are supported from one 34-m parabolic dish antenna. They operate simultaneously on the object of interest. All information which a radar can gain about physical characteristics of targets have to be extracted from the backscattered electromagnetic field of transmitted pulses. L-band tracking data provide information on range, range rate, angular direction, and radar cross-section. From high resolution polarimetric Ku-band radar data projections of the 1- and 2-dimensional scatter centre distributions are computed. This paper gives a brief description of the FGAN radar and summarizes some radar based methods for orbit analysis, orbital lifetime prediction, reconstruction of object images, assessment of object dimensions, shape, attitude, and mass.

Mehrholz, D.

1993-08-01

189

Gas shielding apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for preventing oxidation by uniformly distributing inert shielding gas over the weld area of workpieces such as pipes being welded together. The apparatus comprises a chamber and a gas introduction element. The chamber has an annular top wall, an annular bottom wall, an inner side wall and an outer side wall connecting the top and bottom walls. One side wall is a screen and the other has a portion defining an orifice. The gas introduction element has a portion which encloses the orifice and can be one or more pipes. The gas introduction element is in fluid communication with the chamber and introduces inert shielding gas into the chamber. The inert gas leaves the chamber through the screen side wall and is dispersed evenly over the weld area.

Brandt, D.

1984-06-05

190

Gas shielding apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for preventing oxidation by uniformly distributing inert shielding gas over the weld area of workpieces such as pipes being welded together. The apparatus comprises a chamber and a gas introduction element. The chamber has an annular top wall, an annular bottom wall, an inner side wall and an outer side wall connecting the top and bottom walls. One side wall is a screen and the other has a portion defining an orifice. The gas introduction element has a portion which encloses the orifice and can be one or more pipes. The gas introduction element is in fluid communication with the chamber and introduces inert shielding gas into the chamber. The inert gas leaves the chamber through the screen side wall and is dispersed evenly over the weld area.

Brandt, Daniel (Los Alamos, NM)

1985-01-01

191

Gas shielding apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is disclosed for preventing oxidation by uniformly distributing inert shielding gas over the weld area of workpieces such as pipes being welded together. The apparatus comprises a chamber and a gas introduction element. The chamber has an annular top wall, an annular bottom wall, an inner side wall and an outer side wall connecting the top and bottom walls. One side wall is a screen and the other has a portion defining an orifice. The gas introduction element has a portion which encloses the orifice and can be one or more pipes. The gas introduction element is in fluid communication with the chamber and introduces inert shielding gas into the chamber. The inert gas leaves the chamber through the screen side wall and is dispersed evenly over the weld area. 3 figs.

Brandt, D.

1985-12-31

192

The radon EDM apparatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The observation of a permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) at current experimentally accessible levels would provide clear evidence of physics beyond the Standard Model. EDMs violate CP symmetry, making them a possible route to explaining the size of the observed baryon asymmetry in the universe. The Radon EDM Experiment aims to search for an EDM in radon isotopes whose sensitivity to CP-odd interactions is enhanced by octupole-deformed nuclei. A prototype apparatus currently installed in the ISAC hall at TRIUMF includes a gas handling system to move radon from a collection foil to a measurement cell and auxiliary equipment for polarization diagnostics and validation. The features and capabilities of the apparatus are described and an overview of the experimental design for a gamma-ray-anisotropy based EDM measurement is provided.

Tardiff, E. R.; Rand, E. T.; Ball, G. C.; Chupp, T. E.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Garrett, P.; Hayden, M. E.; Kierans, C. A.; Lorenzon, W.; Pearson, M. R.; Schaub, C.; Svensson, C. E.

2014-01-01

193

Image display apparatus  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An image display apparatus includes: a display displaying an image with a predetermined number of pixels; an image holding unit holding an original image composed of a number of pixels larger than a number of pixels that is displayable on the display; and an object judgment unit judging whether or not an object is included in the original image held in the image holding unit, and generating object information related to the object in a case where the object is included in the original image. The image display apparatus also includes a display image generation unit extracting at least a part of an object area from the original image based on the original image specified by the user as well as on the object information corresponding to the original image, and generating a display image composed of a number of pixels corresponding to the number of pixels that is displayable on the display.

2008-12-23

194

Ophthalmic method and apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method and apparatus for removing material and components such as the lens from an eye is described. High speed rotary cutting members at one end of a rod macerate the lens while an annular tubing disposed around the cutting members vibrates ultrasonically to coact with the cutting members in macerating the lens. At the same time, a liquid is supplied to the chamber behind the cornea of the eye. Spiral grooves extending along the rotating rod from the cutting members evacuate the liquid and the macerated material from the eye. An alternate embodiment of the apparatus includes a tube through which liquid is supplied to the operative site of the ultrasonically vibrating tube and the cutting members in the area of the lens.

Evvard, J. C.; Mcgannon, W. J.; Vargo, D. J. (inventors)

1973-01-01

195

Thermal protection apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for thermally protecting heat sensitive components of tools. The apparatus comprises a Dewar for holding the heat sensitive components. The Dewar has spaced-apart inside and outside walls, an open top end and a bottom end. An insulating plug is located in the top end. The inside wall has portions defining an inside wall aperture located at the bottom of the Dewar and the outside wall has portions defining an outside wall aperture located at the bottom of the Dewar. A bottom connector has inside and outside components. The inside component sealably engages the inside wall aperture and the outside component sealably engages the outside wall aperture. The inside component is operatively connected to the heat sensitive components and to the outside component. The connections can be made with optical fibers or with electrically conducting wires.

Bennett, Gloria A. (Los Alamos, NM); Moore, Troy K. (Los Alamos, NM)

1988-01-01

196

Electrowinning apparatus and process  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and processes are disclosed for electrowinning metal from a fluid stream. A representative apparatus comprises at least one spouted bed reactor wherein each said reactor includes an anolyte chamber comprising an anode and configured for containing an anolyte, a catholyte chamber comprising a current collector and configured for containing a particulate cathode bed and a flowing stream of an electrically conductive metal-containing fluid, and a membrane separating said anolyte chamber and said catholyte chamber, an inlet for an electrically conductive metal-containing fluid stream; and a particle bed churning device configured for spouting particle bed particles in the catholyte chamber independently of the flow of said metal-containing fluid stream. In operation, reduced heavy metals or their oxides are recovered from the cathode particles.

Buschmann, Wayne E. (Boulder, CO)

2012-06-19

197

Oil recovery apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An oil spill recovery method and apparatus is disclosed. The method of recovery involves the pumping of an oil/water mixture from a concentration area to the submerged portion of a vertically oriented cylinder, open at both ends, and the separation of the oil from the water in the cylinder. Oil floats to and accumulates on the surface of the water in the cylinder and uncontaminated water flows out through the lower open end of the cylinder. The apparatus includes a collection unit which defines the concentration area within three walls thereof, a recovery unit which follows the collection unit and mounts the cylinder therein, and a submerged pumping unit which carries an oil/water mixture from the concentration area in the collection unit to the cylinder in the recovery unit. There is very little emulsification of the oil in the cylinder and hence there is very efficient separation onf the oil from the water.

Wylie, M. M.

1985-04-09

198

Radar applications overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the fifty years since its initial development as a means of providing early warning of airborne attacks against allied countries during World War II, radar systems have developed to the point of being highly mobile and versatile systems capable of supporting a wide variety of remote sensing applications. Instead of being tied to stationary land-based sites, radar systems have found their way into highly mobile land vehicles as well as into aircraft, missiles, and ships of all sizes. Of all these applications, however, the most exciting revolution has occurred in the airborne platform arena where advanced technology radars can be found in all shapes and sizes...ranging from the large AWACS and Joint STARS long range surveillance and targeting systems to small millimeter wave multi-spectral sensors on smart weapons that can detect and identify their targets through the use of highly sophisticated digital signal processing hardware and software. This paper presents an overview of these radar applications with the emphasis on modern airborne sensors that span the RF spectrum. It will identify and describe the factors that influence the parameters of low frequency and ultra wide band radars designed to penetrate ground and dense foliage environments and locate within them buried mines, enemy armor, and other concealed or camouflaged weapons of war. It will similarly examine the factors that lead to the development of airborne radar systems that support long range extended endurance airborne surveillance platforms designed to detect and precision-located both small high speed airborne threats as well as highly mobile time critical moving and stationary surface vehicles. The mission needs and associated radar design impacts will be contrasted with those of radar systems designed for high maneuverability rapid acquisition tactical strike warfare platforms, and shorter range cued air-to-surface weapons with integral smart radar sensors.

Greenspan, Marshall

1996-06-01

199

Visual examination apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automated visual examination apparatus for measuring visual sensitivity and mapping blind spot location including a projection system for displaying to a patient a series of visual stimuli. A response switch enables him to indicate his reaction to the stimuli, and a recording system responsive to both the visual stimuli per se and the patient's response. The recording system thereby provides a correlated permanent record of both stimuli and response from which a substantive and readily apparent visual evaluation can be made.

Haines, R. F.; Fitzgerald, J. W.; Rositano, S. A. (inventors)

1976-01-01

200

Portable cutting apparatus  

DOEpatents

A remotely operable, portable cutting apparatus detachably secured to the workpiece by laterally spaced clamp assemblies engagable with the workpiece on opposite sides of the intended line of cut. A reciprocal cutter head is mounted between the clamp assemblies and is provided with a traveling abrasive cutting wire adapted to sever the workpiece normal to the longitudinal axis thereof. Dust and debris are withdrawn from the cutting area by a vacuum force through a nozzle mounted on the cutting head.

Gilmore, R.F.

1984-07-17

201

Kinesimetric method and apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus and method for the determination of functional capability of bodies are disclosed. Reach as well as velocity, acceleration and force generation at various positions may be determined for a body by a three dimensional kinesimeter equipped with an ergometer. A general data package indicative of performance potential of a subject body or collection of bodies is provided for interfacing with data characteristics of various environments.

Thornton, W. E. (inventor)

1980-01-01

202

Lunar deep drill apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed as a baseline configuration, this rotary drill apparatus is designed to produce 100-mm diameter holes in the lunar surface at depths up to 50 meters. The drill is intended to acquire samples for scientific analysis, mineral resource location, calibration of electronic exploration devices, and foundation analysis at construction sites. It is also intended to prepare holes for emplacement of scientific instruments, the setting of structural anchors, and explosive methods in excavation and mining activities. Defined as a deep drill because of the modular drill string, it incorporates an automatic rod changer. The apparatus is teleoperated from a remote location, such as earth, utilizing supervisory control techniques. It is thus suitable for unmanned and man-tended operation. Proven terrestrial drilling technology is used to the extent it is compatible with the lunar environment. Augers and drive tubes form holes in the regolith and may be used to acquire loose samples. An inertial cutting removal system operates intermittently while rock core drilling is in progress. The apparatus is carried to the work site by a three-legged mobile platform which also provides a 2-meter feed along the hole centerline, an off-hole movement of approximately .5 meters, an angular alignment of up to 20 deg. from gravity vertical, and other dexterity required in handling rods and samples. The technology can also be applied using other carriers which incorporate similar motion capabilities. The apparatus also includes storage racks for augers, rods, and ancillary devices such as the foot-plate that holds the down-hole tooling during rod changing operations.

1989-01-01

203

Ion beam generating apparatus  

DOEpatents

An ion generating apparatus utilizing a vacuum chamber, a cathode and an anode in the chamber. A source of electrical power produces an arc or discharge between the cathode and anode. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma is directed to an extractor which separates the electrons from the plasma, and accelerates the ions to produce an ion beam. 10 figs.

Brown, I.G.; Galvin, J.

1987-12-22

204

Demand illumination control apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar illuminating compensating apparatus is disclosed whereby the interior of a building is illuminated to a substantially constant, predetermined level of light intensity by a combination of natural illumination from the sun and artificial illumination from electricity wherein the intensity of said artificial illumination is controlled by fully electronic means which increases the level of artificial illumination when the natural illumination is inadequate and vice versa.

Warren, Carl (Inventor); Arline, Jimmie (Inventor); LaPalme, Julius (Inventor)

1981-01-01

205

Apparatus Circulates Sterilizing Gas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus circulates sterilizing gas containing ethylene oxide and chlorofluorocarbon through laboratory or medical equipment. Confines sterilizing gas, circulating it only through parts to be treated. Consists of two units. One delivers ethylene oxide/chlorofluorocarbon gas mixture and removes gas after treatment. Other warms, humidifies, and circulates gas through equipment to be treated. Process provides reliable sterilization with negligible residual toxicity from ethylene oxide. Particularly suitable for sterilization of interiors of bioreactors, heart/lung machines, dialyzers, or other equipment including complicated tubing.

Cross, John H.; Schwarz, Ray P.

1991-01-01

206

Fire suppressing apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for smothering a liquid sodium fire comprises a pan, a perforated cover on the pan, and tubes depending from the cover and providing communication between the interior of the pan and the ambient atmosphere through the perforations in the cover. Liquid caught in the pan rises above the lower ends of the tubes and thus serves as a barrier which limits the amount of air entering the pan.

Buttrey, Kenneth E. (Northridge, CA)

1982-11-02

207

Portable cutting apparatus  

DOEpatents

A remotely operable, portable cutting apparatus detachably secured to the workpiece by laterally spaced clamp assemblies engageable with the workpiece on opposite sides of the intended line of cut. A reciprocal cutter head is mounted between the clamp assemblies and is provided with a traveling abrasive cutting wire adapted to sever the workpiece normal to the longitudinal axis thereof. Dust and debris are withdrawn from the cutting area by a vacuum force through a nozzle mounted on the cutting head.

Gilmore, Richard F. (Kennewick, WA)

1986-01-01

208

Holographic surveillance radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the 1940s, radar development has focused on narrow-beam, scanning sensors. A wide field of view has advantages in terms of extended acquisition time for any target, and when combined with a high Doppler sampling frequency can yield high-resolution Doppler spectra. Unambiguous range and Doppler can be achieved under certain circumstances, resulting in enhanced ability to evaluate the characteristics of targets and clutter. Holographic radar has a range of applications in which the ability to discriminate targets among clutter is key. An example of such an application is in mitigation of wind farm interference with Air Traffic Control radar.

Oswald, Gordon K. A.

2009-05-01

209

Micropower impulse radar  

SciTech Connect

Invented and developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is an inexpensive and highly sensitive, low-power radar system that produces and samples extremely short pulses of energy at the rate of 2 million per second. Called micropower impulse radar (MIR), it can detect objects at a greater variety of distances with greater sensitivity than conventional radar. Its origins in the Laboratory`s Laser Directorate stem from Nova`s transient digitizer. The MIR`s extraordinary range of applications include security, search and rescue, life support, nondestructive evaluation, and transportation.

Azevedo, S.; McEwan, T.E.

1996-01-01

210

Wellbore fluid sampling apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is described for capturing a sample of fluid from a wellbore characterized by: an elongated generally tubular body member, the body member including means for connecting the apparatus to means for lowering the apparatus into a wellbore; the body member including means defining a generally cylindrical bore and port means in the body member opening into the bore for conducting a flow of fluid to be sampled into the bore; piston means disposed in the bore and dividing the bore into first and second chambers, the first chamber being operable to be in flow communication with the port means for receiving the fluid sample through the port means, and the second chamber being filled with a displacement fluid to prevent displacement of the piston means to increase the volume of the first chamber; valve means in communication with the second chamber for selectively valving displacement fluid from the second chamber to permit the piston means to increase the volume of the first chamber; and closure means for the first chamber for closing off communication of the first chamber with the port means when the first chamber has received the fluid sample.

Petermann, S.G.

1988-08-30

211

Caribbean Radar Products  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module provides examples of radar imagery from various locations in the Caribbean to demonstrate the different types of images available. Also, examples of different meteorological and non meteorological features are presented to show features seen in island locations.

Comet

2013-12-31

212

Radar Calibration Test Satellite  

Microsoft Academic Search

A satellite has been designed for application to radar calibration. Electromagnetic and mechanical characteristics of the satellite and their influence on the selection of shape and other parameters are discussed. Theoretical and experimental scattering data are included.

L. J. Kaplan; J. F. A. Ormsby; EVERT N. FOWLE; KENT R. JOHNSON; Richard T. Bates; S. H. Bickel

1969-01-01

213

A smart radar absorber  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a configuration for a smart radar absorber which is capable of both self-tuning and absorb while scan operation. The discussion is complemented by modelled and measured performance data.

Barry Chambers

1999-01-01

214

Laser Radar Animation  

NASA Video Gallery

Laser and radar instruments aboard NASA aircraft provide measurements of the snow and ice surface and down to the bedrock under the ice. Lasers, with a shorter wavelength, measure the surface eleva...

215

Phased-array radars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The operating principles, technology, and applications of phased-array radars are reviewed and illustrated with diagrams and photographs. Consideration is given to the antenna elements, circuitry for time delays, phase shifters, pulse coding and compression, and hybrid radars combining phased arrays with lenses to alter the beam characteristics. The capabilities and typical hardware of phased arrays are shown using the US military systems COBRA DANE and PAVE PAWS as examples.

Brookner, E.

1985-02-01

216

Downhole pulse radar  

DOEpatents

A borehole logging tool generates a fast rise-time, short duration, high peak-power radar pulse having broad energy distribution between 30 MHz and 300 MHz through a directional transmitting and receiving antennas having barium titanate in the electromagnetically active region to reduce the wavelength to within an order of magnitude of the diameter of the antenna. Radar returns from geological discontinuities are sampled for transmission uphole. 7 figs.

Chang, Hsi-Tien

1987-09-28

217

Downhole pulse radar  

DOEpatents

A borehole logging tool generates a fast rise-time, short duration, high peak-power radar pulse having broad energy distribution between 30 MHz and 300 MHz through a directional transmitting and receiving antennas having barium titanate in the electromagnetically active region to reduce the wavelength to within an order of magnitude of the diameter of the antenna. Radar returns from geological discontinuities are sampled for transmission uphole.

Chang, Hsi-Tien (Albuquerque, NM)

1989-01-01

218

Current radar-responsive tag development activities at Sandia National Laboratories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past ten years, Sandia has developed RF radar responsive tag systems and supporting technologies for various government agencies and industry partners. RF tags can function as RF transmitters or radar transponders that enable tagging, tracking, and location determination functions. Expertise in tag architecture, microwave and radar design, signal analysis and processing techniques, digital design, modeling and simulation, and testing have been directly applicable to these tag programs. In general, the radar responsive tag designs have emphasized low power, small package size, and the ability to be detected by the radar at long ranges. Recently, there has been an interest in using radar responsive tags for Blue Force tracking and Combat ID (CID). The main reason for this interest is to allow airborne surveillance radars to easily distinguish U.S. assets from those of opposing forces. A Blue Force tracking capability would add materially to situational awareness. Combat ID is also an issue, as evidenced by the fact that approximately one-quarter of all U.S. casualties in the Gulf War took the form of ground troops killed by friendly fire. Because the evolution of warfare in the intervening decade has made asymmetric warfare the norm rather than the exception, swarming engagements in which U.S. forces will be freely intermixed with opposing forces is a situation that must be anticipated. Increasing utilization of precision munitions can be expected to drive fires progressively closer to engaged allied troops at times when visual de-confliction is not an option. In view of these trends, it becomes increasingly important that U.S. ground forces have a widely proliferated all-weather radar responsive tag that communicates to all-weather surveillance. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the recent, current, and future radar responsive research and development activities at Sandia National Laboratories that support both the Blue Force Tracking and Combat ID application. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company for the United States Departments of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Ormesher, Richard C.; Plummer, Kenneth W.; Wells, Lars M.

2004-08-01

219

On wave radar measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SAAB REX WaveRadar sensor is widely used for platform-based wave measurement systems by the offshore oil and gas industry. It offers in situ surface elevation wave measurements at relatively low operational costs. Furthermore, there is adequate flexibility in sampling rates, allowing in principle sampling frequencies from 1 to 10 Hz, but with an angular microwave beam width of 10° and an implied ocean surface footprint in the order of metres, significant limitations on the spatial and temporal resolution might be expected. Indeed there are reports that the accuracy of the measurements from wave radars may not be as good as expected. We review the functionality of a WaveRadar using numerical simulations to better understand how WaveRadar estimates compare with known surface elevations. In addition, we review recent field measurements made with a WaveRadar set at the maximum sampling frequency, in the light of the expected functionality and the numerical simulations, and we include inter-comparisons between SAAB radars and buoy measurements for locations in the North Sea.

Ewans, Kevin; Feld, Graham; Jonathan, Philip

2014-09-01

220

Mixing method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

Method of mixing particulate materials comprising contacting a primary source and a secondary source thereof whereby resulting mixture ensues; preferably at least one of the two sources has enough motion to insure good mixing and the particulate materials may be heat treated if desired. Apparatus for such mixing comprising an inlet for a primary source, a reactor communicating therewith, a feeding means for supplying a secondary source to the reactor, and an inlet for the secondary source. Feeding means is preferably adapted to supply fluidized materials.

Green, Norman W. (Redwood City, CA)

1982-06-15

221

Energy efficient apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An energy efficient apparatus is described suitable for use in hot arid climates wherein a source of water is available, comprising in combination: (A) a wheel member having a hub portion and a rim portion, the wheel portion being submerged within the water to a depth sufficient to more than immerse the wheel member hub portion, the wheel member having a plurality of spoke means equally disposed of about the circumference of the hub portion disposed between the hub portion and the rim portion.

Suroff, H.

1986-09-02

222

Sonic levitation apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sonic levitation apparatus is disclosed which includes a sonic transducer which generates acoustical energy responsive to the level of an electrical amplifier. A duct communicates with an acoustical chamber to deliver an oscillatory motion of air to a plenum section which contains a collimated hole structure having a plurality of parallel orifices. The collimated hole structure converts the motion of the air to a pulsed. Unidirectional stream providing enough force to levitate a material specimen. Particular application to the production of microballoons in low gravity environment is discussed.

Dunn, S. A.; Pomplum, A. R.; Paquette, E. G.; Ethridge, E. C.; Johnson, J. L. (inventors)

1984-01-01

223

Combustion Experiment Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interior of a combustion experiment apparatus used in the 2.2-second drop tower at NASA's Glenn Research Center. This was shown to students participating in the second Dropping in a Microgravity Environment (DIME) competition held April 23-25, 2002, at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Competitors included two teams from Sycamore High School, Cincinnati, OH, and one each from Bay High School, Bay Village, OH, and COSI Academy, Columbus, OH. DIME is part of NASA's education and outreach activities. Details are on line at http://microgravity.grc.nasa.gov/DIME_2002.html.

2002-01-01

224

Municipal waste processing apparatus  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to apparatus for processing municipal waste, and more particularly to vibrating mesh screen conveyor systems for removing grit, glass, and other noncombustible materials from dry municipal waste. Municipal waste must be properly processed and disposed of so that it does not create health risks to the community. Generally, municipal waste, which may be collected in garbage trucks, dumpsters, or the like, is deposited in processing areas such as landfills. Land and environmental controls imposed on landfill operators by governmental bodies have increased in recent years, however, making landfill disposal of solid waste materials more expensive. 6 figs.

Mayberry, J.L.

1988-04-13

225

DNA Sequencing apparatus  

DOEpatents

An automated DNA sequencing apparatus having a reactor for providing at least two series of DNA products formed from a single primer and a DNA strand, each DNA product of a series differing in molecular weight and having a chain terminating agent at one end; separating means for separating the DNA products to form a series bands, the intensity of substantially all nearby bands in a different series being different, band reading means for determining the position an This invention was made with government support including a grant from the U.S. Public Health Service, contract number AI-06045. The U.S. government has certain rights in the invention.

Tabor, Stanley (Cambridge, MA); Richardson, Charles C. (Chestnut Hill, MA)

1992-01-01

226

Foil changing apparatus  

DOEpatents

A self-contained hermetically sealed foil changer for advancing a portion of foil web into a position normal to the path of a high energy particle beam. The path of the beam is defined generally by an aperture plate and cooperating axially movable barrel such that the barrel can be advanced toward the plate thereby positioning a portion of the foil across the beam path and sealing the foil between the barrel and the plate to form a membrane across said beam path. A spooling apparatus contained in the foil changer permits selectively advancing a fresh supply of foil across the beam path without breaking the foil changer seal.

