Sample records for radial flow chromatography

  1. Are axial and radial flow chromatography different?

    PubMed

    Besselink, Tamara; van der Padt, Albert; Janssen, Anja E M; Boom, Remko M

    2013-01-01

    Radial flow chromatography can be a solution for scaling up a packed bed chromatographic process to larger processing volumes. In this study we compared axial and radial flow affinity chromatography both experimentally and theoretically. We used an axial flow column and a miniaturized radial flow column with a ratio of 1.8 between outer and inner surface area, both with a bed height of 5 cm. The columns were packed with affinity resin to adsorb BSA. The average velocity in the columns was set equal. No difference in performance between the two columns could be observed. To gain more insight into the design of a radial flow column, the velocity profile and resin distribution in the radial flow column were calculated. Using mathematical models we found that the breakthrough performance of radial flow chromatography is very similar to axial flow when the ratio between outer and inner radius of the radial flow column is around 2. When this ratio is increased, differences become more apparent, but remain small. However, the ratio does have a significant influence on the velocity profile inside the resin bed, which directly influences the pressure drop and potentially resin compression, especially at higher values for this ratio. The choice between axial and radial flow will be based on cost price, footprint and packing characteristics. For small-scale processes, axial flow chromatography is probably the best choice, for resin volumes of at least several tens of litres, radial flow chromatography may be preferable. PMID:23228917

  2. Efficient purification of antiproliferative polysaccharides from Hypsizigus marmoreus with radial flow chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yan, Pei-Sheng; Cao, Li-Xin; Zhang, Bing-Zhao

    2014-01-01

    The increasing commercial significance of natural polysaccharides for use in medicinal products is stimulating the development of efficient and easy scale-up techniques for polysaccharide purification. In this research, the crude polysaccharides from submerged cultivation broth of Hypsizigus marmoreus were purified using radial flow chromatography (RFC), and the antiproliferative activity of the purified fractions was evaluated in vitro. DEAE Sepharose CL-6B was selected to be packed in the RFC column based on its good resolution, physical stability, and low cost. Compared with axial flow chromatography (AFC), an efficient chromatographic process with significantly less time and buffer consumption but yielding higher polysaccharide recovery and resolution was established in RFC, which could clearly purify the crude polysaccharides into different fractions. An acceptable linear scale-up effect of RFC from 100 to 500 mL was successfully achieved without loss of resolution and enhancement of time consumption. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays in cell cultures indicated that the purified polysaccharide fractions possess moderate antiproliferative activities in three different human cancer cell lines, but have significantly lower cytotoxicity in normal human cell lines in vitro. Among the polysaccharide fractions, the main purified acidic fraction W-I could be considered as a novel potential antitumor agent candidate for several tumors, especially for human alveolar epithelial tumors. This research confirmed for the first time that RFC would be a new fast and efficient tool for purification of polysaccharides into different fractions, both at laboratory and commercial scales. PMID:24799498

  3. Effect of geometry and scale for axial and radial flow membrane chromatography-Experimental study of bovin serum albumin adsorption.

    PubMed

    Teepakorn, Chalore; Fiaty, Koffi; Charcosset, Catherine

    2015-07-17

    During the last 10 years, membrane chromatography (MC) has been increasingly reported for biomolecule purification at both small and large scales. Although, several axial and radial flow MC devices are commercialized, the effect of the device dimensions on the adsorption performance has not been fully investigated. In this study, axial and radial flow anion ion-exchange MC devices were used for bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption. For both axial and radial flow, three devices at different scales were compared, two having similar diameter and two similar bed height. The pressure drop and the flow distribution using acetone as a non-binding solute were measured, as well as BSA breakthrough curves at different flow rates and BSA loading concentrations. For all devices, it was observed that the flow rate had no effect on the breakthrough curve, which confirms the advantage of MC to be used at high flow rates. In addition, the BSA binding capacity increased with increasing BSA concentration, which suggests that it could be preferable to work with concentrated solutions rather than with very dilute solutions, when using buffer at high phosphate concentration. For both axial and radial flow, the bed height had a negative impact on the binding capacity, as the lowest binding capacities per membrane volume were obtained with the devices having the highest bed height. Radial flow MC has potential at large-scale applications, as a short bed thickness can be combined with a large inlet surface area. PMID:26050154

  4. Computational fluid dynamic simulation of axial and radial flow membrane chromatography: mechanisms of non-ideality and validation of the zonal rate model.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Pranay; Vahedipour, Kaveh; Lin, Min; Vogel, Jens H; Haynes, Charles; von Lieres, Eric

    2013-08-30

    Membrane chromatography (MC) is increasingly being used as a purification platform for large biomolecules due to higher operational flow rates. The zonal rate model (ZRM) has previously been applied to accurately characterize the hydrodynamic behavior in commercial MC capsules at different configurations and scales. Explorations of capsule size, geometry and operating conditions using the model and experiment were used to identify possible causes of inhomogeneous flow and their contributions to band broadening. In the present study, the hydrodynamics within membrane chromatography capsules are more rigorously investigated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The CFD models are defined according to precisely measured capsule geometries in order to avoid the estimation of geometry related model parameters. In addition to validating the assumptions and hypotheses regarding non-ideal flow mechanisms encoded in the ZRM, we show that CFD simulations can be used to mechanistically understand and predict non-binding breakthrough curves without need for estimation of any parameters. When applied to a small-scale axial flow MC capsules, CFD simulations identify non-ideal flows in the distribution (hold-up) volumes upstream and downstream of the membrane stack as the major source of band broadening. For the large-scale radial flow capsule, the CFD model quantitatively predicts breakthrough data using binding parameters independently determined using the small-scale axial flow capsule, identifying structural irregularities within the membrane pleats as an important source of band broadening. The modeling and parameter determination scheme described here therefore facilitates a holistic mechanistic-based method for model based scale-up, obviating the need of performing expensive large-scale experiments under binding conditions. As the CFD model described provides a rich mechanistic analysis of membrane chromatography systems and the ability to explore operational space, but requires detailed knowledge of internal capsule geometries and has much greater computational requirements, it is complementary to the previously described strengths and uses of the ZRM for process analysis and design. PMID:23885666

  5. Zonal rate model for axial and radial flow membrane chromatography, part II: model-based scale-up.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Pranay; Lin, Min; Vogel, Jens H; Choy, Derek; Haynes, Charles; von Lieres, Eric

    2014-08-01

    Membrane chromatography (MC) systems are finding increasing use in downstream processing trains for therapeutic proteins due to the unique mass-transfer characteristics they provide. As a result, there is increased need for model-based methods to scale-up MC units using data collected on a scaled-down unit. Here, a strategy is presented for MC unit scale-up using the zonal rate model (ZRM). The ZRM partitions an MC unit into virtual flow zones to account for deviations from ideal plug-flow behavior. To permit scale-up, it is first configured for the specific device geometry and flow profiles within the scaled-down unit so as to achieve decoupling of flow and binding related non-idealities. The ZRM is then configured for the preparative-scale unit, which typically utilizes markedly different flow manifolds and membrane architecture. Breakthrough is first analyzed in both units under non-binding conditions using an inexpensive tracer to independently determine unit geometry related parameters of the ZRM. Binding related parameters are then determined from breakthrough data on the scaled-down MC capsule to minimize sample requirements. Model-based scale-up may then be performed to predict band broadening and breakthrough curves on the preparative-scale unit. Here, the approach is shown to be valid when the Pall XT140 and XT5 capsules serve as the preparative and scaled-down units, respectively. In this case, scale-up is facilitated by our finding that the distribution of linear velocities through the membrane in the XT140 capsule is independent of the feed flow rate and the type of protein transmitted. Introduction of this finding into the ZRM permits quantitative predictions of breakthrough over a range of industrially relevant operating conditions. PMID:24554490

  6. Stability of radial swirl flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, H. S.; Khoo, B. C.

    2012-11-01

    The energy gradient theory is used to examine the stability of radial swirl flows. It is found that the flow of free vortex is always stable, while the introduction of a radial flow will induce the flow to be unstable. It is also shown that the pure radial flow is stable. Thus, there is a flow angle between the pure circumferential flow and the pure radial flow at which the flow is most unstable. It is demonstrated that the magnitude of this flow angle is related to the Re number based on the radial flow rate, and it is near the pure circumferential flow. The result obtained in this study is useful for the design of vaneless diffusers of centrifugal compressors and pumps as well as other industrial devices.

  7. Radial flow pulse jet mixer

    DOEpatents

    VanOsdol, John G.

    2013-06-25

    The disclosure provides a pulse jet mixing vessel for mixing a plurality of solid particles. The pulse jet mixing vessel is comprised of a sludge basin, a flow surface surrounding the sludge basin, and a downcoming flow annulus between the flow surface and an inner shroud. The pulse jet mixing vessel is additionally comprised of an upper vessel pressurization volume in fluid communication with the downcoming flow annulus, and an inner shroud surge volume separated from the downcoming flow annulus by the inner shroud. When the solid particles are resting on the sludge basin and a fluid such as water is atop the particles and extending into the downcoming flow annulus and the inner shroud surge volume, mixing occurs by pressurization of the upper vessel pressurization volume, generating an inward radial flow over the flow surface and an upwash jet at the center of the sludge basin.

  8. Transonic throat flow in radial or nearly radial supersonic nozzles

    E-print Network

    Carroll, Bruce Frederick

    1984-01-01

    TRANSONIC THROAT FLOW IN RADIAi, OR NEARLY RADIAC. SUPERSONIC NOZZLES A Thesis by BRUCE FREDERICK CARROLL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&N University in partial fulfillment of the requirments for the degree of BASTER OF SCIENCE... Nay 1984 Najor Subject: Nechanical Engineering TRANSONIC THROAT FLOW IN RADIAC. OR NEARLY RADIAL SUPERSONIC NOZZLES A Thesis by BRUCE FREDERICK CARROLL Approved as to style and content by: J C. utton (Chairm of Committee) Warren Heff t n...

  9. Boiling Radial Flow in Fractures of Varying

    E-print Network

    Stanford University

    apply only to a finite radius around the point of injection, higher values of heat flux and a boilingSGP-TR-166 Boiling Radial Flow in Fractures of Varying Wall Porosity Robb Allan Barnitt June 2000 and boiling convective heat transfer, with boiling flow in a rock fracture. A series of experiments observed

  10. Radial flow nuclear thermal rocket (RFNTR)

    DOEpatents

    Leyse, Carl F.

    1995-11-07

    A radial flow nuclear thermal rocket fuel assembly includes a substantially conical fuel element having an inlet side and an outlet side. An annular channel is disposed in the element for receiving a nuclear propellant, and a second, conical, channel is disposed in the element for discharging the propellant. The first channel is located radially outward from the second channel, and separated from the second channel by an annular fuel bed volume. This fuel bed volume can include a packed bed of loose fuel beads confined by a cold porous inlet frit and a hot porous exit frit. The loose fuel beads include ZrC coated ZrC-UC beads. In this manner, nuclear propellant enters the fuel assembly axially into the first channel at the inlet side of the element, flows axially across the fuel bed volume, and is discharged from the assembly by flowing radially outward from the second channel at the outlet side of the element.

  11. Radial flow nuclear thermal rocket (RFNTR)

    DOEpatents

    Leyse, Carl F. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1995-01-01

    A radial flow nuclear thermal rocket fuel assembly includes a substantially conical fuel element having an inlet side and an outlet side. An annular channel is disposed in the element for receiving a nuclear propellant, and a second, conical, channel is disposed in the element for discharging the propellant. The first channel is located radially outward from the second channel, and separated from the second channel by an annular fuel bed volume. This fuel bed volume can include a packed bed of loose fuel beads confined by a cold porous inlet frit and a hot porous exit frit. The loose fuel beads include ZrC coated ZrC-UC beads. In this manner, nuclear propellant enters the fuel assembly axially into the first channel at the inlet side of the element, flows axially across the fuel bed volume, and is discharged from the assembly by flowing radially outward from the second channel at the outlet side of the element.

  12. Radial flow permeability measurement. Part A: Theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Weitzenböck; R. A. Shenoi; P. A. Wilson

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with permeability measurement in the context of Resin Transfer Moulding (RTM). A new approach to two-dimensional radial flow permeability measurement with constant inlet pressure is proposed. It allows principal permeability to be measured even if the experimental axes are not aligned with the principal direction. This part of the paper looks at the underlying theory of the

  13. Radial flow permeability measurement. Part B: Application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R Weitzenböck; R. A Shenoi; P. A Wilson

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with permeability measurement in the context of Resin Transfer Moulding (RTM). A new approach to two-dimensional radial flow permeability measurement with constant inlet pressure is proposed in part A of this paper. In this second part experimental studies are performed to validate the new approach. The new approach is shown to accurately predict the orientation of the

  14. Fast Radial Flows in Transition Disk Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenfeld, Katherine A.; Chiang, Eugene; Andrews, Sean M.

    2014-02-01

    Protoplanetary "transition" disks have large, mass-depleted central cavities, yet also deliver gas onto their host stars at rates comparable to disks without holes. The paradox of simultaneous transparency and accretion can be explained if gas flows inward at much higher radial speeds inside the cavity than outside the cavity, since surface density (and by extension optical depth) varies inversely with inflow velocity at fixed accretion rate. Radial speeds within the cavity might even have to approach free-fall values to explain the huge surface density contrasts inferred for transition disks. We identify observational diagnostics of fast radial inflow in channel maps made in optically thick spectral lines. Signatures include (1) twisted isophotes in maps made at low systemic velocities and (2) rotation of structures observed between maps made in high-velocity line wings. As a test case, we apply our new diagnostic tools to archival Atacama Large Millimeter Array data on the transition disk HD 142527 and uncover evidence for free-fall radial velocities inside its cavity. Although the observed kinematics are also consistent with a disk warp, the radial inflow scenario is preferred because it predicts low surface densities that appear consistent with recent observations of optically thin CO isotopologues in this disk. How material in the disk cavity sheds its angular momentum wholesale to fall freely onto the star is an unsolved problem; gravitational torques exerted by giant planets or brown dwarfs are briefly discussed as a candidate mechanism.

  15. Sugar Determination in Foods with a Radially Compressed High Performance Liquid Chromatography Column.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ondrus, Martin G.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Advocates use of Waters Associates Radial Compression Separation System for high performance liquid chromatography. Discusses instrumentation and reagents, outlining procedure for analyzing various foods and discussing typical student data. Points out potential problems due to impurities and pump seal life. Suggests use of ribose as internal…

  16. A theory for radial jet reattachment flow 

    E-print Network

    Hadden, Lynne Loise

    1987-01-01

    by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CBT-8418493. I am especially thankful for the guidance, encouragement, and knowledgeable input of Dr. Robert H. Page, Forsyth Professor of Mechanical Engineering. I attribute my interest in this field of fluid... laminar, incompressible radial free jet. Analytic expressions are also derived for both velocity and temperature distributions. In a study by Heskestad [3], experimental measurements were performed on a turbulent radial jet. He found that the mean...

  17. Generation of Transmissivity Fields with Non-radial Flow Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, D. O.; Roberts, R. M.; Holt, R. M.

    2006-12-01

    Non-radial flow signatures are seen in many hydraulic tests in fractured media. The generalized radial flow approach, which uses a variable flow dimension (n), is increasingly used to interpret hydraulic tests to account for non-radial flow. Flow dimension can be estimated directly from the second derivative of pumping test drawdown versus log time and can be described as the change in cross-sectional area of flow with respect to radial distance from the borehole. Previously, it was not clear if flow dimension was an intrinsic property of a medium or an artifact of the analysis technique. Representing non-radial flow in a 2D numerical model has been problematic. As part of an effort to understand how to structure heterogeneous transmissivity to create the type of non-radial flow signatures commonly observed, we generated spatially correlated binary random transmissivity fields with directional anisotropy in the correlation length. Analysis of simulated pumping tests in these fields provided the same types of non-radial diagnostic responses commonly observed in pumping tests in a fractured dolomite at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site. Our method may provide insight into how to better conceptualize flow systems and, with further analysis and understanding, allow us to condition future transmissivity fields. Acknowledgements: This research is funded by WIPP programs administered by the Office of Environmental Management (EM) of the U.S. Department of Energy. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  18. Multiphase flow modeling in centrifugal partition chromatography.

    PubMed

    Adelmann, S; Schwienheer, C; Schembecker, G

    2011-09-01

    The separation efficiency in Centrifugal Partition Chromatography (CPC) depends on selection of a suitable biphasic solvent system (distribution ratio, selectivity factor, sample solubility) and is influenced by hydrodynamics in the chambers. Especially the stationary phase retention, the interfacial area for mass transfer and the flow pattern (backmixing) are important parameters. Their relationship with physical properties, operating parameters and chamber geometry is not completely understood and predictions are hardly possible. Experimental flow visualization is expensive and two-dimensional only. Therefore we simulated the flow pattern using a volume-of-fluid (VOF) method, which was implemented in OpenFOAM®. For the three-dimensional simulation of a rotating FCPC®-chamber, gravitational centrifugal and Coriolis forces were added to the conservation equation. For experimental validation the flow pattern of different solvent systems was visualized with an optical measurement system. The amount of mobile phase in a chamber was calculated from gray scale values of videos recorded by an image processing routine in ImageJ®. To visualize the flow of the stationary phase polyethylene particles were used to perform a qualitative particle image velocimetry (PIV) analysis. We found a good agreement between flow patterns and velocity profiles of experiments and simulations. By using the model we found that increasing the chamber depth leads to higher specific interfacial area. Additionally a circular flow in the stationary phase was identified that lowers the interfacial area because it pushes the jet of mobile phase to the chamber wall. The Coriolis force alone gives the impulse for this behavior. As a result the model is easier to handle than experiments and allows 3D prediction of hydrodynamics in the chamber. Additionally it can be used for optimizing geometry and operating parameters for given physical properties of solvent systems. PMID:21324465

  19. A theory for radial jet reattachment flow

    E-print Network

    Hadden, Lynne Loise

    1987-01-01

    1. 5 2. 0 20 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 Nozzle Exit Reynolds No?N? Figure 20. Change of reattachment angle with increasing nozzle exit Reynold's number for a flow direction parallel to the plate. 90 LAMINAR FLOW Theta = ? 30; R, = 8 80 70... to be dependent on nozzle exit radius, nozzle exit direction, reattachment plate distance, and Reynold's number of the exit flow. TO MY MOTHER AND DAD AND CLOSE FRIENDS WHO PROVIDED LOVING SUPPORT ACKNOWLEDGMENT This research has been partially supported...

  20. A note on secondary flow in rotating radial channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, James J; Stanitz, John D

    1954-01-01

    A general vector differential equation for the vorticity component parallel to a streamline is derived for steady, nonviscous, and incompressible flow in a rotating system. This equation is then simplified by restricting it to rotating radial channels and by making further simplifying assumptions. The simplified equation is used to solve for the secondary vorticity, the vorticity component parallel to the streamline, in three special cases involving different streamtube geometries; the results are presented in a series of figures. The secondary vorticity is shown to decrease with decreased absolute angular velocity of the fluid, decreased inlet total-pressure gradient, decreased length of relative flow path, and increased relative velocity.

  1. A magnetorheological valve with both annular and radial fluid flow resistance gaps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. H. Wang; H. X. Ai; W. H. Liao

    2009-01-01

    In order to increase the efficiency of magnetorheological (MR) valves, Ai et al (2006) proposed an MR valve simultaneously possessing annular and radial fluid flow resistance channels with the assumption that the magnetic flux densities at the annular and radial fluid flow gaps are identical. In this paper, an MR valve simultaneously possessing annular and radial fluid flow resistance channels

  2. Dynamics of particulate flow through radial-flow compressor and annular combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Elfeki, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    A theoretical study is presented of the particulate flows through a radial-flow compressor with two different-size splitters and an annular combustion chamber. Three elements of the radial-flow compressor are investigated, namely: the inlet part, the impeller with the two splitter, and the vaneless diffuser. For the annular combustion chamber, only the chamber is of concern. The three-dimensional flow-field analysis for the radial-flow compressor is presented with the corresponding solid-particle trajectories through the compressor. The well-known theory describing the particles' motion in a gas flow media is applied with accurate representation of the particle-trajectory paths. This accuracy is achieved by solving the three-dimensional flow field through the compressor. One new design concept is suggested for the radial-flow compressor with splitters. This concept is that the tangential spacing of the splitters with the full blades is selected on non-equally spaced basis with the spacing being equal at the impeller exit such that the flow rate is equally splitted among different channels in the cascade. In addition, a study of the particulate flows through the annular combustor is investigated. The nature of the flow in the combustor is three-dimensional turbulent and with reacting recirculating-flow characteristics.

  3. Estimation of the column radial heterogeneity from an analysis of the characteristics of tailing peaks in linear chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kanji Miyabe; Georges Guiochon

    1999-01-01

    An estimation procedure of the radial heterogeneity of the distributions of the mobile phase flow velocity and of the local column efficiency was derived from a comparison of experimental data and of the characteristics of these tailing peaks calculated numerically. The analysis of these characteristics indicated that the radial heterogeneity of the packing density of a column is a cause

  4. Onset of radial flow in p+p collisions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jiang, Kun; Zhu, Yinying; Liu, Weitao; Chen, Hongfang; Li, Cheng; Ruan, Lijuan; Tang, Zebo; Xu, Zhangbu

    2015-02-01

    It has been debated for decades whether hadrons emerging from p+p collisions exhibit collective expansion. The signal of the collective motion in p+p collisions is not as clear as in heavy-ion collisions because of the low multiplicity and large fluctuation in p+p collisions. Tsallis Blast-Wave (TBW) model is a thermodynamic approach, introduced to handle the overwhelming correlation and fluctuation in the hadronic processes. We have systematically studied the identified particle spectra in p+p collisions from RHIC to LHC using TBW and found no appreciable radial flow in p+p collisions below ?s = 900 GeV. At LHC higher energy of 7more »TeV in p+p collisions, the radial flow velocity achieves an average of (?) = 0.320 ± 0.005. This flow velocity is comparable to that in peripheral (40-60%) Au+Au collisions at RHIC. Breaking of the identified particle spectra mT scaling was also observed at LHC from a model independent test.« less

  5. Onset of radial flow in p+p collisions

    E-print Network

    Kun Jiang; Yinying Zhu; Weitao Liu; Hongfang Chen; Cheng Li; Lijuan Ruan; Ming Shao; Zebo Tang; Zhangbu Xu

    2014-12-23

    It has been debated for decades whether hadrons emerging from p+p collisions exhibit collective expansion. The signal of the collective motion in p+p collisions is not as clear/clean as in heavy-ion collisions because of the low multiplicity and large fluctuation in p+p collisions. Tsallis Blast-Wave (TBW) model is a thermodynamic approach, introduced to handle the overwhelming correlation and fluctuation in the hadronic processes. We have systematically studied the identified particle spectra in p+p collisions from RHIC to LHC using TBW and found no appreciable radial flow in p+p collisions below $\\sqrt{s}=900$ GeV. At LHC higher energy of 7 TeV in p+p collisions, the radial flow velocity achieves an average value of $= 0.320\\pm0.005$. This flow velocity is comparable to that in peripheral (40-60%) Au+Au collisions at RHIC. Breaking of the identified particle spectra $m_T$ scaling was also observed at LHC from a model independent test.

  6. Radial Flow Pattern of a Slow Coronal Mass Ejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Li; Inhester, Bernd; Gan, Weiqun

    2015-06-01

    Height–time plots of the leading edge of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) have often been used to study CME kinematics. We propose a new method to analyze the CME kinematics in more detail by determining the radial mass transport process throughout the entire CME. Thus, our method is able to estimate not only the speed of the CME front but also the radial flow speed inside the CME. We have applied this method to a slow CME with an average leading edge speed of about 480 km s?1. In the Lagrangian frame, the speeds of the individual CME mass elements stay almost constant within 2 and 15 RS, the range over which we analyzed the CME. Hence, we have no evidence of net radial forces acting on parts of the CME in this range or of a pile up of mass ahead of the CME. We find evidence that the leading edge trajectory obtained by tie-pointing may gradually lag behind the Lagrangian front-side trajectories derived from our analysis. Our results also allow a much more precise estimate of the CME energy. Compared with conventional estimates using the CME total mass and leading edge motion, we find that the latter may overestimate the kinetic energy and the gravitational potential energy.

  7. Linear and radial flow targets for characterizing downhole flow in perforations

    SciTech Connect

    Deo, M. (Stanford Univ., CA (USA)); Tariq, S.M. (Schlumberger Well Services, Houston, TX (USA)); Halleck, P.M. (Terra Tek, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (USA))

    1989-08-01

    Two types of sandstone targets are commonly used to test flow efficiency of shaped-charge jet perforations: linear targets, in which flow enters only the unperforated end of the cylindrical sample, and radial targets, in which flow enters through the end and sides of the sample. To determine which of these targets best represents downhole conditions, the flow distribution along the length of a perforation has been studied by three-dimensional (3D) finite-element analyses. Linear and radial laboratory targets have been compared with downhole perforations under varying conditions. For ideal perforations, the low-shot-density (LSD) case is adequately represented by the radial target, while the high-shot-density (HSD) case falls between the two targets. With realistic crushed and damaged zones, the HSD closely matches the linear target, and the LSD case falls between the two targets.

  8. Radial Hydraulic Flow Testing of an Argillaceous Limestone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenner, Luc

    This thesis describes the use of both steady state and transient radial flow tests for determining the permeability of the argillaceous Lindsay Limestone. The results obtained from this research investigation are compared with data available in the literature for similar argillaceous limestones found in the Lindsay (Cobourg) formation. The efficiency and consistency of the transient and steady state results show computational modeling using finite element programs such as COMSOL Multiphysics(TM) can be used, under the appropriate meshing scheme, to analyse test results on low permeability geomaterials. The results give a permeability range between 1x10 -22 m2 to 1.68 x 10-19 m 2 with flow along the bedding plane under unconfined conditions. The permeability of the Lindsay Limestone is of importance in understanding and predicting radionuclide spread within a proposed Deep Ground Repository for storing radioactive waste.

  9. Optimization of a Radial Flow Heat Sink Under Natural Convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhowmik, Himangshu

    2014-01-01

    A steady-state three-dimensional numerical model is developed to predict natural convection heat transfer from a radial flow heat sink. The considered medium is air. The effect of several design parameters, such as the fin length and height, number of fins, and the heat sink base radius, on heat transfer is investigated. The Taguchi method, known to be a very useful tool for selecting the best levels of control factors, is employed. Five factors and four levels for each factor are chosen. Sixteen kinds of models are analyzed, and the total heat transfer for each model is obtained. The results are used to estimate the optimum design values of the parameters affecting the heat sink performance. The reliability of these values is verified. The average heat transfer rate of the optimum model is shown to increase by 60% as compared to the reference model. Finally, the heat transfer data at different outer radii of the radial flow heat sink are correlated.

  10. Experimental and numerical study of radial flow and its contribution to wake development of a HAWT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Micallef; B. Akay; T. Sant; C. J. Simao Ferreira; G. J. W. Van Bussel

    2011-01-01

    The scope of this work was to investigate radial flow component for a Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine in axial flow conditions and to assess its impact on the turbine operation. This was done by means of Particle Image Velocimetry and numerical simulation with a 3D unsteady potential-flow panel model. A direct comparison between the numerical and experimental radial velocity results

  11. Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

    This booklet presents some activities on chromatography. Directions for preparing leaf pigment extracts using alcohol are given, and paper chromatography and thin-layer chromatography are described as modifications of the basic principles of chromatography. (KHR)

  12. Boiling radial flow in fractures of varying wall porosity

    SciTech Connect

    Barnitt, Robb Allan

    2000-06-01

    The focus of this report is the coupling of conductive heat transfer and boiling convective heat transfer, with boiling flow in a rock fracture. A series of experiments observed differences in boiling regimes and behavior, and attempted to quantify a boiling convection coefficient. The experimental study involved boiling radial flow in a simulated fracture, bounded by a variety of materials. Nonporous and impermeable aluminum, highly porous and permeable Berea sandstone, and minimally porous and permeable graywacke from The Geysers geothermal field. On nonporous surfaces, the heat flux was not strongly coupled to injection rate into the fracture. However, for porous surfaces, heat flux, and associated values of excess temperature and a boiling convection coefficient exhibited variation with injection rate. Nucleation was shown to occur not upon the visible surface of porous materials, but a distance below the surface, within the matrix. The depth of boiling was a function of injection rate, thermal power supplied to the fracture, and the porosity and permeability of the rock. Although matrix boiling beyond fracture wall may apply only to a finite radius around the point of injection, higher values of heat flux and a boiling convection coefficient may be realized with boiling in a porous, rather than nonporous surface bounded fracture.

  13. LDV measurements and investigation of flow field through radial turbine guide vanes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hasan Eroglu; Widen Tabakoff

    1991-01-01

    The results of LDV measurements and investigation of the detailed flow field in a radial inflow turbine nozzle are presented. The flow velocities were measured at upstream, inside and downstream of the nozzle blades for two different mass flow rates, using a three-component LDV system. Results are presented as contour plots of mean velocities, flow angles, and turbulence intensities. The

  14. LDV measurements and investigation of flow field through radial turbine guide vanes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hasan Eroglu; Widen Tabakoff

    1989-01-01

    The results of LDV measurements and investigation of the detailed flow field in a radial inflow turbine nozzle are presented. The flow velocities were measured at upstream, inside and downstream of the nozzle blades for two different mass flow rates, using a three-component LDV system. Results are presented as contour plots of mean velocities, flow angles and turbulence intensities. The

  15. Modeling of transient flow through a viscoelastic preparative chromatography packing.

    PubMed

    Hekmat, Dariusch; Kuhn, Michael; Meinhardt, Verena; Weuster-Botz, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    The common method for purification of macromolecular bioproducts is preparative packed-bed chromatography using polymer-based, compressible, viscoelastic resins. Because of a downstream processing bottleneck, the chromatography equipment is often operated at its hydrodynamic limit. In this case, the resins may exhibit a complex behavior which results in compression-relaxation hystereses. Up to now, no modeling approach of transient flow through a chromatography packing has been made considering the viscoelasticity of the resins. The aim of the present work was to develop a novel model and compare model calculations with experimental data of two agarose-based resins. Fluid flow and bed permeability were modeled by Darcy's law and the Kozeny-Carman equation, respectively. Fluid flow was coupled to solid matrix stress via an axial force balance and a continuity equation of a deformable packing. Viscoelasticity was considered according to a Kelvin-Voigt material. The coupled equations were solved with a finite difference scheme using a deformable mesh. The model boundary conditions were preset transient pressure drop functions which resemble simulated load/elution/equilibration cycles. Calculations using a homogeneous model (assuming constant variables along the column height) gave a fair agreement with experimental data with regard to predicted flow rate, bed height, and compression-relaxation hysteresis for symmetric as well as asymmetric pressure drop functions. Calculations using an inhomogeneous model gave profiles of the bed porosity as a function of the bed height. In addition, the influence of medium wall support and intraparticle porosity was illustrated. The inhomogeneous model provides insights that so far are not easily experimentally accessible. PMID:23798499

  16. Radial flow has little effect on clusterization at intermediate energies in the framework of the Lattice Gas Model

    E-print Network

    C. B. Das; L. Shi; S. Das Gupta

    2004-09-14

    The Lattice Gas Model was extended to incorporate the effect of radial flow. Contrary to popular belief, radial flow has little effect on the clusterization process in intermediate energy heavy-ion collisions except adding an ordered motion to the particles in the fragmentation source. We compared the results from the lattice gas model with and without radial flow to experimental data. We found that charge yields from central collisions are not significantly affected by inclusion of any reasonable radial flow.

  17. Liquid chromatography/Fourier transform IR spectrometry interface flow cell

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Charles C. (Fairfield, OH); Taylor, Larry T. (Blacksburg, VA)

    1986-01-01

    A zero dead volume (ZDV) microbore high performance liquid chromatography (.mu.HPLC)/Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) interface flow cell includes an IR transparent crystal having a small diameter bore therein through which a sample liquid is passed. The interface flow cell further includes a metal holder in combination with a pair of inner, compressible seals for directly coupling the thus configured spectrometric flow cell to the outlet of a .mu.HPLC column end fitting to minimize the transfer volume of the effluents exiting the .mu.HPLC column which exhibit excellent flow characteristics due to the essentially unencumbered, open-flow design. The IR beam passes transverse to the sample flow through the circular bore within the IR transparent crystal, which is preferably comprised of potassium bromide (KBr) or calcium fluoride (CaF.sub.2), so as to minimize interference patterns and vignetting encountered in conventional parallel-plate IR cells. The long IR beam pathlength and lensing effect of the circular cross-section of the sample volume in combination with the refractive index differences between the solvent and the transparent crystal serve to focus the IR beam in enhancing sample detection sensitivity by an order of magnitude.

  18. Liquid chromatography/Fourier transform IR spectrometry interface flow cell

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, C.C.; Taylor, L.T.

    1985-01-04

    A zero dead volume (ZDV) microbore high performance liquid chromatography (..mu.. HPLC)/Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) interface flow cell includes an IR transparent crystal having a small diameter bore therein through which a sample liquid is passed. The interface flow cell further includes a metal holder in combination with a pair of inner, compressible seals for directly coupling the thus configured spectrometric flow cell to the outlet of a ..mu.. HPLC column end fitting to minimize the transfer volume of the effluents exiting the ..mu.. HPLC column which exhibit excellent flow characteristics due to the essentially unencumbered, open-flow design. The IR beam passes transverse to the sample flow through the circular bore within the IR transparent crystal, which is preferably comprised of potassium bromide (KBr) or calcium fluoride (CaF/sub 2/), so as to minimize interference patterns and vignetting encountered in conventional parallel-plate IR cells. The long IR beam pathlength and lensing effect of the circular cross-section of the sample volume in combination with the refractive index differences between the solvent and the transparent crystal serve to focus the IR beam in enhancing sample detection sensitivity by an order of magnitude.

