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1

Radar transponder apparatus and signal processing technique  

DOEpatents

An active, phase-coded, time-grating transponder and a synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) and signal processor means, in combination, allow the recognition and location of the transponder (tag) in the SAR image and allow communication of information messages from the transponder to the SAR. The SAR is an illuminating radar having special processing modifications in an image-formation processor to receive an echo from a remote transponder, after the transponder receives and retransmits the SAR illuminations, and to enhance the transponder`s echo relative to surrounding ground clutter by recognizing special transponder modulations from phase-shifted from the transponder retransmissions. The remote radio-frequency tag also transmits information to the SAR through a single antenna that also serves to receive the SAR illuminations. Unique tag-modulation and SAR signal processing techniques, in combination, allow the detection and precise geographical location of the tag through the reduction of interfering signals from ground clutter, and allow communication of environmental and status information from said tag to be communicated to said SAR. 4 figs.

Axline, R.M. Jr.; Sloan, G.R.; Spalding, R.E.

1996-01-23

2

Radar transponder apparatus and signal processing technique  

DOEpatents

An active, phase-coded, time-grating transponder and a synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) and signal processor means, in combination, allow the recognition and location of the transponder (tag) in the SAR image and allow communication of information messages from the transponder to the SAR. The SAR is an illuminating radar having special processing modifications in an image-formation processor to receive an echo from a remote transponder, after the transponder receives and retransmits the SAR illuminations, and to enhance tile transponder`s echo relative to surrounding ground clutter by recognizing special transponder modulations from phase-shifted from the transponder retransmissions. The remote radio-frequency tag also transmits information to the SAR through a single antenna that also serves to receive the SAR illuminations. Unique tag-modulation and SAR signal processing techniques, in combination, allow the detection and precise geographical location of the tag, through the reduction of interfering signals from ground clutter, and allow communication of environmental and status information from said tag to be communicated to said SAR.

Axline, R.M. Jr.; Sloan, G.R.; Spalding, R.E.

1994-12-31

3

Radar transponder apparatus and signal processing technique  

DOEpatents

An active, phase-coded, time-grating transponder and a synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) and signal processor means, in combination, allow the recognition and location of the transponder (tag) in the SAR image and allow communication of information messages from the transponder to the SAR. The SAR is an illuminating radar having special processing modifications in an image-formation processor to receive an echo from a remote transponder, after the transponder receives and retransmits the SAR illuminations, and to enhance the transponder's echo relative to surrounding ground clutter by recognizing special transponder modulations from phase-shifted from the transponder retransmissions. The remote radio-frequency tag also transmits information to the SAR through a single antenna that also serves to receive the SAR illuminations. Unique tag-modulation and SAR signal processing techniques, in combination, allow the detection and precise geographical location of the tag through the reduction of interfering signals from ground clutter, and allow communication of environmental and status information from said tag to be communicated to said SAR.

Axline, Jr., Robert M. (Albuquerque, NM); Sloan, George R. (Albuquerque, NM); Spalding, Richard E. (Albuquerque, NM)

1996-01-01

4

Test Procedure for Radar Transponder C-Band Non-Coherent.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document outlines electrical and environmental test procedures for C-Band radar non-coherent transponders. Included are general testing provisions, standard test conditions and specific testing methods. The tests are designed to verify that the transp...

1971-01-01

5

Passive Radar Tracking Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The radar system tracks a target whether it generates a signal of its own or not and may be used to sense noise energy radiated by the sun, other objects, or other celestial bodies. The system includes an antenna assembly of four horns arranged in a recta...

D. K. Barton W. J. Rose

1965-01-01

6

Range Safety Transponder Catalog.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This catalog provides reference information on radar tracking transponders used to support range-safety functions at the DOD and NASA test ranges and facilities. The information is taken from manufacturer supplied specifications and is provided as referen...

1993-01-01

7

Method and apparatus for measuring distance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention employs a continuous wave radar technique and apparatus which can be used as a distance measuring system in the presence of background clutter by utilizing small passive transponders. A first continuous electromagnetic wave signal S sub 1 at a first frequency f sub 1 is transmitted from a first location. A transponder carried by a target object positioned

Christopher L. Lichtenberg; Paul W. Shores; Herbert S. Kobayashi

1988-01-01

8

A transponder-based motion compensation approach for near-space passive radars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near-space platforms defined as the aerocrafts flying in the space region between 20km and 100km which is above the storms and not constrained by orbital mechanics like satellites or high fuel consumptions like airplanes, they can stay at a specific site almost indefinitely to provide a persistent coverage. Although current spaceborne and airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems have playing

L. Wang; W. Q. Wang; Z. H. Shao; J. Y. Cai

2011-01-01

9

Transponder assets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document provides the reader with a list of transponder assets and points of contact at RCC affiliated ranges and facilities. A range would be able to locate the needed transponder in an emergency situation and make arrangements for a loan.

1992-07-01

10

Transponder News  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Transponder News offers several articles that explore the technology of radio frequency identification (RFID) in greater detail. Topics include choosing the frequency, types of RFID systems, suppliers, trends, and technical reports. Visitors will also find links to interviews, standards, and registration for Transponder News' newsletter of site updates.

Marsh, Mike

1969-12-31

11

Moving receive beam method and apparatus for synthetic aperture radar  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for improving the performance of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems by reducing the effect of "edge losses" associated with nonuniform receiver antenna gain. By moving the receiver antenna pattern in synchrony with the apparent motion of the transmitted pulse along the ground, the maximum available receiver antenna gain can be used at all times. Also, the receiver antenna gain for range-ambiguous return signals may be reduced, in some cases, by a large factor. The beam motion can be implemented by real-time adjustment of phase shifters in an electronically-steered phased-array antenna or by electronic switching of feed horns in a reflector antenna system.

Kare, Jordin T. (San Ramon, CA)

2001-01-01

12

Analytical Approach to the Backscattering from UHF RFID Transponder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The investigation of the modulated, backscattered contribution from UHF RFID Transponders is a crucial issue for the reliable evaluation of the behavior and the performance of RFID systems. The backscattered, radiated field by a UHF Transponder is described by means of a simple and complete analytical expression. The tag radar cross section (RCS) and the bit error rate (BER) at

Franco Fuschini; Carmine Piersanti; Francesco Paolazzi; Gabriele Falciasecca

2008-01-01

13

Regenerative backscatter transponder using the switched injection-locked oscillator concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new backscatter transponder type is introduced. The developed transponder regenerates a modulated, phase-coherent high-power response\\/ replica to an interrogating CW radar signal. To create the amplified phase-coherent transponder response, the switched injection locked oscillator (SILO) concept is applied. Compared with a usual passive backscatter transponder - known e.g. from UHF RFID systems - the reading range

Martin Vossiek; Tobias Schafer; D. Becker

2008-01-01

14

Frequency Standards for Radar Transponders.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The frequency standards given here were derived by the Frequency Coordination Working Group of the Inter-Range Instrumentation Group, with the assistance of members of the Electronic Trajectory Measurements Working Group and development groups of the thre...

1965-01-01

15

Development of a Radar-Frequency Metamaterial Measurement and Characterization Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall purpose of this research was to design, build, and test an apparatus for the measurement and characterization of radar-frequency metamaterial performance in the S-band through Ku-band (2-18 GHz). Measurement and characterization is vital to me...

S. I. Faris

2012-01-01

16

Efficiency Measurement Method for UHF Transponder Antennas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we address methods for characterizing small, low-gain antennas that are intended to be operated autonomously by a passive transponder chip. We present a way to perform accurate 3D gain measurements by means of a small, battery-powered, calibrated signal source and a two axis rotation apparatus. From the measurement results the directional pattern and the antenna efficiency are

Lukas W. Mayer; Arpad L. Scholtz

17

Mat Transponder Model No. 10002.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The MATS transponder was designed to be compact, lightweight and efficient for use in a satellite configuration. The transponder consists of a receiver and a transmitter for accepting ranging, timing and command information from a ground station complex a...

1967-01-01

18

A Sparsely Designed Retrodirective Transponder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retrodirective arrays have shown great potential for use as wireless transponders due to their automatic source tracking ability. A retrodirective transponder based on a sparse array is presented. The architecture uses a sparse array design to reduce the amount of elements, and thus circuitry required. A genetic algorithm is used to determine the optimal element positions in the array. The

Darren S. Goshi; Kevin M. K. H. Leong; Tatsuo Itoh

2006-01-01

19

Passive Radar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This book sets forth in brief the physical principles of passive radar, describes the functional diagrams and circuit peculiarities of the apparatus, and offers recommendations for modifying radar receivers to adapt them for receiving natural radio-freque...

A. G. Nikolaev S. V. Pertsov

1975-01-01

20

Geodetic Positioning of Seafloor Transponders.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the Seafloor Benchmark Experiment is to determine precisely the position of benchmarks on the ocean floor in a geodetic sense. An acoustic transponder on the bottom of a ship emits pulses which are returned to it after a known delay by tran...

C. P. Wang

1987-01-01

21

Rectenna Design for Passive RFID Transponders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work emphasises rectenna design issues of passive RFID transponders for 868\\/915-MHz and 2.45-GHz ISM bands. The characterisation of transponder chip takes into account the impact of connecting antenna to rectifier by flip-chip bonding process. Proposed experimental way allows finding chip impedance exactly as it seen by antenna. Refined rectifier circuitry effectively overcomes dependence of transponder performances on the type

Yuri Tikhov; Il-Jong Song; Young-Hoon Min

2007-01-01

22

14 CFR 91.413 - ATC transponder tests and inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false ATC transponder tests and inspections. 91.413...and Alterations § 91.413 ATC transponder tests and inspections. (a) No persons may use an ATC transponder that is specified in...

2010-01-01

23

14 CFR 91.413 - ATC transponder tests and inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false ATC transponder tests and inspections. 91.413...and Alterations § 91.413 ATC transponder tests and inspections. (a) No persons may use an ATC transponder that is specified in...

2009-01-01

24

Signal Processing Issues for the Exploitation of Pulse-to-Pulse Encoding SAR Transponders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic aperture radar signal processing issues related to the exploitation of a pulse-to-pulse encoding transponder using pseudorandom codes discussed analytically. Namely the focusing algorithm, the code synchronization procedure and the properties of the code induced gain against non-encoding point scatterers and distributed ones. A time-domain processing algorithm and a code synchronization procedure are proposed and validated on simulated data and

John Peter Merryman Boncori; Giovanni Schiavon

2008-01-01

25

21 CFR 880.6300 - Implantable radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and health information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Implantable radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and...6300 Implantable radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and...Identification . An implantable radiofrequency transponder system for patient...

2010-04-01

26

21 CFR 880.6300 - Implantable radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and health information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Implantable radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and...6300 Implantable radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and...Identification . An implantable radiofrequency transponder system for patient...

2009-04-01

27

UHF RFID transponders antenna design for metal and wood surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, metal and wood support effect on UHF RFID transponders are investigated. New antennas designed for passive UHF RFID transponders mounted on metal and wood surfaces are described. Simulation results are presented which are in good agreement with measurement data. The transponder reading distance measurement shows good performance. In particular the reading distance obtained with the tags designed

Riad Kanan; Ataollah Azizi

2009-01-01

28

Local positioning with passive UHF RFID transponders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the theory of distance measurements with passive UHF transponders using the principle of modulated backscattering. The method was evaluated with the analogue frontend of a passive RFID chip for the UHF range. The chip was designed in a 0.14mum CMOS technology.

Juergen Heidrich; Daniel Brenk; Jochen Essel; Georg Fischer; Robert Weigel; Stefan Schwarzer

2009-01-01

29

Test Procedure for C-Band Noncoherent Radar Transponder.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Test equipment, test setup, calibration, insertion loss measurement-signal generator, insertion loss measurement-receiver transmitter, test list, electrical test, environmental test, test procedures, receiver sensitivity and random triggering, frequency, ...

1986-01-01

30

Altimetry and transponder ground simulation experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have designed and built a compact demonstrator unit for the investigation of altimetry and transponder applications. A small light-weight breadboard carries a compact frequency doubled Nd:YAG pulse laser, an afocal beam expansion optics, a small receiver telescope with spectral and spatial filter arrangements and a sensitive photo-detector. The output laser energy can be as high as 45 mJ with a pulse-width of 3 ns and the telescope aperture is 10 cm. Simulations [Degnan, J.J., 2006. Simulating interplanetary transponder and laser communications experiments via dual station ranging to SLR satellites. In: Proceedings of the 15th International Workshop on Laser Ranging, Canberra, Australia, pp. 457-462] suggested that the link margin for low Earth orbiting satellites (LEO) is comfortable. Successful satellite laser ranging from this dual-station experiment in several different configurations was achieved up to the MEO orbit in a 10 day provisional installation.

Schreiber, K. U.; Hiener, M.; Holzapfel, B.; Michaelis, H.; Brandl, N.; Haufe, K.-H.; Lauber, P.; Neidhardt, A.

2009-10-01

31

Dose perturbations by electromagnetic transponders in the proton environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surgically implanted electromagnetic transponders have been used in external beam radiotherapy for target localization and position monitoring in real time. The effect of transponders on proton therapy dose distributions has not been reported. A Monte Carlo implementation of the transponder geometry is validated against film measurements in a proton SOBP and subsequently used to generate dose distributions for transponders at different positions and orientations in the proton SOBP. The maximum dose deficit is extracted in each case. Dose shadows of up to 60% occur for transponders positioned very near the end of range of the Bragg peak. However, if transponders are positioned further than 5 mm from the end of range, and are not oriented parallel to the beam direction, then the dose deficit can be kept below 10%.

Dolney, Derek; McDonough, James; Vapiwala, Neha; Metz, James M.

2013-03-01

32

Comparison of digital rectal and microchip transponder thermometry in cats.  

PubMed

This study compares the use of traditional rectal thermometry with an implantable microchip temperature transponder in cats. The microchip transponder was implanted over the shoulder blades and was programmed with cat identification information. Concurrently, the cats were involved in a study in which they were infected experimentally with feline herpesvirus 1; this situation enabled temperature comparisons in both normal and abnormal ranges. Results from the microchip transponder technique were compared with rectal thermometry by using a concordance test of agreement. These data revealed close agreement between rectal and microchip transponder thermometry in the cat at both normal and abnormal temperature ranges. PMID:19653950

Quimby, Jessica M; Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Lappin, Michael R

2009-07-01

33

Comparison of Digital Rectal and Microchip Transponder Thermometry in Cats  

PubMed Central

This study compares the use of traditional rectal thermometry with an implantable microchip temperature transponder in cats. The microchip transponder was implanted over the shoulder blades and was programmed with cat identification information. Concurrently, the cats were involved in a study in which they were infected experimentally with feline herpesvirus 1; this situation enabled temperature comparisons in both normal and abnormal ranges. Results from the microchip transponder technique were compared with rectal thermometry by using a concordance test of agreement. These data revealed close agreement between rectal and microchip transponder thermometry in the cat at both normal and abnormal temperature ranges.

Quimby, Jessica M; Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Lappin, Michael R

2009-01-01

34

Solid state detector package for the Mars laser transponder  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are presenting the concept, design and construction of an all solid state photon counting detector package for the laser transponder operating on the surface of the planet Mars. The Earth-Mars laser transponder experiment is proposed by NASA to provide range measurements to the Mars planet with decimeter accuracy. To detect the optical pulses at the Mars side of the

Ivan Prochazka; Karel Hamal; Serguei M. Pershin

2002-01-01

35

Distance measurement with UHF transponders by means of modulated backscattering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the implementation of a Round-Trip-of-Flight (RToF) technique into a UHF transponder. Different possible transponder architectures are investigated and measurement results for a passive design are shown at circuit level. The chip is designed based on a 0.13 ?m CMOS technology.

Juergen Heidrich; Daniel Brenk; Jochen Essel; Stefan Schwarzer; Robert Weigel; Georg Fischer

2010-01-01

36

Dual-transponder Precision Navigation System for Synthetic Aperture Sonar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technical details of a dual-transponder, long-baseline positioning system to mea- sure the sway of a free towed Synthetic Aperture Sonar (SAS) are presented. The sway is measured with respect to freely deployed, battery powered, transponders which sit stationary on the seabed connected via cables to floating buoys housing high-accuracy GPS timing receivers. A T\\/R switch allows a single hydrophone

E N Pilbrow; M P Hayes; P T Gough

2002-01-01

37

Performance Measurements of the Transponders Aboard Aircraft at MADRID-BARAJAS Airport,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The EUROCONTROL Agency, together with the Federal Aviation Administration of the United States, has developed and implemented a device for measuring the performance of transponders fitted in aircraft. The device is called MTPA - Mobile Transponder Perform...

M. Biot H. Kefferstein

1987-01-01

38

Multi-Altitude Transponder. Volume Iv. Design Considerations and Component Selection Criteria.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The MAT transponder utilizes a crystal-controlled double-conversion phase locked (correlation) receiver with a subcarrier phase-following loop around the complete transponder, for the purpose of phase stability and the realization of the required transpon...

M. Gantsweg

1967-01-01

39

21 CFR 880.6300 - Implantable radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and health information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...transponder system for patient identification and health information. 880.6300 Section 880...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL...transponder system for patient identification and health information. (a)...

2013-04-01

40

Millimeter radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses some of the advantages offered by millimeter waves over microwaves, reviews possible and past millimeter radar applications, and looks at some future millimeter radar systems. The coming millimeter radars include radiometric seekers, radiometers, and high resolution radar for satellite identification. Important problems to be resolved before millimeter radars can be put into production include component capability; radar

S. L. Johnston

1977-01-01

41

International business communications via Intelsat K-band transponders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses how the transponder throughput and the required earth station HPA power in the Intelsat Business Services Network vary as a function of coding rate and required fade margin. The results indicate that transponder throughputs of 40 to 50 Mbit/s are achievable. A comparison of time domain simulation results with results based on a straightforward link analysis shows that the link analysis results may be fairly optimistic if the satellite traveling wave tube amplifier (TWTA) is operated near saturation; however, there is good agreement for large backoffs.

Hagmann, W.; Rhodes, S.; Fang, R.

42

A study on the applicability of implantable microchip transponders for body temperature measurements in pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The applicability of an electronic monitoring system using microchip transponders for measurement of body temperatures was tested in 6-week-old conventional Danish weaners infected with classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Subcutaneous tissue temperatures obtained by the implantable transponders were compared with rectal temperatures, recorded by a conventional digital thermometer. METHODS: In a preliminary study, transponders were inserted subcutaneously at 6

Louise Lohse; se Uttenthal; Claes Ene; Jens Nielsen

2010-01-01

43

14 CFR Appendix F to Part 43 - ATC Transponder Tests and Inspections  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false ATC Transponder Tests and Inspections F Appendix F...App. F Appendix F to Part 43ATC Transponder Tests and Inspections The ATC transponder tests required by § 91.413...

2009-01-01

44

14 CFR Appendix F to Part 43 - ATC Transponder Tests and Inspections  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false ATC Transponder Tests and Inspections F Appendix F...App. F Appendix F to Part 43ATC Transponder Tests and Inspections The ATC transponder tests required by § 91.413...

2010-01-01

45

14 CFR 91.215 - ATC transponder and altitude reporting equipment and use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false ATC transponder and altitude reporting equipment and...Certificate Requirements § 91.215 ATC transponder and altitude reporting equipment and...part 121 or 135 of this chapter, ATC transponder equipment installed must meet...

2010-01-01

46

14 CFR 91.215 - ATC transponder and altitude reporting equipment and use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false ATC transponder and altitude reporting equipment and...Certificate Requirements § 91.215 ATC transponder and altitude reporting equipment and...part 121 or 135 of this chapter, ATC transponder equipment installed must meet...

2009-01-01

47

Wireless Voltage Regulation for Passive Transponders Using an IF to Communicate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel architecture for wireless communication systems made up of a base station and a remotely powered transponder. The architecture enables the base station to perform wireless voltage regulation (WVR) of the rectifier's output voltage in the transponder. This new regulation technique can be embedded in any system, provided that the passive transponder uses an IF to

Nicolas Pillin; Norbert Joehl; Catherine Dehollain; Michel J. Declercq

2010-01-01

48

LORAN-C TETROON TRANSPONDER AND TRACKING SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

An advanced system for tracking multiple regional scale Lagrangian markers was developed. The system consists of a miniature tetroon-borne transponder and a small computerized receiving station capable of providing continuous real-time data on tetroon location (latitude/longitude...

49

Broadband Uniplanar UHF Meander Line Antenna for Multistandard RFID Transponders  

Microsoft Academic Search

A broad band uniplanar antenna for passive UHF RFID tag applications is presented. The antenna has been designed to provide a multistandard transponder in one ISO 7810 ID-1 card with both the UHF meandered antenna and an ISO 15693 tag arranged in two separate sections. The broadband antenna is composed by a meander dipole and a loading bar electrically connected

A. Toccafondi; A. Cueing; F. Mariottini; P. Braconi

2007-01-01

50

Readability and histological biocompatibility of microchip transponders in horses.  

PubMed

Identification of horses by microchip transponder is mandatory within the European Union with only a few exceptions. In this study, the readability of such microchips in 428 horses with three different scanners (A, B and C) and the histological changes at the implantation site in 16 animals were assessed. Identification of microchips differed between scanners (P<0.001), and with 'side of neck' (P<0.001). Scanners A, B and C identified 93.5%, 89.7% and 100% of microchips, respectively, on the 'chip-bearing' side of the neck. From the contralateral side, scanners A, B and C identified 21.5%, 26.9% and 89.5% of transponders, respectively. Microchip readability was affected by age (P<0.001), but not by breed of horse. At necropsy, transponders were found in the subcutaneous fat (n=3), inter- or peri-muscular connective tissue (n=8), or musculature (n=5), where they were surrounded by a fibrous capsule ranging in thickness from 12.7 to 289.5?m in 15 animals. In two animals, immature granulation tissue with attendant granulomatous inflammation, and a granulomatous myositis, surrounding the microchip were identified, respectively. Severe (n=1), moderate (n=1), and mild (n=3) lymphohistiocytic inflammation was noted within the fibrous capsule. Microchip transponders were found to be a highly reliable and biocompatible method of horse identification. PMID:23769456

Wulf, M; Wohlsein, P; Aurich, J E; Nees, M; Baumgrtner, W; Aurich, C

2013-06-12

51

Transponders and their Impact on the Future of Navigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The introduction of a transponder-based ship identification system may have far-reaching effects on the way navigation is carried out. Fundamental changes to the underlying principles of collision avoidance become a reality, offering the potential for a new set of sailing and anticollision rules that allow unprecedented levels of control for maritime traffic.

Crichton, T.; Redfern, A.

52

An ASIC for transponder for radio frequency identification system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presented is a novel and effective design of a batteryless, self-powered RFID transponder. It is compatible with the TIRIS, the popular RFID system by the Texas Instruments. Data transmission uses FSK modulation and the circuit is designed such that the output frequencies are implicitly determined, independent of the load of the antenna. The major part of the design uses digital

Sau-Mou Wu; Jeng-Rern Yang; Tzen-Yi Liu

1996-01-01

53

Single vs. Multiple Transponders for Radio Tomography of Asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to develop numerical inverse methods for radio tomography of asteroids in which the goal is to recover the internal electric permittivity distribution of an asteroid based on radio frequency data gathered by an orbiter. The present tomography approach with a single transponder has been utilized in the CONSERT experiment which aims at reconstruction of a comet nucleus structure as a part of the ROSETTA (comet rendezvous) mission. This study aims at progress in designing the coming missions which necessitates a through investigation of implementable data gathering setups as well as forward (data) simulation and inverse computation schemes. The current signal generation approach of utilizing multiple transponders provides one potential scenario which can even be essential to achieve an appropriate reconstruction quality. Research to find the simplest and most robust (best bang for the buck) scenarios for signal generation and measurements is of utmost importance due to the high cost and long duration of planning and implementing a space mission, necessitating a highly optimized payload. Regarding the forward and inverse approaches, this study, in particular, validated the iterative alternating sequential (IAS) inversion (reconstruction) strategy with a forward simulation relying on the wave equation of the electric potential. To enable the IAS inverse approach, a linearized forward model was utilized to find the reconstructions. The inverse problem was given a Bayesian formulation. The numerical experiments included in this study compared the single and multiple transponder signal generation approaches in localization of permittivity anomalies. Three different anomaly strengths and four levels of total noise were tested to examine the tolerance of present reconstruction strategy to different error sources. Noise due to forward simulation was estimated. The results obtained were promising regarding the combination of the current forward and inverse approaches. They suggest that reconstruction quality increases along with the number of transponders and that multiple transponders can be necessary to distinguish three separate anomalies.

Pursiainen, Sampsa; Kaasalainen, M.; TUT Inverse Problems Group led by Mikko Kaasalainen, Prof.

2013-10-01

54

Current test results for the Athena radar responsive tag  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sandia National Laboratories has teamed with General Atomics and Sierra Monolithics to develop the Athena tag for the Army's Radar Tag Engagement (RaTE) program. The radar-responsive Athena tag can be used for Blue Force tracking and Combat Identification (CID) as well as data collection, identification, and geolocation applications. The Athena tag is small (~4.5" x 2.4" x 4.2"), battery-powered, and has an integral antenna. Once remotely activated by a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) or Moving Target Indicator (MTI) radar, the tag transponds modulated pulses to the radar at a low transmit power. The Athena tag can operate Ku-band and X-band airborne SAR and MTI radars. This paper presents results from current tag development testing activities. Topics covered include recent field tests results from the AN/APY-8 Lynx, F16/APG-66, and F15E/APG-63 V(1) radars and other Fire Control radars. Results show that the Athena tag successfully works with multiple radar platforms, in multiple radar modes, and for multiple applications. Radar-responsive tags such as Athena have numerous applications in military and government arenas. Military applications include battlefield situational awareness, combat identification, targeting, personnel recovery, and unattended ground sensors. Government applications exist in nonproliferation, counter-drug, search-and-rescue, and land-mapping activities.

Ormesher, Richard C.; Martinez, Ana; Plummer, Kenneth W.; Erlandson, David; Delaware, Sheri; Clark, David R.

2006-06-01

55

SPERM WHALES TAGGED WITH TRANSPONDERS AND TRACKED UNDERWATER BY SONAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two sperm whales tagged with acoustic transponder tags were tracked by sonar during a cruise from 16 to 30 October 1991 in the southeast Caribbean west of Dominica Island. The whales dove to depths of 400-600 m and more, including a dive to 1,185 m and one possibly to 2,000 m. They were tracked for periods of 3-14 h, over

William A. Watkins; Mary Ann Daher; Kurt M. Fristrup; Terrance J. Howald; Giuseppe Notarbartolo di Sciara

1993-01-01

56

Performance of dielectric resonator oscillator for spacecraft transponding modem  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new Spacecraft Transponding Modem (STM) is being developed for deep space communication applications. The STM receives an X-band (7.17 GHz) uplink signal and generates an X-band (8.4 GHz) and a Ka-band (32.0 GHz) coherent or noncoherent downlink signals. The STM architecture incorporates three miniature dielectric-resonator-oscillators (DRO). These DROs are used in receiver and exciter frequency synthesis phase-locked loops (PLL)

Narayan Mysoor; Selahattin Kayalar; Constantine Andricos; Gerald J. Walsh

2001-01-01

57

Algorithms for Separation of Secondary Surveillance Radar Replies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air Traffic Control (ATC) centers aim at ensuring safety of aircrafts cruising in\\u000atheir area. The information required to face this mission includes the data provided\\u000aby primary and Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR). The first one indicates the\\u000apresence of an aircraft, whereas the second gives information on its identity and\\u000aaltitude. All aircrafts contain a transponder, which send replies

N. L. R. Petrochilos

2002-01-01

58

Passive Radar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The basic ideas and concepts of one of the newest branches of radar, that of passive radar, are discussed. A great deal of attention is devoted to questions of the use of passive radar by the armed forces. The physical fundamentals of passive radar, and t...

A. G. Nikolaev S. V. Pertsov

1975-01-01

59

Control techniques of delay-time jitter from the echo-transponder satellite laser ranging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of the familiar R2 dependence of signal strength on range and overcoming the prohibitively large R4 losses of conventional passive satellite laser ranging(SLR), the operational distance of echo-transponder satellite laser ranging is much farther. Echo-transponder SLR can be used for satellite ranging at great distance, and even for deep-space probe ranging. Echo-transponder SLR uses a laser transponder instead of the retro-reflector on the satellite, and implements ranging by means of echoing the ranging signal from the master station. However, ranging accuracy of echo-transponder SLR is reduced, because the jitter of additional delay-time occurs in the process of the transponder's response. The principle of laser echo-transponder was introduced, the causes of delay-time and its jitter were analyzed, and the control technique of delay-time jitter in responsion was studied. An experimental platform of the laser echo-transponder was constructed, in order to validate the availability of the control technique of delay-time jitter, and to detect control accuracy of the delay-time jitter. As the experimental result indicated, the delay-time jitter of the laser echo-transponder could be controlled effectively within 1 ns, thereby it was determined that the corresponding ranging error was less than 15 cm, if the laser transmitter was suitably selected, and the techniques about precise temperature control, automatic power control, precise Q-switched, and accurate detection of the pulse moment were reasonably put to use in the system design of the laser echo-transponder. Meanwhile the feasibility of echo-transponder SLR was validated.

Li, Jian-ting; Wang, Zhi-zhong; Gao, Xin; Xing, Qiang-lin; Xin, Yu-jun

2012-11-01

60

Bronchoscopic Implantation of a Novel Wireless Electromagnetic Transponder in the Canine Lung: A Feasibility Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The success of targeted radiation therapy for lung cancer treatment is limited by tumor motion during breathing. A real-time, objective, nonionizing, electromagnetic localization system using implanted electromagnetic transponders has been developed (Beacon electromagnetic transponder, Calypso Medical Technologies, Inc., Seattle, WA). We evaluated the feasibility and fixation of electromagnetic transponders bronchoscopically implanted in small airways of canine lungs and compared to results using gold markers. Methods and Materials: After approval of the Animal Studies Committee, five mongrel dogs were anesthetized, intubated, and ventilated. Three transponders were inserted into the tip of a plastic catheter, passed through the working channel of a flexible bronchoscope, and implanted into small airways of a single lobe using fluoroscopic guidance. This procedure was repeated for three spherical gold markers in the opposite lung. One, 7, 14, 28, and 60 days postimplantation imaging was used to assess implant fixation. Results: Successful bronchoscopic implantation was possible for 15 of 15 transponders and 12 of 15 gold markers; 3 markers were deposited in the pleural space. Fixation at 1 day was 15 of 15 for transponders and 12 of 12 for gold markers. Fixation at 60 days was 6 of 15 for transponders and 7 of 12 for gold markers, p value = 0.45. Conclusions: Bronchoscopic implantation of both transponders and gold markers into the canine lung is feasible, but fixation rates are low. If fixation rates can be improved, implantable electromagnetic transponders may allow improved radiation therapy for lung cancer by providing real-time continuous target tracking. Developmental work is under way to improve the fixation rates and to reduce sensitivity to implantation technique.

Mayse, Martin L. [Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Parikh, Parag J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)], E-mail: pparikh@radonc.wustl.edu; Lechleiter, Kristen M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Dimmer, Steven; Park, Mia [Calypso Medical Technologies, Seattle, WA (United States); Chaudhari, Amir [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Talcott, Michael [Division of Comparative Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Low, Daniel A.; Bradley, Jeffrey D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

2008-09-01

61

STAR: FPGA-based software defined satellite transponder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents STAR, a flexible Telemetry, Tracking & Command (TT&C) transponder for Earth Observation (EO) small satellites, developed in collaboration with INTECS and SITAEL companies. With respect to state-of-the-art EO transponders, STAR includes the possibility of scientific data transfer thanks to the 40 Mbps downlink data-rate. This feature represents an important optimization in terms of hardware mass, which is important for EO small satellites. Furthermore, in-flight re-configurability of communication parameters via telecommand is important for in-orbit link optimization, which is especially useful for low orbit satellites where visibility can be as short as few hundreds of seconds. STAR exploits the principles of digital radio to minimize the analog section of the transceiver. 70MHz intermediate frequency (IF) is the interface with an external S/X band radio-frequency front-end. The system is composed of a dedicated configurable high-speed digital signal processing part, the Signal Processor (SP), described in technology-independent VHDL working with a clock frequency of 184.32MHz and a low speed control part, the Control Processor (CP), based on the 32-bit Gaisler LEON3 processor clocked at 32 MHz, with SpaceWire and CAN interfaces. The quantization parameters were fine-tailored to reach a trade-off between hardware complexity and implementation loss which is less than 0.5 dB at BER = 10-5 for the RX chain. The IF ports require 8-bit precision. The system prototype is fitted on the Xilinx Virtex 6 VLX75T-FF484 FPGA of which a space-qualified version has been announced. The total device occupation is 82 %.

Davalle, Daniele; Cassettari, Riccardo; Saponara, Sergio; Fanucci, Luca; Cucchi, Luca; Bigongiari, Franco; Errico, Walter

2013-05-01

62

Radar observables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive account is given of missile design considerations relevant to the prediction, control, and measurement of airframe radar cross sections (RCSs), with a view to the minimization of missile observability. RCS reduction may proceed through airframe shaping to deflect incident radar emissions, as well as through the use of radar-absorbing surface materials and the devision of active radar signal-cancellation methods; some combination of these is often required, due to the deficiencies of any one method. The interaction of all RCS-reduction methods with airframe aerodynamic-design criteria are stressed.

Knott, Eugene F.

63

14 CFR Appendix F to Part 43 - ATC Transponder Tests and Inspections  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...either: (i) Connected to the antenna end of the transmission line; (ii) Connected to the antenna terminal of the transponder with a correction for transmission line loss; or (iii) Utilized radiated...

2013-01-01

64

Instrument Fact Sheet - Acoustic Relocation System, Model 301 and Recoverable Acoustic Transponder, Model 322.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Model 301 Acoustic Relocation System and Model 322 Recoverable Acoustic Transponder are designed to provide an acoustic link for marking, locating, and recovering instrument packages or other items from the sea floor. The 301 system consists of a code...

1975-01-01

65

Investigations of interference between electromagnetic transponders and wireless MOSFET dosimeters: A phantom study  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To evaluate both the Calypso Systems (Calypso Medical Technologies, Inc., Seattle, WA) localization accuracy in the presence of wireless metaloxidesemiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeters of dose verification system (DVS, Sicel Technologies, Inc., Morrisville, NC) and the dosimeters reading accuracy in the presence of wireless electromagnetic transponders inside a phantom.Methods: A custom-made, solid-water phantom was fabricated with space for transponders and dosimeters. Two inserts were machined with positioning grooves precisely matching the dimensions of the transponders and dosimeters and were arranged in orthogonal and parallel orientations, respectively. To test the transponder localization accuracy with?without presence of dosimeters (hypothesis 1), multivariate analyses were performed on transponder-derived localization data with and without dosimeters at each preset distance to detect statistically significant localization differences between the control and test sets. To test dosimeter dose-reading accuracy with?without presence of transponders (hypothesis 2), an approach of alternating the transponder presence in seven identical fraction dose (100 cGy) deliveries and measurements was implemented. Two-way analysis of variance was performed to examine statistically significant dose-reading differences between the two groups and the different fractions. A relative-dose analysis method was also used to evaluate transponder impact on dose-reading accuracy after dose-fading effect was removed by a second-order polynomial fit.Results: Multivariate analysis indicated that hypothesis 1 was false; there was a statistically significant difference between the localization data from the control and test sets. However, the upper and lower bounds of the 95% confidence intervals of the localized positional differences between the control and test sets were less than 0.1 mm, which was significantly smaller than the minimum clinical localization resolution of 0.5 mm. For hypothesis 2, analysis of variance indicated that there was no statistically significant difference between the dosimeter readings with and without the presence of transponders. Both orthogonal and parallel configurations had difference of polynomial-fit dose to measured dose values within 1.75%.Conclusions: The phantom study indicated that the Calypso Systems localization accuracy was not affected clinically due to the presence of DVS wireless MOSFET dosimeters and the dosimeter-measured doses were not affected by the presence of transponders. Thus, the same patients could be implanted with both transponders and dosimeters to benefit from improved accuracy of radiotherapy treatments offered by conjunctional use of the two systems.