Crist, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Ives, Harry C. (Albuquerque, NM); Leifeste, Gordon T. (Albuquerque, NM); Miller, Robert B. (Albuquerque, NM)

1988-01-01

227

Apparatus for chemical synthesis  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for forming a chemical hydride is described and which includes a pseudo-plasma-electrolysis reactor which is operable to receive a solution capable of forming a chemical hydride and which further includes a cathode and a movable anode, and wherein the anode is moved into and out of fluidic, ohmic electrical contact with the solution capable of forming a chemical hydride and which further, when energized produces an oxygen plasma which facilitates the formation of a chemical hydride in the solution.

Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Herring, J. Stephen (Idaho Falls, ID); Grandy, Jon D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-05-10

228

Optoelectronic Apparatus Measures Glucose Noninvasively  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optoelectronic apparatus has been invented as a noninvasive means of measuring the concentration of glucose in the human body. The apparatus performs polarimetric and interferometric measurements of the human eye to acquire data from which the concentration of glucose in the aqueous humor can be computed. Because of the importance of the concentration of glucose in human health, there could be a large potential market for instruments based on this apparatus.

Ansari, Rafat R.; Rovati, Luigi L.

2003-01-01

229

Variable volume calibration apparatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An apparatus is provided for determining the volume of a closed chamber. The apparatus includes a body having a cylindrical cavity therein including a threaded rear portion and a closed front end, and a piston having a threaded portion which mates with threaded rear portion of the cavity and which reciprocates in the cavity. A gas-impermeable seal, which is carried by the piston in one embodiment, forms a closed chamber in the front end of the cavity. A linear-movement indicator, attached to the rear end of the piston, measures the reciprocating movement of the piston in the cavity, while a pressure sensing device, connected to the front end of the cavity, determines the pressure in the closed system. In use, a vessel, having a volume enclosing experimental materials, is also connected to the front end of the cavity, and pressure and piston movement measurements are made which enable calculation of a volume change in the vessels. The design and operation of this instrument are presented.

Hallman, R. L., Jr.

1991-06-01

230

Variable volume calibration apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is provided for determining the volume of a closed chamber. The apparatus includes a body having a cylindrical cavity therein including a threaded rear portion and a closed front end, and a piston having a threaded portion which mates with threaded rear portion of the cavity and which reciprocates in the cavity. A gas-impermeable seal, which is carried by the piston in one embodiment, forms a closed chamber in the front end of the cavity. A linear-movement indicator, attached to the rear end of the piston, measures the reciprocating movement of the piston in the cavity, while a pressure sensing device, connected to the front end of the cavity, determines the pressure in the closed system. In use, a vessel, having a volume enclosing experimental materials, is also connected to the front end of the cavity, and pressure and piston movement measurements are made which enable calculation of a volume change in the vessels. The design and operation of this instrument are presented. 7 figs.

Hallman, R.L. Jr.

1991-01-01

231

Polarization imaging apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A polarization imaging apparatus measures the Stokes image of a sample. The apparatus consists of an optical lens set 11, a linear polarizer 14 with its optical axis 18, a first variable phase retarder 12 with its optical axis 16 aligned 22.5.degree. to axis 18, a second variable phase retarder 13 with its optical axis 17 aligned 45.degree. to axis 18, a imaging sensor 15 for sensing the intensity images of the sample, a controller 101 and a computer 102. Two variable phase retarders 12 and 13 were controlled independently by a computer 102 through a controller unit 101 which generates a sequential of voltages to control the phase retardations of VPRs 12 and 13. A set of four intensity images, I.sub.0, I.sub.1, I.sub.2 and I.sub.3 of the sample were captured by imaging sensor 15 when the phase retardations of VPRs 12 and 13 were set at (0,0), (.pi.,0), (.pi.,.pi.) and (.pi./2,.pi.), respectively Then four Stokes components of a Stokes image, S.sub.0, S.sub.1, S.sub.2 and S.sub.3 were calculated using the four intensity images.

Zou, Yingyin Kevin (Inventor); Chen, Qiushui (Inventor); Zhao, Hongzhi (Inventor)

2010-01-01

232

Fluidized bed calciner apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for remotely calcining a slurry or solution feed stream of toxic or hazardous material, such as ammonium diurante slurry or uranyl nitrate solution, is disclosed. The calcining apparatus includes a vertical substantially cylindrical inner shell disposed in a vertical substantially cylindrical outer shell, in which inner shell is disposed a fluidized bed comprising the feed stream material to be calcined and spherical beads to aid in heat transfer. Extending through the outer and inner shells is a feed nozzle for delivering feed material or a cleaning chemical to the beads. Disposed in and extending across the lower portion of the inner shell and upstream of the fluidized bed is a support member for supporting the fluidized bed, the support member having uniform slots for directing uniform gas flow to the fluidized bed from a fluidizing gas orifice disposed upstream of the support member. Disposed in the lower portion of the inner shell are a plurality of internal electric resistance heaters for heating the fluidized bed. Disposed circumferentially about the outside length of the inner shell are a plurality of external heaters for heating the inner shell thereby heating the fluidized bed. Further, connected to the internal and external heaters is a means for maintaining the fluidized bed temperature to within plus or minus approximately 25.degree. C. of a predetermined bed temperature. Disposed about the external heaters is the outer shell for providing radiative heat reflection back to the inner shell.

Owen, Thomas J. (West Richland, WA); Klem, Jr., Michael J. (Richland, WA); Cash, Robert J. (Richland, WA)

1988-01-01

233

Agitation apparatus. [Patent application  

DOEpatents

Agitation apparatus includes a tank with a cylindrical upper portion, a frustoconical intermediate portion, and a cylindrical lower portion, a lift tube extending from the upper portion of the tank to a point near an end cap attached to the lower portion of the tank, the lift tube being concentric with the lower portion of the tank to provide a flow passage there between, and a plurality of air supply conduits extending along the lift tube and spaced apart around its perimeter, these air supply conduits terminating adjacent the lower end of the lift tube. Air discharged from the lower ends of the air supply conduits causes liquid in the tank to flow upwardly through the lift tube and out of apertures in the upper portion thereof. Due to the unique properties of nuclear fuel dissolver solutions and the constraint placed on the amount of air that can be injected therein by conventional apparatus, there has been a need for a more effective means for agitating liquid in nuclear fuel digester tanks.

Beets, A.L.; Lewis, B.E. Jr.

1982-03-12

234

The effects of Passive Integrated Transponder tags on survival and growth of juvenile brown trout ( Salmo trutta L.) and their use for studying movement in a small river  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1993 to 1995, more than 2000 of 0 + brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) were captured in a small brook in October and released after clipping the left pelvic fin. More than 1700 of them were\\u000a also tagged with a small Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag (11 mm long) implanted in the body cavity. Tagged juveniles\\u000a were recaptured in

Dominique Ombredane; Jean Luc Bagliniere; Frédéric Marchand

1998-01-01

235

Microwave emissions from police radar  

E-print Network

The purpose of this study was to evaluate police officers exposures to microwaves emitted by traffic radar units at the ocular and testicular level. Additionally, comparisons were made of the radar manufacturers published maximum power density...

Fink, John Michael

2012-06-07

236

Venus wind-altitude radar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A design study on adding a radar altimeter to the Pioneer Venus small probe is review. Block and timing diagrams are provided. The inherent and interface ambiguities, resolution, and data handling logic for radar altimeters are described.

Levanon, N.

1974-01-01

237

Phase modulating the Urbana radar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and operation of a switched phase modulation system for the Urbana Radar System are discussed. The system is implemented and demonstrated using a simple procedure. The radar system and circuits are described and analyzed.

Herrington, L. J., Jr.; Bowhill, S. A.

1983-01-01

238

Well perforating apparatus and method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method and apparatus for perforating a well casing and surrounding formation are disclosed. The perforating apparatus includes a laser source for projecting a high intensity laser beam transversely through the well bore and surrounding formation and a nozzle assembly for injecting exothermically reactive gas along the path of the laser beam. The gas stream shields the output lens of

1980-01-01

239

Twin tower gas fractionation apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus for adsorptive fractionation of a gaseous mixture. The apparatus is a twin tower fractionator or dryer including a pair of sorbent beds. A filter and valve assembly directs a flow of the gaseous mixture from a source thereof to one of the beds for removing a gaseous component of said mixture while simultaneously directing a flow of purge

R. A. Null; L. C. laughlin; M. L. Goldberg

1985-01-01

240

An elutriation apparatus for macroinvertebrates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An inexpensive hydropneumatic apparatus screens macroinvertebrates from bottom samples containing silt, mud, or clay. The elutriator, an acrylic cylinder with screened windows, cemented on an upright plastic funnel, retains benthic fauna while the sediment is washed away. The apparatus yields clean samples and has reduced the time required to sort benthos samples by more than 80%.

Worswick, Joseph M., Jr.; Barbour, Michael T.

1974-01-01

241

Special applications of radar systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developments at Dornier in radar equipment are discussed. Characteristics of the Tasyll-1 scoring system for air target simulation are examined with emphasis on the Doppler radar principle for missile location. The RADOBS-R (Radar-object shield panorama sensor) system creates a ring-shaped alarm zone around an object for protection and has an operating frequency around 14 GHz. A Synthetic Aperture Radar and

U. Knepper; R. Kremer; H. Lamprecht; R. Schotter

1980-01-01

242

Radar data smoothing filter study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The accuracy of the current Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) data smoothing techniques for a variety of radars and payloads is examined. Alternative data reduction techniques are given and recommendations are made for improving radar data processing at WFF. A data adaptive algorithm, based on Kalman filtering and smoothing techniques, is also developed for estimating payload trajectories above the atmosphere from noisy time varying radar data. This algorithm is tested and verified using radar tracking data from WFF.

White, J. V.

1984-01-01

243

Characteristics of Sunset radar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Located in a narrow canyon 15 km west of Boulder, Colorado, the Sunset pulsed Doppler radar was the first radar designed and constructed specifically as a VHF ST radar. The antenna system is a phased array of coaxial-colinear dopoles with computer-controlled phase shifters for each line of dipoles. It operates at a frequency of 40.475 MHz and a wavelength of 7.41M. Peak transmitter power is 100 kW. Aperture efficiency is 0.58 and resistive loss is 0.30 for its 3600 sq m area. The practical steering rate is 1 record/minute/position to any arbitrary antenna beam position. The first clear-air turbulence echoes and wind velocity measurements were obtained in 1974. Significant accomplishments are listed.

Green, J. L.

1983-01-01

244

Radar sector blanker  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A radar sector blanker comprises in analog-to-digital converter and a sector controller unit. The analog-to-digital converter receives the analog synchro voltages describing the positioning of a radar antenna and changes these voltages into binary-coded decimal (BCD) information. The sector controller unit comprises a portable housing, a controller system, and a power supply. The controller system includes an OFF comparator circuit, an ON comparator circuit, an S-R latch, and a solid-state switch. Each comparator circuit comprises three cascaded transistor-transistor logic (TTL) integrated chips. The power supply gives a direct-current voltage to the solid-state switch and the TTL chips. The sector blanker blocks transmission for a predetermined rotational region or sector of a radar system.

Hall, Roger B.

1994-03-01

245

Hepatic heat shock protein 70 and plasma cortisol levels in rainbow trout after tagging with a passive integrated transponder  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study examined the potentially stressful effects of tagging juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags by measuring short-term (<120-h) changes in plasma concentrations of cortisol and hepatic heat shock protein 70 (hsp70). In a laboratory experiment, plasma cortisol levels were measured in fish before they were tagged (0 h) and at 2, 6, 24, and 120 h after being tagged. Hepatic hsp70 levels were measured at 0, 24, and 120 h. All results were compared with those for fish that were handled but not tagged. Plasma cortisol levels were significantly higher in both treatment groups (tagged and handled but not tagged) at 2 h than in the pretreatment groups (0 h). Plasma cortisol levels in the treatment groups returned to near pretreatment levels by 6 h. However, there was a significant difference in plasma cortisol levels between treatment groups at 6 h. There were no significant differences in hepatic hsp70 levels among the two treatment groups, and hepatic hsp70 levels did not change through time. Our results suggest that PIT tagging is a low-impact tagging procedure for juvenile salmonids. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

Feldhaus, J. W.; Heppell, S. A.; Mesa, M. G.; Li, H.

2008-01-01

246

A model for estimating passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag antenna efficiencies for interval-specific emigration rates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Our goal was to understand movement and its interaction with survival for populations of stream salmonids at long-term study sites in the northeastern United States by employing passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and associated technology. Although our PIT tag antenna arrays spanned the stream channel (at most flows) and were continuously operated, we are aware that aspects of fish behavior, environmental characteristics, and electronic limitations influenced our ability to detect 100% of the emigration from our stream site. Therefore, we required antenna efficiency estimates to adjust observed emigration rates. We obtained such estimates by testing a full-scale physical model of our PIT tag antenna array in a laboratory setting. From the physical model, we developed a statistical model that we used to predict efficiency in the field. The factors most important for predicting efficiency were external radio frequency signal and tag type. For most sampling intervals, there was concordance between the predicted and observed efficiencies, which allowed us to estimate the true emigration rate for our field populations of tagged salmonids. One caveat is that the model's utility may depend on its ability to characterize external radio frequency signals accurately. Another important consideration is the trade-off between the volume of data necessary to model efficiency accurately and the difficulty of storing and manipulating large amounts of data.

Horton, G.E.; Dubreuil, T.L.; Letcher, B.H.

2007-01-01

247

49 CFR 236.590 - Pneumatic apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pneumatic apparatus. 236.590 Section...Tests; Locomotive § 236.590 Pneumatic apparatus. Automatic train stop, train control, or cab signal pneumatic apparatus shall be inspected,...

2013-10-01

248

49 CFR 236.590 - Pneumatic apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pneumatic apparatus. 236.590 Section...Tests; Locomotive § 236.590 Pneumatic apparatus. Automatic train stop, train control, or cab signal pneumatic apparatus shall be inspected,...

2012-10-01

249

49 CFR 236.590 - Pneumatic apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pneumatic apparatus. 236.590 Section...Tests; Locomotive § 236.590 Pneumatic apparatus. Automatic train stop, train control, or cab signal pneumatic apparatus shall be inspected,...

2011-10-01

250

Microelectromechanical acceleration-sensing apparatus  

DOEpatents

An acceleration-sensing apparatus is disclosed which includes a moveable shuttle (i.e. a suspended mass) and a latch for capturing and holding the shuttle when an acceleration event is sensed above a predetermined threshold level. The acceleration-sensing apparatus provides a switch closure upon sensing the acceleration event and remains latched in place thereafter. Examples of the acceleration-sensing apparatus are provided which are responsive to an acceleration component in a single direction (i.e. a single-sided device) or to two oppositely-directed acceleration components (i.e. a dual-sided device). A two-stage acceleration-sensing apparatus is also disclosed which can sense two acceleration events separated in time. The acceleration-sensing apparatus of the present invention has applications, for example, in an automotive airbag deployment system.

Lee, Robb M. (Albuquerque, NM); Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Polosky, Marc A. (Albuquerque, NM); Hoke, Darren A. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, George E. (Rio Rancho, NM)

2006-12-12

251

Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus  

DOEpatents

A flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus, comprising a flexible, hollow shaft that carries a plurality of modules, including at least one rotatable ultrasonic transducer, a motor/gear unit, and a position/signal encoder. The modules are connected by flexible knuckle joints that allow each module of the apparatus to change its relative orientation with respect to a neighboring module, while the shaft protects electrical wiring from kinking or buckling while the apparatus moves around a tight corner. The apparatus is moved through a pipe by any suitable means, including a tether or drawstring attached to the nose or tail, differential hydraulic pressure, or a pipe pig. The rotational speed of the ultrasonic transducer and the forward velocity of the apparatus are coordinated so that the beam sweeps out the entire interior surface of the pipe, enabling the operator to accurately assess the condition of the pipe wall and determine whether or not leak-prone corrosion damage is present.

Jenkins, Charles F. (Aiken, SC); Howard, Boyd D. (Augusta, GA)

1998-01-01

252

Side looking radar calibration study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calibration of an airborne sidelooking radar is accomplished by the use of a model that relates the radar parameters to the physical mapping situation. Topics discussed include: characteristics of the transmitters; the antennas; target absorption and reradiation; the receiver and map making or radar data processing; and the calibration process.

Edwards, W. D.

1975-01-01

253

Oil shale retort apparatus  

DOEpatents

A retorting apparatus including a vertical kiln and a plurality of tubes for delivering rock to the top of the kiln and removal of processed rock from the bottom of the kiln so that the rock descends through the kiln as a moving bed. Distributors are provided for delivering gas to the kiln to effect heating of the rock and to disturb the rock particles during their descent. The distributors are constructed and disposed to deliver gas uniformly to the kiln and to withstand and overcome adverse conditions resulting from heat and from the descending rock. The rock delivery tubes are geometrically sized, spaced and positioned so as to deliver the shale uniformly into the kiln and form symmetrically disposed generally vertical paths, or "rock chimneys", through the descending shale which offer least resistance to upward flow of gas. When retorting oil shale, a delineated collection chamber near the top of the kiln collects gas and entrained oil mist rising through the kiln.

Reeves, Adam A. (Grand Junction, CO); Mast, Earl L. (Norman, OK); Greaves, Melvin J. (Littleton, CO)

1990-01-01

254

Cryogenic cooler apparatus  

DOEpatents

A Malone-type final stage for utilization in a Stirling cycle cryogenic cooler apparatus includes a displacer slidable within a vessel. .sup.4 He, .sup.3 He, or a mixture thereof is made to flow in a pulsating unidirectional manner through a regenerator in the displacer by utilization of check valves in separate fluid channels. Stacked copper screen members extend through the channels and through a second static thermodynamic medium within the displacer to provide efficient lateral heat exchange and enable cooling to temperatures in the range of 3-4 K. Another embodiment utilizes sintered copper particles in the regenerator. Also described is a final stage that has a non-thermally conducting displacer having passages with check valves for directing fluid past a regenerator formed in the surrounding vessel.

Wheatley, John C. (Del Mar, CA); Paulson, Douglas N. (Del Mar, CA); Allen, Paul C. (Sunnyvale, CA)

1983-01-01

255

Image forming apparatus  

DOEpatents

In an image forming apparatus having a detachable process cartridge in which an image carrier on which an electrostatic latent image is formed, and a developing unit which develops the electrostatic latent image so that a toner image can be formed, both integrally formed into one unit. There is provided a developer container including a discharge section which can be inserted into a supply opening of the developing unit, and a container in which a predetermined amount of developer is contained, wherein the developer container is provided to the toner supply opening of the developing unit and the developer is supplied into the developing unit housing when a toner stirring screw of the developing unit is rotated.

Satoh, Hisao (Hachioji, JP); Haneda, Satoshi (Hachioji, JP); Ikeda, Tadayoshi (Hachioji, JP); Morita, Shizuo (Hachioji, JP); Fukuchi, Masakazu (Hachioji, JP)

1996-01-01

256

Apparatus for flaring gas  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus for flaring gas. It comprises: flare stack means, having a base, for flaring gas; fluid pit means for storing fluid; gooseneck pipe means, coupled to the base of the flare stack means and to the fluid pit means. The gooseneck pipe means being configured to maintain a reservoir of fluid therein at a predetermined level; high pressure inlet means for introducing a first combination of waste gas and liquid of a first predetermined pressure or greater, into the flare stack means; low pressure inlet means for introducing a second combination of waste gas and liquid, of a second predetermined pressure less than that of the first predetermined pressure, into the flare stack means; and means for routing the liquid separated from the first and second combination of waste gas and liquid into the gooseneck pipe.

Zimmiond, L.

1990-01-09

257

Solar furnace apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A solar furnace apparatus is described including a reflector portion, a collector portion and a fluid transfer portion. The reflector portion includes a generally dish-shaped reflective member. The reflective member having a conic section configuration with a large open face and a highly reflective internal surface. The collector portion is disposed at the focal point of the reflective member, and it includes a chamber formed of a plurality of concave longitudinal sections and therewith form an enclosed chamber, inlet and outlet members communicating with the chamber. The fluid transfer portion includes a conduit member connected to the inlet and outlet members of the collector portion and mechanism associated with said conduit member for circulating fluid to heat storage or heat dissipating members.

Strickland, B.W.

1981-09-29

258

Multiparameter vision testing apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compact vision testing apparatus is described for testing a large number of physiological characteristics of the eyes and visual system of a human subject. The head of the subject is inserted into a viewing port at one end of a light-tight housing containing various optical assemblies. Visual acuity and other refractive characteristics and ocular muscle balance characteristics of the eyes of the subject are tested by means of a retractable phoroptor assembly carried near the viewing port and a film cassette unit carried in the rearward portion of the housing (the latter selectively providing a variety of different visual targets which are viewed through the optical system of the phoroptor assembly). The visual dark adaptation characteristics and absolute brightness threshold of the subject are tested by means of a projector assembly which selectively projects one or both of a variable intensity fixation target and a variable intensity adaptation test field onto a viewing screen located near the top of the housing.

Hunt, S. R., Jr.; Homkes, R. J.; Poteate, W. B.; Sturgis, A. C. (inventors)

1975-01-01

259

Spine immobilization apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The apparatus makes use of a normally flat, flexible bladder filled with beads or micro-balloons that form a rigid mass when the pressure within the bladder is decreased below ambient through the use of a suction pump so that the bladder can be conformed to the torso of the victim and provide the desired restraint. The bladder is strapped to the victim prior to being rigidified by an arrangement of straps which avoid the stomach area. The bladder is adapted to be secured to a rigid support, i.e., a rescue chair, so as to enable removal of a victim after the bladder has been made rigid. A double sealing connector is used to connect the bladder to the suction pump and a control valve is employed to vary the pressure within the bladder so as to soften and harden the bladder as desired.

Lambson, K. H.; Vykukal, H. C. (inventors)

1981-01-01

260

Apparatus for dispensing material  

DOEpatents

An apparatus capable of dispensing drops of material with volumes on the order of zeptoliters is described. In some embodiments of the inventive pipette the size of the droplets so dispensed is determined by the size of a hole, or channel, through a carbon shell encapsulating a reservoir that contains material to be dispensed. The channel may be formed by irradiation with an electron beam or other high-energy beam capable of focusing to a spot size less than about 5 nanometers. In some embodiments, the dispensed droplet remains attached to the pipette by a small thread of material, an atomic scale meniscus, forming a virtually free-standing droplet. In some embodiments the droplet may wet the pipette tip and take on attributes of supported drops. Methods for fabricating and using the pipette are also described.

Sutter, Peter Werner (Beach, NY); Sutter, Eli Anguelova (Beach, NY)

2011-07-05

261

Isotope separation apparatus  

DOEpatents

Isotope separation apparatus consisting of a plurality of cells disposed adjacent to each other in an evacuated container. A common magnetic field is established extending through all of the cells. A source of energetic electrons at one end of the container generates electrons which pass through the cells along the magnetic field lines. Each cell includes an array of collector plates arranged in parallel or in tandem within a common magnetic field. Sets of collector plates are disposed adjacent to each other in each cell. Means are provided for differentially energizing ions of a desired isotope by applying energy at the cyclotron resonant frequency of the desired isotope. As a result, the energized desired ions are preferentially collected by the collector plates.

Arnush, Donald (Rancho Palos Verdes, CA); MacKenzie, Kenneth R. (Pacific Palisades, CA); Wuerker, Ralph F. (Palos Verdes Estates, CA)

1980-01-01

262

Freeze drying apparatus  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

Coppa, Nicholas V. (Malvern, PA); Stewart, Paul (Youngstown, NY); Renzi, Ernesto (Youngstown, NY)

2001-01-01

263

Thermal synthesis apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for thermal conversion of one or more reactants to desired end products includes an insulated reactor chamber having a high temperature heater such as a plasma torch at its inlet end and, optionally, a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. In a thermal conversion method, reactants are injected upstream from the reactor chamber and thoroughly mixed with the plasma stream before entering the reactor chamber. The reactor chamber has a reaction zone that is maintained at a substantially uniform temperature. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle, which "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage, or is discharged through an outlet pipe without the convergent-divergent nozzle. The desired end products are then separated from the gaseous stream.