  19. Radial gas flow in the upper shaft and its influence on blast furnace performance

    SciTech Connect

    Beppler, E.; Kowalski, W.; Langner, K.; Wachsmuth, H. [Thyssen Stahl AG, Duisburg (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Knowledge of and control of gas flow in the upper shaft and over the blast furnace radius is an important factor for constant optimization of blast furnace performance in terms of fuel consumption and productivity. Radial gas flow in the blast furnace is generally controlled by the radial distribution of burden and coke. However, there are other influencing variables which determine radial gas flow, in particular central gas flow: (a) Increased sinter degradation displaces the cohesive zone downwards, constricting the gas flow between the dead man and the cohesive zone. This hinders central gas flow. (b) Lower coke strengths also lead to deterioration in gas flow between the dead man and the cohesive zone and hence to decline in central gas flow. (c) Decreasing coke layers in the blast furnace hinder central gas flow. (d) Increasing coal injection rates produce higher coke degradation in the blast furnace and hence also hinder central gas flow. (e) High coal rates and lower CSR values lead to shortening of combustion zone, which hinders the gas flow to the blast furnace center. (f) Finally, increasing hot metal-slag levels divert the gas to the outside. As the significance of the question of the central gas flow is growing,and because radial gas flow at Thyssen Stahl AG can only be measured sporadically with an in-burden probe, an inclined probe (inclination 35{degree}) just above the stock line was developed for simultaneous temperature measurement and gas sampling at 9 points along the radius.

  20. Computer program for the analysis of the cross flow in a radial inflow turbine scroll

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamed, A.; Abdallah, S.; Tabakoff, W.

    1977-01-01

    A computer program was used to solve the governing of the potential flow in the cross sectional planes of a radial inflow turbine scroll. A list of the main program, the subroutines, and typical output example are included.

  1. L. D. V. measurements and investigation of flow field through radial turbine guide vanes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eroglu

    1988-01-01

    The results of Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) measurements and investigation of detailed flow field through radial inflow turbine guide vanes are presented. The flow velocities were measured at five stations upstream, inside and downstream of the guide vanes for two different mass flow rates. Data was collected at 600 points in total. A three-component LDV system was used for the

  2. Unsteady flow investigation in rotor-stator interface of a radial diffuser pump

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianjun Feng; F. K. Benra; H. J. Dohmen

    2010-01-01

    The flow in a vaned diffuser radial pump is fully turbulent and strongly unsteady, caused by the rotor-stator interaction.\\u000a In this paper, two-dimensional laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) measurement results have been utilized to investigate the unsteady\\u000a flow in a low specific speed radial diffuser pump with leaning impeller trailing edges. CFD simulations have been also conducted\\u000a to provide more extensive

  3. The Steady Two-Dimensional Radial Flow of Viscous Fluid between Two Inclined Plane Walls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Rosenhead

    1940-01-01

    This paper considers the steady two-dimensional radial flow of viscous fluid between plane walls which either converge or diverge. A general solution is obtained in terms of elliptic functions and the various mathematically possible types of flow are discussed.

  4. Occurrence of turbulent flow conditions in supercritical fluid chromatography.

    PubMed

    De Pauw, Ruben; Choikhet, Konstantin; Desmet, Gert; Broeckhoven, Ken

    2014-09-26

    Having similar densities as liquids but with viscosities up to 20 times lower (higher diffusion coefficients), supercritical CO2 is the ideal (co-)solvent for fast and/or highly efficient separations without mass-transfer limitations or excessive column pressure drops. Whereas in liquid chromatography the flow remains laminar in both the packed bed and tubing, except in extreme cases (e.g. in a 75 ?m tubing, pure acetonitrile at 5 ml/min), a supercritical fluid can experience a transition from laminar to turbulent flow in more typical operation modes. Due to the significant lower viscosity, this transition for example already occurs at 1.3 ml/min for neat CO2 when using connection tubing with an ID of 127 ?m. By calculating the Darcy friction factor, which can be plotted versus the Reynolds number in a so-called Moody chart, typically used in fluid dynamics, higher values are found for stainless steel than PEEK tubing, in agreement with their expected higher surface roughness. As a result turbulent effects are more pronounced when using stainless steel tubing. The higher than expected extra-column pressure drop limits the kinetic performance of supercritical fluid chromatography and complicates the optimization of tubing ID, which is based on a trade-off between extra-column band broadening and pressure drop. One of the most important practical consequences is the non-linear increase in extra-column pressure drop over the tubing downstream of the column which leads to an unexpected increase in average column pressure and mobile phase density, and thus decrease in retention. For close eluting components with a significantly different dependence of retention on density, the selectivity can significantly be affected by this increase in average pressure. In addition, the occurrence of turbulent flow is also observed in the detector cell and connection tubing. This results in a noise-increase by a factor of four when going from laminar to turbulent flow (e.g. going from 0.5 to 2.5 ml/min for neat CO2). PMID:25145564

  5. Analysis of the cross flow in a radial inflow turbine scroll

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamed, A.; Abdallah, S.; Tabakoff, W.

    1977-01-01

    Equations of motion were derived, and a computational procedure is presented, for determining the nonviscous flow characteristics in the cross-sectional planes of a curved channel due to continuous mass discharge or mass addition. An analysis was applied to the radial inflow turbine scroll to study the effects of scroll geometry and the through flow velocity profile on the flow behavior. The computed flow velocity component in the scroll cross-sectional plane, together with the through flow velocity profile which can be determined in a separate analysis, provide a complete description of the three dimensional flow in the scroll.

  6. Numerical and experimental study of unsteady flow field and vibration in radial inflow turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Kreuz-Ihli, T.; Filsinger, D.; Schulz, A.; Wittig, S.

    2000-04-01

    The blades of turbocharger impellers are exposed to unsteady aerodynamic forces, which cause blade vibrations and may lead to failures. An indispensable requirement for a safe design of radial inflow turbines is a detailed knowledge of the exciting forces. Up to now, only a few investigations relating to unsteady aerodynamic forces in radial turbines have been presented. To give a detailed insight into the complex phenomena, a comprehensive research project was initiated at the Institut fuer Thermische Stroemungsmaschinen, at the University of Karlsruhe. A turbocharger test rig was installed in the high-pressure, high-temperature laboratory of the institute. The present paper gives a description of the test rig design and the measuring techniques. The flow field in a vaneless radial inflow turbine was analyzed using laser-Doppler anemometry. First results of unsteady flow field investigations in the turbine scroll and unsteady phase-resolved measurements of the flow field in the turbine rotor will be discussed. Moreover, results from finite element calculations analyzing frequencies and mode shapes are presented. As vibrations in turbines of turbochargers are assumed to be predominantly excited by unsteady aerodynamic forces, a method to predict the actual transient flow in a radial turbine utilizing the commercial Navier-Stokes solver TASCflow3d was developed. Results of the unsteady calculations are presented and comparisons with the measured unsteady flow field are made. As a major result, the excitation effect of the tongue region in a vaneless radial inflow turbine can be demonstrated.

  7. A finite element viscous flow analysis in a radial turbine scroll 

    E-print Network

    Hill, Donald Lee

    1987-01-01

    turbomachinery components. This category includes such components as centrifugal compressor snd pump volutes which are principally similar in shape to radial turbine scrolls. The numerical results obtained using this newly developed procedure indicated...A FINITE ELEMENT VISCOUS FLOW ANALYSIS IN A RADIAL TURBINE SCROLL A Thesis DONALD LEE HILL JR. Submitted to the Graduate College. of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December...

  8. Preprocessor and postprocessor computer programs for a radial-flow finite-element model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pucci, A.A., Jr.; Pope, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Preprocessing and postprocessing computer programs that enhance the utility of the U.S. Geological Survey radial-flow model have been developed. The preprocessor program: (1) generates a triangular finite element mesh from minimal data input, (2) produces graphical displays and tabulations of data for the mesh , and (3) prepares an input data file to use with the radial-flow model. The postprocessor program is a version of the radial-flow model, which was modified to (1) produce graphical output for simulation and field results, (2) generate a statistic for comparing the simulation results with observed data, and (3) allow hydrologic properties to vary in the simulated region. Examples of the use of the processor programs for a hypothetical aquifer test are presented. Instructions for the data files, format instructions, and a listing of the preprocessor and postprocessor source codes are given in the appendixes. (Author 's abstract)

  9. Chromatography

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH Boston

    2002-01-01

    In this activity, explore chromatography and the various colors that make up the ink in markers. Use this activity to investigate cohesion and adhesion. The online version of this activity is set up so that learners solve a mystery.

  10. Investigation of subsonic and supersonic flow in a radial inflow compressor 

    E-print Network

    Bale, Yadiyurappa Siddaveerasetty

    1970-01-01

    . Vincent, E. T, , The theory and design of gas turbines and jet engines. McGraw-IJill Book Company, New York, 1950. 17. Balje, 0. E. , Loss and flow path studies on centrifugal compressors ? Part II, A. S. M. E. Paper No. 70-GT-12-b, 19 70, 18. Stahler... of U2V&2 must be greater than U V . Since in the case of the radial inflow compressor U & U2, the centrifugal effect is opposing the flow. To overcome this, many varied approache. are possible. A radial fluid ertry, no wh'rl, wou'd give V = 0...

  11. A three-dimensional axisymmetric calculation procedure for turbulent flows in a radial vaneless diffuser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, L. F.

    1986-01-01

    An analytical model is proposed to calculate the three-dimensional axisymmetric turbulent flowfield in a radial vneless diffuser. The model assumes that the radial and tangential boundary layer profiles are approximated by power law profiles. Then, using the integrated radial and tangential momentum and continuity equations for the boundary layer and corresponding inviscid equations for the core flow, there results six ordinary differential equation in six unknowns which are easily solved using a Runge-Kutta technique. A model is also proposed for fully developed flow. The results using this technique were compared with the results from a three-dimensional viscous, axisymmetric duct code and with experimental data and good quantitative agreement was obtained.

  12. Travel time statistics under radially converging flow in single fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotovac, Hrvoje; Srzic, Veljko; Cvetkovic, Vladimir; Kekez, Toni; Malenica, Luka

    2015-04-01

    A stochastic methodology based on Adaptive Fup Monte Carlo Method is used to investigate transport of a conservative solute by steady flow to a single pumping well in two-dimensional randomly heterogeneous single fractures. The spatially variable hydraulic transmissivity is modeled as a stationary random function for three different correlation structures (multi-Gaussian, connected and disconnected fields with correlated mean, high and low lnT values, respectively, according to the Zinn and Harvey, 2003) and heterogeneity levels (lnT variance is 1 and 8). Initially, solute particles are injected at outer circle located at 32 correlation lengths from well according to the in flux and resident injection mode. Therefore, breakthrough curve (BTC) statistics in single well due to different spatial structures, heterogeneity levels, injection modes and dispersion influence is considered. For small heterogeneity, all considered effects have small influences on BTC and related moments. As expected in single fractures, high lnT variance is more usual case which considerably changes flow patterns including channelling effect and fact that only few narrow channels carry out most pumping flow rate. Channelling implies significant differences between different injection modes. Resident mode uniformly injects particles implying that most particles pass through "slower" zones that especially increase late arrivals and contribute to the non-Fickian behaviour of transport. Contrary, "in flux" mode drastically reduces first arrivals and mean values, especially for connected correlation fields. The results from two injection modes lie on different sides of homogeneous mean travel time solution and give complementary information for complete representation of conservative transport. For advection transport, correlation structure and especially lnT variance seems to have major influence on BTC characteristics. On the other side, influence of longitudinal and lateral local scale dispersion are negligible, especially for resident injection mode.

  13. Modelling of turbulent flow in a radial reactor with fixed bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhapbasbayev, U. K.; Ramazanova, G. I.; Kenzhaliev, O. B.

    2015-03-01

    The data of the computation of turbulent flow in the CF- ? and CP- ? configurations of the radial reactor with a fixed bed are presented. The Reynolds motion equations have been solved jointly with the k- ? turbulence model. To couple the parameters of flows at the interface free part-fixed bed the classical continuity equations were used. The computational data are obtained for the averaged and turbulent characteristics, and it is shown that the flow in the fixed bed causes the generation of the turbulence kinetic energy and its dissipation rate; the flow in the CF- ? configuration is distributed more uniformly as compared to the CP- ? configuration of the radial reactor. Computed data are compared with the experimental ones.

  14. Symmetric radial laminar channel flow with particular reference to aerostatic bearings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Al-Bender; H. van Brussel

    1992-01-01

    After a short survey of the different methods and formulas used to determine the pressure distribution in radial (converging or diverging) flow between nominally parallel disks, the method of separation of variables is applied to the problem, especially the case pertaining to centrally fed circular aerostatic bearings. The results are compared extensively with experimental data from various sources, and the

  15. Laminar radial flow electrochemical reactors. II. Convective diffusion of inert tracer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. B. Thomas; P. A. Ramachandran; M. P. Dudukovic; R. E. W. Jansson

    1989-01-01

    Mixing is investigated in three laminar radial flow cells (capillary gap cell (stationary discs), pump cell (one disc spinning) and the rotating electrolyser (co-rotating discs)) using numerical and semianalytical methods for inert tracer transport. Results are compared to existing data. Mixing in the three cells is modelled using finite element techniques applied to convection-dominated inert tracer transport. For the capillary

  16. Solids removal from a coldwater recirculating system - comparison of swirl separator and radial-flow settlers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solids removal across two settling devices, i.e., a swirl separator and a radial-flow settler, and across a microscreen drum filter was evaluated in a fully recirculating system containing a single 150 m3 'Cornell-type' dual-drain tank during the production of food-size Arctic char and rainbow trout...

  17. CFD study of the flow in a radial clutch with a real electrorheological fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S. M.; Bullough, W. A.; Hart, J.

    2009-02-01

    Results are presented from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study into the complex flow of an excited electrorheological fluid (ERF) between a driven rotating and a parallel stationary radial shear plate's form of clutch. The real fluid is modelled using a technique which can be employed for any fluid/field characterisation. It is shown that the induced `cooling' through flow rate can not be maintained when a substantial field is switched on and the clutches remain slipping.

  18. Three dimensional unsteady flow calculations in radial components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatsis, A.

    A numerical model to predict the impeller response due to the downstream static pressure distortion caused by the volute when a centrifugal compressor works at off design conditions is presented. The three dimensional Euler equations are solved by a time marching technique allowing the evaluation of the unsteady flowfield using the finite volume space discretization and Runge-Kutta time stepping scheme. Phase lagged periodicity conditions were used in the computations of the unsteady flow upstream and downstream the blade channel. Reflecting and non-reflecting boundary conditions were tested. It was demonstrated that the latter result in faster convergence than the former. A cyclic variation of the impeller flowfield due to the donwstream static pressure non-uniform distribution is observed.

  19. Breakdown of Burton Prim Slichter approach and lateral solute segregation in radially converging flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priede, J.; Gerbeth, G.

    2005-11-01

    A theoretical study is presented of the effect of a radially converging melt flow, which is directed away from the solidification front, on the radial solute segregation in simple solidification models. We show that the classical Burton-Prim-Slichter (BPS) solution describing the effect of a diverging flow on the solute incorporation into the solidifying material breaks down for the flows converging along the solidification front. The breakdown is caused by a divergence of the integral defining the effective boundary layer thickness which is the basic concept of the BPS theory. Although such a divergence can formally be avoided by restricting the axial extension of the melt to a layer of finite height, radially uniform solute distributions are possible only for weak melt flows with an axial velocity away from the solidification front comparable to the growth rate. There is a critical melt velocity for each growth rate at which the solution passes through a singularity and becomes physically inconsistent for stronger melt flows. To resolve these inconsistencies we consider a solidification front presented by a disk of finite radius R0 subject to a strong converging melt flow and obtain an analytic solution showing that the radial solute concentration depends on the radius r as ˜ln(R0/r) and ˜ln(R0/r) close to the rim and at large distances from it. The logarithmic increase of concentration is limited in the vicinity of the symmetry axis by the diffusion becoming effective at a distance comparable to the characteristic thickness of the solute boundary layer. The converging flow causes a solute pile-up forming a logarithmic concentration peak at the symmetry axis which might be an undesirable feature for crystal growth processes.

  20. Measuring radial flow of partonic and hadronic phases in relativistic heavy ion collision

    E-print Network

    Jajati K. Nayak; Jan-e Alam

    2009-12-14

    It has been shown that the thermal photon and the lepton pair spectra can be used to estimate the radial velocity of different phases of the matter formed in nuclear collisions at ultra-relativistic energies. We observe a non-monotonic variation of the flow velocity with invariant mass of the lepton pair which is indicative of two different sources of thermal dilepton sources at early and late stage of the dynamically evolving system. We also show that the study of radial velocity through electromagnetic probes may shed light on the nature of the phase transition from hadrons to QGP.

  1. Radial Flow from Electromagnetic Probes and Signal of Quark Gluon Plasma

    E-print Network

    Payal Mohanty; Jajati K Nayak; Jan-e Alam; Santosh K Das

    2010-08-31

    A first attempt has been made to extract the evolution of radial flow from the analysis of the experimental data on electromagnetic probes experimentally measured at SPS and RHIC energies. The $p_T$ spectra of photons and dileptons measured by WA98 and NA60 collaborations respectively at CERN-SPS and the photon spectra obtained by PHENIX collaboration at BNL-RHIC have been used to constrain the theoretical models, rendering the outcome of the analysis largely model independent. We argue that the variation of the radial velocity with invariant mass is indicative of a phase transition from initially produced partons to hadrons at SPS and RHIC energies.

  2. Measuring radial flow of partonic and hadronic phases in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Nayak, Jajati K.; Alam, Jan-e [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)

    2009-12-15

    It has been shown that the thermal photon and the lepton pair spectra can be used to estimate the radial velocity of different phases of the matter formed in nuclear collisions at ultrarelativistic energies. We observe a nonmonotonic variation of the flow velocity with invariant mass of the lepton pair, which is indicative of two different thermal dilepton sources at early and late stages of the dynamically evolving system. We also show that the study of radial velocity through electromagnetic probes may shed light on the nature of the phase transition from hadrons to a quark-gluon plasma.

  3. Radial Spreading of Drift-Wave-Zonal-Flow Turbulence via Soliton Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Zehua [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Chen Liu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhe Jiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Zonca, Fulvio [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.P. 65-00044 Frascati (Italy)

    2009-07-31

    The self-consistent spatiotemporal evolution of a drift-wave (DW) radial envelope and a zonal-flow (ZF) amplitude is investigated in a slab model. The stationary solution of the coupled partial differential equations in a simple limit yields the formation of DW-ZF soliton structures, which propagate radially with speed depending on the envelope peak amplitude. Additional interesting physics, e.g., the generation, destruction, collision, and reflection of solitons, as well as turbulence bursting can also be observed due to the effects of linear growth or damping, dissipation, equilibrium nonuniformities and soliton dynamics. The propagation of soliton causes significant radial spreading of DW turbulence and therefore can affect transport scaling with the system size by broadening of the turbulent region. The correspondence of the present analysis with the description of DW-ZF interactions in toroidal geometry is also discussed.

  4. On Analysis of Stationary Viscous Incompressible Flow Through a Radial Blade Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neustupa, Tomáš

    2010-09-01

    The paper is concerned with the analysis of the two dimensional model of incompressible, viscous, stationary flow through a radial blade machine. This type of turbine is sometimes called Kaplan's turbine. In the technical area the use is either to force some regular characteristic to the flow of the medium going through the turbine (flow of melted iron, air conditioning) or to gain some energy from the flowing medium (water). The inflow and outflow part of boundary are in general a concentric circles. The larger one represents an inflow part of boundary the smaller one the outflow part of boundary. Between them are regularly spaced the blades of the machine. We study the existence of the weak solution in the case of nonlinear boundary condition of the "do-nothing" type. The model is interesting for study the behavior of the flow when the boundary is formed by mutually disjoint and separated parts.

  5. Radial flow from electromagnetic probes and signal of quark gluon plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Mohanty, Payal; Nayak, Jajati K.; Alam, Jan-e; Das, Santosh K. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)

    2010-09-15

    An attempt has been made to extract the evolution of radial flow from the analysis of the experimental data on electromagnetic probes measured at the energies available at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) and the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The transverse momentum (p{sub T}) spectra of photons and dileptons measured by the WA98 and NA60 Collaborations, respectively, at the SPS and the photon and dilepton spectra obtained by the PHENIX Collaboration at the RHIC have been used to constrain the theoretical models. We use the ratio of photon to dilepton spectra to extract the flow, where some model dependence is canceled out. Within the ambit of the present analysis we argue that the variation of the radial velocity with invariant mass is indicative of a phase transition from the initially produced partons to hadrons at SPS and RHIC energies.

  6. Why is the radial flow in central pA collisions stronger than in AA?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalaydzhyan, Tigran; Shuryak, Edward

    2014-11-01

    Both the transverse size and entropy density per area in central pA collisions is smaller than in central AA, and yet the radial flow is stronger. We propose an explanation to this puzzle. Using a weak attraction between strings through the ?-meson exchange, fitted to the lattice data, we find collective implosion of the "spaghetti" multi-string state. Collectivization of the sigma field of the strings is the QCD analog of the black hole formation occurring in holographic models.

  7. Radially resolved measurements of plasma rotation and flow-velocity shear in the Maryland Centrifugal Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, J.; Elton, R.C.; Griem, H.R.; Case, A.; Silva, A.W. de; Ellis, R.F.; Hassam, A.; Lunsford, R.; Teodorescu, C. [University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2006-02-15

    In diagnosing the Maryland Centrifugal Experiment (MCX) [R. F. Ellis et al., Phys. of Plasmas 8, 2057 (2001)], earlier spectroscopic measurements of averaged plasma rotation velocities have been upgraded to include radial distributions, using a five-channel fiber-optic collection system. Detailed information from each view is now possible with an 8-times increase in spectral resolution, by using a 2 m spectrograph and a 2400 lines/mm grating. Inversion of the integrated chordal radiation into a radial dependence of local emissions is performed by two methods: (a) an iterative simulation beginning with assumed emissions in five axially concentric cylindrical zones followed by summation along the five viewing chords, and (b) inversion of a combination of dual Abel-type matrices. The radial profiles of the absolute velocities derived cover a range from 20 to 70 km/s for both C{sup +} and C{sup ++} impurity ions. Previous apparent differences in velocities between ions from a single chordal observation are now explained by the measured radial dependence of velocities and relative emissions. An important result is the first direct and quantitative measurement on MCX of a radial shear in rotational flow velocity as large as 9x10{sup 5} s{sup -1}, 9 times a threshold of 1x10{sup 5} s{sup -1} for magnetohydrodynamic stability. Stark-broadened hydrogen Balmer-series spectral lines provide both a value for electron density of N{sub e}=(8.5{+-}1.5)10{sup 14} cm{sup -3} and supporting data for radial particle distributions.

  8. Numerical investigation of laminar flow and heat transfer in a radial flow cooling system with the use of nanofluids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gilles Roy; Cong Tam Nguyen; Paul-René Lajoie

    2004-01-01

    Nanofluids, because of their enhanced heat transfer capability as compared to normal water\\/glycol\\/oil based fluids, offer the engineer opportunities for development in areas where high heat transfer, low temperature tolerance and small component size are required. In this present paper, the hydrodynamic and thermal fields of a water–?Al2O3 nanofluid in a radial laminar flow cooling system are considered. Results indicate

  9. Effect of radial transport on compressor tip clearance flow structures and enhancement of stable flow range

    E-print Network

    Nolan, Sean Patrick Rock

    2005-01-01

    The relation between tip clearance flow structure and axial compressor stall is interrogated via numerical simulations, to determine how casing treatment can result in improved flow range. Both geometry changes and flow ...

  10. On the nature of radial transport across sheared zonal flows in electrostatic ion-temperature-gradient gyrokinetic tokamak plasma turbulencea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, R.; Newman, D. E.; Leboeuf, J.-N.; Carreras, B. A.; Decyk, V. K.

    2009-05-01

    It is argued that the usual understanding of the suppression of radial turbulent transport across a sheared zonal flow based on a reduction in effective transport coefficients is, by itself, incomplete. By means of toroidal gyrokinetic simulations of electrostatic, ion-temperature-gradient turbulence, it is found instead that the character of the radial transport is altered fundamentally by the presence of a sheared zonal flow, changing from diffusive to anticorrelated and subdiffusive. Furthermore, if the flows are self-consistently driven by the turbulence via the Reynolds stresses (in contrast to being induced externally), radial transport becomes non-Gaussian as well. These results warrant a reevaluation of the traditional description of radial transport across sheared flows in tokamaks via effective transport coefficients, suggesting that such description is oversimplified and poorly captures the underlying dynamics, which may in turn compromise its predictive capabilities.

  11. Radial Continuous Time Random Walks for Non-Fickian Solute Transport under Forced Flow Conditions and Different Heterogeneity Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dentz, Marco; Kang, Peter K.; Le Borgne, Tanguy

    2015-04-01

    Solute transport in heterogeneous porous media is characterized by features that do not conform to advection-dispersion models characterized by equivalent transport parameters. This has been observed in tracer experiments under forced and natural flow conditions. Key questions are (i) how non-Fickian solute transport can be quantified under radial flow conditions, and (ii) how different heterogeneity sources of non-Fickian behavior manifest in non-Fickian radial transport models. In order to approach these questions, we develop a radial continuous time random walk (CTRW) formulation for the quantification and interpretation of non-Fickian solute transport under forced flow conditions and different heterogeneity scenarios. The derived radial CTRW approaches model anomalous behavior induced by heterogeneous flow distributions and mobile-immobile mass transfer processes (matrix diffusion). We start by establishing a general CTRW framework in radial coordinates on the basis of the random walk equations for radial particle positions and times. The evolution of solute concentration is governed by a non-local radial advection-dispersion equation. Unlike in CTRWs for uniform flow scenarios, particle transition times here depend on the radial particle position, which renders the CTRW non-stationary. We then derive radial CTRW implementations that (i) emulate non-local radial transport due to heterogeneous advection, (ii) model multirate mass transfer (MRMT) between mobile and immobile continua, and (iii) quantify both heterogeneous advection in a mobile and mass transfer between mobile and immobile regions. We analyze the transport signatures for the distinct CTRW models in terms of solute breakthrough curves and their dependence on the heterogeneity scenarios.

  12. Development of concentration profile and prediction of flux for ultrafiltration in a radial cross-flow cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ganguly; P. K. Bhattacharya

    1994-01-01

    The limiting flux phenomena in ultrafiltration were studied. The experiments were carried out using an asym- metric membrane in a radial cross-flow cell. The permeate flux was predicted for black liquor, a paper plant ef- fluent, in comparison to the results using a standard macromolecular solution of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG 6000). The governing equations for the simulation of radial cross-flow

  13. Application of radial-equilibrium condition to axial-flow compressor and turbine design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Chung-Hua; Wolfenstein, Lincoln

    1950-01-01

    Basic general equations governing the three-dimensional compressible flow of gas through a compressor or turbine are given in terms of total enthalpy, entropy, and velocity components of the gas. Two methods of solution are obtained for the simplified, steady axially symmetric flow; one involves the use of a number of successive planes normal to the axis of the machine and short distances apart, and the other involves only three stations for a stage in which an appropriate radial-flow path is used. Methods of calculation for the limiting cases of zero and infinite blade aspect ratios and an approximate method of calculation for finite blade aspect ratio are also given. In these methods, the blade loading and the shape of the annular passage wall may be arbitrarily specified.

  14. Intrapericardial denervation - Radial artery blood flow and heart rate responses to LBNP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckeever, Kenneth H.; Skidmore, Michael G.; Keil, Lanny C.; Sandler, Harold

    1990-01-01

    The effects of intrapericardial denervation on the radial artery blood flow velocity (RABFV) and heart rate (HR) responses to LBNP in rhesus monkeys were investigated by measuring the RABFV transcutaneously by a continuous-wave Doppler ultrasonic flowmeter in order to derive an index of forearm blood flow response to low (0 to -20 mm Hg) and high (0 to -60 mm Hg) ramp exposures during supine LBNP. Four of the eight subjects were subjected to efferent and afferent cardiac denervation. It was found that, during low levels of LBNP, monkeys with cardiac denervation exhibited no cardiopulmonary baroreceptor-mediated change in the RABFV or HR, unlike the intact animals, which showed steady decreases in RABFV during both high- and low-pressure protocols. It is suggested that forearm blood flow and HR responses to low-level LBNP, along with pharmacological challenge, are viable physiological tests for verifying the completeness of atrial and cardiopulmonary baroreceptor denervation.

  15. Identification of Phytoplankton from Flow Cytometry Data by Using Radial Basis Function Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, M. F.; Boddy, Lynne; Morris, C. W.; Jonker, R. R.

    1999-01-01

    We describe here the application of a type of artificial neural network, the Gaussian radial basis function (RBF) network, in the identification of a large number of phytoplankton strains from their 11-dimensional flow cytometric characteristics measured by the European Optical Plankton Analyser instrument. The effect of network parameters on optimization is examined. Optimized RBF networks recognized 34 species of marine and freshwater phytoplankton with 91.5% success overall. The relative importance of each measured parameter in discriminating these data and the behavior of RBF networks in response to data from “novel” species (species not present in the training data) were analyzed. PMID:10508067

  16. Instabilities of rotational flows in azimuthal magnetic fields of arbitrary radial dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillov, Oleg N.; Stefani, Frank; Fukumoto, Yasuhide

    2014-06-01

    Using the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) approximation we perform a linear stability analysis for a rotational flow of a viscous and electrically conducting fluid in an external azimuthal magnetic field that has an arbitrary radial profile B?(R). In the inductionless approximation, we find the growth rate of the three-dimensional perturbation in a closed form and demonstrate in particular that it can be positive when the velocity profile is Keplerian and the magnetic field profile is slightly shallower than R-1.

  17. A study of radial-flow turbomachinery blade vibration measurements using Eulerian laser Doppler vibrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberholster, A. J.; Heyns, P. S.

    2014-05-01

    The structural integrity of blades is critical to the health of turbomachinery. Since operational failure of these blades can possibly lead to catastrophic failure of the machine, it is important to have knowledge of blade conditions in an online fashion. Due to several practical implications, it is desired to measure blade vibration with a non-contact technique. The application of laser Doppler vibrometry towards the vibration based condition monitoring of axial-flow turbomachinery blades has been successfully demonstrated in previous work. In this paper the feasibility of using laser Doppler vibrometry to measure radial-flow turbomachinery blade vibrations is investigated with the aid of digital image correlation and strain gauge telemetry.

  18. Evidence for Radial Flow of Thermal Dileptons in High-Energy Nuclear Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Arnaldi, R.; Colla, A.; Cortese, P.; Ferretti, A.; Oppedisano, C.; Scomparin, E. [Universita di Torino and INFN, Turin (Italy); Banicz, K.; Damjanovic, S. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Castor, J.; Devaux, A.; Fargeix, J.; Force, P.; Manso, F. [LPC, Universite Blaise Pascal and CNRS-IN2P3, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Chaurand, B. [LLR, Ecole Polytechnique and CNRS-IN2P3, Palaiseau (France); Cicalo, C.; Falco, A. de; Floris, M.; Masoni, A.; Puddu, G.; Serci, S. [Universita di Cagliari and INFN, Cagliari (Italy)] (and others)

    2008-01-18

    The NA60 experiment at the CERN SPS has studied low-mass dimuon production in 158A GeV In-In collisions. An excess of pairs above the known meson decays has been reported before. We now present precision results on the associated transverse momentum spectra. The slope parameter T{sub eff} extracted from the spectra rises with dimuon mass up to the {rho}, followed by a sudden decline above. While the initial rise is consistent with the expectations for radial flow of a hadronic decay source, the decline signals a transition to an emission source with much smaller flow. This may well represent the first direct evidence for thermal radiation of partonic origin in nuclear collisions.

  19. A PC-based inverse design method for radial and mixed flow turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skoe, Ivar Helge

    1991-01-01

    An Inverse Design Method suitable for radial and mixed flow turbomachinery is presented. The codes are based on the streamline curvature concept; therefore, it is applicable for current personal computers from the 286/287 range. In addition to the imposed aerodynamic constraints, mechanical constraints are imposed during the design process to ensure that the resulting geometry satisfies production consideration and that structural considerations are taken into account. By the use of Bezier Curves in the geometric modeling, the same subroutine is used to prepare input for both aero and structural files since it is important to ensure that the geometric data is identical to both structural analysis and production. To illustrate the method, a mixed flow turbine design is shown.

  20. Electromagnetic gauge for measuring the radial particle velocity in 2-D flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, G.; Yaziv, D.; Mayseless, M.

    1982-04-01

    Applications of existing EMV gauges are limited for uniaxial strain configurtions, since the gauge length must remain fixed during the motion. A modification of the electromagnetic technique which provides measurements in 2-D flow is presented. When the problem of a projectile impacting a target is described in cylindrical coordinates (r,z) with z as axis of symmetry, the flow can be defined by the particle velocity components Uz,Ur. A new gauge is made of a thin copper wire having a circular turn shape. The gauge is embedded in the target material in a plane normal to the z axis axisymetrically. Magnetic field is generated by a solenoid wrapped around the target so that the field lines are parallel to the z axis. In a configuration like this, only the radial motion contributes to the EMF, therefore in a uniform filed, B, the measured EMF depends on the radial particle velocity: E=2?Br(t)Ur(t), where the circular turn radius, r(t), is obtained by integrating the velocity Ur(t). This new method hjas been demonstrted by experiment, impacting a rod shaped projectile made of PMMA into a target of the same material. Results are compared with 2-D calculation.

  1. Mapping the fluid flow and shear near the core surface using the radial and horizontal components of the magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Andrew; Bloxham, Jeremy

    1991-01-01

    The problem of calculating the temporal evolution of both the radial and horizontal poloidal components of a field, given an initial field and the flow and shear, is first considered. Attention is then given to the inverse problem of determining the flow and shear, given an initial field and its temporal evolution. The nonuniqueness inherent in such inversions is discussed, and it is shown that part of the nonuniqueness in the shear is closely related to that in the flow derived from just the radial induction equation.

  2. On the flow between a rotating and a coaxial fixed disc - Numerical validation of the radial similarity hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, L. A.; Pecheux, J.; Restivo, A. O.

    1991-06-01

    The rotating flow between coaxial disks in a radially confined geometry is studied by numerical integration of the full Navier-Stokes equations. The results indicate that both Batchelor's and Stewartson's flow structures can be observed near the axis of rotation, depending on what conditions are set at the peripheral boundary.