Su, Zhong; Zhang, Lisha; Ramakrishnan, V.; Hagan, Michael; Anscher, Mitchell

2011-01-01

66

Using RZ DPSK-Based Transponders for Upgrades on Existing Long-Haul Submarine WDM Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The RZ-DPSK transmission format allows higher capacity and greater flexibility in system configurations when upgrading existing WDM systems. We report on using RZ-DPSK for upgrades of systems originally designed for RZ-OOK transponders. In this paper, we discuss the use of RZ-DPSK transponders on an installed trans-Pacific link and on the Sam-1 Cable System where the original transmission lengths were significantly

Ekaterina A. Golovchenko; Lutfur. Rahman; Bamdad Bakhshi; Dmitiriy Kovsh; Fernando Idrovo; Stuart M. Abbott

2008-01-01

67

Doppler Radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper contains a discussion of the principle of operation of cw doppler search radar systems and an analysis of their performance capabilities, with particular emphasis on the elimination of fixed targets. A comparison of these systems and MTI pulse radar systems is made.

E. J. Barlow

1949-01-01

68

TRMM Radar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of a conceptual design study and the performance of key components of the Bread Board Model (BBM) of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) radar are presented. The radar, which operates at 13.8 GHz and is designed to meet TRMM mission...

K. Okamoto

1993-01-01

69

A microwave doppler radar activity monitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general requirements of an activity monitor are listed. The principle of operation of microwave doppler radar is described.\\u000a The circuitry is given for a sensitive radar activity monitor that works by detecting the doppler shift in microwaves reflected\\u000a from a moving animal. The apparatus is automatic and nonintrusive, and it gives an output suitable for direct computer analysis.\\u000a A

P. H. Martin; D. M. Unwin

1980-01-01

70

Comparison of transabdominal ultrasound and electromagnetic transponders for prostate localization.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to compare two methodologies of prostate localization in a large cohort of patients. Daily prostate localization using B-mode ultrasound has been performed at the Nebraska Medical Center since 2000. More recently, a technology using electromagnetic transponders implanted within the prostate was introduced into our clinic (Calypso(R)). With each technology, patients were localized initially using skin marks. Localization error distributions were determined from offsets between the initial setup positions and those determined by ultrasound or Calypso. Ultrasound localization data was summarized from 16619 imaging sessions spanning 7 years; Calypso localization data consists of 1524 fractions in 41 prostate patients treated in the course of a clinical trial at five institutions and 640 localizations from the first 16 patients treated with our clinical system. Ultrasound and Calypso patients treated between March and September 2007 at the Nebraska Medical Center were analyzed and compared, allowing a single institutional comparison of the two technologies. In this group of patients, the isocenter determined by ultrasound-based localization is on average 5.3 mm posterior to that determined by Calypso, while the systematic and random errors and PTV margins calculated from the ultrasound localizations were 3 - 4 times smaller than those calculated from the Calypso localizations. Our study finds that there are systematic differences between Calypso and ultrasound for prostate localization. PMID:20160686

Foster, Ryan D; Solberg, Timothy D; Li, Haisen S; Kerkhoff, Andrew; Enke, Charles A; Willoughby, Twyla R; Kupelian, Patrick A

2010-01-06

71

Roll-to-Roll Screen Printed Radio Frequency Identification Transponder Antennas for Vehicle Tracking Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vehicle tracking systems based on ultra high frequency (UHF) radio frequency identification (RFID) technology are already introduced to control the access to car parks and corporate premises. For this field of application so-called Windshield RFID transponder labels are used, which are applied to the inside of the windshield. State of the art for manufacturing these transponder antennas is the traditional lithography/etching approach. Furthermore the performance of these transponders is limited to a reading distance of approximately 5 m which results in car speed limit of 5 km/h for identification. However, to achieve improved performance compared to existing all-purpose transponders and a dramatic cost reduction, an optimized antenna design is needed which takes into account the special dielectric and in particular metallic car environment of the tag and an roll-to-roll (R2R) printing manufacturing process. In this paper we focus on the development of a customized UHF RFID transponder antenna design, which is adopted for vehicle geometry as well as R2R screen printing manufacturing processes.

Zichner, Ralf; Baumann, Reinhard R.

2013-05-01

72

Imaging synthetic aperture radar  

DOEpatents

A linear-FM SAR imaging radar method and apparatus to produce a real-time image by first arranging the returned signals into a plurality of subaperture arrays, the columns of each subaperture array having samples of dechirped baseband pulses, and further including a processing of each subaperture array to obtain coarse-resolution in azimuth, then fine-resolution in range, and lastly, to combine the processed subapertures to obtain the final fine-resolution in azimuth. Greater efficiency is achieved because both the transmitted signal and a local oscillator signal mixed with the returned signal can be varied on a pulse-to-pulse basis as a function of radar motion. Moreover, a novel circuit can adjust the sampling location and the A/D sample rate of the combined dechirped baseband signal which greatly reduces processing time and hardware. The processing steps include implementing a window function, stabilizing either a central reference point and/or all other points of a subaperture with respect to doppler frequency and/or range as a function of radar motion, sorting and compressing the signals using a standard fourier transforms. The stabilization of each processing part is accomplished with vector multiplication using waveforms generated as a function of radar motion wherein these waveforms may be synthesized in integrated circuits. Stabilization of range migration as a function of doppler frequency by simple vector multiplication is a particularly useful feature of the invention; as is stabilization of azimuth migration by correcting for spatially varying phase errors prior to the application of an autofocus process.

Burns, Bryan L. (Tijeras, NM); Cordaro, J. Thomas (Albuquerque, NM)

1997-01-01

73

Apparatus Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes three pieces of scientific apparatus and their demonstrational use: a high temperature apparatus for positron annihilation studies, a digitally synthesized classroom variable star, and a demonstration of plasma laser-beam focusing using paint stripper flames. (GA)|

Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

1978-01-01

74

Principals of Radar and Meteorological Radar Devices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three meteorological radar units are described: the Malachite radiotheodolite with rangefinder attachment, the Meteorite radar station, and the MRL radar station. The principles of operation of these systems are given along with circuit descriptions and e...

O. G. Korol R. D. Chernyak

1973-01-01

75

Current radar responsive tag development activities at Sandia National Laboratories.  

SciTech Connect

Over the past ten years, Sandia has developed RF radar responsive tag systems and supporting technologies for various government agencies and industry partners. RF tags can function as RF transmitters or radar transponders that enable tagging, tracking, and location determination functions. Expertise in tag architecture, microwave and radar design, signal analysis and processing techniques, digital design, modeling and simulation, and testing have been directly applicable to these tag programs. In general, the radar responsive tag designs have emphasized low power, small package size, and the ability to be detected by the radar at long ranges. Recently, there has been an interest in using radar responsive tags for Blue Force tracking and Combat ID (CID). The main reason for this interest is to allow airborne surveillance radars to easily distinguish U.S. assets from those of opposing forces. A Blue Force tracking capability would add materially to situational awareness. Combat ID is also an issue, as evidenced by the fact that approximately one-quarter of all U.S. casualties in the Gulf War took the form of ground troops killed by friendly fire. Because the evolution of warfare in the intervening decade has made asymmetric warfare the norm rather than the exception, swarming engagements in which U.S. forces will be freely intermixed with opposing forces is a situation that must be anticipated. Increasing utilization of precision munitions can be expected to drive fires progressively closer to engaged allied troops at times when visual de-confliction is not an option. In view of these trends, it becomes increasingly important that U.S. ground forces have a widely proliferated all-weather radar responsive tag that communicates to all-weather surveillance. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the recent, current, and future radar responsive research and development activities at Sandia National Laboratories that support both the Blue Force Tracking and Combat ID application.

Plummer, Kenneth W.; Ormesher, Richard C.

2003-09-01

76

Electrotherapy apparatus  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An apparatus for producing analgesia in a patient through electrical signals applied through electrodes to a patient's body, and methods of treating patients using the apparatus. The apparatus comprises a signal generator arranged to generate a biphasic waveform comprising successive cycles each containing a positive and negative pulse.

Littlewood; Roger Kenneth (Axbridge Somerset, GB); Macdonald; Alexander John Ranald (Bristol Avon, GB); Coates; Timothy William (Winscombe Somerset, GB); Gillbe; Ivor Stephen (Bristol Avon, GB)

2013-04-23

77

Underwater Acoustic Transponders Tracking While Mapping With A Multibeam Echo-Sounder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 160 kHz multibeam echo-sounder was used to interrogate and receive the replies from custom-built miniature underwater acoustic transponders attached to the carapace of king crabs in Womens Bay, Alaska. This new application of multibeam echo-sounders combines acoustic tracking and mapping, thus providing environmental context to the tracking information. Each transponder replies with its own coded sequence that stands out from other echoes received by the sonar. Range and bearing of the replies from multiple transponders can be obtained in a single sonar ping. The king crab experiment was done in 25-35 m of water depth, and the system was successfully tested without animals at 190 m depth. Work supported by NOAA's Undersea Research Program Grant G4768, with field work support from NOAA-NMFS/AFSC/RACE and Electronic Navigation Ltd.

de Moustier, C. P.; Franzheim, A.; Testa, W.; Burns, J. M.; Foy, R.

2010-12-01

78

Relationship between RFID readers' output power and detected transponder distance - A preliminary study for 3D RFID Library Search System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A RFID reader emits electromagnetic wave in order to detect any transponders within the reading distance of the reader or interrogation zone. This reading distance can be increase or decrease by adjusting the output power of the reader. To investigate the relationship between the readers' output power and detected transponder distance, this study was conducted in relation with a propose

Terence Jerome Daim; Razak Mohd Ali Lee

2009-01-01

79

Shipboard Radar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The navigational radar 'Stvor' is designed for installation on ships of the shipping fleet and also on marine and river boats of low and medium tonnage. A 'Stvor' station enables ships to navigate in zero visibility -- in fog, at night, etc. Because of it...

1968-01-01

80

Radar Antenna.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An antenna is described for range-gated, pulse doppler, radar systems. The antenna includes first and second, shortened, half-wave dipoles and first and second reflecting screens. One dipole is fed through a fixed 22 1/2 degree phase-shift network while t...

O. E. Rittenback

1978-01-01

81

Apparatus Notes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes an oscillating electroscope, an apparatus to verify the time interval between successive events in nuclear decay, and electronic circuits that are the analog of consecutive reactions. (SL)|

Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

1978-01-01

82

A wireless pressure-measurement system based on SAW transponder technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid sensor system for tire pressure measurements is presented. We use a combination of a conventional capacitive pressure sensor together with a passive SAW transponder to build an impedance loaded reflective delay line which can be read out wirelessly. The sensor system together with a transceiver unit achieved a pressure resolution of at least 0.15 kPa within a

G. Schimetta; F. Dollinger; A. Springer; R. Weigel

2000-01-01

83

Design and Analysis of a Bent Antenna-coil for a HF RFID Transponder  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the design of a bent antenna-coil for a 13.56 MHz RFID transponder is presented. The tag is integrated into a plastic ballpoint pen, optimally making use of the marginal volume inside the cylindrical geometry of the casing. The coil is designed with a 50% higher inductance in its planar state, so that the required inductance of nearly

Florian Ohnimus; Ivan Ndip; Stephan Guttowski; Herbert Reichl

2008-01-01

84

A Surface Trawl to Detect Migrating Juvenile Salmonids Tagged with Passive Integrated Transponder Tags  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a surface pair-trawl system to detect juvenile Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. marked with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags as they migrate through the upper Columbia River estuary. The trawl was fitted with a detection antenna in its cod end and was deployed by two vessels. Fish entering the trawl body exit after passing by the detection antenna. Detection

Richard D. Ledgerwood; Brad A. Ryan; Earl M. Dawley; Edward P. Nunnallee; John W. Ferguson

2004-01-01

85

Forecasting the impact of an 1859-caliber superstorm on geosynchronous Earth-orbiting satellites: Transponder resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

We calculate the economic impact on the existing geosynchronous Earth-orbiting satellite population of an 1859-caliber superstorm event were it to occur between 2008 and 2018 during the next solar activity cycle. From a detailed model for transponder capacity and leasing, we have investigated the total revenue loss over the entire solar cycle, as a function of superstorm onset year and

Sten F. Odenwald; James L. Green

2007-01-01

86

Ultra-low power PSK backscatter modulator for UHF and microwave RFID transponders  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated circuit implementation of a PSK backscatter modulator for passive radio frequency identification (RFID) transponders is proposed. Such modulator offers a significant reduction of the power consumption with respect to other schemes already presented in the literature. Furthermore, the topology of the proposed modulator allows us to control its output resistance so that only a negligible fraction of the

Giuseppe De Vita; F. Bellatalla; Giuseppe Iannaccone

2006-01-01

87

A Low Power and High Performance Analog Front End for Passive RFID Transponder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel low power and high performance analog front end circuit for passive RFID transponder. With a novel architecture including three rectifier circuits, among which a new high efficient rectifier circuit is proposed, and other circuits optimized for low power, this analog front end is characterized by high power conversion efficiency (PCE) and low power consumption. The

Jianyun Hu; Hao Min

2005-01-01

88

Current development status of Small Optical TrAnsponder (SOTA) for satellite-ground laser communications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current development status of the small optical transponder (SOTA) to be installed into a small satellite is described, where the breadboard model, the engineering model and the protoflight model are respectively introduced. The tracking performance is estimated to show that the angular error is low enough in comparison to the divergence angle of the transmitted beam.

Takayama, Yoshihisa; Toyoshima, Morio; Koyama, Yoshisada; Takenaka, Hideki; Akioka, Maki; Shiratama, Koichi; Mase, Ichiro; Kawamoto, Osamu

2012-02-01

89

BIT-ORIENTED GENERATORS FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS AND LOW COST RFID TRANSPONDERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) nodes and passive RFID transponders (tags) have severe constraints in computing power and hence offer particular challenges in the provision of e-Security. Passive RFID tags are at the lowest end of the spectrum in the family of devices with constrained computing power and memory. New approaches, differing from the traditional cryptosystems such as RSA or Diffie-Hellman,

Raja Ghosal; Damith C. Ranasinghe; Peter H. Cole

2008-01-01

90

In vivo reactions in mice and in vitro reactions in feline cells to implantable microchip transponders with different surface materials.  

PubMed

Tissues of mice that had had microchip transponders with surfaces made of bioglass, bioglass with a polypropylene cap, parylene C, titanium or aluminium oxide inserted were examined histologically, and the growth of two lines of feline fibroblastoid cells around these transponders was examined in vitro. The results for bioglass and aluminium oxide were similar. In vitro, there were almost no cells around or on the transponders; in vivo, there was often granulomatous inflammation in the surrounding tissue. In the case of the bioglass, this reaction seemed to be induced by petrolatum, which was added by the manufacturer for technical reasons, rather than by the bioglass itself. In some of the mice, polypropylene caused a proliferation of granulation tissue. In vitro, the cellularity around the transponders was high, but only a moderate number of cells were found on the material. In vivo, around the parylene C transponders, there were occasionally small fragments of foreign material, surrounded by a foreign body reaction; in vitro, the results for parylene C resembled those for polypropylene. In vivo, particles of titanium were sometimes visible in the connective tissue adjacent to the titanium transponders, and sometimes accompanied by a foreign body reaction; in vitro, a confluent layer of cells developed on the transponders, with a high cellularity around them. PMID:19596675

Linder, M; Hther, S; Reinacher, M

2009-07-11

91

Abdominal and pancreatic motion correlation using 4D CT, 4D transponders, and a gating belt.  

PubMed

The correlation between the pancreatic and external abdominal motion due to respiration was investigated on two patients. These studies utilized four dimensional computer tomography (4D CT), a four dimensional (4D) electromagnetic transponder system, and a gating belt system. One 4D CT study was performed during simulation to quantify the pancreatic motion using computer tomography images at eight breathing phases. The motion under free breathing and breath-hold were analyzed for the 4D electromagnetic transponder system and the gating belt system during treatment. A linear curve was fitted for all data sets and correlation factors were evaluated between the 4D electromagnetic transponder system and the gating belt system data. The 4D CT study demonstrated a modest correlation between the external marker and the pancreatic motion with R-square values larger than 0.8 for the inferior-superior (inf-sup). Then, the relative pressure from the belt gating system correlated well with the 4D electromagnetic transponder system's motion in the anterior-posterior (ant-post) and the inf-post directions. These directions have a correlation value of -0.93 and 0.76, while the lateral only had a 0.03 correlation coefficient. Based on our limited study, external surrogates can be used as predictors of the pancreatic motion in the inf-sup and the ant-post directions. Although there is a low correlation on the lateral direction, its motion is significantly shorter. In conclusion, an appropriate treatment delivery can be used for pancreatic cancer when an internal tracking system, such as the 4D electromagnetic transponder system, is unavailable. PMID:23652242

Betancourt, Ricardo; Zou, Wei; Plastaras, John P; Metz, James M; Teo, Boon-Keng; Kassaee, Alireza

2013-05-06

92

Physiological responses of broiler embryos to in ovo implantation of temperature transponders.  

PubMed

Previous techniques that have been used to monitor broiler embryonic temperature and metabolism during incubation either have been invasive to the embryo or have not directly determined internal egg temperature. Therefore, the current investigation was conducted to determine the earliest day of incubation on which temperature transponder implantation in the egg air cell could be performed with minimal invasiveness to broiler embryogenesis. Eggs from young broiler breeder hens (Ross 308; 27 wk of age) were weighed and set on 3 tray levels (approximately 120 eggs per tray level) of a single incubator. Randomly, on each tray level and on each day between d 10 and 14 of incubation, 4 embryonated eggs were assigned to an invasive control (IC) treatment (shell perforation only) and 4 other embryonated eggs were assigned to a transponder implantation (TI) treatment (shell perforation, followed by transponder implantation in the air cell). Four embryonated eggs per tray were also assigned to a noninvasive control treatment on d 10 of incubation. Percentage of embryo survivability through d 18 of incubation, and percentages of mean daily incubational egg weight loss between d 18 and each respective day of implantation were calculated. Furthermore, various internal organ and tissue parameters were examined on d 18 of incubation. Embryo survivability was reduced because of transponder implantation on d 10 and 11 of incubation; however, embryo survivability was not different between eggs in the noninvasive control and IC treatments and the eggs that received the TI treatment on d 12, 13, and 14 of incubation. In comparison with eggs in the IC treatment, those in the TI treatment had a higher percentage of embryo weight. Conversely, yolk sac moisture was significantly higher in IC-treated eggs than in TI-treated eggs. It was concluded that temperature transponders may be inserted into the air cells of broiler hatching eggs between d 12 and 14 of incubation without adversely affecting eggshell porosity or embryogenesis and without causing physiological stress to growing broiler embryos. PMID:21248326

Pulikanti, R; Peebles, E D; Gerard, P D

2011-02-01

93

Theoretical Fundamentals of Radar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The book examines the principles of radar, methods of coordinate measurement and scanning and circuits for radar stations of three types: with an operator, a continuous computer installation and a digital computer. It presents the characteristics of radar...

A. A. Korostelev A. V. Petrov N. I. Burenin V. E. Dulevich Y. A. Melnik

1967-01-01

94

Passive UHF RFID sensor\\/transponder antenna optimization for backscatter operation by electromagnetic-circuital co-simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reliability of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems is of major importance in open supply chain systems for tracking and tracing. Therefore, the maximization of the backscattered signal strength from a sensor\\/transponder is of major interest in many of these application use-cases. This paperwork presents a methodology for performance optimization of passive UHF RFID sensors\\/transponders based on antenna-and-chip co- simulation

G. Manzi; U. Muehlmann

2011-01-01

95

Electromagnetic Transponders Indicate Prostate Size Increase Followed by Decrease During the Course of External Beam Radiation Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Real-time image guidance enables more accurate radiation therapy by tracking target movement. This study used transponder positions to monitor changes in prostate volume that may be a source of dosimetric and target inaccuracy. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four men with biopsy-proven T1c-T3a prostate cancer each had three electromagnetic transponders implanted transperineally. Their coordinates were recorded by the Calypso system, and

Benjamin L. King; Wayne M. Butler; Gregory S. Merrick; Brian S. Kurko; Joshua L. Reed; Brian C. Murray; Kent E. Wallner

2011-01-01

96

Design criteria for the RF section of UHF and microwave passive RFID transponders  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of design criteria for the radio-frequency (RF) section of long-range passive RF identification (RFID) transponders operating in the 2.45-GHz or 868-MHz industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) frequency ranges is derived in this paper, focusing in particular on the voltage multiplier, the power-matching network, and the backscatter modulation. The paper discusses the design tradeoffs between the error probability at

G. De Vita; G. Iannaccone

2005-01-01

97

Design of a 2.45 GHz passive transponder using printed dipole rectenna for RFID application  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we designed a passive RFID transponder at 2.45 GHz. The printed dipole antenna with wider bandwidth than that of the conventional patch antenna is suggested. The slot of the printed dipole could find accurate matching point and improve the antenna gain. According to the measured results, the gain of the antenna was 2.38 dBi and the conversion

Young-Soo Na; Jin-Sub Kim; Yong-Chul Kang; Sang-Gi Byeon; Kuk-Hwan Rha

2004-01-01

98

Mortality and Long-Term Retention of Passive Integrated Transponder Tags by Spring Chinook Salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

I monitored long-term mortality and retention rates of passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags for 145,000 juvenile spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha tagged as part of a large-scale tagging project. A total of 325 PIT tagged mortalities were collected during the 28-d study. Mortalities were collected, on average, 11 d after tagging, indicating that direct mortality due to tagging was rare.

Matthew R. Dare

2003-01-01

99

Initial Mortality and Retention Associated with Using Passive Integrated Transponders in Black Crappies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed initial retention and mortality associated with using passive integrated transponders (PITs) for marking black crappies Pomoxis nigromaculatus by conducting 48-h net-pen trials (N = 4 trials) in AprilMay 2007 and one 14-d trial in October 2007. Black crappies (N = 175; total length (TL) range = 175328 mm; mean TL = 265 mm; SE = 2.1 mm) were

Daniel A. Isermann; Andrew J. Carlson

2008-01-01

100

A Novel Passive RFID Transponder Using Harmonic Generation of Nonlinear Transmission Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a novel RF identification transponder based on nonlinear transmission lines (NLTLs). The NLTLs provide an effective solution to self-jamming with the harmonic generation property, and they are passive, compact, and offer easy impedance. Three NLTLs are fabricated with a different Bragg cutoff frequency fT in an IBM 8RF 0.13-? m CMOS process. The 0.4 mm by 1.8 mm

Fan Yu; Keith G. Lyon; Edwin Chihchuan Kan

2010-01-01

101

A wireless powered fully integrated SU8-based implantable LC transponder  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we report a SU-8-based fully integrated miniaturized inductively powered LC transponder for generic implantable\\u000a wireless sensor applications. It consists of a 1mm diameter octagonal spiral inductor and a micro fabricated MIM (metal insulator\\u000a metal) capacitor. Polyvinylidene FluorideTrifluoroethylene (PVDFTrFE) copolymer is applied as a dielectric material for\\u000a the capacitor fabrication due to its high dielectric constant. The 1mm

Sung-Hoon Cho; Sang-Hee Son; Hoon-Ju Chung; Jeong-Bong Lee

2010-01-01

102

A fully-integrated RF LC transponder platform for implantable wireless sensor applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we report a SU-8-based fully integrated miniaturized inductively powered LC transponder for generic implantable wireless sensor applications. It consists of a 1 mm diameter octagonal spiral inductor and a micro fabricated MIM (metal insulator metal) capacitor. Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Trifluoroethylene (PVDF-TrFE) copolymer is applied as a dielectric material for the capacitor fabrication due to its high dielectric constant. The

Sung-Hoon Cho; Jeong-Bong Lee

2009-01-01

103

Transrectal implantation of electromagnetic transponders following radical prostatectomy for delivery of IMRT.  

PubMed

Surgical treatment for men with localized prostate cancer -open, laparoscopic, or robotically-assisted-- remains one of the therapeutic mainstays for this group of patients. Despite the stage migration witnessed in patients with prostate cancer since the introduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening, detection of extraprostatic disease at the time of surgery and biochemical recurrence following prostatectomy pose significant therapeutic challenges. Radiation therapy (RT) after radical prostatectomy (RP) has been associated with a survival benefit in both the adjuvant and salvage setting. Nevertheless, optimal targeting of the prostate bed following surgery remains challenging. The Calypso 4D Localization System (Calypso Medical Technologies, Seattle, WA, USA) is a target positioning device that continuously monitors the location of three implantable electromagnetic transponders. These transponders can be placed into the empty prostatic bed after prostatectomy to facilitate the delivery of radiation therapy in the post-surgical setting. In this article, we detail our technique for transrectal placement of electromagnetic transponders into the post-prostatectomy bed for the delivery of adjuvant or salvage intensity-modulated radiation therapy. We prefer this technique of post-surgical radiation therapy because it allows for improved localization of the target area allowing for the maximal delivery of the radiation dose while minimizing exposure of surrounding normal tissues. Although emerging, our initial oncologic and functional outcomes have been promising. PMID:21854719

Canter, Daniel; Kutikov, Alexander; Horwitz, Eric M; Greenberg, Richard E

2011-08-01

104

Apparatus Review: Cenco Wave Apparatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some apparatus from the 19th century illustrates the phenomena of physics so well that it crops up again in the 21st century. An example is the combined transverse and longitudinal wave machine in Fig. 1. This is in the current Cenco/Sargent-Welch catalog under the name of ``Wave Apparatus'' (Cat. No. WLS-1755-90) and sells for $49.95.

Greenslade, Thomas B.

2009-01-01

105

Radar Ionospheric Impact Mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

New ionospheric modeling technology is being developed to improve correction of ionospheric impacts on the performance of ground-based space-surveillance radars (SSRs) in near-real-time. These radars, which detect and track space objects, can experience significant target location errors due to ionospheric delay and refraction of the radar signals. Since these radars must detect and track targets essentially to the radar horizon,

G. Bishop; D. Decker; C. Baker

2006-01-01

106

TRMS, a mobile 3D-radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of West Germany's TRMS three-dimensional mobile radar system began in 1972 and progressed to current production status through the development and extensive testing of two prototypes. TRMS, which operates in G-band and is transported aboard two 15-ton trucks (one for the radar apparatus, the other for signal processing and display) with cross-country capability, was designed to detect small targets over the full range of altitudes. It exhibits high resistance against both natural and man-made interference, and has selectable operational modes that allow adaptation to changes in operational environment. Also developed is TRML, a single-vehicle, medium-range, two-dimensional G-band radar incorporating many TRMS equipment modules.

Gerlitzki, W. J.

107

Application of asynchronous laser transponders to solar system and planetary science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1964, short pulse lasers have been used to range to artificial satellites equipped with passive retroreflectors. Today, a global network of 40 satellite laser ranging (SLR) stations, under the auspices of the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS), routinely track two dozen international space missions with few millimeter precision using picosecond pulse lasers in support of Earth Science. Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) began in 1969, shortly after NASA's Apollo 11 mission placed the first of five retroreflector packages on the Moon. For the past decade, work has been underway to extend these precise ranging capabilities beyond the Moon to interplanetary distances via the use of two-way asynchronous laser transponders. In May 2005, the first two-way asynchronous laser transponder link was established between NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center and a laser altimeter instrument onboard the Messenger spacecraft enroute to Mercury. The Earth to spacecraft distance of 24.3 million km was measured with an unprecedented precision of 20 cm and was limited by the roughly 10 nanosecond pulsewidth and resolution of the onboard laser and timing receiver. The Messenger experiment was carried out in full daylight with very modest onboard laser energies (<20 mJ) and receive apertures (25 cm) and a relatively high threshold detector (300 pe). In September 2005, approximately 500 laser pulses from the same GSFC station were observed by the Mars Observer Laser Altimeter (MOLA) receiver in Mars orbit at an even greater distance of 80 million km. A second Messenger experiment is planned for mid-June 2007 while the spacecraft is in the vicinity of Venus. Compact transponder packages using readily space-qualifiable ultrashort pulse lasers, detectors, and time-of-flight receivers should permit centimeter range accuracies over interplanetary distances in the near future. In preparing for these missions, many of the passive satellite assets already in Earth orbit can be used today to test and validate interplanetary link analyses (including atmospheric effects), target acquisition and tracking strategies, and data reduction algorithms prior to spacecraft launch or even mission definition. Science applications of transponders include: characterization of the solar gravitational field, mass distribution, and rotation; centimeter accuracy planetary and lunar ephemeredes; mass distribution within the asteroid belt; and improved general relativity experiments. Planned transponder experiments to artificial satellites will also speed the development of laser communications systems, which would offer orders of magnitude more bandwidth in transferring high resolution sensor data from our planetary neighbors and their moons.

Degnan, John J.

2007-08-01

108

Irradiation apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for introducing ionizing radiation into compressed gas insulation systems, such as high-voltage generators or transmission lines to smooth out electrical discontinuities, particularly those caused by foreign particulates that produce high gradients, and to increase the voltage holding capability of the system is described. The apparatus of the invention may also be used to regulate and stabilize the voltage of the system by varying the amount of applied load. A corona discharge device may also be used in conjunction with the invention. (Official Gazette)

Goldie, C.H.; Fernald, R.A.

1974-01-29

109

Positioning apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is provided for precisely adjusting the position of an article relative to a beam emerging from a neutron source disposed in a housing. The apparatus includes a support pivotably mounted on a movable base plate and freely suspended therefrom. The support is gravity biased toward the housing and carries an article holder movable in a first direction longitudinally of the axis of said beam and normally urged into engagement against said housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the suspended holder in two mutually perpendicular directions, respectively, normal to the axis of the beam.

Vogel, M.A.; Alter, P.

1983-07-07

110

Apparatus Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of notes describes (1) an optoelectronic apparatus for classroom demonstrations of mechanical laws, (2) a more efficient method for demonstrated nuclear chain reactions using electrically energized "traps" and ping-pong balls, and (3) an inexpensive demonstration for qualitative analysis of temperature-dependent resistance. (CS)

Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

1980-01-01

111

Radiography apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiography apparatus including radiation generating means, collimator means interposed between the radiation generating means and an object to be exposed to radiation, scintillator means disposed on the opposite side of the object from the radiation generating means for converting the radiation to light, a self-scanning, integrated array of photodiodes for receiving light and emitting responsive electrical signals, optical coupling means

D. Sashin; E. J. Sternglass

1979-01-01

112

Apparatus Reviews.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews apparatus design and instructional uses for Fume Cupboard Monitor, Plant Tissue Culture Kit, various equipment for electronic systems course, Welwyn Microprocessor-Tutor, Sweep Function Generator SFG 606, and Harris manufacturers materials--Regulated Power Supply Units, Electronic Current and Voltage Meters, Gas Preparation Kit, and

School Science Review, 1981

1981-01-01

113

Apparatus Reviews.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provided are reviews of science equipment/apparatus. Items reviewed include: Harris Micro-ecology tubes; Harris chromosome investigation kit; Harris trycult slides; a pressure cooker with thermometer; digital pH meter; digital scaler timer; electrical compensation calorimeter; and Mains alternating current ammeter. (JN)|

School Science Review, 1983

1983-01-01

114

Apparatus Reviews.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes some science apparatus: included are a gene kit to demonstrate aspects of population genetics and selection, an electronic thermometer for use in the field of environmental studies, an astrobrella to use in astronomy classes, and crystal display models of different substances for chemistry classes. (GA)|

School Science Review, 1978

1978-01-01

115

Features of ultrawideband radar projecting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article presents a new approach to ultrawideband (UWB) radar projecting. Some advantages of such radars are shown in comparison with common narrowband radars and some features of UWB radars are considered, which do not allow the use of traditional methods. New methods of UWB radar characteristics calculation and radar systems projecting are suggested. It discusses the range equation, passive

Igor Immoreev; B. Vovshin

1995-01-01

116

Goldstone Solar System Radar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Planning, direction, experimental design, and coordination of data-acquisition and engineering activities in support of all Goldstone planetary radar astronomy were performed. This work demands familiarity with the various components of a planetary radar ...

R. F. Jurgens

1988-01-01

117

Radar Absorbing Material Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Low observable platforms have extremely low radar cross section specifications that cannot be achieved by shaping alone. The application of radar absorbing material is necessary, in which case the appropriate constitutive parameters and thickness must be ...

C. K. Yuzcelik

2003-01-01

118

Radar, Target and Ranging.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Test Operations Procedure (TOP) provides conventional test methods employing conventional test instrumentation for testing conventional radars. Single tests and subtests designed to test radar components, transmitters, receivers, antennas, etc., and ...

1984-01-01

119

Spaceborne Radar Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three air-defense radar surveillance systems are described, each consisting of active radar satellites capable of operating at earth-synchronous orbit altitude with associated ground control stations. Systems 1 (three satellites) provides a detection fenc...

J. Greene R. Kaplan G. J. McNiff P. Nosal J. L. Schultz

1974-01-01

120

Statistical MIMO Radar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Inspired by recent advances in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communications, we introduce the statistical MIMO radar concept. Unlike beamforming, array radar, or STAP, which presuppose a high correlation between signals either transmitted or recei...

A. Haimovich E. Fishler R. Blum D. Chizhik R. Valenzuela

2004-01-01

121

Sampling apparatus  

DOEpatents

A sampling apparatus is provided for sampling substances from solid surfaces. The apparatus includes first and second elongated tubular bodies which telescopically and sealingly join relative to one another. An absorbent pad is mounted to the end of a rod which is slidably received through a passageway in the end of one of the joined bodies. The rod is preferably slidably and rotatably received through the passageway, yet provides a selective fluid tight seal relative thereto. A recess is formed in the rod. When the recess and passageway are positioned to be coincident, fluid is permitted to flow through the passageway and around the rod. The pad is preferably laterally orientable relative to the rod and foldably retractable to within one of the bodies. A solvent is provided for wetting of the pad and solubilizing or suspending the material being sampled from a particular surface.

Gordon, Norman R. (Kennewick, WA); King, Lloyd L. (Benton, WA); Jackson, Peter O. (Richland, WA); Zulich, Alan W. (Bel Air, MD)

1989-01-01

122

Frequency-Agile Multi-Channel X-Band Coherent Receiver/Transmitter for the Advanced Deep Space Transponder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uplink and downlink Advanced Deep Space Transponder breadboards have been constructed using voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) phase-locked loop (PLL) frequency synthesizers. Results indicate wideband frequency tuning, demonstrating a 40 percent improvement over prior dielectric resonator oscillator (DRO) components and covering the entire deep-space and near-Earth X-band allocations (7145 to 7235 MHz for uplink and 8400 to 8500 MHz for downlink). Phase noise performance is well within current transponder specifications. Coherent turnaround has been demonstrated in the Deep Space Network X-band channel allocation. Particular emphasis has been devoted to loop filter design. Results show excellent agreement between expected and observed performance and clearly indicate excellent promise for the use of VCO PLL technology in spacecraft transponder applications.

Smith, S. K.; Mysoor, N.; Lux, J.; Cook, B.; Shah, B.