Fincke, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

2009-08-18

264

HF radar ionospheric clutter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characteristics of HF radar echoes reflected from ionization irregularities aligned along the lines of force of the Earth's magnetic field are presented. Utilizing experimental radar-ionospheric clutter data acquired at frequencies between HF and UHF, an analysis is made of the amplitude, the cross-sectional area and the angular extent statistics of HF field-aligned echoes. The Doppler frequency variation, the frequency of occurrence and the diurnal and seasonal variation of HF ionospheric backscatter echoes and their correlation with solar-geophysical conditions are also discussed.

Millman, G. H.

1982-08-01

265

Polarization diversity in radars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many polarization techniques, which have been proposed and analyzed to enhance radar performance, are reviewed in this paper in order to assess the possible improvement they can provide in the signal-to-disturbance ratio, target detectability, target discrimination and resolution, and target classification and identification. Some recent experimentally-based results relating to these applications are also presented. Those techniques are emphasized for which polarization-based capabilities appear sufficiently assessed, such as adaptive polarization cancellation of clutter, chaff, and jamming. Polarization Doppler processing of dual-polarization radar signals, meteorologic applications, and polarization adaptation for target detection in the clear (in free space) are also examined.

Giuli, D.

1986-02-01

266

Spaceborne Imaging Radar Symposium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of the present state of the art in the different scientific and technological fields related to spaceborne imaging radars was presented. The data acquired with the SEASAT SAR (1978) and Shuttle Imaging Radar, SIR-A (1981) clearly demonstrated the important emphasis in the 80's is going to be on in-depth research investigations conducted with the more flexible and sophisticated SIR series instruments and on long term monitoring of geophysical phenomena conducted from free-flying platforms such as ERS-1 and RADARSAT.

Elachi, C.

1983-01-01

267

Determination of embryonic temperature profiles and eggshell water vapor conductance constants in incubating Ross x Ross 708 broiler hatching eggs using temperature transponders.  

PubMed

The comprehensive profiles of the internal and external temperatures of embryonated Ross × Ross 708 broiler hatching eggs during incubation were determined using temperature transponders, and eggshell water vapor conductance (G(H2O)), specific G(H2O) (g(H2O); G(H2O) adjusted to a 100 g set egg weight basis), and G(H2O) constants (K(H2O)) were calculated. On each of 8 replicate tray levels of an incubator, 2 nonembryonated and 4 embryonated eggs were each implanted with a transponder on d 10.5 of incubation for the determination of internal (air cell) temperatures of nonembryonated (T(nem)) and embryonated (T(emb)) eggs, respectively. In addition, 2 water-filled vials, each containing a transponder, were used on each tray level for the determination of the external microenvironment temperatures (T(ext)) of the embryonated and nonembryonated eggs. Between 10.5 and 18 d of incubation, incubator data logger temperatures were determined every 5 min; and incubator dry bulb temperature, T(ext), T(nem), T(emb), and the difference between T(emb) and T(nem) (T) were determined every 12 h. Over the days of incubation, regression coefficients for T(emb) and T were positive, whereas the regression coefficient for T(nem) was negative. There was a significant day of incubation × type of temperature measurement (T(ext), T(nem), and T(emb)) interaction for temperature. Between 13 and 18 d of incubation, mean values of T(emb) readings that were recorded every 12 h were consistently higher than those of T(ext) and T(nem), indicating the importance of air cell transponder implantation for the efficient estimation of broiler embryo temperature. Furthermore, mean values of the percentage of daily incubational egg weight loss, G(H2O), g(H2O), and K(H2O) of the embryonated eggs were 0.54 ± 0.019%, 14.4 ± 0.56 mg of H?O/d per Torr, 25.0 ± 0.96 mg of H?O/d per Torr per 100 g, and 5.20 ± 0.205, respectively. The results suggest that transponders may be implanted in the air cells of broiler hatching eggs to detect incubational variations in T(emb) and to subsequently calculate G(H2O), g(H2O), and K(H2O). PMID:22184428

Pulikanti, R; Peebles, E D; Zhai, W; Gerard, P D

2012-01-01

268

Apparatus for transporting hazardous materials  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method are provided for selectively receiving, transporting, and releasing one or more radioactive or other hazardous samples for analysis on a differential thermal analysis (DTA) apparatus. The apparatus includes a portable sample transporting apparatus for storing and transporting the samples and includes a support assembly for supporting the transporting apparatus when a sample is transferred to the DTA apparatus. The transporting apparatus includes a storage member which includes a plurality of storage chambers arrayed circumferentially with respect to a central axis. An adjustable top door is located on the top side of the storage member, and the top door includes a channel capable of being selectively placed in registration with the respective storage chambers thereby permitting the samples to selectively enter the respective storage chambers. The top door, when closed, isolates the respective samples within the storage chambers. A plurality of spring-biased bottom doors are located on the bottom sides of the respective storage chambers. The bottom doors isolate the samples in the respective storage chambers when the bottom doors are in the closed position. The bottom doors permit the samples to leave the respective storage chambers from the bottom side when the respective bottom doors are in respective open positions. The bottom doors permit the samples to be loaded into the respective storage chambers after the analysis for storage and transport to a permanent storage location.

Osterman, Robert A. (Canonsburg, PA); Cox, Robert (West Mifflin, PA)

1992-01-01

269

Spaceborne precipitation radar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performances and characteristics of a satelliteborne radar operating in the millimeter wavelength region of the spectrum with emphasis placed on the 35 and 94 GH3 frequency bands are discussed. It is concluded that millimetric wavelengths provide an acceptable solution for the design of satelliteborne active microwave equipment.

Eckerman, J.; Meneghini, R.

1981-01-01

270

The Newcastle meteor radar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief history and development of the Newcastle Meteor Radar system is given. Also described are its geographical coordinates and its method of operation. The initial objective when the project was commenced was to develop an entirely digital analyzer capable of recognizing meteor echo signals and recording as many of their parameters as possible. This objective was achieved.

Keay, Colin

1987-01-01

271

RADAR “SAIL” satellite concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Radar SAIL concept is based on the use of a rectangular antenna lying in the dawn-dusk orbital plane with the length (along speed vector) smaller than the height. Such geometry makes it possible to place the solar cells on the back of the antenna, to use gravity gradient stabilisation, and to implement multipath-free GPS interferometric measurement of the antenna

Jean Paul Aguttes; Jacques Sombrin; Eric Conde

1996-01-01

272

Thin Wideband Radar Absorbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure for the optimal design of thin wideband radar absorbers is presented. The resulting absorbers are implemented by printing a frequency selective surface on a lossy perforated substrate. A binary hill climbing optimization scheme with random restart is used to find optimal solutions. The method of moments in conjunction with the transmission line method is used to calculate the

Arya Fallahi; Alireza Yahaghi; Hans-Rudolf Benedickter; Habibollah Abiri; Mahmoud Shahabadi; Christian Hafner

2010-01-01

273

Microelectromechanical safing and arming apparatus  

DOEpatents

A two-stage acceleration sensing apparatus is disclosed which has applications for use in a fuze assembly for a projected munition. The apparatus, which can be formed by bulk micromachining or LIGA, can sense acceleration components along two orthogonal directions to enable movement of a shuttle from an "as-fabricated" position to a final position and locking of the shuttle in the final position. With the shuttle moved to the final position, the apparatus can perform one or more functions including completing an explosive train or an electrical switch closure, or allowing a light beam to be transmitted through the device.

Koehler, David R. (Sherwood, OR); Hoke, Darren A. (Albuquerque, NM); Weichman, Louis S. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, George E. (Rio Rancho, NM); Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Beggans, Michael H. (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-06-10

274

Microelectromechanical safing and arming apparatus  

DOEpatents

A two-stage acceleration sensing apparatus is disclosed which has applications for use in a fuze assembly for a projected munition. The apparatus, which can be formed by bulk micromachining or LIGA, can sense acceleration components along two orthogonal directions to enable movement of a shuttle from an "as-fabricated" position to a final position and locking of the shuttle in the final position. With the shuttle moved to the final position, the apparatus can perform one or more functions including completing an explosive train or an electrical switch closure, or allowing a light beam to be transmitted through the device.

Koehler, David R. (Placitas, NM); Hoke, Darren A. (Albuquerque, NM); Weichman, Louis S. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, George E. (Rio Rancho, NM); Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Beggans, Michael H. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-05-30

275

Suspension apparatus for vehicle  

SciTech Connect

A suspension apparatus is described for a vehicle provided between a pair of left and right wheels of the vehicle and the vehicle body, comprising: telescopic members integrally connected to suspension springs and expanded and contracted by means of fluid pressure, fluid passages for feeding fluid pressurized by a pump to the telescopic members and discharging the fluid from the telescopic members, controlling valves provided in the fluid passages, each valve having a cylindrical inner valve member, a cylindrical outer valve member rotatably fitted on the inner valve member and a main body containing and supporting the inner and outer valve members for rotation respectively, means for connecting each inner valve member to a steering mechanism to rotate the inner valve member in accordance with the movement of the steering mechanism, and means for connecting each outer valve member to one of the telescopic members to rotate the outer valve member in accordance with the movement of the telescopic member relative to the vehicle body, whereby the controlling valves are connected to the steering mechanism and to the telescopic members to control the valves not only with respect to the steering but also with respect to the movement of the telescopic members relative to the vehicle body so that the vehicle body is caused to decline toward turning center side due to telescopic movement of the telescopic members in accordance with a steering operation.

Fujita, H.; Honma, K.; Ogawa, M.

1987-04-21

276

Thermal Insulation Test Apparatuses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) seeks to license its Thermal Insulation Test Apparatuses. Designed by the Cryogenics Test Laboratory at the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida, these patented technologies (U.S. Patent Numbers: Cryostat 1 - 6,742,926, Cryostat 2 - 6,487,866, and Cryostat 4 - 6,824,306) allow manufacturers to fabricate and test cryogenic insulation at their production and/or laboratory facilities. These new inventions allow for the thermal performance characterization of cylindrical and flat specimens (e.g., bulk-fill, flat-panel, multilayer, or continuously rolled) over the full range of pressures, from high vacuum to no vacuum, and over the full range of temperatures from 77K to 300K. In today's world, efficient, low-maintenance, low-temperature refrigeration is taking a more significant role, from the food industry, transportation, energy, and medical applications to the Space Shuttle. Most countries (including the United States) have laws requiring commercially available insulation materials to be tested and rated by an accepted methodology. The new Cryostat methods go beyond the formal capabilities of the ASTM methods to provide testing for real systems, including full-temperature differences plus full-range vacuum conditions.

Berman, Brion

2005-01-01

277

Belt conveyor apparatus  

DOEpatents

A belt conveyor apparatus according to this invention defines a conveyance path including a first pulley and at least a second pulley. An endless belt member is adapted for continuous travel about the pulleys and comprises a lower portion which engages the pulleys and an integral upper portion adapted to receive objects therein at a first location on said conveyance path and transport the objects to a second location for discharge. The upper belt portion includes an opposed pair of longitudinally disposed crest-like members, biased towards each other in a substantially abutting relationship. The crest-like members define therebetween a continuous, normally biased closed, channel along the upper belt portion. Means are disposed at the first and second locations and operatively associated with the belt member for urging the normally biased together crest-like members apart in order to provide access to the continuous channel whereby objects can be received into, or discharged from the channel. Motors are in communication with the conveyance path for effecting the travel of the endless belt member about the conveyance path. The conveyance path can be configured to include travel through two or more elevations and one or more directional changes in order to convey objects above, below and/or around existing structures.

Oakley, David J. (Richland, WA); Bogart, Rex L. (Kennewick, WA)

1987-01-01

278

Integrated-magnetic apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Disclosure is made of an integrated-magnetic apparatus, comprising: winding structure for insulatingly carrying at least two generally flat, laterally offset and spaced apart electrical windings of a power converter around an aperture; a core having a flat exterior face, an interior cavity and an un-gapped core-column that is located within the cavity and that passes through the aperture of the winding structure; flat-sided surface carried by the core and forming an interior chamber that is located adjacent to the flat face of the core and forming a core-column that has a gap and that is located within the chamber; and structure, located around the gapped core-column, for carrying a third electrical winding of the power converter. The first two electrical windings are substantially located within the cavity and are adapted to be transformingly coupled together through the core. The third electrical winding is adapted to be inductively coupled through the gapped core-column to the other electrical windings, and is phased to have the magnetic flux passing through the gapped core-column substantially in the same direction as the magnetic flux passing through the un-gapped core-column and to have substantially the same AC components of flux in the gapped core-column and in the un-gapped core-column.

Bloom, Gordon E. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

279

Flow cytometry apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an apparatus for orienting cells in a sheath fluid in a otometer/sorter. It comprises: flow chamber; means for flowing the sheath fluid through the flow chamber along a direction of flow; means for obstructing the flow of the sheath fluid in the flow chamber with a first dimension, which extends substantially across the flow chamber and is substantially perpendicular to the direction of flow and with a thickness perpendicular to the first dimension of the obstructing means wherein the sheath fluid flows around the thickness so that the sheath fluid converges in only one dimension at the downstream edge of the means for obstructing; and means for introducing the cells through the means for obstructing the flow to the region where the sheath fluid converges in only one dimension in the sheath fluid to orient the cells, with an aperture wherein as the cells pass from the means for introducing the cells to the region where the sheath fluid converges the cells pass through the aperture with a cross-sectional length substantially less than or equal to the thickness of the means for obstructing the flow.

Pinkel, D.

1991-01-29

280

Solar furnace apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A solar furnace apparatus including a reflector portion, a collector portion and a fluid transfer portion; the reflector portion including a generally dish-shaped reflective member, the reflective member having a conic section configuration with a large open face and a highly reflective internal surface, the reflective member including a fixed base section concentric with the axis of the reflective member, a plurality of movable curved segments extending from the fixed base section to the free edge of the open face of the reflective member, the end of each segment adjacent to the fixed base section being pivotally connected thereto; the collector portion being disposed along the axis and the focal point of the reflective member, the collector portion including a chamber formed of a plurality of concave longitudinal conductive metal sections joined at their edges, the cross section of the longitudinal sections forming a generally star-shaped configuration, the concave longitudinal sections being disposed substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the reflective member, end sections affixed to the free edges of the concave longitudinal sections and therewith forming an enclosed chamber, a central conduit extending from one of the end sections to a point adjacent the other end section but spaced therefrom, a plurality of discrete longitudinal baffles disposed within the chamber around the central conduit, an inlet and an outlet communicating with the chamber.

Strickland, B.W.

1983-12-27

281

Exhaust gas reflux apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An exhaust gas reflux apparatus is described comprising: EGR regulating valve means for controlling a reflux amount of an exhaust gas which is refluxed into an intake system of an internal combustion engine; having at least two operating states; sensing means for sensing the operating state of the engine; first control means responsive to the sensing means for detecting the start of a predetermined one of the operating states of the engine, in which the temperature of the exhaust gas becomes high; timer means responsive to detection by the first control means of the start of the predetermined operating state for measuring a time delay, and time delay beginning immediately after and only in response to the detection of the start of the predetermined operating state and expiring a predetermined time interval thereafter; and second control means responsive to the timer means for controlling the EGR regulating valve means to stop the reflux of the exhaust gas immediately after expiration of the predetermined time interval.

Osada, A.

1988-01-19

282

Concealed wire tracing apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface is disclosed. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receivers position with respect to the wiring. The receivers audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receivers coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring's concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest. 4 figs.

Kronberg, J.W.

1994-05-31

283

Analysis of Microhabitat Use for Two Trout Species Using a Combination of Remote Sensing and Passive Integrated transponder Tags  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Logan River and its tributaries in northern Utah sustain a significant population of the imperiled Bonneville cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki Utah) as well as invasive brown trout (Salmo trutta). In general, the upper reaches of the system are populated by cutthroat trout and the lower reaches by brown trout. Spawn Creek is a unique tributary in that it supports both of these species throughout the year. The purpose of this study is to identify differences in fine-scale microhabitat that explain utilization patterns of each species of fish. Passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags have been placed in trout over the last 3 years throughout Spawn Creek. Repeat GPS observations of these fish in their habitat during both spawning and non-spawning periods have been acquired over the last 4 years. Non-spawning activity has been captured using mobile PIT tag antennae. GPS observations of cutthroat trout spawning locations have also been recorded. From these observations both spawning and non-spawning "hotspots" have emerged, which appear to be highly correlated with specific microhabitat characteristics. The entire 2.5 km study reach on lower Spawn Creek has been scanned using ground-based light detection and ranging (LiDAR) which covers all observed "hotspots." LiDAR data provides sub-centimeter resolution point clouds from which detailed geometric measurements and topographic analyses can be used to reveal specific aspects of trout habitat. Where bathymetric data is needed, total station bathymetric surveys have been completed at sub-meter resolution. The combination of these data types at known "hotspot" locations provides an opportunity to quantify aspects of the physical environment at a uniquely fine scale relevant to individual fish. New metrics, as well as old metrics resolved at finer scales, will be presented to explain species and life-stage specific habitat "hotspots" in mountain streams.

Lokteff, R.; Wheaton, J. M.; Roper, B.; DeMeurichy, K.; Randall, J.

2011-12-01

284

Survival and growth of juvenile Pacific lampreys tagged with passive integrated transponders (PIT) in freshwater and seawater  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tagging methods are needed for both adult and juvenile life stages of Pacific lampreys Lampetra tridentata to better understand their biology and factors contributing to their decline. We developed a safe and efficient technique for tagging juvenile Pacific lampreys with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. We tested the short-term survival of PIT-tagged juvenile lampreys in freshwater at four temperatures (9, 12, 15, and 18°C) and their long-term growth and survival in seawater. For both experiments there was little to no tag loss, and juvenile lampreys in freshwater showed high survival at all temperatures at 7 d (95–100%) and 14 d (88–100%) posttagging. Prolonged holding (40 d) resulted in significantly lower survival (28–79%) at warmer temperatures (12–18°C). For juvenile lampreys tagged in freshwater and then transitioned to seawater, survival was 97% for tagged fish until day 94, and at the end of 6 months, survival was about 58% for both tagged and control fish. About half of the tagged and control fish that survived in seawater grew, but there was no difference in growth between the two groups. In freshwater, but not in seawater, most fish that died had an aquatic fungal infection. In both experiments, survival increased with increasing fish length at tagging. Our results indicate that tags similar in size to a 9-mm PIT tag are a feasible option for tagging metamorphosed juvenile lampreys migrating downstream and that when fungal infections are mitigated—as in seawater—long-term (at least 6 months) survival of tagged juvenile lampreys is high.

Mesa, Matthew G.; Copeland, Elizabeth S.; Christiansen, Helena E.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Roon, Sean R.; Hershberger, Paul K.

2012-01-01

285

Tagging frogs with passive integrated transponders causes disruption of the cutaneous bacterial community and proliferation of opportunistic fungi.  

PubMed

Symbiotic bacterial communities play a key role in protecting amphibians from infectious diseases including chytridiomycosis, caused by the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Events that lead to the disruption of the bacterial community may have implications for the susceptibility of amphibians to such diseases. Amphibians are often marked both in the wild and in captivity for a variety of reasons, and although existing literature indicates that marking techniques have few negative effects, the response of cutaneous microbial communities has not yet been investigated. Here we determine the effects of passive integrated transponder (PIT) tagging on culturable cutaneous microbial communities of captive Morelet's tree frogs (Agalychnis moreletii) and assess the isolated bacterial strains for anti-B. dendrobatidis activity in vitro. We find that PIT tagging causes a major disruption to the bacterial community associated with the skin of frogs (?12-fold increase in abundance), as well as a concurrent proliferation in resident fungi (up to ?200-fold increase). Handling also caused a disruption the bacterial community, although to a lesser extent than PIT tagging. However, the effects of both tagging and handling were temporary, and after 2 weeks, the bacterial communities were similar to their original compositions. We also identify two bacterial strains that inhibit B. dendrobatidis, one of which increased in abundance on PIT-tagged frogs at 1 day postmarking, while the other was unaffected. These results show that PIT tagging has previously unobserved consequences for cutaneous microbial communities of frogs and may be particularly relevant for studies that intend to use PIT tagging to identify individuals involved in trials to develop probiotic treatments. PMID:24878599

Antwis, Rachael E; Garcia, Gerardo; Fidgett, Andrea L; Preziosi, Richard F

2014-08-01

286

Continuous steel production and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A process for continuous refining of steel via multiple distinct reaction vessels for melting, oxidation, reduction, and refining for delivery of steel continuously to, for example, a tundish of a continuous caster system, and associated apparatus.

Peaslee, Kent D. (Rolla, MO); Peter, Jorg J. (McMinnville, OR); Robertson, David G. C. (Rolla, MO); Thomas, Brian G. (Champaign, IL); Zhang, Lifeng (Trondheim, NO)

2009-11-17

287

Apparatus for photon excited catalysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus is described for increasing the yield of photonically excited gas phase reactions by extracting excess energy from unstable, excited species by contacting the species with the surface of a finely divided solid.

Saffren, M. M. (inventor)

1977-01-01

288

Cherry-Slush-Candling Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed infrared-scanning apparatus for use in bakeries making cherry pies detect cherry pits remaining in cherry slush after pitting process. Pits detected via their relative opacity to infrared radiation.

Stephens, James B.; Weiss, James R.; Hoover, Gordon

1996-01-01

289

Asset Management of Power Apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the details and difficulties on asset management process of power apparatus used in power network. The\\u000a actual condition of power apparatus is far more important than its age. The regulatory and market forces in the current competitive\\u000a energy market that are challenging the electric utility require more proactive methods of utility asset management. The utilities\\u000a try to

S. Birlasekaran; G. Ledwich

290

41. Perimeter acquisition radar building radar element and coaxial display, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

41. Perimeter acquisition radar building radar element and coaxial display, with drawing of typical antenna section. Drawing, from left to right, shows element, aluminum ground plane, cable connectors and hardware, cable, and back-up ring. Grey area is the concrete wall - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

291

RADAR Reveals Titan Topography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cassini Titan RADAR Mapper is a K(sub u)-band (13.78 GHz, lambda = 2.17 cm) linear polarized RADAR instrument capable of operating in synthetic aperture (SAR), scatterometer, altimeter and radiometer modes. During the first targeted flyby of Titan on 26 October, 2004 (referred to as Ta) observations were made in all modes. Evidence for topographic relief based on the Ta altimetry and SAR data are presented here. Additional SAR and altimetry observations are planned for the T3 encounter on 15 February, 2005, but have not been carried out at this writing. Results from the T3 encounter relevant to topography will be included in our presentation. Data obtained in the Ta encounter include a SAR image swath

Kirk, R. L.; Callahan, P.; Seu, R.; Lorenz, R. D.; Paganelli, F.; Lopes, R.; Elachi, C.

2005-01-01

292

Floor-plan radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban-warfare specialists, law-enforcement officers, counter-drug agents, and counter-terrorism experts encounter operational situations where they must assault a target building and capture or rescue its occupants. To minimize potential casualties, the assault team needs a picture of the building's interior and a copy of its floor plan. With this need in mind, we constructed a scale model of a single- story house and imaged its interior using synthetic-aperture techniques. The interior and exterior walls nearest the radar set were imaged with good fidelity, but the distal ones appear poorly defined and surrounded by ghosts and artifacts. The latter defects are traceable to beam attenuation, wavefront distortion, multiple scattering, traveling waves, resonance phenomena, and other effects not accounted for in the traditional (noninteracting, isotropic point scatterer) model for radar imaging.

Falconer, David G.; Ueberschaer, Ronald M.

2000-07-01

293

Advanced ground penetrating radar  

SciTech Connect

An advanced Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) system has the potential for efficiently and reliably providing high resolution images for inspecting concrete civil structures for defects and damage assessment. To achieve the required performance, improvements in radar hardware, and development and adaptation of advanced 2- and 3-dimensional synthetic aperture imaging techniques are needed. Recent and continuing advancement in computer and computer-related technology areas have made it possible to consider more complex and capable systems for a variety of imaging applications not previously conceived. The authors developed conceptual designs, analyzed system requirements, and performed experiments, modeling, and image reconstructions to study the feasibility of improving GPR technology for non-destructive evaluation of bridge decks and other high-value concrete structures. An overview and summary of practical system concepts and requirements, are presented.

Warhus, J.P.; Mast, J.E.; Johansson, E.M.; Nelson, S.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Electronics Engineering Dept.