  3. Theoretical analysis of incompressible flow through a radial-inlet centrifugal impeller at various weight flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, James J; Prian, Vasily D; Wu, Chung-Hua

    1956-01-01

    A method for the solution of the incompressible nonviscous flow through a centrifugal impeller, including the inlet region, is presented. Several numerical solutions are obtained for four weight flows through an impeller at one operating speed. These solutions are refined in the leading-edge region. The results are presented in a series of figures showing streamlines and relative velocity contours. A comparison is made with the results obtained by using a rapid approximate method of analysis.

  4. Field-flow fractionation and hydrodynamic chromatography on a microfluidic chip.

    PubMed

    Shendruk, Tyler N; Tahvildari, Radin; Catafard, Nicolas M; Andrzejewski, Lukasz; Gigault, Christian; Todd, Andrew; Gagne-Dumais, Laurent; Slater, Gary W; Godin, Michel

    2013-06-18

    We present gravitational field-flow fractionation and hydrodynamic chromatography of colloids eluting through 18 ?m microchannels. Using video microscopy and mesoscopic simulations, we investigate the average retention ratio of colloids with both a large specific weight and neutral buoyancy. We consider the entire range of colloid sizes, including particles that barely fit in the microchannel and nanoscopic particles. Ideal theory predicts four operational modes, from hydrodynamic chromatography to Faxén-mode field-flow fractionation. We experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, the existence of the Faxén-mode field-flow fractionation and the transition from hydrodynamic chromatography to normal-mode field-flow fractionation. Furthermore, video microscopy and simulations show that the retention ratios are largely reduced above the steric-inversion point, causing the variation of the retention ratio in the steric- and Faxén-mode regimes to be suppressed due to increased drag. We demonstrate that theory can accurately predict retention ratios if hydrodynamic interactions with the microchannel walls (wall drag) are added to the ideal theory. Rather than limiting the applicability, these effects allow the microfluidic channel size to be tuned to ensure high selectivity. Our findings indicate that particle velocimetry methods must account for the wall-induced lag when determining flow rates in highly confining systems. PMID:23650976

  5. Calculation methods for linear and radial steam flow in oil reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    van Lookeren, J.

    1983-06-01

    The flow of oil and water in a reservoir as a result of steam injection is related to the shape of the growing steam zone. Analytical formulas describing the approximate shape of this zone have been derived both for linear flow in horizontal and dipping formations and for radial flow around injection wells in a horizontal formation. The theory is based on segregated-flow principles. The formulas take into account gravity overlay of steam zones and have been checked against results of scaled laboratory experiments, steam-injection projects in the field, and calculations with a numerical reservoir simulator. From the good agreement with the new calculation method it would seem that the shape of a steam zone is controlled mainly by one group of parameters including steam-injection rate, pressure, and effective formation permeability to steam. The equations can be used to analyze and explain field observations, such as the position of steam/liquid contacts in injection wells, estimates of effective permeability to steam in steam zones, and steam-zone thickness as noticed in observation wells. This paper shows, for example, how a cumulative oil/steam ratio for oil displaced from a steam zone depends on steam-zone pressure, injection rate, and time. With increasing oil viscosity, more bypassing of oil by steam owing to viscous forces will occur, leading to more overlay of steam zones and eventually to narrow tonguing in a lateral direction.

  6. Radial-radial single rotor turbine

    DOEpatents

    Platts, David A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2006-05-16

    A rotor for use in turbine applications has a radial compressor/pump having radially disposed spaced apart fins forming passages and a radial turbine having hollow turbine blades interleaved with the fins and through which fluid from the radial compressor/pump flows. The rotor can, in some applications, be used to produce electrical power.

  7. An interactive grid generation procedure for axial and radial flow turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, Timothy A.

    1989-01-01

    A combination algebraic/elliptic technique is presented for the generation of three dimensional grids about turbo-machinery blade rows for both axial and radial flow machinery. The technique is built around use of an advanced engineering workstation to construct several two dimensional grids interactively on predetermined blade-to-blade surfaces. A three dimensional grid is generated by interpolating these surface grids onto an axisymmetric grid. On each blade-to-blade surface, a grid is created using algebraic techniques near the blade to control orthogonality within the boundary layer region and elliptic techniques in the mid-passage to achieve smoothness. The interactive definition of bezier curves as internal boundaries is the key to simple construction. This procedure lends itself well to zonal grid construction, an important example being the tip clearance region. Calculations done to date include a space shuttle main engine turbopump blade, a radial inflow turbine blade, and the first stator of the United Technologies Research Center large scale rotating rig. A finite Navier-Stokes solver was used in each case.

  8. Three-dimensional flow in radial turbomachinery and its impact on design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, Choon S.; Hawthorne, William

    1993-01-01

    In the two papers on the 'Theory of Blade Design for Large Deflections' published in 1984, a new inverse design technique was presented for designing the shape of turbomachinery blades in three-dimensional flow. The technique involves the determination of the blade profile from the specification of a distribution of the product of the radius and the pitched averaged tangential velocity (i.e., r bar-V(sub theta), the mean swirl schedule) within the bladed region. This is in contrast to the conventional inverse design technique for turbomachinery blading in two dimensional flow in which the blade surface pressure or velocity distribution is specified and the blade profile determined as a result; this is feasible in two-dimensional flow because the streamlines along the blade surfaces are known a priori. However, in three-dimensional flow, the stream surface is free to deform within the blade passage so that the streamlines on the blade surfaces are not known a priori; thus it is difficult and not so useful to prescribe the blade surface pressure or velocity distribution and determine the resulting blade profile. It therefore seems logical to prescribe the swirl schedule within the bladed region for designing a turbomachinery blade profile in three-dimensional flow. Furthermore, specifying r bar-V(sub theta) has the following advantages: (1) it is related to the circulation around the blade (i.e., it is an aerodynamic quantity); (2) the work done or extracted is approximately proportional to the overall change in r bar-V(sub theta) across a given blade row (Euler turbine equation); and (3) the rate of change of r bar-V(sub theta) along the mean streamline at the blade is related to the pressure jump across the blade and therefore the blade loading. Since the publications of those two papers, the technique has been applied to the design of a low speed as well as a high speed radial inflow turbine (for turbocharger applications) both of which showed definite improvements in performance over that of wheels of conventional designs, the design study of a high pressure ratio radial inflow turbine with and without splitter blades.

  9. Experiments on Thermal Convection in Rotating Spherical Shells With Radial Gravity: The Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, John E.

    1996-01-01

    Experiments designed to study the fluid dynamics of buoyancy driven circulations in rotating spherical shells were conducted on the United States Microgravity Laboratory 2 spacelab mission. These experiments address several aspects of prototypical global convection relevant to large scale motions on the Sun, Earth, and on the giant planets. The key feature is the consistent modeling of radially directed gravity in spherical geometry by using dielectric polarization forces. Imagery of the planforms of thermally driven flows for rapidly-rotating regimes shows an initial separation and eventual merger of equatorial and polar convection as the heating (i.e. the Rayleigh number) is increased. At low rotation rates, multiple-states of motion for the same external parameters were observed.

  10. Aerodynamic design of turbomachinery blading in three-dimensional flow - An application to radial inflow turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Y. L.; Tan, C. S.; Hawthorne, W. R.

    1992-01-01

    A computational method, based on a theory for turbomachinery blading design in three-dimensional inviscid flow, is applied to a parametric design study of a radial inflow turbine wheel. As the method requires the specification of swirl distribution, a technique for its smooth generation within the blade region is proposed. Excellent agreements have been obtained between the computed results from this design method and those from direct Euler computations, demonstrating the correspondence and consistency between the two. The computed results indicate the sensitivity of the pressure distribution to a lean in the stacking axis and a minor alteration in the hub/shroud profiles. Analysis based on Navier-Stokes solver shows no breakdown of flow within the designed blade passage and agreement with that from design calculation; thus the flow in the designed turbine rotor closely approximates that of an inviscid one. These calculations illustrate the use of a design method coupled to an analysis tool for establishing guidelines and criteria for designing turbomachinery blading.

  11. Performance back-deduction from a loading to flow coefficient map: Application to radial turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonneau, Xavier; Binder, Nicolas

    2012-12-01

    Radial turbine stages are often used for applications requiring off-design operation, as turbocharging for instance. The off-design ability of such stages is commonly analyzed through the traditional turbine map, plotting the reduced mass-flow against the pressure-ratio, for reduced-speed lines. However, some alternatives are possible, such as the flow-coefficient ( ?) to loading-coefficient ( ?) diagram where the pressure-ratio lines are actually straight lines, very convenient property to perform prediction. A robust method re-creating this map from a predicted ?-? diagram is needed. Recent work has shown that this back-deduction quality, without the use of any loss models, depends on the knowledge of an intermediate pressure-ratio. A modelization of this parameter is then proposed. The comparison with both experimental and CFD results is presented, with quite good agreement for mass flow rate and rotational speed, and for the intermediate pressure ratio. The last part of the paper is dedicated to the application of the intermediate pressure-ratio knowledge to the improvement of the deduction of the pressure ratio lines in the ?-? diagram. Beside this improvement, the back-deduction method of the classical map is structured, applied and evaluated.

  12. Abstract--In this paper, Reversed-Flow Gas Chromatography (RF-GC) is utilized to investigate the

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Abstract--In this paper, Reversed-Flow Gas Chromatography (RF-GC) is utilized to investigate Chromatography (RF-GC) method can be used as an indicator to `measure' the evaporation rates of liquid Manuscript of the presence of adsorbed monolayers [3]. Because RF-GC sampling is fast and accurate, it is a reliable method

  13. PIV investigation of the flow induced by a passive surge control method in a radial compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillou, Erwann; Gancedo, Matthieu; Gutmark, Ephraim; Mohamed, Ashraf

    2012-09-01

    Due to recent emission regulations, the use of turbochargers for force induction of internal combustion engines has increased. Actually, the trend in diesel engines is to downsize the engine by use of turbochargers that operate at higher pressure ratios. Unfortunately, increasing the impeller rotational speed of turbocharger radial compressors tends to reduce their range of operation, which is limited at low mass flow rate by the occurrence of surge. In order to extend the operability of turbochargers, compressor housings can be equipped with a passive surge control device such as a "ported shroud." This specific casing treatment has been demonstrated to enhance the surge margin with minor negative impact on the compressor efficiency. However, the actual working mechanisms of the system remain not well understood. Hence, in order to optimize the design of the ported shroud, it is crucial to identify the dynamic flow changes induced by the implementation of the device to control instabilities. From the full dynamic survey of the compressor performance characteristics obtained with and without ported shroud, specific points of operation were selected to carry out planar flow visualization. At normal working, both standard and stereoscopic particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) measurements were performed to evaluate instantaneous and mean velocity flow fields at the inlet of the compressor. At incipient and full surge, phase-locked PIV measurements were added. As a result, satisfying characterization of the compressor instabilities was provided at different operational speeds. Combining transient pressure data and PIV measurements, the time evolution of the complex flow patterns occurring at surge was reconstructed and a better insight into the bypass mechanism was achieved.

  14. The vergence eye movements induced by radial optic flow: some fundamental properties of the underlying local-motion detectors.

    PubMed

    Kodaka, Y; Sheliga, B M; FitzGibbon, E J; Miles, F A

    2007-09-01

    Radial optic flow applied to large random dot patterns is known to elicit horizontal vergence eye movements at short latency, expansion causing convergence and contraction causing divergence: the Radial Flow Vergence Response (RFVR). We elicited RFVRs in human subjects by applying radial motion to concentric circular patterns whose radial luminance modulation was that of a square wave lacking the fundamental: the missing fundamental (mf) stimulus. The radial motion consisted of successive 1/4-wavelength steps, so that the overall pattern and the 4n+1 harmonics (where n=integer) underwent radial expansion (or contraction), whereas the 4n-1 harmonics--including the strongest Fourier component (the 3rd harmonic)--underwent the opposite radial motion. Radial motion commenced only after the subject had fixated the center of the pattern. The initial RFVRs were always in the direction of the 3rd harmonic, e.g., expansion of the mf pattern causing divergence. Thus, the earliest RFVRs were strongly dependent on the motion of the major Fourier component, consistent with early spatio-temporal filtering prior to motion detection, as in the well-known energy model of motion analysis. If the radial mf stimulus was reduced to just two competing harmonics--the 3rd and 5th--the initial RFVRs showed a nonlinear dependence on their relative contrasts: when the two harmonics differed in contrast by more than about an octave then the one with the higher contrast completely dominated the RFVRs and the one with lower contrast lost its influence: winner-take-all. We suggest that these nonlinear interactions result from mutual inhibition between the mechanisms sensing the motion of the different competing harmonics. If single radial-flow steps were used, a brief inter-stimulus interval resulted in reversed RFVRs, consistent with the idea that the motion detectors mediating these responses receive a visual input whose temporal impulse response function is strongly biphasic. Lastly, all of these characteristics of the RFVR, which we attribute to the early cortical processing of visual motion, are known to be shared by the Ocular Following Response (OFR)--a conjugate tracking (version) response elicited at short-latency by linear motion-and even the quantitative details are generally very similar. Thus, although the RFVR and OFR respond to very different patterns of global motion-radial vs. linear-they have very similar local spatiotemporal properties as though mediated by the same low-level, local-motion detectors, which we suggest are in the striate cortex. PMID:17706738

  15. 1r2dinv: A finite-difference model for inverse analysis of two dimensional linear or radial groundwater flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohling, G.C.; Butler, J.J., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a program for inverse analysis of two-dimensional linear or radial groundwater flow problems. The program, 1r2dinv, uses standard finite difference techniques to solve the groundwater flow equation for a horizontal or vertical plane with heterogeneous properties. In radial mode, the program simulates flow to a well in a vertical plane, transforming the radial flow equation into an equivalent problem in Cartesian coordinates. The physical parameters in the model are horizontal or x-direction hydraulic conductivity, anisotropy ratio (vertical to horizontal conductivity in a vertical model, y-direction to x-direction in a horizontal model), and specific storage. The program allows the user to specify arbitrary and independent zonations of these three parameters and also to specify which zonal parameter values are known and which are unknown. The Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm is used to estimate parameters from observed head values. Particularly powerful features of the program are the ability to perform simultaneous analysis of heads from different tests and the inclusion of the wellbore in the radial mode. These capabilities allow the program to be used for analysis of suites of well tests, such as multilevel slug tests or pumping tests in a tomographic format. The combination of information from tests stressing different vertical levels in an aquifer provides the means for accurately estimating vertical variations in conductivity, a factor profoundly influencing contaminant transport in the subsurface. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Experimental evaluation of connectivity influence on dispersivity under confined and unconfined radial convergent flow conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzzi, Silvia; Molinari, Antonio; Fallico, Carmine; Pedretti, Daniele

    2014-05-01

    Heterogeneity and connectivity have a significant impact on the fate and transport of contaminants due to the occurrence of formations with largest permeability than the surrounding geological materials, which can originate preferential pathways in groundwater system. These issues are usually addressed by tracer tests and a radial convergent (RC) flow setting is typically selected for convenience but more complicated for model interpretation than uniform flow transport. An experimental investigation was performed using RC tracer tests in a 3D intermediate scale physical model to illustrate the role of connected features on the estimation of dispersivity using the classical Sauty solution and the method of moments, under confined and unconfined aquifer conditions. The physical model consists of 26 piezometers located at difference distances from a constant-discharge central pumping well. The box is filled with gravel channels embedded in a sandy matrix and organized in different layers. Materials have been well characterized before and after the test. For the confined configuration, a silt layer was placed above the previous layers. Tracer tests were performed using potassium iodide solutions with concentration of 3•10-3 M and under a constant pumping flow rate of 0.05 L/s. To mimic a pulse injection in each piezometer we used syringes and pipes, whereas a probe allowed continuous measuring of tracer concentration. Average velocity and longitudinal dispersion coefficient were defined from the first and second central moment of the observed breakthrough curves for each piezometer (integrated over the outflow boundary of the domain) and using the classical curve matching from the Sauty's solution at different Péclet numbers. Results reveal in some cases that estimates of hydrodynamic parameters from the Sauty solution and the method of moments seem to be different. This is related to the different basic assumptions of the two methods applied, and especially because of the presence of preferential flow paths which have been found to strongly control the highest values of the average velocity at the source and affect the resulting longitudinal dispersion coefficient. This study showed additional lights on the impact of connectivity on transport and its role to obtain effective measurements of macrodispersion throughout the aquifer under RC transport. Reference: Fernàndez-Garcia D. et al. (2002) Convergent-flow tracer tests in heterogeneous media. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 57 129-145. Fischer H. B. (1966) Longitudinal Dispersion in Laboratory and Natural Streams. Technical Rep. KH-R-12, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California. Gaspar E. (1987) Modern Trends in Tracer Hydrology, Volume II. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, USA.

  17. Flow Characterization and Dynamic Analysis of a Radial Compressor with Passive Method of Surge Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillou, Erwann

    Due to recent emission regulations, the use of turbochargers for force induction of internal combustion engines has increased. Actually, the trend in diesel engines is to downsize the engine by use of turbochargers that operate at higher pressure ratio. Unfortunately, increasing the rotational speed tends to reduce the turbocharger radial compressor range of operation which is limited at low mass flow rate by the occurrence of surge. In order to extent the operability of turbochargers, compressor housings can be equipped with a passive surge control device also known as ported shroud. This specific casing treatment has been demonstrated to enhance surge margin with minor negative impact on the compressor efficiency. However, the actual working mechanisms of the bypass system remain not well understood. In order to optimize the design of the ported shroud, it is then crucial to identify the dynamic flow changes induced by the implementation of the device to control instabilities. Experimental methods were used to assess the development of instabilities from stable, stall and eventually surge regimes of a ported shroud centrifugal compressor. Systematic comparison was conducted with the same compressor design without ported shroud. Hence, the full pressure dynamic survey of both compressors' performance characteristics converged toward two different and probably interrelated driving mechanisms to the development and/or propagation of unsteadiness within each compressor. One related the pressure disturbances at the compressor inlet, and notably the more apparent development of perturbations in the non-ported compressor impeller, whereas the other was attributed to the pressure distortions induced by the presence of the tongue in the asymmetric design of the compressor volute. Specific points of operation were selected to carry out planar flow measurements. At normal working, both standard and stereoscopic particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) measurements were performed to calculate the instantaneous and mean velocity fields at the inlet of the compressor. At incipient and full surge, phase-locked PIV measurements were added. In this work, satisfying characterization of the compressor inlet flow instabilities was obtained at different operational speeds. Combining transient pressure data and PIV measurements, the time evolution of the complex flow patterns occurring at surge was reconstructed and a better insight into the bypass mechanisms was achieved.

  18. Linear stability of a circular Couette flow under a radial thermoelectric body force.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, H N; Meyer, A; Crumeyrolle, O; Mutabazi, I

    2015-03-01

    The stability of the circular Couette flow of a dielectric fluid is analyzed by a linear perturbation theory. The fluid is confined between two concentric cylindrical electrodes of infinite length with only the inner one rotating. A temperature difference and an alternating electric tension are applied to the electrodes to produce a radial dielectrophoretic body force that can induce convection in the fluid. We examine the effects of superposition of this thermoelectric force with the centrifugal force including its thermal variation. The Earth's gravity is neglected to focus on the situations of a vanishing Grashof number such as microgravity conditions. Depending on the electric field strength and of the temperature difference, critical modes are either axisymmetric or nonaxisymmetric, occurring in either stationary or oscillatory states. An energetic analysis is performed to determine the dominant destabilizing mechanism. When the inner cylinder is hotter than the outer one, the circular Couette flow is destabilized by the centrifugal force for weak and moderate electric fields. The critical mode is steady axisymmetric, except for weak fields within a certain range of the Prandtl number and of the radius ratio of the cylinders, where the mode is oscillatory and axisymmetric. The frequency of this oscillatory mode is correlated with a Brunt-Väisälä frequency due to the stratification of both the density and the electric permittivity of the fluid. Under strong electric fields, the destabilization by the dielectrophoretic force is dominant, leading to oscillatory nonaxisymmetric critical modes with a frequency scaled by the frequency of the inner-cylinder rotation. When the outer cylinder is hotter than the inner one, the instability is again driven by the centrifugal force. The critical mode is axisymmetric and either steady under weak electric fields or oscillatory under strong electric fields. The frequency of the oscillatory mode is also correlated with the Brunt-Väisälä frequency. PMID:25871198

  19. The origins of radial fracture systems and associated large lava flows on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parfitt, Elisabeth A.; Wilson, Lionel; Head, James W., III

    1992-01-01

    Magellan images have revealed the existence of systems of radial fractures on venus that are very similar in form to terrestrial dike swarms such as the Mackenzie swarm in Northern Canada. The association of many of the fracture systems with lava flows, calderas, and volcanic edifices further support the idea of a dike emplacement origin. A global survey of the Magellan images has allowed the location of 300 such fracture systems. Two types of fracture systems are defined. A series of models were developed to simulate the emplacement of dikes on Venus. Observations of fracture lengths and widths were then used to constrain the emplacement conditions. The model results show that the great length and relatively large width of the fractures can only be explained if the dikes that produce them were emplaced in high driving pressure (pressure buffered) conditions. Such conditions imply high rates of melt production, which is consistent with the melt being derived directly from a plume head. We have recently modeled the vertical emplacement of a dike from the top of a mantle plume and calculated the eruption rates such a dike would produce on reaching the surface. This modeling shows that eruption rates of approximately 0.1 cu km/hr can readily be generated by such a dike, consistent with the above results. However, the sensitivity of the model to dike width and therefore driving pressure means that eruption rates from dikes emplaced from the base of the crust or the head of a mantle plume could be orders of magnitude higher than this. Clearly, therefore, the model needs to be refined in order to better constrain eruption conditions. However, it is worth noting here that the initial results do show that even for moderate dike widths, eruption rates could be at least on the order of those estimated for terrestrial flood basalts.

  20. Radial Flow in Au + Au Collisions at E = \\(0.25-1.15\\)A GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisa, M. A.; Albergo, S.; Bieser, F.; Brady, F. P.; Caccia, Z.; Cebra, D. A.; Chacon, A. D.; Chance, J. L.; Choi, Y.; Costa, S.; Elliott, J. B.; Gilkes, M. L.; Hauger, J. A.; Hirsch, A. S.; Hjort, E. L.; Insolia, A.; Justice, M.; Keane, D.; Kintner, J.; Matis, H. S.; McMahan, M.; McParland, C.; Olson, D. L.; Partlan, M. D.; Porile, N. T.; Potenza, R.; Rai, G.; Rasmussen, J.; Ritter, H. G.; Romanski, J.; Romero, J. L.; Russo, G. V.; Scharenberg, R.; Scott, A.; Shao, Y.; Srivastava, B. K.; Symons, T. J.; Tincknell, M.; Tuvé, C.; Wang, S.; Warren, P.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H. H.; Wolf, K.

    1995-10-01

    A systematic study of energy spectra for light particles emitted at midrapidity from Au+Au collisions at E = (0.25-1.15) A GeV reveals a significant nonthermal component consistent with a collective radial flow. This component is evaluated as a function of bombarding energy and event centrality. Comparisons to quantum molecular dynamics and Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck models are made for different equations of state.

  1. A versatile cryo-focussing flow switching gas chromatography inlet for trace analysis of intractable compounds.

    PubMed

    Apps, Peter; Mmualefe, Lesego

    2012-09-28

    A wide variety of samples that can be analysed by gas chromatography do not lend themselves to the usual preparation of solvent extracts for split-splitless injections, and are best handled by purge and trap or equilibrium headspace sampling. A cryo-focussing, flow switching gas chromatography inlet system that handles different types of sample without the need for hardware changes has been prototyped. It provides excellent repeatability and linearity with liquid injections, purge and trap, and equilibrium headspace samples, in both split and splitless modes. The performance of the system was tested with sub-nanogram quantities of challenging analytes such as free carboxylic acids, alcohols, diols, phenols and aldehydes, and volatiles purged from contaminated soil, mammal faeces, a pesticide formulation, and a spice. Repeatability RSDs for peak areas were consistently below 11% and repeatabilities of retention times below 0.05%, independently of sample type (liquid or gas phase) and nature or quantity of compound. Regression coefficients of peak areas vs. quantity were typically ? 0.999 over two orders of magnitude ranges extending down to below 0.01 ng, also independently of sample and analyte. Limits of quantitation were robustly below 0.1-0.2 ng. Peak shapes and resolution are the same with use of the cryo-trap and flow switch as they are with conventional injections. Performance is robust to flow rate and, for most compounds, to trapping and desorption temperature. The cryo-trapping flow switching inlet's performance parameters match those of other sample introduction systems, and are achieved with sub-nanogram quantities of intractable analytes. PMID:22920301

  2. Gas chromatography flow rates for determining deuterium/hydrogen ratios of natural gas by gas chromatography/high-temperature conversion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jia, Wanglu; Peng, Ping'an; Liu, Jinzhong

    2008-08-01

    The effects of the gas chromatography flow rate on the determination of the deuterium/hydrogen (D/H) ratios of natural gas utilising gas chromatography/high-temperature conversion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/TC/IRMS) have been evaluated. In general, the measured deltaD values of methane, ethane and propane decrease with increase in column flow rate. When the column flow rate is 1 mL/min or higher, which is commonly used for the determination of D/H ratios of natural gas, the organic H in gas compounds may not be completely converted into hydrogen gas. Based on the results of experiments conducted on a GC column with an i.d. of 0.32 mm, a GC flow rate of 0.6 mL/min is proposed for determining the D/H ratios of natural gas by GC/TC/IRMS. Although this value may be dependent on the instrument conditions used in this work, we believe that correct deltaD values of organic compounds with a few carbon atoms are obtained only when relatively low GC flow rates are used for D/H analysis by GC/TC/IRMS. Moreover, as the presence of trace water could significantly affect the determination of D/H ratios, a newly designed inlet liner was used to remove trace water contained in some gas samples. PMID:18636428

  3. Flow field characteristics of a radial jet reattaching on a flat plate 

    E-print Network

    Carbone, Janique Sylvia

    1988-01-01

    visualization technique. TO MY MOTHER AND FATHER AND FAMILY FOR ALL THE LOVE AND SUPPORT ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This research has been partially supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CBT-8418493. I would like to express my thanks to Dr... visualization studies for two radial jet nozzle configurations. Squire [2] and Schwarz [3] performed early theoretical studies in which the equations of motion for a laminar, incompressible, free radial jet were solved using boundary layer approximations...

  4. Hard modeling methods for the curve resolution of data from liquid chromatography with a diode array detector and on-flow liquid chromatography with nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wasim, Mohammad; Brereton, Richard G

    2006-01-01

    Hard modeling methods have been performed on data from high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (LC-DAD) and on-flow liquid chromatography with 1H nuclear magnetic spectroscopy (LC-NMR). Four methods have been used to optimize parameters to model concentration profiles, three of which belong to classical optimization methods (the simplex method of Nelder-Mead, sequential quadratic programming approach, and Levenberg-Marquardt method), and the fourth is the application of genetic algorithms using real-value encoding. Only classical methods worked well for LC-DAD data, while all of the methods produced good results when LC-NMR data were divided into small spectral windows of peak clusters and parameters were optimized over each window. PMID:16711734

  5. A Galerkin finite-element flow model to predict the transient response of a radially symmetric aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reilly, Thomas E.

    1984-01-01

    A computer program developed to evaluate radial flow of ground water, such as at a pumping well, recharge basin, or injection well, is capable of simulating anisotropic, inhomogenous, confined, or pseudo-unconfined (constant saturated thickness) conditions. Results compare well with those calculated from published analytical and model solutions. The program is based on the Galerkin finite-element technique. A sample model run is presented to illustrate the use of the program; supplementary material provides the program listing as well as a sample problem data set and output. From the text and other material presented, one can use the program to predict drawdowns from pumping and ground-water buildups from recharge in a radially symmetric ground-water system.

  6. Continuous counter-current extraction on an industrial sample using dual-flow counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    van den Heuvel, Remco; Mathews, Ben; Dubant, Stephane; Sutherland, Ian

    2009-05-01

    Both batch and continuous separations were performed on an industrial liquor using a specially built continuous counter-current extraction centrifuge. Changing the flow regime for different batch separations showed that the elution of components from the respective ends of the coil depends on the flow rates of both upper and lower phases. It was shown that, within the scope of the study, the elution of the components was not affected by the concentration of the injected reaction liquor and more importantly that continuous processing with a counter-current chromatography centrifuge was feasible. This research represents an important step forward in making continuous counter-current chromatography (or true moving bed chromatography) accessible for the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:19211107

  7. A comparison of the calculated and experimental off-design performance of a radial flow turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tirres, Lizet

    1991-01-01

    Off design aerodynamic performance of the solid version of a cooled radial inflow turbine is analyzed. Rotor surface static pressure data and other performance parameters were obtained experimentally. Overall stage performance and turbine blade surface static to inlet total pressure ratios were calculated by using a quasi-three dimensional inviscid code. The off design prediction capability of this code for radial inflow turbines shows accurate static pressure prediction. Solutions show a difference of 3 to 5 points between the experimentally obtained efficiencies and the calculated values.

  8. Flow rate dependent extra-column variance from injection in capillary liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Pankaj; Liu, Kun; Sharma, Sonika; Lawson, John S; Dennis Tolley, H; Lee, Milton L

    2015-02-01

    Efficiency and resolution in capillary liquid chromatography (LC) can be significantly affected by extra-column band broadening, especially for isocratic separations. This is particularly a concern in evaluating column bed structure using non-retained test compounds. The band broadening due to an injector supplied with a commercially available capillary LC system was characterized from experimental measurements. The extra-column variance from the injection valve was found to have an extra-column contribution independent of the injection volume, showing an exponential dependence on flow rate. The overall extra-column variance from the injection valve was found to vary from 34 to 23 nL. A new mathematical model was derived that explains this exponential contribution of extra-column variance on chromatographic performance. The chromatographic efficiency was compromised by ?130% for a non-retained analyte because of injection valve dead volume. The measured chromatographic efficiency was greatly improved when a new nano-flow pumping system with integrated injection valve was used. PMID:25591400

  9. Kinetic behaviour in supercritical fluid chromatography with modified mobile phase for 5 ?m particle size and varied flow rates.

    PubMed

    Lesellier, E; Fougere, L; Poe, Donald P

    2011-04-15

    After much development of stationary phase chemistry, in recent years the focus of many studies in HPLC has shifted to increase the efficiency and analysis speed. Ultra high pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) using sub-2 ?m particles, and high temperature liquid chromatography (HTLC), using temperatures above 100°C have received much attention. These new approaches allow the use of flow rates higher than those classically used in HPLC, reducing the analysis duration. Due to the low viscosity of supercritical fluids, high velocities, i.e. high flow rates, can be achieved with classical pumping systems typically used in supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). The effects of the flow rate increase with CO(2)/methanol mobile phase was studied on the inlet pressure, t(0), the retention factor of the compounds, and on the efficiency. Simple comparisons of efficiencies obtained at varied temperature between SFC and HPLC, with a packed column containing 5 ?m particles, show the greater kinetic performances achieved with the CO(2)/methanol fluid, and underline specific behaviours of SFC, occurring for high flow rates and sub-ambient temperature. Some values (N/t(0)) are also compared to UHPLC data, showing that good performance can be achieved in SFC without applying drastic analytical conditions. Finally, simple kinetic plots (t(0) vs N) at constant column length are used to select combinations of temperature and flow rate necessary to achieve a required theoretical plate number. PMID:21232748

  10. Cylindrically confined pair-ion-electron and pair-ion plasmas having axial sheared flow and radial gradients

    SciTech Connect

    Batool, Nazia; Saleem, H. [National Centre for Physics (NCP), Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Islamabad (Pakistan)] [National Centre for Physics (NCP), Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2013-10-15

    The linear and nonlinear dynamics of pair-ion (PI) and pair-ion-electron plasmas (PIE) have been investigated in a cylindrical geometry with a sheared plasma flow along the axial direction having radial dependence. The coupled linear dispersion relation of low frequency electrostatic waves has been presented taking into account the Guassian profile of density and linear gradient of sheared flow. It is pointed out that the quasi-neutral cold inhomogeneous pure pair ion plasma supports only the obliquely propagating convective cell mode. The linear dispersion relation of this mode has been solved using boundary conditions. The nonlinear structures in the form of vortices formed by different waves have been discussed in PI and PIE plasmas.

  11. Indication of transverse radial flow in high-multiplicity proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Premomoy; Muhuri, Sanjib; Nayak, Jajati K.; Varma, Raghava

    2014-03-01

    We analyze the measured spectra of ?±, K±, p(\\bar{p}) in proton-proton (pp) collisions at \\sqrt{s} = 0.9, 2.76 and 7 TeV in the light of blast-wave model to extract the transverse radial flow velocity and kinetic temperature at freeze-out for the system formed in pp collisions. The dependence of the blast-wave parameters on average charged particle multiplicity of event sample or the ‘centrality’ of collisions has been studied and compared with results of similar analysis in nucleus-nucleus (AA) and proton-nucleus (pA) collisions. We analyze the spectra of K_{s}^0, ?(\\bar{\\Lambda }) and ?- also to see the dependence of blast-wave description on the species of produced particles. Within the framework of the blast-wave model, the study reveals indication of collective behavior for high-multiplicity events in pp collisions at LHC. Strong transverse radial flow in high-multiplicity pp collisions and its comparison with that in pA and AA collisions match with predictions from a very recent theoretical work (Shuryak and Zahed 2013 arXiv:hep-ph/1301.4470) that addresses the conditions for applicability of hydrodynamics in pp and pA collisions.