2006-08-01

123

Controlling radar signature  

SciTech Connect

Low observable technologies for military and tactical aircraft are reviewed including signature-reduction techniques and signal detection/jamming. Among the applications considered are low-signature sensors and the reduction of radar cross section in conjunction with radar-absorbing structures and materials. Technologies for reducing radar cross section are shown to present significant technological challenges, although they afford enhanced aircraft survivability.

Foulke, K.W. (U.S. Navy, Naval Air Warfare Center, China Lake, CA (United States))

1992-08-01

124

CHIRP Doppler radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation is concerned with the concept of a combination of the clinical procedure of reconstruction tomography with the radar processing for linear FM pulse compression. An approach based on such a combination is to be employed to map radar backscatter energy. Radar systems employing pulse compression of linear frequency modulated (CHIRP) pulses are considered along with the inversion

M. Bernfeld

1984-01-01

125

Aviation weather radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Federal Aviation Administration has established three ground-based weather radar programs. The terminal Doppler weather radar (TDWR) and weather system processor (WSP) provide wind shear detection capability for air traffic controllers in the terminal area. These systems also reduce weather related delays. The next generation weather radar (NEXRAD) is used by the FAA to improve safety and reduce weather related

D. H. Turnbull

1995-01-01

126

Hyperthermia apparatus  

DOEpatents

A hyperthermia apparatus, suitable for transurethral application, has an energy radiating element comprising a leaky-wave antenna. The leaky wave antenna radiation pattern is characterized by a surface wave which propagates along an aperture formed by openings (small in comparison to a wavelength) in the outer conductor of a transmission line. Appropriate design of the leaky wave antenna produces a uniform, broadside pattern of temperature elevation that uniformly heats all or part of the periurethral tissues.

Larsen, Lawrence E. (Albuquerque, NM)

2000-01-01

127

Valve apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A description is given of a valve apparatus for use in subterranean well and carriable on a fluid transmission conduit insertable therein, comprising: ball valve head means having camway slot means defined exteriorly theron; valve seat means having camway ball means secured thereto and carriable in said camway slot means to pivot said valve head means on said seat means to shift said appartus between open and closed positions in response to manipulation of said fluid transmission conduit.

McStravick, D.; Roberts, W.

1980-07-01

128

Harmonic Radar Literature Harmonisk Radar - en Litteraturstudie.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A harmonic radar sends on a given frequency f sub o and receives on another frequency usually 3 f sub o. The overtone is generated on joints between the metal parts of the radar target. The generated high harmonic frequency is very weak, which is why this...

B. Jansson

1980-01-01

129

Radar Meteorology Tutorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Brian McNoldy at Multi-community Environmental Storm Observatory (MESO) educates the public about the use of radar in meteorology in this pdf document. After reading about the history of radar, visitors can find out how radar can detect storms by transmitting a high-power beam of radiation. Students can learn how scatter, absorption, frequencies, scan angles, and moments impact the radar display. With the help of many example images, the author also discusses how to interpret the images collected. At the end of the online document, visitors can learn about the characteristics and capabilities of NEXRAD WSR-88D, the radar used throughout the United States.

Mcnoldy, Brian

2007-08-16

130

Cloud and Precipitation Radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precipitation or weather radar is an essential tool for research, diagnosis, and nowcasting of precipitation events like fronts or thunderstorms. Only with weather radar is it possible to gain insights into the three-dimensional structure of thunderstorms and to investigate processes like hail formation or tornado genesis. A number of different radar products are available to analyze the structure, dynamics and microphysics of precipitation systems. Cloud radars use short wavelengths to enable detection of small ice particles or cloud droplets. Their applications differ from weather radar as they are mostly orientated vertically, where different retrieval techniques can be applied.

Hagen, Martin; Hller, Hartmut; Schmidt, Kersten

131

Neoplasia and granulomas surrounding microchip transponders in Damaraland mole rats (Cryptomys damarensis).  

PubMed

Damaraland mole rats (Cryptomys damarensis) are among the longest-living rodents, with a maximum longevity of approximately 16 years. As one of the few mammals termed eusocial, these animals have been used in behavioral, genetic, metabolic, and physiologic research at the University of Connecticut since 1997. For individual identification at 3 to 4 months of age, mole rats were subcutaneously implanted with microchip transponders (11 mm in length) in the dorsal cervical region. In 2007, 2 of the 90 implanted adults, 10-year-old and 9-year-old females, developed subcutaneous masses at the site of the implant. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations revealed amelanotic melanoma and fibrosarcoma, respectively, with metastasis of the amelanotic melanoma. In 2008, a total of 3 adult males were castrated as part of a sex behavior study; 3 months later, all 3 castrated males developed subcutaneous masses around their implants, whereas none of the noncastrated males had masses. After an additional 9 months, these masses were found to be granulomas. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of neoplasia in this species. Both the tumors and the granulomas surrounded the microchip transponder. PMID:20724516

Sura, R; French, R A; Goldman, B D; Schwartz, D R

2010-08-19

132

2. VIEW SOUTHWEST, prime search radar tower, height finder radar ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW SOUTHWEST, prime search radar tower, height finder radar towards, height finder radar towers, and radar tower (unknown function) - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

133

Detonating apparatus  

DOEpatents

1. Apparatus for detonation of high explosive in uniform timing comprising in combination, an outer case, spark gap electrodes insulatedly supported in spaced relationship within said case to form a spark gap, high explosive of the class consisting of pentaerythritol tetranitrate and trimethylene trinitramine substantially free from material sensitive to detonation by impact compressed in surrounding relation to said electrodes including said spark gap under a pressure from about 100 psi to about 500 psi, said spark gap with said compressed explosive therein requiring at least 1000 volts for sparking, and means for impressing at least 1000 volts on said spark gap.

Johnston, Lawrence H. (Minneapolis, MN)

1976-01-01

134

SEPARATION APPARATUS  

DOEpatents

A furnace apparatus is designed for treating a nuclear reactor waste solution. The solution is sprayed onto a bed of burning petroleum coke which expels water, the more volatile fission products, and nitrogen oxides. Next, chlorine gas is introduced from below which causes aluminum to volatilize as aluminum chloride and along with it certain fission products including Nb/sup 95/ and Zr/sup 95/. These lose their radioactivity within four years and the long- lived radioactivity remains with the ash, which is stored. (AEC) V) nitrate. (P.C.H.)

Huff, J.B.

1962-03-13

135

Heating apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a heating apparatus. It comprises a housing, means for introducing water to a plurality of water conduits of the housing, a fireplace compartment disposed within the housing, the fireplace compartment being provided with a burner, a fin coil member disposed in the upper portion of the housing and communicating with the room environment for heat emitting, the fin coil member containing a serpentine configured fin coils disposed therein for absorbing heat from the water disposed in the water conduits, a heat chamber containing the water conduits, the heat chamber connected at one end to the fireplace compartment and at the other end to a chimney disposed at the middle of the the fireplace compartment for circulating hot combustion gases therethrough and for heating the water disposed in the water conduits, the combustion gases being vented from the chimney, and at least four turbo fans communicating with the heat chamber for blowing air across the fin coil member so as to heat the air and discharge it to the room environment, and reduce noise pollution of the heating apparatus.

Woo, C.G.

1991-07-30

136

A Model for Estimating Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) Tag Antenna Efficiencies for Interval-Specific Emigration Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our goal was to understand movement and its interaction with survival for populations of stream salmonids at long-term study sites in the northeastern United States by employing passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and associated technology. Although our PIT tag antenna arrays spanned the stream channel (at most flows) and were continuously operated, we are aware that aspects of fish behavior,

Gregg E. Horton; Todd L. Dubreuil; Benjamin H. Letcher

2007-01-01

137

Technology developed for diverting passive integrated transponder (PIT) tagged fish at hydroelectric dams in the Columbia River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data collected on juvenile salmonids tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags as they migrate seaward through the Columbia River Basin provide fisheries managers and resource agencies with valuable information to evaluate the effectiveness of current management actions and restoration strategies. The development of new technology to route PIT-tagged fish through multiple alternative pathways as they pass through the interrogation

Sandra L Downing; Earl F Prentice; Richard W Frazier; James E Simonson; Edmund P Nunnallee

2001-01-01

138

3. VIEW NORTHWEST, height finder radar towers, and radar tower ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. VIEW NORTHWEST, height finder radar towers, and radar tower (unknown function) - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

139

30. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #318, showing radar control. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

30. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #318, showing radar control. Console and line printers - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

140

Millimeter Wave Polarimetric Monopulse Radar Debugging System  

Microsoft Academic Search

For testing millimeter wave polarimetric monopulse radar and testing algorithms for polarimetric radar, millimeter wave polarimetric monopulse radar debugging system is proposed in this paper. Polarimetric radar, as a kind of radar with strong counter-countermeasure capability, is more and more popular used nowadays. The cost of polarimetric radar is more expensive than traditional single-polarimetric radar. Millimeter wave polarimetric monopulse radar

Jin Tao; Qi Xiaohui; Zhang Min; Qiao Xiaolin; Yuan Shuqing; Zhang Qunxing

2007-01-01

141

Laser radar in robotics  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the authors describe the basic operating principles of laser radar sensors and the typical algorithms used to process laser radar imagery for robotic applications. The authors review 12 laser radar sensors to illustrate the variety of systems that have been applied to robotic applications wherein information extracted from the laser radar data is used to automatically control a mechanism or process. Next, they describe selected robotic applications in seven areas: autonomous vehicle navigation, walking machine foot placement, automated service vehicles, manufacturing and inspection, automotive, military, and agriculture. They conclude with a discussion of the status of laser radar technology and suggest trends seen in the application of laser radar sensors to robotics. Many new applications are expected as the maturity level progresses and system costs are reduced.

Carmer, D.C.; Peterson, L.M. [Environmental Research Inst. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

1996-02-01

142

Radar in transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is pointed out that radar engineers, at the end of 1984, find their field in transition between the conventional designs of the post War II era and the digitally controlled, solid-state systems which will be in place for the year 2000. The U.S. Navy has two major phased array radar systems in operation, including the rotating three-dimensional (3D) AN/SPS-48, and the phased-scanned AN/SPY-1 (Aegis) radars. The Aegis represents a major step beyond the conventional 3D and mechanical fire-control radars. However, it requires a special ship, dedicated to its use. Attention is given to questions regarding an extension of the application of Aegis technology to other U.S. Navy applications and to other navies, an ambitious solid-state radar program in the UK, and Army radars.

Barton, D. K.

1984-12-01

143

Review of Radar Absorbing Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Radar is a sensitive detection tool and since its development, methods for reducing microwave reflections have been explored. Radar absorbers can be classified as impedance matching or resonant absorbers. Radar absorbing materials are made from resistive ...

P. Saville

2005-01-01

144

Combustion apparatus  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A combustion apparatus 2 has a fuel spraying nozzle 12, a feed canal 16 and a return canal 17, both the canals connected to the nozzle, with the former canal 16 feeding a fuel to the nozzle and with the latter canal 17 allowing an unsprayed portion of the fuel to flow back. An electromagnetic pump 18 disposed in the feed canal 16 serves to compress the fuel towards the nozzle 12, and an injector valve 25 is disposed in the return canal 17. A controller 40 regulates the operation of the injector valve 25 in the manner of duty-ratio control so as to adjust the flow rate of the fuel being sprayed out of the nozzle 12.

2005-06-21

145

Hydrogenation apparatus  

DOEpatents

Hydrogenation reaction apparatus comprising a housing having walls which define a reaction zone and conduits for introducing streams of hydrogen and oxygen into the reaction zone, the oxygen being introduced into a central portion of the hydrogen stream to maintain a boundary layer of hydrogen along the walls of the reaction zone. A portion of the hydrogen and all of the oxygen react to produce a heated gas stream having a temperature within the range of from 1100.degree. to 1900.degree. C., while the boundary layer of hydrogen maintains the wall temperature at a substantially lower temperature. The heated gas stream is introduced into a hydrogenation reaction zone and provides the source of heat and hydrogen for a hydrogenation reaction. There also is provided means for quenching the products of the hydrogenation reaction. The present invention is particularly suitable for the hydrogenation of low-value solid carbonaceous materials to provide high yields of more valuable liquid and gaseous products.

Friedman, Joseph (Encino, CA); Oberg, Carl L. (Canoga Park, CA); Russell, Larry H. (Agoura, CA)

1981-01-01

146

MEASURING APPARATUS  

DOEpatents

An ion chamber assembly is presented for measuring neutron emission of a relatively slow rate from a radioactive sample. The detecting apparatus comprises a container filled with neutron slowing material and having a cavity where a neutron source may be located centrally in the container. A plurality of ion chamber units are disposed equidistantly from the source and from each other for detecting the neutron radiation. Each of the ion chamber units has an ion chamber and a second chamber of substantially the same diameter as the ion chamber and in end-to-end relationship therewith. The second chamber contains paraffin and an axially disposed lead-in conductor for the ion chamber central electrode. The preamplifier circuit whose input is connected to the lead-in conductor is housed in a third container arranged in end-to-end relationship with the second chamber.

Kohman, T.P.; Weissbourd, B.W.

1959-02-17

147

Cryopump apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Cryopump apparatus includes means for supplying cryogenic fluid, means for supplying higher temperature refrigerant fluid, a panel having heat exchange surfaces on respective opposite sides thereof, with a conduit conducting cryogenic fluid therethrough, and a zigzag passageway formed by opposite sides of two radiation shields in spaced relationship with each other having the panel therebetween. The radiation shields are spaced from the panel, opcitally enclosing the panel therewithin. Corresponding edges of adjacent shields define open botton channel-configured passageways for flow of gas therethrough to respective heat exchange surfaces of a panel interjacent the shields. The shields include conduits for flow or refrigerant fluid therethrough. Heat insulative positioning spacer means contact with adjacent panels and a shield therebetween, maintaining the panels and shield in spaced relationship.

Bonn, J.W.

1984-09-11

148

Heliostat apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Heliostat apparatus for concentrating solar energy is described comprising a support structure disposed in a first plane and supporting a plurality of mirror units having freedom of substantial universal articulation thereon, each of the plurality of mirror units carrying at an upper portion thereof reflective element trained to receive incident rays of the sun and to focus reflection thereof to a desired focal point, adjustment structure operatively connected to the plurality of mirror units and disposed in a plane generally parallel to the first plane in which the support structure is disposed, the adjustment structure being shiftable to additional planes adjacent and generally parallel thereto to effect conjoint articulation of each of the mirror units at the support structure and thereby conjointly retrain the reflective element of each of the mirror units to receive incident rays of the sun and maintain reflection thereof on the focal point over the course of any day.

Bunch, J.C.

1980-08-19

149

Collecting apparatus  

DOEpatents

An improved collecting apparatus for small aquatic or airborne organisms such as plankton, larval fish, insects, etc. The improvement constitutes an apertured removal container within which is retained a collecting bag, and which is secured at the apex of a conical collecting net. Such collectors are towed behind a vessel or vehicle with the open end of the conical net facing forward for trapping the aquatic or airborne organisms within the collecting bag, while allowing the water or air to pass through the apertures in the container. The container is readily removable from the collecting net whereby the collecting bag can be quickly removed and replaced for further sample collection. The collecting bag is provided with means for preventing the bag from being pulled into the container by the water or air flowing therethrough.

Duncan, Charles P. (Walnut Creek, CA)

1983-01-01

150

Gameboard apparatus  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A gameboard apparatus picturing an advanced, economic, technological civilization throughout the solar system and beyond, a path of spaceships containing many contingency circumstances interspersed between man-made, unpurchaseable property containing many contingency circumstance, and eleven major types of purchaseable man-made properties containing many contingency circumstances. The indicia on color-coded leases describes the internal, external, vertical and horizontal development of real estate in over thirty ways, four decks of cards, Speed of Light Years Utility Service Card and Speed of Light Years Ticket Tokens color coded to work in conjunction with the path of spaceships which are path of the continuous open route with a starting point from Earth, the entire game being described by a set of rules.

1990-08-07

151

Cooking apparatus  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A cooking apparatus comprises a trough, a well, and a pot. The trough is configured to hold a first cooking medium. The trough has insulated floors, insulated walls, and a steam pipe as a heating element to directly heat the first cooking medium. The well is joined to a cover plate. The cover plate is configured to fit over the trough with a seal, such that at least a portion of the well extends into the trough for submersion into the first cooking medium. The pot is inserted in the well. A second cooking medium may be introduced in the well adjacent to the pot. A food product such as goetta may be introduced to the pot for cooking. Heat may be transferred from the heating element, to the first cooking medium, to the well, to the second cooking medium, to the pot, and then to the goetta.

Glier; Daniel William (Covington, KY)

2010-06-01

152

Spaceborne Atmospheric Radar Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA is developing advanced instrument concepts and technologies for future spaceborne atmospheric radars, with the over-arching objectives of making such instruments more capable in supporting future science needs, and more cost effective. Two such examples are the Second-Generation Precipitation Radar (PR-2) and the Nexrad-In-Space (NIS). PR- 2 is a 14\\/35-GHz dual-frequency rain radar with a deployable 5- meter, wide-swath scanned

Eastwood Im; Stephen L. Durden

153

Extended post processing for simulation results of FEM synthesized UHF-RFID transponder antennas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The computer aided design process of sophisticated UHF-RFID transponder antennas requires the application of reliable simulation software. This paper describes a Matlab implemented extension of the post processor capabilities of the commercially available three dimensional field simulation programme Ansoft HFSS to compute an accurate solution of the antenna's surface current distribution. The accuracy of the simulated surface currents, which are physically related to the impedance at the feeding point of the antenna, depends on the convergence of the electromagnetic fields inside the simulation volume. The introduced method estimates the overall quality of the simulation results by combining the surface currents with the electromagnetic fields extracted from the field solution of Ansoft HFSS.

Herschmann, R.; Camp, M.; Eul, H.

2007-06-01

154

Nonlinear penalties in long-haul optical networks employing dynamic transponders.  

PubMed

We report for the first time, the impact of cross phase modulation in WDM optical transport networks employing dynamic 28 Gbaud PM-mQAM transponders (m = 4, 16, 64, 256). We demonstrate that if the order of QAM is adjusted to maximize the capacity of a given route, there may be a significant degradation in the transmission performance of existing traffic for a given dynamic network architecture. We further report that such degradations are correlated to the accumulated peak-to-average power ratio of the added traffic along a given path, and that managing this ratio through pre-distortion reduces the impact of adjusting the constellation size of neighboring channels. PMID:21643158

Rafique, Danish; Ellis, Andrew D

2011-05-01

155

Time-compression multiplexing (TCM) of three broadcast-quality TV signals on a satellite transponder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method to transmit three NTSC TV signals in a 36 MHz satellite transponder is described. The technique uses differential signals to reduce the bandwidth and time-compression multiplexing (TCM) to combine the three TVs into a single signal. Novel circuit configurations are used to significantly reduce the memory requirements. Differential signals are companded to markedly reduce the effect of transmission noise on picture quality. The estimated performance of the system is at or close to broadcast quality if 12-meter earth stations are used in a satellite system such as COMSTAR. Digital audio signals can be sent without interference either to or from the video TCM signal by placing it in the horizontal blanking period. Extensions to up-links from separate earth stations and non-NTSC TVs are also possible.

Eng, K. Y.; Haskell, B. G.; Schmidt, R. L.

1983-12-01

156

DORIS radar calibration method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the interest expressed by ESA and FGAN, it was decided to realise some evaluation of the DORIS calibration method with the TIRA radar. This paper, organised in four parts, describes: - the importance of radar calibration in the space debris domain - the principle of the DORIS calibration method - the results obtained with the TIRA FGAN radar using the DORIS reference - the advantages of the DORIS calibration and the future uses of this method in an European exercise involving for the ESA benefit both French and German radars.

Ameline, P.

2001-10-01

157

Evaluation of remote delivery of Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) technology to mark large mammals.  

PubMed

Methods to individually mark and identify free-ranging wildlife without trapping and handling would be useful for a variety of research and management purposes. The use of Passive Integrated Transponder technology could be an efficient method for collecting data for mark-recapture analysis and other strategies for assessing characteristics about populations of various wildlife species. Passive Integrated Transponder tags (PIT) have unique numbered frequencies and have been used to successfully mark and identify mammals. We tested for successful injection of PIT and subsequent functioning of PIT into gelatin blocks using 4 variations of a prototype dart. We then selected the prototype dart that resulted in the least depth of penetration in the gelatin block to assess the ability of PIT to be successfully implanted into muscle tissue of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) post-mortem and long-term in live, captive Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus). The prototype dart with a 12.7 mm (0.5 inch) needle length and no powder charge resulted in the shallowest mean ( SD) penetration depth into gelatin blocks of 27.0 mm ( 5.6 mm) with 2.0 psi setting on the Dan-Inject CO(2)-pressured rifle. Eighty percent of PIT were successfully injected in the muscle mass of white-tailed deer post-mortem with a mean ( SD) penetration depth of 22.2 mm ( 3.8 mm; n = 6). We injected PIT successfully into 13 live, captive elk by remote delivery at about 20 m that remained functional for 7 months. We successfully demonstrated that PIT could be remotely delivered in darts into muscle mass of large mammals and remain functional for >6 months. Although further research is warranted to fully develop the technique, remote delivery of PIT technology to large mammals is possible using prototype implant darts. PMID:22984572

Walter, W David; Anderson, Charles W; Vercauteren, Kurt C

2012-09-11

158

Transponder calibration of the Envisat RA-2 altimeter Ku band sigma naught  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the history of spaceborne altimeters goes back to the early seventies, the absolute calibration of the backscattering coefficient has never been deeply investigated. This information has been primarily used to infer the wind speed via an empirical model, and the intercalibration among different satellite altimeters has revealed to be suitable for this purpose, being the wind retrieval based on an empirical relationship. As far as Ku band system is concerned, the sigma naught absolute calibration of the Envisat altimeter (RA-2) has been performed using an active reference target provided by a transponder. This has been exploited during the 6-month Commissioning phase to generate early calibration results. In order to monitor the RA-2 backscatter calibration during the Envisat lifetime, a continuous calibration effort has been carried out by operating the transponder as much as possible. This paper aims to review the entire effort for calibrating the RA-2 sigma naught measurements, which lasted for almost seven years. It presents in detail the adopted methodology and the final outcome of the activity, providing the users with the correction (bias) to get the calibrated sigma naught and analyzing its stability during almost the entire Envisat lifetime. Specifically, it is concluded that the RA-2 backscatter measurements were quite stable, even if a bias of about 1 dB should be considered with respect to the actually released product. Some small changes in the bias as function of time can be identified during most of the Envisat lifetime, consisting in a slight increase in the first two years, followed by a more stable period and a final drop observed at the end of 2009, until the conclusion of the calibration activity (corresponding to the change in Envisat orbit).

Pierdicca, N.; Bignami, C.; Roca, M.; Fmnias, P.; Fascetti, M.; Mazzetta, M.; Loddo, C. N.; Martini, A.; Pinori, S.

2013-04-01

159

Tracking butterfly flight paths across the landscape with harmonic radar  

PubMed Central

For the first time, the flight paths of five butterfly species were successfully tracked using harmonic radar within an agricultural landscape. Until now, butterfly mobility has been predominantly studied using visual observations and markrecapture experiments. Attachment of a light-weight radar transponder to the butterfly's thorax did not significantly affect behaviour or mobility. Tracks were analysed for straightness, duration, displacement, ground speed, foraging and the influence of linear landscape features on flight direction. Two main styles of track were identified: (A) fast linear flight and (B) slower nonlinear flights involving a period of foraging and/or looped sections of flight. These loops potentially perform an orientation function, and were often associated with areas of forage. In the absence of forage, linear features did not provide a guiding effect on flight direction, and only dense treelines were perceived as barriers. The results provide tentative support for non-random dispersal and a perceptual range of 100200?m for these species. This study has demonstrated a methodology of significant value for future investigation of butterfly mobility and dispersal.

Cant, E.T; Smith, A.D; Reynolds, D.R; Osborne, J.L

2005-01-01

160

Hydrogenation apparatus  

DOEpatents

Hydrogenation reaction apparatus is described comprising a housing having walls which define a reaction zone and conduits for introducing streams of hydrogen and oxygen into the reaction zone, the oxygen being introduced into a central portion of the hydrogen stream to maintain a boundary layer of hydrogen along the walls of the reaction zone. A portion of the hydrogen and all of the oxygen react to produce a heated gas stream having a temperature within the range of from 1,100 to 1,900 C, while the boundary layer of hydrogen maintains the wall temperature at a substantially lower temperature. The heated gas stream is introduced into a hydrogenation reaction zone and provides the source of heat and hydrogen for a hydrogenation reaction. There also is provided means for quenching the products of the hydrogenation reaction. The present invention is particularly suitable for the hydrogenation of low-value solid carbonaceous materials to provide high yields of more valuable liquid and gaseous products. 2 figs.

Friedman, J.; Oberg, C.L.; Russell, L.H.

1981-06-23

161

Attachment Apparatus  

DOEpatents

The present invention includes an attachment apparatus comprising a rotation limiting member adapted to be threaded onto a threaded member; and a preload nut adapted to be threaded onto the threaded member. The rotation limiting member comprises a plurality of pins; and the preload nut comprises plurality of slots, preferably wherein the plurality of pins and the plurality of slots are the same in number, which is preferably three. The plurality of pins of the rotation limiting member are filled into a corresponding plurality of slots of the preload nut to form a rotatable unit adapted to be threaded onto the threaded member. In use, the rotatable unit is threaded onto the threaded member. The present invention thus provides a unitized removable device for holes, including holes other than circular in shape, which have an established depth before an end of, or before an enlargement of the hole. The configuration of some exposed part of the device, or the head, is shaped and formed for its intended purpose, such as clamping, anchor points, eye bolts, stud anchor, and the like. The device allows for the installation, preloading and removal of all components of the device, as a unit, without damage to the member for which attachment is required by simple rotations of some exposed part of the device.

Morrison, Edward F.

1998-08-18

162

EISCAT Svalbard radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main fields of interest of the Finnish scientists in EISCAT research are listed. Finnish interests in the Polar Cap Radar (PMR) and areas where the Finnish contribution could be important are addressed: radar techniques; sporadic E layers in the polar cap; atmospheric models; auroral studies in the polar cap; nonthermal plasmas in the F region; coordinated measurements with the

Markku Lehtinen; Jorma Kangas

1992-01-01

163

EISCAT Svalbard Radar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main fields of interest of the Finnish scientists in EISCAT research are listed. Finnish interests in the Polar Cap Radar (PMR) and areas where the Finnish contribution could be important are addressed: radar techniques; sporadic E layers in the polar...

M. Lehtinen J. Kangas

1992-01-01

164

Radar illusion via metamaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optical illusion is an image of a real target perceived by the eye that is deceptive or misleading due to a physiological illusion or a specific visual trick. The recently developed metamaterials provide efficient approaches to generate a perfect optical illusion. However, all existing research on metamaterial illusions has been limited to theory and numerical simulations. Here, we propose the concept of a radar illusion, which can make the electromagnetic (EM) image of a target gathered by radar look like a different target, and we realize a radar illusion device experimentally to change the radar image of a metallic target into a dielectric target with predesigned size and material parameters. It is well known that the radar signatures of metallic and dielectric objects are significantly different. However, when a metallic target is enclosed by the proposed illusion device, its EM scattering characteristics will be identical to that of a predesigned dielectric object under the illumination of radar waves. Such an illusion device will confuse the radar, and hence the real EM properties of the metallic target cannot be perceived. We designed and fabricated the radar illusion device using artificial metamaterials in the microwave frequency, and good illusion performances are observed in the experimental results.

Jiang, Wei Xiang; Cui, Tie Jun

2011-02-01

165

Doppler weather radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Doppler weather radar and its signals are examined from elementary considerations to show the origin and development of useful weather echo properties such as signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), range correlation, signal statistics, etc. We present a form of the weather radar equation which explicitly shows the echo power loss due to finite receiver bandwidth and how it is related to

RICHARD J. DOVIAK; DUSAN S. ZRNIC; DALE S. SIRMANS

1979-01-01

166

Advances in Radar Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the clutter received by L, S, C, X, and Ku band radars obeys a Weibull ditribution. To suppress such Weibull-distributed sea and weather clutter, Weibull CFAR techniques are applied to data taken by an X-band radar using computer in real time. The results show the usefulness of Weibull CFAR.

Sekine, Matsuo

167

UWB radars in medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applied research on biomedical applications of UWB radar is targeted to the identification of the possible new devices made possible by the technology, to the design and development of those devices, and to the clinical testing of the systems obtained. Applications can be divided into two main sectors according to the frequency range used. For the conventional UWB radar microwave

Enrico M. Staderini

2002-01-01

168

Stereo Radar Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The topographic accuracy of the AN/APQ-102(XA-2) side-looking radar and its specific applicability to 1:50,000 and 1:250,000 scale topographic mapping were tested using stereo radar techniques with real data. The two basic stereo configurations, opposite-...

G. Gracie R. K. Brewer J. W. Bricker R. A. Johnson

1970-01-01

169

Panchromatic and polypanchromatic radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of broad-band (panchromatic) illumination in radar systems should permit improvement in image quality and reduction of tracking and detection problems due to fading. The effect of frequency averaging on radar return from a simple target array is demonstrated by numerical computation and on image quality by ultrasonic simulation. The required bandwidth for a slightly rough random surface is determined

RICHARD K. MOORE; WILLIAM P. WAITE

1969-01-01

170

Radar clutter classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of classifying radar clutter as found on air traffic control radar systems is studied, and an algorithm is developed to carry out this classification automatically. The basis for the algorithm is Bayes decision theory and the parametric maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) classifier. This classifier employs a quadratic discriminant function and is optimum for feature vectors that are

Wolfgang Stehwien

1990-01-01

171

Radar clutter classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of classifying radar clutter as found on air traffic control radar systems is studied. An algorithm based on Bayes decision theory and the parametric maximum a posteriori probability classifier is developed to perform this classification automatically. This classifier employs a quadratic discriminant function and is optimum for feature vectors that are distributed according to the multivariate normal density.

Wolfgang Stehwien

1989-01-01

172

4. VIEW NORTHEAST, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. VIEW NORTHEAST, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar tower, emergency power building, and height finder radar tower - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

173

5. VIEW EAST, height finder radar towers, radar tower (unknown ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. VIEW EAST, height finder radar towers, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar tower, operations building, and central heating plant - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

174

On radar polarimetry in FM-CW radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to apply the principle of radar polarimetry to wideband synthetic aperture FM-CW radar and presents a basic polarimetric detection result of a linear target in a laboratory measurement. Although the principle of radar polarimetry has well been established for the completely polarized wave and for the monostatic case, it still needs to be extended to wideband radar

Y. Yamaguchi; T. Nishikawa; W.-M. Boerner; M. Sengoku; Hyo Joon Eom

1993-01-01

175

Mission Analysis on Command and Control Communications for Theater Air Operations. A Study of the Practicality of Modifying AN/APX-72 Transponders for Data Link.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the study efforts of the Bendix Communications Division to determine the feasibility and practicality of modifying existing AN/APX-72 transponders for data link capability. Various system options are presented as a function of the d...

C. H. Doeller J. R. Ransom J. T. Skudrna G. L. Vogt

1971-01-01

176

Air traffic control radar tester  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our aim is to develop a radar tester equipment for commercial and military services. The task is to create one (or more) target or clutter on the radar screen with given distance, velocity and fluctuation. This equipment is placed within few hundred meters from the radar, so it is able to analyze the whole radar system from the antenna, via

Pter KOVCS; Levente DUDS; Rudolf SELLER; Jzsef ORBN

2008-01-01

177

Air traffic control radar tester  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our aim had been to develop a radar tester equipment for commercial and military services. The task is to create one (or more) target or clutter on the radar screen with given distance, velocity and fluctuation. This equipment is placed within few hundred meters from the radar, so it is able to analyze the whole radar system from the antenna,

Levente DUDS; Rudolf SELLER; Pter RENNER; Jzsef ORBN

2009-01-01

178

A Highly Efficient DAMA Algorithm for Making Maximum Use of both Satellite Transponder Bandwidth and Transmission Power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a novel satellite channel allocation algorithm for a demand assigned multiple access (DAMA) controller. In satellite communication systems, the channels' total bandwidth and total power are limited by the satellite's transponder bandwidth and transmission power (satellite resources). Our algorithm is based on multi-carrier transmission and adaptive modulation methods. It optimizes channel elements such as the number of sub-carriers, modulation level, and forward error correction (FEC) coding rate. As a result, the satellite's transponder bandwidth and transmission power can be simultaneously used to the maximum and the overall system capacity, i.e., total transmission bit rate, will increase. Simulation results show that our algorithm increases the overall system capacity by 1.3 times compared with the conventional fixed modulation algorithm.

Nakahira, Katsuya; Sugiyama, Takatoshi; Nishiyama, Hiroki; Kato, Nei

179

Multimode GaAs chip-set for new S-band satellite TT&C transponders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a production-oriented chip-set to be used as the circuitry needed to implement the necessary RF functionalities of a new generation of S-band satellite transponders for telemetry tacking and control (TT&C) applications. The RF hardware section integration is achieved by means of a customized chip-set of just four multi-chip multifunction MMIC (MCMM) modules. The functions contained in the

C. Barquinero; M. Detratti; A. Herrera; J. L. Garcia; J. Cabo

2008-01-01

180

Frequency-Agile MultiChannel X-Band Coherent Receiver\\/Transmitter for the Advanced Deep Space Transponder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uplink and downlink Advanced Deep Space Transponder breadboards have been constructed using voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) phase-locked loop (PLL) fre- quency synthesizers. Results indicate wideband frequency tuning, demonstrating a 40 percent improvement over prior dielectric resonator oscillator (DRO) compo- nents and covering the entire deep-space and near-Earth X-band allocations (7145- 7235 MHz for uplink and 8400-8500 MHz for downlink). Phase noise

S. K. Smith; N. Mysoor; J. Lux; B. Cook; B. Shah

181

Radar applications overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the fifty years since its initial development as a means of providing early warning of airborne attacks against allied countries during World War II, radar systems have developed to the point of being highly mobile and versatile systems capable of supporting a wide variety of remote sensing applications. Instead of being tied to stationary land-based sites, radar systems have found their way into highly mobile land vehicles as well as into aircraft, missiles, and ships of all sizes. Of all these applications, however, the most exciting revolution has occurred in the airborne platform arena where advanced technology radars can be found in all shapes and sizes...ranging from the large AWACS and Joint STARS long range surveillance and targeting systems to small millimeter wave multi-spectral sensors on smart weapons that can detect and identify their targets through the use of highly sophisticated digital signal processing hardware and software. This paper presents an overview of these radar applications with the emphasis on modern airborne sensors that span the RF spectrum. It will identify and describe the factors that influence the parameters of low frequency and ultra wide band radars designed to penetrate ground and dense foliage environments and locate within them buried mines, enemy armor, and other concealed or camouflaged weapons of war. It will similarly examine the factors that lead to the development of airborne radar systems that support long range extended endurance airborne surveillance platforms designed to detect and precision-located both small high speed airborne threats as well as highly mobile time critical moving and stationary surface vehicles. The mission needs and associated radar design impacts will be contrasted with those of radar systems designed for high maneuverability rapid acquisition tactical strike warfare platforms, and shorter range cued air-to-surface weapons with integral smart radar sensors.

Greenspan, Marshall

1996-06-01

182

Incoherent scatter radar contributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contributions of the incoherent scatter radar technique to knowledge of the neutral upper atmosphere of the earth in general and the development of the CIRA 1986 model in particular are discussed. Incoherent radar scattering involves the transmission of a radio wave into the atmosphere and the reception of the energy scattered by the free electrons illuminated by the wave. Attention is given to the chronology of radar contributions to the development of upper atmosphere models, the ion energy balance and continuity equations, exospheric temperatures, and studies of the lower thermosphere.