1994-07-26

294

New weather radar coming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What would you call the next generation of radar for severe weather prediction? NEXRAD, of course. A prototype for the new system was recently completed in Norman, Okla., and by the early 1990s up to 195 stations around the United States will be tracking dangerous weather and sending faster, more accurate, and more detailed warnings to the public.NEXRAD is being built for the Departments of Commerce, Transportation, and Defense by the Unisys Corporation under a $450 million contract signed in December 1987. Th e system will be used by the National Weather Service, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the U.S. Air Force and Navy. The NEXRAD radar tower in Norman is expected to be operational in October.

Maggs, William Ward

295

Radar signal processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of clutter in radar signal processing is considered with particular reference to an air-traffic environment. The characteristics of clutter are described, and the use of conventional moving-target indication filters to reduce the effects of clutter is considered. Adaptive clutter suppression schemes are addressed, and the adaptive detection of a moving target in the presence of clutter of unknown statistics is discussed. The use of a parametric spectrum estimation procedure as the basis of clutter classification is described.

Haykin, S.

1985-04-01

296

Airborne bistatic radar applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applications of bistatic radar when one or both of the units are airborne are discussed. Scenarios that merit deeper consideration are covert strike and head-on SAR using a stand-off illuminator, either airborne or space-based; area air defense with passive ground-based receivers and stand-off illuminators; an airborne picket line to detect stealth aircraft and missiles; AWACS aircraft providing mutual support in

James A. Foster

1987-01-01

297

Radar response to vegetation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Active microwave measurements of vegetation backscatter were conducted to determine the utility of radar in 1) mapping soil moisture through vegetation and 2) mapping crop types. Using a truck-mounted boom, spectral response data were obtained for four crop types (corn, milo, soybeans, and alfalfa) over the 4-8 GHz frequency band, at incidence angles of0deg-70degin10degsteps, and for all four linear polarization

F. Ulaby

1975-01-01

298

A review of array radars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Achievements in the area of array radars are illustrated by such activities as the operational deployment of the large high-power, high-range-resolution Cobra Dane; the operational deployment of two all-solid-state high-power, large UHF Pave Paws radars; and the development of the SAM multifunction Patriot radar. This paper reviews the following topics: array radars steered in azimuth and elevation by phase shifting (phase-phase steered arrays); arrays steered + or - 60 deg, limited scan arrays, hemispherical coverage, and omnidirectional coverage arrays; array radars steering electronically in only one dimension, either by frequency or by phase steering; and array radar antennas which use no electronic scanning but instead use array antennas for achieving low antenna sidelobes.

Brookner, E.

1981-10-01

299

Cognitive processing for nonlinear radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An increasingly cluttered electromagnetic environment (EME) is a growing problem for radar systems. This problem is becoming critical as the available frequency spectrum shrinks due to growing wireless communication device usage and changing regulations. A possible solution to these problems is cognitive radar, where the cognitive radar learns from the environment and intelligently modifies the transmit waveform. In this paper, a cognitive nonlinear radar processing framework is introduced where the main components of this framework consist of spectrum sensing processing, target detection and classification, and decision making. The emphasis of this paper is to introduce a spectrum sensing processing technique that identifies a transmit-receive frequency pair for nonlinear radar. It will be shown that the proposed technique successfully identifies a transmit-receive frequency pair for nonlinear radar from data collected from the EME.

Martone, Anthony; Ranney, Kenneth; Hedden, Abigail; Mazzaro, Gregory; McNamara, David

2013-05-01

300

Radar gun hazards  

SciTech Connect

Radar guns - hand-held units used by the law to nail speeders - have been in use since the early '60s. Now they've been accused of causing cancer. Police officers in several states have so far filed eight suits against the manufacturer, claiming that they have contracted rare forms of cancer, such as of the eyelid and the testicle, from frequent proximity to the devices. Spurred by concerns expressed by police groups, researchers at the Rochester Institute of Technology are conducting what they believe to be the first research of its kind in the nation. Last month psychologist John Violanti, an expert in policy psychology and health, sent out a one-page survey to 6,000 active and retired police officers in New York State, asking them about their health and their use of radar guns. Violanti says melanoma, leukemia, and lymph node cancer may be linked to these as well as other electromagnetic devices. The Food and Drug Administration earlier this year issued a warning about radar guns, telling users not to operate them closer than 6 inches from the body. But this may not be a sufficient safeguard since the instruments can give off crisscrossing wave emissions within a police vehicle. The survey will be used to help determine if it would be safer to mount the guns, which are currently either hand-held or mounted on dashboards, outside troopers' cars.

Not Available

1991-12-20

301

Spaceborne Imaging Radar Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In June of 1985 the Project Initiation Agreement was signed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the NASA Office of Space Science and Applications for the Spaceborne Imaging Radar Project (SIR). The thrust of the Spaceborne Imaging Radar Project is to continue the evolution of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) science and technology developed during SEASAT, SIR-A and SIR-B missions to meet the needs of the Earth Observing System (EOS) in the mid 1990's. As originally formulated, the Project plans were for a reflight of the SIR-B in 1987, the development of a new SAR, SIR-C, for missions in mid 1989 and early 1990, and the upgrade of SIR-C to EOS configuration with a qualification flight aboard the shuttle in the 1993 time frame (SIR-D). However, the loss of the shuttle Challenger has delayed the first manifest for SIR to early 1990. This delay prompted the decision to drop SIR-B reflight plans and move ahead with SIR-C to more effectively utilize this first mission opportunity. The planning for this project is discussed.

Herman, Neil

1986-01-01

302

Radar studies of bird migration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations of bird migration with NASA radars were made at Wallops Island, Va. Simultaneous observations were made at a number of radar sites in the North Atlantic Ocean in an effort to discover what happened to those birds that were observed leaving the coast of North America headed toward Bermuda, the Caribbean and South America. Transatlantic migration, utilizing observations from a large number of radars is discussed. Detailed studies of bird movements at Wallops Island are presented.

Williams, T. C.; Williams, J. M.

1974-01-01

303

Output Tube Emission Characteristics of Operational Radars.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains the emission spectra of 19 different types of radars, selected to show the different emission spectrum characteristics produced by a variety of radar output tube technologies. The radars include examples of ground-based search, airpor...

R. J. Matheson, J. D. Smilley, G. D. Falcon, V. S. Lawrence

1982-01-01

304

Neural-network laser radar.  

PubMed

A laser radar whose resolution is greater than 1 µm is reported. We present the radar results when they are used for such purposes as determining the size of a void inside a silicon wafer, profiling a cross-sectional pattern of an optical fiber, studying the birefringence of a lithium-niobate crystal, or finding a fault in an optical guide in an optical integrated-circuit wafer. Neural-network theory was used in processing the radar signal. Radar processing based on neural-network theory gave significantly superior resolution compared with Fourier-transform-based processing. PMID:20885600

Lizuka, K; Fujii, S

1994-05-01

305

Radar data processing and analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digitized four-channel radar images corresponding to particular areas from the Phoenix and Huntington test sites were generated in conjunction with prior experiments performed to collect X- and L-band synthetic aperture radar imagery of these two areas. The methods for generating this imagery are documented. A secondary objective was the investigation of digital processing techniques for extraction of information from the multiband radar image data. Following the digitization, the remaining resources permitted a preliminary machine analysis to be performed on portions of the radar image data. The results, although necessarily limited, are reported.

Ausherman, D.; Larson, R.; Liskow, C.

1976-01-01

306

Millimeter Wave Cloud Radar (MMCR) Handbook  

SciTech Connect

The millimeter cloud radar (MMCR) systems probe the extent and composition of clouds at millimeter wavelengths. The MMCR is a zenith-pointing radar that operates at a frequency of 35 GHz. The main purpose of this radar is to determine cloud boundaries (e.g., cloud bottoms and tops). This radar will also report radar reflectivity (dBZ) of the atmosphere up to 20 km. The radar possesses a doppler capability that will allow the measurement of cloud constituent vertical velocities.

KB Widener; K Johnson

2005-01-30

307

Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus  

DOEpatents

A flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus, comprises a flexible, hollow shaft that carries a plurality of modules, including at least one rotatable ultrasonic transducer, a motor/gear unit, and a position/signal encoder. The modules are connected by flexible knuckle joints that allow each module of the apparatus to change its relative orientation with respect to a neighboring module, while the shaft protects electrical wiring from kinking or buckling while the apparatus moves around a tight corner. The apparatus is moved through a pipe by any suitable means, including a tether or drawstring attached to the nose or tail, differential hydraulic pressure, or a pipe pig. The rotational speed of the ultrasonic transducer and the forward velocity of the apparatus are coordinated so that the beam sweeps out the entire interior surface of the pipe, enabling the operator to accurately assess the condition of the pipe wall and determine whether or not leak-prone corrosion damage is present. 7 figs.

Jenkins, C.F.; Howard, B.D.

1998-06-23

308

Planetary radar studies. [radar mapping of the Moon and radar signatures of lunar and Venus craters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress made in studying the evolution of Venusian craters and the evolution of infrared and radar signatures of lunar crater interiors is reported. Comparison of radar images of craters on Venus and the Moon present evidence for a steady state Venus crater population. Successful observations at the Arecibo Observatory yielded good data on five nights when data for a mix of inner and limb areas were acquired. Lunar craters with radar bright ejects are discussed. An overview of infrared radar crater catalogs in the data base is included.

Thompson, T. W.; Cutts, J. A.

1981-01-01

309

Locking apparatus for gate valves  

DOEpatents

A locking apparatus for fluid operated valves having a piston connected to the valve actuator which moves in response to applied pressure within a cylinder housing having a cylinder head, a catch block is secured to the piston, and the cylinder head incorporates a catch pin. Pressure applied to the cylinder to open the valve moves the piston adjacent to the cylinder head where the catch pin automatically engages the catch block preventing futher movement of the piston or premature closure of the valve. Application of pressure to the cylinder to close the valve, retracts the catch pin, allowing the valve to close. Included are one or more selector valves, for selecting pressure application to other apparatus depending on the gate valve position, open or closed, protecting such apparatus from damage due to premature closing caused by pressure loss or operational error.

Fabyan, Joseph (Livermore, CA); Williams, Carl W. (Manteca, CA)

1988-01-01

310

Alarm sensor apparatus for closures  

DOEpatents

An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or framework and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

Carlson, J.A.; Stoddard, L.M.

1984-01-31

311

Apparatus for control of mercury  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for reducing mercury in industrial gases such as the flue gas produced by the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal adds hydrogen sulfide to the flue gas in or just before a scrubber of the industrial process which contains the wet scrubber. The method and apparatus of the present invention is applicable to installations employing either wet or dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization systems. The present invention uses kraft green liquor as a source for hydrogen sulfide and/or the injection of mineral acids into the green liquor to release vaporous hydrogen sulfide in order to form mercury sulfide solids.

Downs, William (Alliance, OH); Bailey, Ralph T. (Uniontown, OH)

2001-01-01

312

Apparatus for controlling fluidized beds  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and process for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance.

Rehmat, Amirali G. (Westmont, IL); Patel, Jitendra G. (Bolingbrook, IL)

1987-05-12

313

Millimeter radar improves target identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently developed millimeter wave radar has advantages for target identification over conventional microwave radar which typically use lower frequencies. We describe the pertinent features involved in the construction of the new millimeter wave radar, the pseudo-optical cavity source and the quasi-optical duplexer. The long wavelength relative to light allows the radar beam to penetrate through most weather because the wavelength is larger than the particle size for dust, drizzle rain, fog. Further the mm wave beam passes through an atmospheric transmission window that provides a dip in attenuation. The higher frequency than conventional radar provides higher Doppler frequencies, for example, than X-band radar. We show by simulation that small characteristic vibrations and slow turns of an aircraft become visible so that the Doppler signature improves identification. The higher frequency also reduces beam width, which increases transmit and receive antenna gains. For the same power the transmit beam extends to farther range and the increase in receive antenna gain increases signal to noise ratio for improved detection and identification. The narrower beam can also reduce clutter and reject other noise more readily. We show by simulation that the radar can be used at lower elevations over the sea than conventional radar.

McAulay, Alastair D.

2011-06-01

314

Imaging Radar for Ecosystem Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recently a number of satellites have been launched with radar sensors, thus expanding opportunities for global assessment. In this article we focus on the applications of imaging radar, which is a type of sensor that actively generates pulses of microwaves and, in the interval between sending pulses, records the returning signals reflected back to an antenna.

Waring, Richard H.; Way, JoBea; Hunt, E. Raymond J.; Morrissey, Leslie; Ranson, K. Jon; Weishampel, John F.; Oren, Ram; Franklin, Steven E.

1996-01-01

315

Landform Identification on Radar Images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polarized radar echo images of the Moon acquired using 3.8 and 70 cm wavelengths were examined to learn more about (1) the relationships between theoretical resolutions of the radars and the sizes of landforms that can be identified and (2) the factors that effect landform identification.

Moore, H. J.; Thompson, T. W.

1985-01-01

316

4, 695729, 2004 Radar observations  

E-print Network

ACPD 4, 695­729, 2004 Radar observations of meteor trails W. G. Elford Title Page Abstract Discussion © EGU 2004 Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 4, 695­729, 2004 www.atmos-chem-phys.org/acpd/4/695/ SRef Discussions Radar observations of meteor trails, and their interpretation using Fresnel holography: a new tool

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

317

New Radar and Navigation Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is not the intention of this paper to give a complete coverage of all new radar and navigation systems, but to concentrate rather more on specific areas and examples where microwaves are used. Also, general coverage of the radar area is felt to be unnecessary following the invited paper given by R. Voles at Microwave 74, however recent advances

K L Fuller

1975-01-01

318

Radar cross-section measurements of a full-scale aircraft duct\\/engine structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cavity radar cross-section (RCS) data are measured from a full-sized generic aircraft duct\\/engine mock-up experimental apparatus. Details of the experimental measurements and characterization of the RCS from a generic aircraft engine inlet with a fan assembly embedded inside are described. The experimental results reveal that the azimuthal RCS patterns from an aircraft engine inlet with fan components embedded inside are

S. K. Wong; E. Riseborough; G. Duff; K. K. Chan

2006-01-01

319

CO2 laser radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CO2 laser-based radars operating at 10 microns are both highly energy-efficient and eye-safe, as well as compact and rugged; they also furnish covertness-enhancing fine pointing accuracy, and are difficult to jam or otherwise confuse. Two modes of operation are generally employed: incoherent, in which the laser is simply used as a high power illumination source, and in the presently elaborated coherent or heterodyne mode. Applications encompass terrain-following and obstacle avoidance, Doppler discrimination of missile and aircraft targets, pollutant gas detection, wind measurement for weapons-aiming, and global wind field monitoring.

Brown, D.; Callan, R.; Constant, G.; Davies, P. H.; Foord, R.

320

Radar image registration and rectification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two techniques for radar image registration and rectification are presented. In the registration method, a general 2-D polynomial transform is defined to accomplish the geometric mapping from one image into the other. The degree and coefficients of the polynomial are obtained using an a priori found tiepoint data set. In the second part of the paper, a rectification procedure is developed that models the distortion present in the radar image in terms of the radar sensor's platform parameters and the topographic variations of the imaged scene. This model, the ephemeris data and the digital topographic data are then used in rectifying the radar image. The two techniques are then used in registering and rectifying two examples of radar imagery. Each method is discussed as to its benefits, shortcomings and registration accuracy.

Naraghi, M.; Stromberg, W. D.

1983-01-01

321

A radar image time series  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A set of ten side-looking radar images of a mining area in Arizona that were aquired over a period of 14 yr are studied to demonstrate the photogrammetric differential-rectification technique applied to radar images and to examine changes that occurred in the area over time. Five of the images are rectified by using ground control points and a digital height model taken from a map. Residual coordinate errors in ground control are reduced from several hundred meters in all cases to + or - 19 to 70 m. The contents of the radar images are compared with a Landsat image and with aerial photographs. Effects of radar system parameters on radar images are briefly reviewed.

Leberl, F.; Fuchs, H.; Ford, J. P.

1981-01-01

322

21 CFR 868.5400 - Electroanesthesia apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...apparatus. (a) Identification. An electroanesthesia apparatus is a device used for the induction and maintenance of anesthesia during surgical procedures by means of an alternating or pulsed electric current that is passed through electrodes fixed...

2012-04-01

323

21 CFR 868.5400 - Electroanesthesia apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...apparatus. (a) Identification. An electroanesthesia apparatus is a device used for the induction and maintenance of anesthesia during surgical procedures by means of an alternating or pulsed electric current that is passed through electrodes fixed...

2013-04-01

324

21 CFR 868.5400 - Electroanesthesia apparatus.  

...apparatus. (a) Identification. An electroanesthesia apparatus is a device used for the induction and maintenance of anesthesia during surgical procedures by means of an alternating or pulsed electric current that is passed through electrodes fixed...

2014-04-01

325

21 CFR 868.5400 - Electroanesthesia apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...apparatus. (a) Identification. An electroanesthesia apparatus is a device used for the induction and maintenance of anesthesia during surgical procedures by means of an alternating or pulsed electric current that is passed through electrodes fixed...

2011-04-01

326

Thermal-cycling creep apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A constant load creep testing machine has been designed and built for operation under high frequency (1 to 10?2 S?1) thermal cycling conditions. The apparatus can be operated at loads up to 7 kg with temperatures up to 1000°C, and under vacuum to better than 10 ?torr. A twin creep stage enables differential creep measurements. Preliminary results on foil specimens

D. Eylon; N. Kushnir; A. Rosen

1970-01-01

327

Material transport method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

An electrospray apparatus uses a microchannel formed in a microchip. Fluid is pumped through the channel to an outlet orifice using either hydraulic or electrokinetic means. An electrospray is generated by establishing a sufficient potential difference between the fluid at the outlet orifice and a target electrode spaced from the outlet orifice. Electrokinetic pumping is also utilized to provide additional benefits to microchip devices.

Ramsey, J. Michael (Knoxville, TN); Ramsey, Roswitha S. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01

328

A comprehensive thermal analysis apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The apparatus enables both thermal gravimetric analyses and differential thermal analyses to be carried out in inert or oxidizing atmospheres, but as completely independent operations. It is fully automatic and is built in three compact sections from readily available commercial units, with the exception of the specifically designed furnaces. A vacuum pump and all necessary gas supply controls are included.

A. A. Hodgson

1963-01-01

329

Heavy oil catalytic cracking apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an apparatus for the fluidized catalytic cracking of a heavy hydrocarbon feed comprising hydrocarbons having a boiling point above about 650° F to lighter products by contact the feed with catalytic cracking catalyst. It comprises a catalytic cracking reactor means; a separation means connective with the reactor outlet; a primary stripping means comprising an inlet for a

1992-01-01

330

Heat reclaiming method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

Method and apparatus to extract heat by transferring heat from hot compressed refrigerant to a coolant, such as water, without exceeding preselected temperatures in the coolant and avoiding boiling in a water system by removing the coolant from direct or indirect contact with the hot refrigerant.

Jardine, Douglas M. (Colorado Springs, CO)

1984-01-01

331

Soil-gas sampling apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus for soil-gas sampling is described, comprising: (a) at least one passive vapor collector comprising an assembly which contains sorbent materials, and (b) a means for protecting, inserting and retrieving the vapor collector from in-ground locations comprising at least one liquid water penetration resistant vapor-permeable porous flexible expanded polytetrafluoroethylene containers which encloses the passive vapor collector (a).

Bailey, C.E.; Stutman, M.B.

1993-08-17

332

Gav generation apparatuses and processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus for generating combustible gas mixtures and liquid gasoline from coal is described comprising, in operative combination, a retort assembly, a washer assembly, a condenser assembly, a pump and storage assembly, and a heating assembly. The retort assembly comprises a gas-tight retort tank and a hood; the gas-tight retort tank comprises a horizontally extending rigid imperforate cylindrical wall and

Patton

1974-01-01

333

Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus  

DOEpatents

Pipe crawlers, pipe inspection {open_quotes}rabbits{close_quotes} and similar vehicles are widely used for inspecting the interior surfaces of piping systems, storage tanks and process vessels for damaged or flawed structural features. This paper describes the design of a flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus.

Jenkins, C.F.; Howard, B.D.

1994-01-01

334

Apparatus in a drill string  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus in a drill string comprises an internally upset drill pipe. The drill pipe comprises a first end, a second end, and an elongate tube intermediate the first and second ends. The elongate tube and the ends comprising a continuous an inside surface with a plurality of diameters. A conformable spirally welded metal tube is disposed within the drill

David R. Hall; Scott Dahlgren; Hall Jr. Tracy H; Joe Fox; David S. Pixton

2007-01-01

335

Energy storage and transmission apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention discloses an apparatus for storing and transmitting mechanical energy which utilizes a flywheel having a plurality of flywheel magnets located about the periphery thereof. An actuator is disengagably coupled to the flywheel for supplying rotary kinetic energy thereto. A plurality of coacting magnets are spaced about the circumference of the flywheel for interacting with the flywheel magnets. A

Gray

1978-01-01

336

Duplex sampling apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

An improved apparatus is provided for sampling a gaseous mixture and for measuring mixture components. The apparatus includes two sampling containers connected in series serving as a duplex sampling apparatus. The apparatus is adapted to independently determine the amounts of condensable and noncondensable gases in admixture from a single sample. More specifically, a first container includes a first port capable of selectively connecting to and disconnecting from a sample source and a second port capable of selectively connecting to and disconnecting from a second container. A second container also includes a first port capable of selectively connecting to and disconnecting from the second port of the first container and a second port capable of either selectively connecting to and disconnecting from a differential pressure source. By cooling a mixture sample in the first container, the condensable vapors form a liquid, leaving noncondensable gases either as free gases or dissolved in the liquid. The condensed liquid is heated to drive out dissolved noncondensable gases, and all the noncondensable gases are transferred to the second container. Then the first and second containers are separated from one another in order to separately determine the amount of noncondensable gases and the amount of condensable gases in the sample.

Brown, Paul E. (Pittsburgh, PA); Lloyd, Robert (West Mifflin, PA)

1992-01-01

337

Continuous shear wave logging apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus for continuous shear wave logging of a borehole consisting of a sonde instrument having retractable, expandable coupling arms for rigidly engaging the borehole wall to exert repetitive torqueing action while continuously moving uphole. The sonde includes spaced detector coupling arms in continual contact with the borehole wall and polarized for detection of the repetitive propagated shear waves.

Brown, G. L.

1985-10-29

338

Mass spectroscopic apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

The disclosure is directed to a method and apparatus for ionization modulated mass spectrometric analysis. Analog or digital data acquisition and processing can be used. Ions from a time variant source are detected and quantified. The quantified ion output is analyzed using a computer to provide a two-dimensional representation of at least one component present within an analyte.

Bomse, David S. (Santa Fe, NM); Silver, Joel A. (Santa Fe, NM); Stanton, Alan C. (Santa Fe, NM)

1991-01-01

339

Extended range chemical sensing apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for sensing chemicals over extended range of concentrations. In particular, first and second sensors each having separate, but overlapping ranges for sensing concentrations of hydrogen are provided. Preferably, the first sensor is a MOS solid state device wherein the metal electrode or gate is a nickel alloy. The second sensor is a chemiresistor comprising a nickel alloy.

Hughes, Robert C. (Albuquerque, NM); Schubert, W. Kent (Albuquerque, NM)

1994-01-01

340

Apparatus for washing drill cuttings  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus for cleansing a stream of drilling fluid fouled drill cuttings having a housing divided into a plurality of compartments each designed to retain cleansing fluid. A spinning force is imparted into the incoming fouled drill cuttings in an inlet chamber wherein cleansing fluid is intimately mixed with the fouled drill cuttings. A decanting chamber removes liberated drilling fluid from the cuttings and disposes of such drilling fluid from the apparatus via a drain trough assembly. The underflow from the decanter is passed through a solids concentrating assembly wherein the coarse solids are deposited in a concentrating assembly bottoms chamber wherein the settled drill cuttings are removed from the apparatus. The overhead stream from the solids concentrating assembly is driected to a second decanter for removal of any remaining drilling fluid and fine drill cuttings entrained therein from the apparatus via the drain trough assembly. The remaining fluid in the concentrating assembly bottoms chamber is recirculated to the second decanting chamber and the inlet chamber.