  12. The application of normal phase liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry by using coaxial continuous flow fast atom bombardment.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, D L

    1992-07-01

    This article describes the interfacing of a normal phase fused silica capillary high performance liquid chromatography system to a magnetic sector mass spectrometer by using continuous flow fast atom bombardment (CFFAB). While the performance of CFFAB using reversed phase techniques is well understood, there is very little if any documentation on interfacing nonaqueous normal phase systems with CFFAB. This article describes the use of packed fused silica capillary liquid chromatography columns and the corresponding normal phase solvent systems. The experimental parameters required with nonaqueous solvent systems differ significantly from those of aqueous solvent systems. Ditallowdimethylammonium chloride (DTDMAC), a cationic surfactant commonly used as the active ingredient in fabric softener products, was chosen as a model compound to demonstrate the technique. DTDMAC was identified in a commercially available fabric softener product by using on-line normal phase liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry with accurate mass and tandem mass spectrometry. PMID:24234501

  13. Axial and radial water flow in the trunks of oak trees: a quantitative and qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Granier, A; Anfodillo, T; Sabatti, M; Cochard, H; Dreyer, E; Tomasi, M; Valentini, R; Bréda, N

    1994-12-01

    Axial water flow in the trunks of mature oak trees (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl. and Q. robur L.) was studied by four independent techniques: water absorption from a cut trunk, sap flowmeters, heat pulse velocity (HPV) and thermoimaging. Estimation of the total water flow with sap flowmeters, HPV and water absorption yielded comparable results. We concluded from dye colorations, thermograms and axial profiles of sap flow and heat pulse velocity that, in intact trunks, most of the flow occurred in the current-year ring, where early-wood vessels in the outermost ring were still functional. Nevertheless, there was significant flow in the older rings of the xylem. Total water flow through the trunk was only slightly reduced when air embolisms were artificially induced in early-wood vessels, probably because there was little change in hydraulic conductance in the root-leaf sap pathway. Embolization of the current-year vessels reactivated transport in the older rings. PMID:14967611

  14. A system for intravascular, radially orientation-independent electromagnetic flow- and diameter-sensing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Kolin

    1977-01-01

    The difficulty of optimally orienting an intravascular loop probe of an extracorporeal field electromagnetic flow meter is circumvented by uniting 2 mutually perpendicular loop sensors into a single flow-diameter probe. When one of the loops is unfavorably oriented in the magnetic field, the orientations of the other loop is more favorable. The most unfavorable case is a 45° angle between

  15. A flexible loop-type flow modulator for comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Tranchida, Peter Quinto; Purcaro, Giorgia; Visco, Alessandro; Conte, Lanfranco; Dugo, Paola; Dawes, Peter; Mondello, Luigi

    2011-05-27

    The present investigation is focused on a simple flow modulator (FM), for comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC). The interface is stable at high temperatures, and consists of a metallic disc (located inside the GC oven) with seven ports, which are connected to an auxiliary pressure source via two branches, to the first and second dimension, to a waste branch (linked to a needle valve) and to an exchangeable modulation loop (2 ports). The ports are connected via micro-channels, etched on one of the inner surfaces of the disc. Modulation is achieved using a two-way electrovalve, connected on one side to the additional pressure source, and to the two metal branches, on the other. An FM enantio-GC×polar-GC method (using a flame ionization detector) was optimized (a 40-?L loop was employed), for the analysis of essential oils. As an example, an application on spearmint oil is shown; the method herein proposed was subjected to validation. Finally, an FM GC×GC diesel experiment was carried out, using an apolar-polar column combination, to demonstrate the effectiveness of the modulator in the analysis of a totally different sample-type. PMID:21256493

  16. Method for (236)U Determination in Seawater Using Flow Injection Extraction Chromatography and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Steier, Peter; Nielsen, Sven; Golser, Robin

    2015-07-21

    An automated analytical method implemented in a flow injection (FI) system was developed for rapid determination of (236)U in 10 L seawater samples. (238)U was used as a chemical yield tracer for the whole procedure, in which extraction chromatography (UTEVA) was exploited to purify uranium, after an effective iron hydroxide coprecipitation. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) was applied for quantifying the (236)U/(238)U ratio, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) was used to determine the absolute concentration of (238)U; thus, the concentration of (236)U can be calculated. The key experimental parameters affecting the analytical effectiveness were investigated and optimized in order to achieve high chemical yields and simple and rapid analysis as well as low procedure background. Besides, the operational conditions for the target preparation prior to the AMS measurement were optimized, on the basis of studying the coprecipitation behavior of uranium with iron hydroxide. The analytical results indicate that the developed method is simple and robust, providing satisfactory chemical yields (80-100%) and high analysis speed (4 h/sample), which could be an appealing alternative to conventional manual methods for (236)U determination in its tracer application. PMID:26105019

  17. Quantitative multi-residue method for determination antibiotics in chicken meat using turbulent flow chromatography coupled to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bousova, Katerina; Senyuva, Hamide; Mittendorf, Klaus

    2013-01-25

    A multi-class method for identification and quantification of 36 antibiotics from seven different chemical classes (aminoglycosides, macrolides, lincosamides, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, quinolones and trimethoprim) has been developed by using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The method was optimised for detection of antibiotics in chicken meat. Sample preparation including extraction with a mixture of acetonitrile:2% trichloroacetic acid (45:55, v/v), centrifugation and filtration was followed by on-line clean-up using turbulent flow chromatography. Using this automated on-line technique enabled a larger number of samples to be analysed per day than with a traditional clean-up technique (e.g. solid phase extraction). The optimised method was validated according to the European Commission Directive 2002/657/EC. In-house validation was performed by fortifying the blank matrix at three levels 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 MRL (maximum residue limit), or respectively, at concentrations as low as possible for substances without an MRL. Precision in terms of repeatability standard deviation ranged from 3 to 28% and recovery values were between 80 and 120% in most cases. All calculated validation parameters including CC? and CC? were in the compliance with the legislative requirements. PMID:23298848

  18. An experimental and computational investigation of flow in a radial inlet of an industrial pipeline centrifugal compressor

    SciTech Connect

    Flathers, M.B. [Solar Turbines Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Bache, G.E. [Advanced Scientific Computing Corp., El Dorado Hills, CA (United States); Rainsberger, R. [XYZ Scientific Applications Inc., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The flow field of a complex three-dimensional radial inlet for an industrial pipeline centrifugal compressor has been experimentally determined on a half-scale model. Based on the experimental results, inlet guide vanes have been designed to correct pressure and swirl angle distribution deficiencies. The unvaned and vaned inlets are analyzed with a commercially available fully three-dimensional viscous Navier-Stokes code. Since experimental results were available prior to the numerical study, the unvaned analysis is considered a postdiction while the vaned analysis is considered a prediction. The computational results of the unvaned inlet have been compared to the previously obtained experimental results. The experimental method utilized for the unvaned inlet is repeated for the vaned inlet and the data have been used to verify the computational results. The paper will discuss experimental, design, and computational procedures, grid generation, boundary conditions, and experimental versus computational methods. Agreement between experimental and computational results is very good, both in prediction and postdiction modes. The results of this investigation indicate that CFD offers a measurable advantage in design, schedule, and cost and can be applied to complex, three-dimensional radial inlets.

  19. The three-dimensional compressible flow in a radial inflow turbine scroll

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamed, A.; Tabakoff, W.; Malak, M.

    1984-01-01

    This work presents the results of an analytical study and an experimental investigation of the three-dimensional flow in a turbine scroll. The finite element method is used in the iterative numerical solution of the locally linearized governing equations for the three-dimensional velocity potential field. The results of the numerical computations are compared with the experimental measurements in the scroll cross sections, which were obtained using laser Doppler velocimetry and hot wire techniques. The results of the computations show a variation in the flow conditions around the rotor periphery which was found to depend on the scroll geometry.

  20. Prediction of heat transfer to a thin liquid film in plane and radially spreading flows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Rahman; A. Faghri; W. L. Hankey; T. D. Swanson

    1990-01-01

    The energy equation is incorporated in the solution algorithm of Rahman et al. (1990) to compute the heat transfer to a thin film in the presence or absence of gravity. For a plane flow under zero gravity, it is found that, for both isothermal and uniformly heated walls, the heat transfer coefficient gradually decreases downstream, with Nu-asterisk (the Nusselt number

  1. [Radial variation and time lag of sap flow of Populus gansuensis in Minqin Oasis, Northwest].

    PubMed

    Dang, Hong-Zhong; Yang, Wen-Bin; Li, Wei; Zhang, You-Yan; Li, Chang-Long

    2014-09-01

    Sap flow of tree trunk is very important to reflect the dynamics of physiological activities, as well as to estimate the water consumption of individual plant. In the present study, we used the thermal dissipation technique to monitor the sap flow velocity (J) at four depth loci (i. e. 2 cm, 3 cm, 5 cm, 8 cm) of three Populus gansuensis trees (30 year-old) in Minqin Oasis for two consecutive growing seasons. The results showed that there were significant differences among J values at four depth loci under tree trunk cambium. J value at the 3 cm depth locus (J3) of the tree trunk was the highest, and then in sequences, were 2 cm, 5 cm and 8 cm depth loci (J2, J5 and J8). J value (J3) on typical sunny days in June with the highest atmospheric potential evapotranspiration (ET0) was up to 28.53 g · cm(-2) · h(-1), which was 1.42, 2.74 and 4.4 times of J2, J5 and J8, respectively. In the process of diurnal variation of sap flow velocity, the peak value time of J at the four depth loci of the tree trunk was different, but the differences among them were within 20 min. Furthermore, the peak value time of sap flow velocity was very different to that of solar radiation (Rs) and air vapour pressure deficit (VPD). The time lag between J and Rs was from 55 to 88 min on typical sunny days during the main growing seasons (from June to August), and, positively related to the depth of the locus under tree trunk cambium, while the time lag between J and VPD reached 60-96 min, and was negatively related to the depth of the locus. The seasonal variation patterns of J were consistent with ET0. With the increase of tree physiological activities, there was a trend that the major water transportation layer extended to the interior sapwood. The most important meteorological factor was the solar radiation, which primarily drove sap flow at different depths of tree trunk. However, the secondary factor changed along with the depth, and VPD became increasingly important with increasing the depth. PMID:25757298

  2. Generic serial and parallel on-line direct-injection using turbulent flow liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Grant, Russell P; Cameron, Cheryl; Mackenzie-McMurter, Shelley

    2002-01-01

    The development of turbulent flow chromatography (TFC) has enabled considerable growth in the utility of on-line direct-injection technologies. TFC has now become established in a large number of varied analytical environments, particularly drug discovery/pharmacokinetics, metabolite profiling, combinatorial library purification, pre-clinical and clinical GLP applications. The utility of turbulent flow technology for in-house pre-clinical and clinical quantitative applications has necessitated extensive valve-cleaning procedures, and consequently lengthy cycle-times, to effectively remove the system carry-over. In-house requirements for assay validation require carry-over less than 20% of the lowest level of quantification (LLOQ), corresponding to 0.02% carry-over for a linear calibration range incorporating 3 orders. A generic turbulent flow chromatography protocol has been developed for drug discovery that incorporates polymeric turbulent flow extraction (cyclone) with C18-based reverse-phase chromatography. Further, multiple wash steps are incorporated within the methodology to meet in-house requirements for carry-over. Selection of novel switching-valve materials based on polyarylethyl ketone (PAEK) and Hastelloy/Valcon E autosampler injection hardware has enabled us to significantly impact the cycle-time required to reduce carry-over. Consequently, optimal usage of switching valves has enabled parallel operation for a generic on-line direct-injection methodology to successfully reduce the total cycle-time. Overall reductions from 4 min per sample to 90 s per sample are shown with comparable data quality using a proprietary target molecule from 0.1-100 ng/mL. This paper describes the hardware configuration and methodologies utilized to perform generic serial and parallel on-line direct-injection using a Turboflow HTLC 2300 system. PMID:12207368

  3. Continuous flow ion mobility separation with mass spectrometric detection using a nano-radial differential mobility analyzer at low flow rates.

    PubMed

    Brunelli, N A; Neidholdt, E L; Giapis, K P; Flagan, R C; Beauchamp, J L

    2013-05-01

    We describe a hybrid mass-mobility instrument in which a continuous-flow ion mobility classifier is used as a front-end separation device for mass spectrometric analysis of ions generated with an electrospray ionization source. Using nitrogen as a carrier gas, the resolving power of the nano-radial differential mobility analyzer (nRDMA) for nanometer-sized ions is 5-7 for tetraalkylammonium ions. Data are presented demonstrating the ability of the system to resolve the different aggregation and charge states of tetraalkylammonium ions and protonated peptides using a quadrupole ion trap (QIT) mass spectrometer to analyze the mobility-classified ions. Specifically, data are presented for the two charge states of the decapeptide Gramicidin S. A key feature of the new instrument is the ability to continuously transmit ions with specific mobilities to the mass spectrometer for manipulation and analysis. PMID:23544674

  4. Redundant Vasodilator Pathways Underlying Radial Artery Flow-Mediated Dilation Are Preserved in Healthy Aging

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, Kevin D.; Tschakovsky, Michael E.; Zaleski, Amanda L.; Polk, Donna M.; Thompson, Paul D.; Kiernan, Francis J.; Parker, Beth A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Blocking nitric oxide (NO) and vasodilator prostanoids (PN) does not consistently reduce flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in young adults. The impact of aging on the contribution of NO and PG to FMD is unknown. Methods. FMD was measured in older adults (n = 10, 65 ± 3?y) after arterial infusion of saline, N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), and ketorolac + L-NMMA. Data were compared to published data in young adults. Results. L-NMMA reduced FMD in older adults (8.9 ± 3.6 to 5.9 ± 3.7%) although this was not statistically significant (P = 0.08) and did not differ (P = 0.74) from the reduction observed in young adults (10.0 ± 3.8 to 7.6 ± 4.7%; P = 0.03). Blocking PN did not affect FMD in young or older adults. In older adults, L-NMMA reduced (n = 6; range = 36–123% decrease), augmented (n = 3; 10–122% increase), or did not change FMD (n = 1; 0.4% increase). After PN blockade, FMD responses were reduced (n = 2), augmented (n = 6), or unaffected (n = 1). Conclusions. NO or PN blockade did not consistently reduce FMD in healthy older adults, suggesting the existence of redundant vasodilator phenotypes as observed previously in young adults. PMID:24963406

  5. Flow-injection sample preconcentration for ion-pair chromatography of trace metals in waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ewa Pobo?y; Radoslav Halko; Marcin Krasowski; Tomasz Wierzbicki; Marek Trojanowicz

    2003-01-01

    Selected trace transition metal ions have been determined in an FIA\\/HPLC hyphenated system using on-line preconcentration on cellulose functionalised sorbent Cellex P. For HPLC separation ion-pair chromatography was employed with spectrophotometric detection at 510nm using post-column derivatisation with PAR. Favourable kinetic conditions of sorption and elution as well as optimisation of hyphenated system allowed to obtain detection limits at sub-?gL?1

  6. Purification of plasmid DNA using tangential flow filtration and tandem anion-exchange membrane chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia Guerrero-Germán; Duarte M. F. Prazeres; Rosa Ma. Montesinos-Cisneros; Armando Tejeda-Mansir

    2009-01-01

    A new bioprocess using mainly membrane operations to obtain purified plasmid DNA from Escherechia coli ferments was developed. The intermediate recovery and purification of the plasmid DNA in cell lysate was conducted using\\u000a hollow-fiber tangential filtration and tandem anion-exchange membrane chromatography. The purity of the solutions of plasmid\\u000a DNA obtained during each process stage was investigated. The results show that

  7. Reducing NO(x) emissions from a nitric acid plant of domestic petrochemical complex: enhanced conversion in conventional radial-flow reactor of selective catalytic reduction process.

    PubMed

    Abbasfard, Hamed; Hashemi, Seyed Hamid; Rahimpour, Mohammad Reza; Jokar, Seyyed Mohammad; Ghader, Sattar

    2013-01-01

    The nitric acid plant of a domestic petrochemical complex is designed to annually produce 56,400 metric tons (based on 100% nitric acid). In the present work, radial-flow spherical bed reactor (RFSBR) for selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxides (NO(x)) from the stack of this plant was modelled and compared with the conventional radial-flow reactor (CRFR). Moreover, the proficiency of a radial-flow (water or nitrogen) membrane reactor was also compared with the CRFR which was found to be inefficient at identical process conditions. In the RFSBR, the space between the two concentric spheres is filled by a catalyst. A mathematical model, including conservation of mass has been developed to investigate the performance of the configurations. The model was checked against the CRFR in a nitric acid plant located at the domestic petrochemical complex. A good agreement was observed between the modelling results and the plant data. The effects of some important parameters such as pressure and temperature on NO(x) conversion were analysed. Results show 14% decrease in NO(x) emission annually in RFSBR compared with the CRFR, which is beneficial for the prevention of NO(x) emission, global warming and acid rain. PMID:24527652

  8. Parallel segmented outlet flow high performance liquid chromatography with multiplexed detection.

    PubMed

    Camenzuli, Michelle; Terry, Jessica M; Shalliker, R Andrew; Conlan, Xavier A; Barnett, Neil W; Francis, Paul S

    2013-11-25

    We describe a new approach to multiplex detection for HPLC, exploiting parallel segmented outlet flow - a new column technology that provides pressure-regulated control of eluate flow through multiple outlet channels, which minimises the additional dead volume associated with conventional post-column flow splitting. Using three detectors: one UV-absorbance and two chemiluminescence systems (tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(III) and permanganate), we examine the relative responses for six opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) alkaloids under conventional and multiplexed conditions, where approximately 30% of the eluate was distributed to each detector and the remaining solution directed to a collection vessel. The parallel segmented outlet flow mode of operation offers advantages in terms of solvent consumption, waste generation, total analysis time and solute band volume when applying multiple detectors to HPLC, but the manner in which each detection system is influenced by changes in solute concentration and solution flow rates must be carefully considered. PMID:24216209

  9. Simulation of packed-bed chromatography utilizing high-resolution flow fields: comparison with models.

    PubMed

    Schure, Mark R; Maier, Robert S; Kroll, Daniel M; Davis, H Ted

    2002-12-01

    A computer simulation of a section of the interior region of a liquid chromatographic column is performed. The detailed fluid flow profile is provided from a microscopic calculation of low Reynolds number flow through a random packed bed of nonporous spherical particles. The fluid mechanical calculations are performed on a parallel processor computer utilizing the lattice Boltzmann technique. Convection, diffusion, and retention in this flow field are calculated using a stochastic-based algorithm. This computational scheme provides for the ability to reproduce the essential dynamics of the chromatographic process from the fundamental considerations of particle geometry, particle size, flow velocity, solute diffusion coefficient, and solute retention parameters when retention is utilized. The simulation data are fit to semiempirical models. The best agreement is found for the "coupling" model of Giddings and the four-parameter Knox model. These models are verified over a wide range of particle sizes and flow velocities at both low and high velocity. The simulations appear to capture the essential dynamics of the chromatographic flow process for non-dimensional flow velocities (Péclet number) less than 500. Since the same packing geometry is utilized for different particle size studies, the interpretation of the parameter estimates from these models can be extended to the physical column model. The simulations reported here agree very well with a number of experiments reported previously. PMID:12498196

  10. Development of liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry using continuous-flow matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randy M Whittal; Larry M Russon; Liang Li

    1998-01-01

    The general approach of combining liquid chromatography (LC) with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry for on-line detection of peptides and proteins based on the use of a continuous-flow (cf) probe is presented. Recent advances in time-of-flight mass spectrometric instrumentation for cf-MALDI are reported. Using 3-nitrobenzyl alcohol (3-NBA) as the liquid matrix, stable flow can be readily achieved and

  11. Determination of the average volumetric flow rate in supercritical fluid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Vajda, Péter; Stankovich, Joseph J; Guiochon, Georges

    2014-04-25

    This work reviews and discusses controversies and errors made in the determination of the average volumetric flow rate of a compressible mobile phase forced to flow through a chromatographic column. Proper estimates of the volumetric flow rate, which obviously changes along the column, are keys to understanding the retention mechanism that takes place inside the column and to achieve repeatable and reproducible separations. Each step of the calculation process will be discussed in detail, including how to estimate the variations of the pressure and the temperature along the column. The determination of the average volumetric flow rate requires the knowledge of the average density of the mobile phase and of its mass flow rate. The calculations were carried out under various experimental conditions, including different column temperatures and inlet pressures. The estimated values of the volumetric flow rate are validated by the conversion of the retention times to the retention volumes of nitrous oxide peaks, which is valid since this compound is assumed to be non retained, which makes it a hold-up time marker. PMID:24671042

  12. Measurement of radionuclides using ion chromatography and flow-cell scintillation counting with pulse shape discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    DeVol, T.A.; Fjeld, R.A.

    1995-12-31

    A project has been initiated at Clemson Univ. to develop a HPLC/flow- cell system for analysis of non-gamma emitting radionuclides in environmental samples; an important component is development of a low background flow-cell detector that counts alpha and beta particles separately through pulse shape discrimination. Objective of the work presented here is to provide preliminary results of an evaluation of the following scintillators: CaF{sub 2}:Eu, scintillating glass, and BaF{sub 2}. Slightly acidic aqueous solutions of the alpha emitter {sup 233}U and the beta emitter {sup 45}Ca were used. Detection efficiencies and minimum detectable activities were determined.

  13. Hollow fiber flow field-flow fractionation and size-exclusion chromatography with MALS detection: A complementary approach in biopharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Marassi, V; Roda, B; Zattoni, A; Tanase, M; Reschiglian, P

    2014-10-30

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are promising reagents both for the manufacture of drug substances and for their employment as a drug themselves, but to be approved for utilization, according to FDA recommendations and WHO guidelines, they have to undergo verifications regarding their purity, stability and percentage of aggregates. Moreover, stability tests of lots have to be performed in order to verify molecular size distribution over time and lot-to-lot consistency. Recent works in literature have highlighted the need for suitable, sensitive and reliable complementary analytical techniques for the characterization of mAbs and quantification of aggregates. Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) is the reference technique in the biopharmaceutical industry for its robustness, high performance and simple use; however it presents some limitations especially toward the separation and detection of aggregates with high molecular weight. On the other hand, flow field-flow fractionation (F4) in its miniaturized version (hollow fiber flow field-flow fractionation, HF5) shows comparable performances with interesting additional advantages: a broad size range, gentle separation mechanism with low dilution factor and higher sensitivity. To propose HF5 as a complementary technique for evaluating aggregates' content in mAbs samples, a comparative study of both SEC and HF5 performances has been made. In this work, SEC and HF5 were coupled with UV and multi-angle light scattering detection and employed first in separating standard samples of proteins mixture used as a sample model. Then, a screening of mobile phases and an evaluation of separation performances was performed on a therapeutic mAbs formulation, demonstrating the complementarities between SEC and HF5 and their possible use as a separative platform approach for the characterization and quality control of protein drugs. PMID:25468501

  14. Top-down and bottom-up lipidomic analysis of rabbit lipoproteins under different metabolic conditions using flow field-flow fractionation, nanoflow liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Byeon, Seul Kee; Kim, Jin Yong; Lee, Ju Yong; Chung, Bong Chul; Seo, Hong Seog; Moon, Myeong Hee

    2015-07-31

    This study demonstrated the performances of top-down and bottom-up approaches in lipidomic analysis of lipoproteins from rabbits raised under different metabolic conditions: healthy controls, carrageenan-induced inflammation, dehydration, high cholesterol (HC) diet, and highest cholesterol diet with inflammation (HCI). In the bottom-up approach, the high density lipoproteins (HDL) and the low density lipoproteins (LDL) were size-sorted and collected on a semi-preparative scale using a multiplexed hollow fiber flow field-flow fractionation (MxHF5), followed by nanoflow liquid chromatography-ESI-MS/MS (nLC-ESI-MS/MS) analysis of the lipids extracted from each lipoprotein fraction. In the top-down method, size-fractionated lipoproteins were directly infused to MS for quantitative analysis of targeted lipids using chip-type asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (cAF4-ESI-MS/MS) in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. The comprehensive bottom-up analysis yielded 122 and 104 lipids from HDL and LDL, respectively. Rabbits within the HC and HCI groups had lipid patterns that contrasted most substantially from those of controls, suggesting that HC diet significantly alters the lipid composition of lipoproteins. Among the identified lipids, 20 lipid species that exhibited large differences (>10-fold) were selected as targets for the top-down quantitative analysis in order to compare the results with those from the bottom-up method. Statistical comparison of the results from the two methods revealed that the results were not significantly different for most of the selected species, except for those species with only small differences in concentration between groups. The current study demonstrated that top-down lipid analysis using cAF4-ESI-MS/MS is a powerful high-speed analytical platform for targeted lipidomic analysis that does not require the extraction of lipids from blood samples. PMID:26087967

  15. Multidimensional gas chromatography with capillary flow technology and LTM-GC.

    PubMed

    Luong, Jim; Gras, Ronda; Yang, Grace; Cortes, Hernan; Mustacich, Robert

    2008-10-01

    2-D GC is a logical and cost effective extension to 1-D GC for improving the separation resolution, selectivity, and peak capacity of an analytical system. The advent of electronic pressure control systems that are accurate to the third decimal place, combined with recently innovated chromatographic devices such as capillary flow technology, has eliminated many deficiencies encountered in current conventional 2-D GC by making the technique reliable and simple to implement in both production and research analytical facilities. Low thermal mass GC (LTM-GC) was successfully integrated with capillary flow technology to further enhance overall 2-D GC chromatographic system performance by providing not only faster throughput via rapid heating and cooling, but independent temperature control for each dimension to maximize separation power. As an example, despite the enhanced peak capacity obtained from conventional 2-D GC, alkyl naphthalene isomers such as 2,3-dimethyl and 1,4-dimethyl naphthalene coeluted. These two critical compounds were well resolved (R = 5.2) using 2-D GC with LTM-GC with a similar analytical time. This paper demonstrates the benefits of combining capillary flow technology with LTM-GC to provide major enhancements to conventional 2-D GC. The synergy of these techniques is highlighted with practical industrial applications. PMID:18792007

  16. Characterization of a protein conjugate using an asymmetrical-flow field-flow fractionation and a size-exclusion chromatography with multi-detection system.

    PubMed

    Rebolj, Katja; Pahovnik, David; Zagar, Ema

    2012-09-01

    In this study we present detailed characterization of a protein-PEG conjugate using two separation techniques, that is, asymmetrical-flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) and size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), which were online coupled to a series of successively connected detectors: an ultraviolet, a multiangle light-scattering, a quasi-elastic light-scattering, and a refractive-index detector (UV-MALS(QELS)-RI). Matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was used as a complementary characterization technique. The results of AF4 as well as SEC on two columns connected in series, with both separation techniques coupled to a multidetection system, indicate the uniform molar mass and chemical composition of the conjugate, that is, the molar ratio of protein to PEG is 1/1, the presence of minute amounts of residual unreacted protein and the aggregates with the same chemical composition as that of the conjugate. Since the portion of aggregated species is smaller in the acetate buffer solution containing 5% sorbitol than in the acetate buffer solution with 200-mM sodium chloride, the former buffer solution is more suitable for conjugate storage. The separation using only one SEC column results in poorly resolved peaks of the PEGylated protein conjugate and the aggregates, whereas MALDI-TOF MS analysis reveal the presence of the residual protein, but not the aggregates. PMID:22876760

  17. Influence of heat and mass transfer, initial stress and radially varying magnetic field on the peristaltic flow in an annulus with gravity field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd-Alla, A. M.; Abo-Dahab, S. M.; El-Shahrany, H. D.

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, the effects of both initial stress, radially varying and gravity field on the peristaltic flow of an incompressible MHD Newtonian fluid in a vertical annulus have been studied under the assumption of long wavelength and low-Reynolds number. The analytical solution has been derived for the temperature, concentration and velocity. The results for velocity, concentration and temperature obtained in the analytical form have been evaluated numerically and discussed briefly. The effect of the non-dimensional wave amplitude, the coefficient of viscosity, Sort number, Schmidt number, initial stress, gravitational field and the dimensionless time-mean flow in the wave frame are analyzed theoretically and computed numerically. The expressions for pressure rise, temperature, concentration field, velocity and pressure gradient are sketched for various embedded parameters and interpreted. Numerical results are given and illustrated graphically in each case considered. Comparison was made with the results obtained in the presence and absence of initial stress and gravitational field.

  18. Anion chromatography: Comparison of eluant pH, concentration, and flow rate

    SciTech Connect

    Hansbury, E.; Dyke, J.T.

    1992-11-01

    This paper describes an ion-chromatographic method that combines a chemically suppressed detection system with a polymethacrylate column (usually used with nonsuppressed systems) at a slightly acidic pH. The procedure was designed to increase the separation of the F{sup {minus}} peak from the water dip and to increase the separation of the HPO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} peak from a very large NO{sub 3}{sup minus} peak. Also discussed are experiments that studied the effects of changing eluant concentration and flow rate on anion retention time. 10 refs, 9 tabs, 6 figs.

  19. Application of a quasi-3D inviscid flow and boundary layer analysis to the hub-shroud contouring of a radial turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Civinskas, K.; Povinelli, L. A.

    1984-01-01

    Application of a quasi-3D approach to the aerodynamic analysis of several radial turbine configurations is described. The objective was to improve the rotor aerodynamic characteristics by hub-shroud contouring. The approach relies on available 2D inviscid methods coupled with boundary layer analysis to calculate profile, mixing, and endwall losses. Windage, tip clearance, incidence, and secondary flow losses are estimated from correlations. To eliminate separation along the hub and blade suction surfaces of a baseline rotor, the analysis was also applied to three alternate hub-shroud geometries. Emphasis was on elimination of an inducer velocity overshoot as well as increasing hub velocities. While separation was never eliminated, the extent of the separated area was progressively reduced. Results are presented in terms of mid-channel and blade surface velocities; kinetic energy loss coefficients; and efficiency. The calculation demonstrates a first step for a systematic approach to radial turbine design that can be used to identify and control aerodynamic characteristics that ultimately determine heat transfer and component life. Experimentation will be required to assess the extent to which flow and boundary layer behavior were predicted correctly.

  20. Application of a quasi-3D inviscid flow and boundary layer analysis to the hub-shroud contouring of a radial turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Civinskas, K. C.; Povinelli, L. A.

    1984-01-01

    Application of a quasi-3D approach to the aerodynamic analysis of several radial turbine configurations is described. The objective was to improve the rotor aerodynamic characteristics by hub-shroud contouring. The approach relies on available 2D inviscid methods coupled with boundary layer analysis to calculate profile, mixing, and endwall losses. Windage, tip clearance, incidence, and secondary flow losses are estimated from correlations. To eliminate separation along the hub and blade suction surfaces of a baseline rotor, the analysis was also applied to three alternate hub-shroud geometries. Emphasis was on elimination an inducer velocity overshoot as well as increasing hub velocities. While separation was never eliminated, the extent of the separated area was progressively reduced. Results are presented in terms of mid-channel and blade surface velocities; kinetic energy loss coefficients; and efficiency. The calculation demonstrates a first step for a systematic approach to radial turbine design that can be used to identify and control aerodynamic characteristics that ultimately determine heat transfer and component life. Experimentation will be required to assess the extent to which flow and boundary layer behavior were predicted correctly.

  1. Stopping and radial flow in central {sup 58}Ni+{sup 58}Ni collisions between 1A and 2AGeV

    SciTech Connect

    Buta, A.; Legrand, I.; Petrovici, M.; Simion, V. [Institute for Nuclear Physics and Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Berek, G.; Fodor, Z.; Kecskemeti, J.; Seres, Z. [Central Research Institute for Physics, Budapest (Hungary); Alard, J.P.; Amouroux, V.; Bastid, N.; Dupieux, P.; Fraysse, L.; Genoux-Lubain, A.; Pras, P. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, IN2P3/CNRS, and Universite Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Hong, B.; Herrmann, N.; Ritman, J.L.; Best, D.; Gobbi, A.; Hildenbrand, K.D.; Kirejczyk, M.; Leifels, Y.; Pinkenburg, C.; Reisdorf, W.; Schuell, D.; Sodan, U.; Wang, G.S.; Wienold, T. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Biegansky, J.; Kotte, R.; Moesner, J.; Neubert, W.; Wohlfarth, D. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Herrmann, N.; Eskef, M.; Goebels, G.; Haefele, E.; Korolija, M.; Mohren, S.; Pelte, D.; Trzaska, M. [Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Belyaev, I.; Lebedev, A.; Somov, A.; Zhilin, A. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russia); Manko, V.; Vasiliev, M.A. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russia); Coffin, J.P.; Crochet, P.; de Schauenburg, B.; Dona, R.; Fintz, P.; Guillaume, G.; Jundt, F.; Kuhn, C.; Maazouzi, C.; Rami, F.; Roy, C.; Tizniti, L.; Wagner, P. [Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, IN2P3-CNRS/ULP, Strasbourg (France); Kirejczyk, M.; Sikora, B.; Siwek-Wilczynska, K. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw University (Poland)

    1998-01-01

    The production of charged pions, protons, and deuterons has been studied in central collisions of {sup 58}Ni on {sup 58}Ni at incident beam energies of 1.06A, 1.45A, and 1.93A GeV. The dependence of transverse-momentum and rapidity spectra on the beam energy and on the centrality of the collison is presented. It is shown that the scaling of the mean rapidity shift of protons established for between 10{ital A} and 200{ital A} GeV at the Brookhaven AGS and the CERN SPS accelerators energies is valid down to 1A GeV. The degree of nuclear stopping is discussed; quantum molecular dynamics calculations reproduce the measured proton rapidity spectra for the most central events reasonably well, but do not show any sensitivity between the soft and the hard equation of state. A radial flow analysis, using the midrapidity transverse-momentum spectra, delivers freeze-out temperatures T and radial flow velocities {beta}{sub r} which increase with beam energy up to 2A GeV; in comparison to the existing data of Au on Au over a large range of energies, only {beta}{sub r} shows a system size dependence. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  2. High-pressure size exclusion chromatography analysis of dissolved organic matter isolated by tangential-flow ultra filtration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Everett, C.R.; Chin, Y.-P.; Aiken, G.R.

    1999-01-01

    A 1,000-Dalton tangential-flow ultrafiltration (TFUF) membrane was used to isolate dissolved organic matter (DOM) from several freshwater environments. The TFUF unit used in this study was able to completely retain a polystyrene sulfonate 1,800-Dalton standard. Unaltered and TFUF-fractionated DOM molecular weights were assayed by high-pressure size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC). The weight-averaged molecular weights of the retentates were larger than those of the raw water samples, whereas the filtrates were all significantly smaller and approximately the same size or smaller than the manufacturer-specified pore size of the membrane. Moreover, at 280 nm the molar absorptivity of the DOM retained by the ultrafilter is significantly larger than the material in the filtrate. This observation suggests that most of the chromophoric components are associated with the higher molecular weight fraction of the DOM pool. Multivalent metals in the aqueous matrix also affected the molecular weights of the DOM molecules. Typically, proton-exchanged DOM retentates were smaller than untreated samples. This TFUF system appears to be an effective means of isolating aquatic DOM by size, but the ultimate size of the retentates may be affected by the presence of metals and by configurational properties unique to the DOM phase.