Oliver, W. L.; Alcayde, D.; Bauer, P.

183

Active radar jamming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Active radar jammers are described. In confusion jammers the perturbing action is produced by thermal noise which is intensified, or by a carrier wave modulated by a noise signal, or by a carrier wave which is frequency modulated with a lot of sine waves of different frequencies. There are jammers to be used once, which are fired to the spot or hang from a parachute. Deception jammers (misleading jammers) emit false radar echoes, one or several produced by a repetition system, requiring a certain form of memory. It is shown how to emit varying false distance or velocities, and how to disturb angles in a radar used to guide artillery fire.

Jernemalm, Veine

1988-09-01

184

Asynchronous Laser Transponders:. a New Tool for Improved Fundamental Physics Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1964, the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has been using short pulse lasers to range to artificial satellites equipped with passive retroreflectors. Today, a global network of 40 satellite laser ranging (SLR) stations, under the auspices of the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS), routinely tracks two dozen international space missions with few-millimeter precision using picosecond pulse lasers in support of Earth science. Lunar laser ranging (LLR) began in 1969, shortly after NASA's Apollo 11 mission placed the first of five retroreflector packages on the Moon. An important LLR data product has been the verification of Einstein's equivalence principle and other tests of general relativity. In 1975, the University of Maryland used a laser ranging system to continuously transfer time between two sets of atomic clocks one set on the ground and the other in an aircraft to observe the predicted relativistic effects of gravity and velocity on the clock rates. Two-way asynchronous laser transponders promise to extend these precise ranging and time transfer capabilities beyond the Moon to the planets, as evidenced by two successful experiments carried out in 2005 at distances of 24 and 80 million km respectively.

Degnan, John J.

185

A hydrogel-based implantable micromachined transponder for wireless glucose measurement.  

PubMed

In this paper, we report on the design and characterization of a new hydrogel-based implantable wireless glucose sensor. The basic device structure is a passive [inductor/capacitor (LC)] micromachined resonator coupled to a stimuli-sensitive hydrogel, which is confined between a stiff nanoporous membrane and a thin glass diaphragm. As glucose molecules pass through the nanoporous membrane, the hydrogel swells and deflects the flexible glass diaphragm, which is the movable plate of the variable capacitor in the totally integrated passive LC resonator. The corresponding change in resonant frequency can be remotely detected. A glucose- sensitive phenylboronic acid-based hydrogel was loaded into the microtransponder, and its sensitivity and time response were measured. Prior to hydrogel loading, the sensitivity of the pressure sensor to applied air pressure was measured to be -222 kHz/kPa over the frequency range 51-->42 MHz. The sensor showed a sensitivity of -34.3 kHz/mM over the glucose concentration range 0-20 mM (at pH 7.4), and a response time of 90 min. The dynamic response, although unacceptable at such values, can be easily improved by decreasing the hydrogel thickness and reducing the sensor and porous membrane thicknesses. The transponder's overall dimensions were 5x5x0.8 mm3, small enough for subcutaneous implantation. PMID:16472058

Lei, Ming; Baldi, Antonio; Nuxoll, Eric; Siegel, Ronald A; Ziaie, Babak

2006-02-01

186

Radar Calibration Using a Student-Built Nanosatellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a matter of national security, the US military must monitor and calibrate its 80+ C-band radar tracking stations on a consistent basis. These radar stations, which are distributed around the world, currently depend on two calibration satellites: RADCAL and DMSP F-15, launched in 1993 and 1999, respectively. Should either of these two satellites fail, the community of radar calibration users will no longer have a dependable means of calibration. Presented in this paper is the story behind a student-built satellite project, named Hooponopono (to make right in the Hawaiian language), which is the first radar calibration satellite to take on a CubeSat form-factor. Led by a team of undergraduate and graduate students, this project has enabled its participants to reach their true potentials and thus act as a training ground for a class of highly competent, multi-tiered engineers. The management practices implemented throughout this project follow those used by todays top defense contractors and engineering companies. Being involved in a project of this caliber, although time-consuming, provides the students with the experiences they need to make immediate and worthwhile contributions in todays workforce. Juggling the multitude of commitments they have, however, makes it a challenge. Hooponoponos concept of operations calls for the collection and dissemination of ephemeris data, while simultaneously conducting transponder interrogations. After acquiring both sets of data, a radar station requesting calibration can then correlate the two and implement its calibration algorithms as needed. Hooponopono and its mission were the basis for the University of Hawaiis participation in the AFOSR University Nanosat-6 Program. After completing a rigorous two-year, six-level review process, we were awarded with the Most Improved and Third Place Awards at the January 2011 Flight Competition Review. Hooponopono was also selected by NASA as a participant in its CubeSat Launch Initiative for an upcoming launch.

Martin, L.; Fisher, N.; Jones, W.; Umeda, M.; Furumo, J.; Ah Heong, J.; Lim, T.; Shiroma, W.

2011-09-01

187

Generalized Radar Output Simulation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Using the outputs from the simulation of overall body motion related to observations at a complex of earth stations, this report develops a model for generating the scattering matrix and radar output voltages. The general multistatic case is treated using...

J. F. A. Ormsby S. H. Bickel

1969-01-01

188

Multimode Radar Altimeter (MRA).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Multimode radar altimeter functions in the Comet Nucleus Sample Return mission are described. Range measurement gives distance information for navigation; angle tracking can be performed by optical systems. Velocity (three axes) can be obtained by Doppler...

G. Picardi C. Dai R. Seu A. Coradini

1988-01-01

189

Radar Techniques Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the fifth Quarterly Technical Summary covering the development of an airborne Multiple-Antenna Moving-Target Surveillance Radar (MASR) which employs special antenna and signal-processing techniques to provide continuous, wide-area surveillance of ...

C. E. Muehe

1974-01-01

190

Incoherent radar spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

General expressions for the incoherent scatter spectra are presented. These are relevant for the UHF radar in the monostatic backscatter case (thus excluding only the effect of the magnetic field), based on the Nyquist approach.

Matti K. Vallinkoski

1987-01-01

191

Ultra-wideband radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here, we present a description of a block scheme, characteristics, specific features of design and results of testing for a prototype of the ultrawideband (UWB) radar, which has been developed by Russian UWB group researchers at Moscow Aviation Institute at \\

I. Immoreev; E. Ziganshin

2004-01-01

192

Radar investigation of asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For 80 Sappho, 356 Liguria, 694 Ekard, and 2340 Hathor, data were taken simultaneously in the same sense of circular polarization as transmitted (SC) as well as in the opposite (OC) sense. Graphs show the average OC and SC radar echo power spectra soothed to a resolution of EFB Hz and plotted against Doppler frequency. Radar observations of the peculiar object 2201 Oljato reveal an unusual set of echo power spectra. The albedo and polarization ratio remain fairly constant but the bandwidths range from approximately 0.8 Hz to 1.4 Hz and the spectral shapes vary dramatically. Echo characteristics within any one date's approximately 2.5-hr observation period do not fluctuate very much. Laboratory measurements of the radar frequency electrical properties of particulate metal-plus-silicate mixtures can be combined with radar albedo estimates to constrain the bulk density and metal weight, fraction in a hypothetical asteroid regolith having the same particle size distribution as lab samples.

Ostro, S. J.

193

Theory of Adaptive Radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the principles of adaptive radar in which both the spatial (antenna pattern) and temporal (Doppler filter) responses of the system are controlled adaptively. An adaptive system senses the angular-Doppler distribution of the external noise field and adjusts a set of radar parameters for maximum signal-to-interference ratio and optimum detection performance. A gradient technique for control of the

L. E. Brennan; L. S. Reed

1973-01-01

194

Radar in transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is pointed out that radar engineers, at the end of 1984, find their field in transition between the conventional designs of the post War II era and the digitally controlled, solid-state systems which will be in place for the year 2000. The U.S. Navy has two major phased array radar systems in operation, including the rotating three-dimensional (3D) AN\\/SPS-48,

D. K. Barton

1984-01-01

195

Terminal Doppler weather radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The terminal Doppler weather radar (TDWR) system, now under development, will provide automatic detection of microbursts and low-level wind shear. This paper discusses the TDWR performance parameters and describes its structural elements, including the antenna subsystem, the transmitter, the receiver\\/exciter, the digital signal processor, and the radar product generator\\/remote monitoring subsystem. Attention is also given to the processes of the

M. Michelson; W. W. Shrader; J. G. Wieler

1990-01-01

196

Riser position indication apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a Riser Position Indication Apparatus for disposition between an offshore vessel and a riser, the riser being moveable with respect to the offshore vessel. The riser position indication apparatus comprises: vessel connection means operatively engaged with the vessel to secure the riser position indication apparatus to the vessel, riser connection means operatively engaged with the riser to

1986-01-01

197

Apparatus for detecting leaks  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for determining the position of and estimating the size of leaks in an evacuating apparatus comprising the use of a testing gas such as helium or hydrogen flowing around said apparatus whereby the testing gas will be drawn in at the site of any leaks.

Booth, Eugene T. (New York, NY)

1976-02-24

198

Bistatic Radar In Space A New Dimension In Imaging Radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a set of examples, this paper shows that bistatic space radar systems can have important capabilities for special imaging radar applications. It explains' the different categories of bistatic space radars as there are single orbit systems, crossing orbit systems, tethered systems and systems with geostationary\\/ge osynchronous transmitters (GEO-BISAR). It discusses the ideas of mixed systems, where aircrafts are

Hans Martin Braun; Philipp Hartl

1989-01-01

199

Studies on Radar and Non-radar Sensor Networks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the period of 12/1/2005--5/30/2006, we expanded our research from generic wireless sensor networks to radar sensor networks. For radar sensor networks, we performed the following preliminary studies: (1) Waveform design and diversity in radar senso...

Q. Liang

2006-01-01

200

33. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #320, perimeter acquisition radar ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

33. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #320, perimeter acquisition radar operations center (PAROC), contains the tactical command and control group equipment required to control the par site. Showing spacetrack monitor console - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

201

Microphysical cross validation of spaceborne radar and ground polarimetric radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground-based polarimetric radar observations along the beam path of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR), matched in resolution volume and aligned to PR measurements, are used to estimate the parameters of a gamma raindrop size distribution (RSD) model along the radar beam in the presence of rain. The PR operates at 13.8 GHz, and its signal returns

V. Chandrasekar; Steven M. Bolen; Eugenio Gorgucci

2003-01-01

202

Passive coherent location radar demonstration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a passive coherent location (PCL) radar system developed by Dynetics, Inc. This system uses commercial FM broadcast signals for the radar waveform. This paper presents a technical description of the system and performance data.

C. L. Zoeller; M. J. Moody

2002-01-01

203

Terahertz radar cross section measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the result of terahertz radar cross section measurements on various objects including models of aircraft fighters. Application of a time domain system provides both values of radar cross section and ranging information.

Krzysztof Iwaszczuk; Henning Heiselberg; Peter Uhd Jepsen

2010-01-01

204

CFAR detection for multistatic radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multistatic radar system with n transmitters and one receiver is modelled. Several CFAR algorithms for detection are introduced. The proposed CFAR detectors are simulated and the performances are compared with the performance of a monostatic radar of higher power.

Vahideh Amanipour; Ali Olfat

2008-01-01

205

Development and Evaluation of Passive Integrated Transponder Tag Technology, 2000-2002.  

SciTech Connect

Since 1984, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has conducted a research project to develop and evaluate technology for passive-integrated-transponder tags (PIT tags) throughout the Columbia River Basin (CRB). Work conducted as part of this project between October 2000 and September 2002 (FY01 and FY02) was divided into seven individual elements, which are covered separately in this report. The efforts by personnel associated with this project have produced and will continue to produce products that aid resource stakeholders in assessing the effectiveness of actions taken to enhance the survival of juvenile and adult salmonids. These products and their uses include: (1) Survival and migration timing information on stocks to evaluate water management strategies and fish passage/collection facilities; (2) Data needed for the management and restoration of salmonids and other fish stocks listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA); (3) Information required for the management of multiple species in a variety of habitats; and (4) Tools that enable fisheries researchers and managers to address previously unanswerable questions and critical uncertainties These products are also used in genetic, physiology, behavior, and captive broodstock research on endangered species. The continued development of PIT-tag technology will enable researchers and fisheries managers to address issues expressed in both of NMFS biological opinions for operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS)(NMFS 1995a, 2000) and the proposed Snake River Recovery Plan (NMFS 1995b; tasks 2.1.d, 2.3.b.4, 2.4.a, 2.6.c.2, and 2.9.d).

Downing, Sandra L.; Prentice, Earl F.; Nunnallee, Edmund P. [National Marine Fisheries Service

2009-04-03

206

Apparatus for transporting hazardous materials  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method are provided for selectively receiving, transporting, and releasing one or more radioactive samples for analysis on a differential thermal analysis (DTA) apparatus. The apparatus includes a portable sample transporting apparatus for storing and transporting the samples and includes a support assembly for supporting the transporting apparatus when a sample is transferred to the DTA apparatus. The transporting apparatus includes a storage member which includes a plurality of storage chambers arrayed circumferentially with respect to a central axis.

Osterman, R.A.; Cox, R.

1991-01-22

207

Portable containment sleever apparatus  

DOEpatents

A sleever apparatus includes an inner member with a central passage through which an item to be sleeved is passed. An outer member surrounds the inner member and defines a space between the members for holding a supply of containment material, which is preferably plastic sleeving. The apparatus has a handle which allows a user to hold the apparatus and walk the apparatus along the length of the item to be sleeved. As the user passes the item through the sleever apparatus, the containment material exits through a slit at one end of the apparatus in order to contain the item. The sleever apparatus may be formed of disposable materials, such as cardboard, and may be intended for a single use application. Alternatively, the sleever apparatus may be comprised of more permanent materials such as PVC or fiberglass. The sleever apparatus may include a serrated end for cutting the containment material and may include appropriate tubing and valves for either directing an inert gas into the containment material around the item or for withdrawing air from within the containment material in order to create a vacuum. In one embodiment, the sleever apparatus has a cartridge that can be replaced with another cartridge once the supply of the containment material has been depleted.

Rea, Michael J. (North Augusta, SC); Brown, Roger A. (North Augusta, SC)

2000-01-01

208

The Clementine Bistatic Radar Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Clementine 1 mission, a bistatic radar experiment measured the magnitude and polarization of the radar echo versus bistatic angle, beta, for selected lunar areas. Observations of the lunar south pole yield a same-sense polarization enhancement around beta = 0. Analysis shows that the observed enhancement is localized to the permanently shadowed regions of the lunar south pole. Radar

S. Nozette; C. L. Lichtenberg; P. Spudis; R. Bonner; W. Ort; E. Malaret; M. Robinson; E. M. Shoemaker

1996-01-01

209

Scanning ARM Cloud Radar Handbook.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) is a polarimetric Doppler radar consisting of three different radar designs based on operating frequency. These are designated as follows: (1) X-band SACR (X-SACR); (2) Ka-band SACR (Ka-SACR); and (3) W-band SACR (W-SAC...

K. Johnson K. Widener N. Bharadwaj

2012-01-01

210

The Venus Radar Mapper mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Venus Radar Mapper (VRM) mission is sponsored by NASA to put a single spacecraft in orbit around Venus to map the surface using a synthetic aperture mapping radar. This paper describes the VRM mission at its present state of design. The science objectives and project constraints are described. Key features of the spacecraft system and radar system are discussed.

E. Cutting; J. H. Kwok; S. N. Mohan

1984-01-01

211

Interception of LPI radar signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most current radars are designed to transmit short duration pulses with relatively high peak power. These radars can be detected easily by the use of relatively modest EW intercept receivers. Three radar functions (search, anti-ship missile (ASM) seeker, and navigation) are examined to evaluate the effectiveness of potential low probability of intercept (LPI) techniques, such as waveform coding, antenna profile

Jim P. Lee

1991-01-01

212

A radar tour of Venus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface of Venus is briefly characterized in a summary of results obtained by the Soviet Venera 15 and 16 8-cm synthetic-aperture radars, IR radiometers, and radar altimeters. A series of radar images, mainly from Kotelnikov et al. (1984), are presented and discussed, and the descent vehicles to be released by the two Vega spacecraft as they pass Venus in

J. K. Beatty

1985-01-01

213

Radar model with terrain effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis presents a novel naval radar model which computes radar detection in the presence of land masses. The model is an interactive computer program which accepts scenarios and radar parameters from the user and displays a map of the area indicating where targets can and cannot be detected. The resulting map can be displayed at the user's computer terminal or printed offline.

Meritt, J. W.

1982-03-01

214

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission produced the most complete, highest-resolution digital elevation model of the Earth. The project was a joint endeavor of NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, and the German and Italian Space Agencies and flew in February 2000. It used dual radar antennas to acquire interferometric radar data, processed to digital topographic data at 1 arc sec resolution.

Tom G. Farr; Paul A. Rosen; Edward Caro; Robert Crippen; Riley Duren; Scott Hensley; Michael Kobrick; Mimi Paller; Ernesto Rodriguez; Ladislav Roth; David Seal; Scott Shaffer; Joanne Shimada; Jeffrey Umland; Marian Werner; Michael Oskin; Douglas Burbank; Douglas Alsdorf

2007-01-01

215

Studies on Radar Sensor Networks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the period of 12/8/2006-6/30/2007, we performed the following studies in radar sensor network: (1) Sense-through-foliage target detection using UWB radar sensor network based on real-world data; (2) Foliage clutter modeling using UWB radars; (3) Ou...

Q. Liang

2007-01-01

216

Pulse-Doppler UWB Radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper contains measurement results of moving targets by pulse-Doppler UWB radar. The description of a radar, principle of operation and technical specification are presented. Conditions and results of measurements are described. Feature of the presented measurements: Doppler signals of linear moving targets whose linear sizes exceed resolution of radar

A. Chernenko; E. Ziganshin

2006-01-01

217

Millimeter Radar Sea Return Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A site selection process was performed for a planned field exercise to measure radar sea clutter reflectivity at low grazing angles using several radar frequencies between 9.5 and 95 GHz. A detailed test plan was developed to collect calibrated radar cros...

R. N. Trebits

1979-01-01

218

Polarimetric Monopulse Radar Intelligent Emulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

For debugging polarimetric monopulse radar and testing polarization algorithms, a new polarimetric monopulse radar intelligent emulator is proposed and designed in this paper. The polarization information, as a basic character of the target echo, plays an important role in modern radar detection nowadays. The polarization algorithms are developed with rapid speed. It is not realistic to test all algorithms on

Jin Tao; Qi Xiaohui; Yuan Shuqing; Qiao Xiaolin; Zhang Min; Zhang Qunxing

2007-01-01

219

Synthetic Aperture Radar Signals: Formulations and Approaches for Data Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report discusses principles of synthetic aperture radar, properties of radar targets, characteristics of radar imagery, statistical analysis of radar imagery, and the application of modern data analysis.

A. B. Lucero P. Swerling L. Breiman

1975-01-01

220

Instrumental Principles of MST Radars and Incoherent Scatter Radars and the Configuration of Radar System Hardware.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The principle of pulse modulation used in the case of coherent scatter radars (MST radars) is discussed. Coherent detection and the corresponding system configuration is delineated. Antenna requirements and design are outlined and the phase-coherent trans...

J. Roettger

1989-01-01

221

Radar sector blanker  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A radar sector blanker comprises in analog-to-digital converter and a sector controller unit. The analog-to-digital converter receives the analog synchro voltages describing the positioning of a radar antenna and changes these voltages into binary-coded decimal (BCD) information. The sector controller unit comprises a portable housing, a controller system, and a power supply. The controller system includes an OFF comparator circuit, an ON comparator circuit, an S-R latch, and a solid-state switch. Each comparator circuit comprises three cascaded transistor-transistor logic (TTL) integrated chips. The power supply gives a direct-current voltage to the solid-state switch and the TTL chips. The sector blanker blocks transmission for a predetermined rotational region or sector of a radar system.

Hall, Roger B.

1994-03-01

222

Coherent IR radar technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent progress in the development of coherent IR radar equipment is reviewed, focusing on the Firepond laser radar installation and the more compact systems derived for it. The design and capabilities of Firepond as a long-range satellite-tracking device are outlined. The technological improvements necessary to make laser radar mobile are discussed: a lightweight, stable 5-10-W transmitter laser for both CW and pulsed operation, a 12-element HgCdTe detector array, an eccentric-pupil Ritchey-Chretien telescope, and a combination of near-field phase modification and anamorphic expansion to produce a fan beam of relatively uniform intensity. Sample images obtained with a prototype system are shown, and the applicability of the mobile system to range-resolved coherent DIAL measurement is found to be similar to that of a baseline DIAL system.

Gschwendtner, A. B.; Harney, R. C.; Hull, R. J.

223

Ground based radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current state of turmoil in the world of ballistic missile technology dictates that the U.S. be prepared to deal with a growing ballistic missile threat. To meet this challenge the U.S. Army is developing a new family of ground based radar to support both the Theater Missile Defense and the Strategic Defense Initiatives. This class of radar provides affordable, reliable tracking and discrimination based on mature technology and commonality of design. The commonality of design concept uses technology and components that can be scaled in number, size, and capability. This approach allows ground based radar to support the near term requirements of both tactical and strategic defense and also provide flexibility for more sophisticated future threats.

Ryan, William W.

224

Flashlight radar: A three-dimensional imaging radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In support of several programs at Lincoln Laboratory, a small focused-beam polarimetric, millimeter-wave radar scatterometer (an instrument for measuring radar cross section) has been developed. An overview of the design of this Flashlight Radar is presented. Theoretical and empirical studies of antenna performance are discussed. The backscatter theory relating to the characteristics of the Flashlight Radar as a scatterometer is presented, and experimental RCS measurements are compared with theoretical predictions. The data processing steps (polarimetric calibration and compensation, signal processing, and image formation) are described. We show the results of two representative experiments using the Flashlight Radar. The first is a measurement of dihedral and trihedral reflectors with and without radar camouflage. The second is a faster scan of a truck tire, highlighting the radar's fine resolution and its ability to collect three-dimensional data.

Blejer, Dennis J.; Ferranti, Richard L.; Barnes, Richard M.; Irving, William W.; Verbout, Shawn M.

1989-08-01

225

Radar detection of phobos.  

PubMed

Radar echoes from the martian satellite Phobos provide information about that object's surface properties at scales near the 3.5-cm observing wavelength. Phobos appears less rough than the moon at centimeter-to-decimeter scales. The uppermost few decimeters of the satellite's regolith have a mean bulk density within 20% of 2.0 g cm(-3). The radar signature of Phobos (albedo, polarization ratio, and echo spectral shape) differs from signatures measured for small, Earth-approaching objects, but resembles those of large (>/=100-km), C-class, mainbelt asteroids. PMID:17847261

Ostro, S J; Jurgens, R F; Yeomans, D K; Standish, E M; Greiner, W

1989-03-24

226

Threat radar system simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capabilities, requirements, and goals of radar emitter simulators are discussed. Simulators are used to evaluate competing receiver designs, to quantify the performance envelope of a radar system, and to model the characteristics of a transmitted signal waveform. A database of candidate threat systems is developed and, in concert with intelligence data on a given weapons system, permits upgrading simulators to new projected threat capabilities. Four currently available simulation techniques are summarized, noting the usefulness of developing modular software for fast controlled-cost upgrades of simulation capabilities.

Miller, L.

227

Terminal Doppler weather radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The terminal Doppler weather radar (TDWR) system, now under development, will provide automatic detection of microbursts and low-level wind shear. This paper discusses the TDWR performance parameters and describes its structural elements, including the antenna subsystem, the transmitter, the receiver/exciter, the digital signal processor, and the radar product generator/remote monitoring subsystem. Attention is also given to the processes of the base data formation, point target removal, signal-to-noise thresholding, and velocity de-aliasing and to the TDWR algorithms and displays. A schematic diagram of the TDWR system is presented.

Michelson, M.; Shrader, W. W.; Wieler, J. G.

1990-02-01

228

Wavelets and impulse radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The signal generated by avalanche discharge circuitry that drives optical flash for cameras is ultra wideband and suitable as the excitation waveform for an Impulse Radar when transmitted through an appropriate antenna. In this paper, we experimentally and theoretically show that the Impulse Radar's radiated transmitted EM waves satisfy the admissibility condition of wavelets, i.e. (i) a finite power spectral density psd=<|S(f)|2>< and (ii) zero total area under the undulated wave amplitudes. If the radiated environment is linear (the natural scene), then the received signal also satisfies the admissibility condition.

Szu, Harold; Hsu, Charles; Scheff, Kim; Hansen, Peter; Willey, Jeff

2009-04-01

229

Astable Resonator Photoneutralization Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Apparatus is described for photoneutralization of negatively charged atomic or molecular particles, using multiple passes of electronmagnetic radiation of predetermined wavelength. 8 figs. (ERA citation 13:057793)

J. H. Fink

1987-01-01

230

Apparatus for Teaching Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes apparatus for demonstrating magnetic lines of force, plastic discharge tubes, minimum angle of deviation of light passing through a prism, light scattering, and measuring high voltage. (SL)|

Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

1978-01-01

231

Battery cell feedthrough apparatus  

DOEpatents

A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance.

Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL)

1995-01-01

232

Medical devices; general hospital and personal use devices; classification of implantable radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and health information. Final rule.  

PubMed

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the implantable radiofrequency transponder system for patient identification and health information into class II (special controls). The special control that will apply to the device is the guidance document entitled "Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Implantable Radiofrequency Transponder System for Patient Identification and Health Information." The agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device. Elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register, FDA is publishing a notice of availability of a guidance document that is the special control for this device. PMID:15587485

2004-12-10

233

Bistatic synthetic aperture radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is becoming increasingly important in many military ground surveillance and targeting roles because of its ability to operate in all weather, day and night, and to detect, classify and geolocate objects at long stand-off ranges. Bistatic SAR, where the transmitter and receiver are on separate platforms, is seen as a potential means of countering vulnerability. This

A. M. Horne; G. Yates

2002-01-01

234

Heat Resistant Radar Absorber.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A foamed ceramic slab is bonded to the three-layer polyimide RAM substrate to produce a radar absorbed capable of at least 10db absorptivity of the range 3 to at least 10 GHZ and of withstanding very high temperatures, for example, 3000 F for 80 seconds o...

W. P. Manning W. T. Passiuk

1978-01-01

235

Goldstone solar system radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information is provided about physical nature planetary surfaces and their topography as well as dynamical properties such as orbits and spin states using ground based radar as a remote sensing tool. Accessible targets are the terrestrial planets: the Earth's Moon, Mercury, Venus and Mars, the outer planets rings and major moons, and many transient objects such as asteroids and comets.

R. F. Jurgens; P. E. Clark; R. M. Goldstein; S. J. Ostro; M. A. Slade; T. W. Thompson; R. S. Saunders

1986-01-01

236

Airborne firefinder radar concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

An airborne firefinder radar (AFFR) is suggested for an upgraded version of the forthcoming Global Hawk Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The AFFR could detect an artillery shell within 1 second of firing and, within a few seconds, determine its trajectory origin location (position of the gun) to a circular error probable (CEP) of less than 50 meters. The AFFR could

R. J. Sullivan; J. F. Nicoll; J. M. Ralston

1998-01-01

237

Doppler Radar System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The radar system is utilized to guide a fused guided missile to an aircraft target. The secondary doppler effects are utilized between a moving object and a secondary reflecting surface to detect the presence of the object and indicate its point of closes...

A. E. Resnik

1964-01-01

238

Mars 96 subsurface radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mars 96 International Scientific Mission to launch an aerostat that will drift in the Martian atmosphere for ten days is described. The stabilizing element of the aerostat (guiderope) will be dragged on the Martian surface every night. A ground penetrating radar will be installed within the guiderope. Its external surface will act as a transmit and receive antenna. A

Y. Barbin; W. Kofman; M. Elkine; M. Finkelstein; V. Glotov; V. Zolotarev

1991-01-01

239

Comet radar explorer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Comet Radar Explorer (CORE) is designed to perform a comprehensive and detailed exploration of the interior, surface, and inner coma structures of a scientifically impor-tant Jupiter family comet. These structures will be used to investigate the origins of cometary nuclei, their physical and geological evolution, and the mechanisms driving their spectacular activity. CORE is a high heritage spacecraft, injected

Tony Farnham; Erik Asphaug; Antonella Barucci; Mike Belton; Dominique Bockelee-Morvan; Donald Brownlee; Maria Teresa Capria; Lynn Carter; Steve Chesley; Robert Gaskell; Young Gim; Essam Heggy; Alain Herique; Ken Klaasen; Wlodek Kofman; Misha Kreslavsky; Casey Lisse; Roberto Orosei; Jeff Plaut; Dan Scheeres

2010-01-01

240

Pulse Doppler radar waveforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern military airborne radars are highly sophisticated, multi-mode systems which are required to detect difficult targets in all aspects and over a large range\\/velocity detection space. There are particular difficulties associated with the airborne case such as the limited antenna aperture, high platform velocity and severe clutter levels which present difficult waveform design challenges. This tutorial will consider the design

C. M. Alabaster

2010-01-01

241

Laser Radar Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A range-gated imaging (RGI) laser radar system was constructed and field-tested at the Chesapeake Bay Division of the Naval Research Laboratories to evaluate the capability of RGI systems to provide extremely high contrast image displays. The system emplo...

J. A. Jenney

1968-01-01

242

Laser Imaging Radar System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The simplicity, compactness, and reasonable cost of direct detection diode-laser range finders provide incentive for their use in laser imaging radar systems (LIRS). Efforts have been made to increase range performance of a diode-laser range finder by mea...

S. P. Yun R. A. Olson

1993-01-01

243

Technical Note: Suppression of artifacts arising from simultaneous cone-beam imaging and RF transponder tracking in prostate radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Artifacts in treatment-room cone-beam reconstructions have been observed at the authors' center when cone-beam acquisition is simultaneous with radio frequency (RF) transponder tracking using the Calypso 4D system (Calypso Medical, Seattle, WA). These artifacts manifest as CT-number modulations and increased CT-noise. The authors present a method for the suppression of the artifacts. Methods: The authors propose a three-stage postprocessing technique that can be applied to image volumes previously reconstructed by a cone-beam system. The stages are (1) segmentation of voxels into air, soft-tissue, and bone; (2) application of a 2D spatial-filter in the axial plane to the soft-tissue voxels; and (3) normalization to remove streaking along the axial-direction. The algorithm was tested on patient data acquired with Synergy XVI cone-beam CT systems (Elekta, Crawley, United Kingdom). Results: The computational demands of the suggested correction are small, taking less than 15 s per cone-beam reconstruction on a desktop PC. For a moderate loss of spatial-resolution, the artifacts are strongly suppressed and low-contrast visibility is improved. Conclusions: The correction technique proposed is fast and effective in removing the artifacts caused by simultaneous cone-beam imaging and RF-transponder tracking.

Poludniowski, Gavin; Webb, Steve; Evans, Philip M. [Joint Department of Physics, Division of Radiotherapy and Imaging, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Downs Road, Sutton, Surrey, SM2 5PT (United Kingdom)

2012-03-15

244

Cooling and heating apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an energy transfer apparatus for transferring energy from and to a source liquid to heat and cool a facility, the apparatus comprising: means for providing a refrigerant cycle including means for evaporating refrigerant, means for condensing refrigerant and means for producing a phase change in the refrigerant; means for cooling air; means for providing a single continuous

Dittell

1987-01-01

245

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes: (1) a variable inductor suitable for an inductance-capacitance bridge consisting of a fixed cylindrical solenoid and a moveable solenoid; (2) long-range apparatus for demonstrating falling bodies; and (3) an apparatus using two lasers to demonstrate ray optics. (SK)|

Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

1981-01-01

246

Laser beam generating apparatus  

DOEpatents

Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect).

Warner, Bruce E. (Livermore, CA); Duncan, David B. (Auburn, CA)

1993-01-01

247

Laser beam generating apparatus  

DOEpatents

Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect).

Warner, Bruce E. (Livermore, CA); Duncan, David B. (Auburn, CA)

1994-01-01

248

Laser beam generating apparatus  

DOEpatents

Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus is described. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect). 7 figures.

Warner, B.E.; Duncan, D.B.

1994-02-15

249

Laser beam generating apparatus  

DOEpatents

Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect). 11 figures.

Warner, B.E.; Duncan, D.B.

1993-12-28

250

Bearing Lubrication Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent described apparatus for lubrication of anti-friction bearings which uses the oil bleeding characteristics of grease. The apparatus consists of a housing for attachment to a bearing and a grease reservoir wherein the grease is retained in a slop...

K. H. Warren

1970-01-01

251

Flow line filter apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus is described for filtering drilling mud that is recirculated out of a well casing. The apparatus includes: a. a flow conveying tubular section, sealably attachable at its first lower end to the well casing for allowing fluid flow therethrough and open-ended at its top portion; b. an outer tank portion being at least twice the diameter of the

Gardes

1986-01-01

252

Thermal protection apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus which thermally protects sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components to a heat sink such as ice.

Bennett, Gloria A. (Los Alamos, NM); Elder, Michael G. (Los Alamos, NM); Kemme, Joseph E. (Albuquerque, NM)

1985-01-01

253

Thermal protection apparatus  

DOEpatents

The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for thermally protecting sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components such as electronics to a heat sink such as ice.

Bennett, G.A.; Elder, M.G.; Kemme, J.E.

1984-03-20

254

Pulse combustion apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pulse combustion apparatus is described which includes: a combustion chamber; an exhaust system including an exhaust pipe forming a resonant system with the combustion chamber and a generally cylindrical exhaust cushion chamber downstream of the exhaust pipe for receiving combustion gases from the pipe and communicating with an exhaust outlet form the apparatus; means for delivering successive fuel charges

Kitchen

1986-01-01

255

51. View of upper radar scanner switch in radar scanner ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

51. View of upper radar scanner switch in radar scanner building 105 from upper catwalk level showing emanating waveguides from upper switch (upper one-fourth of photograph) and emanating waveguides from lower radar scanner switch in vertical runs. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

256

Effect of Passive Integrated Transponder Tag Implantation Site on Tag Retention, Growth, and Survival of Two Sizes of Juvenile Bluegills and Yellow Perch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags are commonly used to monitor growth, habitat use, activity rates, and survival of individual fish. However, for successful completion of research objectives, the tags must be retained and must not affect fish growth or survival. We compared the effects of PIT tagging location on tag retention, growth, and survival of juvenile bluegills Lepomis macrochirus and

Mark A. Kaemingk; Michael J. Weber; Paul R. McKenna; Michael L. Brown

2011-01-01

257

An OTH radar clutter simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computer simulation is described which was developed with the objective of arriving at an understanding of OTH radar clutter originating in the equatorial ionosphere. This source of clutter is of particular interest in OTH radar, since all radar propagation paths must pass through the equatorial region, even if the desired targets are far removed from it. A central feature of the simulation is an ionospheric propagation model developed to synthesize OTH radar clutter by making use of state-of-the art models for global ionospheric structure, including small-scale irregularities, and combining these with efficient ray tracing procedures and a multiple phase-screen approach to computing the diffraction of radar energy by the irregular ionosphere. Simulated clutter data is compared to actual measurements using several radars, with generally satisfactory results.

Providakes, J.; Elkins, T. J.; Godwin, R. B.; Kelley, M. C.

1991-12-01

258

Radar Experiments Data Reduction, and Experimental Tests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Work performed included software support for the evaluation and development of advanced radar antenna systems, development and maintenance of target identification databases, and the data reduction of raw radar data from field tests. Keywords: Radar anten...