Lott, W. G.

1985-10-15

341

Programmable digital temperature controller apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A programmable digital temperature controller apparatus utilizing a pair of binary-coded decimal units and a switching unit to generate a ten bit binary word which represents a pre-selected temperature in a temperature range is discussed. A pair of erasable programmable read only memory units store digital temperatures and temperature range information. The ten bit binary word determines which digital data

B. J. Veneklase

1984-01-01

342

Laboratory measurements in support of radar studies of Titan seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data from Cassini RADAR instrument observations of Titan's lakes and seas show tantalizing hints that in some locations the radar signals might penetrate the liquids, returning measurable reflections from the solid surfaces beneath. At the microwave frequencies used by the RADAR instrument, non-polar liquid alkanes such as methane, ethane, and propane are fairly transparent, supporting the possibility that propagation through the liquids at Titan occurs. But relatively small amounts of other species dissolved in a liquid can strongly influence its microwave absorption coefficient. The dissolution of small amounts of sodium chloride in water, which increases the absorption coefficient by orders of magnitude, illustrates the potential of this effect. At Titan it is almost certain that some of the organic materials observed on the surface, and possibly other species, would dissolve in the methane-ethane mixture thought to constitute the bulk of the seas and lakes. If the microwave propagation constants of the liquids were known, Cassini RADAR data could provide estimates of depth profiles for areas yielding lake-bottom returns, and lower limits to depth for those areas where returns are absent. But the effects of anticipated dissolved species on the microwave properties of liquid alkane mixtures are largely unknown. Laboratory measurements could provide the key to inferring the lake-depth implications of Cassini RADAR results. There are multiple laboratory techniques available for measuring refractive indices and absorption coefficients of liquid samples at microwave frequencies. In the case of liquids relevant to Titan, the primary challenge is to maintain the samples and experimental apparatus at temperatures and pressures that keep the samples in the liquid phase, but this is not an impossible task. Other considerations include ensuring that the composition of a sample within the apparatus is well known. Notably, it is important that all surfaces in contact with the samples at any stage of the experiments do not affect the composition of the samples. An opportunity might arise to conduct such measurements as an extension of a task recently funded by the NASA Astrobiology Institute. That task calls for measuring the solubility of expected Titan materials, including but not limited to species found in tholins, in liquid methane-ethane mixtures. If such solutions are to be generated for that task, it would be prudent to use them for microwave experiments also. This presentation will describe candidate techniques for making these measurements and suggest possible applications to the Cassini data. This work was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract to NASA.

Spilker, T. R.; Hodyss, R. P.; Beauchamp, P. M.; Reh, K. R.

2009-04-01

343

Antarctic Mapping Project ACTIVE RADAR CALIBRATOR  

E-print Network

and Space Administration and National Science Foundation sponsored second mapping of Antarctica using satellite radar. The ARC is required in the calibration of these radar image data. This active radar. The first radar mapping of Antarctica was completed in 1997. The second mapping will also be accomplished

Howat, Ian M.

344

A new algorithm for radar emitter recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A radar electronic support measures (ESM) system performs the functions of threat detection and area surveillance. The received radar pulses are sorted and segregated by the deinterleaver into a number of radar cells depending on the measured parameters of the received pulses. These radar cells will be submitted to the threat library and compared with the stored parameters of known

H. E. Hassan

2003-01-01

345

Joint deinterleaving\\/recognition of radar pulses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A radar electronic support measures (ESM) system performs the functions of threat detection and area surveillance to determine the bearing and the identity of the surrounding radar emitters. The received pulses arc sorted and segregated into a number of deinterleaved radar cells depending on their measured parameters. The parameters of the deinterleaved radar cells will be submitted to the threat

H. E. Hassan

2003-01-01

346

Radar absorbing materials used for target camouflage  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of the developments within signal processing, transmitters and receivers areas radar technology has improved steadily over the past 50 years gaining in the sensor sensitivity, miniaturisation, power consumption, etc which allow to build smaller, more reliable and user friendly radar sensors. The effectiveness of these radar sensors is sufficiently threatening to merit the reduction of radar signature

I. NICOLAESCU

2006-01-01

347

Radar, Insect Population Ecology, and Pest Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discussions included: (1) the potential role of radar in insect ecology studies and pest management; (2) the potential role of radar in correlating atmospheric phenomena with insect movement; (3) the present and future radar systems; (4) program objectives required to adapt radar to insect ecology studies and pest management; and (5) the specific action items to achieve the objectives.

Vaughn, C. R. (editor); Wolf, W. (editor); Klassen, W. (editor)

1979-01-01

348

Course Syllabus Course name: Radar Meteorology  

E-print Network

Course Syllabus Course name: Radar Meteorology Course number: AT741 Instructor: Prof. Steven652, or permission of instructor Course goals and Objectives: AT741 is designed to provide principles, polarimetric radar, dual-wavelength radar, mm-wave radars with applications. The course also

349

Historical aspects of radar atmospheric dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of the history of radar techniques which have been applied to atmospheric observation is given. The author starts with ionosphere observation with the ionosonde, symbolizing as it does the earliest history of radar observation, and proceeds to later developments in radar observation such as the use of partial reflection, meteor, and incoherent scatter radars. Mesosphere stratosphere troposphere (MST) radars are discussed in terms of lower atmosphere observation.

Kato, Susumu

1989-01-01

350

Airborne bistatic radar applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Applications of bistatic radar when one or both of the units are airborne are discussed. Scenarios that merit deeper consideration are covert strike and head-on SAR using a stand-off illuminator, either airborne or space-based; area air defense with passive ground-based receivers and stand-off illuminators; an airborne picket line to detect stealth aircraft and missiles; AWACS aircraft providing mutual support in ECM environments; and passive surveillance of hostile air space using illuminators of opportunity and an airborne receiver. Scenarios considered impractical are bistatic air-to-air missile guidance using an aircraft other than the launch aircraft as illuminator; passive interdiction using illuminators of opportunity; and scenarios involving a ground based illuminator and an aircraft as the receiver.

Foster, James A.

1987-09-01

351

Radar backscatter modelling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The terrain analysis software package was restructured and documentation was added. A program was written to test Johnson Space Center's four band scatterometer data for spurious signals data. A catalog of terrain roughness statistics and calibrated four frequency multipolarization scatterometer data is being published to support the maintenance of Death Valley as a radar backscatter calibration test site for all future airborne and spacecraft missions. Test pits were dug through sand covered terrains in the Eastern Sahara to define the depth and character of subsurface interfaces responsible for either backscatter or specular response in SIR-A imagery. Blocky sandstone bedrock surfaces at about 1 m depth were responsible for the brightest SIR-A returns. Irregular very dense CaCO3 cemented sand interfaces were responsible for intermediate grey tones. Ancient river valleys had the weakest response. Reexamination of SEASAT l-band imagery of U.S. deserts continues.

Schaber, G. G.; Kozak, R. C.; Gurule, R. L.

1984-01-01

352

Synthetic aperture radar interferometry of Okmok volcano, Alaska: Radar observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

ERS-1\\/ERS-2 synthetic aperture radar interferometry was used to study the 1997 eruption of Okmok volcano in Alaska. First, we derived an accurate digital elevation model (DEM) using a tandem ERS-1\\/ERS-2 image pair and the preexisting DEM. Second, by studying changes in interferometric coherence we found that the newly erupted lava lost radar coherence for 5-17 months after the eruption. This

Zhong Lu; Dörte Mann; Jeffrey T. Freymueller; David J. Meyer

2000-01-01

353

Electrochemical apparatus comprising modified disposable rectangular cuvette  

DOEpatents

Electrochemical apparatus includes a disposable rectangular cuvette modified with at least one hole through a side and/or the bottom. Apparatus may include more than one cuvette, which in practice is a disposable rectangular glass or plastic cuvette modified by drilling the hole(s) through. The apparatus include two plates and some means of fastening one plate to the other. The apparatus may be interfaced with a fiber optic or microscope objective, and a spectrometer for spectroscopic studies. The apparatus are suitable for a variety of electrochemical experiments, including surface electrochemistry, bulk electrolysis, and flow cell experiments.

Dattelbaum, Andrew M; Gupta, Gautam; Morris, David E

2013-09-10

354

Fly eye radar or micro-radar sensor technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To compensate for its eye's inability to point its eye at a target, the fly's eye consists of multiple angularly spaced sensors giving the fly the wide-area visual coverage it needs to detect and avoid the threats around him. Based on a similar concept a revolutionary new micro-radar sensor technology is proposed for detecting and tracking ground and/or airborne low profile low altitude targets in harsh urban environments. Distributed along a border or around a protected object (military facility and buildings, camp, stadium) small size, low power unattended radar sensors can be used for target detection and tracking, threat warning, pre-shot sniper protection and provides effective support for homeland security. In addition it can provide 3D recognition and targets classification due to its use of five orders more pulses than any scanning radar to each space point, by using few points of view, diversity signals and intelligent processing. The application of an array of directional antennas eliminates the need for a mechanical scanning antenna or phase processor. It radically decreases radar size and increases bearing accuracy several folds. The proposed micro-radar sensors can be easy connected to one or several operators by point-to-point invisible protected communication. The directional antennas have higher gain, can be multi-frequency and connected to a multi-functional network. Fly eye micro-radars are inexpensive, can be expendable and will reduce cost of defense.

Molchanov, Pavlo; Asmolova, Olga

2014-05-01

355

Design and implementation of a hybrid digital phase-locked loop with a TMS320C25: An application to a transponder receiver breadboard  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design, modeling, analysis, and simulation of a phase-locked loop (PLL) with a digital loop filter are presented in this article. A TMS320C25 digital signal processor (DSP) is used to implement this digital loop filter. In order to keep the compatibility, the main design goal was to replace the analog PLL (APLL) of the Deep-Space Transponder (DST) receiver breadboard's loop filter with a digital loop filter without changing anything else. This replacement results in a hybrid digital PLL (HDPLL). Both the original APLL and the designed HDPLL are Type I second-order systems. The real-time performance of the HDPLL and the receiver is provided and evaluated.

Yeh, H.-G.; Nguyen, T. M.

1994-01-01

356

Process for removing PCB's from electrical apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for removing polychlorinated biphenyls from an electrical apparatus comprising: (a) filling the electrical apparatus with a dielectric fluid in liquid state in which polychlorinated biphenyls are soluble, thereby providing adequate insulation during the operation of the electrical apparatus; (b) dissolving polychlorinated biphenyls contained within the electrical apparatus into the dielectric fluid to form a solution; (c) conducting the solution from the electrical apparatus to a cleansing means; (d) cleansing the solution to thereby separate polychlorinated biphenyls from the dielectric fluid so that the dielectric fluid is re-usable; and (e) recirculating the dielectric fluid back to the electrical apparatus for reuse, the steps effectively and substantially removing the polychlorinated biphenyls from the electrical apparatus so that the leaching of residual polychlorinated biphenyls into the dielectric fluid will not exceed 50 ppm.

Fowler, D.E.

1987-08-11

357

Variable frequency microwave heating apparatus  

DOEpatents

A variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a multi-mode microwave cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) and a high-power microwave amplifier (20) or a high-power microwave oscillator (14). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the high-power microwave oscillator (14) or microwave amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction and amplitude of signals incident upon and reflected from the microwave cavity (34). A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

Bible, Don W. (Clinton, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Johnson, Arvid C. (Lake in the Hills, IL); Thigpen, Larry T. (Angier, NC)

1999-01-01

358

Freeze chromatography method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A freeze chromatography method and apparatus are provided which enable separation of the solutes contained in a sample. The apparatus includes an annular column construction comprising cylindrical inner and outer surfaces defining an annular passage therebetween. One of the surfaces is heated and the other cooled while passing an eluent through the annular passageway so that the eluent in contact with the cooled surface freezes and forms a frozen eluent layer thereon. A mixture of solutes dissolved in eluent is passed through the annular passageway in contact with the frozen layer so that the sample solutes in the mixture will tend to migrate either toward or away the frozen layer. The rate at which the mixture flows through the annular passageway is controlled so that the distribution of the sample solutes approaches that at equilibrium and thus a separation between the sample solutes occurs. 3 figs.

Scott, C.D.

1987-04-16

359

Optical pressure sealing coupling apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus is presented for optically coupling and pressure sealing sections of an instrument probe, one of the section being at a high pressure cryogenic environment and the other section being at ambient pressure. The apparatus includes a housing having a passageway within which elements are mounted for precisely locating a rigid optical fiber coupler and the probe sections so as to optically connect and maintain the ends of the probe sections together to permit signals to pass in both directions through the joint in two or more discrete channels. An adjustable positioning member acts to connect the external section of the probe to the housing in axial and rotation alignment with the interior section.

Irvin, Timothy B. (inventor); French, Richard E. (inventor)

1989-01-01

360

Micromachined patch-clamp apparatus  

DOEpatents

A micromachined patch-clamp apparatus is disclosed for holding one or more cells and providing electrical, chemical, or mechanical stimulation to the cells during analysis with the patch-clamp technique for studying ion channels in cell membranes. The apparatus formed on a silicon substrate utilizes a lower chamber formed from silicon nitride using surface micromachining and an upper chamber formed from a molded polymer material. An opening in a common wall between the chambers is used to trap and hold a cell for analysis using the patch-clamp technique with sensing electrodes on each side of the cell. Some embodiments of the present invention utilize one or more electrostatic actuators formed on the substrate to provide mechanical stimulation to the cell being analyzed, or to provide information about mechanical movement of the cell in response to electrical or chemical stimulation.

Okandan, Murat

2012-12-04

361

Mouse Cleaning Apparatus and Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The method of using the mouse pad cleaning apparatus is disclosed and claimed. The method comprises the steps of uncovering the mouse cleaning surface, applying the mouse and ball of the mouse to the cleaning surface, moving the mouse in a rotational pattern on the mouse cleaning surface, removing the mouse form the mouse cleaning surface, washing the cleaning surface, and covering the mouse cleaning surface. A mouse pad cleaning apparatus comprising a plurality of substrates, each said substrate having adhesive thereon, said plurality of substrates residing in and affixed to a receptacle. A single substrate having adhesive, which may be washable or non-washable, thereon may be employed. The washable adhesive may be an organopolysiloxane or gelatinous elastomer.

Williams, Glenn L. (Inventor)

2005-01-01

362

Precision cleaning apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

A precision cleaning apparatus and method. The precision cleaning apparatus includes a cleaning monitor further comprising an acoustic wave cleaning sensor such as a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), a flexural plate wave (FPW) sensor, a shear horizontal acoustic plate mode (SH--APM) sensor, or a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH--SAW) sensor; and measurement means connectable to the sensor for measuring in-situ one or more electrical response characteristics that vary in response to removal of one or more contaminants from the sensor and a workpiece located adjacent to the sensor during cleaning. Methods are disclosed for precision cleaning of one or more contaminants from a surface of the workpiece by means of the cleaning monitor that determines a state of cleanliness and any residual contamination that may be present after cleaning; and also for determining an effectiveness of a cleaning medium for removing one or more contaminants from a workpiece.

Schneider, Thomas W. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM); Martin, Stephen J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01

363

Precision cleaning apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

A precision cleaning apparatus and method are disclosed. The precision cleaning apparatus includes a cleaning monitor further comprising an acoustic wave cleaning sensor such as a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), a flexural plate wave (FPW) sensor, a shear horizontal acoustic plate mode (SH--APM) sensor, or a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH--SAW) sensor; and measurement means connectable to the sensor for measuring in-situ one or more electrical response characteristics that vary in response to removal of one or more contaminants from the sensor and a workpiece located adjacent to the sensor during cleaning. Methods are disclosed for precision cleaning of one or more contaminants from a surface of the workpiece by means of the cleaning monitor that determines a state of cleanliness and any residual contamination that may be present after cleaning; and also for determining an effectiveness of a cleaning medium for removing one or more contaminants from a workpiece. 11 figs.

Schneider, T.W.; Frye, G.C.; Martin, S.J.

1998-01-13

364

X-Ray Diffraction Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An x-ray diffraction apparatus for use in analyzing the x-ray diffraction pattern of a sample is introduced. The apparatus includes a beam source for generating a collimated x-ray beam having one or more discrete x-ray energies, a holder for holding the sample to be analyzed in the path of the beam, and a charge-coupled device having an array of pixels for detecting, in one or more selected photon energy ranges, x-ray diffraction photons produced by irradiating such a sample with said beam. The CCD is coupled to an output unit which receives input information relating to the energies of photons striking each pixel in the CCD, and constructs the diffraction pattern of photons within a selected energy range striking the CCD.

Blake, David F. (Inventor); Bryson, Charles (Inventor); Freund, Friedmann (Inventor)

1996-01-01

365

Spinning angle optical calibration apparatus  

DOEpatents

An optical calibration apparatus is provided for calibrating and reproducing spinning angles in cross-polarization, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. An illuminated magnifying apparatus enables optical setting an accurate reproducing of spinning "magic angles" in cross-polarization, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy experiments. A reference mark scribed on an edge of a spinning angle test sample holder is illuminated by a light source and viewed through a magnifying scope. When the "magic angle" of a sample material used as a standard is attained by varying the angular position of the sample holder, the coordinate position of the reference mark relative to a graduation or graduations on a reticle in the magnifying scope is noted. Thereafter, the spinning "magic angle" of a test material having similar nuclear properties to the standard is attained by returning the sample holder back to the originally noted coordinate position.

Beer, Stephen K. (Morgantown, WV); Pratt, II, Harold R. (Morgantown, WV)

1991-01-01

366

Critical heat flux test apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for testing, in situ, highly irradiated specimens at high temperature transients is provided. A specimen, which has a thermocouple device attached thereto, is manipulated into test position in a sealed quartz heating tube by a robot. An induction coil around a heating portion of the tube is powered by a radio frequency generator to heat the specimen. Sensors are connected to monitor the temperatures of the specimen and the induction coil. A quench chamber is located below the heating portion to permit rapid cooling of the specimen which is moved into this quench chamber once it is heated to a critical temperature. A vacuum pump is connected to the apparatus to collect any released fission gases which are analyzed at a remote location.

Welsh, Robert E. (West Mifflin, PA); Doman, Marvin J. (McKeesport, PA); Wilson, Edward C. (West Mifflin, PA)

1992-01-01

367

Progress in smart radar absorbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional (i.e. passive) radar absorbers are widely used for modifying the radar cross-section (RCS) of current military platforms but such absorbers may not have adequate performance to satisfy future requirements. Active absorbers, however, offer the potential to overcome the so-called Rozanov performance limit and to enable additional 'smart' functionality such as monitoring damage, adaptive control of RCS or target appearance, Identification-Friend-or-Foe (IFF) and Absorb-While-Scan (AWS) This paper outlines the concept and basic properties of a novel type of active radar absorber, the so-called Phase-Switched Screen (PSS). The basic PSS topology is then modified so as to enable it to operate as a smart radar absorber when used together with an external sensor and feedback control loop. The theoretical predictions are confirmed using data measured on transmission-line analogues of the smart PSS structure.

Chambers, Barry; Tennant, Alan

2003-07-01

368

A plea for radar brightness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radar reflectivity coefficient of a distributed scatterer, expressed either as ?0 or ?, depends on local incidence angle. Prior to incidence angle projection, the reflectivity coefficient may be called \\

R. K. Raney; T. Freeman; R. W. Hawkins; R. Bamler

1994-01-01

369

NASA Radar Images Asteroid Toutatis  

NASA Video Gallery

This 64-frame movie of asteroid Toutatis was generated from data by Goldstone's Solar System Radar on Dec. 12 and 13, 2012. In the movie clips, the rotation of the asteroid appears faster than it o...

370

Apparatus for treating oil shale  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process and apparatus for decomposing kerogen and recovering oil, high BTU gas and energy for the process are described, wherein a crushed oil shale is fed to a rotary preheater (300° to 350°F), hence into a rotary retort (850° to 1050°F) where the kerogen is decomposed and the oil evaporated, removed and condensed. From the retort the crushed shale

Reed; T. G. Jr

1977-01-01

371

Statistical Mechanics of Amplifying Apparatus  

E-print Network

We implement Feynman's suggestion that the only missing notion needed for the puzzle of Quantum Measurement is the statistical mechanics of amplifying apparatus. We define a thermodynamic limit of quantum amplifiers which is a classically describable system in the sense of Bohr, and define macroscopic pointer variables for the limit system. Then we derive the probabilities of Quantum Measurement from the deterministic Schroedinger equation by the usual techniques of Classical Statistical Mechanics.

Joseph Johnson

2005-02-08

372

Fiber alignment apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

A fiber alignment apparatus includes a micro-machined nickel spring that captures and locks arrays of single mode fibers into position. The design consists of a movable nickel leaf shaped spring and a fixed pocket where fibers are held. The fiber is slid between the spring and a fixed block, which tensions the spring. When the fiber reaches the pocket, it automatically falls into the pocket and is held by the pressure of the leaf spring. 8 figs.

Kravitz, S.H.; Warren, M.E.; Snipes, M.B. Jr.; Armendariz, M.G.; Word, J.C. V

1997-08-19

373

Fire suppressing apparatus. [sodium fires  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for smothering a liquid sodium fire comprises a pan, a perforated cover on the pan, and tubed depending from the cover and providing communication between the interior of the pan and the ambient atmosphere through the perforations in the cover. Liquid caught in the pan rises above the lower ends of the tubes and thus serves as a barrier which limits the amount of air entering the pan.

Buttrey, K.E.

1980-12-19

374

Radiation scatter apparatus and method  

SciTech Connect

A radiation scatter gauge includes multiple detector locations for developing separate and independent sets of data from which multiple physical characteristics of a thin material and underlying substrate may be determined. In an illustrated embodiment, the apparatus and method of the invention are directed to determining characteristics of resurfaced pavement by nondestructive testing. More particularly, the density and thickness of a thin asphalt overlay and the density of the underlying pavement may be determined.

Molbert, J. L.; Riddle, E. R.

1985-06-25

375

Vibration damping method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides vibration damping method and apparatus that can damp vibration in more than one direction without requiring disassembly, that can accommodate varying tool dimensions without requiring re-tuning, and that does not interfere with tool tip operations and cooling. The present invention provides active dampening by generating bending moments internal to a structure such as a boring bar to dampen vibration thereof.

Redmond, James M. (Albuquerque, NM); Barney, Patrick S. (Albuquerque, NM); Parker, Gordon G. (Hougton, MI); Smith, David A. (Gainesville, FL)

1999-01-01

376

Geothermal reboiler apparatus and method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparatus and method for handling geothermal brine containing high non-condensible gas concentrations. The brine is directed into a pre-flash chamber where a vapor fraction is separated from a liquid fraction, the vapor fraction including steam and a non-condensible gas. The vapor fraction is directed into and through a reboiler in countercurrent flow relationship to a condensate. This action causes the

L. Awerbuch; V. C. Vander Mast

1985-01-01

377

Fiber alignment apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

A fiber alignment apparatus includes a micro-machined nickel spring that captures and locks arrays of single mode fibers into position. The design consists of a movable nickel leaf shaped spring and a fixed pocket where fibers are held. The fiber is slid between the spring and a fixed block, which tensions the spring. When the fiber reaches the pocket, it automatically falls into the pocket and is held by the pressure of the leaf spring.

Kravitz, Stanley H. (Placitas, NM); Warren, Mial Evans (Albuquerque, NM); Snipes, Jr., Morris Burton (Albuquerque, NM); Armendariz, Marcelino Guadalupe (Albuquerque, NM); Word, V., James Cole (Albuqueruqe, NM)

1997-01-01

378

Automatic toilet seat lowering apparatus  

DOEpatents

A toilet seat lowering apparatus includes a housing defining an internal cavity for receiving water from the water supply line to the toilet holding tank. A descent delay assembly of the apparatus can include a stationary dam member and a rotating dam member for dividing the internal cavity into an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber and controlling the intake and evacuation of water in a delayed fashion. A descent initiator is activated when the internal cavity is filled with pressurized water and automatically begins the lowering of the toilet seat from its upright position, which lowering is also controlled by the descent delay assembly. In an alternative embodiment, the descent initiator and the descent delay assembly can be combined in a piston linked to the rotating dam member and provided with a water channel for creating a resisting pressure to the advancing piston and thereby slowing the associated descent of the toilet seat. A toilet seat lowering apparatus includes a housing defining an internal cavity for receiving water from the water supply line to the toilet holding tank. A descent delay assembly of the apparatus can include a stationary dam member and a rotating dam member for dividing the internal cavity into an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber and controlling the intake and evacuation of water in a delayed fashion. A descent initiator is activated when the internal cavity is filled with pressurized water and automatically begins the lowering of the toilet seat from its upright position, which lowering is also controlled by the descent delay assembly. In an alternative embodiment, the descent initiator and the descent delay assembly can be combined in a piston linked to the rotating dam member and provided with a water channel for creating a resisting pressure to the advancing piston and thereby slowing the associated descent of the toilet seat.