  3. Efficient separations of intact proteins using slip-flow with nano-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhen; Wei, Bingchuan; Zhang, Ximo; Wirth, Mary J

    2014-02-01

    A capillary with a pulled tip, densely packed with silica particles of 0.47 ?m in diameter, is shown to provide higher peak capacity and sensitivity in the separation of intact proteins by reversed-phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). For a C18 bonded phase, slip flow gave a 10-fold flow enhancement to allow for stable nanospray with a 4-cm column length. Model proteins were studied: ribonuclease A, trypsin inhibitor, and carbonic anhydrase, where the latter had impurities of superoxide dismutase and ubiquitin. The proteins were well separated at room temperature with negligible peak tailing. The peak capacity for ubiquitin was 195 for a 10-min gradient and 315 for a 40-min gradient based on Gaussian fitting of the entire peak, rather than extrapolating the full-width at half-maximum. Separation of a cell lysate with a 60 min gradient showed extremely high peak capacities of 750 and above for a peptide and relatively homogeneous proteins. Clean, low noise mass spectra for each model protein were obtained. The physical widths of the peaks were an order of magnitude narrower than those of conventional columns, giving increased sensitivity. All proteins except ubiquitin exhibited significant heterogeneity apparently due to multiple proteoforms, as indicated by both peak shapes and mass spectra. The chromatograms exhibited excellent reproducibility in retention time, with relative standard deviations of 0.09 to 0.34%. The results indicate that submicrometer particles are promising for improving the separation dimension of LC in top-down proteomics. PMID:24383398

  4. Determining estrogenic steroids in Taipei waters and removal in drinking water treatment using high-flow solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography\\/tandem mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chia-Yang Chen; Tzu-Yao Wen; Gen-Shuh Wang; Hui-Wen Cheng; Ying-Hsuan Lin; Guang-Wen Lien

    2007-01-01

    River water and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents from metropolitan Taipei, Taiwan were tested for the presence of the pollutants estrone (E1), estriol (E3), 17?-estradiol (E2), and 17?-ethinylestradiol (EE2) using a new methodology that involves high-flow solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography\\/tandem mass spectrometry. The method was also used to investigate the removal of the analytes by conventional drinking water treatment

  5. Simple and rapid determination of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in edible tissues by turbulent flow chromatography\\/tandem mass spectrometry (TFC–MS\\/MS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph Krebber; Franz-Jürgen Hoffend; Frank Ruttmann

    2009-01-01

    A simple and rapid method for the determination of residues of enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin in edible tissues of farm animals using turbulent flow chromatography\\/tandem mass spectrometry (TFC–MS\\/MS) is described.The tissue samples were extracted with a mixture of acetonitrile, water and formic acid. After addition of internal standard solution, an aliquot of the extract was injected into the turbulent

  6. On-line coupling of flow injection displacement sorption preconcentration to high-performance liquid chromatography for speciation analysis of mercury in seafood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li-Ming Dong; Xiu-Ping Yan; Yan Li; Yan Jiang; Shan-Wei Wang; Dong-Qing Jiang

    2004-01-01

    A simple and cost-effective method for speciation analysis of trace mercury in seafood was developed by on-line coupling flow injection microcolumn displacement sorption preconcentration to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection. The methodology involved the presorption of the Cu-PDC (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate) chelate onto a microcolumn packed with a cigarette filter sorbent, simultaneous preconcentration of Hg(II), methylmercury (MeHg), ethylmercury (EtHg),

  7. Preliminary applications of cross-axis synchronous flow-through coil planet centrifuge for large-scale preparative counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, T Y; Lee, Y W; Fang, Q C; Xiao, R; Ito, Y

    1988-11-11

    The cross-axis synchronous flow-through coil planet centrifuge with a 20-cm revolutional radius and a total capacity of 1600 ml was successfully applied to preparative counter-current chromatography of various biological samples, which include sea buckthorn extract, steroid reaction mixture, indole plant hormones, and dinitrophenylamino acids. The present system offers advantages of stable balance of the centrifuge, a large column capacity, and high resolution. PMID:3069856

  8. Applying Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Jessie W.; Patev, Paul

    1998-01-01

    Presents three experiments to introduce students to different kinds of chromatography: (1) paper chromatography; (2) gel filtration chromatography; and (3) reverse-phase liquid chromatography. Written in the form of a laboratory manual, explanations of each of the techniques, materials needed, procedures, and a glossary are included. (PVD)

  9. Profiling of oxidized phospholipids in lipoproteins from patients with coronary artery disease by hollow fiber flow field-flow fractionation and nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju Yong; Byeon, Seul Kee; Moon, Myeong Hee

    2015-01-20

    Oxidized phospholipids (Ox-PLs) are oxidatively modified PLs that are produced during the oxidation of lipoproteins; oxidation of low density lipoproteins especially is known to be associated with the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). In this study, different lipoprotein classes (high density, low density, and very low density lipoproteins) from pooled plasma of CAD patients and pooled plasma from healthy controls were size-sorted on a semipreparative scale by multiplexed hollow fiber flow field-flow fractionation (MxHF5), and Ox-PLs that were extracted from each lipoprotein fraction were quantified by nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-ESI-MS/MS). The present study showed that oxidation of lipoproteins occurred throughout all classes of lipoproteins with more Ox-PLs identified from CAD patient lipoproteins: molecular structures of 283 unique PL species (including 123 Ox-PLs) from controls and 315 (including 169 Ox-PLs) from patients were identified by data-dependent collision-induced dissociation experiments. It was shown that oxidation of PLs occurred primarily with hydroxylation of PL; in particular, a saturated acyl chain such as 16:0, 18:0, or even 18:1 at the sn-1 location of the glycerol backbone along with sn-2 acyl chains with at least two double bonds were identified. The acyl chain combinations commonly found for hydroxylated Ox-PLs in the lipoproteins of CAD patients were 16:0/18:2, 16:0/20:4, 18:0/18:2, and 18:0/20:4. PMID:25494038

  10. Continuous flow PCB radiolysis with real time assessment by gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce J. Mincher; Aaron Ruhter; Rene' Rodriguez; Richard Brey

    2006-05-01

    Recently, the treatment of environmentally recalcitrant pollutants such as PCBs has been studied using a number of so-called, “advanced oxidation technologies (AOTs).” As a group, the AOTs are ultimate treatment technologies that seek to mineralize the hazardous compounds to be treated (Cooper et al., 2004). One of the most versatile of the AOTs is radiolysis, usually practiced using machine-generated sources of radiation (Cooper et al., 2004, Mincher and Cooper, 2003). The radiolytic decomposition of PCBs has been reviewed (Curry and Mincher, 1999). While earlier experiments have been performed in alkaline isopropanol (Singh et al., 1985, Mucka et al., 1997), recent literature has begun to examine the radiolysis of PCBs in more “real-world” solvents, such as transformer oil (Arbon and Mincher, 1996, Mincher et al., 2000, Chaychian et al., 1999). These experiments have generally been performed in batch fashion, with small volumes of PCB-contaminated solvents placed in front of a gamma-ray source or the bremmstrahlung or e-beam of an accelerator for predetermined periods of time, to give a desired absorbed dose. These samples were then retrieved to analyze the post-irradiation PCB concentration. We report here what we believe is the first example of the radiolysis of PCBs in a process, continuous flow stream, as opposed to typical batch irradiations. The PCB-containing transformer oil was recirculated through an irradiation cell located in the path of an e-beam. Multiple passes through the cell allowed for the delivery of any desired radiation dose. This system required the development of an on-line analytical system that could provide PCB concentration values in real time. In the current experiment, a pulsed plasma electron capture detector (PDECD) was used in conjunction with a new sample preparation scheme. The new sampling scheme bypasses the need for removal or powering down of the radiation source, which would be undesirable during process PCB treatment. Dilution of the samples using volumetric glassware or balances at a site remote to the irradiation, and manual injection of the diluted samples in a remote GC is not required. Thus, the error and time delays associated with stopping and restarting the accelerator are eliminated and kinetic investigations are more easily performed. The PCB levels can be determined within a few minutes of delivering a specified dose to the sample while the process stream continues to be irradiated. Additionally, any possible chemical species in the oil with reactive lifetimes on the order of just a few minutes could be observed with this method. It has previously been reported that the addition of alkaline isopropanol spikes to PCB oils has a catalytic effect on PCB decomposition by radiolysis (Mincher et al., 2000, Mincher et al., 2002). Here we report the results of process irradiation of transformer oil contaminated with PCBs for unadulterated oils, and for oils spiked with alkaline isopropanol to decrease the time and dose required for treatment.

  11. Determination of thermal conductivities of Sn-Zn lead-free solder alloys with radial heat flow and Bridgman-type apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meydaneri, Fatma; Saatçi, Buket; Gündüz, Mehmet; Özdemir, Mehmet

    2013-11-01

    The variations of thermal conductivities of solid phases versus temperature for pure Sn, pure Zn and Sn-9 wt.% Zn, Sn-14 wt.% Zn, Sn-50 wt.% Zn, Sn-80 wt.% Zn binary alloys were measured with a radial heat flow apparatus. The thermal conductivity ratios of liquid phase to solid phase for the pure Sn, pure Zn and eutectic Sn-9 wt.% Zn alloy at their melting temperature are found with a Bridgman-type directional solidification apparatus. Thus, the thermal conductivities of liquid phases for pure Sn, pure Zn and eutectic Sn-9 wt.% Zn binary alloy at their melting temperature were evaluated by using the values of solid phase thermal conductivities and the thermal conductivity ratios of liquid phase to solid phase.

  12. The effects of the secondary fluid temperature on the energy transfer in an unsteady ejector with a radial-flow diffuser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ababneh, Amer Khalil; Jawarneh, Ali M.; Tlilan, Hitham M.; Ababneh, Mohammad K.

    2009-11-01

    Unsteady ejectors are devices whereby energy is exchanged between directly interacting fluids. Unlike steady ejectors, the mechanism responsible for the energy transfer is reversible in nature and thus higher efficiencies are perceivable. A potential application for PEE is for enhancement in output power per weight as in turbochargers. The unsteady ejector when used as a turbocharger the device is expected to perform under wide range of ambient temperatures. Therefore, it is important to investigate the effects of the temperature of the induced ambient air on the energy transfer. The radial-flow ejector, which usually leads to higher-pressure ratios with fewer stages, was selected for the investigation. The flow field is investigated at two Mach numbers 2.5 and 3.0 utilizing rectangular short-length supersonic nozzles for accelerating the primary fluid. Fundamental to the enhancement of these devices performance relies on the management of the flow field in such a way to minimize entropy production. The numerical analyses were conducted utilizing a package of computational fluid dynamics.

  13. ANALYTICAL APPROXIMATION OF THE BIODEGRADATION RATE FOR IN SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF GROUNDWATER UNDER IDEAL RADIAL FLOW CONDITIONS. (R824785)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We derive the long-term biodegradation rate of an organic contaminant (substrate) for an in situ bioremediation model with axisymmetric flow conditions. The model presumes that a nonsorbing electron acceptor is injected into a saturated homogeneous porous medium which initially c...

  14. Affinity Chromatography GST-tagged Proteins

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    Chromatography Affinity Chromatography 3 GST-tagged Proteins 4 Glutathione ChroMatrixTM, Fast Flow 4 GST Cleavage Capture Affinity Chromatography GST-tagged Proteins Glutathione ChroMatrixTM , Fast Flow GST Cleavage Capture Kit various sources, both native and recombinantly expressed as fusion to the N-terminus of target proteins

  15. MERIDL- VELOCITIES AND STREAMLINES ON THE HUB-SHROUD MIDCHANNEL STREAM SURFACE OF AN AXIAL, RADIAL, OR MIXED FLOW TURBOMACHINE OR ANNULAR DUCT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katsanis, T.

    1994-01-01

    This computer program was developed for calculating the subsonic or transonic flow on the hub-shroud mid-channel stream surface of a single blade row of a turbomachine. The design and analysis of blades for compressors and turbines ideally requires methods for analyzing unsteady, three-dimensional, turbulent viscous flow through a turbomachine. Since an exact solution is impossible at present, solutions on two-dimensional surfaces are calculated to obtain a quasi-three dimensional solution. When three-dimensional effects are important, significant information can be obtained from a solution on a cross-sectional surface of the passage normal to the flow. With this program, a solution to the equations of flow on the meridional surface can be carried out. This solution is chosen when the turbomachine under consideration has significant variation in flow properties in the hubshroud direction, especially when input is needed for use in blade-to-blade calculations. The program can also perform flow calculations for annular ducts without blades. This program should prove very useful in the design and analysis of any turbomachine. This program calculates a solution for two-dimensional, adiabatic shockfree flow. The flow must be essentially subsonic, but there may be local areas of supersonic flow. To obtain the solution, this program uses both the finite difference and the quasi-orthogonal (velocity gradient) methods combined in a way that takes maximum advantage of both. The finite-difference method solves a finite-difference equation along the meridional stream surface in a very efficient manner but is limited to subsonic velocities. This approach must be used in cases where the blade aspect ratios are above one, cases where the passage is curved, and cases with low hub-tip-ratio blades. The quasi-orthogonal method solves the velocity gradient equation on the meridional surface and is used if it is necessary to extend the range of solutions into the transonic regime. In general the blade row may be fixed or rotating and the blades may be twisted and leaned. The flow may be axial, radial, or mixed. The upstream and downstream flow conditions can vary from hub to shroud with provisions made for an approximate correction for loss of stagnation pressure. Also, viscous forces are neglected along solution mesh lines running from hub to tip. The capabilities of this program include handling of nonaxial flows without restriction, annular ducts without blades, and specified streamwise loss distributions. This program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on an IBM 360 computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 700K of 8 bit bytes. This core requirement can be reduced depending on the size of the problem and the desired solution accuracy. This program was developed in 1977.

  16. Differentiating organically and conventionally grown oregano using ultraperformance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS), headspace gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (headspace-GC-FID), and flow injection mass spectrum (FIMS) fingerprints combined with multivariate data analysis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Boyan; Qin, Fang; Ding, Tingting; Chen, Yineng; Lu, Weiying; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2014-08-13

    Ultraperformance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS), flow injection mass spectrometry (FIMS), and headspace gas chromatography (headspace-GC) combined with multivariate data analysis techniques were examined and compared in differentiating organically grown oregano from that grown conventionally. It is the first time that headspace-GC fingerprinting technology is reported in differentiating organically and conventionally grown spice samples. The results also indicated that UPLC-MS, FIMS, and headspace-GC-FID fingerprints with OPLS-DA were able to effectively distinguish oreganos under different growing conditions, whereas with PCA, only FIMS fingerprint could differentiate the organically and conventionally grown oregano samples. UPLC fingerprinting provided detailed information about the chemical composition of oregano with a longer analysis time, whereas FIMS finished a sample analysis within 1 min. On the other hand, headspace GC-FID fingerprinting required no sample pretreatment, suggesting its potential as a high-throughput method in distinguishing organically and conventionally grown oregano samples. In addition, chemical components in oregano were identified by their molecular weight using QTOF-MS and headspace-GC-MS. PMID:25050447

  17. Revised FORTRAN program for calculating velocities and streamlines on the hub-shroud midchannel stream surface of an axial-, radial-, or mixed-flow turbomachine or annular duct. 2: Programmer's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katsanis, T.; Mcnally, W. D.

    1977-01-01

    A FORTRAN IV computer program has been developed that obtains a detailed subsonic or shock free transonic flow solution on the hub-shroud midchannel stream surface of a turbomachine. The blade row may be fixed or rotating, and the blades may be twisted and leaned. Flow may be axial, mixed, or radial. Upstream and downstream flow variables may vary from hub to shroud, and provisions are made to correct for loss of stagnation pressure. The results include velocities, streamlines, and flow angles on the stream surface and approximate blade surface velocities.

  18. Isolation and purification of flavonoid glycosides from Trollius ledebouri using high-speed counter-current chromatography by stepwise increasing the flow-rate of the mobile phase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xin Zhou; Jinyong Peng; Guorong Fan; Yutian Wu

    2005-01-01

    Three flavonoid glycosides including orientin, vitexin, quercetin-3-O-neohesperidoside and one unknown compound were isolated and purified by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) and semi-preparative HPLC from Trollius ledebouri Reichb., a traditional Chinese medicine. Preparative HSCCC with a two-phase solvent system composed of ethyl acetate–n-butanol–water (2:1:3, v\\/v\\/v) was successfully performed by increasing the flow-rate of the mobile phase from 1.5 to 2.5ml\\/min after

  19. On-line stop-flow two-dimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the separation and identification of triterpenoid saponins from ginseng extract.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuangyuan; Qiao, Lizhen; Shi, Xianzhe; Hu, Chunxiu; Kong, Hongwei; Xu, Guowang

    2015-01-01

    A method based on stop-flow two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (2D LC-ESI MS) was established and applied to analyze triterpenoid saponins from the main root of ginseng. Due to the special structure of triterpenoid saponins (they contain polar sugar side chains and nonpolar aglycones), hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) and reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) were used for the two dimensions, respectively. A trap column was used to connect the two dimensions. The dilution effect, which is one of the main shortcomings of traditional comprehensive 2D LC methods, was largely avoided. The peak capacity of this system was 747 and the orthogonality was 56.6 %. Compared with one-dimensional HILIC or RP LC MS analysis, 257 and 185 % more mass spectral peaks (ions with intensities that were higher than 1,000) were obtained from the ginseng main root extracts, and 94 triterpenoid saponins were identified based on MS(n) information and summarized aglycone structures. Given its good linearity and repeatability, the established method was successfully applied to classify ginsengs of different ages (i.e., years of growth), and 19 triterpenoid saponins were found through statistical analysis to vary in concentration depending on the age of the ginseng. PMID:25410638

  20. Development and validation of a radial inflow turbine model for simulation of the SNL S-CO2 split-flow loop.

    SciTech Connect

    Vilim, R. B. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2012-07-31

    A one-dimensional model for a radial inflow turbine has been developed for super-critical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle applications. The model accounts for the main phenomena present in the volute, nozzle, and impeller of a single-stage turbine. These phenomena include internal losses due to friction, blade loading, and angle of incidence and parasitic losses due to windage and blade-housing leakage. The model has been added as a component to the G-PASS plant systems code. The model was developed to support the analysis of S-CO{sub 2} cycles in conjunction with small-scale loop experiments. Such loops operate at less than a MWt thermal input. Their size permits components to be reconfigured in new arrangements relatively easily and economically. However, the small thermal input combined with the properties of carbon dioxide lead to turbomachines with impeller diameters of only one to two inches. At these sizes the dominant phenomena differ from those in larger more typical machines. There is almost no treatment in the literature of turbomachines at these sizes. The present work therefore is aimed at developing turbomachine models that support the task of S-CO{sub 2} cycle analysis using small-scale tests. Model predictions were compared against data from an experiment performed for Sandia National Laboratories in the split-flow Brayton cycle loop currently located at Barber-Nichols Inc. The split-flow loop incorporates two turbo-alternator-compressor (TAC) units each incorporating a radial inflow turbine and a radial flow compressor on a common shaft. The predicted thermodynamic conditions at the outlet of the turbine on the main compressor shaft were compared with measured values at different shaft speeds. Two modifications to the original model were needed to better match the experiment data. First, a representation of the heat loss from the volute downstream of the sensed inlet temperature was added. Second, an empirical multiplicative factor was applied to the Euler head and another to the head loss to bring the predicted outlet pressure into better agreement with the experiment. These changes also brought the overall efficiency of the turbine into agreement with values cited by Barber Nichols for small turbines. More generally, the quality of measurement set data can in the future be improved by additional steps taken in the design and operation of the experimental apparatus. First, a thermocouple mounted at the nozzle inlet would provide a better indication of temperature at this key point. Second, heat losses from the turbine should be measured directly. Allowing the impeller to free wheel at inlet conditions and measuring the temperature drop between inlet and outlet would provide a more accurate measure of heat loss. Finally, the enthalpy change during operation is more accurately obtained by measuring the torque on the stator using strain gauges rather than by measuring pressure and temperature at inlet and outlet to infer thermodynamic states.

  1. Radial Erosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The ejecta surrounding the crater (off image to the left) in this image has undergone significant erosion by the wind. The wind has stripped the surface features from the ejecta and has started to winnow away the ejecta blanket. Near the margin of the ejecta the wind is eroding along a radial pattern -- taking advantage of radial emplacement. Note the steep margin of the ejecta blanket. Most, if not all, of the fine ejecta material has been removed and the wind in now working on the more massive continuous ejecta blanket.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 12.5, Longitude 197.4 East (162.6 West). 37 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  2. Radial Inflow Turboexpander Redesign

    SciTech Connect

    William G. Price

    2001-09-24

    Steamboat Envirosystems, LLC (SELC) was awarded a grant in accordance with the DOE Enhanced Geothermal Systems Project Development. Atlas-Copco Rotoflow (ACR), a radial expansion turbine manufacturer, was responsible for the manufacturing of the turbine and the creation of the new computer program. SB Geo, Inc. (SBG), the facility operator, monitored and assisted ACR's activities as well as provided installation and startup assistance. The primary scope of the project is the redesign of an axial flow turbine to a radial inflow turboexpander to provide increased efficiency and reliability at an existing facility. In addition to the increased efficiency and reliability, the redesign includes an improved reduction gear design, and improved shaft seal design, and upgraded control system and a greater flexibility of application

  3. Spectra and radial flow in relativistic heavy ion collisions with Tsallis statistics in a blast-wave description

    SciTech Connect

    Tang Zebo; Xu Yichun [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Ruan Lijuan; Buren, Gene van; Xu Zhangbu [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Wang Fuqiang [Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    We have implemented the Tsallis statistics in a Blast-Wave model (TBW) and applied it to midrapidity transverse-momentum spectra of identified particles measured at BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This new TBW function fits the RHIC data very well for p{sub T}<3 GeV/c. We observed that the collective flow velocity starts from zero in p+p and peripheral Au+Au collisions and grows to 0.470{+-}0.009c in central Au+Au collisions. The resulting (q-1) parameter, which characterizes the degree of nonequilibrium in a system, indicates an evolution from a highly nonequilibrated system in p+p collisions toward an almost thermalized system in central Au+Au collisions. The temperature and collective velocity are well described by a quadratic dependence on (q-1). Two sets of parameters in our TBW are required to describe the meson and baryon groups separately in p+p collisions while one set appears to fit all spectra in central Au+Au collisions.

  4. On-line coupling of macroporous resin column chromatography with direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry utilizing a surface flowing mode sample holder.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Shanshan; Wang, Lu; Chen, Teng; Qu, Haibin

    2014-02-01

    A surface flowing mode sample holder was designed as an alternative sampling strategy for direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS). With the sample holder, the on-line coupling of macroporous resin column chromatography with DART-MS was explored and the new system was employed to monitor the column chromatography elution process of Panax notoginseng. The effluent from macroporous resin column was first diluted and mixed with a derivatization reagent on-line, and the mixture was then directly transferred into the ionization region of DART-MS by the sample holder. Notoginsenosides were methylated and ionized in a metastable helium gas stream, and was introduced into MS for detection. The on-line system showed reasonable repeatability with a relative standard deviation of 12.3% for the peak area. Three notoginsenosides, i.e. notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rb1 and ginsenoside Rg1, were simultaneously determined during the eluting process. The alteration of the chemical composition in the effluent was accurately identified in 9 min, agreeing well with the off-line analysis. The presented technique is more convenient compared to the traditional UPLC method. These results suggest that the surface flowing mode DART-MS has a good potential for the on-line process monitoring in the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:24456593

  5. Study of flow profile distortions and efficiency in counter pressure moderated partial filling micellar electrokinetic chromatography in relation to the relative buffer zone lengths.

    PubMed

    Michalke, Daniela; Welsch, Thomas

    2002-06-25

    The influence of the relative buffer zone lengths on the efficiency was investigated in partial filling micellar electrokinetic chromatography using sodium dodecyl sulfate as separation additive. Varying relative zone lengths were obtained by applying identical initial separation zone lengths but different total lengths of the capillaries. Plate numbers of a homologous series of omega-phenylalcohols were measured to indicate the effect of both a changing relative zone length during the run and a counter pressure applied on the cathodic buffer reservoir. The magnitude and the course of these plate numbers are discussed on the basis of models for flow profile superposition and flow profile deformation which are caused by an intersegmental pressure arising at the boundary between the two buffer zones with different electroosmotic flow velocities. Calculation of the intersegmental pressure and of the resulting laminar flow components in the buffer zones on the basis of some equations for electroosmotic and hydrodynamic flow supported the interpretation that a long background buffer zone should be avoided PMID:12150559

  6. Influence of surface heating condition on local heat transfer in a rotating square channel with smooth walls and radial outward flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, J. C.; Zhang, Y. M.; Lee, C. P.

    1992-06-01

    The study investigates the effect of the surface heating condition on the local heat transfer coefficient in a rotating square channel with smooth walls and radial outward flow for Reynolds numbers from 2500 and 25,000 and rotation numbers from 0 to 0.352. Four surface heating conditions were tested: (1) four walls uniform temperature, (2) temperature ratio of leading surface to side wall and trailing surface to side wall is 1.05 and 1.10, respectively, (3) trailing surface hot and remaining three walls cold, and (4) leading surface hot and remaining three walls cold. It is shown that the heat transfer coefficients on the leading surface are much lower than that of the trailing surface due to rotation. It is suggested that the local wall heating condition creates the local buoyancy forces which reduce the effects of the bulk buoyancy and Coriolis forces. Therefore, the local heat transfer coefficients on the leading and trailing surfaces are altered by the surface local heating condition.

  7. Column Chromatography

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Julie Yu

    2007-01-01

    In this activity, learners separate the components of Gatorade using a home-made affinity column. In doing so, learners model the basic principle of affinity chromatography, a technique used to purify chemicals as well as bio-pharmaceuticals and petroleum products. This resource contains information about affinity chromatography and polarity.

  8. Revised FORTRAN program for calculating velocities and streamlines on the hub-shroud midchannel stream surface of an axial-, radial-, or mixed-flow turbomachine or annular duct. 1: User's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katsanis, T.; Mcnally, W. D.

    1977-01-01

    A FORTRAN 4 computer program was developed that obtains a detailed subsonic or shock-free transonic flow solution on the hub-shroud midchannel stream surface of a turbomachine. The blade row may be fixed or rotating, and the blades may be twisted and leaned. Flow may be axial, mixed, or radial. Upstream and downstream flow variables may vary from hub to shroud, and provision is made to correct for loss of stagnation pressure. The results include velocities, streamlines, and flow angles on the stream surface as well as approximate blade surface velocities. Subsonic solutions are obtained by a finite-difference, stream-function solution. Transonic solutions are obtained by a velocity-gradient method that uses information from a finite-difference, stream-function solution at a reduced mass flow.

  9. Radial cold trap

    DOEpatents

    Grundy, B.R.

    1981-09-29

    The radial cold trap comprises a housing having a plurality of mesh bands disposed therein. The mesh bands comprise concentrically arranged bands of mesh with the mesh specific surface area of each band increasing from the outermost mesh band to the innermost mesh band. An inlet nozzle is attached to the outside section of the housing while an outlet nozzle is attached to the inner portion of the housing so as to be concentrically connected to the innermost mesh band. An inlet baffle having orifices therein may be disposed around the outermost mesh band and within the housing for directing the flow of the fluid from the inlet nozzle to the outermost mesh band in a uniform manner. The flow of fluid passes through each consecutive mesh band and into the outlet nozzle. The circular pattern of the symmetrically arranged mesh packing allows for better utilization of the entire cold trap volume. 2 figs.

  10. CALIBRATION OF SUBMERGED RADIAL GATES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calibration equations for free-flowing radial gates typically provide sufficient accuracy for irrigation district operations. However, many districts have difficulty in determining accurate discharges when the downstream water level begins to submerge the gate. Based on laboratory studies, we have d...

  11. Dielectrokinetic chromatography devices

    DOEpatents

    Chirica, Gabriela S; Fiechtner, Gregory J; Singh, Anup K

    2014-12-16

    Disclosed herein are methods and devices for dielectrokinetic chromatography. As disclosed, the devices comprise microchannels having at least one perturber which produces a non-uniformity in a field spanning the width of the microchannel. The interaction of the field non-uniformity with a perturber produces a secondary flow which competes with a primary flow. By decreasing the size of the perturber the secondary flow becomes significant for particles/analytes in the nanometer-size range. Depending on the nature of a particle/analyte present in the fluid and its interaction with the primary flow and the secondary flow, the analyte may be retained or redirected. The composition of the primary flow can be varied to affect the magnitude of primary and/or secondary flows on the particles/analytes and thereby separate and concentrate it from other particles/analytes.

  12. Simultaneous determination of aflatoxin B1 and M1 in milk, fresh milk and milk powder by LC-MS/MS utilising online turbulent flow chromatography.

    PubMed

    Fan, Sufang; Li, Qiang; Sun, Lei; Du, Yanshan; Xia, Jing; Zhang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    A novel, fully automated method based on dual-column switching using online turbulent flow chromatography followed by LC-MS/MS was developed for the determination of aflatoxin B1 and M1 in milk, fresh milk and milk powder samples. After ultrasound-assisted extraction, samples were directly injected into the chromatographic system and the analytes were concentrated on the clean-up loading column. Through purge switch, analytes were transferred to the analytical column for subsequent detection by mass spectrometry. Different types of TurboFlow(TM) columns, transfer flow rates and transfer times were optimised. Method limits of detection obtained for AFB1 and AFM1 were 0.05 ?g kg(-1), and limits of quantification were 0.1 ?g kg(-1). Recoveries of aflatoxin B1 and M1 were in range of 81.1-102.1% for all samples. Matrix effects of aflatoxin B1 and M1 were in range of 63.1-94.3%. The developed method was successfully used for the analysis of aflatoxin B1 and M1 in real samples. PMID:25952817

  13. Effects of temperature and flow regulated carbon dioxide cooling in longitudinally modulated cryogenic systems for comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Haglund, Peter; Harju, Mikael; Danielsson, Conny; Marriott, Philip

    2002-07-12

    Two different modes of temperature regulation in longitudinally modulated cryogenic systems (LMCSs) for comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) were compared. Carbon dioxide was used as coolant. In the first mode of operation, the temperature of the trap was regulated to pre-set temperature using a digital temperature controller ("the constant temperature mode"). In the second, the temperature was regulated to a fixed negative offset to the oven temperature by using a constant flow of CO2 ("the constant flow mode"). A number of problems were occasionally observed using the constant temperature mode: (1) severe band broadening of high boiling analytes in the second dimension; (2) non-Gaussian reconstructed first-dimension peak profiles; (3) high background due to modulation of first-dimension column bleed. It was concluded that these problems were associated with inefficient solute remobilization at low LMCS trap temperatures (1 and 2) or large trap temperature fluctuations (3). These problems could be avoided or significantly reduced by using the constant flow mode. Best results were obtained as the trap temperature was kept about 70 degrees C below the oven temperature. PMID:12198957

  14. A fast and simple assay for busulfan in serum or plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using turbulent flow online extraction technology.

    PubMed

    Bunch, Dustin R; Heideloff, Courtney; Ritchie, James C; Wang, Sihe

    2010-12-01

    Busulfan is used in myeloablative preparation regimens for hematopoietic bone marrow transplantation. Due to its narrow therapeutic range therapeutic drug monitoring of busulfan is recommended. In this study a fast and simple method for measuring busulfan in serum or plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed utilizing turbulent flow online extraction technology. Serum or plasma was mixed with acetonitrile containing d(8)-busulfan. After centrifugation the supernatant was injected onto a turbulent flow preparatory column then transferred to a C18 analytical column monitored by a tandem mass spectrometer set at positive electrospray ionization. The analytical cycle time was 4.0min. The method was linear from 0.15 to 41.90?mol/L with an accuracy of 87.9-103.0%. Inter- and intra-assay CVs across four concentration levels were 2.1-7.8%. No significant carryover or ion suppression was observed. No interference was observed from commercial control materials containing more than 100 compounds. Comparison with a well established LC-MS/MS method using patient specimens (n=45) showed a mean bias 1.3% with Deming regression of slope 1.02, intercept -0.02?mol/L, and a linear correlation coefficient 0.9883. The LC-MS/MS method coupled with turbulent flow online sample cleaning technology described here offers reliable busulfan quantitation in serum or plasma with minimum manual sample preparation and was fully validated for clinical use. PMID:21030324

  15. The interaction between two radial jets

    E-print Network

    Gruber, Thomas Clifton

    1993-01-01

    on an impingement surface with high surface heat and mass transfer. The objective of this study was to characterize the flow, surface pressure, and heat transfer for two radial jets as a function of nozzle geometry, in order to be able to design arrays of radial...

  16. Fast protein liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Madadlou, Ashkan; O'Sullivan, Siobhan; Sheehan, David

    2011-01-01

    Fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) is a form of high-performance chromatography that takes advantage of high resolution made possible by small-diameter stationary phases. It was originally developed for proteins and features high loading capacity, biocompatible aqueous buffer systems, fast flow rates, and availability of stationary phases in most common chromatography modes (e.g., ion exchange, gel filtration, reversed phase, and affinity). The system makes reproducible separation possible by incorporating a high level of automation including autosamplers, gradient program control, and peak collection. In addition to proteins, the method is applicable to other kinds of biological samples including oligonucleotides and plasmids. The most common type of FPLC experiment is anion exchange of proteins. This chapter describes such an experiment carried out using an ÄKTA FPLC explorer system (Amersham Pharmacia Biotech, Sweden). PMID:20978981

  17. Affinity Chromatography

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Using exposition, graphics, and commercial videos, this module teaches the theory and application of affinity chromatography in the characterization of proteins, nucleic acids, and other biochemical/biomedical systems. Problems and application examples support the tutorial material.

  18. NASA contributions to radial turbine aerodynamic analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassman, A. J.