W. O. Loescher

1990-01-01

259

Floor-plan radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban-warfare specialists, law-enforcement officers, counter-drug agents, and counter-terrorism experts encounter operational situations where they must assault a target building and capture or rescue its occupants. To minimize potential casualties, the assault team needs a picture of the building's interior and a copy of its floor plan. With this need in mind, we constructed a scale model of a single- story house and imaged its interior using synthetic-aperture techniques. The interior and exterior walls nearest the radar set were imaged with good fidelity, but the distal ones appear poorly defined and surrounded by ghosts and artifacts. The latter defects are traceable to beam attenuation, wavefront distortion, multiple scattering, traveling waves, resonance phenomena, and other effects not accounted for in the traditional (noninteracting, isotropic point scatterer) model for radar imaging.

Falconer, David G.; Ueberschaer, Ronald M.

2000-07-01

260

Ultrawideband radars: Features and capabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Features of ultrawideband (UWB) radars, which radiate signals whose spatial duration is substantially smaller than the antenna\\u000a dimensions and\\/or the longitudinal dimension of the illuminated target, are analyzed. It is shown that, during the radar observation\\u000a of the target, this signal changes its shape several times and enters the radar receiver as an unknown signal. In many cases,\\u000a this circumstance

I. Ya. Immoreev

2009-01-01

261

Radar techniques program  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the fifth Quarterly Technical Summary covering the development of an airborne Multiple-Antenna Moving-Target Surveillance Radar (MASR) which employs special antenna and signal-processing techniques to provide continuous, wide-area surveillance of moving targets on or near the ground. Such a sensor, equipped with an appropriate data-reduction facility, can provide useful real-time information to a Tactical Air Control System. A DeHavilland

C. E. Muehe

1974-01-01

262

Radar detection of Iapetus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have obtained echoes from the bright, trailing hemisphere of Iapetus using the Arecibo Observatory's 13-cm radar system on three dates in January 2002. A circularly polarized signal was transmitted and an echo in the opposite circular (OC) sense to that transmitted was clearly received along with a much weaker detection of echo power in the same circular (SC) sense. Prior to this experiment, one expectation may have been that the radar scattering properties of Iapetus may behave like the similar atmosphere-less, icy surfaces of the Galilean satellites which, due to an efficient multiple scattering mechanism, are strong backscatterers with SC reflections stronger than their OC reflections. Instead we find that Iapetus' radar cross section and polarization properties are very different from those of the icy Galilean satellites, and more reminiscent of less efficient and less exotic scattering mechanisms such as dominate the echoes from inner Solar System targets. Thus these observations indicate that there is a significant difference between the surface properties of Iapetus and the icy Galileans despite their overall classification as low temperature, water ice surfaces. A plausible explanation for Iapetus' inefficient scattering is that contaminants in the water ice increase the absorption of the signal and suppress any multiple scattering. Likely contaminants on Iapetus are ammonia and the dark material from Cassini Regio embedded below the surface. Proposed observations will seek to measure Iapetus' radar scattering law and to detect the dark, leading side which was not targeted during this observing session. The Arecibo Observatory is part of the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center, which is operated by Cornell University under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

Black, G. J.; Campbell, D. B.; Carter, L. M.; Ostro, S. J.

2002-09-01

263

Tropopause detected by radar.  

PubMed

The tropopause has been detected by ultrasensitive, narrow-beam, microwave (10.7-centimeter) and ultrahigh-frequency (71.5-cm) radars. Its reflectivity is consistent with that expected theoretically for a refractively turbulent medium. Indications are that the layer is also mechanically turbulent, and that electromagnetic scatter techniques may be used to detect high-altitude clear-air turbulence. PMID:17737591

Atlas, D; Hardy, K R; Glover, K M; Katz, I; Konrad, T G

1966-09-01

264

Shuttle imaging radar experiment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The shuttle imaging radar (SIR-A) acquired images of a variety of the earth's geologic areas covering about 10 million square kilometers. Structural and geomorphic features such as faults, folds, outcrops, and dunes are clearly visible in both tropical and arid regions. The combination of SIR-A and Seasat images provides additional information about the surface physical properties: topography and roughness. Ocean features were also observed, including large internal waves in the Andaman Sea. Copyright ?? 1982 AAAS.

Elachi, C.; Brown, W. E.; Cimino, J. B.; Dixon, T.; Evans, D. L.; Ford, J. P.; Saunders, R. S.; Breed, C.; Masursky, H.; Mccauley, J. F.; Schaber, G.; Dellwig, L.; England, A.; MacDonald, H.; Martin-Kaye, P.; Sabins, F.

1982-01-01

265

Millimeter Wave Cloud Radar (MMCR) Handbook  

SciTech Connect

The millimeter cloud radar (MMCR) systems probe the extent and composition of clouds at millimeter wavelengths. The MMCR is a zenith-pointing radar that operates at a frequency of 35 GHz. The main purpose of this radar is to determine cloud boundaries (e.g., cloud bottoms and tops). This radar will also report radar reflectivity (dBZ) of the atmosphere up to 20 km. The radar possesses a doppler capability that will allow the measurement of cloud constituent vertical velocities.

KB Widener; K Johnson

2005-01-30

266

Comet radar explorer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Comet Radar Explorer (CORE) is designed to perform a comprehensive and detailed exploration of the interior, surface, and inner coma structures of a scientifically impor-tant Jupiter family comet. These structures will be used to investigate the origins of cometary nuclei, their physical and geological evolution, and the mechanisms driving their spectacular activity. CORE is a high heritage spacecraft, injected by solar electric propulsion into orbit around a comet. It is capable of coherent deep radar imaging at decameter wavelengths, high resolution stereo color imaging, and near-IR imaging spectroscopy. Its primary objective is to obtain a high-resolution map of the interior structure of a comet nucleus at a resolution of 100 elements across the diameter. This structure shall be related to the surface geology and morphology, and to the structural details of the coma proximal to the nucleus. This is an ideal complement to the science from recent comet missions, providing insight into how comets work. Knowing the structure of the interior of a comet-what's inside-and how cometary activity works, is required before we can understand the requirements for a cryogenic sample return mission. But more than that, CORE is fundamental to understanding the origin of comets and their evolution in time. The mission is made feasible at low cost by the use of now-standard MARSIS-SHARAD reflec-tion radar imaging hardware and data processing, together with proven flight heritage of solar electric propulsion. Radar flight heritage has been demonstrated by the MARSIS radar on Mars Express (Picardi et al., Science 2005; Plaut et al., Science 2007), the SHARAD radar onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (Seu et al., JGR 2007), and the LRS radar onboard Kaguya (Ono et al, EPS 2007). These instruments have discovered detailed subsurface structure to depths of several kilometers in a variety of terrains on Mars and the Moon. A reflection radar deployed in orbit about a comet will enjoy significant simplifying benefits compared to using the same instrument for Mars or lunar radar science: (1) The proximity of operations leads to a much higher signal to noise, as much as +30 dB. (2) The lack of an ionosphere simplifies data modeling and analysis. (3) The body is globally illuminated during every data acquisition, minimizing ambiguity or 'clutter' and allowing for tomographic reconstruction. What is novel is the data processing, where instead of a planar radargram approach we coherently process the data into an image of the deep interior. CORE thus uses a MARSIS-SHARAD heritage radar to make coherent reflection sounding measurements, a 'CAT SCAN' of a comet nucleus. What is unique about this mission compared to the Mars radars mentioned above, is that the target is a finite mass of dirty ice in free space, rather than a sheet of dirty ice draped on a planet surface. The depth of penetration (kilometers), attainable resolution (decameters), and the target materials, are more or less the same. This means that the science story is robust, and the radar implementation is robust. The target is comet 10P/Tempel 2, discovered by Wilhelm Tempel in 1873 and observed on most apparitions since. It has been extensively studied, in part because of interest as a CRAF target in the mid-1980s, and much is known about it. Tempel 2 is one of the largest known comet nuclei, 1688 km (about the same size as Halley) [1] and has rotation period 8.9 hours [3,5,6,7,9]. The spin state is evolving with time, spinning up by 10 sec per perihelion pass [5,7]. The comet is active, but not exceedingly so, especially given its size. The water production is measured at 4 1028 mol/sec at its peak [2], a factor of 25 lower than comet Halley, and it is active over only 2% of its surface. The dust environment is well known, producing a factor of 100 less dust than Halley. Comet References: [1] A'Hearn et al., ApJ 347, 1155, 1989 [2] Feldman and Festou, ACM 1991, p. 171, 1992 [3] Jewitt and Luu, AJ 97, 1766, 1989 [4] Lamy et al., Comets II p 223. 2009 [5] Muel

Farnham, Tony; Asphaug, Erik; Barucci, Antonella; Belton, Mike; Bockelee-Morvan, Dominique; Brownlee, Donald; Capria, Maria Teresa; Carter, Lynn; Chesley, Steve; Farnham, Tony; Gaskell, Robert; Gim, Young; Heggy, Essam; Herique, Alain; Klaasen, Ken; Kofman, Wlodek; Kreslavsky, Misha; Lisse, Casey; Orosei, Roberto; Plaut, Jeff; Scheeres, Dan

267

Radar clutter classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of classifying radar clutter as found on air traffic control radar systems is studied. An algorithm based on Bayes decision theory and the parametric maximum a posteriori probability classifier is developed to perform this classification automatically. This classifier employs a quadratic discriminant function and is optimum for feature vectors that are distributed according to the multivariate normal density. Separable clutter classes are most likely to arise from the analysis of the Doppler spectrum. Specifically, a feature set based on the complex reflection coefficients of the lattice prediction error filter is proposed. The classifier is tested using data recorded from L-band air traffic control radars. The Doppler spectra of these data are examined; the properties of the feature set computed using these data are studied in terms of both the marginal and multivariate statistics. Several strategies involving different numbers of features, class assignments, and data set pretesting according to Doppler frequency and signal to noise ratio were evaluated before settling on a workable algorithm. Final results are presented in terms of experimental misclassification rates and simulated and classified plane position indicator displays.

Stehwien, Wolfgang

1989-11-01

268

AUTOMATIC COUNTING APPARATUS  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for automatically recording the results of counting operations on trains of electrical pulses is described. The disadvantages of prior devices utilizing the two common methods of obtaining the count rate are overcome by this apparatus; in the case of time controlled operation, the disclosed system automatically records amy information stored by the scaler but not transferred to the printer at the end of the predetermined time controlled operations and, in the case of count controlled operation, provision is made to prevent a weak sample from occupying the apparatus for an excessively long period of time.

Howell, W.D.

1957-08-20

269

Nuclear reactor apparatus  

DOEpatents

A lifting, rotating and sealing apparatus for nuclear reactors utilizing rotating plugs above the nuclear reactor core. This apparatus permits rotation of the plugs to provide under the plug refueling of a nuclear core. It also provides a means by which positive top core holddown can be utilized. Both of these operations are accomplished by means of the apparatus lifting the top core holddown structure off the nuclear core while stationary, and maintaining this structure in its elevated position during plug rotation. During both of these operations, the interface between the rotating member and its supporting member is sealingly maintained.

Wade, Elman E. (Ruffs Dale, PA)

1978-01-01

270

Mirror plasma apparatus  

DOEpatents

A mirror plasma apparatus which utilizes shielding by arc discharge to form a blanket plasma and lithium walls to reduce neutron damage to the wall of the apparatus. An embodiment involves a rotating liquid lithium blanket for a tandem mirror plasma apparatus wherein the first wall of the central mirror cell is made of liquid lithium which is spun with angular velocity great enough to keep the liquid lithium against the first material wall, a blanket plasma preventing the lithium vapor from contaminating the plasma.

Moir, Ralph W. (Livermore, CA)

1981-01-01

271

Circular array radar technical and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new type circular array radar is introduced in this paper. First, the working theory of this radar is introduced, as well as the signal processing method. The characteristics and advancements of this type of radar are detailed analyzed, and the key technology of the circular array radar is proposed. Second, two applications of circular array radar are introduced; they are VHF circular array long-range surveillance radar and L band mini circular array radar. Finally, the potential prospect of this circular array radar is proposed.

Xu, Chengfa; Wang, Chonghui; Hong, Yongbin

2013-03-01

272

An optimum time slot assignment algorithm for an SS/TDMA system with variable number of transponders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The satellite-switched time-division multiple access (SS/TDMA) system combines the frequency reuse offered by spatially separated multiple beams with the efficiency and flexibility of TDMA access. In such a system, a satellite has several spot-beam antennas and a solid-state RF switch which provides connections between uplink and downlink beams. This switch is controlled by a processor on-board the satellite. The general case is considered in which the number of uplink beams, downlink beams, and transponders need not be the same. An optimal scheduling algorithm (in the sense of minimizing the total duration) is proposed and studied. Upper and lower bounds for the worst case number of switching matrices generated by the proposed algorithm are given. Extensive simulation on randomly generated matrices is also carried out.

Bongiovanni, G.; Coppersmith, D.; Wong, C. K.

1981-05-01

273

Sample positioning apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for use in alpha particle counting with such as photomultiplier tubes, comprising a platform and linkage mechanism whereby samples are moved in linear manner toward and away from ends of the photomultiplier tubes.

Bell, Thomas H. (Boulder, CO); Johnson, Jr., Charles H. (Arvada, CO); Lane, Robert L. (Golden, CO); Martin, Bradley E. (Arvada, CO); Tyree, William H. (Boulder, CO)

1976-01-06

274

Doubly Adaptive CFAR Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The doubly adaptive constant false alarm rate (CFAR) apparatus uses a doubly adaptive detector which is based upon the use of an auxiliary parallel adaptive detector in addition to the conventional main adaptive detector. The auxiliary adaptive detector h...

L. G. Cole

1979-01-01

275

Apparatus for forming boreholes  

SciTech Connect

Drilling apparatus is disclosed adapted for drilling upwardly a deviated hole from a carriage assembly disposed in a cased vertical hole below a target zone of a hydrocarbon bearing formation. The drilling apparatus includes a drill motor assembly having a drill bit driven by a shaft of a drill bit mud pressure driven motor. A weight on bit assembly is provided below the drill bit motor for imparting ''weight-on-bit'' drilling force to the drilling bit against the face of the borehole. The weight on bit assembly includes an anti-rotation assembly for preventing rotation of the drill bit motor with respect to the borehole and an axial drive assembly for applying axial force to the drill bit. Apparatus is provided to reverse the direction of the axial force generated by the weight on bit assembly. Apparatus is also provided to limit the axial force applied to the drill bit to a predetermined level.

Burton, J. A.

1985-11-26

276

Vacuum Filtration Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention discusses a filtration apparatus which provides for semiautomatic operation by including a filter element dispenser located at a filtration station. In order to effect removal of a used filter element from the filtration station, a tilting m...

R. Repaske A. H. Rich J. L. Slemp

1991-01-01

277

Riser position indication apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a Riser Position Indication Apparatus for disposition between an offshore vessel and a riser, the riser being moveable with respect to the offshore vessel. The riser position indication apparatus comprises: vessel connection means operatively engaged with the vessel to secure the riser position indication apparatus to the vessel, riser connection means operatively engaged with the riser to secure the riser position indication apparatus to the riser, flexible weight means having one end connected to one of the connection means and the other end operatively engaged with the other of the connection means, weight signal transmitter means associated with at least one end of the flexible weight means and operative to produce a continuous output signal which varies as a function of the weight of the weight means suspended from one end of the connection means.

Moore, B.B.

1986-09-23

278

Chemiluminescent Marker Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application relates to a chemiluminescent lighting apparatus for generating an illuminated marker material for delivery to a desired area. Two fluids to be mixed are contained in separate chambers and are separated from a mixing chamber by mean...

R. L. Gerber

1974-01-01

279

Vacuum pump apparatus  

DOEpatents

An improved cryopumping apparatus which comprises a cryopumping space which may be alternately opened and closed from the surrounding area by moveable panels, trubular cryopanels within said cryopumping space through which a coolant such as liquid helium may be passed, and an apparatus for spraying liquid argon onto said cylindrical cryopanels in order to enhance the cryogenic entrapment of such low-z ions, atoms, and molecules as hydrogen and helium.

Batzer, Thomas H. (Livermore, CA); Call, Wayne R. (Tracy, CA)

1985-01-01

280

Fiber pulling apparatus modification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A reduced gravity fiber pulling apparatus (FPA) was constructed in order to study the effects of gravity on glass fiber formation. The apparatus was specifically designed and built for use on NASA's KC-135 aircraft. Four flights have been completed to date during which E-glass fiber was successfully produced in simulated zero, high, and lunar gravity environments. In addition simulated lunar soil samples were tested for their fiber producing properties using the FPA.

Smith, Guy A.; Workman, Gary L.

1992-11-01

281

Spin coating apparatus  

DOEpatents

A spin coating apparatus requires less cleanroom air flow than prior spin coating apparatus to minimize cleanroom contamination. A shaped exhaust duct from the spin coater maintains process quality while requiring reduced cleanroom air flow. The exhaust duct can decrease in cross section as it extends from the wafer, minimizing eddy formation. The exhaust duct can conform to entrainment streamlines to minimize eddy formation and reduce interprocess contamination at minimal cleanroom air flow rates.

Torczynski, John R. (Albuquerque, NM)

2000-01-01

282

Electric arc saw apparatus  

DOEpatents

A portable, hand-held electric arc saw apparatus comprising a small frame for supporting an electrically conducting rotary blade which serves as an electrode for generating an electric arc between the blade and a workpiece of opposite polarity. Electrically conducting means are provided on said frame for transmitting current to said blade. A pair of freely movable endless belts in the form of crawler treads are employed to facilitate movement of the apparatus relative to the workpiece.

Deichelbohrer, P.R.

1983-08-08

283

Line retrieving apparatus  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An apparatus and method for retrieving lines, ropes, wires, optical fibres and the like from otherwise inaccessable locations, without the need for separate control lines, dissolving tables and the like. The apparatus comprises a line guide assembly, line clamping assembly, a line cutting assembly and a triggering mechanism for the activation of the aforementioned assemblies. The triggering mechanism is activated by the application of force to the line to be retrieved.

Orlick; Jonathan B. (Fort Worth, TX); Howard; William H. (Irvine, CA)

1990-03-20

284

Topics in Mitigating Radar Bias  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we investigate two topics related to mitigating the effect of radar bias in ballistic missile tracking applications. We determine the absolute bias between two radars in polar coordinates when their relative bias is given in rectangular coordinates. Using this result, we then obtain the optimized steady-state filter to handle the random bias.

Demetrios Serakos; John E. Gray; Hazim Youssef

2008-01-01

285

Next Generation Incoherent Scatter Radars.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 1990's promise to be an exciting time for users and practitioners of incoherent scatter radar as a new generation of radars is brought into operation at locations such as Svalbard, Resolute Bay, Alaska and Indonesia. Recent technological and theoretic...

J. M. Holt

1991-01-01

286

Radar Studies In Physical Volcanology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses a number of projects currently underway at the University of Hawaii that involve airborne and orbital radar investigations of the styles of eruption and the geologic history of volcanoes on the Earth and Venus. The radar data have been derived from a NASA\\/JPL AIRSAR deployment to Hawaii in August 1990, the Magellan mission to Venus, and the

Peter J. Mouginis-Mark

1992-01-01

287

Decorrelation in interferometric radar echoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A radar interferometric technique for topographic mapping of surfaces, implemented utilizing a single synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system in a nearly repeating orbit, is discussed. The authors characterize the various sources contributing to the echo correlation statistics, and isolate the term which most closely describes surficial change. They then examine the application of this approach to topographic mapping of vegetated

Howard A. Zebker; John Villasensor

1992-01-01

288

COBRA meteor radar antenna designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A meteor radar system is one of the effective remote sensing techniques in measuring atmospheric parameters such as wind velocities, temperature, pressure and density which are essential in understanding the atmospheric dynamics in the Mesosphere Lower Thermosphere (MLT) region. Previous studies of very high frequency (VHF) meteors radar systems suggest that the minimum error for the estimation of the horizontal

Mohamad Zainuddin

2009-01-01

289

Imaging Radars for Geoscience Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Properties of a side-looking airborne radar (SLAR) designed for geoscience rather than military use are presented. The speckled nature of usual single-frequency radar images may be reduced by averaging in azimuth and by averaging in range or transmitting excess range bandwidth. With synthetic aperture systems, averaging is possible in both range and azimuth, but only range averaging (excess bandwidth) is

R. K. Moore; G. C. Thomann

1971-01-01

290

Radar polarimetry for geoscience applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present volume on radar polarimetry for geoscience applications discusses wave properties and polarization, scattering matrix representation for simple targets, scattering models for point and distributed targets, polarimetric scatterometer systems and measurements, polarimetric radar system design, and polarimetric SAR applications. Attention is given to plane waves in a lossless homogeneous medium-wave polarization, polarization synthesis and response, and coordinate system transformations.

Fawwaz T. Ulaby; Charles Elachi; K. McDonald; K. Sarabandi; M. Whitt; H. Zebker; J. J. van Zyl

1990-01-01

291

A Multiband Passive Radar Demonstrator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passive radar systems that exploit signals from the plethora of RF emissions that exist in the external environment offer a number of advantages over conventional active radar system, including procurement and operational cost saving. Each emitter has its own characteristics, including waveforms, which dictate system performance. BAE Systems Advanced Technology Centre has designed and built a demonstrator system to act

Dale Gould; Robert Pollard; Carlos Sarno; Paul Tittensor

2006-01-01

292

Radar noise jamming calculations simplified  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ratio of radar jamming noise power to radar thermal noise power (J\\/N) is considered for a multiple noise jammer environment where jammer distances and energy levels vary. It is shown that the computation of J\\/N in a multiple noise jammer environment may be significantly simplified in several practical cases by reducing each case to that of a single equivalent

G. P. Kefalas

1981-01-01

293

Environment-adaptive radar techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the work performed in the first year of a contract to investigate the measurement and mitigation of environmental effects in a selected modern radar system. The baseline system is a mobile ground-based tactical radar system which performs wide-area surveillance for aircraft targets as well as multiple target tracking for eventual handover. The dominant technical problem is found

J. E. Howard; G. W. Lank; A. W. Rihaczek

1981-01-01

294

Automotive Radar - Status and Trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper gives a brief overview of automo- tive radar. The status of the frequency regulation for short and long range radar is summarized because of its impor- tance for car manufacturers and their sensor suppliers. Front end concepts and antenna techniques of 24 GHz and 77 GHz sensors are briefly described. Their impact on the sensor's field of view

Martin Schneider

295

UWB radar for patient monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last few years the Moscow Aviation Institute (Russia) and the Industrial Technology Research Institute (Taiwan) have worked jointly on the development of ultrawideband (UWB) medical radars for remote and contactiess monitoring of patients in hospitals. Preliminary results of these works were published in [1]. As of the present, several radars have been produced and tested in real conditions

Igor Immoreev; Teh-Ho Tao

2008-01-01

296

Radar Studies of Bird Migration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Observations of bird migration with NASA radars were made at Wallops Island, Va. Simultaneous observations were made at a number of radar sites in the North Atlantic Ocean in an effort to discover what happened to those birds that were observed leaving th...

T. C. Williams J. M. Williams

1974-01-01

297

Microwave Emissions from Police Radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated police officers' exposures to microwaves emitted by traffic radar units. Exposure measurements were taken at approximated ocular and testicular levels of officers seated in patrol vehicles. Comparisons were made of the radar manufacturers' published maximum power density specifications and actual measured power densities taken at the antenna faces of those units. Four speed-enforcement agencies and one transportation

J. M. Fink; J. P. Wagner; J. J. Congleton; J. C. Rock

1999-01-01

298

Resolution independent radar target recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The value of Through the Wall Radar Imaging (TWRI) data collected with one system is limited when training the automatic target recognition classifier of a second system because of variation in the Point Spread Function (PSF). The target image is a function of both the scene reflectivity and the PSF, which is in turn a function of the imaging radar's

Graeme E. Smith; Bijan G. Mobasseri

2011-01-01

299

Millimeter radar improves target identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently developed millimeter wave radar has advantages for target identification over conventional microwave radar which typically use lower frequencies. We describe the pertinent features involved in the construction of the new millimeter wave radar, the pseudo-optical cavity source and the quasi-optical duplexer. The long wavelength relative to light allows the radar beam to penetrate through most weather because the wavelength is larger than the particle size for dust, drizzle rain, fog. Further the mm wave beam passes through an atmospheric transmission window that provides a dip in attenuation. The higher frequency than conventional radar provides higher Doppler frequencies, for example, than X-band radar. We show by simulation that small characteristic vibrations and slow turns of an aircraft become visible so that the Doppler signature improves identification. The higher frequency also reduces beam width, which increases transmit and receive antenna gains. For the same power the transmit beam extends to farther range and the increase in receive antenna gain increases signal to noise ratio for improved detection and identification. The narrower beam can also reduce clutter and reject other noise more readily. We show by simulation that the radar can be used at lower elevations over the sea than conventional radar.

McAulay, Alastair D.

2011-05-01

300

Propagation effects in tactical radars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tactical battlefield radars are employed in surveillance and target acquisition roles at ranges of approximately 1 to 20 km, their main targets being enemy ground vehicles and personnel. As with all types of radar the operating environment has a significant effect on the design and performance of these systems and propagation considerations are an important factor. The major propagation factors which limit the performance of tactical radars are the availability of line of sight, ground clutter, and effects of the weather. The ways in which propagation factors affect the choice of such radar parameters as frequency, polarisation, and RF waveform are discussed, and the ways in which propagation constraints can be minimised by the design of the signal processing system are considered. In an EW environment an important operational requirement is to minimize the probability of the location of the position of the radar by the enemy. Propagation effects such as multipath and diffraction are considered in broad terms in this context.

Prew, B. A.

1982-04-01

301

Radar SLAM using visual features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A vessel navigating in a critical environment such as an archipelago requires very accurate movement estimates. Intentional or unintentional jamming makes GPS unreliable as the only source of information and an additional independent supporting navigation system should be used. In this paper, we suggest estimating the vessel movements using a sequence of radar images from the preexisting body-fixed radar. Island landmarks in the radar scans are tracked between multiple scans using visual features. This provides information not only about the position of the vessel but also of its course and velocity. We present here a navigation framework that requires no additional hardware than the already existing naval radar sensor. Experiments show that visual radar features can be used to accurately estimate the vessel trajectory over an extensive data set.

Callmer, Jonas; Trnqvist, David; Gustafsson, Fredrik; Svensson, Henrik; Carlbom, Pelle

2011-12-01

302

Interferometric radar measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United States Army Space and Missile Defense Command (USASMDC) has interest in a technology demonstration that capitalizes on investment in fire control and smart interceptor technologies that have matured beyond basic research. The concept SWORD (Short range missile defense With Optimized Radar Distribution) consists of a novel approach utilizing a missile interceptor and interferometric fire control radar. A hit-to-kill, closed-loop, command guidance scheme is planned that takes advantage of extremely accurate target and interceptor state vectors derived via the fire control radar. The fire control system has the capability to detect, track, and classify multiple threats in a tactical regime as well as simultaneously provide command guidance updates to multiple missile interceptors. The missile interceptor offers a cost reduction potential as well as an enhancement to the kinematics range and lethality over existing SHORAD systems. Additionally, the Radio Frequency (RF) guidance scheme offers increased battlefield weather performance. The Air Defense (AD) community, responding to current threat capabilities and trends, has identified an urgent need to have a capability to counter proliferated, low cost threats with a low cost-per-kill weapon system. The SWORD system will offer a solution that meets this need. The SWORD critical technologies will be identified including a detailed description of each. Validated test results and basic principles of operation will be presented to prove the merit of past investments. The Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army for Research and Technology (DAS(R&T) has a three- year Science and Technology Program to evaluate the errors and proposed mitigation techniques associated with target spectral dispersion and range gate straddle. Preliminary bench-top experiment results will be presented in this paper.

Smith, Ronald A.; Shipman, Mark; Holder, E. J.; Williams, James K.

2002-08-01

303

Satellite radar altimeters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basic operating principles of satellite radar altimeters are reviwed, with a focus on factors affecting their use in remote sensing of the ocean surface. Topics discussed include range resolution requirements, the selection of the operating frequency (considering atmospheric absorption, technology, antenna size, ionospheric refraction, and conflicts with other onboard systems), beam-limited vs pulse-limited operation, transmitted-power requirements, and pulse compression. Particular attention is given to the pulse-limited footprint and the shape of the echo waveform, parameter extraction, and height corrections for spacecraft center-of-gravity location, instrument errors, propagation factors, surface bias, tides and atmospheric effects, and geoid variations. Diagrams and graphs are provided.

Rapley, Chris G.

304

Radar resource management for mechanically rotated, electronically scanned phased array radars  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key feature (in ballistic missile defence and intelligence gathering radars) is the formulation of the turret control policy and its feedback relationship to radar activity planning. The radar resource management process is discussed. The results of the radar planning algorithm, referred to as the radar plan, are provided to the turret policy control algorithm to formulate the sequence of

S. T. Cummings; K. Behar

1991-01-01

305

Radar absorbing materials used for target camouflage  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of the developments within signal processing, transmitters and receivers areas radar technology has improved steadily over the past 50 years gaining in the sensor sensitivity, miniaturisation, power consumption, etc which allow to build smaller, more reliable and user friendly radar sensors. The effectiveness of these radar sensors is sufficiently threatening to merit the reduction of radar signature

I. NICOLAESCU

2006-01-01

306

Shuttle rendezvous radar performance: evaluation and simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe the performance evaluation and simulation of the Ku-band shuttle rendezvous radar. Computer simulation, using the radar cross section for specific spacecraft, provided an estimate of rendezvous radar range performance for that spacecraft. The radar cross section model included smooth metallic surfaces, rough surfaces, and shadowing effects, as well as phase differences due to different path lengths to

J. W. Griffin; A. C. Lindberg; T. B. Ahn; P. L. Harton

1989-01-01

307

Passive VHF radar for ionospheric physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent technological advances enable a new class of passive radar instruments. These radars have no dedicated transmitter, observing serendipitous scatter of existing sources. Such radars may have very high performance and cost far less than conventional radars. The resulting equipment is essentially reduced to simple antennas, desktop computers, and Global Positioning System equipment. The safety hazards, interference problems, licensing issues,

J. D. Sahr; D. M. Gidner; Chucai Zhou; F. D. Lind

2001-01-01

308

Advanced ground-based ESCAN radars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electronically scanned radars (ESCAN radars) are key system elements of ground based military systems being developed for air and missile defense against future threats including tactical ballistic missiles, high agile and low RCS targets like drones, ARMs, UAVs. The radar design is governed on the one hand by challenging requirements on ESCAN radar performance and on the other hand by

U. Fuchs; W. Sieprath

2005-01-01

309

Cognitive radar: a way of the future  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses a new idea called cognitive radar. Three ingredients are basic to the constitution of cognitive radar: 1) intelligent signal processing, which builds on learning through interactions of the radar with the surrounding environment; 2) feedback from the receiver to the transmitter, which is a facilitator of intelligence; and 3) preservation of the information content of radar returns,

Simon Haykin

2006-01-01

310

Radar sensor for vehicle cruise control applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with research efforts relating to radar sensors using millimeter wave technology, in particular to autonomous radars which are used for forward looking and to detect the distance and relative velocity of car ahead. The fundamental requirements to on-board radar equipment are formulated. Some experimental results of this radar research are presented.

S. B. Maltsev; V. I. Rudik; V. P. Rukin

2001-01-01

311

Soviet oceanographic synthetic aperture radar (SAR) research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radar non-acoustic anti-submarine warfare (NAASW) became the subject of considerable scientific investigation and controversy in the West subsequent to the discovery by the Seasat satellite in 1978 that manifestations of underwater topography, thought to be hidden from the radar, were visible in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of the ocean. In addition, the Seasat radar produced images of ship wakes

D. N. Held; R. F. Gasparovic; A. W. Mansfield; W. K. Melville; E. L. Mollo-Christensen; H. A. Zebker

1991-01-01

312

Polarization radar processing technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive effort is presented involving measurements and performance evaluation for the detection of scatters immersed in a background of natural and man-made clutter using polarization diverse waveforms. The effort spans evaluation from the initial stages of theoretical formulation to processor performance evaluation using real world data. The theoretical approach consists of determining polarimetric statistical properties of the backscatter waveform and the use of these properties to derive the optimum dual polarized S-Band radar system with selectable polarization on both transmit and receive. Recording equipment consists of 12 bit digital in-phase and quadrature channels indexed in time and phase for both polarizations. Several processors utilizing optimum and sub-optimum algorithms were evaluated using simulated and live radar data, and performance results were compared. The processor types include fully adaptive algorithms designed to operate on polarimetric spectral spread waveforms, and several combinations of single channel and polarization diverse receivers with both single and dual transmit polarization. A conventional fixed transmit and receive mode with no spectral processing is included. Comparisons are made between the various processors. The simulated and real data consist of randomly scattered dipoles, spheres, Swerling type scatters, and scatters of opportunity.

Stiefvater, Kenneth C.; Brown, Russell D.; Vannicola, Vincent C.; Wicks, Michael C.

1989-10-01

313

Radar resource sharing study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Radar Resource Sharing Study was undertaken to evaluate the relative advantages or three candidate technologies for implementing a shared beamformer for a dual band (S and UHF) airborne surveillance radar. The beamformer was required to interface with the two active array apertures and perform the signal combining and distribution functions necessary to produce the receive and transmit beams required for each band. The objective was to compare the three approaches in terms of size, weight, power consumption and hardware sharing, based on 1997 technology projections. The candidate beam-former technologies investigated were Conventional, Digital and Optical beamformers. In the digital and optical cases, technology limitations precluded accomplishing all of the required beamformer functions. Therefore, hybrid approaches which employed each of these technologies to the maximum practical extent were devised. The study commenced in September 1992 and was conducted primarily on the basis of beamformer requirements for monostatic operation. Later the scope was expanded to consider a bistatic receive implementation having significantly different beam requirements.

Gouse, Ronald; Clancy, John

1995-03-01

314

Thermal energy test apparatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Navy Clothing and Textile Research Facility (NCTRF) designed and fabricated a thermal energy test apparatus to permit evaluation of the heat protection provided by crash crew firefighter's proximity clothing materials against radiant and convective heat loads, similar to those found outside the flame zone of aircraft fuel fires. The apparatus employs electrically operated quartz lamp radiant heaters and a hot air convective heater assembly to produce the heat load conditions the materials to be subjected to, and is equipped with heat flux sensors of different sensitivities to measure the incident heat flux on the sample material as well as the heat flux transmitted by the sample. Tests of the apparatus have shown that it can produce radiant heat flux levels equivalent to those estimated to be possible in close proximity to large aircraft fuel fires, and can produce convective heat fluxes equivalent to those measured in close proximity to aircraft fuel fires at upwind and sidewind locations. Work was performed in 1974.

Audet, N. F.

1991-10-01

315

Apparatus for superheating steam  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus for superheating steam. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, the apparatus is provided with two banks of inclined tubes extending upwardly from an outlet header to respective inlet headers. The banks of tubes are disposed in the flow path of main steam through the apparatus and provide a flow of vapor for adding superheat to the main steam. In accordance with another aspect of the invention, the tubes extend upwardly to closed ends whereby a lower header acts as both a vapor inlet and condensate outlet. In accordance with another aspect of the invention, the vapor is provided by a fossil fuel-fired vapor generator to superheat main steam which has been provided by a nuclear steam generator.

Schluderberg, D. C.