Guerty, Harold G. (Palm Beach Gardens, FL)

1994-09-06

379

Radar imaging of Saturn's rings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present delay–Doppler images of Saturn's rings based on radar observations made at Arecibo Observatory between 1999 and 2003, at a wavelength of 12.6 cm and at ring opening angles of 20.1°?|B|?26.7°. The average radar cross-section of the A ring is ?77% relative to that of the B ring, while a stringent upper limit of 3% is placed on the

Philip D. Nicholson; Richard G. French; Donald B. Campbell; Jean-Luc Margot; Michael C. Nolan; Gregory J. Black; Heikki J. Salo

2005-01-01

380

Radar Observations of Meteor Deceleration  

Microsoft Academic Search

By using a narrow-beam high-power radar operating at 68 cm it has been possible to detect meteors traveling radially toward the radar. In these observations the antenna is directed at the radiant point of an intense meteor shower, and the receiver is tuned to the expected Doppler-shifted signal. Because the actual Doppler shift can be measured with pre- cision, both

J. V. Evans

1966-01-01

381

High-resolution radar imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this project is to formulate and investigate new approaches for forming images of radar targets from spotlight-mode, delay-Doppler measurements. These measurements can be acquired with a high-resolution radar-imaging operating with an optical- or radio-frequency carrier. Work in this reporting period has concentrated on our estimation-theory approach to forming high resolution images. This approach accounts for measurement noise

Donald L. Snyder

1990-01-01

382

Laser Heterodyne Radars and Lidars  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The title of this chapter is so contradictory that it needs special clarification before commencing the detailed discussion\\u000a of the chapter matter. The term RADAR emerged in 1941 as an acronym for radio detection and ranging. Thus, the two words “laser\\u000a radar” being put together represent first contradiction. It sounds even more curios, considering the fact that both words\\u000a are

Vladimir Protopopov

383

Progress in smart radar absorbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional (i.e. passive) radar absorbers are widely used for modifying the radar cross-section (RCS) of current military platforms but such absorbers may not have adequate performance to satisfy future requirements. Active absorbers, however, offer the potential to overcome the so-called Rozanov performance limit and to enable additional 'smart' functionality such as monitoring damage, adaptive control of RCS or target appearance,

Barry Chambers; Alan Tennant

2003-01-01

384

Landform identification: Lunar radar images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three sets of polarized radar-echo images of the Moon were examined to establish the relation between radar resolution and landform-identification resolution. After comparison with lunar maps and photographs, real and apparent landforms on the radar images were grouped into one of seven classes. Results show strong relations between radar resolution and diameter or relief of landforms that are clearly identified and those that would probably be correctly identified (class 1 and class 2). Landforms are not detected (class 5) at all diameters and reliefs, but the percentage of undetected landforms decreases with increasing mean diameter and mean relief. Landforms are simply detected (class 4) at most mean diameters and reliefs. Ambiguous arrays (class 6) portrayed by the radar constitute up to about 16, 22, and 15% of the landforms at various diameters and relief values for the 3.8 cm, 70 cm high resolution, and 70 cm low resolution images, respectively. Only a few percent of the landforms portrayed by the radar images at various diameters and relief values are fictitious (class 7).

Moore, Henry J.; Thompson, T. W.

1987-01-01

385

Australian Weather Watch Radar Home Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Commonwealth Bureau of Meteorology's Weather Watch Radar website provides up-to-date radar images of the locations of rain in Australia in relation to local features such as coast lines. The newly developed Loops provide four consecutive radar images so that users can view how the weather has been changing in the last forty to fifty minutes. The website provides radar images of past cyclone events as well as updates on severe weather throughout Australia. Those interested in radar systems can discover how the weather radars work and how to interpret the maps. [RME

386

High resolution radar map of the Moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previous radar mappings of the Moon at 70 cm wavelength in the late 1960's by Thompson have been replaced with a new set of observations using the 430 MHz radar at the Arecibo Observatory, Puerto Rico. Radar resolution was reduced to 2 to 5 km radar cell size and a beam-sweep, limb-to-limb calibration was conducted. Advances in computer technology provided the principle means of improving lunar radar mapping at this wavelength. Observation techniques and data processing are described and scattering differences found in the orthographic projection of the radar data are discussed.

Thompson, T. W.

1987-01-01

387

Apparatus for recovery of sulfur  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus for the recovery of sulfur from an underground sulfur formation. It comprises means for the injection of hot water into contact with the underground sulfur formation; means to permit the water and elemental sulfur to remain in contact, so as to melt at least a portion of the sulfur and form a mixture of molten sulfur and water; means for removing the mixture of molten sulfur and heated water to the surface; means for separating the water and sulfur mixture to recover molten sulfur and water; and means to recycle the water to the underground formation.

Peters, J.R.; Ramey, M.E.; Seyffert, A.E.; Canon, J.L.; Robinson, M.W.; Abercrombie, W.T.

1989-09-26

388

Apparatus for oil shale retorting  

DOEpatents

A cascading bed retorting process and apparatus in which cold raw crushed shale enters at the middle of a retort column into a mixer stage where it is rapidly mixed with hot recycled shale and thereby heated to pyrolysis temperature. The heated mixture then passes through a pyrolyzer stage where it resides for a sufficient time for complete pyrolysis to occur. The spent shale from the pyrolyzer is recirculated through a burner stage where the residual char is burned to heat the shale which then enters the mixer stage.

Lewis, Arthur E. (Los Altos, CA); Braun, Robert L. (Livermore, CA); Mallon, Richard G. (Livermore, CA); Walton, Otis R. (Livermore, CA)

1986-01-01

389

Rotating apparatus for isoelectric focusing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This disclosure is directed to an isoelectric focusing apparatus, wherein stabilization of the fluid containing the isolated proteins is achieved by carrying out the separation in a rotating cylinder with the separation cavity of the cylinder being segmented by means of filter elements. The filter elements are constituted of a material offering some degree of resistance to fluid convection, but allowing relatively free and unhindered passage of current and transport of proteins. The combined effect of segmentation and rotation has been found to be superior to either segmentation or rotation alone in maintaining the stability of the migrated fractions.

Bier, Milan (Inventor)

1986-01-01

390

Multispectral imaging method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A multispectral imaging method and apparatus are described which are adapted for use in determining material properties, especially properties characteristic of abnormal non-dermal cells. A target is illuminated with a narrow band light beam. The target expresses light in response to the excitation. The expressed light is collected and the target's response at specific response wavelengths to specific excitation wavelengths is measured. From the measured multispectral response the target's properties can be determined. A sealed, remote probe and robust components can be used for cervical imaging. 5 figs.

Sandison, D.R.; Platzbecker, M.R.; Vargo, T.D.; Lockhart, R.R.; Descour, M.R.; Richards-Kortum, R.

1999-07-06

391

Multispectral imaging method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A multispectral imaging method and apparatus adapted for use in determining material properties, especially properties characteristic of abnormal non-dermal cells. A target is illuminated with a narrow band light beam. The target expresses light in response to the excitation. The expressed light is collected and the target's response at specific response wavelengths to specific excitation wavelengths is measured. From the measured multispectral response the target's properties can be determined. A sealed, remote probe and robust components can be used for cervical imaging

Sandison, David R. (Moriarty, NM); Platzbecker, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); Vargo, Timothy D. (Albuquerque, NM); Lockhart, Randal R. (Lorain, OH); Descour, Michael R. (Tucson, AZ); Richards-Kortum, Rebecca (Austin, TX)

1999-01-01

392

Thruster sealing system and apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thruster nozzle sealing system and apparatus is provided for protection of spacecraft thruster motors. The system includes a sealing plug, a sealing plug insertion tool, an outer cover, an outer cover attachment, and a ferry flight attachment. The sealing plug prevents moisture from entering the thruster engine so as to prevent valve failure. The attachments are interchangeably connectable with the sealing plug. The ferry flight attachment is used during air transportation of the spacecraft, and the outer cover attachment is used during storage and service of the spacecraft. The outer cover provides protection to the thruster nozzle from mechanical damage.

Svejkovsky, Paul A. (inventor)

1992-01-01

393

Versatile cold atom target apparatus.  

PubMed

We report on a compact and transportable apparatus that consists of a cold atomic target at the center of a high resolution recoil ion momentum spectrometer. Cold rubidium atoms serve as a target which can be operated in three different modes: in continuous mode, consisting of a cold atom beam generated by a two-dimensional magneto-optical trap, in normal mode in which the atoms from the beam are trapped in a three-dimensional magneto-optical trap (3D MOT), and in high density mode in which the 3D MOT is operated in dark spontaneous optical trap configuration. The targets are characterized using photoionization. PMID:22852676

Götz, Simone; Höltkemeier, Bastian; Hofmann, Christoph S; Litsch, Dominic; DePaola, Brett D; Weidemüller, Matthias

2012-07-01

394

The P?ANDA apparatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The P?ANDA experiment will make use of cooled antiproton beams of unprecedented quality that will be available at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt. The envisaged physics program includes: meson spectroscopy, baryon antibaryon production, baryon spectroscopy, hypernuclar physics, hadron properties in the nuclear medium and electromagnetic processes. This rich physics program asks for a general purpose apparatus. The design of the experiment is an advanced stage and the R&D phase is approaching its final phase, as resulted by most of the Technical Design Reports (TDRs) being already completed or under writing. In addition the production phase has already started for the electromagnetic calorimeter.

Calvo, D.

2014-03-01

395

Hydrocarbonaceous material processing methods and apparatus  

DOEpatents

Methods and apparatus are disclosed for possibly producing pipeline-ready heavy oil from substantially non-pumpable oil feeds. The methods and apparatus may be designed to produce such pipeline-ready heavy oils in the production field. Such methods and apparatus may involve thermal soaking of liquid hydrocarbonaceous inputs in thermal environments (2) to generate, though chemical reaction, an increased distillate amount as compared with conventional boiling technologies.

Brecher, Lee E. (Laramie, WY)

2011-07-12

396

Apparatus for injecting material into a wellbore  

SciTech Connect

Injector apparatus is disclosed which includes a sealed self-contained replaceable vessel containing an ejectable material to be injected into the wellbore during well logging operations. The vessel comprises a flexible-wall, collapsible tubular-like cartridge which can be removed from the mounting apparatus in the string of logging tools and replaced with a new cartridge. Motive force apparatus pressurizes the material in the cartridge and a valve device, which is actuated by a solenoid device, controls the flow of material exiting from the cartridge. Passageways and an orifice in the mounting apparatus directs the flow of material from the valve device to the wellbore.

Cain, R.W.

1983-12-20

397

Radar MeteorologyRadar Meteorology Feb 20, 1941 10 cm (S-band) radar used to track rain showers (Ligda)  

E-print Network

Radar MeteorologyRadar Meteorology Feb 20, 1941 10 cm (S-band) radar used to track rain showers, or wavelengths from 1 meter to 1 mm. Immediately above this portion of the spectrum is the infrared region of objects, determining their direction and range, recognizing their characteristics and employing the data

Rutledge, Steven

398

Effects of Radar Beam Shielding on Rainfall Estimation for the Polarimetric C-Band Radar  

E-print Network

-based rainfall estimates to beam shielding for C-band radar data during four typical rain events encounteredEffects of Radar Beam Shielding on Rainfall Estimation for the Polarimetric C-Band Radar KATJA. Introduction Rainfall estimation by radar is subject to smaller er- rors when measurements are made at levels

399

A 100 GHz Polarimetric Compact Radar Range for Scale-Model Radar Cross Section Measurements  

E-print Network

William E. Nixon U.S. Army National Ground Intelligence Center Charlottesville, VA 22902 l Abstract for obtaining radar cross section, inverse synthetic aperture radar imagery and high range resolution profiles. Keywords: Compact Radar Range, Doppler, Imagery, Instrumentation, ISAR, Millimeter-Wave, Radar, RCS

Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

400

Radar absorbing material (RAM) and shaping on radar cross section reduction of dihedral corners  

Microsoft Academic Search

How far can a radar system detect an object depends the radar cross section (RCS) of the target. Corner reflectors are the major scattering centers in the radar signatures of vehicles. The monostatic return from such structures can be reduced by ensuring that surfaces never meet at right angles and by application of radar absorbing materials (RAM). This paper deals

G. G. Peixoto; A. L. de Paula; L. A. Andrade; C. M. A. Lopes; M. C. Rezende

2005-01-01

401

MIMO Radar Waveform Constraints for GMTI  

E-print Network

Ground moving-target indication (GMTI) provides both an opportunity and challenge for coherent multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar. MIMO techniques can improve a radar's angle estimation and the minimum detectable ...

Forsythe, Keith W.

402

A Through-Dielectric Radar Imaging System  

E-print Network

Through-lossy-slab radar imaging will be shown at stand-off ranges using a low-power, ultrawideband (UWB), frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radar system. FMCW is desirable for through-slab applications because ...

Charvat, Gregory L.

403

Radar Mosaic of Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is an image of equatorial Africa, centered on the equator at longitude 15degrees east. This image is a mosaic of almost 4,000 separate images obtained in 1996 by the L-band imaging radar onboard the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite. Using radar to penetrate the persistent clouds prevalent in tropical forests, the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite was able for the first time to image at high resolution this continental scale region during single flooding seasons. The area shown covers about 7.4 million square kilometers (2.8 million square miles) of land surface, spans more than 5,000 kilometers(3,100 miles) east and west and some 2,000 kilometers (1,240 miles) north and south. North is up in this image. At the full resolution of the mosaic (100 meters or 330 feet), this image is more than 500 megabytes in size, and was processed from imagery totaling more than 60 gigabytes.

Central Africa was imaged twice in 1996, once between January and March, which is the major low-flood season in the Congo Basin, and once between October and November, which is the major high-flood season in the Congo Basin. The red color corresponds to the data from the low-flood season, the green to the high-flood season, and the blue to the 'texture' of the low-flood data. The forests appear green as a result, the flooded and palm forests, as well as urban areas, appear yellow, the ocean and lakes appear black, and savanna areas appear blue, black or green, depending on the savanna type, surface topography and other factors. The areas of the image that are black and white were mapped only between January and March 1996. In these areas, the black areas are savanna or open water, the gray are forests, and the white areas are flooded forests or urban areas. The Congo River dominates the middle of the image, where the nearby forests that are periodically flooded by the Congo and its tributaries stand out as yellow. The Nile River flows north from Lake Victoria in the middle right of the color portion of the mosaic.

This image is one of the products resulting from the Global Rain Forest Mapping project, a joint project between the National Space Development Agency of Japan, the Space Applications Institute of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and an international team of scientists. The goal of the Global Rain Forest Mapping mission is to map with the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite the world's tropical rain forests. The Japanese satellite was launched in 1992 by the National Space Development Agency of Japan and the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry, with support from the Remote Sensing Technology Center of Japan.

1999-01-01

404

Bird-aircraft strike avoidance radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Avian radar system has been developed for bird-aircraft strike hazard avoidance. Two representative systems, which are countrywide and airport-based avian radar systems, are surveyed to summarize the state-of-the-art in this research field. Avian radar experimental system built by Beihang University is introduced in detail, including system architecture, performance analysis, and processing algorithm for bird target detection and tracking. This radar

Ning Huansheng; Chen Weishi; Mao Xia; Li Jing

2010-01-01

405

Spaceborne radar remote sensing: Applications and techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operation and applications of spaceborne radars for terrestrial and planetary remote sensing are described in an introduction for advanced students and practicing scientists. Chapters are devoted to imaging radars, wave-surface interactions and geoscientific applications, real- and synthetic-aperture radars, end-to-end system design, SAR data processing, altimeters, and scatterometers. Extensive diagrams, drawings, graphs, photographs, and sample radar images are provided.

Charles Elachi

1988-01-01

406

Apparatus for incinerating hazardous waste  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for incinerating wastes, including an incinerator having a combustion chamber, a fluidtight shell enclosing the combustion chamber, an afterburner, an off-gas particulate removal system and an emergency off-gas cooling system. The region between the inner surface of the shell and the outer surface of the combustion chamber forms a cavity. Air is supplied to the cavity and heated as it passes over the outer surface of the combustion chamber. Heated air is drawn from the cavity and mixed with fuel for input into the combustion chamber. The pressure in the cavity is maintained at least approximately 2.5 cm WC (about 1" WC) higher than the pressure in the combustion chamber. Gases cannot leak from the combustion chamber since the pressure outside the chamber (inside the cavity) is higher than the pressure inside the chamber. The apparatus can be used to treat any combustible wastes, including biological wastes, toxic materials, low level radioactive wastes, and mixed hazardous and low level transuranic wastes.

Chang, Robert C. W. (Martinez, GA)

1994-01-01

407

Vehicle security apparatus and method  

SciTech Connect

A vehicle security apparatus for use in a motor vehicle, the apparatus comprising an optical key, a receptacle, a receiver and at least one optical fiber. The optical key has a transmitter having at least one first preprogrammed coded signal stored in a first electric circuit. The receptacle receives the optical key and at least one transmittable coded optical signal from the transmitter corresponding to the at least one preprogrammed coded signal stored in the first electric circuit. The receiver compares the at least one transmittable coded optical signal to at least one second preprogrammed coded signal stored in a second electric circuit and the receiver is adapted to trigger switching effects for at least one of enabling starting the motor vehicle and starting the motor vehicle upon determination that the at least one transmittable coded optical signal corresponds to the at least one second preprogrammed signal in the second electric circuit. The at least one optical fiber is operatively connected between the receptacle and the receiver for carrying the optical signal from the receptacle to the receiver. Also disclosed is a method for permitting only authorized use of a motor vehicle.

Veligdan, James T. (Manorville, NY)

1996-02-13

408

Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and circumference by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

Lagasse, Paul R. (Santa Fe, NM)

1987-01-01

409

Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and radius by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

Lagasse, P.R.

1985-06-21

410

Conveyor with rotary airlock apparatus  

DOEpatents

This invention is comprised of an apparatus for transferring objects from a first region to a second region, the first and second regions having differing atmospheric environments. The apparatus includes a shell having an entrance and an exit, a conveyer belt running through the shell from the entrance to the exit, and a horizontally mounted `revolving door` with at least four vanes revolving about its axis. The inner surface of the shell and the top surface of the conveyer belt act as opposing walls of the `revolving door`. The conveyer belt dips as it passes under but against the revolving vanes so as not to interfere with them but to engage at least two of the vanes and define thereby a moving chamber. Preferably, the conveyer belt has ridges or grooves on its surface that engage the edges of the vanes and act to rotate the vane assembly. Conduits are provided that communicate with the interior of the shell and allow the adjustment of the atmosphere of the moving chamber or recovery of constituents of the atmosphere of the first region from the moving chamber before they escape to the second region.

Kronbert, J.W.

1993-01-01

411

Apparatus for incinerating hazardous waste  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is described for incinerating wastes, including an incinerator having a combustion chamber, a fluid-tight shell enclosing the combustion chamber, an afterburner, an off-gas particulate removal system and an emergency off-gas cooling system. The region between the inner surface of the shell and the outer surface of the combustion chamber forms a cavity. Air is supplied to the cavity and heated as it passes over the outer surface of the combustion chamber. Heated air is drawn from the cavity and mixed with fuel for input into the combustion chamber. The pressure in the cavity is maintained at least approximately 2.5 cm WC higher than the pressure in the combustion chamber. Gases cannot leak from the combustion chamber since the pressure outside the chamber (inside the cavity) is higher than the pressure inside the chamber. The apparatus can be used to treat any combustible wastes, including biological wastes, toxic materials, low level radioactive wastes, and mixed hazardous and low level transuranic wastes. 1 figure.

Chang, R.C.W.

1994-12-20

412

GMTI radar minimum detectable velocity.  

SciTech Connect

Minimum detectable velocity (MDV) is a fundamental consideration for the design, implementation, and exploitation of ground moving-target indication (GMTI) radar imaging modes. All single-phase-center air-to-ground radars are characterized by an MDV, or a minimum radial velocity below which motion of a discrete nonstationary target is indistinguishable from the relative motion between the platform and the ground. Targets with radial velocities less than MDV are typically overwhelmed by endoclutter ground returns, and are thus not generally detectable. Targets with radial velocities greater than MDV typically produce distinct returns falling outside of the endoclutter ground returns, and are thus generally discernible using straightforward detection algorithms. This document provides a straightforward derivation of MDV for an air-to-ground single-phase-center GMTI radar operating in an arbitrary geometry.

Richards, John Alfred

2011-04-01

413

SMAP RADAR Processing and Calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission uses L-band radar and radiometer measurements to estimate soil moisture with 4% volumetric accuracy at a resolution of 10 km, and freeze-thaw state at a resolution of 1-3 km. Model sensitivities translate the soil moisture accuracy to a radar backscatter accuracy of 1 dB at 3 km resolution and a brightness temperature accuracy of 1.3 K at 40 km resolution. This presentation will describe the level 1 radar processing and calibration challenges and the choices made so far for the algorithms and software implementation. To obtain the desired high spatial resolution the level 1 radar ground processor employs synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging techniques. Part of the challenge of the SMAP data processing comes from doing SAR imaging on a conically scanned system with rapidly varying squint angles. The radar echo energy will be divided into range/Doppler bins using time domain processing algorithms that can easily follow the varying squint angle. For SMAP, projected range resolution is about 250 meters, while azimuth resolution varies from 400 meters to 1.2 km. Radiometric calibration of the SMAP radar means measuring, characterizing, and where necessary correcting the gain and noise contributions from every part of the system from the antenna radiation pattern all the way to the ground processing algorithms. The SMAP antenna pattern will be computed using an accurate antenna model, and then validated post-launch using homogeneous external targets such as the Amazon rain forest to look for uncorrected gain variation. Noise subtraction is applied after image processing using measurements from a noise only channel. Variations of the internal electronics are tracked by a loopback measurement which will capture most of the time and temperature variations of the transmit power and receiver gain. Long-term variations of system performance due to component aging will be tracked and corrected using stable external reference targets. Candidate targets include the Amazon rain forest and a model-corrected global ocean measurement. Radio frequency interference (RFI) signals are expected in the L-band frequency window used by the SMAP radar because many other users also operate in this band. Based on results of prior studies at JPL, SMAP L1 radar processing will use a "Slow-time thresholding" or STT algorithm to handle RFI contamination. The STT technique looks at the slow-time series associated with a given range sample, sets an appropriate threshold, and identifies any samples that rise above this threshold as RFI events. The RFI events are removed and the data are azimuth compressed without those samples. Faraday rotation affects L-band signals by rotating the polarization vector during propagation through the ionosphere. This mixes HH, VV, HV, and VH results with each other introducing another source of error. The SMAP radar is not fully polarimetric so the radar data do not provide a correction by themselves. Instead a correction must be derived from other sources. L1 radar processing will use estimates of Faraday rotation derived from externally supplied GPS-based measurements of the ionosphere total electron content (TEC). This work is supported by the SMAP project at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology.

West, R. D.; Jaruwatanadilok, S.; Kwoun, O.; Chaubell, M. J.