    1980-01-01

    A brief description of the radial turbine and its analysis needs is followed by discussions of five analytical areas; design geometry and performance, off design performance, blade row flow, scroll flow, and duct flow. The functions of the programs, areas of applicability, and limitations and uncertainties are emphasized. Both past contributions and current activities are discussed.

  19. On radial geodesic forcing of zonal modes

    SciTech Connect

    Kendl, A. [Institute for Ion Physics and Applied Physics, Association Euratom-OeAW, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2011-07-15

    The elementary local and global influence of geodesic field line curvature on radial dispersion of zonal modes in magnetised plasmas is analysed with a primitive drift wave turbulence model. A net radial geodesic forcing of zonal flows and geodesic acoustic modes can not be expected in any closed toroidal magnetic confinement configuration, since the flux surface average of geodesic curvature identically vanishes. Radial motion of poloidally elongated zonal jets may occur in the presence of geodesic acoustic mode activity. Phenomenologically a radial propagation of zonal modes shows some characteristics of a classical analogon to second sound in quantum condensates.

  20. Evaluation of a novel helium ionization detector within the context of (low-)flow modulation comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Franchina, Flavio A; Maimone, Mariarosa; Sciarrone, Danilo; Purcaro, Giorgia; Tranchida, Peter Q; Mondello, Luigi

    2015-07-10

    The present research is focused on the use and evaluation of a novel helium ionization detector, defined as barrier discharge ionization detector (BID), within the context of (low-)flow modulation comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (FM GC×GC). The performance of the BID device was compared to that of a flame ionization detector (FID), under similar FM GC×GC conditions. Following development and optimization of the FM GC×GC method, the BID was subjected to fine tuning in relation to acquisition frequency and discharge flow. Moreover, the BID performance was measured and compared to that of the FID, in terms of extra-column band broadening, sensitivity and dynamic range. The comparative study was carried out by using standard compounds belonging to different chemical classes, along with a sample of diesel fuel. Advantages and disadvantages of the BID system, also within the context of FM GC×GC, are critically discussed. In general, the BID system was characterized by a more limited dynamic range and increased sensitivity, compared to the FID. Additionally, BID and FID contribution to band broadening was found to be similar under the operational conditions applied. Particular attention was devoted to the behaviour of the FM GC×GC-BID system toward saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons, for a possible future use in the field of mineral-oil food contamination research. PMID:26032893

  1. Measurement of bromate in bread by high performance liquid chromatography with post-column flow reactor detection.

    PubMed

    Himata, K; Noda, M; Ando, S; Yamada, Y

    1997-01-01

    An analytical procedure was developed to measure bromate residues in baked goods using a sequence of clean-up procedures followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a post-column reaction for oxidants. Deionized water was used to extract bromate from bread samples. The extract was treated with a C-18 solid phase extraction column to remove lipids, a cation exchange column with the silver cation to remove chloride, and an ultrafiltration membrane to remove proteins. Further treatment of the extract with the sodium form of a propylsulphonic acid ion exchange column was necessary to remove the silver that leached from the silver column. The method had a detection limit of 3 ng/g in baked goods. Recoveries of bromate from breads ranged from 73 to 86% at a fortified bromate level of 5-100 ng/g. Pullman-type white bread, produced by a sponge and dough method, was prepared in our laboratory for measurement of residual bromate. The dough was scaled in three different weights at different specific volumes (3.8, 4.1, 4.3), and samples of each of the three weights were baked for six different baking times ranging from 24 to 34 min. When bromate at a level of 25 mg/kg was added to flour, no residual bromate was detected in any of the samples, regardless of weight and baking time. PMID:9519122

  2. Periostin, discovered by nano-flow liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, is a novel marker of diabetic retinopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Takada, Michiya [Division of Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)] [Division of Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Ban, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: yshyban@yahoo.co.jp [Division of Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)] [Division of Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Yamamoto, Gou [Department of Oral Pathology and Diagnosis, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Oral Pathology and Diagnosis, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Tokyo (Japan); Ueda, Toshihiko; Saito, Yuta; Nishimura, Eiichi; Fujisawa, Kunimi; Koide, Ryohei [Department of Ophthalmology, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Ophthalmology, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Mizutani, Masakazu; Kozawa, Tadahiko; Shiraishi, Yuji [Kozawa Eye Hospital and Diabetes Center, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)] [Kozawa Eye Hospital and Diabetes Center, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Bando, Yasuhiko [Biosys Technologies, Inc., Meguro, Tokyo (Japan)] [Biosys Technologies, Inc., Meguro, Tokyo (Japan); Tachikawa, Tetsuhiko [Department of Oral Pathology and Diagnosis, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Oral Pathology and Diagnosis, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Tokyo (Japan); Hirano, Tsutomu [Division of Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)] [Division of Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-08-20

    Research highlights: {yields} In proliferative membrane and epiretinal membrane specimens, the numbers of proteins are 225 and 154, respectively, and 123 proteins are common to both. {yields} Periostin and thrombospondin-1 proteins are unique to the proliferative membrane specimens. {yields} The expression of periostin is significantly up-regulated in proliferative membrane specimens. -- Abstract: Diabetes can lead to serious microvascular complications including proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), the leading cause of blindness in adults. Recent studies using gene array technology have attempted to apply a hypothesis-generating approach to elucidate the pathogenesis of PDR, but these studies rely on mRNA differences, which may or may not be related to significant biological processes. To better understand the basic mechanisms of PDR and to identify potential new biomarkers, we performed shotgun liquid chromatography (LC)/tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis on pooled protein extracts from neovascular membranes obtained from PDR specimens and compared the results with those from non-vascular epiretinal membrane (ERM) specimens. We detected 226 distinct proteins in neovascular membranes and 154 in ERM. Among these proteins, 102 were specific to neovascular membranes and 30 were specific to ERM. We identified a candidate marker, periostin, as well as several known PDR markers such as pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF). We then performed RT-PCR using these markers. The expression of periostin was significantly up-regulated in proliferative membrane specimens. Periostin induces cell attachment and spreading and plays a role in cell adhesion. Proteomic analysis by LC/MS/MS, which permits accurate quantitative comparison, was useful in identifying new candidates such as periostin potentially involved in the pathogenesis of PDR.

  3. Design of a microfluidic device for comprehensive spatial two-dimensional liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wouters, Bert; De Vos, Jelle; Desmet, Gert; Terryn, Herman; Schoenmakers, Peter J; Eeltink, Sebastiaan

    2015-04-01

    This study discusses the design aspects for the construction of a microfluidic device for comprehensive spatial two-dimensional liquid chromatography. In spatial two-dimensional liquid chromatography each peak is characterized by its coordinates in the plane. After completing the first-dimension separation all fractions are analyzed in parallel second-dimension separations. Hence, spatial two-dimensional liquid chromatography potentially provides much higher peak-production rates than a coupled column multi-dimensional liquid chromatography approach in which the second-dimension analyses are performed sequentially. A chip for spatial two-dimensional liquid chromatography has been manufactured from cyclic olefin copolymer and features a first-dimension separation channel and 21 parallel second-dimension separation channels oriented perpendicularly to the former. Compartmentalization of first- and second-dimension developments by physical barriers allowed for a preferential flow path with a minimal dispersion into the second-dimension separation channels. To generate a homogenous flow across all the parallel second-dimension channels, a radially interconnected flow distributor containing two zones of diamond-shaped pillars was integrated on-chip. A methacrylate ester based monolithic stationary phase with optimized macroporous structure was created in situ in the confines of the microfluidic chip. In addition, the use of a photomask was explored to localize monolith formation in the parallel second-dimension channels. Finally, to connect the spatial chip to the liquid chromatography instrument, connector ports were integrated allowing the use of Viper fittings. As an alternative, a chip holder with adjustable clasp locks was designed that allows the clamping force to be adjusted. PMID:25598051

  4. Radial Artery Catheterization

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Name Password Sign In Cardiology Patient Page Radial Artery Catheterization Nicholas R. Balaji , MD ; Pinak B. Shah , ... procedures. Previous Section Next Section Advantages of Radial Artery Catheterization Any catheter placement into a blood vessel ...

  5. Green chromatography.

    PubMed

    P?otka, Justyna; Tobiszewski, Marek; Sulej, Anna Maria; Kupska, Magdalena; Górecki, Tadeusz; Namie?nik, Jacek

    2013-09-13

    Analysis of organic compounds in samples characterized by different composition of the matrix is very important in many areas. A vast majority of organic compound determinations are performed using gas or liquid chromatographic methods. It is thus very important that these methods have negligible environmental impact. Chromatographic techniques have the potential to be greener at all steps of the analysis, from sample collection and preparation to separation and final determination. The paper summarizes the approaches used to accomplish the goals of green chromatography. While complete elimination of sample preparation would be an ideal approach, it is not always practical. Solventless extraction techniques offer a very good alternative. Where solvents must be used, the focus should be on the minimization of their consumption. The approaches used to make chromatographic separations greener differ depending on the type of chromatography. In gas chromatography it is advisable to move away from using helium as the carrier gas because it is a non-renewable resource. GC separations using low thermal mass technology can be greener because of energy savings offered by this technology. In liquid chromatography the focus should be on the reduction of solvent consumption and replacement of toxic and environmentally hazardous solvents with more benign alternatives. Multidimensional separation techniques have the potential to make the analysis greener in both GC and LC. The environmental impact of the method is often determined by the location of the instrument with respect to the sample collection point. PMID:23932374

  6. Paper Chromatography

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Reeves, James H.

    2011-05-19

    This is a site with experiments that provide a brief introduction to the idea of separation of components in a mixture and a set of instructions for students for separating colored compounds by paper chromatography (on coffee filters). The appropriate audience would be students in a high-school or introductory, non major college chemistry class.

  7. Theoretical evaluation of the advantages and limitations of constant pressure versus constant flow rate gradient elution separation in supercritical fluid chromatography.

    PubMed

    De Pauw, Ruben; Desmet, Gert; Broeckhoven, Ken

    2013-10-18

    This study reports on the possible advantages of switching from constant flow (cF) based gradient elution separations to constant pressure (cP) based ones in Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) by means of mathematical models. All the important parameters (e.g. viscosity) were fitted as a function of pressure and mol% methanol in CO2. It is shown that when switching towards a cP approach in SFC, a time gain of 34% at the end of a 0 to 50% methanol in CO2 gradient is expected. Actual analysis time gains depend on the point at which it is evaluated (e.g. up to 41% after the equilibration step). Due to the dependence of retention on density, cF- and cP-mode do not yield the same selectivity even if the same volumetric-based gradient program is used. Because the components experience a higher average pressure in the cP-mode, the apparent retention factor is slightly lower. PMID:24041511

  8. Simultaneous determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in tannery wastewater using low pressure ion chromatography combined with flow injection spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shujuan; Zhang, Xinshen; Yu, Lingyun; Wang, Li; Li, Hui

    2012-03-01

    Trivalent and hexavalent chromium have been successfully separated and determined using low pressure ion chromatography combined with flow injection spectrophotometric analysis (LPIC-FIA). A column packed with crosslinking starch microspheres was used for on-line separation of Cr(III) from Cr(VI) in a flow-injection system because of its absorptive effect on Cr(III). To determine the concentration of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in samples, we used 3.0 mmol/L nitric acid to elute adsorbed Cr(III) from the column and then used ceric sulfate-sulfuric acid as oxidant to convert all Cr(III) into Cr(VI). Then, Cr(VI) directly came from the samples and Cr(VI) came from Cr(III) successively formed a amaranthine complex with diphenycarbazide and the complex shows a maximum absorption at 530 nm. Analytical parameters including the concentration of eluent and oxidant solution, oxidizing temperature, length of oxidizing reaction coil, reaction coil and injection coil, interfering effects, etc., were optimized. The limit of detection was 1.25 ?g/L for Cr(VI) and 3.76 ?g/L for Cr(III). The linear relationship between absorption with the concentration of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) was 0.001-1.000 mg/L and 0.030-1.000 mg/L with correlation coefficients of 0.9995 and 0.9994, respectively. The relative standard deviation of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) was 1.21% and 1.66%, respectively (n = 10). Major cations and anions did not show any interference. We validated this method through certified reference materials and through measuring the recovery in tannery wastewater.

  9. Chromatography Lab

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    To increase students' awareness of possible invisible pollutants in drinking water sources, students perform an exciting lab requiring them to think about how solutions and mixtures exist even in unsuspecting places such as ink. They use alcohol and chromatography paper to separate the components of black and colored marker ink. Students witness first-hand how components of a solution can be separated, even when those individual components are not visible in solution.

  10. Plastic Models Designed to Produce Large Height-to-Length Ratio Steady-State Planar and Axisymmetric (Radial) Viscous Liquid Laminar Flow Gravity Currents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanck, Harvey F.

    2012-01-01

    Naturally occurring gravity currents include events such as air flowing through an open front door, a volcanic eruption's pyroclastic flow down a mountainside, and the spread of the Bhopal disaster's methyl isocyanate gas. Gravity currents typically have a small height-to-distance ratio. Plastic models were designed and constructed with a…

  11. Radial arm strike rail

    DOEpatents

    McKeown, Mark H. (Golden, CO); Beason, Steven C. (Lakewood, CO)

    1991-01-01

    The radial arm strike rail assembly is a system for measurement of bearings, directions, and stereophotography for geologic mapping, particularly where magnetic compasses are not appropriate. The radial arm, pivoting around a shaft axis, provides a reference direction determination for geologic mapping and bearing or direction determination. The centerable and levelable pedestal provide a base for the radial arm strike rail and the telescoping camera pedestal. The telescoping feature of the radial arm strike rail allows positioning the end of the rail for strike direction or bearing measurement with a goniometer.

  12. The existence of long-lived rays of the coronal streamer belt – Radial density and velocity distributions of the solar wind flowing in them

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. G. Eselevich; V. G. Fainshtein; M. V. Eselevich

    2001-01-01

    A technique is proposed for separating the rays of the streamer belt with quasi-stationary and non-stationary solar wind (SW) flows. It is shown that the lifetime of rays with a quasi-stationary SW can exceed 20 days. A new method has been developed for measuring the relative density distribution of a quasi-stationary slow SW flowing along the streamer belt's ray of

  13. Methods and apparatus for radially compliant component mounting

    SciTech Connect

    Bulman, David Edward (Cincinnati, OH); Darkins, Jr., Toby George (Loveland, OH); Stumpf, James Anthony (Columbus, IN); Schroder, Mark S. (Greenville, SC); Lipinski, John Joseph (Simpsonville, SC)

    2012-03-27

    Methods and apparatus for a mounting assembly for a liner of a gas turbine engine combustor are provided. The combustor includes a combustor liner and a radially outer annular flow sleeve. The mounting assembly includes an inner ring surrounding a radially outer surface of the liner and including a plurality of axially extending fingers. The mounting assembly also includes a radially outer ring coupled to the inner ring through a plurality of spacers that extend radially from a radially outer surface of the inner ring to the outer ring.

  14. Atomic Force Microscope Mediated Chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) is used to inject a sample, provide shear-driven liquid flow over a functionalized substrate, and detect separated components. This is demonstrated using lipophilic dyes and normal phase chromatography. A significant reduction in both size and separation time scales is achieved with a 25-micron-length column scale, and one-second separation times. The approach has general applications to trace chemical and microfluidic analysis. The AFM is now a common tool for ultra-microscopy and nanotechnology. It has also been demonstrated to provide a number of microfluidic functions necessary for miniaturized chromatography. These include injection of sub-femtoliter samples, fluidic switching, and sheardriven pumping. The AFM probe tip can be used to selectively remove surface layers for subsequent microchemical analysis using infrared and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. With its ability to image individual atoms, the AFM is a remarkably sensitive detector that can be used to detect separated components. These diverse functional components of microfluidic manipulation have been combined in this work to demonstrate AFM mediated chromatography. AFM mediated chromatography uses channel-less, shear-driven pumping. This is demonstrated with a thin, aluminum oxide substrate and a non-polar solvent system to separate a mixture of lipophilic dyes. In conventional chromatographic terms, this is analogous to thin-layer chromatography using normal phase alumina substrate with sheardriven pumping provided by the AFM tip-cantilever mechanism. The AFM detection of separated components is accomplished by exploiting the variation in the localized friction of the separated components. The AFM tip-cantilever provides the mechanism for producing shear-induced flows and rapid pumping. Shear-driven chromatography (SDC) is a relatively new concept that overcomes the speed and miniaturization limitations of conventional liquid chromatography. SDC is based on a sliding plate system, consisting of two flat surfaces, one of which has a recessed channel. A fluid flow is produced by axially sliding one plate past another, where the fluid has mechanical shear forces imposed at each point along the channel length. The shear-induced flow rates are very reproducible, and do not have pressure or voltage gradient limitations. SDC opens up a new range of enhanced separation kinetics by permitting the sample confinement with submicron dimensions. Small, highly confined liquid is advantageous for chromatographic separation because the separation rate is known to scale according to the square of the confined sample diameter. In addition, because shear-driven flows are not limited by fluid velocity, shear-driven liquid chromatography may provide up to 100,000 plate efficiency.

  15. Triple acting radial seal

    DOEpatents

    Ebert, Todd A (West Palm Beach, FL); Carella, John A (Jupiter, FL)

    2012-03-13

    A triple acting radial seal used as an interstage seal assembly in a gas turbine engine, where the seal assembly includes an interstage seal support extending from a stationary inner shroud of a vane ring, the interstage seal support includes a larger annular radial inward facing groove in which an outer annular floating seal assembly is secured for radial displacement, and the outer annular floating seal assembly includes a smaller annular radial inward facing groove in which an inner annular floating seal assembly is secured also for radial displacement. A compliant seal is secured to the inner annular floating seal assembly. The outer annular floating seal assembly encapsulates the inner annular floating seal assembly which is made from a very low alpha material in order to reduce thermal stress.

  16. Transonic throat flow in radial or nearly radial supersonic nozzles 

    E-print Network

    Carroll, Bruce Frederick

    1984-01-01

    () and Bl are unknown constants. The integration function, B()tB&z, is suggested by the form of vi(z, y). Additional terms may be assumed but they will vanish 28 during the course of the solution. Substituting the assumed solution for vl(z, y). Eq. (44..., A)'(y) is obtained as, 29 Al(y) = 28l y + Bl (5 0) with 82 being the integration constant. Applying the boundary conditions, Eqs. (45), and solving for Bl and 82, it is found that ~|h, 2 (51 ) Bl h~ 2 (52) When solving for Bl, a square root...

  17. Effects of Radial Variability in Sap Flow on up-Scaling of in Situ Evapotranspiration Measurements from the Scale of Individual Trees to the Grove Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinlan, P. T.; Weinberger, J. L.; Tartakovsky, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Sap flow sensors are routinely used to obtain in situ measurements of evapotranspiration (ET) by individual trees. Flow rates within a single tree of some species, e.g., Quercus englemanii trees, exhibit high spatial variability. The latter impedes one's ability to extrapolate single-tree ET estimates to their grove- and/or watershed-scale counterparts. A simplistic approach of using the highest observed sap flow rate might introduce a systemic bias into up-scaled estimates. We propose an approach to obtain a representative sap flow rate from all observed data; this rate is then applied to multiple trees in order to extrapolate ET rates from individual trees to the grove-scale. Eight thermal dissipation probe (TDP) pairs were deployed in individual Quercus englemanii trees, which had previously been monitored with only two TDP pairs. Analysis of the variability observed among the probes in the eight-probe arrays yields both a representative composite ET rate for the tree and quantification of the uncertainty associated with that rate. The probability distribution from the eight probe arrays can be applied to trees with one or two probes to estimate the probable range of representative ET rates for those trees and the composite rates for all measured trees is then applied to the grove as a whole.

  18. Atomic force microscope mediated chromatography.

    PubMed

    Anderson, M S

    2013-02-01

    An atomic force microscope (AFM) is presented as an instrument for rapid, miniaturized chromatography. The AFM is used to inject a sample, provide shear driven liquid flow over a functionalized substrate, and detect separated components. The components are then analyzed with surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy using AFM deposition of gold nanoparticles on the separated bands. This AFM mediated chromatography (AFM-MC) is demonstrated using lipophilic dyes and normal phase chemistry. A significant reduction in both size and separation time scales is achieved with 25 ?m length scale and 1 s separation times. AFM-MC has general applications to trace chemical analysis and microfluidics. PMID:23464258

  19. Exploration of coordination polymer as sorbent for flow injection solid-phase extraction on-line coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography for determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    You-Ya Zhou; Xiu-Ping Yan; Ki-Nam Kim; Shan-Wei Wang; Ming-Guang Liu

    2006-01-01

    The copper(II) isonicotinate (Cu(4-C5H4N-COO)2(H2O)4) coordination polymer was prepared, characterized and explored as sorbent for flow injection solid-phase extraction on-line coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for determination of trace polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in environmental matrices. Naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene and benzo(ghi)perylene with various shape, size and hydrophobicity were used as model analytes. The porosity of the

  20. AN OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUE FOR RADIAL COMPRESSOR IMPELLERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Casey; Frank Gersbach; Chris Robinson

    2008-01-01

    A software tool has been created to aid in automate d impeller design within an integrated design system for radial flow impellers. The design tool takes the results f rom the 1D preliminary design process and uses these to define a parameterized blade geometry, which incorporates features that are required for low mechanical stresses and s imple manufacturing. This geometry

  1. Instrumentation: Ion Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritz, James S.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the importance of ion chromatography in separating and measuring anions. The principles of ion exchange are presented, along with some applications of ion chromatography in industry. Ion chromatography systems are described, as well as ion pair and ion exclusion chromatography, column packings, detectors, and programming. (TW)

  2. Approximate theory for radial filtration/consolidation

    SciTech Connect

    Tiller, F.M. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States)] [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States); Kirby, J.M. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Canberra (Australia). Soils Div.] [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Canberra (Australia). Soils Div.; Nguyen, H.L. [Veteran`s Hospital, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [Veteran`s Hospital, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Approximate solutions are developed for filtration and subsequent consolidation of compactible cakes on a cylindrical filter element. Darcy`s flow equation is coupled with equations for equilibrium stress under the conditions of plane strain and axial symmetry for radial flow inwards. The solutions are based on power function forms involving the relationships of the solidosity {epsilon}{sub s} (volume fraction of solids) and the permeability K to the solids effective stress p{sub s}. The solutions allow determination of the various parameters in the power functions and the ratio k{sub 0} of the lateral to radial effective stress (earth stress ratio). Measurements were made of liquid and effective pressures, flow rates, and cake thickness versus time. Experimental data are presented for a series of tests in a radial filtration cell with a central filter element. Slurries prepared from two materials (Microwate, which is mainly SrSO{sub 4}, and kaolin) were used in the experiments. Transient deposition of filter cakes was followed by static (i.e., no flow) conditions in the cake. The no-flow condition was accomplished by introducing bentonite which produced a nearly impermeable layer with negligible flow. Measurement of the pressure at the cake surface and the transmitted pressure on the central element permitted calculation of k{sub 0}.

  3. Development and validation of two LC-MS/MS methods for the detection and quantification of amphetamines, designer amphetamines, benzoylecgonine, benzodiazepines, opiates, and opioids in urine using turbulent flow chromatography.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Nadine; Peters, Benjamin; Schmidt, Peter; Ewald, Andreas H

    2013-01-01

    In the context of driving ability diagnostics in Germany, administrative cutoffs for various drugs and pharmaceuticals in urine have been established. Two liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods for simultaneous detection and quantification of amphetamines, designer amphetamines, benzoylecgonine, benzodiazepines, opiates, and opioids in urine were developed and validated. A 500-?L aliquot of urine was diluted and fortified with an internal standard solution. After enzymatic cleavage, online extraction was performed by an ion-exchange/reversed-phase turbulent flow column. Separation was achieved by using a reversed-phase column and gradient elution. For detection, a Thermo Fisher TSQ Quantum Ultra Accurate Mass tandem mass spectrometer with positive electrospray ionization was used, and the analytes were measured in multiple-reaction monitoring mode detecting two transitions per precursor ion. The total run time for both methods was about 15 min. Validation was performed according to the guidelines of the Society of Toxicological and Forensic Chemistry. The results of matrix effect determination were between 78% and 116%. The limits of detection and quantification for all drugs, except zopiclone, were less than 10 ng/mL and less than 25 ng/mL, respectively. Calibration curves ranged from 25 to 200 ng/mL for amphetamines, designer amphetamines, and benzoylecgonine, from 25 to 250 ng/mL for benzodiazepines, from 12.5 to 100 ng/mL for morphine, codeine, and dihydrocodeine, and from 5 to 50 ng/mL for buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine. Intraday and interday precision values were lower than 15%, and bias values within ± 15% were achieved. Turbulent flow chromatography needs no laborious sample preparation, so the workup is less time-consuming compared with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. The methods are suitable for quantification of multiple analytes at the cutoff concentrations required for driving ability diagnostics in Germany. PMID:23076398

  4. Radial transfer effects for poloidal rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallatschek, Klaus

    2010-11-01

    Radial transfer of energy or momentum is the principal agent responsible for radial structures of Geodesic Acoustic Modes (GAMs) or stationary Zonal Flows (ZF) generated by the turbulence. For the GAM, following a physical approach, it is possible to find useful expressions for the individual components of the Poynting flux or radial group velocity allowing predictions where a mathematical full analysis is unfeasible. Striking differences between up-down symmetric flux surfaces and asymmetric ones have been found. For divertor geometries, e.g., the direction of the propagation depends on the sign of the ion grad-B drift with respect to the X-point, reminiscent of a sensitive determinant of the H-mode threshold. In nonlocal turbulence computations it becomes obvious that the linear energy transfer terms can be completely overwhelmed by the action of the turbulence. In contrast, stationary ZFs are governed by the turbulent radial transfer of momentum. For sufficiently large systems, the Reynolds stress becomes a deterministic functional of the flows, which can be empirically determined from the stress response in computational turbulence studies. The functional allows predictions even on flow/turbulence states not readily obtainable from small amplitude noise, such as certain transport bifurcations or meta-stable states.

  5. Radial turbine cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roelke, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    Radial turbines have been used extensively in many applications including small ground based electrical power generators, automotive engine turbochargers and aircraft auxiliary power units. In all of these applications the turbine inlet temperature is limited to a value commensurate with the material strength limitations and life requirements of uncooled metal rotors. To take advantage of all the benefits that higher temperatures offer, such as increased turbine specific power output or higher cycle thermal efficiency, requires improved high temperature materials and/or blade cooling. Extensive research is on-going to advance the material properties of high temperature superalloys as well as composite materials including ceramics. The use of ceramics with their high temperature potential and low cost is particularly appealing for radial turbines. However until these programs reach fruition the only way to make significant step increases beyond the present material temperature barriers is to cool the radial blading.

  6. Radially uniform electron source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccomas, D.; Bame, S. J.

    1982-01-01

    A thermionic electron source capable of producing uniform count rates in a number of channel electron multipliers simultaneously was required for conditioning multipliers for an extended space mission. It was found that a straight tungsten filament in the center of a cylindrically symmetric geometry surrounded by an array of multipliers emits a radially asymmetric distribution of electrons that changes with time. A source was developed which successfully produces a time-independent radially uniform distribution of electrons by moving the filament out of the direct line of sight and replacing it with a centrally located electron 'cloud.'

  7. Navier-Stokes analysis of radial turbine rotor performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larosiliere, L. M.

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of flow through a radial turbine rotor using the three-dimensional, thin-layer Navier-Stokes code RVC3D is described. The rotor is a solid version of an air-cooled metallic radial turbine having thick trailing edges, shroud clearance, and scalloped-backface clearance. Results are presented at the nominal operating condition using both a zero-clearance model and a model simulating the effects of the shroud and scalloped-backface clearance flows. A comparison with the available test data is made and details of the internal flow physics are discussed, allowing a better understanding of the complex flow distribution within the rotor.

  8. Applying Simple Chromatography

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John Eichinger

    2009-05-15

    This activity involves chemistry, mystery, colors, and measurement. Students observe the composition of various inks by separating them via water-based chromatography. Students use what they learn about chromatography to solve a mystery involving a suspic

  9. Basic Principles of Chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Baraem; Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    Chromatography has a great impact on all areas of analysis and, therefore, on the progress of science in general. Chromatography differs from other methods of separation in that a wide variety of materials, equipment, and techniques can be used. [Readers are referred to references (1-19) for general and specific information on chromatography.]. This chapter will focus on the principles of chromatography, mainly liquid chromatography (LC). Detailed principles and applications of gas chromatography (GC) will be discussed in Chap. 29. In view of its widespread use and applications, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) will be discussed in a separate chapter (Chap. 28). The general principles of extraction are first described as a basis for understanding chromatography.

  10. CRC handbook of chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Qureshi, M.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides technology for routine analysis or developing new methods of chromatography or organic materials. In this book Section 1 presents the principles, techniques, quantitative determinations and detection methods used in chromatographic analysis. In the major part of the book, Section 2 summarizes data in voluminous tabular/graphic form on paper, thin layer, liquid and gas chromatography. Section 3 lists important books on electrophoreses, gel permeation chromatography, and ion exchange, in addition to the other forms of chromatography.

  11. Chromatography: concepts and contrasts

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    As the author states in the Preface, this text attempts to provide a unified approach to chromatography (hence the title) by way of contrasting similarities and differences between gas chromatography (GC), column liquid chromatography (LC), and thin-layer chromatography (TLC). This book is also said to be pitched at an elementary level, suitable for most newcomers to the field (e.g., advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students in the academic world, as well as bench-level chemists in industry).

  12. Radial Halbach Magnetic Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Thompson, William K.

    2009-01-01

    Radial Halbach magnetic bearings have been investigated as part of an effort to develop increasingly reliable noncontact bearings for future high-speed rotary machines that may be used in such applications as aircraft, industrial, and land-vehicle power systems and in some medical and scientific instrumentation systems. Radial Halbach magnetic bearings are based on the same principle as that of axial Halbach magnetic bearings, differing in geometry as the names of these two types of bearings suggest. Both radial and axial Halbach magnetic bearings are passive in the sense that unlike most other magnetic bearings that have been developed in recent years, they effect stable magnetic levitation without need for complex active control. Axial Halbach magnetic bearings were described in Axial Halbach Magnetic Bearings (LEW-18066-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 7 (July 2008), page 85. In the remainder of this article, the description of the principle of operation from the cited prior article is recapitulated and updated to incorporate the present radial geometry. In simplest terms, the basic principle of levitation in an axial or radial Halbach magnetic bearing is that of the repulsive electromagnetic force between (1) a moving permanent magnet and (2) an electric current induced in a stationary electrical conductor by the motion of the magnetic field. An axial or radial Halbach bearing includes multiple permanent magnets arranged in a Halbach array ("Halbach array" is defined below) in a rotor and multiple conductors in the form of wire coils in a stator, all arranged so the rotary motion produces an axial or radial repulsion that is sufficient to levitate the rotor. A basic Halbach array (see Figure 1) consists of a row of permanent magnets, each oriented so that its magnetic field is at a right angle to that of the adjacent magnet, and the right-angle turns are sequenced so as to maximize the magnitude of the magnetic flux density on one side of the row while minimizing it on the opposite side. The advantage of this configuration is that it makes it possible to approach the theoretical maximum force per unit area that could be exerted by a given amount of permanent-magnet material. The configuration is named after physicist Klaus Halbach, who conceived it for use in particle accelerators. Halbach arrays have also been studied for use in magnetic-levitation ("maglev") railroad trains. In a radial Halbach magnetic bearing, the basic Halbach arrangement is modified into a symmetrical arrangement of sector-shaped permanent magnets mounted on the outer cylindrical surface of a drum rotor (see Figure 2). The magnets are oriented to concentrate the magnetic field on their radially outermost surface. The stator coils are mounted in a stator shell surrounding the rotor.

  13. Improved Lattice Radial Quantization

    E-print Network

    Richard C. Brower; Michael Cheng; George T. Fleming

    2014-07-28

    Lattice radial quantization was proposed in a recent paper by Brower, Fleming and Neuberger[1] as a nonperturbative method especially suited to numerically solve Euclidean conformal field theories. The lessons learned from the lattice radial quantization of the 3D Ising model on a longitudinal cylinder with 2D Icosahedral cross-section suggested the need for an improved discretization. We consider here the use of the Finite Element Methods(FEM) to descretize the universally-equivalent $\\phi^4$ Lagrangian on $\\mathbb R \\times \\mathbb S^2$. It is argued that this lattice regularization will approach the exact conformal theory at the Wilson-Fisher fixed point in the continuum. Numerical tests are underway to support this conjecture.

  14. Experimental feasibility study of radial injection cooling of three-pad radial air foil bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Suman K.

    Air foil bearings use ambient air as a lubricant allowing environment-friendly operation. When they are designed, installed, and operated properly, air foil bearings are very cost effective and reliable solution to oil-free turbomachinery. Because air is used as a lubricant, there are no mechanical contacts between the rotor and bearings and when the rotor is lifted off the bearing, near frictionless quiet operation is possible. However, due to the high speed operation, thermal management is one of the very important design factors to consider. Most widely accepted practice of the cooling method is axial cooling, which uses cooling air passing through heat exchange channels formed underneath the bearing pad. Advantage is no hardware modification to implement the axial cooling because elastic foundation structure of foil bearing serves as a heat exchange channels. Disadvantage is axial temperature gradient on the journal shaft and bearing. This work presents the experimental feasibility study of alternative cooling method using radial injection of cooling air directly on the rotor shaft. The injection speeds, number of nozzles, location of nozzles, total air flow rate are important factors determining the effectiveness of the radial injection cooling method. Effectiveness of the radial injection cooling was compared with traditional axial cooling method. A previously constructed test rig was modified to accommodate a new motor with higher torque and radial injection cooling. The radial injection cooling utilizes the direct air injection to the inlet region of air film from three locations at 120° from one another with each location having three axially separated holes. In axial cooling, a certain axial pressure gradient is applied across the bearing to induce axial cooling air through bump foil channels. For the comparison of the two methods, the same amount of cooling air flow rate was used for both axial cooling and radial injection. Cooling air flow rate was referenced to the rotor surface speed for radial injection cooling. The mass flow rates for the radial injection were 0.032, 0.0432, 0.054 and 0.068 Kg/min, which result in average injection speed of 150, 200, 250 and 300% of rotor surface speed. Several thermocouples were attached at various circumferential directions of the bearing sleeve, two plenums, bearing holder and ball bearing housings to collect the temperature data of the bearing at 30krpm under 10lb of load. Both axial cooling and radial injection are effective cooling mechanism and effectiveness of both cooling methods is directly proportional to the total mass flow rates. However, axial cooling is slightly more efficient in controlling the average temperature of the bearing sleeve, but results in higher thermal gradient of the shaft along the axial direction and also higher thermal gradient of the bearing sleeve along the circumferential direction compared to the radial injection cooling. The smaller thermal gradient of the radial injection cooling is due to the direct cooling effect of the shaft by impinging jets. While the axial cooling has an effect on only the bearing, the radial injection has a cooling effect on both the bearing sleeve and shaft. It is considered the radial injection cooling needs to be further optimized in terms of number of injection holes and their locations.