1985-07-23

316

Apparatus for ultrasonic nebulization  

DOEpatents

An improved apparatus for ultrasonic nebulization of liquid samples or suspensions in which the piezoelectric transducer is protected from chemical attack and erosion. The transducer is protected by being bonded to the inner surface of a glass plate which forms one end wall of a first hollow body provided with apparatus for circulating a fluid for cooling and stabilizing the transducer. The glass plate, which is one-half wavelength in thickness to provide an acoustically coupled outer nebulizing surface, seals an opening in a second hollow body which encloses an aerosol mixing chamber. The second body includes apparatus for delivering the sample solution to the nebulizing surface, a gas inlet for providing a flow of carrier gas for transporting the aerosol of the nebulized sample and an aerosol outlet.

Olson, Kenneth W. (Ames, IA); Haas, Jr., William J. (Ames, IA); Fassel, Velmer A. (Ames, IA)

1978-08-29

317

Biological particle identification apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for making multiparameter light scattering measurements from suspensions of biological particles is described. Fourteen of the sixteen Mueller matrix elements describing the particles under investigation can be substantially individually determined as a function of scattering angle and probing radiations wavelength, eight elements simultaneously for each of two apparatus configurations using an apparatus which incluees, in its simplest form, two polarization modulators each operating at a chosen frequency, one polarizer, a source of monochromatic electromagnetic radiation, a detector sensitive to the wavelength of radiation employed, eight phase-sensitive detectors, and appropriate electronics. A database of known biological particle suspensions can be assembled, and unknown samples can be quickly identified once measurements are performed on it according to the teachings of the subject invention, and a comparison is made with the database.

Salzman, Gary C. (Los Alamos, NM); Gregg, Charles T. (Los Alamos, NM); Grace, W. Kevin (Los Alamos, NM); Hiebert, Richard D. (Los Alamos, NM)

1989-01-01

318

Perspectives on Worldwide Spaceborne Radar Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radar technology and techniques were originally developed for land-based, maritime, and airborne applications. Spaceborne radar systems development began in the 1960s in the USSR for military purposes, and in the 1970s in the United States for civilian scientific purposes. NASA launched the SeaSAT satellite in 1978, carrying a synthetic aperture radar, a radar altimeter, a radar scatterometer, and a radiometer,

P. A. Rosen; G. M. Buccolo

2007-01-01

319

Next Generation Weather Radar (NEXRAD)/Air Route Surveillance Radar (ARSR) Operational Comparison.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Weather Service (NWS), Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and Department of Defense are in the process of fielding the Next Generation Weather Radars (NEXRAD). These doppler weather radars, also known as Weather Surveillance Radar (WSR)88...

B. Dunbar J. Mittelman

1993-01-01

320

Next Generation Weather Radar (NEXRAD)/Air Route Surveillance Radar (ARSR) Operational Comparison.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Weather Service (NWS), Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and Department of Defense are in the process of fielding the Next Generation Weather Radars (NEXRAD). These doppler weather radars, also known as Weather Surveillance Radar (WSR)-8...

B. Dunbar J. Mittelman

1993-01-01

321

Electroplating method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for high speed electroplating or anodizing tubular members such as nuclear reactor fuel elements. A loading arm positions the member on a base for subsequent support by one of two sets of electrical contacts. A carriage assembly positions electrodes into and around the member. Electrolyte is pumped between the electrodes and the member while electric current is applied. Programmed controls sequentially employ each of the two sets of contacts to expose all surfaces of the member to the electrolyte. The member is removed from the apparatus by an unloading arm.

Looney, Robert B. (Aiken, SC); Smith, William E. L. (North Augusta, SC)

1978-06-20

322

Ultrasonic drilling apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry. In operation, slurry is provided into the housing, and into the spindle through inlets while the spindle is rotating and ultrasonically reciprocating. Slurry flows through the spindle and through the hollow drill bit to cleanse the cutting edge of the bit during a drilling operation.

Duran, Edward L. (Santa Fe, NM); Lundin, Ralph L. (Los Alamos, NM)

1989-01-01

323

Fissile solution measurement apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for determining the content of a fissile material within a solution by detecting delayed fission neutrons emitted by the fissile material after it is temporarily irradiated by a neutron source. The apparatus comprises a container holding the solution and having a portion defining a neutron source cavity centrally disposed within the container. The neutron source cavity temporarily receives the neutron source. The container has portions defining a plurality of neutron detector ports that form an annular pattern and surround the neutron source cavity. A plurality of neutron detectors count delayed fission neutrons emitted by the fissile material. Each neutron detector is located in a separate one of the neutron detector ports.

Crane, T.W.; Collinsworth, P.R.

1984-06-11

324

Expendable oceanographic sensor apparatus  

DOEpatents

An expendable oceanographic sensor apparatus is deployed from an airplane or a ship to make oceanographic observations in a profile of the surface-to-ocean floor, while deployed on the floor, and then a second profile when returning to the ocean surface. The device then records surface conditions until on-board batteries fail. All data collected is stored and then transmitted from the surface to either a satellite or other receiving station. The apparatus is provided with an anchor that causes descent to the ocean floor and then permits ascent when the anchor is released. Anchor release is predetermined by the occurrence of a pre-programmed event.

McCoy, Kim O. (Carmel, CA); Downing, Jr., John P. (Port Townsand, WA); DeRoos, Bradley G. (Worthington, OH); Riches, Michael R. (Silver Spring, MD)

1993-01-01

325

Current measurement apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus and methods are provided for a system for measurement of a current in a conductor such that the conductor current may be momentarily directed to a current measurement element in order to maintain proper current without significantly increasing an amount of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element or adding resistance to assist in current measurement. The apparatus and methods described herein are useful in superconducting circuits where it is necessary to monitor current carried by the superconducting elements while minimizing the effects of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element.

Umans, Stephen D. (Belmont, MA)

2008-11-11

326

The Clementine bistatic radar experiment.  

PubMed

During the Clementine 1 mission, a bistatic radar experiment measured the magnitude and polarization of the radar echo versus bistatic angle, beta, for selected lunar areas. Observations of the lunar south pole yield a same-sense polarization enhancement around beta = 0. Analysis shows that the observed enhancement is localized to the permanently shadowed regions of the lunar south pole. Radar observations of periodically solar-illuminated lunar surfaces, including the north pole, yielded no such enhancement. A probable explanation for these differences is the presence of low-loss volume scatterers, such as water ice, in the permanently shadowed region at the south pole. PMID:8929403

Nozette, S; Lichtenberg, C L; Spudis, P; Bonner, R; Ort, W; Malaret, E; Robinson, M; Shoemaker, E M

1996-11-29

327

Radar polarimetry for geoscience applications  

SciTech Connect

A source book for remote sensing and radar design engineers, this text covers wave polarization, polarization synthesis, scattering matrices, SAR polarization systems, and an array of applications It covers: an introduction to the different mathematical representations used to describe scattering properties, a review of scatterometer system design and calibration techniques for use in polarimetric measurements, a study of specific polarimetric radar systems, such as the shuttle imaging radar C (SIR-C), that includes calibration and compression techniques, data processing guidelines, and design approaches.

Elachi, C.; Kuga, Y.; McDonald, K.; Sarabandi, K.; Ulaby, F.T.; Whitt, M.; Zebker, H.; van Zyl, J.J.

1990-01-01

328

Experimental Facility for Measuring Aircraft Inlet\\/Engine Radar Cross Section  

Microsoft Academic Search

A full-size aircraft engine-duct mock-up experimental apparatus has been built to collect cavity radar cross section (RCS) data on aircraft engine inlets. The engine-duct structure is made up of a cylindrical duct with a single fan stage consisting of 30 generic straight fan blades. Experimental results indicate that the azimuthal RCS patterns from the engine-duct are quite complex. Numerical computations

S. Wong; E. Riseborough; G. Duff; K. K. Chan

329

A Passive UHF RFID Transponder for EPC Gen 2 with -14dBm Sensitivity in 0.13?m CMOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A passive RFID transponder conforming to the EPC Gen 2 standard is presented, including an RF and analog front-end, EEPROM, and a digital processing core and features a unique RF sampled analog random number generator to support the required anti-collision protocol. Fabricated in 0.13mum CMOS, the 0.55mm2 IC functions at a sensitivity of -14dBm using an 860-to-960MHz carrier at 40-to-160kb\\/s

Ray Barnett; Ganesh Balachandran; Steve Lazar; Brad Kramer; George Konnail; Suribhotla Rajasekhar; Vladimir Drobny

2007-01-01

330

The effects of Passive Integrated Transponder tags on survival and growth of juvenile brown trout ( Salmo trutta L.) and their use for studying movement in a small river  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1993 to 1995, more than 2000 of 0 + brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) were captured in a small brook in October and released after clipping the left pelvic fin. More than 1700 of them were\\u000a also tagged with a small Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag (11 mm long) implanted in the body cavity. Tagged juveniles\\u000a were recaptured in

Dominique Ombredane; Jean Luc Bagliniere; Frdric Marchand

1998-01-01

331

Survival Estimates for Migrant Yearling Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Tagged with Passive Integrated Transponders in the Lower Snake and Lower Columbia Rivers, 19931998  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precise, up-to-date survival estimates for salmonids that migrate through reservoirs, hydroelectric dams, and free-flowing sections of the Snake and Columbia rivers are essential to develop effective strategies for recovering depressed stocks. To provide this information, survival was estimated for yearling chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags that migrated through Snake River dams

William D. Muir; Steven G. Smith; John G. Williams; Eric E. Hockersmith; John R. Skalski

2001-01-01

332

Rotary Plant Growth Accelerating Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rotary plant growth accelerating apparatus for increasing plant yields by effectively removing the growing plants from the constraints of gravity and increasing the plant yield per unit of space is described. The apparatus is comprised of cylindrical plan...

R. D. Dedolph

1975-01-01

333

Radar and method therefor  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A radar (300) comprises a transceiver (302) for transmitting pulses directed to a subsurface area of interest (102) and for receiving a reflected wave (210) from the subsurface area of interest. The pulses have a pulse duration and amplitude constrained by the equation, d.sup.2.vertline.E.vertline.e/m.ltoreq.1 Angstrom, where d is the pulse duration in seconds, E is the pulse amplitude in volts/meter, e equals the charge of an electron in Coulombs, and m equals the mass of an electron in Kg. A processing device (304), in communication with the transceiver, processes the reflected wave and displays an image of the subsurface area of interest and identifies the material composition of subsurface objects that have known properties that vary as a function of the pulse duration and amplitude.

2002-04-23

334

Radar investigation of asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radar investigations were conducted of selected minor planets, including: (1) observations during 1981-82 of 10 potential targets (2 Pallas, 8 Flora, 12 Victoria, 15 Eunomia, 19 Fortuna, 22 Kalliope, 132 Aethra, 219 Thusnelda, 433 Eros, and 2100 Ra-Shalom); and (2) continued analyses of observational data obtained during 1980-81 for 10 other asteroids (4 Vesta, 7 Iris, 16 Psyche, 75 Eurydike, 97 Klotho, 216 Kleopatra, 1685 Toro, 1862 Apollo, 1865 Cerberus, and 1915 Quetzalcoatl). Scientific objectives include estimation of echo strength, polarization, spectral shape, spectral bandwidth, and Doppler shift. These measurements: (1) yield estimates of target size, shape, and spin vector; (2) place constraints on topography, morphology, and composition of the planetary surface; (3) yield refined estimates of target orbital parameters; (4) reveal the presence of asteroidal satellites.

Ostro, S. J.

1981-07-01

335

Radar images of Mars.  

PubMed

Full disk images of Mars have been obtained with the use of the Very Large Array (VLA) to map the radar reflected flux density. The transmitter system was the 70-m antenna of the Deep Space Network at Goldstone, California. The surface of Mars was illuminated with continuous wave radiation at a wavelength of 3,5 cm. The reflected energy was mapped in individual 12-minute snapshots with the VLA in its largest configuration; fringe spacings as small as 67 km were obtained. The images reveal near-surface features including a region in the Tharsis volcano area, over 2000 km in east-west extent, that displayed no echo to the very low level of the radar system noise. The feature, called Stealth, is interpreted as a deposit of dust or ash with a density less than about 0.5 gram per cubic centimeter and free of rocks larger than 1 cm across. The deposit must be several meters thick and may be much deeper. The strongest reflecting geological feature was the south polar ice cap, which was reduced in size to the residual south polar ice cap at the season of observation. The cap image is interpreted as arising from nearly pure CO(2) or H(2)O ice with a small amount of martian dust (less than 2 percent by volume) and a depth greater than 2 to 5 m. Only one anomalous reflecting feature was identified outside of the Tharsis region, although the Elysium region was poorly sampled in this experiment and the north pole was not visible from Earth. PMID:17784090

Muhleman, D O; Butler, B J; Grossman, A W; Slade, M A

1991-09-27

336

Positioning and locking apparatus  

DOEpatents

A positioning and locking apparatus including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member.

Hayward, Milton L. (2305 Greenbrook Blvd., Richland, WA 99352); Harper, William H. (1454 Amon Dr., Richland, WA 99352)

1987-01-01

337

Micromachine friction test apparatus  

DOEpatents

A microelectromechanical (MEM) friction test apparatus is disclosed for determining static or dynamic friction in MEM devices. The friction test apparatus, formed by surface micromachining, is based on a friction pad supported at one end of a cantilevered beam, with the friction pad overlying a contact pad formed on the substrate. A first electrostatic actuator can be used to bring a lower surface of the friction pad into contact with an upper surface of the contact pad with a controlled and adjustable force of contact. A second electrostatic actuator can then be used to bend the cantilevered beam, thereby shortening its length and generating a relative motion between the two contacting surfaces. The displacement of the cantilevered beam can be measured optically and used to determine the static or dynamic friction, including frictional losses and the coefficient of friction between the surfaces. The test apparatus can also be used to assess the reliability of rubbing surfaces in MEM devices by producing and measuring wear of those surfaces. Finally, the friction test apparatus, which is small in size, can be used as an in situ process quality tool for improving the fabrication of MEM devices.

deBoer, Maarten P. (Albuquerque, NM); Redmond, James M. (Albuquerque, NM); Michalske, Terry A. (Cedar Crest, NM)

2002-01-01

338

Holographic Animation Apparatus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a simple apparatus for producing strip holograms with a number of slit-shaped exposures displaced along the vertical direction. The hologram maintains full horizontal parallax, but the slit aperture reduces the vertical viewing angle of the animated object. (Author/GA)

Johnston, Sean F.

1979-01-01

339

Exhaust gas recirculation apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparatus is disclosed for recirculating combustion exhaust gases to the burner region of a Stirling cycle hot-gas engine to lower combustion temperature and reduct NO\\/sub x\\/ formation includes a first wall separating the exhaust gas stream from the inlet air stream, a second wall separating the exhaust gas stream from the burner region, and low flow resistance ejectors formed in

R. A. Egnell; B. L. Hansson

1981-01-01

340

Liquid fuel combustion apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a vaporized liquid fuel combustion apparatus of the type including: a cylinder defining a combustion chamber, the cylinder having an inlet end for receipt of combustion air and an outlet end for exhausting gaseous combustion products; an end plate covering the inlet end of the cylinder; a blower, including a rotor and a casing, for supplying combustion

K. Sawada; Y. Kimijima; H. Umehara

1986-01-01

341

Liquid fuel combustion apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A liquid fuel combustion apparatus is described comprising: wall means defining a cylindrical combustion chamber; a cylindrical portion of the wall means having a first port therein for receiving an ignition device and a first nipple integral with the wall means and surrounding the first port; means for introducing fuel and combustion air into the combustion chamber and for removing

K. Sawada; K. Kikuchi

1987-01-01

342

Solder Dross Removal Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An automatic dross removal apparatus is disclosed for removing dross from the surface of a solder bath in an automated electric component handling system. A rotatable wiper blade is positioned adjacent the solder bath which skims the dross off of the surf...

W. S. Webb

1990-01-01

343

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a coriolis simulator which uses a carbon paper trace technique and a simple specific-heat apparatus, emphasizing instructional considerations. Also indicates that a variac and an ordinary electric drill can be used to wind coil if a lathe or coil winder are unavailable. (JN)|

Minnix, Richard B.; Carpenter, D. Rae, Jr.

1983-01-01

344

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes an apparatus for plotting electric fields using burglar alarm window tape for electrodes and carbonized electronic stencil paper as sheet resistance. Also describes a simple pentode modulator circuit which will modulate a typical helium-neon gas laser, providing an audio channel for demonstration purposes. (SK)|

Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

1981-01-01

345

Speed Measuring Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A speed measuring apparatus is provided for indicating a percentage of nominal full speed RPM of a jet engine and also for indicating time required for accelerating and decelerating the engine. A generator output is converted to a square wave and a time i...

K. L. Coffman

1981-01-01

346

Modelling the mitotic apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This bibliographical review of the modelling of the mitotic apparatus covers a period of one hundred and twenty years, from the discovery of the bipolar mitotic spindle up to the present day. Without attempting to be fully comprehensive, it will describe the evolution of the main ideas that have left their mark on a century of experimental and theoretical research.

Jean-Pierre Gourret

1995-01-01

347

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides the apparatus setup, experimental method, necessary formulas, and references for three measurement experiments: (1) "Determine the Magnetic Induction of a Coil with a Hall Element"; (2) "Measuring Magnetic Force and Magnetic Field of Small Permanent Magnets"; and (3) "Measurements of Sound Velocity by Means of PZT" (piezoelectric

Connolly, Walter, Ed.

1990-01-01

348

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explains: (1) use of piezoelectric film (connected to power supply and oscilloscope) to reveal force-versus-time curves of bouncing balls; (2) use of bound wood splints or meter sticks to illustrate tree or tower stability; and (3) apparatus of co-axial discs with connected linking rods and suspended bobs to simulate waves. (DH)|

Minnix, Richard B.; Carpenter, D. Rae, Jr.

1985-01-01

349

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes four body-lever models (biceps, triceps, back lever when lifting, foot lever and Achilles tendon muscle) used in noncalculus physics courses. Instructions for constructing the wooden models are provided. Also describes an improvement on a centripetal-force apparatus so that it is easier to operate. (JN)|

Minnix, Richard B., Ed.; Carpenter, D. Rae, Jr., Ed.

1983-01-01

350

Pruning apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

The present invention is an automated pruning apparatus that requires little or no follow-up hand pruning and requires no sensors to avoid supportive trunks or posts. The present invention uses at least one pair of flat, close angled toothed, counter rotating blades. Woody branches are directed to the counter rotating blades first with a lifting arm and secondly by a quilled drum.

Dellinger, Roger D. (Prosser, WA)

1997-01-01

351

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes an apparatus which demonstrates the stability of equilibrium of multidimensional objects and helps students to understand the concept of a lever arm. Also describes an alternative to the standard black, mercury "student cell" used as a reference voltage for calibrating a slide-wire potentiometer. (JN)|

Minnix, Richard B.; Carpenter, D. Rae, Jr.

1984-01-01

352

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes some laboratory apparatus and demonstrations; describes an electronic device to illustrate an octave synthesizer; shows how to get negative changes from an electrophorous; explains a body levers device to clarify the principles of moments and levers; and finally shows how to demonstrate acceleration in simple harmonic motion. (GA)

Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

1978-01-01

353

Holographic Animation Apparatus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a simple apparatus for producing strip holograms with a number of slit-shaped exposures displaced along the vertical direction. The hologram maintains full horizontal parallax, but the slit aperture reduces the vertical viewing angle of the animated object. (Author/GA)|

Johnston, Sean F.

1979-01-01

354

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Six different pieces of physics apparatus are described: Telsa Coil for instant ignition of sodium arc lamps, Timekube, Magnetic Maps of the United States, a slinky with vertical mounting, a wave generator power supply, and a long-period timer power switch. Price and supplier are included. (BT)|

Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

1979-01-01

355

Downhole steam apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A downhole steam apparatus for location within the casing of a well borehole to facilitate oil recovery. A housing adapted to be lowered into the borehole includes a combustor for mixing and burning fuel and air, and a heat exchanger having an array of water tubes exposed to the heated gases from the combustor for converting water into steam. The

T. Meeks; C. A. Rhoades

1981-01-01

356

Acoustophoresis Method and Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method and apparatus are provided for acoustophoresis, i.e., the separation of species via acoustic waves. An ultrasonic transducer applies an acoustic wave to one end of a sample container containing at least two species having different acoustic absor...

J. S. Heyman

1990-01-01

357

Borehole data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A borehole data transmission apparatus is described whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

Kotlyar, O.M.

1993-03-23

358

Apparatus for Teaching Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six different pieces of physics apparatus are described: Telsa Coil for instant ignition of sodium arc lamps, Timekube, Magnetic Maps of the United States, a slinky with vertical mounting, a wave generator power supply, and a long-period timer power switch. Price and supplier are included. (BT)

Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

1979-01-01

359

Subsea wellhead apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a subsea wellhead apparatus for use at a bottom of a sea and the like and with a floating drilling rig with a subsea blowout preventer stack for permitting injection of a waste fluid containing noxious, or toxic, substances into a fractured formation penetrated by a drilled borehole while drilling and including: a. strings of conduit suspended

F. J. Schuh; J. Karish

1986-01-01

360

Nuclear reactor control apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear reactor core safety rod release apparatus comprises a control rod having a detent notch in the form of an annular peripheral recess at its upper end, a control rod support tube for raising and lowering the control rod under normal conditions, latches pivotally mounted on the control support tube with free ends thereof normally disposed in the recess in

Sridhar

1983-01-01

361

Nuclear reactor control apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear reactor core safety rod release apparatus comprises a control rod having a detent notch in the form of an annular peripheral recess at its upper end, a control rod support tube for raising and lowering the control rod under normal conditions, latches pivotally mounted on the control support tube with free ends thereof normally disposed in the recess in

Sridhar

1981-01-01

362

Scintillation counting apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the measurement of radiation by means of scintillation counters one ; drawback has been the scarcity of radiation counters which efficiently measure ; both gamma and beta radiation. There has also been the problem of scintillation ; counting in the face of external or background radiation. A scintillation ; counting apparatus is provided herein which measures scintillations arising from

Noakes

1975-01-01

363

Mud separator valve apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automatic cleaning system is provided for a mud separator apparatus. Water and mud inputs to a mud pump feeding the separator are respectively controlled by two butterfly valves ganged for cooperation, and operated by a single valve actuator motor. When the mud separator is shut off, a time delay relay is actuated which keeps the mud separator rotor motor

1981-01-01

364

Positioning and locking apparatus  

DOEpatents

A positioning and locking apparatus including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member.

Hayward, M.L.; Harper, W.H.

1985-06-19

365

Positioning and locking apparatus  

DOEpatents

A positioning and locking apparatus are disclosed including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member. 6 figs.

Hayward, M.L.; Harper, W.H.

1987-06-30

366

Distillation Apparatuses Using Household Items  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple apparatus to demonstrate distillation principles can be very difficult to build without the specialty glassware found in chemistry laboratories. We have built inexpensive but effective distillation apparatuses from equipment that can be easily purchased at local department, grocery, or hardware stores. In one apparatus, colored water is heated to boiling and the condensed vapors drip into another container.

Danielle R. D. Campanizzi; Brenda Mason; Christine K. F. Hermann

1999-01-01

367

NASA Radar Images Asteroid Toutatis  

NASA Video Gallery

This 64-frame movie of asteroid Toutatis was generated from data by Goldstone's Solar System Radar on Dec. 12 and 13, 2012. In the movie clips, the rotation of the asteroid appears faster than it occurs in nature.

Anthony Greicius

2012-12-13

368

Mode S Baseline Radar Tracking.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tests and evaluation were conducted to determine the baseline performance characteristics of the Moving Target Detector (MTD) and Radar Data Acquisition System (RDAS) as an integral part of the Mode S sensor. The MTD and RDAS were separately evaluated to ...

E. F. Mancus L. H. Baker

1982-01-01

369

Survey of Radar Signal Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the last decade, considerable progress has been made in radar signal processing, and this report states its present status. The three broad areas of coherent processing, noncoherent detection, and track-while-scan systems are discussed. Specificall...

G. V. Trunk

1977-01-01

370

Solar Radar Astronomy with LOFAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new approach to the study of the Sun's corona and its dynamical processes is possible with radar investigations in the frequency range of about 10-50 MHz. The range of electron densities of the solar corona is such that radio waves at these frequencies can provide diagnostic radar echoes of large scale phenomena such as coronal mass ejections (CMEs). We expect that the frequency shift imposed on the echo signal by an earthward-moving CME will provide a direct measurement of the velocity, thereby providing a good estimate of the arrival time at Earth. It is known that CMEs are responsible for the largest geomagnetic storms at Earth, which are capable of causing power grid blackouts, satellite electronic upsets, and degradation of radio communications circuits. Thus, having accurate forecasts of potential CME-initiated geomagnetic storms is of practical space weather interest. New high power transmitting arrays are becoming available, along with proposed modifications to existing research facilities, that will allow the use of radio waves to study the solar corona by the radar echo technique. Of particular interest for such solar radar investigations is the bistatic configuration with the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR). The LOFAR facility will have an effective receiving area of about 1 square km at solar radar frequencies. Such large effective area will provide the receiving antenna gain needed for detailed investigations of solar coronal dynamics. Conservative estimates of the signal-to-noise ratio for solar radar echoes as a function of the integration time required to achieve a specified detection level (e.g., ~ 5 dB) indicate that time resolutions of 10s of seconds can be achieved. Thus, we are able to resolve variations in the solar radar cross section on time scales which will provide new information on the plasma dynamical processes associated with the solar corona, such as CMEs. It is the combination of high transmitted power and large effective receiving area that makes possible the significant performance indicated. We will review early and current solar radar investigations and proposed approaches to future radar studies of the solar corona. Solar radar experiments were done almost from the beginning of the modern era of space physics research and has a very interesting history. In addition to re-opening the solar radar window, LOFAR will also be able to open new studies of planetary hard surfaces (e.g., the Moon and asteroids), and solar system plasmas (solar wind, magnetosphere, dusty plasmas, comets).

Rodriguez, P.

2003-04-01

371

Synchronisation of bistatic radar systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bistatic radar is gaining more and more interest over the last years. It offers more freedom to deploy the transmitter and the receiver, e.g. in a way to enhance the signature of stealthy targets. Furthermore, the bi- or multistatic system can be realized without using expensive transmit\\/receive-modules. An additional feature of bistatic radar is that continuous wave signals can be

M. Weib

2004-01-01

372

Rendezvous radar for orbital vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper some of the factors which relate to the system design of rendezvous radars are discussed and the system design and the capabilities of the OMV Rendezvous Radar System (RRS) are described. The potential for transferring manufacturing technologies and methods which have been developed for high-volume-production commercial and military hardware systems into the relatively low volume world of hi-rel electronics hardware for space is discussed.

Locke, John W.; Casey, Larry D.

1992-03-01

373

A radar image time series  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of side-looking radar images has been collected over an area in the Sierrita Pediment, Arizona, U.S.A. The dates of image acquisition vary from 1965-1979 and the images are taken at various look angles, frequencies, flight directions and polarizations. The objective of the study is to demonstrate the photogrammetric orthophoto technique applied to radar images and at the same

F. Leberl; H. Fuchs; J. P. Ford

1981-01-01

374

LPI considerations for surveillance radars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A low probability-of-intercept (LPI) radar is designed for covert operations which uses minimum radiated power and measures target characteristics with a waveform modulation that is difficult for an intercept receiver to identify. It is established that while doubling the number of an LPI radar's receivers improves the LPI factor by 3 dB, it increases cost by a factor of 2. Reducing video bandwidth reestablishes moderate cost without a major degradation of overall performance or increase in antenna size.

Ruffe, L. I.; Stott, G. F.

375

Radar imaging of Saturn's rings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present delayDoppler images of Saturn's rings based on radar observations made at Arecibo Observatory between 1999 and 2003, at a wavelength of 12.6 cm and at ring opening angles of 20.1?|B|?26.7. The average radar cross-section of the A ring is ?77% relative to that of the B ring, while a stringent upper limit of 3% is placed on the

Philip D. Nicholson; Richard G. French; Donald B. Campbell; Jean-Luc Margot; Michael C. Nolan; Gregory J. Black; Heikki J. Salo

2005-01-01

376

Radioactive waste processing apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for use in processing radioactive waste materials for shipment and storage in solid form in a container is disclosed. The container includes a top, and an opening in the top which is smaller than the outer circumference of the container. The apparatus includes an enclosure into which the container is placed, solution feed apparatus for adding a solution containing radioactive waste materials into the container through the container opening, and at least one rotatable blade for blending the solution with a fixing agent such as cement or the like as the solution is added into the container. The blade is constructed so that it can pass through the opening in the top of the container. The rotational axis of the blade is displaced from the center of the blade so that after the blade passes through the opening, the blade and container can be adjusted so that one edge of the blade is adjacent the cylindrical wall of the container, to insure thorough mixing. When the blade is inside the container, a substantially sealed chamber is formed to contain vapors created by the chemical action of the waste solution and fixant, and vapors emanating through the opening in the container. The chamber may be formed by placing a removable extension over the top of the container. The extension communicates with the apparatus so that such vapors are contained within the container, extension and solution feed apparatus. A portion of the chamber includes coolant which condenses the vapors. The resulting condensate is returned to the container by the force of gravity.

Nelson, R.E.; Ziegler, A.A.; Serino, D.F.; Basnar, P.J.

1985-08-30

377

Representing radar QPE and QPF uncertainties using radar ensembles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last years, new comprehension of the physics underlying the radar measurements as well as new technological advancements have allowed radar community to propose better algorithms and methodologies and significant advancements have been achieved in improving Quantitative Precipitation Estimates (QPE) and Quantitative Precipitation forecasting (QPF) by radar. Thus the study of the 2D uncertainties field associated to these estimates has become an important subject, specially to enhance the use of radar QPE and QPF in hydrological studies, as well as in providing a reference for satellite precipitations measurements. In this context the use of radar-based rainfall ensembles (i.e. equiprobable rainfall field scenarios generated to be compatible with the observations/forecasts and with the inferred structure of the uncertainties) has been seen as an extremely interesting tool to represent their associated uncertainties. The generation of such radar ensembles requires first the full characterization of the 3D field of associated uncertainties (2D spatial plus temporal), since rainfall estimates show an error structure highly correlated in space and time. A full methodology to deal with this kind of radar-based rainfall ensembles is presented. Given a rainfall event, the 2D uncertainty fields associated to the radar estimates are defined for every time step using a benchmark, or reference field, based on the best available estimate of the rainfall field. This benchmark is built using an advanced non parametric interpolation of a dense raingauge network able to use the spatial structure provided by the radar observations, and is confined to the region in which this combination could be taken as a reference measurement (Velasco-Forero et al. 2008, doi:10.1016/j.advwatres.2008.10.004). Then the spatial and temporal structures of these uncertainty fields are characterized and a methodology to generate consistent multiple realisations of them is used to generate the radar-based rainfall ensembles scenarios. This methodology, based on the improvement of the "String of Beads" model (Pegram and Clothier, 2001, doi:10.1016/S0022-1694(00)00373-5), is designed to preserve their main characteristics, such as anisotropy and the temporal variations of their spatial correlation. The discussion of the results on an illustrative case study and their potential interest in hydrological applications is also discussed.

Sempere-Torres, D.; Llort, X.; Roca, J.; Pegram, G.

2009-09-01

378

Determination of embryonic temperature profiles and eggshell water vapor conductance constants in incubating Ross x Ross 708 broiler hatching eggs using temperature transponders.  

PubMed

The comprehensive profiles of the internal and external temperatures of embryonated Ross Ross 708 broiler hatching eggs during incubation were determined using temperature transponders, and eggshell water vapor conductance (G(H2O)), specific G(H2O) (g(H2O); G(H2O) adjusted to a 100 g set egg weight basis), and G(H2O) constants (K(H2O)) were calculated. On each of 8 replicate tray levels of an incubator, 2 nonembryonated and 4 embryonated eggs were each implanted with a transponder on d 10.5 of incubation for the determination of internal (air cell) temperatures of nonembryonated (T(nem)) and embryonated (T(emb)) eggs, respectively. In addition, 2 water-filled vials, each containing a transponder, were used on each tray level for the determination of the external microenvironment temperatures (T(ext)) of the embryonated and nonembryonated eggs. Between 10.5 and 18 d of incubation, incubator data logger temperatures were determined every 5 min; and incubator dry bulb temperature, T(ext), T(nem), T(emb), and the difference between T(emb) and T(nem) (T) were determined every 12 h. Over the days of incubation, regression coefficients for T(emb) and T were positive, whereas the regression coefficient for T(nem) was negative. There was a significant day of incubation type of temperature measurement (T(ext), T(nem), and T(emb)) interaction for temperature. Between 13 and 18 d of incubation, mean values of T(emb) readings that were recorded every 12 h were consistently higher than those of T(ext) and T(nem), indicating the importance of air cell transponder implantation for the efficient estimation of broiler embryo temperature. Furthermore, mean values of the percentage of daily incubational egg weight loss, G(H2O), g(H2O), and K(H2O) of the embryonated eggs were 0.54 0.019%, 14.4 0.56 mg of H?O/d per Torr, 25.0 0.96 mg of H?O/d per Torr per 100 g, and 5.20 0.205, respectively. The results suggest that transponders may be implanted in the air cells of broiler hatching eggs to detect incubational variations in T(emb) and to subsequently calculate G(H2O), g(H2O), and K(H2O). PMID:22184428

Pulikanti, R; Peebles, E D; Zhai, W; Gerard, P D

2012-01-01

379

Tag loss and short-term mortality associated with passive integrated transponder tagging of juvenile Lost River suckers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags are commonly used to mark small catostomids, but tag loss and the effect of tagging on mortality have not been assessed for juveniles of the endangered Lost River sucker Deltistes luxatus. I evaluated tag loss and short-term (34-d) mortality associated with the PIT tagging of juvenile Lost River suckers in the laboratory by using a completely randomized design and three treatment groups (PIT tagged, positive control, and control). An empty needle was inserted into each positive control fish, whereas control fish were handled but not tagged. Only one fish expelled its PIT tag. Mortality rate averaged 9.8 3.4% (mean SD) for tagged fish; mortality was 0% for control and positive control fish. All tagging mortalities occurred in fish with standard lengths of 71 mm or less, and most of the mortalities occurred within 48 h of tagging. My results indicate that 12.45- 2.02-mm PIT tags provide a viable method of marking juvenile Lost River suckers that are 72 mm or larger.

Burdick, Summer M.

2011-01-01

380

Australian Weather Watch Radar Home Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Commonwealth Bureau of Meteorology's Weather Watch Radar website provides up-to-date radar images of the locations of rain in Australia in relation to local features such as coast lines. The newly developed Loops provide four consecutive radar images so that users can view how the weather has been changing in the last forty to fifty minutes. The website provides radar images of past cyclone events as well as updates on severe weather throughout Australia. Those interested in radar systems can discover how the weather radars work and how to interpret the maps. [RME

381

Multiparameter radar analysis using wavelets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiparameter radars have been used in the interpretation of many meteorological phenomena. Rainfall estimates can be obtained from multiparameter radar measurements. Studying and analyzing spatial variability of different rainfall algorithms, namely R(ZH), the algorithm based on reflectivity, R(ZH, ZDR), the algorithm based on reflectivity and differential reflectivity, R(KDP), the algorithm based on specific differential phase, and R(KDP, Z DR), the algorithm based on specific differential phase and differential reflectivity, are important for radar applications. The data used in this research were collected using CSU-CHILL, CP-2, and S-POL radars. In this research multiple objectives are addressed using wavelet analysis namely, (1)space time variability of various rainfall algorithms, (2)separation of convective and stratiform storms based on reflectivity measurements, (3)and detection of features such as bright bands. The bright band is a multiscale edge detection problem. In this research, the technique of multiscale edge detection is applied on the radar data collected using CP-2 radar on August 23, 1991 to detect the melting layer. In the analysis of space/time variability of rainfall algorithms, wavelet variance introduces an idea about the statistics of the radar field. In addition, multiresolution analysis of different rainfall estimates based on four algorithms, namely R(ZH), R( ZH, ZDR), R(K DP), and R(KDP, Z DR), are analyzed. The flood data of July 29, 1997 collected by CSU-CHILL radar were used for this analysis. Another set of S-POL radar data collected on May 2, 1997 at Wichita, Kansas were used as well. At each level of approximation, the detail and the approximation components are analyzed. Based on this analysis, the rainfall algorithms can be judged. From this analysis, an important result was obtained. The Z-R algorithms that are widely used do not show the full spatial variability of rainfall. In addition another intuitively obvious result was observed namely, R( KDP) has reduced the spatial variability due to smoothing of KDP estimates. The convective and stratiform separation was studied using multiresolution analysis. The June 22, 1995 data collected by CSU-CHILL radar were used to evaluate the technique. Another set of data collected on August 23, 1991 representing stratiform conditions were also studied.