2013-12-01

414

Airborne Differential Doppler Weather Radar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Precipitation Radar aboard the Tropical Rain Measuring Mission (TRMM) Satellite has shown the potential for spaceborne sensing of snow and rain by means of an incoherent pulsed radar operating at 13.8 GHz. The primary advantage of radar relative to passive instruments arises from the fact that the radar can image the 3-dimensional structure of storms. As a consequence, the radar data can be used to determine the vertical rain structure, rain type (convective/stratiform) effective storm height, and location of the melting layer. The radar, moreover, can be used to detect snow and improve the estimation of rain rate over land. To move toward spaceborne weather radars that can be deployed routinely as part of an instrument set consisting of passive and active sensors will require the development of less expensive, lighter-weight radars that consume less power. At the same time, the addition of a second frequency and an upgrade to Doppler capability are features that are needed to retrieve information on the characteristics of the drop size distribution, vertical air motion and storm dynamics. One approach to the problem is to use a single broad-band transmitter-receiver and antenna where two narrow-band frequencies are spaced apart by 5% to 10% of the center frequency. Use of Ka-band frequencies (26.5 GHz - 40 GHz) affords two advantages: adequate spatial resolution can be attained with a relatively small antenna and the differential reflectivity and mean Doppler signals are directly related to the median mass diameter of the snow and raindrop size distributions. The differential mean Doppler signal has the additional property that this quantity depends only on that part of the radial speed of the hydrometeors that is drop-size dependent. In principle, the mean and differential mean Doppler from a near-nadir viewing radar can be used to retrieve vertical air motion as well as the total mean radial velocity. In the paper, we present theoretical calculations for the differential reflectivity and Doppler as functions of the center frequency, frequency difference, and median mass diameter. For a fixed pair of frequencies, the detectability of the differential signals can be expressed as the number of independent samples required to detect rain or snow with a particular median mass diameter. Because sampling numbers on the order of 1000 are needed to detect the differential signal over a range of size distributions, the instrument must be confined to a near-nadir, narrow swath. Radar measurements from a zenith directed radar operated at 9.1 GHz and 10 GHz are used to investigate the qualitative characteristics of the differential signals. Disdrometer and rain gauge data taken at the surface, just below the radar, are used to test whether the differential signals can be used to estimate characteristics of the raindrop size distribution.

Meneghini, R.; Bidwell, S.; Liao, L.; Rincon, R.; Heymsfield, G.; Hildebrand, Peter H. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

415

Microwave emissions from police radar.  

PubMed

This study evaluated police officers' exposures to microwaves emitted by traffic radar units. Exposure measurements were taken at approximated ocular and testicular levels of officers seated in patrol vehicles. Comparisons were made of the radar manufacturers' published maximum power density specifications and actual measured power densities taken at the antenna faces of those units. Four speed-enforcement agencies and one transportation research institute provided 54 radar units for evaluation; 17 different models, encompassing 4 frequency bands and 3 antenna configurations, were included. Four of the 986 measurements taken exceeded the 5 mW/cm2 limit accepted by the International Radiation Protection Association and the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement, though none exceeded the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, American National Standards Institute, Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, or Occupational Safety and Health Administration standard of 10 mW/cm2. The four high measurements were maximum power density readings taken directly in front of the radar. Of the 812 measurements taken at the officers' seated ocular and testicular positions, none exceeded 0.04 mW/cm2; the highest of these (0.034 mW/cm2) was less than 1% of the most conservative current safety standards. High exposures in the limited region directly in front of the radar aperture are easily avoided with proper training. Results of this study indicate that police officer exposure to microwave radiation is apparently minimal. However, because of uncertainty in the medical and scientific communities concerning nonionizing radiation, it is recommended that law enforcement agencies implement a policy of prudent avoidance, including purchasing units with the lowest published maximum power densities, purchasing dash/rear deck-mounted units with antennae mounted outside the patrol vehicle, and training police officers to use the "stand-by" mode when not actually using radar. PMID:10671181

Fink, J M; Wagner, J P; Congleton, J J; Rock, J C

1999-01-01

416

Doppler Frequency Geolocation of Uncooperative Radars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passive geolocation of uncooperative radar emitters remains an important problem in radar electronic warfare. Several location estimation techniques have been investigated in the past. In this paper, we present a passive geolocation technique for radar emitters using Doppler frequency measurements. For uncooperative sources, neither the emitter location, nor its transmitted frequency is known a priori. The relationship between these unknowns

B. H. Lee; Y. T. Chan; F. Chan; Huai-Jing Du; Fred A. Dilkes

2007-01-01

417

Tracking radar studies of bird migration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of tracking radar for determining the flight paths of migratory birds is discussed. The effects produced by various meteorological parameters are described. Samples of radar scope presentations obtained during tracking studies are presented. The characteristics of the radars and their limitations are examined.

Williams, T. C.; Williams, J. M.; Teal, J. M.; Kanwisher, J. W.

1972-01-01

418

Radar Imaging of Ocean Surface Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radar imagery of ocean surface patterns is presented and discussed. The imaging radar detects changes in ocean surface backscatter and yields imagery of deepwater gravity waves, oil slicks, island shadows, internal waves, coastal waves, and other features. The results of several observations suggest that the surface irregularities behave as iostropic scatterers for a radar wavelength of 25 cm. The popular

W. E. Brown; C. Elachi; T. W. Thompson

1976-01-01

419

Outdoor Radar Mapping Using Measurement Likelihood Estimation  

E-print Network

Outdoor Radar Mapping Using Measurement Likelihood Estimation John Mullane, Martin D. Adams measure- ment models can be estimated directly. FMCW radar sensors are typically applied to outdoor. This is due to the radar's ability to penetrate dust, fog, and rain [2]. 2 Related Work Signal processing

Boyer, Edmond

420

Space-based radar. II - An overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper examines the major functions a pulse Doppler space-based radar system will be required to perform, including search, track, target classification, and designation for strike. In addition, attention is given to orbital considerations, such phenomenological factors as clutter statistics and target characteristics, radar technology, and the radar in the overall spacecraft design.

Avrin, J.

1981-10-01

421

Space-based radar clutter cancellation techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of a space-based radar surveillance system to obtain target information from a clutter corrupted radar echo signal is dependent upon the clutter cancellation technique employed. In this paper, radar clutter is described using temporal probability models, spectral models, and average backscatter coefficient models. Capitalizing on the different spectral characteristics between clutter and targets, three representative Doppler clutter cancellation

J. Devenuto; K. G. Castor

1984-01-01

422

Implications of modeling clutter for radar simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methods for minimizing clutter returns which enhance the performance of surveillance radar systems are discussed. Included are methods which were implemented in the radar simulations currently in use at the Rome Air Development Center. The simulation output will include plots of raw clutter data for different mediums and clutter-to-noise ratios established after signal processing by a radar receiver.

Borek, Stanley E.; Pechewlys, Deborah A.

423

Research relative to weather radar measurement techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This grant provides for some investigations related to weather radar measurement techniques applicable to meteorological radar systems in Thailand. Quality data are needed from those systems to support TRMM and other scientific investigations. Activities carried out during a trip to the radar facilities at Phuket are described.

Smith, Paul L.

1992-01-01

424

Magneto-Radar Hidden Metal Detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A varying magnetic field excites slight vibrations in an object and a radar sensor detects the vibrations at a harmonic of the excitation frequency. The synergy of the magnetic excitation and radar detection provides increased detection range compared to conventional magnetic metal detectors. The radar rejects background clutter by responding only to reflecting objects that are vibrating at a harmonic

McEwan; Thomas E

2005-01-01

425

Efficient Ways to Learn Weather Radar Polarimetry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The U.S. weather radar network is currently being upgraded with dual-polarization capability. Weather radar polarimetry is an interdisciplinary area of engineering and meteorology. This paper presents efficient ways to learn weather radar polarimetry through several basic and practical topics. These topics include: 1) hydrometeor scattering model…

Cao, Qing; Yeary, M. B.; Zhang, Guifu

2012-01-01

426

Generalized radar/radiometry imaging problems  

E-print Network

- ing simulation based on radar, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and radiometry systems are presented of real time image processing. Thus, the problem of adequate simulation of image formation actual. In this paper three main classes of imaging systems (mono- static radar, SAR and radiometer

Genève, Université de

427

Optimum Radar Parameters for Mapping Soil Moisture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radar response to soil moisture content was experimentally determined for each of three bare fields with considerably different surface roughnesses at eight frequencies in the 2-8 GHz band for HH and VV polarizations. Analysis of the data indicates that the effect of roughness on the radar backscattering coefficient can be minimized by proper choice of the radar parameters. If,

Fawwaz Ulaby; Percy Batlivala

1976-01-01

428

Radar Technology Applied to Air Traffic Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of primary radars for air traffic control (ATC) is discussed. The location and the parameters of various ATC radars are described. The clutter environment (land clutter, birds, automobiles, and weather) has had a major impact on the configuration of these radars. Signal-processing techniques and antenna techniques utilized to cope with the clutter are described. Future signal-processing techniques for the

WILLIAM W. SHRADER

1973-01-01

429

Atmospheric propagation effects on infrared radars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compact coherent CO2 laser radars have the potential for greatly improved angle, range, and velocity resolution relative to their microwave radar counterparts. This research program was aimed at obtaining quantitative understanding of target reflection and atmospheric propagation effects on such laser radars through a combination of theory and experiments. Toward those ends, improved statistical signal models were developed, and corroborated

J. H. Shapiro

1984-01-01

430

The design of broadband radar absorbing surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a growing and widespread interest in radar absorbing material technology. As the name implies, radar absorbing materials or RAM's are coatings whose electric and magnetic properties have been selected to allow the absorption of microwave energy at discrete or broadband frequencies. In military applications low radar cross section (RCS) of a vehicle may be required in order

Go H. Suk

1990-01-01

431

HAL-3 radar test set  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the HAL-3 radar test set (called the set in the following) used to measure the technical specifications of the HAL-3 airborne radar and to maintain it based on tested results. Some new techniques are employed in the set, including sinusoidal pulsewidth modulation (SPWM) in the power supply, digital gyro simulator and automatic test module (ATM) with STD industrial control microprocessor series. The specially designed software implements man-machine interaction with menu in Chinese, selects parameters and operation mode, and controls testing procedures. These techniques may be extensively applied to other automatic test instruments.

Fang, Zhenhe; Zhang, Ming-Xing; Shen, Chang-Hong; Wang, Yi

1994-07-01

432

Onboard Data Processor for Change-Detection Radar Imaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer system denoted a change-detection onboard processor (CDOP) is being developed as a means of processing the digitized output of a synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) apparatus aboard an aircraft or spacecraft to generate images showing changes that have occurred in the terrain below between repeat passes of the aircraft or spacecraft over the terrain. When fully developed, the CDOP is intended to be capable of generating SAR images and/or SAR differential interferograms in nearly real time. The CDOP is expected to be especially useful for understanding some large-scale natural phenomena and/or mitigating natural hazards: For example, it could be used for near-real-time observation of surface changes caused by floods, landslides, forest fires, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, glaciers, and sea ice movements. It could also be used to observe such longer-term surface changes as those associated with growth of vegetation (relevant to estimation of wildfire fuel loads). The CDOP is, essentially, an interferometric SAR processor designed to operate aboard a radar platform.

Lou, Yunling; Muellerschoen, Ronald J.; Chien, Steve A.; Saatchi, Sasan S.; Clark, Duane

2008-01-01

433

Apparatus For Tests Of Percussion Primers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Test apparatus and method developed to measure ignition capability of percussion primers. Closely simulates actual conditions and interfaces encountered in such applications as in munitions and rocket motors. Ignitability-testing apparatus is small bomb instrumented with pressure transducers. Sizes, shapes, and positions of bomb components and materials under test selected to obtain quantitative data on ignition.

Bement, Laurence J.; Bailey, James W.; Schimmel, Morry L.

1991-01-01

434

Method and apparatus for PM filter regeneration  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for initiating regeneration of a particulate matter (PM) filter in an exhaust system in an internal combustion engine. The method and apparatus includes determining a change in pressure of exhaust gases passing through the PM filter, and responsively varying an opening of an intake valve in fluid communication with a combustion chamber.

Opris, Cornelius N. (Peoria, IL); Verkiel, Maarten (Metamora, IL)

2006-01-03

435

New Apparatus Tests Pressure-Suit Joints  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New apparatus measures applied torque and angle-of-flexure in pressurized flexible joints, such as those found in diving suits and flight suits. Torque and flexure are permanently recorded on x-y plotter. Family of curves can be taken as function of suit pressure or other variables. Apparatus could also measure torque-versus-angle in mechanical linkages.

Vykukal, H. C.; Webbon, B.

1982-01-01

436

Apparatus Named After Our Academic Ancestors, III  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

My academic ancestors in physics have called on me once more to tell you about the apparatus that they devised, and that many of you have used in your demonstrations and labs. This article is about apparatus named after François Arago, Heinrich Helmholtz, Leon Foucault, and James Watt.

Greenslade, Thomas B.

2014-09-01

437

Solar energy absorber apparatus and method  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved apparatus and method for absorbing solar energy, the apparatus providing a sealed envelope having a transparent upper panel with a solar energy absorbing panel thermally isolated against convective and conductive heat losses by a partial vacuum in the sealed envelope. The transparent panel has an upwardly extending curvilinear surface which increases its strength characteristics against the pressure differential

Johnson

1982-01-01

438

Solar energy absorber apparatus and method  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved apparatus and method is presented for absorbing solar energy. The apparatus provides a sealed envelope having a transparent upper panel with a solar energy absorbing panel thermally isolated against convective and conductive heat losses by a partial vacuum in the sealed envelope. The transparent panel has an upwardly extending curvilinear surface which increases its strength characteristics against the

Johnson

1980-01-01

439

Apparatus and method for handheld sampling  

DOEpatents

The present invention includes an apparatus, and corresponding method, for taking a sample. The apparatus is built around a frame designed to be held in at least one hand. A sample media is used to secure the sample. A sample media adapter for securing the sample media is operated by a trigger mechanism connectively attached within the frame to the sample media adapter.

Staab, Torsten A. (Whiterock, NM)

2005-09-20

440

Apparatus Named after Our Academic Ancestors, III  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

My academic ancestors in physics have called on me once more to tell you about the apparatus that they devised, and that many of you have used in your demonstrations and labs. This article is about apparatus named after François Arago, Heinrich Helmholtz, Leon Foucault, and James Watt.

Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

2014-01-01

441

Apparatus and method for gelling liquefied gasses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method and apparatus for gelling liquid propane and other liquefied gasses includes a temperature controlled churn mixer, vacuum pump, liquefied gas transfer tank, and means for measuring amount of material entering the mixer. The apparatus and method are particularly useful for the production of high quality rocket fuels and propellants.

Elliott, Adam (Inventor); DiSalvo, Roberto (Inventor); Shepherd, Phillip (Inventor); Kosier, Ryan (Inventor)

2011-01-01

442

Apparatus and method for oxidizing organic materials  

DOEpatents

The invention is a method and apparatus using high cerium concentration in the anolyte of an electrochemical cell to oxidize organic materials. The method and apparatus further use an ultrasonic mixer to enhance the oxidation rate of the organic material in the electrochemical cell.

Surma, Jeffrey E. (Kennewick, WA); Bryan, Garry H. (Kennewick, WA); Geeting, John G. H. (West Richland, WA); Butner, R. Scott (Port Orchard, WA)

1998-01-01

443

Advanced particulate matter control apparatus and methods  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and methods for collection and removal of particulate matter, including fine particulate matter, from a gas stream, comprising a unique combination of high collection efficiency and ultralow pressure drop across the filter. The apparatus and method utilize simultaneous electrostatic precipitation and membrane filtration of a particular pore size, wherein electrostatic collection and filtration occur on the same surface.

Miller, Stanley J. (Grand Forks, ND); Zhuang, Ye (Grand Forks, ND); Almlie, Jay C. (East Grand Forks, MN)

2012-01-10

444

Apparatus for the catalytic cracking of hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus is described for the fluidized catalytic cracking of hydrocarbons. Two independent transfer line reactors, each of which is associated with an independent cyclone separation system, and the cyclone separation systems are located within a common reactor vessel. The apparatus is suitable for use in the simultaneous fluidized catalytic cracking of dissimilar hydrocarbon feedstocks without commingling either the feedstocks

M. J. Clark; W. D. Ford

1981-01-01

445

21 CFR 864.5240 - Automated blood cell diluting apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. 864.5240 Section...Devices § 864.5240 Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. (a) Identification. An automated blood cell diluting apparatus is a fully...

2010-04-01

446

21 CFR 864.5240 - Automated blood cell diluting apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. 864.5240 Section...Devices § 864.5240 Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. (a) Identification. An automated blood cell diluting apparatus is a fully...

2013-04-01

447

7 CFR 801.9 - Tolerances for test weight apparatuses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Tolerances for test weight apparatuses. 801.9 Section 801...EQUIPMENT § 801.9 Tolerances for test weight apparatuses. The maintenance tolerances for test weight per bushel apparatuses used in...

2010-01-01

448

7 CFR 801.9 - Tolerances for test weight apparatuses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Tolerances for test weight apparatuses. 801.9 Section 801...EQUIPMENT § 801.9 Tolerances for test weight apparatuses. The maintenance tolerances for test weight per bushel apparatuses used in...

2013-01-01

449

7 CFR 801.9 - Tolerances for test weight apparatuses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Tolerances for test weight apparatuses. 801.9 Section 801...EQUIPMENT § 801.9 Tolerances for test weight apparatuses. The maintenance tolerances for test weight per bushel apparatuses used in...

2012-01-01

450

7 CFR 801.9 - Tolerances for test weight apparatuses.  

...2014-01-01 false Tolerances for test weight apparatuses. 801.9 Section 801...EQUIPMENT § 801.9 Tolerances for test weight apparatuses. The maintenance tolerances for test weight per bushel apparatuses used in...

2014-01-01

451

7 CFR 801.9 - Tolerances for test weight apparatuses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Tolerances for test weight apparatuses. 801.9 Section 801...EQUIPMENT § 801.9 Tolerances for test weight apparatuses. The maintenance tolerances for test weight per bushel apparatuses used in...

2011-01-01

452

Mass spectrometer having a derivatized sample presentation apparatus  

DOEpatents

A mass spectrometer having a derivatized sample presentation apparatus is provided. The sample presentation apparatus has a complex bound to the surface of the sample presentation apparatus. This complex includes a molecule which may chemically modify a biomolecule.

Nelson, Randall W. (Phoenix, AZ)

2000-07-25

453

21 CFR 864.5240 - Automated blood cell diluting apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. 864.5240 Section...Devices § 864.5240 Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. (a) Identification. An automated blood cell diluting apparatus is a fully...

2011-04-01

454

Microelectromechanical reciprocating-tooth indexing apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An indexing apparatus is disclosed that can be used to rotate a gear or move a rack in a precise, controllable manner. The indexing apparatus, based on a reciprocating shuttle driven by one or more actuators, can be formed either as a micromachine, or as a millimachine. The reciprocating shuttle of the indexing apparatus can be driven by a thermal, electrostatic or electromagnetic actuator, with one or more wedge-shaped drive teeth of the shuttle being moveable to engage and slide against indexing teeth on the gear or rack, thereby moving the gear or rack. The indexing apparatus can be formed by either surface micromachining processes or LIGA processes, depending on the size of the apparatus that is to be formed.

Allen, J.J..

1999-09-28

455

Planetary Radar with the Green Bank Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The large aperture and sensitive receivers of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) make it an attractive receiving station for bistatic radar experiments. Consequently, it has been used as a receive station for radar observations since its commissioning in 2001. The GBT is equipped with receivers for all common planetary radar transmitters at P, S, and X band, as well as for future radars at up to 86 GHz. We describe the technical capabilities of the GBT and its instrumentation in terms of its tracking and RF performance, the available radar backends, and select science results obtained through the use of the GBT.

Ford, Alyson; Ford, John M.; Watts, Galen

2014-11-01

456

Airborne Doppler radar for wind shear detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There has been extensive discussion concerning the use of ground based Doppler radars for the detection and measurement of microburst features and the mapping of associated wind shears. Recent and planned research at Langley into technology and techniques useful for the future development of airborne Doppler weather radar systems for both turbulence and wind shear detection are addressed. Such systems, if successfully developed, would represent a marked increase in performance over airborne weather radars currently available. A principal difficulty in extending to airborne radars the capabilities of current ground based Doppler radars is emphasized.

Staton, Leo

1987-01-01

457

Research relative to weather radar measurement techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research relative to weather radar measurement techniques, which involves some investigations related to measurement techniques applicable to meteorological radar systems in Thailand, is reported. A major part of the activity was devoted to instruction and discussion with Thai radar engineers, technicians, and meteorologists concerning the basic principles of radar meteorology and applications to specific problems, including measurement of rainfall and detection of wind shear/microburst hazards. Weather radar calibration techniques were also considered during this project. Most of the activity took place during two visits to Thailand, in December 1990 and February 1992.

Smith, Paul L.

1992-01-01

458

Mars Radar Opens a Planet's Third Dimension  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radar sounder instruments orbiting Mars have looked beneath the Martian surface and opened up the third dimension for planetary exploration. The technique's success is prompting scientists to think of all the other places in the Solar System where they would like to use radar sounders.

The first radar sounder at Mars was the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding (MARSIS) on the European Space Agency's Mars Express Orbiter. It has been joined by the complementary Shallow Subsurface Radar (SHARAD), operating at a different wavelength aboard NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The data in this animation are from SHARAD.

2008-01-01

459

Landform identification in lunar radar images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lunar radar images have been investigated in order to understand how various radar parameters affect landform identification. The high-resolution (1-2 km cell size) 3.8-cm images of Zisk et al. (1974) were used along with the low and high resolution 70-cm mosaics of Thompson (1974 and 1987). The results indicate that radar cell size is the single most important radar parameter and that lunar features are likely to be correctly identified if they are longer than an 'identification resolution' of five times the radar cell size. The moon is considered here as an analog of Venus, since the two planets have similar mean scattering behavior.

Thompson, T. W.; Moore, H. J.

1987-01-01

460

Well control method and apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a well apparatus adapted for use with a floating drilling vessel and adapted for connection to the structural casing string in a well bore established beneath the seabed comprising a conductor casing, a first wellhead connected to the structural casing string, a first conductor means for connecting a first conduit to the first wellhead, an annular blowout preventer connected to the first conduit providing a flow path between the bore of the wellhead and the bore of the annular blowout preventer when the blowout preventer is normally open, a valve disposed in a line connected to the first conduit between the blowout preventer and the first wellhead connector, a kill line extending between the line and the drilling vessel, and stripper and guidance means connected to the blowout preventer by a second connector for guiding the conductor casing through the blowout preventer and into the borehole and for stripping the conductor casing while it is being inserted therein.

Elkins, H.L.

1986-12-23

461

Shock attenuating apparatus and method  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus for attenuating a shock in a tool string within a well, comprising a body in extensible under tension loading. It comprises means for connecting the body into the tool string; and undergoing plastic deformation in response to an explosive impact load for serially dissipating energy of a shock wave propagated in the body in response to the explosion impact load wherein the means for undergoing deformation and dissipating energy includes a wall of the body wherein a plurality of indentations are defined. This patent also describes a method of attenuating shock from an explosion in a well. It comprises lowering into the well an explosive connected to a shock attenuating member; detonating the explosive whereby an impact load with a shock wave is generated; and collapsing without severing the member in response to the impact load and dissipating energy of the shock wave from a plurality of surfaces of the member.

Navarette, M.; Walker, J.L.

1992-06-02

462

Heavy oil catalytic cracking apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus for the fluidized catalytic cracking of a heavy hydrocarbon feed comprising hydrocarbons having a boiling point above about 650{degrees} F to lighter products by contact the feed with catalytic cracking catalyst. It comprises a catalytic cracking reactor means; a separation means connective with the reactor outlet; a primary stripping means comprising an inlet for a source of hot regenerated cracking catalyst, an inlet for spent catalyst, an inlet for a stripping gas, a vapor outlet for a primary stripping stage vapor and a solids outlet for discharge of stripped solids; a secondary stripping means; a catalyst regeneration means; a reactor catalyst recycle means; and a primary stripping zone catalyst recycle means having an inlet connective with the catalyst regeneration means and an outlet connective with the primary stripping zone.

Owen, H.

1992-07-07

463

Apparatus for storing hydrogen isotopes  

DOEpatents

An improved method and apparatus for storing isotopes of hydrogen (especially tritium) are provided. The hydrogen gas(es) is (are) stored as hydrides of material (for example uranium) within boreholes in a block of copper. The mass of the block is critically important to the operation, as is the selection of copper, because no cooling pipes are used. Because no cooling pipes are used, there can be no failure due to cooling pipes. And because copper is used instead of stainless steel, a significantly higher temperature can be reached before the eutectic formation of uranium with copper occurs, (the eutectic of uranium with the iron in stainless steel forming at a significantly lower temperature).