  15. Optical Chromatography of Bacterial Spores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundbeck, Steven; Terray, Alex; Arnold, Jonathan; Leski, Tomasz; Hart, Sean

    2007-03-01

    The technique of optical chromatography uses a laser mildly focused against fluid flow in a microfluidic channel to trap microscopic particles. Particles in the channel near the focal point of the laser are drawn toward the beam axis and then accelerated via optical pressure against the fluid flow, reaching an equilibrium point when the optical and fluidic forces on the particle are balanced. This equilibrium point may occur at differing distances from the focal point for microscopic particles with differing properties, such as size, shape, morphology, and refractive index. Thus, identification and separation of particles may be achieved in the system. Optical chromatography may be used as a detection technique for biological particles of interest, either directly or as a means of concentrating and filtering a sample. Of particular interest would be reliable methods for detection of Bacillus anthracis, a common weaponized biological agent. In this work we present optical chromatography experiments on bacterial spores which may be environmentally present with B. anthracis spores and interfere with detection.

  16. The radial-velocity revolution

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, R. (Cambridge Univ., Observatories (England))

    1989-09-01

    Instruments and techniques designed for registering the minute Doppler shifts arising from stellar radial velocity are examined. Particular attention is given to the photographic spectrographs, the high-dispersion spectrographs ('digital speedometers'), and the Palomar spectrometer. The principle of using radial-velocity masks is described, and the use of interferometers for radial-velocity measurements is discussed. Results are presented of radial velocity observations for HD 114762, HD 210647, and Epsilon Tauri, together with interpretations of these results.

  17. Radial parallel plate flow with mechanical agitation

    E-print Network

    Crane, Jackson T

    2013-01-01

    Computer processors have significant and rising cooling requirements, with electronics cooling estimated to consume 1% of global energy consumption. An integrated fan heat sink was designed to help alleviate this issue, ...

  18. Efficient simulation of periodically forced reactors with radial gradients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bart A. van de Rotten; Sjoerd M. Verduyn Lunel; Alfred Bliek

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a limited memory iterative method, called the Broyden Rank Reduction method, to simulate periodically forced processes in plug-flow reactors with radial gradients taken into account. The simulation of periodically forced processes in plug-flow reactors leads to the development of partial differential equations that are normally solved in time using dynamical simulation. Depending

  19. Harvesting the radial artery

    PubMed Central

    Osterday, Robert M.; Brodman, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    The radial artery (RA) has emerged as an important arterial graft for coronary bypass surgery. With improving five-year patency rates and increasing uptake, great attention has been focused on the optimal conduit harvesting technique. We herein present our approach to RA harvesting. Prerequisites of a successful harvest include adherence to important anatomical landmarks, protection of the sensory innervation to the volar forearm, and meticulous handling of the RA branches. Regardless of the harvesting methodology chosen, adherence to a “no-touch” technique will optimize the patency and durability of the RA conduit. PMID:23977633

  20. The ARCS radial collimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, M. B.; Niedziela, J. L.; Overbay, M. A.; Abernathy, D. L.

    2015-01-01

    We have designed, installed, and commissioned a scattered beam radial collimator for use at the ARCS Wide Angular Range Chopper Spectrometer at the Spallation Neutron Source. The collimator has been designed to work effectively for thermal and epithermal neutrons and with a range of sample environments. Other design considerations include the accommodation of working within a high vacuum environment and having the ability to quickly install and remove the collimator from the scattered beam. We present here characterization of the collimator's performance and methodologies for its effective use.

  1. Radial Bragg Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheuer, Jacob; Sun, Xiankai

    Circular resonators are promising candidates for a wide range of applications, ranging from optical communication systems through basic research involving highly confined fields and strong photon-atom interactions to biochemical and rotation sensing. The main characteristics of circular resonators are the Q factor, the free spectral range (FSR), and the modal volume, where the last two are primarily determined by the resonator radius. The total internal reflection (TIR) mechanism used for guidance in "conventional" resonators couples these attributes and limits the ability to realize compact devices exhibiting large FSR, small modal volume, and high Q. Recently, a new class of annular resonator, based on a single defect surrounded by radial Bragg reflectors, has been proposed and analyzed. The radial Bragg confinement decouples the modal volume from the Q and paves the way for the realization of compact, low-loss resonators. These properties as well as the unique mode profile of these circular Bragg nanoresonators (CBNRs) and nanolasers (CBNLs) make the devices within this class an excellent tool to realize nanometer scale semiconductor lasers and ultrasensitive detectors, as well as to study nonlinear optics.

  2. Asymmetric Flow Field Flow Fractionation of Aqueous C60 Nanoparticles with Size Determination by Dynamic Light Scattering and Quantification by Liquid Chromatography Atmospheric Pressure Photo-Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    EPA Science Inventory

    A size separation method was developed for aqueous C60 fullerene aggregates (aqu/C60) using asymmetric flow field flow fractionation (AF4) coupled to a dynamic light scattering detector in flow through mode. Surfactants, which are commonly used in AF4, were avoided as they may al...

  3. Is the radial breathing mode really radial? ReferencesConclusions

    E-print Network

    Nabben, Reinhard

    Is the radial breathing mode really radial? ReferencesConclusions [1] Reich, Thomsen, and Maultzsch,0) (14,0) (15,0) (16,0) 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 12 14 16 d·zRBM [Å 2 ] RBM-HEM couplingRBM frequency Force per of Physics, University of Belgrade, POB 368, 11011 Belgrade, Serbia The diameter-dependent radial breathing

  4. Sartobind STIC salt-tolerant membrane chromatography Polishing in antibody production is usually performed on quaternary ammonium (Q) membranes in flow-

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    performed on quaternary ammonium (Q) membranes in flow- through mode, since the overall speed remove contaminants. Sartobind STIC PA (primary amine) anion-exchange membrane overcomes this limitation Sartobind STIC PA membrane is composed of cross-linked, regenerated macroporous cellulose. The primary amine

  5. Confined radial buoyant jet

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, D.J.; Adams, E.

    1983-09-01

    A submerged, negatively buoyant radial jet, discharging horizontally beneath a free surface into water of initially uniform density, was studied experimentally and theoretically. The situation relates to the operation of an ocean thermal energy conversion plant and is an example of buoyancy and confinement offering opposing influences on jet trajectory. For shallow submergence, the jet is attached to the free surface while for large submergence or greater (negative) buoyancy, the jet is detached. An experimental program yielded data on jet trajectory, temperature, velocity and discharge conditions associated with transition between attached and detached regimes. A hysteresis effect was noted as the conditions for attachment and detachment were different. Dimensional analysis yielded a single parameter of primary importance and two parameters of secondary importance in describing jet behavior. An integral jet analysis based on a spreading assumption was successfully adapted to include induced velocity and pressure effects on jet behavior.

  6. Radially truncated galactic discs

    E-print Network

    Richard de Grijs; Michiel Kregel; Karen H. Wesson

    2001-02-02

    We present the first results of a systematic analysis of radially truncated exponential discs for four galaxies of a complete sample of disc-dominated edge-on spiral galaxies. The discs of our sample galaxies are truncated at similar radii on either side of their centres. With possible the exception of the disc of ESO 416-G25, it appears that the truncations in our sample galaxies are closely symmetric, in terms of both their sharpness and the truncation length. However, the truncations occur over a larger region and not as abruptly as found in previous studies. We show that the truncated luminosity distributions of our sample galaxies, if also present in the mass distributions, comfortably meet the requirements for longevity. The formation and maintenance of disc truncations are likely closely related to stability requirements for galactic discs.

  7. Liquid Chromatography in 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, David H.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews trends in liquid chromatography including apparatus, factors affecting efficient separation of a mixture (peak sharpness and speed), simplified problem-solving, adsorption, bonded phase chromatography, ion selectivity, and size exclusion. The current trend is to control chemical selectivity by the liquid phase. (Author/JN)

  8. A radio-high-performance liquid chromatography dual-flow cell gamma-detection system for on-line radiochemical purity and labeling efficiency determination.

    PubMed

    Lindegren, S; Jensen, H; Jacobsson, L

    2014-04-11

    In this study, a method of determining radiochemical yield and radiochemical purity using radio-HPLC detection employing a dual-flow-cell system is evaluated. The dual-flow cell, consisting of a reference cell and an analytical cell, was constructed from two PEEK capillary coils to fit into the well of a NaI(Tl) detector. The radio-HPLC flow was directed from the injector to the reference cell allowing on-line detection of the total injected sample activity prior to entering the HPLC column. The radioactivity eluted from the column was then detected in the analytical cell. In this way, the sample will act as its own standard, a feature enabling on-line quantification of the processed radioactivity passing through the system. All data were acquired on-line via an analog signal from a rate meter using chromatographic software. The radiochemical yield and recovery could be simply and accurately determined by integration of the peak areas in the chromatogram obtained from the reference and analytical cells using an experimentally determined volume factor to correct for the effect of different cell volumes. PMID:24630054

  9. Sample concentration using optical chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Sean J.; Terray, Alex; Arnold, Jonathan; Leski, Tomasz A.

    2007-03-01

    Optical chromatography is a technique for the separation of particles that capitalizes on the balance between optic and fluidic forces. When microscopic particles in a fluid flow encounter a laser beam propagating in the opposite direction, they are trapped axially along the beam. They are then optically pushed upstream from the laser focal point to rest at a point where the optic and fluidic forces on the particle balance. Because optical and fluid forces are sensitive to differences in the physical and chemical properties of a particle, both coarse and fine separations are possible. We describe how an optical chromatography beam directed into a tailored flow environment, has been adapted to operate as an optical filter for the concentration / bioenrichment of colloidal and biological samples. In this work, the demonstrated ability to concentrate spores of the biowarfare agent, Bacillus anthracis, may have significant impact in the biodefense arena. Application of these techniques and further design of fluidic and optical environments will allow for more specific identification, concentration and separation of many more microscopic particle and biological suspensions.

  10. Radial distribution of thujaplicins in old growth and second growth western red cedar ( Thuja plicata Donn)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Nault

    1988-01-01

    Radial distribution of thujaplicins in western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn) trees of varying ages was studied in order to assess relative decay resistance of their wood. Samples were extracted with ethanol: benzene (1: 2), and the extractives were analyzed for thujaplicin codtent by a new method utilizing capillary gas chromatography of their methylated derivatives. The combined concentration of thujic

  11. Radial systems of dark globules

    SciTech Connect

    Gyul'budagyn, A.L.

    1986-03-01

    The author gives examples of radial systems consisting of dark globules and ''elephant trunks''. Besides already known systems, which contain hot stars at their center, data are given on three radial systems of a new kind, at the center of which there are stars of spectral types later than B. Data are given on 32 globules of radial systems of the association Cep OB2. On the basis of the observational data, it is concluded that at least some of the isolated Bok globules derive from elephant trunks and dark globules forming radial systems around hot stars. It is also suggested that the two molecular clouds situated near the Rosette nebula and possessing velocities differing by ca 20 km/sec from the velocity of the nebula could have been ejected in opposite directions from the center of the nebula. One of these clouds consists of dark globules forming the radial system of the Rosette nebula.

  12. Convection in a rotating, horizontal cylinder with radial and normal gravity forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladeinde, Foluso; Torrance, K. E.

    1991-07-01

    Convection driven by radial and normal gravity forces in a rotating, horizontal cylinder is examined. The cylinder is subjected to uniform volumetric heating and constant-temperature wall cooling. Critical conditions for the radial-gravity rest state correspond to a two-cell flow in the azimuthal plane with radial Rayleigh number = 13738. Finite-amplitude transient and steady flows are obtained with a Galerkin finite element method for Rayleigh number ratios in the range 0.1 to 100. When radial gravity dominates the flows tend to be multicellular and, during transients, initial high-wavenumber forms evolve to lower-wavenumber forms. When normal gravity dominates the flows are bicellular. When radial and normal gravity forces are comparable, in the presence of rotation, complex time-dependent motions occur and the largest rates of fluid circulation and heat transfer are observed.

  13. Basic Liquid Chromatography

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dr. Yuri Kazakevich

    This online textbook offers a variety of information on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Topics covered include instruments, detectors, theory, column selection, and pH effect. This website also contains links to a glossary, useful links, and manufacturer websites.

  14. Special Report: Affinity Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parikh, Indu; Cuatrecasas, Pedro

    1985-01-01

    Describes the nature of affinity chromatography and its use in purifying enzymes, studying cell interactions, exploring hormone receptors, and other areas. The potential the technique may have in treating disease is also considered. (JN)

  15. Basic Liquid Chromatography

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kazakevich, Yuri.

    1996-01-01

    The online textbook, Basic Liquid Chromatography, is provided by Dr. Yuri Kazakevich and Dr. Harold McNair of Seton Hall University. For those needing review or an introduction to the subject, the well designed and easily read document contains a wealth of information. Sections include an introduction, instrumentation, detectors, theory, adsorbents, reversed phase, gel permeation chromatography, column selection, pH effect, and even an online short course.

  16. Use of tube radial distribution of ternary mixed carrier solvents for introduction of absorption reagent for metal ion separation and online detection into capillary.

    PubMed

    Fujinaga, Satoshi; Jinno, Naoya; Hashimoto, Masahiko; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhiko

    2011-10-01

    When ternary mixed solvents consisting of water-hydrophilic/hydrophobic organic solvents are fed into a micro-space under laminar flow conditions, the solvent molecules are radially distributed in the micro-space. The specific fluidic behavior of the solvents is called the "tube radial distribution phenomenon (TRDP)". A novel capillary chromatography method was developed based on the TRDP that creates the inner major and outer minor phases in a tube, where the outer phase acts as a pseudo-stationary phase. This is called "tube radial distribution chromatography (TRDC)". In this study, Chrome Azurol S as an absorption reagent was introduced into the TRDC system for metal ion separation and online detection. The fused-silica capillary tube (75 ?m id and 110 cm length) and water-acetonitrile-ethyl acetate mixture (3:8:4 volume ratio) including 20 mM Chrome Azurol S as a carrier solution were used. Metal ions, i.e. Co(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), Al(III), and Fe(III), as models were injected into the present TRDC system. Characteristic individual absorption characteristics and elution times were obtained as the result of complex formation between the metal ions and Chrome Azurol S in the water-acetonitrile-ethyl acetate mixture solution. The elution times of the metal ions were examined based on their absorption behavior; Co(II), Ni(II), Al(III), Fe(III), and Cu(II) were eluted in this order over the elution times of 4.7-6.8 min. The elution orders were determined from the molar ratios of metal ion to Chrome Azurol S and Irving-Williams series for bivalent metal ions. PMID:21796789

  17. Computing Equilibria on Superpositions of Logarithmic-Radial Potential Fields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyungpil Moon; Jonathan Luntz

    Many distributed manipulation systems are capable of generating planar force fields which act over the entire surface of an object to manipulate it to a stable equilibrium within the field. Passive air flow and other physical phenomena, naturally generate force fields through the linear superposition of logarithmically varying radial potential fields. The main advantage of these fields is that they

  18. Prediction of Equilibria of Lifted Logarithmic Radial Potential Fields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyungpil Moon; Jonathan E. Luntz

    2004-01-01

    Many distributed manipulation systems are capable of generating planar force fields which act over the entire surface of an object to manipulate it to a stable equilibrium within the field. Passive air flow and other physical phenomena naturally generate force fields through the linear superposition of logarithmically varying radial potential fields. The main advantage of these fields is that they

  19. Distributed Manipulation by Superposition of Logarithmic-Radial Potential Fields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyungpil Moon; Jonathan E. Luntz

    2002-01-01

    Many distributed manipulation systems are capable of generating planar force fields which act over the entire surface of an object to manipulate it to a stable equilibrium within the field. Passive air flow fields, previously introduced by the authors generate force fields through the linear superposition of logarithmically varying radial potential fields. The main advantage of these fields Is that

  20. Erosion in radial inflow turbines. Volume 2: Balance of centrifugal and radial drag forces on erosive particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clevenger, W. B., Jr.; Tabakoff, W.

    1974-01-01

    The particle motion in two-dimensional free and forced inward flowing vortices is considered. A particle in such a flow field experiences a balance between the aerodynamic drag forces that tend to drive erosive particles toward the axis, and centrifugal forces that prevent these particles from traveling toward the axis. Results predict that certain sizes of particles will achieve a stable orbit about the turbine axis in the inward flowing free vortex. In this condition, the radial drag force is equal to the centrifugal force. The sizes of particles that will achieve a stable orbit is shown to be related to the gas flow velocity diagram at a particular radius. A second analysis yields a description of particle sizes that will experience a centrifugal force that is greater than the radial component of the aerodynamic drag force for a more general type of particle motion.

  1. Computational analyses for illusory transformations in the optic flow field and heading perception in the presence of moving objects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitsuhiko Hanada

    2005-01-01

    When we see a stimulus of a radial flow field (the target flow) overlapped with a lateral flow field or another radial flow field, the focus of expansion (FOE) of the target radial flow appears to be shifted in a direction. Royden and Conti [(2003). A model using MT-like motion-opponent operators explains an illusory transformation in the optic flow field.

  2. Displacement chromatography of isomers and therapeutic compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Qi; Junxiong Huang

    2002-01-01

    Displacement chromatography was successfully used to separate a binary isomer mixture, epirubicin and doxorubicin, on Kromasil KR100-10 C18 250×4.6 mm I.D. (10 ?m) column. Displacement parameters such as the types and the concentrations of displacer, the composition and the flow rate of the mobile phase were critically examined in this study. The displacer employed was 30 mg\\/ml benzethonium chloride. Loading

  3. Effects of Stream-Associated Upon the Radial Variation of Average Solar Wind Parameters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BRUCE E. GOLDSTEIN; J. R. JOKIPII

    1977-01-01

    The effects of nonlinear fluctuations due to solar wind streams upon radial gradients of average solar wind parameters are computed by using a numerical MHD model for both spherically symmetric time- dependent and corotating equatorial flow approximations. We find significant effects of correlations between fluctuations upon the gradients of azimuthal magnetic field, radial velocity, density, and azimu- thal velocity. The

  4. Use of the Rotating Faraday Cup Method for Diagnostics of Radially Converging Electron Beams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. P. Narkhinov

    2002-01-01

    A method for measurement of the current nonuniformity in a radially converging multibeam emitter system is described. The device implementing this method contains a rotary Faraday cup coaxial with a radially converging electron flow. The nonuniformity of the experimentally measured azimuthal current distribution over the periphery a circle of 140 mm in diameter was 0.05.

  5. Initial experiments using radial foils on the Cornell Beam Research Accelerator pulsed power generator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P.-A. Gourdain; I. C. Blesener; J. B. Greenly; D. A. Hammer; P. F. Knapp; B. R. Kusse; P. C. Schrafel

    2010-01-01

    A novel technique involving radial foil explosions can produce high energy density plasmas. A current flows radially inward in a 5 mum thin aluminum foil from a circular anode, which contacts the foil on its outer rim, to the cathode, which connects to the foil at its geometrical center. When using small ``pin'' cathodes (~1 mm in diameter) on a

  6. Initial experiments using radial foils on the Cornell Beam Research Accelerator pulsed power generator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P.-A. Gourdain; I. C. Blesener; J. B. Greenly; D. A. Hammer; P. F. Knapp; B. R. Kusse; P. C. Schrafel

    2010-01-01

    A novel technique involving radial foil explosions can produce high energy density plasmas. A current flows radially inward in a 5 ?m thin aluminum foil from a circular anode, which contacts the foil on its outer rim, to the cathode, which connects to the foil at its geometrical center. When using small “pin” cathodes (?1 mm in diameter) on a

  7. Summary We monitored the radial distribution of sap flux density (v; g H2O m2

    E-print Network

    Teskey, Robert O.

    Summary We monitored the radial distribution of sap flux density (v; g H2O m­2 s­1 ) in the sapwood of the 32-year-old trees was 33.3 cm. For all trees, the radial distribution of sap flow in the base of the stem (i.e., radial profile) was Gaussian in shape. Sap flow oc- curred maximally in the outer 4 cm

  8. DNA clearance in chromatography of proteins, exemplified by affinity chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Tauer; A. Buchacher; A. Jungbauer

    1995-01-01

    Complications of DNA clearance in protein chromatography using the conventional methodology of spiking experiments are reported. Protein A affinity chromatography demonstrated this complications in a small scale experiment. A concentrated hybridoma culture supernatant was spiked with DNA extracted from hybridoma cells fed with [3H]thymidine. Protein A affinity chromatography was subsequently carried out. The column effluent was collected in fractions, and

  9. Temperature Programmed Liquid Chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian A. Jones

    2005-01-01

    Temperature programming in liquid chromatography is reviewed with an emphasis on instrumental methods, and emerging techniques. Column formats and stationary phases, both open tubular and packed, along with normal, reversed?phase and water—only mobile phases—are discussed. Attention is given particularly to separations with larger bore columns.

  10. Chapter 26 Affinity Chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marjeta Urh; Dan Simpson; Kate Zhao

    2009-01-01

    Affinity chromatography is one of the most diverse and powerful chromatographic methods for purification of a specific molecule or a group of molecules from complex mixtures. It is based on highly specific biological interactions between two molecules, such as interactions between enzyme and substrate, receptor and ligand, or antibody and antigen. These interactions, which are typically reversible, are used for

  11. Immunoaffinity centrifugal precipitation chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lin Qi; Yoichiro Ito

    2007-01-01

    Purification of proteins based on immunoaffinity has been performed using a solid support coated with antibody against the target proteins. The method requires immobilizing the antibody onto the solid support using protein A or G, and has a risk of adsorptive loss of target proteins onto the solid support. Centrifugal precipitation chromatography has been successfully used to purify enzymes, such

  12. Paper Chromatography with Leaves

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-07-08

    In this activity on page 5 of the PDF, learners use chromatography to separate and identify pigments within various leaves. Learners soak leaf pieces in warmed rubbing alcohol and then dip coffee filter paper in the alcohol, lifting and separating the leaf pigments according to size.

  13. Investigating Chromatography: selecting variables

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nancy Gerber

    This activity is a classroom investigation where students separate pigment in dyes in order to learn about mixtures and solutions. They use chromatography to design and experiment with a single variable to answer a question about which ink will separate the most - has the greatest variety of pigment.

  14. application note Affinity chromatography

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    , and the position of the histidine tag on the protein--were investigated for their effect on purification for purifying a given protein. 1. Purification of six different (His)6 -tagged proteins using different metalapplication note Affinity chromatography an 18-1145-18 AA, 2002-11 · p1 Purification of (His)6

  15. High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costanzo, Samuel J.

    1984-01-01

    Clarifies where in the scheme of modern chromatography high performance thin layer chromatography (TLC) fits and why in some situations it is a viable alternative to gas and high performance liquid chromatography. New TLC plates, sample applications, plate development, and instrumental techniques are considered. (JN)

  16. Lattice radial quantization by cubature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuberger, Herbert

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents basic aspects of a program to put field theories quantized in radial coordinates on the lattice. It discusses only scalar fields and uses simple examples to illustrate the strategy when applied to the three-dimensional Ising model.

  17. Reactive-infiltration instability in radial geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grodzki, Piotr; Szymczak, Piotr

    2015-04-01

    A planar dissolution front propagating through a homogeneous porous matrix is unstable with respect to small variations in local permeability; regions of high permeability dissolve faster because of enhanced transport of reactants, which leads to increased rippling of the front. This phenomenon, usually referred to known as reactive-infiltration instability is an important mechanism for pattern development in geology, with a range of morphologies and scales, from cave systems running for hundreds of miles to laboratory acidization on the scale of centimeters. In general, this instability is characterized by two length scales: the diffusive length (D/v) and the reactant penetration length (v/r), where v is the Darcy velocity, D - the diffusion constant and r - the dissolution rate. If the latter scale is much smaller than the former one can adopt the so-called thin front limit, where the interface is treated as a discontinuity in porosity, with a completely dissolved phase on one side and an undissolved phase on the other. Linear stability analysis for this case has been carried out by Chadam et al. [1], and the corresponding dispersion relation shows that long wavelengths are unstable, whereas short wavelengths are stabilized by diffusion. In their derivation, Chadam et al. have considered a linear geometry with a uniform pressure gradient applied along one of the directions. However, in many cases (e.g. in the acidization techniques used in oil industry) the reactive fluids are injected through a well and thus the relevant geometry is radial rather than linear. Motivated by this, we have carried out the linear stability analysis of the reactive-infiltration problem in radial geometry, with the fluid injection at the centre of the system. We stay within the thin-front limit and derive the corresponding dispersion relation, which shows the stable regions for both the long-wavelength and short-wavelength modes, and the unstable region in between. Next, we study how the instability growth rate depends on the Peclet number (Pe) and permeability contrast between the undissolved and dissolved phase (?) and find the region in the (Pe,?) space when the system is absolutely stable. This behaviour is in contrast to the viscous fingering problem in radial geometry [2], where for a given flow rate the front always becomes eventually unstable, after reaching a certain critical radius R. [1] J. Chadam, D. Ho , E. Merino, P. Ortoleva, A. Sen, Reactive In ltration Instabilities, IMA J. Appl. Math. 36, 207-221 (1986) [2] L. Paterson, Radial fingering in a Hele Shaw cell, J. Fluid Mech. 113, 513-529 (1981)

  18. Laser velocimetry study of the flow field in a centrifugal pump with a shrouded impeller 

    E-print Network

    Moran, Michael Kevin

    1994-01-01

    to the pump Power loss calculated from the leakage flow Hydraulic power of the water Stagnation pressure Flow rate through the pump Leakage flow rate Nondimensional flow coefficient Radius of the impeller Radial distance from the impeller eye Beam... fluctuations parallel to the flow Absolute velocity Radial component of the absolute velocity Average radial velocity Radial velocity at the impeller discharge Tangential component of the absolute velocity V~. . z v Tangential velocity at the impeller...

  19. Ion Pairing Chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teresa Cecchi

    2008-01-01

    The present state of ion-pair chromatography (IPC) is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the theoretical modeling of the retention behavior of charged, zwitterionic, and neutral solutes, since the theory provides the generally good understanding of the factors affecting the separation. Although stoichiometric models were credited with the first easy-to-understand demonstration of the retention mechanism of IPC, they were thermodynamic models,

  20. RADIAL STELLAR PULSATION AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL CONVECTION. II. TWO-DIMENSIONAL CONVECTION IN FULL AMPLITUDE RADIAL PULSATION

    SciTech Connect

    Geroux, Chris M.; Deupree, Robert G., E-mail: geroux@astro.ex.ac.uk [Institute for Computational Astrophysics and Department of Astronomy and Physics, Saint Mary's University, Halifax, NS B3H 3C3 (Canada)

    2013-07-10

    We have developed a three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics code to simulate the interaction of convection and radial pulsation in classical variable stars. One key goal is the ability to carry these simulations to full amplitude in order to compare them with observed light curves. Previous multi-dimensional calculations were prevented from reaching full amplitude because of drift in the radial coordinate system, due to the algorithm defining radial movement of the coordinate system during the pulsation cycle. We have removed this difficulty by defining our radial coordinate flow algorithm to require that the mass in a spherical shell remain constant for every time step throughout the pulsation cycle. We have used our new code to perform two-dimensional (2D) simulations of the interaction of radial pulsation and convection. We have made comparisons between light curves from our 2D convective simulations with observed light curves and find that our 2D simulated light curves are better able to match the observed light curve shape near the red edge of the RR Lyrae instability strip than light curves from previous one-dimensional time-dependent convective models.

  1. Cyclic and radial variation of the Doppler power from porcine whole blood.

    PubMed

    Paeng, Dong-Guk; Shung, K Kirk

    2003-06-01

    The Doppler power from porcine blood was observed in a mock flow loop to have cyclic and radial variation during a pulsatile cycle. It was found to decrease with shear rate under steady flow, except near the center of the tube at which other mechanisms such as the effects of radial distribution on the rouleaux might be involved. Under pulsatile flow, the timing of the peak of the Doppler power measured at the center of the tube became closer to the peak systole from 20 to 60 beats/minute (BPM), and the power and velocity peaks coincided at 60 BPM. The overall radial variation of the Doppler power during a whole pulsatile cycle was prominent due to the increase of shear rate from the center to 4.5 mm radial position within a tube of 6.35 mm radius. The cyclic variation of the Doppler power varied with the radial position, being relatively large at the center, reaching a minimum at an intermediate radial position, and increasing again near the wall. The peak of the Doppler power occurred at early systole near the tube wall and lagged the flow closer to the center. The "black hole" phenomenon was observed only over portions of the flow cycle. All these complex variations of the Doppler power across the tube over a cycle are thought to be the result of red cell aggregation, which can be affected by shear rate and acceleration. PMID:12839173

  2. Radial Distribution Function (RDF) schematic

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Iacovella, Christopher R.

    2006-09-28

    Schematic of the Radial Distribution Function (RDF). The radial distribution function, also known as RDF, g(r), or the pair correlation function, is a measure to determine the correlation between particles within a system. Specifically, it is a measure of, on average, the probability of finding a particle at a distance of r away from a given reference particle, relative to that for an ideal gas. The general algorithm involves determining how many particles are within a distance of r and r+dr away from a particle. This general theme is depicted in the schematic, where the red particle is our reference particle, and blue particles are those which are within the circular shell, dotted in red.

  3. Two unusual, radially pulsating stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolec, Rados?aw

    2014-12-01

    We present the results of pulsation modelling of two unusual radially pulsating stars pds and bep. The former variable is the first BL Her-type star showing the period doubling effect. The second variable is a member of well-detached eclipsing binary system and the first member of a new class of variable stars that mimic RR Lyrae pulsation, but have unusually small masses.

  4. Radial quadrature for multiexponential integrands.

    PubMed

    Gill, Peter M W; Chien, Siu-Hung

    2003-04-30

    We introduce a Gaussian quadrature, based on the polynomials that are orthogonal with respect to the weight function ln(2)x on the interval [0, 1], which is suitable for the evaluation of radial integrals. The quadrature is exact if the non-Jacobian part of the integrand is a linear combination of a geometric sequence of exponential functions. We find that the new scheme is a useful alternative to existing approaches, particularly for integrands that exhibit multiexponential behavior. PMID:12666165

  5. Radial segregation in VGF-RMF grown germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellmann, M. P.; Pätzold, O.; Gärtner, G.; Möller, H. J.; Stelter, M.

    2009-03-01

    In this paper experimental results of the radial dopant segregation in Ge:Ga single crystals grown by the vertical gradient freeze technique with a rotating magnetic field are presented. The segregation is analysed on the basis of the carrier concentration measured by means of Hall effect and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. In growth without the field the carrier concentration increases towards the axis, whereas much more uniform radial concentration profiles are found in crystals grown under the influence of the rotating field indicating a pronounced impact of the melt flow on the dopant segregation. Apparently, the accumulation of the Ga solute near the centre of the melt during growth under natural buoyancy is reduced by the electromagnetically induced flow. This phenomenon is discussed with respect to analytical and numerical results published recently.

  6. Nonstandard jump functions for radially symmetric shock waves

    SciTech Connect

    Baty, Roy S.; Tucker, Don H.; Stanescu, Dan

    2008-10-01

    Nonstandard analysis is applied to derive generalized jump functions for radially symmetric, one-dimensional, magnetogasdynamic shock waves. It is assumed that the shock wave jumps occur on infinitesimal intervals, and the jump functions for the physical parameters occur smoothly across these intervals. Locally integrable predistributions of the Heaviside function are used to model the flow variables across a shock wave. The equations of motion expressed in nonconservative form are then applied to derive unambiguous relationships between the jump functions for the physical parameters for two families of self-similar flows. It is shown that the microstructures for these families of radially symmetric, magnetogasdynamic shock waves coincide in a nonstandard sense for a specified density jump function

  7. Property of radially quadratic reflector systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizusawa, M.; Katagi, T.

    1986-01-01

    This report shows that when considered in terms of optical geometry, radially parabolic and radially hyperbolic mirrors used as mirrors for Cassegrain and parabolic antennas possess values similar to common conical horn reflector antennas.

  8. RAVE The RAdial Velocity Experiment

    E-print Network

    Steinmetz, M

    2002-01-01

    RAVE (RAdial Velocity Experiment) is an ambitious program to conduct an all-sky survey (complete to V = 16) to measure the radial velocities, metallicities and abundance ratios of 50 million stars using the 1.2-m UK Schmidt Telescope of the Anglo-Australian Observatory (AAO), together with a northern counterpart, over the period 2006 - 2010. The survey will represent a giant leap forward in our understanding of our own Milky Way galaxy, providing a vast stellar kinematic database three orders of magnitude larger than any other survey proposed for this coming decade. RAVE will offer the first truly representative inventory of stellar radial velocities for all major components of the Galaxy. The survey is made possible by recent technical innovations in multi-fiber spectroscopy; specifically the development of the 'Echidna' concept at the AAO for positioning fibers using piezo-electric ball/spines. A 1m-class Schmidt telescope equipped with an Echidna fiber-optic positioner and suitable spectrograph would be ab...