Tawfik, Ben Bella Sayed

382

Forecasting weather radar propagation conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing use of weather radar quantitative precipitation estimates, particularly in automatic applications such as operational hydrometeorological modelling or assimilation in numerical weather prediction (NWP) models, has promoted the development of quality control procedures on radar data. Anomalous propagation (AP) of the radar beam due to deviation from the standard refractivity vertical profile, is one of the factors that may affect seriously the quality of radar observations because of the increase in quantity and intensity of non-precipitating clutter echoes and consequent contamination of the estimated rainfall field. Another undesired effect of AP is the change in the expected radar echo height, which may be relevant when correcting for beam blockage in radar rainfall estimation in complex terrain. The aim of this paper is to study the use of NWP mesoscale forecasts to predict and monitor AP events. A nested 15-km grid resolution version of the MASS model has been used to retrieve refractivity profiles in the coastal area of Barcelona, near a weather radar and a radiosonde station. Using the refractivity profiles two different magnitudes were computed: the vertical refractivity profile of the lowest 1000 m layer and a ducting index which describes the existence and intensity of the most super-refractive layer contained in the lowest 3-km layer. A comparison between model forecasts and radiosonde diagnostics during a six-month period showed that the model tended to underestimate the degree of super-refraction, with a bias of 4 km-1 and RMSE of 11 km-1 in the 1-km vertical refractivity gradient. Further analysis of the data showed that a combination of previous observations and forecasts allowed to produce modified forecasts improving the original direct model output, decreasing substantially the bias, reducing the RMSE by 20% and improving the skill by 40%, beating also radiosonde observations persistence.

Bech, J.; Codina, B.; Lorente, J.

2007-06-01

383

Servo control apparatus  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

In a servo control apparatus in which a machine system is driven by a servo motor, a phase compensation device is provided. The phase compensating device calculates a speed component (phase delay compensation signal) corresponding to a phase delay caused by a mechanical resonance suppressing filter which is provided so as to suppress resonance and mechanical vibrations, produced by a characteristic frequency owned by the machine system. While such a signal obtained by adding this speed component (phase delay compensation signal) to an actual motor speed is used as a speed feedback signal for a control operation, unstable conditions of a servo system, which are caused by the phase delay caused when the mechanical resonance filter is applied, are suppressed, and a high gain of the servo control apparatus is realized.

Tsutsui; Kazuhiko (Tokyo, JP)

2001-08-14

384

Refrigerant reclaim apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus for reclaiming refrigerant. It comprises: cleaning means for removing gaseous or liquid refrigerant from a container, vaporizing all of the liquid refrigerant and separating oil from the gaseous refrigerant, a compressor for receiving and compressing the gaseous refrigerant from the containers, a condenser for receiving and condensing the gaseous refrigerant from the compressor, storing means for receiving and storing the liquid refrigerant from the condenser, removal means for removing condensed refrigerant out from the storing means, and evacuations beans for evacuating high pressure gaseous refrigerant from the entire apparatus after all of the condenser refrigerant has been removed the storing means; the evacuation means comprised of the three-way solenoid valve and an operator activated switch functionally associated with the solenoid valve wherein the activation of the switch caused the evacuation of high pressure gaseous refrigerant; and the evacuation means located adjacent to and in fluid communication with the exit of the compressor.

Van Steenburgh, L.R.

1992-02-11

385

Intake air heating apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an intake air heating apparatus adapted to be positioned in the air intake passage of an intake manifold of an internal combustion engine. The apparatus comprises: a heater member of semiconductive ceramic material in the configuration of a grid having apertures for passing air therethrough between opposite sides thereof; spaced frame members supporting therebetween edge portions of the heater member; a pair of electric terminals fixed to at least one of the frame members; electrode lead members connected to the terminals and extending adjacent one side of the heater member; and metal plate members inserted between the heater member one side and the electrode lead members and making electrical contact therebetween.

Hori, M.; Nomura, E.; Niwa, H.; Mukai, H.; Tanaka, T.

1987-05-26

386

Partial oxidation apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is described for the simultaneous partial oxidation of a primary fuel stream comprising a high metals or ash containing liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel or a slurry of solid carbonaceous fuel and a secondary fuel stream to produce a raw gas stream comprising: a vertical cylindrically shaped steel pressure vessel with a coaxial inlet port in the upper end of the vessel and a coaxial outlet port in the lower end of the vessel; a coaxial vertically disposed first gasification burner mounted in the upper inlet port for discharging reactant feedstreams directly into a first vertical coaxial free-flow refractory lined reaction chamber where partial oxidation of the fuel feedstream takes place to produce a first raw gas stream. The bottom of the first reaction chamber is frusto-conical or hemispherical shaped. The apparatus also comprises a coaxial free-flow refractory lined gas diversion chamber with an upper inlet and side and bottom outlets located below the first reaction chamber.

Jahnke, F.C.

1987-03-03

387

Electrowinning apparatus and process  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus and processes are disclosed for electrowinning metal from a fluid stream. A representative apparatus comprises at least one spouted bed reactor wherein each said reactor includes an anolyte chamber comprising an anode and configured for containing an anolyte, a catholyte chamber comprising a current collector and configured for containing a particulate cathode bed and a flowing stream of an electrically conductive metal-containing fluid, and a membrane separating said anolyte chamber and said catholyte chamber, an inlet for an electrically conductive metal-containing fluid stream; and a particle bed churning device configured for spouting particle bed particles in the catholyte chamber independently of the flow of said metal-containing fluid stream. In operation, reduced heavy metals or their oxides are recovered from the cathode particles.

Buschmann, Wayne E. (Boulder, CO)

2012-06-19

388

Infrared viewing apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus known as a common module for converting a thermal scene into a visible image. The apparatus comprises an infrared objective, a pivotal mirror which can be pivoted back and forth about an axis, an infrared detection array comprising a plurality of detectors, and a linear display array which is connected to the infrared detection array via an amplifier arrangement. The radiation emitted by the display array is imaged in a plane of observation, preferably via the back of the pivotal mirror and via at least one diverting mirror. For omnidirectional viewing in the horizontal and the vertical direction the infrared objective, the pivotal mirror, the detector array and the display array are combined to form a constructional unit, which is arranged to be pivotable about a horizontal and about a vertical axis. Between the diverting mirror and the eyepiece an erecting prism is arranged. The erecting prism is rotated in conformity with the rotation of the constructional unit.

Christiansen, H.; Schnieder, H.

1984-10-02

389

Thermal protection apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for thermally protecting heat sensitive components of tools. The apparatus comprises a Dewar holding the heat sensitive components. The Dewar has spaced-apart inside walls, an open top end and a bottom end. A plug is located in the top end. The inside wall has portions defining an inside wall aperture located at the bottom of the Dewar and the outside wall has portions defining an outside wall aperture located at the bottom of the Dewar. A bottom connector has inside and outside components. The inside component sealably engages the inside wall aperture and the outside component sealably engages the outside wall aperture. The inside component is operatively connected to the heat sensitive components and to the outside component. The connections can be made with optical fibers or with electrically conducting wires.

Bennett, G.A.; Moore, T.K.

1986-08-20

390

Thermal protection apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for thermally protecting heat sensitive components of tools. The apparatus comprises a Dewar for holding the heat sensitive components. The Dewar has spaced-apart inside and outside walls, an open top end and a bottom end. An insulating plug is located in the top end. The inside wall has portions defining an inside wall aperture located at the bottom of the Dewar and the outside wall has portions defining an outside wall aperture located at the bottom of the Dewar. A bottom connector has inside and outside components. The inside component sealably engages the inside wall aperture and the outside component sealably engages the outside wall aperture. The inside component is operatively connected to the heat sensitive components and to the outside component. The connections can be made with optical fibers or with electrically conducting wires.

Bennett, Gloria A. (Los Alamos, NM); Moore, Troy K. (Los Alamos, NM)

1988-01-01

391

Throttling mud choke apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Mud choke apparatus is disclosed, and the preferred embodiment has the form of a hollow, tubular body receiving a mud flow introduced from a lateral port, the flow being directed through an axial passage and past a valve seat. The valve seat is a replaceable, hardened metal liner and is formed with a gradual taper so that the mud flows from the large end through the tapered, smaller end. Thereafter, it flows out of the body through an axial opening. The flow of mud is throttled by a tapered, hardened plug serving as a valve element which is received into the valve seat. A hydraulic cylinder and piston with a connecting rod move the plug. The plug has a surrounding, perpendicular shoulder which seals and seats against a shoulder on the insert to fully close the throttling valve apparatus. Flow is choked by inserting the tapered plug with controlled clearance into the tapered valve seat.

Claycomb, J.R.

1983-03-22

392

Electrocell method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

This invention consists of an apparatus including an electrocell and, preferably, also a diaphragm pump for processing waste materials and recovering metals therefrom. The electrocell comprises a set of coaxial cylinders with end housings to maintain spacing. The innermost cylinder is a cathode. Surrounding the cathode is a porous barrier, then an anode and finally an outer shell. Interior to the cathode is a cathode coolant passage. Between the cathode and the porous barrier is a passage for a catholyte. Between the porous barrier and the anode is a passage for an anolyte. Exterior to the anode but inside an outer shell is a passage for the anode coolant. The passage for the anolyte is dimensioned, based upon the flow rate of the anolyte, to produce fully turbulent flow, preferably with a Reynolds number in excess of 4000. The diaphragm pump surges anolyte into the anolyte passage to further increase turbulence, thereby increasing the efficiency of the apparatus.

Mensink, D.L.; Graham, F.R.; Younkins, R.M.

1990-12-31

393

Ion beam generating apparatus  

DOEpatents

An ion generating apparatus utilizing a vacuum chamber, a cathode and an anode in the chamber. A source of electrical power produces an arc or discharge between the cathode and anode. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma is directed to an extractor which separates the electrons from the plasma, and accelerates the ions to produce an ion beam. 10 figs.

Brown, I.G.; Galvin, J.

1987-12-22

394

Portable cutting apparatus  

DOEpatents

A remotely operable, portable cutting apparatus detachably secured to the workpiece by laterally spaced clamp assemblies engageable with the workpiece on opposite sides of the intended line of cut. A reciprocal cutter head is mounted between the clamp assemblies and is provided with a traveling abrasive cutting wire adapted to sever the workpiece normal to the longitudinal axis thereof. Dust and debris are withdrawn from the cutting area by a vacuum force through a nozzle mounted on the cutting head.

Gilmore, Richard F. (Kennewick, WA)

1986-01-01

395

Pyrolysis process and apparatus  

DOEpatents

This invention discloses a process and apparatus for pyrolyzing particulate coal by heating with a particulate solid heating media in a transport reactor. The invention tends to dampen fluctuations in the flow of heating media upstream of the pyrolysis zone, and by so doing forms a substantially continuous and substantially uniform annular column of heating media flowing downwardly along the inside diameter of the reactor. The invention is particularly useful for bituminous or agglomerative type coals.

Lee, Chang-Kuei (Sewell, NJ)

1983-01-01

396

Fire suppressing apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for smothering a liquid sodium fire comprises a pan, a perforated cover on the pan, and tubes depending from the cover and providing communication between the interior of the pan and the ambient atmosphere through the perforations in the cover. Liquid caught in the pan rises above the lower ends of the tubes and thus serves as a barrier which limits the amount of air entering the pan.

Buttrey, Kenneth E. (Northridge, CA)

1982-11-02

397

Portable cutting apparatus  

DOEpatents

A remotely operable, portable cutting apparatus detachably secured to the workpiece by laterally spaced clamp assemblies engagable with the workpiece on opposite sides of the intended line of cut. A reciprocal cutter head is mounted between the clamp assemblies and is provided with a traveling abrasive cutting wire adapted to sever the workpiece normal to the longitudinal axis thereof. Dust and debris are withdrawn from the cutting area by a vacuum force through a nozzle mounted on the cutting head.

Gilmore, R.F.

1984-07-17

398

ISOTOPE SEPARATING APPARATUS CONTROL  

DOEpatents

An improved isotope separating apparatus of the electromagnetic type, commonly referred to as a calutron, is described. Improvements in detecting and maintaining optimum position and focus of the ion beam are given. The calutron collector is provided with an additional electrode insulated from and positioned between the collecting pockets. The ion beams are properly positioned and focused until the deionizing current which flows from ground to this additional electrode ts a minimum.

Barnes, S.W.

1959-08-25

399

IRRADIATION METHOD AND APPARATUS  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus are described for changing fuel bodies into a process tube of a reactor. According to this method fresh fuel elements are introduced into one end of the tube forcing used fuel elements out the other end. When sufficient fuel has been discharged, a reel and tape arrangement is employed to pull the column of bodies back into the center of the tube. Due provision is made for providing shielding in the tube. (AEC)

Cabell, C.P.

1962-12-18

400

Radar absorbing material (RAM) and shaping on radar cross section reduction of dihedral corners  

Microsoft Academic Search

How far can a radar system detect an object depends the radar cross section (RCS) of the target. Corner reflectors are the major scattering centers in the radar signatures of vehicles. The monostatic return from such structures can be reduced by ensuring that surfaces never meet at right angles and by application of radar absorbing materials (RAM). This paper deals

G. G. Peixoto; A. L. de Paula; L. A. Andrade; C. M. A. Lopes; M. C. Rezende

2005-01-01

401

Wellen Radar (WERA): a new ground-wave HF radar for ocean remote sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

HF radars can be used to measure surface currents and wave spectra. The Coastal Radar (CODAR) used by the University of Hamburg was designed for current mapping only. It has been operated for 15 field experiments during the past 15 years. Recently, a new HF radar called Wellen Radar (WERA) has been developed at the University of Hamburg. One main

K.-W Gurgel; G Antonischki; H.-H Essen; T Schlick

1999-01-01

402

Air-cleaning apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An air-cleaning, heat-exchange apparatus includes a main housing portion connected by means of an air inlet fan to the kitchen exhaust stack of a restaurant. The apparatus includes a plurality of heat exchangers through which a heat-absorptive fluid is circulated, simultaneously, by means of a suitable fluid pump. These heat exchangers absorb heat from the hot exhaust gas, out of the exhaust stack of the restaurant, which flows over and through these heat exchangers and transfers this heat to the circulating fluid which communicates with remote heat exchangers. These remote heat exchangers further transfer this heat to a stream of air, such as that from a cold-air return duct for supplementing the conventional heating system of the restaurant. Due to the fact that such hot exhaust gas is heavily grease laden , grease will be deposited on virtually all internal surfaces of the apparatus which this exhaust gas contacts. Consequently, means are provided for spraying these contacted internal surfaces , as well as the hot exhaust gas itself, with a detergent solution in which the grease is soluble, thereby removing grease buildup from these internal surfaces.

Howard, A.G.

1981-08-18

403

Electric heating apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An electric heating apparatus is disclosed for heating foods and liquids in a cooking vessel. It's comprising: a metal upper part, having an upper cooking surface and a lower surface; a metal lower part covering the bottom of the heating apparatus, a sealable space being formed between the upper part and the lower part; and, at least one tubular heating device with a metal covering arranged in the space and having a large flat contact surface for thermally conductively engaging the lower surface of the upper metal part, the space having at least a partial vacuum formed therein, the at least partial vacuum reducing convective heat loss and imparting a concave distortion to the upper metal part which counteracts a convex distortion of the upper metal part due to expansion upon heating, thereby holding the upper metal part substantially flat during heating and maximizing surface contact between the cooking surface and a cooking vessel resting thereon, whereby heat is transferred from the cooking surface to the cooking vessel with maximum efficiency. The apparatus may also be constructed as a receptacle for directly heating foods or liquids.

Fischer, K.

1984-02-14

404

Radioactive waste processing apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for use in processing radioactive waste materials for shipment and storage in solid form in a container is disclosed. The container includes a top, and an opening in the top which is smaller than the outer circumference of the container. The apparatus includes an enclosure into which the container is placed, solution feed apparatus for adding a solution containing radioactive waste materials into the container through the container opening, and at least one rotatable blade for blending the solution with a fixing agent such as cement or the like as the solution is added into the container. The blade is constructed so that it can pass through the opening in the top of the container. The rotational axis of the blade is displaced from the center of the blade so that after the blade passes through the opening, the blade and container can be adjusted so that one edge of the blade is adjacent the cylindrical wall of the container, to insure thorough mixing. When the blade is inside the container, a substantially sealed chamber is formed to contain vapors created by the chemical action of the waste solution and fixant, and vapors emanating through the opening in the container.

Nelson, Robert E. (Lombard, IL); Ziegler, Anton A. (Darien, IL); Serino, David F. (Maplewood, MN); Basnar, Paul J. (Western Springs, IL)

1987-01-01

405

Riser braking clamp apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A riser breaking clamp apparatus is described for use in a floating vessel having a substantially centrally positioned vertical hull opening therethrough. The vessel is provided with well drilling equipment, including an elongated vertical riser. The riser extends in tension down through the hull opening to a point adjacent the ocean floor, and motion-compensating and tensioning means are carried by the vessel operatively connected to the riser for tensioning the riser during normal operations. The invention comprises: riser braking clamp apparatus located substantially within the hull opening through the vessel, the riser braking clamp apparatus comprising: telescopic joint means having a first member and a second member, each member having a lower end and an upper end and axial throughbore, the lower end of the first member operatively connected to the upper end of the riser. The upper end of the first member is slideably engaged with the lower end of the second member, the second member operatively connected to the vessel; and brake means carried by one member of the telescopic joint means, operatively and selectively engageable with the other member of the telescopic joint means, to dampen, arrest, and prevent further movement of the first member relative to the second member of the telescopic joint means.

Langer, C.G.

1986-10-14

406

Flexible connection apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A flexible connection apparatus is disclosed for accommodating relative movement between a compliant offshore structure and the sea floor. The compliant offshore structure supports a fluid-carrying system which conveys fluids between the sea floor and the structure. The fluid-carrying system includes a riser and a helical flowline. The lower end of the riser is connected to the sea floor. The first end of the helical flowline is connected to the upper end of the riser and the second end of the helical flowline is connected to the structure. As the compliant offshore structure is displaced from its vertical equilibrium position due to loading forces induced by wind, waves, and ocean currents, the helical flowline elastically flexes through torsional deflection to accommodate such movement. In a preferred embodiment of the apparatus, a wellhead is connected between the riser and the helical flowline such that the centerline of the helical flowline is substantially vertical. In yet another embodiment of the apparatus, a bending flowline is connected between a wellhead and the structure with its centerline being substantially horizontal to accommodate movement of the structure through bending deflection rather than by torsional deflection.

Barth, J.R.; Fowler, J.R.; Hitchcock, W.A.; Miller, J.E.

1984-06-26

407

Object recognation with surveillance radar systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this thesis have written description and principle of radar systems and them classification. As well as radar systems are used where and for what. The most optimal signal transmission and principles of systems in general.

Gun Sergiy

2010-01-01

408

Vacuum Microwave Integrated Circuits for radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum microwave integrated circuits (VMIC) for radar applications is suggested for design of radars with high resistance against radioactivity and high power electromagnetic. We present design of the VMIC suggested and give preliminary results of its feasibility study and implementation.

K. A. Lukin; Gun-Sik Park

2008-01-01

409

ALTAIR Radar Study of Equatorial Spread F.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of research on equatorial spread-F (ESF) phenomena obtained by using two backscatter radars, ALTAIR and TRADEX, are summarized. The radar measurements were made in support of three rocket campaigns conducted from the Kwajalein Atoll during the...

R. T. Tsunoda

1981-01-01

410

Planetary Ephemerides Approximation for Radar Astronomy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The planetary ephemerides approximation for radar astronomy is discussed, and, in particular, the effect of this approximation on the performance of the programmable local oscillator (PLO) used in Goldstone Solar System Radar is presented. Four different ...

R. Sadr M. Shahshahani

1991-01-01

411

Meteor Detection on ST (MST) Radars.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ability to detect radar echoes from backscatter due to turbulent irregularities of the radio refractive index in the clear atmosphere has lead to an increasing number of established mesosphere - stratosphere - troposphere (MST or ST) radars. Humidity ...

S. K. Avery

1987-01-01

412

Extended Target Recognition in Cognitive Radar Networks  

PubMed Central

We address the problem of adaptive waveform design for extended target recognition in cognitive radar networks. A closed-loop active target recognition radar system is extended to the case of a centralized cognitive radar network, in which a generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) based sequential hypothesis testing (SHT) framework is employed. Using Doppler velocities measured by multiple radars, the target aspect angle for each radar is calculated. The joint probability of each target hypothesis is then updated using observations from different radar line of sights (LOS). Based on these probabilities, a minimum correlation algorithm is proposed to adaptively design the transmit waveform for each radar in an amplitude fluctuation situation. Simulation results demonstrate performance improvements due to the cognitive radar network and adaptive waveform design. Our minimum correlation algorithm outperforms the eigen-waveform solution and other non-cognitive waveform design approaches.

Wei, Yimin; Meng, Huadong; Liu, Yimin; Wang, Xiqin

2010-01-01

413

Extended target recognition in cognitive radar networks.  

PubMed

We address the problem of adaptive waveform design for extended target recognition in cognitive radar networks. A closed-loop active target recognition radar system is extended to the case of a centralized cognitive radar network, in which a generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) based sequential hypothesis testing (SHT) framework is employed. Using Doppler velocities measured by multiple radars, the target aspect angle for each radar is calculated. The joint probability of each target hypothesis is then updated using observations from different radar line of sights (LOS). Based on these probabilities, a minimum correlation algorithm is proposed to adaptively design the transmit waveform for each radar in an amplitude fluctuation situation. Simulation results demonstrate performance improvements due to the cognitive radar network and adaptive waveform design. Our minimum correlation algorithm outperforms the eigen-waveform solution and other non-cognitive waveform design approaches. PMID:22163464

Wei, Yimin; Meng, Huadong; Liu, Yimin; Wang, Xiqin

2010-11-11

414

Radar Wind Profilers in the Colorado Network.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Radar systems used to measure vertical profiles of the horizontal wind in nearly all weather conditions can use frequencies between about 40 and 1000 MHz. This report describes three radar systems that measure wind profiles continuously and automatically....

R. G. Strauch D. A. Merritt K. P. Moran

1985-01-01

415

Social Radar Workflows, Dashboards, and Environments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To build a global 'Social Radar,' an integrated set of capabilities supporting strategic and operational level situation awareness, alerts, and option awareness, there is a need for an overarching enterprise approach. Social Radar's objective is to demons...

B. Costa G. Klein J. Mathieu M. Fulk M. Lorber

2012-01-01

416

Lidar-Radar Lower Atmospheric Observations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Daytime observations of the vertical temperature and humidity structure in the atmosphere below 1000 meters made with a Cricketsonde rocket system are compared with simultaneous observations from a ruby lidar (laser radar) and a microwave K-band radar. Ob...

W. Viezee J. Oblanas

1968-01-01

417

Range Delay Techniques for Radar Target Simulators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It was recognized that the Radar Guided Seeker and countermeasure development using flight tests as a primary evaluation tool is costly and insecure from interception of signal and telemetry emenations. Radar Target Simulators were developed which provide...

L. C. Buse

1988-01-01

418

Multi-Radar Mapping of Auroral Convection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Simultaneous radar azimuth scans with the Millstone Hill, Sondrestrom, and EISCAT incoherent scatter radars produce maps of the ionospheric convection electric field at high latitudes which span 10 hours of magnetic local time. A series of convection 'sna...

J. C. Foster T. Turunen P. Pollari H. Kohl V. B. Wickwar

1989-01-01

419

46 CFR 121.404 - Radars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Navigation Equipment...radar is not necessary due to the vessel's route and local weather conditions. (c) The radar and its installation must...

2012-10-01

420

3D Laser Radar Vision Processor System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Loral Defense Systems (LDS) developed a 3D Laser Radar Vision Processor system capable of detecting, classifying, and identifying small mobile targets as well as larger fixed targets using three dimensional laser radar imagery for use with a robotic type ...

T. M. Sebok

1990-01-01

421

Radar Images of the Earth: Volcanoes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features links to thirty-five NASA radar images of the world's volcanoes, including brief descriptions of the respective processes and settings involved. The images were created with the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) as part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radar illuminates Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions.

422

Radar Images of the Earth: Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features links to seven NASA radar images of the world's oceans, including brief descriptions of the respective processes and settings. The images were created with the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) as part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radar illuminates Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions.

423

Radar Images of the Earth: Cities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features links to more than fifty NASA radar images of the world's cities, including brief descriptions of the respective processes and settings involved. The images were created with the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) as part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radar illuminates Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions.

424

Space Radar Images of the Earth: Archaeology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features links to twelve NASA radar images of the world's famous archaeology sites, including brief descriptions of the respective processes and settings involved. The images were created with the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) as part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radar illuminates Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions.

425

Radar Images of the Earth: Interferometry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features links to nineteen NASA radar images using interferometry to enhance details or measure changes in elevation. The image pages contain brief descriptions of the respective processes and settings. They were created with the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) as part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radar illuminates Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions.

426

History of Monopulse Radar in the US  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of development of monopulse radar in the US is reviewed herein. Significant techniques that permitted monopulse tracking radars to achieve accurate tracking with high efficiency are discussed, including sum-and-difference antenna feed networks, multi-horn and multi-mode feeds, precision mechanical pedestals, and space-fed arrays. The discussion concentrates on surface-based radars, but many of the techniques apply to airborne radars and

David Barton

2010-01-01

427

Optical-radar detection for radio engineers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principal characteristics of optical-radar detection techniques are examined and compared with those of conventional radar techniques. Consideration is given to the physical processes underlying the formation, transmission, and reception of radar signals, the principles of detection, and the measurement of target parameters. The preferred applications of electron-optic and radio techniques are identified. The treatment is based on statistical methods of radar detection and the semiclassical theory of photoemission.

Vorobev, V. I.

428

Analysis of Microhabitat Use for Two Trout Species Using a Combination of Remote Sensing and Passive Integrated transponder Tags  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Logan River and its tributaries in northern Utah sustain a significant population of the imperiled Bonneville cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki Utah) as well as invasive brown trout (Salmo trutta). In general, the upper reaches of the system are populated by cutthroat trout and the lower reaches by brown trout. Spawn Creek is a unique tributary in that it supports both of these species throughout the year. The purpose of this study is to identify differences in fine-scale microhabitat that explain utilization patterns of each species of fish. Passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags have been placed in trout over the last 3 years throughout Spawn Creek. Repeat GPS observations of these fish in their habitat during both spawning and non-spawning periods have been acquired over the last 4 years. Non-spawning activity has been captured using mobile PIT tag antennae. GPS observations of cutthroat trout spawning locations have also been recorded. From these observations both spawning and non-spawning "hotspots" have emerged, which appear to be highly correlated with specific microhabitat characteristics. The entire 2.5 km study reach on lower Spawn Creek has been scanned using ground-based light detection and ranging (LiDAR) which covers all observed "hotspots." LiDAR data provides sub-centimeter resolution point clouds from which detailed geometric measurements and topographic analyses can be used to reveal specific aspects of trout habitat. Where bathymetric data is needed, total station bathymetric surveys have been completed at sub-meter resolution. The combination of these data types at known "hotspot" locations provides an opportunity to quantify aspects of the physical environment at a uniquely fine scale relevant to individual fish. New metrics, as well as old metrics resolved at finer scales, will be presented to explain species and life-stage specific habitat "hotspots" in mountain streams.

Lokteff, R.; Wheaton, J. M.; Roper, B.; DeMeurichy, K.; Randall, J.

2011-12-01

429

Tagging Juvenile Pacific Lamprey with Passive Integrated Transponders: Methodology, Short-Term Mortality, and Influence on Swimming Performance  

SciTech Connect

Populations of Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) in the Columbia River basin have declined drastically over the past 20 years. Possible causes include habitat degradation and instream flow obstacles, such as the mainstem hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River. To determine why lamprey populations have declined a monitoring system to track their movements was needed to determine possible impacts. Juvenile lamprey were implanted with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and their detection rates determined while migrating through fish bypass facilities at McNary in 2001 and 2005 and John Day Dam in 2002. Juvenile Pacific lamprey (115178 mm) were obtained from the John Day Dam fish collection facility, transported to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and surgically PIT-tagged. Lamprey were allowed to recover for 3 to 4 days following PIT tag implantation and subsequently were released upstream of the PIT tag detectors at both dams. Primary detector efficiency was 98% at McNary Dam and 97% at John Day Dam. Average in-river travel time for fish released at McNary Dam and detected at John Day Dam was 16.1 d in 2001 and 10 d in 2005. Mean detection rates at McNary Dam varied from 74% for gatewell releases to 69% for the collection channel. Follow up tests in 2005 at McNary Dam showed detections rates near 100% from collection channel releases. Detection rates from forebay releases at McNary Dam were lower, ranging from 0% to 38% (mean = 21%). Mean travel times from release point to the primary detectors at McNary Dam were; forebay (492 min), gatewell (323 min), and collection channel (245 min). The detection efficiency at the primary detectors was similar to that of PIT-tagged smolts and travel time within the bypass system showed that lamprey can hold in the bypass system for prolonged periods.

Mueller, Robert P.; Moursund, Russell A.; Bleich, Matthew D.

2006-05-31

430

Tagging Juvenile Pacific Lamprey with Passive Integrated Transponders: Methodology, Short-Term Mortality, and Influence on Swimming Performance  

SciTech Connect

This study was conducted to determine the feasibility (i.e., efficiency and onintrusiveness) of tagging juvenile Pacific lampreys Lampetra tridentata with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and to determine any associated impacts on survivorship and swimming ability. Juvenile Pacific lampreys were obtained from the John Day Dam fish collection facility and tests were conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in 2001 and 2002. A new PIT-tagging procedure was used to inject 12-mm tags 5 mm posterior to the gill openings. ampreys were allowed to recover for 34 d following surgery before postmortality and swimming tests were conducted. The PIT tagging procedure during 2001 did not include a suture, and 2.6% of the tags were shed after 40 d. During 2002 a single suture was used to close the opening after inserting a tag, and no tag shedding was observed. Overall short-term mortality rates for lampreys 120155 mm (total length) held for 40 d at 88C was 2.2% for tagged and 2.7% for untagged fish. Mortality increased significantly when tagged and untagged groups were held in warmer (19238C) river water: 50% for tagged and 60% for untagged animals. Lengths did not significantly affect survival for either the tagged or untagged group held in warm water. A fungal infection was observed to be the cause of death when water temperature increased. Swimming tests to determine any adverse effects due to tag insertion showed no significant difference (P 0.12) between tagged and untagged lampreys for mean burst speed; however, maximum burst speeds were significantly lower for the PIT-tagged group.

Mueller, Robert P.; Moursund, Russell A.; Bleich, Matthew D.

2006-05-01

431

Survival and growth of juvenile Pacific lampreys tagged with passive integrated transponders (PIT) in freshwater and seawater  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tagging methods are needed for both adult and juvenile life stages of Pacific lampreys Lampetra tridentata to better understand their biology and factors contributing to their decline. We developed a safe and efficient technique for tagging juvenile Pacific lampreys with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. We tested the short-term survival of PIT-tagged juvenile lampreys in freshwater at four temperatures (9, 12, 15, and 18C) and their long-term growth and survival in seawater. For both experiments there was little to no tag loss, and juvenile lampreys in freshwater showed high survival at all temperatures at 7 d (95100%) and 14 d (88100%) posttagging. Prolonged holding (40 d) resulted in significantly lower survival (2879%) at warmer temperatures (1218C). For juvenile lampreys tagged in freshwater and then transitioned to seawater, survival was 97% for tagged fish until day 94, and at the end of 6 months, survival was about 58% for both tagged and control fish. About half of the tagged and control fish that survived in seawater grew, but there was no difference in growth between the two groups. In freshwater, but not in seawater, most fish that died had an aquatic fungal infection. In both experiments, survival increased with increasing fish length at tagging. Our results indicate that tags similar in size to a 9-mm PIT tag are a feasible option for tagging metamorphosed juvenile lampreys migrating downstream and that when fungal infections are mitigatedas in seawaterlong-term (at least 6 months) survival of tagged juvenile lampreys is high.

Mesa, Matthew G.; Copeland, Elizabeth S.; Christiansen, Helena E.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Roon, Sean R.; Hershberger, Paul K.

2012-01-01

432

Microwave radar detection of gas pipeline leaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are developing a microwave radar sensing and imaging system to detect and locate gas leaks in natural gas pipelines. The underlying detection principle is radar backscattering from the index-of-refraction inhomogeneities introduced by the dispersion of methane in air. An essential first step in the development effort is modeling to estimate the radar cross section. This paper describes the modeling

N. Gopalsami; D. B. Kanareykin; V. D Asanov; S. Bakhtiari; A. C. Raptis

2002-01-01

433

Microwave Radar Detection of Gas Pipeline Leaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are developing a microwave radar sensing and imaging system to detect and locate gas leaks in natural gas pipelines. The underlying detection principle is radar backscattering from the index-of-refraction inhomogeneities introduced by the dispersion of methane in air. An essential first step in the development effort is modeling to estimate the radar cross section. This paper describes the modeling

N. Gopalsami; D. B. Kanareykin; V. Asanov; S. Bakhtiari; A. C. Raptis

2003-01-01

434

Bistatic radar using satellite-borne illuminators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bistatic radar has long been recognised as an interesting variant of radar, with a number of potential advantages for air defence. Space-based radar is seen by the US Department of Defense as a key technique for future AMTI and GMTI applications, and the DISCOVERER II programme is indicative of current thinking, aiming ultimately at a network of several tens of

H. D. Griffiths; C. J. Baker; J. Baubert; N. Kitchen; M. Treagust

2002-01-01

435

46 CFR 11.480 - Radar observer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radar observer. 11.480 Section 11.480...Requirements for Deck Officers § 11.480 Radar observer. (a) This section contains...that an applicant must meet to qualify as a radar observer. (Part 15 of this chapter...

2010-10-01

436

46 CFR 11.480 - Radar observer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Radar observer. 11.480 Section 11.480...Requirements for Deck Officers § 11.480 Radar observer. (a) This section contains...that an applicant must meet to qualify as a radar observer. (Part 15 of this chapter...

2009-10-01

437

Downhole radar system for fracture detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A borehole radar prototype was designed based on theoretical considerations. Experiments were conducted at a granite quarry where an existing flame-cut slot was used to simulate a fracture. The radar returns from this simulated fracture were detectable in boreholes located at distances of up to 12 meters from the fracture. Engineering design for a downhole radar system is almost complete.