McMullen, John W. (Los Alamos, NM); Wheeler, Michael G. (Los Alamos, NM); Cullingford, Hatice S. (Houston, TX); Sherman, Robert H. (Los Alamos, NM)

1985-01-01

464

Observable Protein Crystal Growth Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This diagram shows a cross sectrion of the fluid volume of an individual cell in the Observable Protein Crystal Growth Apparatus (OPCGA) to be operated aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The principal investigator is Dr. Alex McPherson of the University of California, Irvine. Each individual cell comprises two sample chambers with a rotating center section that isolates the two from each other until the start of the experiment and after it is completed. The cells are made from optical-quality quartz glass to allow photography and interferometric observations. Each cell has a small light-emitting diode and lens to back-light the solution. In protein crystal growth experiments, a precipitating agent such as a salt solution is used to absorb and hold water but repel the protein molecules. This increases the concentration of protein until the molecules nucleate to form crystals. This cell is one of 96 that make up the experiment module portion of the OPCGA.

2001-01-01

465

Apparatus for sequentially transporting containers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus for transferring and manipulating a plurality of containers in a sequence is disclosed including a mechanical manipulator arm having a gripping device which automatically picks up a container at a fixed pickup position P and transfers it to a processing station. At a processing station X, the container is loaded with silicon wafers and thereafter returned by the arm to the fixed position P at the pickup and return station Y. A plurality of the containers may be processed in sequence from the fixed pickup position by providing a movable carriage upon which container pedestal platforms are supported, at least one of which is an elevator platform. The platforms include abutments for properly positioning the containers for accurate pickup by the manipulator arm.

Hudgins, J. L. (inventor)

1982-01-01

466

Voltammetric analysis apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method is described for electrochemical analysis of elements in solution. An auxiliary electrode, a reference electrode, and five working electrodes are positioned in a container containing a sample solution. The working electrodes are spaced apart evenly from each other and the auxiliary electrode to minimize any inter-electrode interference that may occur during analysis. An electric potential is applied between the auxiliary electrode and each of the working electrodes. Simultaneous measurements taken of the current flow through each of the working electrodes for each given potential in a potential range are used for identifying chemical elements present in the sample solution and their respective concentrations. Multiple working electrodes enable a more positive identification to be made by providing unique data characteristic of chemical elements present in the sample solution.

Almon, A.C.

1993-06-08

467

Voltametric analysis apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for electrochemical analysis of elements in solution. An auxiliary electrode 14, a reference electrode 18, and five working electrodes 20, 22, 26, 28, and 30 are positioned in a container 12 containing a sample solution 34. The working electrodes are spaced apart evenly from each other and auxiliary electrode 14 to minimize any inter-electrode interference that may occur during analysis. An electric potential is applied between auxiliary electrode 14 and each of the working electrodes 20, 22, 26, 28, and 30. Simultaneous measurements taken of the current flow through each of the working electrodes for each given potential in a potential range are used for identifying chemical elements present in sample solution 34 and their respective concentrations. Multiple working electrodes enable a more positive identification to be made by providing unique data characteristic of chemical elements present in the sample solution.

Almon, Amy C. (410 Waverly Dr., Augusta, GA 30909)

1993-01-01

468

Apparatus in a drill string  

DOEpatents

An apparatus in a drill string comprises an internally upset drill pipe. The drill pipe comprises a first end, a second end, and an elongate tube intermediate the first and second ends. The elongate tube and the ends comprising a continuous an inside surface with a plurality of diameters. A conformable spirally welded metal tube is disposed within the drill pipe intermediate the ends thereof and terminating adjacent to the ends of the drill pipe. The conformable metal tube substantially conforms to the continuous inside surface of the metal tube. The metal tube may comprise a non-uniform section which is expanded to conform to the inside surface of the drill pipe. The non-uniform section may comprise protrusions selected from the group consisting of convolutions, corrugations, flutes, and dimples. The non-uniform section extends generally longitudinally along the length of the tube.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Alpine, UT); Hall, Jr., Tracy H. (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Lehi, UT); Pixton, David S. (Provo, UT)

2007-07-17

469

Loop-bed combustion apparatus  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a combustion apparatus in the configuration of a oblong annulus defining a closed loop. Particulate coal together with a sulfur sorbent such as sulfur or dolomite is introduced into the closed loop, ignited, and propelled at a high rate of speed around the loop. Flue gas is withdrawn from a location in the closed loop in close proximity to an area in the loop where centrifugal force imposed upon the larger particulate material maintains these particulates at a location spaced from the flue gas outlet. Only flue gas and smaller particulates resulting from the combustion and innerparticle grinding are discharged from the combustor. This structural arrangement provides increased combustion efficiency due to the essentially complete combustion of the coal particulates as well as increased sulfur absorption due to the innerparticle grinding of the sorbent which provides greater particle surface area.

Shang, Jer-Yu (Fairfax, VA); Mei, Joseph S. (Morgantown, WV); Slagle, Frank D. (Kingwood, WV); Notestein, John E. (Morgantown, WV)

1984-01-01

470

Ultrasonic flow nozzle cleaning apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an ultrasonic cleaning apparatus for a venturi flow measuring nozzle mounted in a pipe of a steam power plant and having an inlet, venturi throat, and an outlet, the pipe and nozzle having fluid flowing therethrough, the cleaning occurring while the fluid is flowing. It comprises first ultrasonic transducer means mounted to connect to the inside of the pipe, disposed adjacent the inlet of the venturi flow nozzle and the means being in direct contact with the fluid flowing through the pipe for transmitting ultrasonic waves directly into and thereby exciting the fluid flowing through the venturi flow nozzle; and control means coupled to the first ultrasonic transducer means for activating the first ultrasonic transducer means.

Fridsma, D.E.; Silvestri, G.J. Jr.; Twerdochlib, M.

1992-06-23

471

Corrugated pipe adhesive applicator apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for coating selected portions of the troughs of a corrugated pipe within an adhesive includes a support disposed within the pipe with a reservoir containing the adhesive disposed on the support. A pump, including a spout, is utilized for supplying the adhesive from the reservoir to a trough of the pipe. A rotatable applicator is supported on the support and contacts the trough of the pipe. The applicator itself is sized so as to fit within the trough, and contacts the adhesive in the trough and spreads the adhesive in the trough upon rotation. A trough shield, supported by the support and disposed in the path of rotation of the applicator, is utilized to prevent the applicator from contacting selected portions of the trough. A locator head is also disposed on the support and provides a way for aligning the spout, the applicator, and the trough shield with the trough.

Shirey, Ray A. (North Grafton, MA)

1983-06-14

472

Apparatus for molecular weight separation  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates generally to an apparatus and method for separating high molecular weight molecules from low molecular weight molecules. More specifically, the invention relates to the use of microdialysis for removal of the salt (low molecular weight molecules) from a nucleotide sample (high molecular weight molecules) for ESI-MS analysis. The dialysis or separation performance of the present invention is improved by (1) increasing dialysis temperature thereby increasing desalting efficiency and improving spectrum quality; (2) adding piperidine and imidazole to the dialysis buffer solution and reducing charge states and further increasing detection sensitivity for DNA; (3) using low concentrations (0-2.5 mM NH4OAc) of dialysis buffer and shifting the DNA negative ions to higher charge states, producing a nearly 10-fold increase in detection sensitivity and a slightly decreased desalting efficiency, (4) conducting a two-stage separation or (5) any combination of (1), (2), (3) and (4).

Smith, Richard D. (Richland, WA); Liu, Chuanliang (Haverhill, MA)

2001-01-01

473

Dispersoid separation method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

Improved separation of heavier material from a dispersoid of gas and heavier material entrained therein is taught by the method of this invention which advantageously uses apparatus embodied in an inertial separator having rotary partition means comprising wall members dividing a housing into a plurality of axially-extending through passages arranged in parallel. Simultaneously with the helical transit of a moving stream of the dispersoid through the parallel arrangement of axially-extending through passages at a constant angular velocity, the heavier material is driven radially to the collecting surfaces of the rotational wall members where it is collected while the wall members are rotating at the same angular velocity as the moving stream. The plurality of wall members not only provides an increased area of collecting surfaces but the positioning of each of the wall members according to the teaching of this invention also results in a shortened time-of-flight to the collecting surfaces.

Winsche, Warren E. (Bellport, NY)

1980-01-01

474

Apparatus for controlling electric cars  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is described for controlling electric cars comprising: d-c shunt-wound motors adapted to be connected to a d-c source and having armatures and field windings; first chopper circuit means connected in series with the armatures of the d-c shunt-wound motors and controlling the flow of armature currents in both directions upon receipt of timing signals; second chopper circuit means connected in series with the field windings of the d-c shunt-wound motors and controlling the flow of field currents in both directions upon receipt of timing signals; reactors having first and second coils, the first coils being connected in series with the armatures, and the second coils being connected in series with the field windings. The first coils and second coils and magnetically coupled together maintaining such a relation that the field currents decrease with the decrease in the armature currents.

Naruto, M.

1987-01-06

475

Apparatus for producing thin flakes  

DOEpatents

Compositions in accordance with the invention comprise a polymer and flake reinforcing material distributed throughout the polymer in an effective amount to structurally reinforce the polymer. Individual flakes of the flake material a) are less than or equal to 1,000 Angstroms in thickness, b) have an aspect ratio greater than or equal to 100, and c) are preferably significantly randomly oriented throughout the polymer. A novel apparatus for shear grinding a platy solid material into such individual flakes comprises a cylindrical shearing drum and a shear grinder received therein. The shearing drum has a longitudinal axis and an internal surface formed about a first predetermined radius of curvature. The cylindrical drum is supported for rotation about its longitudinal axis. The shear grinder has an external surface formed about a second predetermined radius of curvature. The second radius of curvature is slightly less than the first radius of curvature.

Bunnell, Sr., Lee R. (Kennewick, WA)

1991-01-01

476

Programmable digital temperature controller apparatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A programmable digital temperature controller apparatus utilizing a pair of binary-coded decimal units and a switching unit to generate a ten bit binary word which represents a pre-selected temperature in a temperature range is discussed. A pair of erasable programmable read only memory units store digital temperatures and temperature range information. The ten bit binary word determines which digital data from the memory units will be applied to a D/A converter unit and a pair of multiplexer units. One multiplexer unit controls the voltage per bit within the D/A converter unit while the other multiplexer unit generates a starting voltage. The output voltage from the D/A converter unit and the starting voltage are summed together to provide a voltage output signal which represent the pre-selected temperature.

Veneklase, B. J.

1984-07-01

477

Pioneer Venus radar mapper experiment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Altimetry and radar scattering data for Venus, obtained from 10 of the first 13 orbits of the Pioneer Venus orbiter, have disclosed what appears to be a rift valley having vertical relief of up to 7 kilometers, as well as a neighboring, gently rolling plain. Planetary oblateness appears unlikely to exceed 112500 and may be substantially smaller. Copyright ?? 1979 AAAS.

Pettengill, G.H.; Ford, P.G.; Brown, W.E.; Kaula, W.M.; Keller, C.H.; Masursky, H.; McGill, G.E.

1979-01-01

478

Radar Absorbing Applications of Metamaterials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radar absorbing materials (RAM) is used to camouflage or shield highly reflective surfaces such metallic surfaces from incident electromagnetic (EM) waves. In this paper, we explore the applications of metamaterials as conformal RAM coatings for controlling the reflection of EM waves from metal surfaces. Metamaterials are engineered materials with specially designed metallic resonant structures that are much smaller than the

Vasundara V. Varadan

2007-01-01

479

Enhanced airport surface surveillance radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is installing the third generation of Airport Surface Detection Equipment (ASDE-3) in 35 of the busiest United States airports. This major advancement over existing equipment uses modern radar and display technology to provide ground controllers with a crisp, clutter free display of surface targets, even under conditions of severely limited airport visibility. Modern graphics technology

G. Go; J. W. Ianniello

1994-01-01

480

Radar Cuts Subsoil Survey Costs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Soil features located with minimum time and labor. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) system supplements manual and mechanical methods in performing subsurface soil survey. Mobile system obtains graphic profile of soil discontinuities and interfaces as function of depth. One or two test borings necessary to substantiate soil profile. GPR proves useful as reconnaissance tool.

Johnson, R.; Glaccum, R.

1984-01-01

481

Radar images of asteroid Toutatis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radar images of a near-Earth asteroid, Toutatis, were obtained from earth in December 1992. The asteroid was found to be a compact binary consisting of two irregularly shaped cratered objects and rotating with a period of 10 and 11 days. These results carry significant implications for understanding the origin and evolution of near-earth asteroids.

Mclaughlin, William I.

1993-01-01

482

Progress in coherent laser radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable progress with coherent laser radar has been made over the last few years, most notably perhaps in the available range of high performance devices and components and the confidence with which systems may now be taken into the field for prolonged periods of operation. Some of this increasing maturity was evident at the 3rd Topical Meeting on Coherent Laser

J. M. Vaughan

1986-01-01

483

Development of coherent laser radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past 25 years many coherent laser radar systems have been developed and applied to a variety of problems, including military systems to image solid objects and map their velocities. This paper addresses primarily civilian applications of coherent lidar systems for observations of the atmosphere.

Madison J. Post

1994-01-01

484

Coherent laser radar in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

European work in coherent laser radar with 10 ?m and shorter wavelength lasers is reviewed. Fundamental aspects include heterodyne studies of signal statistics and fluctuations, and detailed experimental and theoretical work on signal amplification and autodyne arrangements with light reinjected into the laser cavity. Progress with lasers, detectors, and modulators has led to the development of several compact robust field

JOHN M. VAUGHAN; KURT OVE STEINVALL; CHRISTIAN WERNER; PIERRE HENRI FLAMANT

1996-01-01

485

Cavity Radar Cross Section Prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative models are discussed for the determination of the interior irradiation contribution to the radar cross section (RCS) of open-ended cavities. Typical applications of practical interest include radiation field prediction of open-ended waveguides and signature prediction of jet engine air intakes and exhaust outlets. It is shown and explained why the classic perfectly conducting (PEC) ground plane (GP) model sometimes

Adam Zdunek; Waldemar Rachowicz

2008-01-01

486

Radar Technology for Mine Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much attention is being given to the challenge of detecting buried non-metallic mines and National and International programmes are underway to develop more effective detection and clearance systems. Reported results from the US national programmes on mine detection suggest that radar can outperform conventional metal detectors, which only respond to the metal content of a mine and hence are insensitive

D J Daniels; C Martel

2001-01-01

487

Monitoring by holographic radar systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, radar technology represents a significant opportunity to collect useful information for the monitoring and conservation of critical infrastructures. Radar systems exploit the non-invasive interaction between the matter and the electromagnetic waves at microwave frequencies. Such an interaction allows obtaining images of the region under test from which one can infer the presence of potential anomalies such as deformations, cracks, water infiltrations, etc. This information turns out to be of primary importance in practical scenarios where the probed structure is in a poor state of preservation and renovation works must be planned. In this framework, the aim of this contribution is to describe the potentialities of the holographic radar Rascan 4/4000, a holographic radar developed by Remote Sensing Laboratory of Bauman Moscow State Technical University, as a non-destructive diagnostic tool capable to provide, in real-time, high resolution subsurface images of the sounded structure [1]. This radar provides holograms of hidden anomalies from the amplitude of the interference signal arising between the backscattered signal and a reference signal. The performance of the holographic radar is appraised by means of several experiments. Preliminary tests concerning the imaging below the floor and inside wood structures are carried out in controlled conditions at the Electromagnetic Diagnostic Laboratory of IREA-CNR. After, with reference to bridge monitoring for security aim, the results of a measurement campaign performed on the Musmeci bridge are presented [2]. Acknowledgments This research has been performed in the framework of the "Active and Passive Microwaves for Security and Subsurface imaging (AMISS)" EU 7th Framework Marie Curie Actions IRSES project (PIRSES-GA-2010-269157). REFERENCES [1] S. Ivashov, V. Razevig, I. Vasilyev, A. Zhuravlev, T. Bechtel, L. Capineri, The holographic principle in subsurface radar technology, International Symposium to Commemorate the 60th Anniversary of the Invention of Holography, Springfield, Massachusetts USA, October 27-29, pp. 183-197, 2008. [2] I. Catapano, L. Crocco, A. F. Morabito, F. Soldovieri, "Tomographic imaging of holographic GPR data for non-invasive structural assessment: the Musmeci bridge investigation", Nondestructive testing and evaluation, vol. 27, pp. 229-237, 2012.

Catapano, Ilaria; Crocco, Lorenzo; Affinito, Antonio; Gennarelli, Gianluca; Soldovieri, Francesco

2013-04-01

488

Mercury Radar Imaging At Arecibo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arecibo telescope upgrade has enabled us to obtain radar images of Mercury of unprecedented quality. Here I report on results from Arecibo observations made dur- ing the period 1998-2001. The imaging was done using the delay-Doppler method in both its standard and long-code versions. The north polar "ice" features have been imaged at 1-km resolution. While these images strongly indicate radar backscatter- ing from volatile deposits in permanently shaded cold traps, the discovery of features in small craters and at relatively low (71-75) latitudes is difficult to reconcile with recent thermal modeling work. This suggests that our current understanding of the maintenance of water ice in the Mercurian environment is incomplete. Other (non- polar) regions have also been imaged, with the best results having come from long- code observations in the summer of 2001. These images are now indicating that all of the major radar features in the Mariner-unimaged hemisphere (including those earlier dubbed "A", "B", and "C") are associated with impact structures. Feature "A" shows a remarkable ejecta blanket and ray system as well as numerous secondary craters, all emanating from a central 85-km-diameter impact crater. Feature "B", earlier suggested as a possible volcano, now appears to be associated with an impact crater the same size as "A". Feature "C", though somewhat obscured by the Doppler equator, shows what appears to be a dense cluster of fresh craters, possibly an impactor swarm or secon- daries from a single (as yet unidentified) impact. A very large rayed impact feature has also been discovered to the south of "C". We have also obtained high-quality images over portions of the Mariner-imaged hemisphere. Here we find a strong correspon- dence between radar-bright craters and bright (and/or rayed) craters in the Mariner images. On the other hand, much of Caloris basin and its surrounding smooth plains appears radar-dark in depolarized radar images, suggesting surfaces that are smooth at wavelength scales. We conclude with a discussion of future plans for Mercury radar observations at Arecibo.

Harmon, J.

489

Radar Image of Galapagos Island  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is an image showing part of Isla Isabella in the western Galapagos Islands. It was taken by the L-band radar in HH polarization from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar on the 40th orbit of the space shuttle Endeavour. The image is centered at about 0.5 degree south latitude and 91 degrees west longitude and covers an area of 75 by 60 kilometers (47 by 37 miles). The radar incidence angle at the center of the image is about 20 degrees.

The western Galapagos Islands, which lie about 1,200 kilometers (750 miles) west of Ecuador in the eastern Pacific, have six active volcanoes similar to the volcanoes found in Hawaii. Since the time of Charles Darwin's visit to the area in 1835, there have been over 60 recorded eruptions of these volcanoes. This SIR-C/X-SAR image of Alcedo and Sierra Negra volcanoes shows the rougher lava flows as bright features, while ash deposits and smooth pahoehoe lava flows appear dark. A small portion of Isla Fernandina is visible in the extreme upper left corner of the image.

The Galapagos Islands are one of the SIR-C/X-SAR supersites and data of this area will be taken several times during the flight to allow scientists to conduct topographic change studies and to search for different lava flow types, ash deposits and fault lines.

Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI).

1994-01-01

490

Method and system for diagnostics of apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed is a method, implemented in software, for estimating fault state of an apparatus outfitted with sensors. At each execution period the method processes sensor data from the apparatus to obtain a set of parity parameters, which are further used for estimating fault state. The estimation method formulates a convex optimization problem for each fault hypothesis and employs a convex solver to compute fault parameter estimates and fault likelihoods for each fault hypothesis. The highest likelihoods and corresponding parameter estimates are transmitted to a display device or an automated decision and control system. The obtained accurate estimate of fault state can be used to improve safety, performance, or maintenance processes for the apparatus.

Gorinevsky, Dimitry (Inventor)

2012-01-01

491

Apparatus and method for measuring viscosity  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to an apparatus and method for measuring the viscosity of a fluid. This apparatus and method is particularly useful for the measurement of the viscosity of a liquid in a harsh environment characterized by high temperature and the presence of corrosive or deleterious gases and vapors which adversely affect conventional ball or roller bearings. The apparatus and method of the present invention employ one or more flexural or torsional bearings to suspend a bob capable of limited angular motion within a rotatable sleeve suspended from a stationary frame. 7 figs.

Murphy, R.J. Jr.

1986-02-25

492

Tissue culture apparatus for flight experimentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of an apparatus for in-flight treatment of cells, tissues, or small organisms for microscopic and chemical analyses is discussed. The hardware for the apparatus is to have: (1) automated functions, (2) the capability to interface with ground-based facilities, (3) independently controlled chambers, (4) variable chamber configurations and volumes, and (4) the capabilities for processing the materials. The components of the equipment used on Skylab 3 for the study of animal cells are described. The design of an apparatus which incorporates all the required capabilities is proposed.

Scheld, H. W.; Magnuson, J. W.; Krikorian, A. D.

1985-01-01

493

Apparatus and method for gelling liquefied gasses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention is a method and apparatus for gelling liquid propane and other liquefied gasses. The apparatus includes a temperature controlled churn mixer, vacuum pump, liquefied gas transfer tank, and means for measuring amount of material entering the mixer. The method uses gelling agents such as silicon dioxide, clay, carbon, or organic or inorganic polymers, as well as dopants such as titanium, aluminum, and boron powders. The apparatus and method are particularly useful for the production of high quality rocket fuels and propellants.

Elliott, Adam (Inventor); DiSalvo, Roberto (Inventor); Shepherd, Phillip (Inventor); Kosier, Ryan (Inventor)

2010-01-01

494

Process and apparatus for recycling organic wastes  

SciTech Connect

This defines a process and an apparatus to treat wet organic wastes, such as manures, to protect the environment and to recycle the solid content in the form of a soil conditioner or fertilizer. This process and apparatus are made to remove the bad smell and to separate the solid content in a very dry form, adapted to be readily bagged. This process and apparatus are characterized by an efficient conveying and concurrent agitation of the organic wastes in an evaporation furnace and in combination with use of the combustion gases for heat exchange heating of the fluidizing content of the wet organic wastes.

Chartrand, J.A.; Perreault, I.

1982-09-28

495

Apparatus for Sampling Surface Contamination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus denoted a swab device has been developed as a convenient means of acquiring samples of contaminants from surfaces and suspending the samples in liquids. (Thereafter, the liquids can be dispensed, in controlled volumes, into scientific instruments for analysis of the contaminants.) The swab device is designed so as not to introduce additional contamination and to facilitate, simplify, and systematize the dispensing of controlled volumes of liquid into analytical instruments. The swab device is a single apparatus into which are combined all the equipment and materials needed for sampling surface contamination. The swab device contains disposable components stacked together on a nondisposable dispensing head. One of the disposable components is a supply cartridge holding a sufficient volume of liquid for one complete set of samples. (The liquid could be clean water or another suitable solvent, depending on the application.) This supply of liquid is sealed by Luer valves. At the beginning of a sampling process, the user tears open a sealed bag containing the supply cartridge. A tip on the nondisposable dispensing head is engaged with a Luer valve on one end of the supply cartridge and rotated, locking the supply cartridge on the dispensing head and opening the valve. The swab tip includes a fabric swab that is wiped across the surface of interest to acquire a sample. A sealed bag containing a disposable dispensing tip is then opened, and the swab tip is pushed into the dispensing tip until seated. The dispensing head contains a piston that passes through a spring-loaded lip seal. The air volume displaced by this piston forces the liquid out of the supply cartridge, over the swab, and into the dispensing tip. The piston is manually cycled to enforce oscillation of the air volume and thereby to cause water to flow to wash contaminants from the swab and cause the resulting liquid suspension of contaminants to flow into the dispensing tip. After several cycles to ensure adequate mixing, liquid containing the suspended contaminant sample is dispensed. The disposable components are then removed from the dispensing head, which may then be reused with a fresh set of disposable components.

Wells, Mark

2008-01-01