1986-01-01

438

Airborne Doppler Radar Data Analysis Workshop  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Airborne Doppler Radar Data Analysis Workshop, sponsored by the Atmospheric Technology Division (ATD) of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), was the first to focus on analyzing airborne Doppler radar data. The workshop (held 13-16 March 2000 at NCAR) aimed to 1) summarize the current airborne Doppler radar data analysis techniques, and 2) promote the use of airborne

Wen-Chau Lee; Frank D. Marks; Craig Walther

2003-01-01

439

The evolution of the SEASAT imaging radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the design parameters and development of a synthetic aperture radar for use on the SEASAT spacecraft. This imaging radar is designed to operate at altitudes of 800 km with an orbital inclination of 108 deg, a nominal resolution of 25 m, and a swath width of 100 km. The design evolved from planetary imaging radar studies conducted

W. E. Brown Jr.

1975-01-01

440

A scan converter radar display system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A radar display system, designed to integrate on a single display target information from several radars, has been designed and evaluated. Integration is obtained through the use of single gun scan converter tubes. The resultant image on the TV monitor is a bright steady PPI image which is updated at the end of each radar scan. Limitations imposed on the

N. V. Oneal; P. M. Thiebaud

1975-01-01

441

Meteor radar signal processing and error analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meteor wind radar systems are a powerful tool for study of the horizontal wind field in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT). While such systems have been operated for many years, virtually no literature has focused on radar system error analysis. The instrumental error may prevent scientists from getting correct conclusions on geophysical variability. The radar system instrumental error comes

Chunmei Kang

2008-01-01

442

Radar meteorology: highlights of recent advances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radar meteorology has recently reached new heights of operational and scientific development. This has been fostered largely by the installation of the first generation of operational NEXRAD (WSR-88D) Doppler radars across the USA, the initiation of a demonstration network of operational radar wind profilers in the central USA, and the early installation of the first of the Terminal Doppler Weather

David Atlas

1994-01-01

443

A Versatile C-Band Radar Transmitter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The C-band transmitter is one of the four radar transmitters which are included in the Four-Frequency Radar System. The Four-Frequency Radar in its entirety is an airborne system capable of measuring target characteristics and terrain backscatter, and has...

W. T. Davis N. R. Mills J. A. Weston

1971-01-01

444

Radar backscatter analysis using fractional Fourier transform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on analyzing radar backscatter returns using the fractional Fourier transform. This study is motivated by two factors: first, to examine the radar backscatter mechanism of standard small targets; and second, to extract pertinent scattering features that can be used in target recognition. Radar returns have been examined using time-frequency analysis techniques, particularly those targets with dispersive scattering

Ismail I. Jouny

2004-01-01

445

Efficient Ways to Learn Weather Radar Polarimetry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The U.S. weather radar network is currently being upgraded with dual-polarization capability. Weather radar polarimetry is an interdisciplinary area of engineering and meteorology. This paper presents efficient ways to learn weather radar polarimetry through several basic and practical topics. These topics include: 1) hydrometeor scattering model

Cao, Qing; Yeary, M. B.; Zhang, Guifu

2012-01-01

446

Deception jamming modeling in radar sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we create a modeling scenario which includes an airborne imaging radar platform, receiving platform and an electronic countermeasure (ECM) platform whose goal is to introduce false target images. We also assume a high-resolution stripmap SAR model operating with several common types of UWB signals, as well as the newly proposed OFDM radar waveforms. OFDM-coded radar signals possess

Jonathan Schuerger; Dmitriy Garmatyuk

2008-01-01

447

Weather radar technology and future developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radar Hydrology is slowly coming of age and the future develop - ment of quantitative weather radar will be heavily influence d by the Hydro- logical community. There is controversy as to whether or not dual-pola rization radar technology is going to improve the estimation o f precipitation. This paper discusses some of the advantages and disadvantages of the present

IAN DAVID CLUCKIE; MIGUEL ANGEL RICO-RAMIREZ

448

Radar Detection of PRECIPITATiON  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection of precipitation by radar is possible because of the scattering of high-frequency radio waves by precipitation forms. Radar echoes being thus directly related to precipitation may be classified in a simple manner according to meteorological origin. Precipitation echoes from thunderstorms, showers, cold fronts, and warm fronts are described, classified, and illustrated. Radar equipment suitable for meteorological use is briefly

Arthur E. Bent

1946-01-01

449

The design of broadband radar absorbing surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a growing and widespread interest in radar absorbing material technology. As the name implies, radar absorbing materials or RAM's are coatings whose electric and magnetic properties have been selected to allow the absorption of microwave energy at discrete or broadband frequencies. In military applications low radar cross section (RCS) of a vehicle may be required in order

Go H. Suk

1990-01-01

450

Atmospheric Measurements by VHF Pulsed Doppler Radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past decade the technique of using sensitive Doppler radars to measure wind, turbulence, and stability in the free atmosphere has been developed. Because this technique can be used to study the atmosphere at all heights from near the ground up to about 100 km, it has been named the MST (mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere) radar technique. Radars that are sensitive enough

John Green; Kenneth Gage; Thomas Van Zandt

1979-01-01

451

Doppler Radar Probing of the Clear Atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past few years, sensitive Doppler radars have been used to probe the clear atmosphere from the boundary layer up to stratospheric altitudes. Routine Doppler radar observations are now attainable over a wide range of frequencies at virtually all altitudes in this height range. Although a number of these systems operate at UHF (300-3000 MHz), sensitive Doppler radars have

K. S. Gage; B. B. Balsley

1978-01-01

452

Passive Radar using Multiple GSM Transmitting Stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The atmosphere has a wide range of transmissions available from various sources like TV transmissions, GSM signals, FM Radio, AM Radio, GPS signals, etc. These signals open up the opportunity of designing different types of passive radars. Passive radar using a single GSM transmitting station have been designed, but this type of radar cannot give accurate target parameters. This paper

U. M. D. Mendi; B. K. Sarkar

2006-01-01

453

Region-Enhanced Passive Radar Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We adapt and apply a recently-developed region-enhanced synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image reconstruction technique to the problem of passive radar imaging. One goal in passive radar imaging is to form images of aircraft using signals transmitted by commercial radio and television stations that are reflected from the objects of interest. This involves reconstructing an image from sparse samples of

Mujdat Cetin; Aaron D. Lanterman

2004-01-01

454

a Satellite-Based Radar Wind Sounder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to investigate the application of Doppler radar systems for global wind measurement. A model of the satellite-based radar wind sounder (RAWS) is discussed, and many critical problems in the designing, such as the antenna scan pattern, tracking the Doppler shift caused by satellite motion, and backscattering of radar signals from different types of clouds,

Weizhuang Xin

1991-01-01

455

Tomographic synthesis applied to radar \\/STAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

A real time radar target imaging procedure based on tomographic synthesis is discussed. The procedure, which can be used with an incoherent high range resolution radar (or a CW high Doppler resolution radar), employs a previously described (Le Chevalier et al., 1977) syntactic signal processing algorithm to detect and track a bright point on successive unit-impulse responses in real time.

F. Le Chevalier; C. Fugier-Garrel

1979-01-01

456

Phase retrieval techniques for radar ambiguity problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radar ambiguity function plays a central role in the theory of radar signals. Its absolute value (A(u)) measures the correlation between the signal u emitted by the radar transmitter and its echo after reaching a moving target. It is important to know signals that give rise to ambiguity functions of given shapes. Therefore, it is also important to know

Philippe Jaming

1999-01-01

457

Radar seekers for precision guided munitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general perspective is given on the evolution of radar guidance, utilizing the astonishing current advances in electronic technology, so as to overcome past disadvantages of radar guidance and to solve the problems of battlefield targets. Missile control, radar homing missiles, infrared detectors, and several types of missile systems are discussed.

D. A. Ramsay

1982-01-01

458

Systolic architectures for radar CFAR detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radar constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detectors, which are adaptive threshold detectors used to compensate for unknown noise environments, are discussed. Although the signal processing theory for CFAR detection is advanced, applications lag because of the high throughput required in radar. This intensive computational requirement (a data rate of at least 20 MHz for most search radars) cannot be met

J.-N. Hwang; J. A. Ritcey

1990-01-01

459

Embedding technologies for an automotive radar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radar sensors are already employed in production model vehicles e.g. for adaptive cruise control (ACC) systems. Further development of driver assistance systems has also led to the use of radar sensors in active safety systems (active brake assistance, collision warning, emergency braking, etc). However, the costs of manufacturing such radar-based systems, capable of gathering reliable information from surroundings, for vehicles

K.-F. Becker; M. Koch; R. Kahle; T. Braun; L. Bottcher; A. Ostmann; J. Kostelnik; F. Ebling; E. Noack; J. P. Sommer; M. Richter; M. Schneider; H. Reichl

2009-01-01

460

UWB radar for human being detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

UWB radar for detection and positioning of human beings in complex environment has been developed and manufactured. Novelty of the radar lies in its large operational bandwidth (11.7 GHz at -10 dB level) combined with high time stability. Detection of respiratory movement of a person in laboratory conditions has been demonstrated. Based on experimental results human being radar return has

A. G. Yarovoy; J. Matuzas; B. Levitas; L. P. Ligthart

2005-01-01

461

UWB Radar for Human Being Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

UWB radar for detection and positioning of human beings in complex environment has been developed and manufactured. Novelty of the radar lies in its large operational bandwidth (11.7 GHz at -10 dB level) combined with high time stability. Detection of respiratory movement of a person in laboratory conditions has been demonstrated. Based on experimental results human being radar return has

A. G. Yarovoy; L. P. Ligthart; J. Matuzas; B. Levitas

2006-01-01

462

Improved Polarimetric Calibration for Atmospheric Radars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polarization properties of radar waves that are scattered from atmospheric objects are of great interest in meteorological studies. However, polarimetric radar measurements are often not sufficiently accurate for retriev- ing physical properties of targets. To compensate for errors, radar polarimetric calibration is applied. Typical calibrations are performed based on measurements of point targets with known scattering matrices located in the

DMITRI N. MOISSEEV; CHRISTINE M. H. UNAL; LEO P. L IGTHART

2002-01-01

463

Radar Imaging of Ocean Surface Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radar imagery of ocean surface patterns is presented and discussed. The imaging radar detects changes in ocean surface backscatter and yields imagery of deepwater gravity waves, oil slicks, island shadows, internal waves, coastal waves, and other features. The results of several observations suggest that the surface irregularities behave as iostropic scatterers for a radar wavelength of 25 cm. The popular

W. E. Brown; C. Elachi; T. W. Thompson

1976-01-01

464

Movement and Predictability of Radar Echoes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Quantitative weather radar data collected by the WSR-57 radars at Atlantic City, N. J. and Norman, Okla. have been analyzed with high speed computers to investigate the movement and predictability of weather radar echoes. The location of the maximum cross...

J. W. Wilson

1966-01-01

465

Terminal Doppler weather radar clutter control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of unique approaches to clutter rejection which have been validated with the terminal Doppler weather radar (TDWR) testbed radar are described. Key aspects of the detection problem are emphasized from the viewpoint of a radar engineer (as opposed to the meteorological and pattern recognition features of the problem). Attention is focused on mainlobe clutter suppression since it is

James E. Evans; William H. Drury; Daniel P. Hynek; T. Sen Lee

1990-01-01

466

Radar Technology Applied to Air Traffic Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of primary radars for air traffic control (ATC) is discussed. The location and the parameters of various ATC radars are described. The clutter environment (land clutter, birds, automobiles, and weather) has had a major impact on the configuration of these radars. Signal-processing techniques and antenna techniques utilized to cope with the clutter are described. Future signal-processing techniques for the

WILLIAM W. SHRADER

1973-01-01

467

Scanning ARM Cloud Radar Handbook  

SciTech Connect

The scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) is a polarimetric Doppler radar consisting of three different radar designs based on operating frequency. These are designated as follows: (1) X-band SACR (X-SACR); (2) Ka-band SACR (Ka-SACR); and (3) W-band SACR (W-SACR). There are two SACRs on a single pedestal at each site where SACRs are deployed. The selection of the operating frequencies at each deployed site is predominantly determined by atmospheric attenuation at the site. Because RF attenuation increases with atmospheric water vapor content, ARM's Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites use the X-/Ka-band frequency pair. The Southern Great Plains (SGP) and North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites field the Ka-/W-band frequency pair. One ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1) has a Ka/W-SACR and the other (AMF2) has a X/Ka-SACR.

Widener, K; Bharadwaj, N; Johnson, K

2012-06-18

468

GMTI radar minimum detectable velocity.  

SciTech Connect

Minimum detectable velocity (MDV) is a fundamental consideration for the design, implementation, and exploitation of ground moving-target indication (GMTI) radar imaging modes. All single-phase-center air-to-ground radars are characterized by an MDV, or a minimum radial velocity below which motion of a discrete nonstationary target is indistinguishable from the relative motion between the platform and the ground. Targets with radial velocities less than MDV are typically overwhelmed by endoclutter ground returns, and are thus not generally detectable. Targets with radial velocities greater than MDV typically produce distinct returns falling outside of the endoclutter ground returns, and are thus generally discernible using straightforward detection algorithms. This document provides a straightforward derivation of MDV for an air-to-ground single-phase-center GMTI radar operating in an arbitrary geometry.

Richards, John Alfred

2011-04-01

469

HAL-3 radar test set  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the HAL-3 radar test set (called the set in the following) used to measure the technical specifications of the HAL-3 airborne radar and to maintain it based on tested results. Some new techniques are employed in the set, including sinusoidal pulsewidth modulation (SPWM) in the power supply, digital gyro simulator and automatic test module (ATM) with STD industrial control microprocessor series. The specially designed software implements man-machine interaction with menu in Chinese, selects parameters and operation mode, and controls testing procedures. These techniques may be extensively applied to other automatic test instruments.

Fang, Zhenhe; Zhang, Ming-Xing; Shen, Chang-Hong; Wang, Yi

1994-07-01

470

Road detection on radar imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detecting a road network on radar imagery is becoming a new area in remote sensing. This report is an attempt to build a facet-based road network detection procedure for radar imagery. This procedure includes the line detection part and the road detection and connection part. The first part analytically detects linear features using a facet valley-finding technique which looks for the first directional derivative zero-crossing of a bicubic facet model. The second part statistically screens the linear features on a component-by-component base and then optimally connects the screened linear features using a dynamic programming algorithm.

Kim, J. J.; Haralick, R. M.

1985-09-01

471

Array radars - An update. II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research aimed at improving array radars is reviewed. Advances in MMICs, the use of HEMT low noise amplifiers for analog and digital circuitry, the application of VHSIC chips to the programmable signal processor of the F-16 airborne fire control radar, Si compiler language, memory chips, and GHz and GaAs logic are discussed. Consideration is given to CMOS gate arrays, floating point chips, a single-chip digital signal processor, systolic array architectures, radiation hardened chips, digital beamforming, distributed beamsteering computers, fiber optics, flat low voltage displays, and adaptive-adaptive array processing.

Brookner, Eli

1987-03-01

472

Water treatment apparatus and method  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An apparatus for the biological treatment of saltwater-based domestic wastewater, the apparatus having an inlet for the introduction of the saltwater-based domestic wastewater, an outlet for the removal of treated wastewater, means for monitoring the salinity level of the saltwater-based domestic wastewater entering or within the apparatus and means for controlling the salinity level of the saltwater-based domestic wastewater entering or within the apparatus such that fluctuations in the salinity level of the saltwater-based domestic wastewater are reduced and the biological treatment of the saltwater-based domestic wastewater is thereby maintained.

Fry; John (Torfaen, GB); Jones; Gerald (Nr Swindon, GB)

2011-01-25

473

Pellet inspection apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for inspecting nuclear fuel pellets in a sealed container for diameter, flaws, length and weight. The apparatus includes, in an array, a pellet pick-up station, four pellet inspection stations and a pellet sorting station. The pellets are delivered one at a time to the pick-up station by a vibrating bowl through a vibrating linear conveyor. Grippers each associated with a successive pair of the stations are reciprocable together to pick up a pellet at the upstream station of each pair and to deposit the pellet at the corresponding downstream station. The gripper jaws are opened selectively depending on the state of the pellets at the stations and the particular cycle in which the apparatus is operating. Inspection for diameter, flaws and length is effected in each case by a laser beam projected on the pellets by a precise optical system while each pellet is rotated by rollers. Each laser and its optical system are mounted in a container which is free standing on a precise surface and is provided with locating buttons which engage locating holes in the surface so that each laser and its optical system is precisely set. The roller stands are likewise free standing and are similarly precisely positioned. The diameter optical system projects a thin beam of light which scans across the top of each pellet and is projected on a diode array. The fl GOVERNMENT CONTRACT CLAUSE The invention herein described was made in the course of or under a contract or subcontract thereunder with the Department of Energy bearing No. EY-67-14-C-2170.

Wilks, Robert S. (Plum Borough, PA); Taleff, Alexander (Churchill Borough, PA); Sturges, Jr., Robert H. (Plum Borough, PA)

1982-01-01

474

Use of implantable temperature transponders for the determination of air cell temperature, eggshell water vapor conductance, and their functional relationships in embryonated broiler hatching eggs.  

PubMed

Broiler hatching eggs obtained from a 29-wk-old Ross 308 breeder flock were weighed and set on 8 tray levels (60 eggs/level) of a single incubator. On d 10.5 of incubation, the eggs were weighed, and temperature transponders were implanted in the air cells of 4 randomly selected embryonated eggs per tray level for determination of internal egg temperature (IT). Two water-filled vials per tray level containing transponders were also placed within 5 cm of the implanted eggs for determination of external egg temperature (ET). Between 10.5 and 18.5 d of incubation, ET and IT were recorded every 12 h. Egg weights and embryo survival were determined on 10.5 and 18.5 d of incubation and were used for the calculation of average daily incubational weight loss of embryonated eggs (EWL) and average daily percentage of EWL. Approximately 75% (24 out of 32) of the embryos in the implanted eggs survived through d 18.5 of incubation. Mean ET and IT were used to calculate the water vapor pressure gradient across the eggshell, which was subsequently used with EWL to calculate eggshell water vapor conductance (G(H2O)) and specific G(H2O) (g(H2O); G(H2O) adjusted to a 100-g set egg weight basis). Mean percentage of EWL, ET, IT, G(H2O), and g(H2O) for the 10.5- to 18.5-d incubation period were 0.546 0.02%, 37.1 0.03C, 37.8 0.09C, 13.9 0.47 mg of H(2)O/d per Torr, and 24.5 0.75 mg of H(2)O/d per Torr per 100 g, respectively. It was concluded that temperature transponders may be successfully implanted in the air cells of broiler hatching eggs to determine ET, IT, G(H2O), and g(H2O) in Ross Ross 308 broiler hatching eggs. Nevertheless, increased embryo survivability by further improving the implantation procedure may increase the practicality of temperature transponder use in commercial settings. PMID:21597058

Pulikanti, R; Peebles, E D; Gerard, P D

2011-06-01

475

CRANE POSITIONING APPARATUS  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is described for automatically accomplishing the final accurate horizontal positioning of a crane after the latter has been placed to within 1/8 in. of its selected position. For this purpose there is provided a tiltable member on the crane mast for lowering into contact with a stationary probe. Misalignment of the tiltable member, with respect to the probe as the member is lowered, causes tilting of the latter to actuate appropriate switches that energize motors for bringing the mast into proper position. When properly aligned the member is not tilted and a central switch is actuated to indicate the final alignment of the crane.

Landsiedel, F.W.; Wolff, H.

1960-06-28

476

Apparatus for bagging material  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An apparatus (10) for bagging material into a stretchable bag having an open end, comprises a movable bag stretching structure (18) displaceable between a first position for receiving the bag and a second position for holding the bag in a stretched state, wherein said stretching structure (18) is provided with elongated corner members (70, 72) for accumulating the bag thereon, each of said elongated corner members (70, 72) being provided with a movable strap-like member (210) extending along the length of the corner members (70, 72) to facilitate loading and unloading the bag on and from the corner members (70, 72).

2010-10-26

477

Radiation image inspection apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A radiation image inspection apparatus is described comprising: means for generating and directing radiation toward an article to be inspected; a screen for converting a radiation pattern of the article into a first visible light image; lens means for maintaining the intensity of a first visible light image produced on the screen; camera means having an image tube target and producing an electrical output system corresponding to the incident image on the image tube target from the lens means; and control means for controlling the operation of a camera means and the radiation generating means.

Velasquez, J.F.

1988-04-05

478

Portable hydrogenerating apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus for generating hydroelectric power comprising a portable collector tube assembly which can be transported to the site of a water source having a waterfall sufficient in magnitude to provide a pressure head for driving a turbine generator. The tube assembly comprises telescopically arranged inner and outer tubes, and means for rotating the tube assembly and extending the inner tube so as to place the upper, extended end thereof in a position within and below the top of the waterfall so as to take advantage of the resulting hydrodynamic and hydrostatic forces.

Borgren, P.M.

1982-04-13

479

Rotary dental polishing apparatus  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A rotary dental polishing apparatus which utilizes a rotatably cylindrical cartridge for containing polishing paste therein. One end of the cartridge is provided with a polishing cup, the cavity of which is in communication with the interior of the cartridge to receive paste therefrom. The cartridge also comprises a wiper conveyer mechanism which is in communication with the outer end of the cartridge at the end opposite the cup and is prevented from rotating which results in the conveyer mechanism continuously urging the paste out of the cartridge into the cup. The cartridge may be configured to rotate at a right angle to the drive source.

Warden; Fuller (Tulsa, OK); Lewis; Eugene W. (Tulsa, OK)

1981-05-12

480

Mass flowmeter apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a non-venting mass flowmeter apparatus. It comprises: a substantially vertical container having a known mass content per unit of height or weight, the container in direct open fluid communication with conduits capable of carrying liquids; means capable of providing a set minimum positive displacement pressure in the vertical container; means for filling the vertical container against the set minimum pressure; and means for monitoring the amount of liquid in the container as change in mass over a measured time interval.

Adney, B.R.; Alworth, C.W.; Durkee, J.B.; Jeffries, B.T.

1990-10-16

481

Apparatus for chemical synthesis  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus for forming a chemical hydride is described and which includes a pseudo-plasma-electrolysis reactor which is operable to receive a solution capable of forming a chemical hydride and which further includes a cathode and a movable anode, and wherein the anode is moved into and out of fluidic, ohmic electrical contact with the solution capable of forming a chemical hydride and which further, when energized produces an oxygen plasma which facilitates the formation of a chemical hydride in the solution.

Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Herring, J. Stephen (Idaho Falls, ID); Grandy, Jon D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-05-10

482

Sonic levitation apparatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sonic levitation apparatus is disclosed which includes a sonic transducer which generates acoustical energy responsive to the level of an electrical amplifier. A duct communicates with an acoustical chamber to deliver an oscillatory motion of air to a plenum section which contains a collimated hole structure having a plurality of parallel orifices. The collimated hole structure converts the motion of the air to a pulsed. Unidirectional stream providing enough force to levitate a material specimen. Particular application to the production of microballoons in low gravity environment is discussed.

Dunn, S. A.; Pomplum, A. R.; Paquette, E. G.; Ethridge, E. C.; Johnson, J. L.

1984-05-01

483

Foil changing apparatus  

DOEpatents

A self-contained hermetically sealed foil changer for advancing a portion of foil web into a position normal to the path of a high energy particle beam. The path of the beam is defined generally by an aperture plate and cooperating axially movable barrel such that the barrel can be advanced toward the plate thereby positioning a portion of the foil across the beam path and sealing the foil between the barrel and the plate to form a membrane across said beam path. A spooling apparatus contained in the foil changer permits selectively advancing a fresh supply of foil across the beam path without breaking the foil changer seal.

Crist, C.E.; Ives, H.C.; Leifeste, G.T.; Miller, R.B.

1986-03-06

484

Foil changing apparatus  

DOEpatents

A self-contained hermetically sealed foil changer for advancing a portion of foil web into a position normal to the path of a high energy particle beam. The path of the beam is defined generally by an aperture plate and cooperating axially movable barrel such that the barrel can be advanced toward the plate thereby positioning a portion of the foil across the beam path and sealing the foil between the barrel and the plate to form a membrane across said beam path. A spooling apparatus contained in the foil changer permits selectively advancing a fresh supply of foil across the beam path without breaking the foil changer seal.

Crist, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Ives, Harry C. (Albuquerque, NM); Leifeste, Gordon T. (Albuquerque, NM); Miller, Robert B. (Albuquerque, NM)

1988-01-01

485

Municipal waste processing apparatus  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to apparatus for processing municipal waste, and more particularly to vibrating mesh screen conveyor systems for removing grit, glass, and other noncombustible materials from dry municipal waste. Municipal waste must be properly processed and disposed of so that it does not create health risks to the community. Generally, municipal waste, which may be collected in garbage trucks, dumpsters, or the like, is deposited in processing areas such as landfills. Land and environmental controls imposed on landfill operators by governmental bodies have increased in recent years, however, making landfill disposal of solid waste materials more expensive. 6 figs.

Mayberry, J.L.

1988-04-13

486

DNA Sequencing apparatus  

DOEpatents

An automated DNA sequencing apparatus having a reactor for providing at least two series of DNA products formed from a single primer and a DNA strand, each DNA product of a series differing in molecular weight and having a chain terminating agent at one end; separating means for separating the DNA products to form a series bands, the intensity of substantially all nearby bands in a different series being different, band reading means for determining the position an This invention was made with government support including a grant from the U.S. Public Health Service, contract number AI-06045. The U.S. government has certain rights in the invention.

Tabor, Stanley (Cambridge, MA); Richardson, Charles C. (Chestnut Hill, MA)

1992-01-01

487

Bistatic laptop radar: an affordable, silent radar alternative  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passive sensor technology based on noncooperative, coherent broadband sensing can provide a lower power consumption, low cost, light weight and compact (man portable) alternative to active radar sensors in support of quiet surveillance and radio frequency (RF) target imaging. The AF Rome Laboratory and its sponsored industrial community (Syracuse Research Corp., Decision Science Applications, Inc., Technology Service Corp., etc.) have

R. F. Ogrodnik

1996-01-01

488

Doppler Radar Profilers as Calibration Tools for Scanning Radars.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Aeronomy Laboratory has modified a standard 915-MHz profiler for use as a precipitation profiler in support of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission ground validation field campaigns. This profiler was modified to look vertically with a fixed dish antenna. It was operated during the Texas and Florida Underflights Experiment (TEFLUN) A in south Texas in April-May 1998 and during TEFLUN B in central Florida in August-September 1998. Collocated with the profiler was a Distromet, Inc., RD-69 Joss-Waldvogel disdrometer in Texas and Florida and a two-dimensional video disdrometer in Florida. The disdrometers are used to calibrate the profiler at the lowest range gates. At higher altitudes, the calibrated profiler reflectivities are compared with observations made by scanning radars such as the Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler in Dickinson, Texas, and Melbourne, Florida, and the S-band Doppler dual-polarization radar in Florida. The authors conclude that it is possible to use profilers as transfer standards to calibrate and to validate the reflectivities measured by the scanning radars.

Gage, Kenneth S.; Williams, Christopher R.; Johnston, Paul E.; Ecklund, Warner L.; Cifelli, Robert; Tokay, Ali; Carter, David A.

2000-12-01

489

Debris flux comparisons from the Goldstone Radar, Haystack Radar, and Hax Radar prior, during, and after the last solar maximum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The continual monitoring of the low Earth orbit (LEO) debris environment using highly sensitive radars is essential for an accurate characterization of these dynamic populations. Debris populations are continually evolving since there are new debris sources, previously unrecognized debris sources, and debris loss mechanisms that are dependent on the dynamic space environment. Such radar data are used to supplement, update, and validate existing orbital debris models. NASA has been utilizing radar observations of the debris environment for over a decade from three complementary radars: the NASA JPL Goldstone radar, the MIT Lincoln Laboratory (MIT/LL) Long Range Imaging Radar (known as the Haystack radar), and the MIT/LL Haystack Auxiliary radar (HAX). All of these systems are highly sensitive radars that operate in a fixed staring mode to statistically sample orbital debris in the LEO environment. Each of these radars is ideally suited to measure debris within a specific size region. The Goldstone radar generally observes objects with sizes from 2 mm to 1 cm. The Haystack radar generally measures from 5 mm to several meters. The HAX radar generally measures from 2 cm to several meters. These overlapping size regions allow a continuous measurement of cumulative debris flux versus diameter from 2 mm to several meters for a given altitude window. This is demonstrated for all three radars by comparing the debris flux versus diameter over 200 km altitude windows for 3 nonconsecutive years from 1998 to 2003. These years correspond to periods before, during, and after the peak of the last solar cycle. Comparing the year to year flux from Haystack for each of these altitude regions indicate statistically significant changes in subsets of the debris populations. Potential causes of these changes are discussed. These analysis results include error bars that represent statistical sampling errors.

Stokely, C. L.; Stansbery, E. G.; Goldstein, R. M.

2009-08-01

490

Methods for FMCW radar map georeferencing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a context of mobile environment mapping, a vehicle-based radar system, K2Pi, has been developed. A mapping of the environment is carried out from the radar datasets. Given the specificities of radar maps, the main problem at this stage is to find a method to georeference these maps. This article proposes three radar map georeferencing methods. The first method is a typical manual selection of a set of control point pairs. The second method consists of matching the relative trajectory computed by a specific radar algorithm with a trajectory recorded from absolute DGPS recording. Finally, the third method, inspired by the image-to-image approach, is based on Fourier-Mellin transform which automatically registers the radar map with respect to a georeferenced aerial photograph. Successfully tested on radar datasets, this method could be applied to many other types of data.

Jaud, Marion; Rouveure, Raphal; Faure, Patrice; Monod, Marie-Odile

2013-10-01

491

Variable volume calibration apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is provided for determining the volume of a closed chamber. The apparatus includes a body having a cylindrical cavity therein including a threaded rear portion and a closed front end, and a piston having a threaded portion which mates with threaded rear portion of the cavity and which reciprocates in the cavity. A gas-impermeable seal, which is carried by the piston in one embodiment, forms a closed chamber in the front end of the cavity. A linear-movement indicator, attached to the rear end of the piston, measures the reciprocating movement of the piston in the cavity, while a pressure sensing device, connected to the front end of the cavity, determines the pressure in the closed system. In use, a vessel, having a volume enclosing experimental materials, is also connected to the front end of the cavity, and pressure and piston movement measurements are made which enable calculation of a volume change in the vessels. The design and operation of this instrument are presented. 7 figs.

Hallman, R.L. Jr.

1991-01-01

492

Agitation apparatus. [Patent application  

DOEpatents

Agitation apparatus includes a tank with a cylindrical upper portion, a frustoconical intermediate portion, and a cylindrical lower portion, a lift tube extending from the upper portion of the tank to a point near an end cap attached to the lower portion of the tank, the lift tube being concentric with the lower portion of the tank to provide a flow passage there between, and a plurality of air supply conduits extending along the lift tube and spaced apart around its perimeter, these air supply conduits terminating adjacent the lower end of the lift tube. Air discharged from the lower ends of the air supply conduits causes liquid in the tank to flow upwardly through the lift tube and out of apertures in the upper portion thereof. Due to the unique properties of nuclear fuel dissolver solutions and the constraint placed on the amount of air that can be injected therein by conventional apparatus, there has been a need for a more effective means for agitating liquid in nuclear fuel digester tanks.

Beets, A.L.; Lewis, B.E. Jr.

1982-03-12

493

Heat pump apparatus  

DOEpatents

A heat pump apparatus including a compact arrangement of individual tubular reactors containing hydride-dehydride beds in opposite end sections, each pair of beds in each reactor being operable by sequential and coordinated treatment with a plurality of heat transfer fluids in a plurality of processing stages, and first and second valves located adjacent the reactor end sections with rotatable members having multiple ports and associated portions for separating the hydride beds at each of the end sections into groups and for simultaneously directing a plurality of heat transfer fluids to the different groups. As heat is being generated by a group of beds, others are being regenerated so that heat is continuously available for space heating. As each of the processing stages is completed for a hydride bed or group of beds, each valve member is rotated causing the heat transfer fluid for the heat processing stage to be directed to that bed or group of beds. Each of the end sections are arranged to form a closed perimeter and the valve member may be rotated repeatedly about the perimeter to provide a continuous operation. Both valves are driven by a common motor to provide a coordinated treatment of beds in the same reactors. The heat pump apparatus is particularly suitable for the utilization of thermal energy supplied by solar collectors and concentrators but may be used with any source of heat, including a source of low-grade heat.

Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Horowitz, Jeffrey S. (Woodridge, IL)

1983-01-01

494

Fuel pump driving apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A fuel pump driving apparatus is described for an engine having a fuel pump, the apparatus comprising: a pump drive motor having an armature, first and second brushes arranged to oppose each other through the armature and a third brush arranged separately from the first and second brushes, wherein the first brush is grounded; a power source connected to at least one of the first to third brushes; first and second switch members for connecting the second and third brushes respectively through first and second switch members to the power source; means for detecting a load condition of the engine; first current drawing means for drawing electric current to the armature of the motor through two of the first to third brushes; second current drawing means for drawing electric current to the armature of the motor through all of the first to third brushes; and means for switching enabling and disabling of the first and second current drawing means in response to the detected load condition of the engine.

Yamada, H.; Ina, Y.; Kondo, T.; Kato, K.

1989-05-09

495

Battery charging apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes in combination: a portable module having a light mounted thereon, at least one rechargeable battery therein for operating the light, and a pair of contacts connected to the battery; an electrical system of an automotive vehicle having a second battery and an operation switch connected to the second battery, the switch having a normally open position; an apparatus for charging the rechargeable battery from the second battery. The apparatus has a charging circuit with a diode between the second battery and one of the contacts for the rechargeable battery, means for short circuiting the diode to permit a current flow around the diode, the means including a second switch having a normally closed position to complete a short circuit about the diode and an open position to interrupt the short circuit, and actuating means for actuating the second switch connected with the operation switch to move the second switch to the open position in response to closing of the operation switch.

Mc Dermott, J.A.

1987-09-01

496

Performance Comparison of Rescue Breathing Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A performance comparison of 14 rescue breathing apparatus was undertaken as an assessment of past and present worldwide technology. Rescue breathing apparatus are self-contained, close-circuit breathing apparatus used for entry into areas having atmospher...

N. Kyriazi

1999-01-01

497

An Inexpensive, Foolproof Apparatus for Flash Chromatography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a new, modified "flash chromatography" apparatus which overcomes difficulties found in conventional apparatus. For example, an expensive teflon pressure valve is not necessary in the modified version. The apparatus is suitable as an instructional tool in undergraduate courses. (JN)|

Thompson, Wayne J.; Hanson, Bryan A.

1984-01-01

498

An Inexpensive, Foolproof Apparatus for Flash Chromatography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a new, modified "flash chromatography" apparatus which overcomes difficulties found in conventional apparatus. For example, an expensive teflon pressure valve is not necessary in the modified version. The apparatus is suitable as an instructional tool in undergraduate courses. (JN)

Thompson, Wayne J.; Hanson, Bryan A.

1984-01-01

499

Pulse Doppler radar simulation study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past several years two different models have been produced for predicting detection performance of space-based and airborne coherent pulsed radars. The present work describes enhancements incorporated in the software including: (1) conversion of the code to ANSI standard FORTRAN-77; (2) development and implementation of a suitable algorithm for the evaluation of the clutter covariance matrix of an array

Murray Gibb; Leonard Lightstone; Ronald H. Saper

1988-01-01

500

Wind Retrieval using Marine Radars.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Within the High Resolution Air-Sea Interaction (HiRes) DRI the NATO Undersea Research Center (NURC) wants to develop and validate methodologies to retrieve wind field parameters from X-band marine radar. The main parameters NURC will focus on are the mean...

J. Horstmann

2011-01-01