  9. RAVE: The RAdial Velocity Experiment

    E-print Network

    Matthias Steinmetz; for the RAVE science working group

    2002-11-19

    RAVE (RAdial Velocity Experiment) is an ambitious program to conduct an all-sky survey (complete to V = 16) to measure the radial velocities, metallicities and abundance ratios of 50 million stars using the 1.2-m UK Schmidt Telescope of the Anglo-Australian Observatory (AAO), together with a northern counterpart, over the period 2006 - 2010. The survey will represent a giant leap forward in our understanding of our own Milky Way galaxy, providing a vast stellar kinematic database three orders of magnitude larger than any other survey proposed for this coming decade. RAVE will offer the first truly representative inventory of stellar radial velocities for all major components of the Galaxy. The survey is made possible by recent technical innovations in multi-fiber spectroscopy; specifically the development of the 'Echidna' concept at the AAO for positioning fibers using piezo-electric ball/spines. A 1m-class Schmidt telescope equipped with an Echidna fiber-optic positioner and suitable spectrograph would be able to obtain spectra for over 20 000 stars per clear night. Although the main survey cannot begin until 2006, a key component of the RAVE survey is a pilot program of 100 000 stars which may be carried out using the existing 6dF facility in unscheduled bright time over the period 2003--2005.

  10. Radial Electromagnetic Press for IGNITOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucchiaro, A.; Anzidei, L.; Capriccioli, A.; Celentano, G.; Crescenzi, C.; Gasparotto, M.; Guerrieri, A.; Pizzuto, A.; Palmieri, A.; Rita, C.; Roccella, M.; Coppi, B.

    1998-11-01

    The structural performance of the IGNITOR machine relies upon a combination of both bucking between Toroidal Field Coils (TFCs), Central Solenoid (CS) and the Central Post (CP), and wedging in a well-defined area of the TFCs and of the magnet mechanical structure (called C-Clamps). This requires a pre-loading system to enhance the load bearing capability. Several solutions have been assessed and compared with each other within the operational scenarios and eventually a radial electromagnetic press has been selected as reference(Pizzuto A. et al., ENEA Report IGN/MAC/001/96). The loading system is made up by active coils and passive restraining rings. The radial active press consists of two pairs of coils (200x200mm each), symmetrically located relative to the machine equatorial plane and seating onto the passive rings. The permanent pre--load of the rings is applied through a wedging system with a load of about 120 MN. A radial electromagnetic press has the purpose of modulating the axial pressure on the TFC inner legs during the pulse. Design aspects including stress analysis, manufacturing, assembly and operational scenarios of the selected solution are presented in this paper.

  11. Preparative membrane adsorber chromatography for the isolation of cow milk components

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heiner Splitt; Ina Mackenstedt; Ruth Freitag

    1996-01-01

    Preparative membrane adsorber (MA) chromatography was used to process milk fractions such as the whey and the permeate commonly obtained during lactose production in modern dairies. In MA systems the fluid-dynamic and mass-transfer properties are superior to conventional HPLC or fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) columns. Since the flow resistance caused by the MA stacks is quite low, high throughputs

  12. Radial distribution of bubbles in the cylindrical fluidized-bed

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, S.; Hiraoka, S.; Miho, S.; Yamada, I.

    1984-01-01

    A new steady-state model of freely-bubbling cylindrical fluidized beds has been developed which is sufficiently simple to simulate large scale beds without excessive computing time requirements, such as, those previously proposed unsteadystate models. It has been found that the observed data of radial distributions of bubble flow rate in various size of beds obtained by Werther were able to be described by the calculated results from the model proposed here.

  13. Temperature effect on particle dynamics and erosion in radial inflow turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Tabakoff, W.; Hamed, A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation of the particle dynamics and the resulting blade erosion in radial inflow turbine rotors. In order to determine the influence of the temperature, the computations were performed for cold and hot inlet flow conditions. The results indicate that the trajectories of these small five micron ash particles are quite sensitive to the flow temperatures. In addition, gas turbines operating under hot flow are subjected to higher local blade erosion rates compared to cold flow conditions.

  14. Should the radial artery be used as a bypass graft following radial access coronary angiography

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Lisa M.; Galvin, Sean D.; Javid, Mohamed; Matalanis, George

    2014-01-01

    The radial artery (RA) is often selected as the next conduit of choice following the internal thoracic artery for coronary artery bypass grafting operations (CABG). Radial access coronary angiography (RA-CA) has grown in popularity among cardiologists and has been advocated as the access route of choice for coronary angiography and intervention by many groups. However, sheath insertion and instrumentation may lead to structural and functional damage to the RA, which may preclude its use as a bypass conduit. The increasing use of RA-CA may therefore have an adverse effect on the ability to use the RA as a bypass conduit at subsequent CABG. To review this, a best evidence topic in cardiothoracic surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was: ‘should the radial artery be used as a bypass conduit following radial access coronary angiography’? Altogether, 167 papers were found using the reported search; 11 papers were identified that provided the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these studies were tabulated. Acute RA occlusion occurs in 2.3–30.5% of patients undergoing RA-CA. While a significant number of occluded RA's show recanalization on early follow-up, markers of endothelial function such as intima-media thickening (IMT) and flow-mediated dilatation remain impaired. RA-CA causes structural injury to the RA with evidence of histological injury (including intimal hyperplasia, periarterial tissue/fat necrosis and adventitial inflammation) along with intimal tears and medial dissections evident along the entire length of the vessel. Only one paper directly assesses patency rates of RA's used as bypass grafts following RA-CA finding a significant adverse effect on graft patency (77% patency in RA-CA, compared with 98% in the control group). We recommend avoiding the RA as a bypass conduit if it has previously been used for RA-CA. In situations where conduit options are limited, if possible, the RA should be avoided for at least 3 months following RA-CA and it may be beneficial to assess the RA's patency and flow characteristics with Doppler ultrasound preoperatively. PMID:24254539

  15. Benefits of Radial Build Minimization and Requirements

    E-print Network

    California at San Diego, University of

    Benefits of Radial Build Minimization and Requirements Imposed on ARIES Compact Stellarator Design Benefits of Radial Build Minimization and Requirements Imposed on ARIES Compact Stellarator Design Laila El TOFE Meeting September 14 - 16, 2004 Madison, WI #12;2 · Define radial builds for proposed blanket

  16. Dual entry radial turbine gas generator

    SciTech Connect

    Mowill, R.J.

    1987-02-10

    This patent describes a high efficiency, single spool gas turbine gas generator comprising: (a) compressor means for providing an overall pressure ratio of greater than about 15:1, the compressor means including: (i) a first stage, double-entry centrifugal air compressor having a pair of entrances and a common exit, (ii) a second stage, centrifugal air compressor positioned adjacent to the first stage compressor, the second compressor stage having an entrance that is flow-connected to the first stage common exit and also having a second stage exit, and (iii) a shaft assembly for mechanically interconnecting the first and the second stage for rotation at the same angular speed; (b) combustor means operatively connected to the second stage exit for receiving the compressed air and combusting fuel using the compressed air to generate combustion gases; and (c) a single stage radial inflow turbine having an inlet and an outlet, the turbine being operatively connected directly to the shaft assembly drive and also being flow connected to the combustor means for receiving at the turbine inlet, and partially expanding, the combustion gases.

  17. Immunoaffinity centrifugal precipitation chromatography.

    PubMed

    Qi, Lin; Ito, Yoichiro

    2007-06-01

    Purification of proteins based on immunoaffinity has been performed using a solid support coated with antibody against the target proteins. The method requires immobilizing the antibody onto the solid support using protein A or G, and has a risk of adsorptive loss of target proteins onto the solid support. Centrifugal precipitation chromatography has been successfully used to purify enzymes, such as ketosteroid isomerase and hyaluronidase without the use of solid support. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that immunoaffinity centrifugal precipitation chromatography is capable of isolating an antigen by exploiting antigen-antibody binding. The separation was initiated by filling both channels with 40% saturated ammonium sulfate (AS) of pH 4-4.5 followed by loading 20 microl of human plasma (National Institutes of Health blood bank) mixed with 2 mg of rabbit anti-HSA (human serum protein) antibody (Sigma). Then, the sample channel was eluted with water at 0.03 ml/min and AS channel with 40% AS solution of pH 4-4.5 at 1 ml/min until all non-binding components were eluted. Then, the releasing reagent (50% AS solution containing 0.5 M glycine and 10% ammonium hydroxide at pH 10) was introduced through the AS channel to release the target protein (HSA). The retained antibody was recovered by eluting the sample channel with water at 1 ml/min. A hollow fiber membrane device at the outlet (MicroKros, Spectrum, New Brunswick, NJ, USA) was provided on-line dialysis of the eluent before fractions were collected, so that the fractions could be analyzed by SDS-PAGE (sodium dodecyl sulfate - polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) without further dialysis. The current method does not require immobilizing the antibody onto a matrix, which is used by the conventional immunoaffinity chromatography. This method ensures full recovery of the antigen and antibody, and it may be applied to purification of other proteins. PMID:17416378

  18. HPLC- High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This primer on High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HCLC) gives a brief history and definition of liquid chromatography (LC), LC techniques, and defines both HPLC and UltraPerformance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC Technology). The other chapters of the primer are available on the left side of the page: How Does High Performance Liquid Chromatography Work?, Identifying and Quantitating Compounds, HPLC Column Hardware, and HPLC Separation Modes. An appendix which defines HPLC nomenclature is also available. Each section is pepper with helpful and clear illustrations to help users visualize the processes and procedures presented.

  19. High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The North Carolina Community College System BioNetwork's interactive eLearning tools (IETs) are reusable chunks of training that can be deployed in a variety of courses or training programs. IETs are designed to enhance, not replace hands-on training. Learners are able to enter a hands-on lab experience better prepared and more confident. This particular IET delves into High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and its application in discovering the amount of caffeine in two different drinks. Flash is required to participate in this learning module.

  20. Radial-Electric-Field Piezoelectric Diaphragm Pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G.; Working, Dennis C.; Mossi, Karla; Castro, Nicholas D.; Mane, Pooma

    2009-01-01

    In a recently invented class of piezoelectric diaphragm pumps, the electrode patterns on the piezoelectric diaphragms are configured so that the electric fields in the diaphragms have symmetrical radial (along-the-surface) components in addition to through-the-thickness components. Previously, it was accepted in the piezoelectric-transducer art that in order to produce the out-of-plane bending displacement of a diaphragm needed for pumping, one must make the electric field asymmetrical through the thickness, typically by means of electrodes placed on only one side of the piezoelectric material. In the present invention, electrodes are placed on both sides and patterned so as to produce substantial radial as well as through-the-thickness components. Moreover, unlike in the prior art, the electric field can be symmetrical through the thickness. Tests have shown in a given diaphragm that an electrode configuration according to this invention produces more displacement than does a conventional one-sided electrode pattern. The invention admits of numerous variations characterized by various degrees of complexity. Figure 1 is a simplified depiction of a basic version. As in other piezoelectric diaphragm pumps of similar basic design, the prime mover is a piezoelectric diaphragm. Application of a suitable voltage to the electrodes on the diaphragm causes it to undergo out-of-plane bending. The bending displacement pushes a fluid out of, or pulls the fluid into, a chamber bounded partly by the diaphragm. Also as in other diaphragm pumps in general, check valves ensure that the fluid flows only in through one port and only out through another port.

  1. A Better Method for Filling Pasteur Pipet Chromatography Columns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruekberg, Ben

    2006-01-01

    An alternative method for the preparation of Pasteur pipet chromatography columns is presented that allows the column to be filled with solvent without bubbles and allows greater control of fluid flow while the materials to be separated are added. Students are required to wear gloves and goggles and caution should be used while handling glass…

  2. Displacement chromatography of isomers and therapeutic compounds.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yan; Huang, Junxiong

    2002-06-14

    Displacement chromatography was successfully used to separate a binary isomer mixture, epirubicin and doxorubicin, on Kromasil KR100-10 C18 250x4.6 mm I.D. (10 microm) column. Displacement parameters such as the types and the concentrations of displacer, the composition and the flow rate of the mobile phase were critically examined in this study. The displacer employed was 30 mg/ml benzethonium chloride. Loading of feed at lower initial organic level of mobile phase coupled with displacement at higher organic level was found to give efficient separation. A 30-mg amount of binary isomer mixture was separated on an analytical column. The purification of epirubicin from the closely related impurities present in raw product solution by displacement chromatography was also investigated. The purity of epirubicin required was greater than 99% with a recovery of 60%. The results have indicated that this process made good use of the high feed load, low solvent costs, and high resolution characteristics of displacement chromatography and offered the chromatographic engineer a powerful tool for the preparative purification of therapeutic compounds. PMID:12141564

  3. Development of a thermal and structural analysis procedure for cooled radial turbines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ganesh N. Kumar; Russell G. Deanna

    1988-01-01

    A procedure for computing the rotor temperature and stress distributions in a cooled radial turbine is considered. Existing codes for modeling the external mainstream flow and the internal cooling flow are used to compute boundary conditions for the heat transfer and stress analyses. An inviscid, quasi three-dimensional code computes the external free stream velocity. The external velocity is then used

  4. Design and Numerical Investigation of Advanced Radial Inlet for a Centrifugal Compressor Stage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yunbae Kim; Jay Koch

    The performance of a centrifugal compressor stage can be seriously affected by inlet flow distortions due to an unsatisfactory inlet configuration and the resulting flow structure. In this study, two radial inlets were designed for a centrifugal compressor stage and investigated numerically using a commercially available 3D viscous Navier-Stokes code. The intent of the design was to minimize the total

  5. Hub and shroud fillets influence on the radial compressor stage efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syka, Tomáš; Matas, Richard; K?ourek, Jind?ich

    2015-05-01

    Article describes numerical simulations of an air flow in the radial compressor stage in the NUMECA CFD software. During the tasks evaluating the stepped and straight impeller seals and hub and shroud fillets influence on working characteristics and flow field was observed. Also the CFD results comparison with results from the empiric design tool and the measurement is described.

  6. Precision Radial Velocities with CSHELL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crockett, Christopher J.; Mahmud, Naved I.; Prato, L.; Johns-Krull, Christopher M.; Jaffe, Daniel T.; Beichman, Charles A.

    2011-07-01

    Radial velocity (RV) identification of extrasolar planets has historically been dominated by optical surveys. Interest in expanding exoplanet searches to M dwarfs and young stars, however, has motivated a push to improve the precision of near-infrared RV techniques. We present our methodology for achieving 58 m s-1 precision in the K band on the M0 dwarf GJ 281 using the CSHELL spectrograph at the 3 m NASA Infrared Telescope Facility. We also demonstrate our ability to recover the known 4 M JUP exoplanet Gl 86 b and discuss the implications for success in detecting planets around 1-3 Myr old T Tauri stars.

  7. PRECISION RADIAL VELOCITIES WITH CSHELL

    SciTech Connect

    Crockett, Christopher J.; Prato, L. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 W Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Mahmud, Naved I.; Johns-Krull, Christopher M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, MS-108, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Jaffe, Daniel T. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, R.L. Moore Hall, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Beichman, Charles A., E-mail: crockett@lowell.edu, E-mail: lprato@lowell.edu, E-mail: naved@rice.edu, E-mail: cmj@rice.edu, E-mail: dtj@astro.as.utexas.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2011-07-10

    Radial velocity (RV) identification of extrasolar planets has historically been dominated by optical surveys. Interest in expanding exoplanet searches to M dwarfs and young stars, however, has motivated a push to improve the precision of near-infrared RV techniques. We present our methodology for achieving 58 m s{sup -1} precision in the K band on the M0 dwarf GJ 281 using the CSHELL spectrograph at the 3 m NASA Infrared Telescope Facility. We also demonstrate our ability to recover the known 4 M{sub JUP} exoplanet Gl 86 b and discuss the implications for success in detecting planets around 1-3 Myr old T Tauri stars.

  8. Magnetic Resonance Microimaging and Numerical Simulations of Velocity Fields Inside Enlarged Flow Cells Used for Coupled NMR Microseparations

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaofeng; Webb, Andrew G.

    2009-01-01

    The coupling of various chemical microseparation methods with small-scale NMR detection is a growing area in analytical chemistry. The formation of enlarged flow cells within the active volume of the NMR detector can significantly increase the coil filling factor and hence the signal-to-noise ratio of the NMR spectra. However, flow cells can also lead to deterioration of the separation efficiency due to the development of complex flow patterns, the form of which depend on the particular geometry of the flow cell and the flow rate used. In this study, we investigated the flow characteristics in different flow cell geometries relevant to the coupling of capillary liquid chromatography and NMR. Computational fluid dynamics was used to simulate fluid flow inside flow cells with a volume of ~ 1 µL. Magnetic resonance microimaging was used to measure experimentally the velocity fields inside these flow cells. The results showed good agreement between experiment and simulation and demonstrated that a relatively gradual expansion and contraction is necessary to avoid areas of weak recirculation and strong radial velocities, both of which can potentially compromise separation efficiency. PMID:15732916

  9. Efficiency in supercritical fluid chromatography with different superficially porous and fully porous particles ODS bonded phases.

    PubMed

    Lesellier, E

    2012-03-01

    The chromatographic efficiency, in terms of plate number per second, was dramatically improved by the introduction of sub-two microns particles with ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC). On the other hand, the recent development of superficially porous particles, called core-shell or fused-core particles, appears to allow the achievement of the same efficiency performances at higher speed without high pressure drops. CO?-based mobile phases exhibiting much lower viscosities than aqueous based mobile phases allow better theoretical efficiencies, even with 3-5 ?m particles, but with relative low pressure drops. They also allow much higher flow rates or much longer columns while using conventional instruments capable to operate below 400 bar. Moreover, the use of superficially porous particles in SFC could enhance the chromatographic performances even more. The kinetic behavior of ODS phases bonded on these particles was studied, with varied flow rates, outlet (and obviously inlet) pressures, temperatures, by using a homologous series (alkylbenzenes) with 10% modifier (methanol or acetonitrile) in the carbon dioxide mobile phase. Results were also compared with classical fully porous particles, having different sizes, from 2.5 to 5 ?m. Superior efficiency (N) and reduced h were obtained with these new ODS-bonded particles in regards to classical ones, showing their great interest for use in SFC. However, surprising behavior were noticed, i.e. the increase of the theoretical plate number vs. the increase of the chain length of the compounds. This behavior, opposite to the one classically reported vs. the retention factor, was not depending on the outlet pressure, but on the flow rate and the temperature changes. The lower radial trans-column diffusion on this particle types could explain these results. This diffusion reduction with these ODS-bonded superficially porous particles seems to decrease with the increase of the residence time of compounds. PMID:22192562

  10. The Ignitor Radial Press System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capriccioli, A.; Celentano, G.; Cucchiaro, A.; Gasparotto, M.; Rita, C.; Roccella, M.; Bianchi, A.

    1999-11-01

    A radial press system is employed to resist the high electromagnetic forces in the Ignitor machine. A permanent pre-load of about 190 MN is applied by retaining rings, while an active press modulates the axial pressure on the Toroidal Field Coils inner legs during the pulse current flat-top. Spurious effects at the time of the plasma formation are avoided. An optimal configuration has been deviced, leading to a series of important improvements. Using a radial rather than an axial press facilitates construction, installation, and removal of the central solenoids and central post. Furthermore, the central post can now take up the repulsive forces between the coils, allowing a greater freedom in programming the currents, and hence controlling the plasma shape. A better match can be obtained between the plasma boundary and the first wall, thus reducing the danger of localized heat loads, and the possibility of creating an X-point configuration is introduced. The improved mechanical flexibility of the machine has been achieved because of the reduced loads necessary on the passive bracing rings, while maintaining the wedging of the TF inner legs for both cold and warm machine, and during the pulse.

  11. Novel radial AMTEC cell design

    SciTech Connect

    Mital, R.; Rasmussen, J.R.; Huang, C.; Hundal, R.; Hendricks, T.J.; Sievers, R.K.

    1998-07-01

    Current Series II AMTEC cells (PX-style) are small cylinders with 5--7 BASE tubes per cell, producing 6--7 W{sub e} each. These cells are about 14--18% efficient (electric power out/heat input) and have power densities in the range of 40 W/kg. This paper describes the design and development of a novel radial cell which is capable of higher efficiency (20--30%) and higher power density (125 W/kg). This cell has 96 BASE tubes and is expected to produce about 150 W. The concept was proposed last year when it was observed that the present cylindrical cells, though performing as expected, did not allow a high BASE tube packing density. When the cylindrical cells are arrayed around a heat source, there is a substantial area around the system periphery that does not have power producing BASE tubes and this increases system heat losses. The radial cell design allows a significantly higher BASE tube packing density around the heat source, thereby increasing cell power and minimizing heat loss. This paper describes the structural design, the thermal performance and the manufacturing issues for this novel cell configuration.

  12. Radial forces in a centrifugal compressor; Experimental investigation by using magnetic bearings and static pressure distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reunanen, Arttu; Larjola, Jaakko

    2005-03-01

    The volute of a centrifugal compressor causes a non-uniform pressure distribution which leads to a radial force on the impeller. This force was measured using magnetic bearings. In addition, the radial force was estimated using the static pressure distribution measured at the impeller outlet. The impeller force was found to be the highest at choke, the lowest at the design flow and moderate at stall. The radial force determined from the pressure measurements was only slightly different from the force obtained from the bearing measurements. The rotational speed was seen to affect the force to some extent.

  13. Effect of radial inflow on vortex intensification for a tornado-type wind turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, C.T.; Ide, H.

    1982-09-01

    A new wind vortex turbine, called tornado-type wind turbine, was studied both theoretically and experimentally for the purpose of better understanding the basic nature of a vortex flow and further improvement of its power efficiencies. Analytical solutions were obtained from the Navier-Stokes equations for the velocity distributions along the radial distance. The result demonstrates the important nature of a vortex structure that, in order to intensify a vortex inside the tower, radial inflow must be provided from the side walls. Based upon this concept, the essential contribution of our experimental work was to furnish the radial inflow by utilizing the dynamic head of incoming wind.

  14. Pressurized continuous chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Canon, R.M.; Begovich, J.M.; Sisson, W.G.

    1980-04-01

    A pressurized continuous annular chromatograph has been developed for preparative separations. This device utilizes a slowly rotating annular bed of sorbent material, fixed multiple feed points, and fixed withdrawal locations. Most of our investigations have been performed with a 28-cm-diam column, but a larger model is being designed and constructed. The separation of copper, nickel, and cobalt components from a carbonate solution has been studied in detail. This solution simulates the leach liquor from the Caron process for recovering nickel and cobalt from laterite ores. Use of continuous gradient elution has been demonstrated. Recent studies have investigated several separations, including that of zirconium and hafnium (necessary for the production of zirconium for use in nuclear reactors), on a preparative scale. This system, because of its continuous feed and product withdrawal, its adaptability to large-scale operations, and its ability to separate many components, is expected to make chromatography a more competitive process in the industrial sector.

  15. Eddy Current Minimizing Flow Plug for Use in Flow Conditioning and Flow Metering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, John Dwight (Inventor); Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An eddy-current-minimizing flow plug has an outer radial wall with open flow channels formed between the plug's inlet and outlet. The plug has a central region coupled to the inner surface of the outer radial wall. Each open flow channel includes (i) a first portion originating at the inlet and converging to a location in the plug where convergence is contributed to by changes in thickness of the outer radial wall and divergence of the central region, and (ii) a second portion originating in the plug and diverging to the outlet where divergence is contributed to by changes in thickness of the outer radial wall and convergence of the central region. For at least a portion of the open flow channels, a central axis passing through the first and second portions is non-parallel with respect to the given direction of the flow.

  16. Radial migration in barred galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Matteo, P.; Haywood, M.; Combes, F.; Semelin, B.; Babusiaux, C.; Gomez, A.

    2015-03-01

    In this talk, I will present the result of high resolution numerical simulations of disk galaxies with various bulge/disk ratios evolving isolated, showing that: • Most of migration takes place when the bar strength is high and decreases in the phases of low activity (in agreement with the results by Brunetti et el. 2011, Minchev et al. 2011). • Most of the stars inside the corotation radius (CR) do not migrate in the outer regions, but stay confined in the inner disk, while stars outside CR can migrate either inwards or outwards, diffusing over the whole disk. • Migration is accompanied by significative azimuthal variations in the metallicity distribution, of the order of 0.1 dex for an initial gradient of ~-0.07 dex/kpc. • Boxy bulges are an example of stellar structures whose properties (stellar content, vertical metallicity, [?/Fe] and age gradients, ..) are affected by radial migration (see also Fig. 1).

  17. Fabrication of cooled radial turbine rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, A. N.; Aigret, G. G.; Psichogios, T. P.; Rodgers, C.

    1986-01-01

    A design and fabrication program was conducted to evaluate a unique concept for constructing a cooled, high temperature radial turbine rotor. This concept, called split blade fabrication was developed as an alternative to internal ceramic coring. In this technique, the internal cooling cavity is created without flow dividers or any other detail by a solid (and therefore stronger) ceramic plate which can be more firmly anchored within the casting shell mold than can conventional detailed ceramic cores. Casting is conducted in the conventional manner, except that the finished product, instead of having finished internal cooling passages, is now a split blade. The internal details of the blade are created separately together with a carrier sheet. The inserts are superalloy. Both are produced by essentially the same software such that they are a net fit. The carrier assemblies are loaded into the split blade and the edges sealed by welding. The entire wheel is Hot Isostatic Pressed (HIPed), braze bonding the internal details to the inside of the blades. During this program, two wheels were successfully produced by the split blade fabrication technique.

  18. The effects of secondary flows on turbine blade erosion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ulke; W. T. Rouleau

    1976-01-01

    The effects of secondary flows on the motion of particulates in an axial gas turbine were investigated. The gas flow field was defined by a superposition of the important secondary flows, including the cascade secondary flow, the radial flows, the blade wake flows, and the boundary layers on the primary flow field. The particle trajectories and velocities through the first

  19. Aerodynamic Evaluation of Two Compact Radial-Inflow Turbine Rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonyi, P. Susan; Roelke, Richard J.; Stabe, Roy G.; Nowlin, Brentley C.; Dicicco, Danielle

    1995-01-01

    The aerodynamic evaluation of two highly loaded compact radial turbine rotors was conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center Small Engine Component Test Facility (SECTF). The experimental results were used for proof-of-concept, for modeling radial inflow turbine rotors, and for providing data for code verification. Two rotors were designed to have a shorter axial length, up to a 10-percent reduced diameter, a lighter weight, and equal or higher efficiencies with those of conventional radial inflow turbine rotors. Three configurations were tested: rotor 1, having a 40-percent shorter axial length, with the design stator (stator 1); rotor 1 with the design stator vanes closed down (stator 2); and rotor 2, slightly shorter axially and having higher loading, with stator 2. The stator had 36 vanes and the rotors each had 14 solid blades. Although presently uncooled, the rotor blades were designed for thicknesses which would allow cooling passages to be added. The overall stage performance measurements and the rotor and stator exit flow field surveys were obtained. Measurements of steady state temperatures, pressures, mass flow rates, flow angles, and output power were made at various operating conditions. Data were obtained at corrected speeds of 80, 90, 100, 110, and 120 percent of design over a range of equivalent inlet-to-exit pressure ratios of 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, and 5.0, the maximum pressure ratio achieved. The test showed that the configuration of rotor 1 with stator 1 running at the design pressure ratio produced a flow rate which was 5.6 percent higher than expected. This result indicated the need to close down the stator flow area to reduce the flow. The flow area reduction was accomplished by restaggering the vanes. Rotor 1 was retested with the closed-down stator vanes and achieved the correct mass flow. Rotor 2 was tested only with the restaggered vanes. The test results of the three turbine configurations were nearly identical. Although the measured efficiencies of the compact designs fell 2 to 3 points below the predicted efficiency of 91 percent, they did meet and exceed by up to 2.5 percentage points the efficiences of state-of-the-art turbines found in the literature.

  20. Micro-polarimeter for high performance liquid chromatography

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward E. (Ames, IA); Steenhoek, Larry E. (Wilmington, DE); Woodruff, Steven D. (Morgantown, WV); Kuo, Jeng-Chung (Skokie, IL)

    1985-01-01

    A micro-polarimeter interfaced with a system for high performance liquid chromatography, for quantitatively analyzing micro and trace amounts of optically active organic molecules, particularly carbohydrates. A flow cell with a narrow bore is connected to a high performance liquid chromatography system. Thin, low birefringence cell windows cover opposite ends of the bore. A focused and polarized laser beam is directed along the longitudinal axis of the bore as an eluent containing the organic molecules is pumped through the cell. The beam is modulated by air gap Faraday rotators for phase sensitive detection to enhance the signal to noise ratio. An analyzer records the beams's direction of polarization after it passes through the cell. Calibration of the liquid chromatography system allows determination of the quantity of organic molecules present from a determination of the degree to which the polarized beam is rotated when it passes through the eluent.

  1. Performance of vaned radial diffusers 

    E-print Network

    Piemsomboon, Pornchai

    1983-01-01

    -island diffuser depends to a significant degree on the mechanism of flow at the impeller exit. The lowest loss coefficient was obtained when the vane-island leading edge was at a radius approximately equal to 1. 2 times the diffuser inlet radius and when... with epoxy, as shown in Fig. 15. The holes were carefully drilled perpendicular to the flow surfaces, and all burrs and chips were removed, The static pressure data on the hub and shroud sidewalls of the diffuser are reported in terms of the coefficient...

  2. Automated gas chromatography

    DOEpatents

    Mowry, Curtis D. (Albuquerque, NM); Blair, Dianna S. (Albuquerque, NM); Rodacy, Philip J. (Albuquerque, NM); Reber, Stephen D. (Corrales, NM)

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus and process for the continuous, near real-time monitoring of low-level concentrations of organic compounds in a liquid, and, more particularly, a water stream. A small liquid volume of flow from a liquid process stream containing organic compounds is diverted by an automated process to a heated vaporization capillary where the liquid volume is vaporized to a gas that flows to an automated gas chromatograph separation column to chromatographically separate the organic compounds. Organic compounds are detected and the information transmitted to a control system for use in process control. Concentrations of organic compounds less than one part per million are detected in less than one minute.

  3. Thin layer chromatography.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Marina; Strobel, Scott

    2013-01-01

    In many experiments, it is important to be able to separate a mixture into its chemical components in order to isolate one compound or to assess the purity of the mixture. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) is one of the easiest and most versatile methods of doing this because of its low cost, simplicity, quick development time, high sensitivity, and good reproducibility. TLC is used by many industries and fields of research, including pharmaceutical production, clinical analysis, industrial chemistry, environmental toxicology, food chemistry, water, inorganic, and pesticide analysis, dye purity, cosmetics, plant materials, and herbal analysis. In its simplest form, glass plates are coated with a uniform layer of silica gel (SiO2). The dissolved sample is placed on the plate, and the plate is inserted into a screw-top jar containing the developing solvent and a piece of filter paper. When the solvent has risen to near the top of the plate, the plate is removed, dried, and visualized using UV light. Variations on this protocol are used for different purposes, including pretreating the sample, changing the sorbent, plate material, the solvent system, the development techniques, and method of detection and visualization or by coupling TLC to other techniques. PMID:24182936

  4. Radial force in a bearingless reluctance motor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akira Chiba; M. Azizur Rahman; Tadashi Fukao

    1991-01-01

    A four-pole reluctance synchronous machine with additional two-pole windings was constructed. The additional winding currents produce the radial force to act as a magnetic bearing. Expressions for the machine inductance functions are given. Inductance functions with respect to the eccentric displacement of the rotor were measured. The contribution of these inductances to the radial force production is established

  5. Compatibility of radial, Lorenz and harmonic gauges

    E-print Network

    Elena Magliaro; Claudio Perini; Carlo Rovelli

    2007-05-07

    We observe that the radial gauge can be consistently imposed \\emph{together} with the Lorenz gauge in Maxwell theory, and with the harmonic traceless gauge in linearized general relativity. This simple observation has relevance for some recent developments in quantum gravity where the radial gauge is implicitly utilized.

  6. Radial solitary waves in periodic variable stars

    E-print Network

    Fedor V. Prigara

    2006-09-15

    It is shown that the oscillations of brightness in classical Cepheids and other 'pulsating' variable stars are caused rather by the passing of radial solitary waves through the photosphere of a star, than by pulsations of a star. Radial solitary waves also determine the oscillations of brightness in some other types of periodic variable stars ordinary not considered as pulsating stars.

  7. Radial distribution function analysis of coir fibre

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. N. Mahato; B. K. Mathur; S. Bhattacherjee

    1993-01-01

    Radial distribution analysis of X-ray intensities diffracted by natural coir fibre subjected to various thermal and mercerization treatments has been carried out. Interatomic distances, mean square displacements and interatomic coupling constants have been obtained from the radial distribution curves. As coir fibre finds its various applications in its natural form, its study has been carried out without disturbing the configuration

  8. Quantum distribution functions for radial observables

    E-print Network

    J. Twamley

    1997-01-22

    For quantum systems with two dimensional configuration space we construct a physical radial momentum observable. Rescaling the radius we find the dilatonic degrees of freedom form a Weyl algebra. With this we construct the radial Wigner quasi-probability distribution function.

  9. Software package for radial distribution function calculation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrey S. Krylov; Andrey V. Vvedenskii

    1995-01-01

    A numerical method to calculate radial distribution functions for liquid and amorphous systems from experimental structure factors has been designed. It is based on an expansion of the structure factor into a series of odd Hermite functions. The resulting smoothed radial distribution function is close to the result of the commonly used method of Fourier sine transformation. The method enables,

  10. Fundamental Research on a Radial Face Seal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Pape

    1968-01-01

    Radial face seals generally speaking operate under full hydrodynamic lubricating conditions, but the mechanism of lubrication is not completely understood. In a primarily experimental investigation the author has attempted to establish a description of the basic lubricating mechanism in radial face seals. The experimental apparatus and measuring techniques are briefly described.The experimental results display a high degree of reproducibility. Dynamic

  11. Radial keratotomy associated endothelial degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Moshirfar, Majid; Ollerton, Andrew; Semnani, Rodmehr T; Hsu, Maylon

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To describe the presentation and clinical course of eyes with a history of radial keratotomy (RK) and varying degrees of endothelial degeneration. Methods Retrospective case series were used. Results Thirteen eyes (seven patients) were identified with clinical findings of significant guttata and a prior history of RK. The mean age of presentation for cornea evaluation was 54.3 years (range: 38–72 years), averaging 18.7 years (range: 11–33 years) after RK. The presentation of guttata varied in degree from moderate to severe. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) ranged from 20/25 to 20/80. All patients had a history of bilateral RK, except one patient who did not develop any guttata in the eye without prior RK. No patients reported a family history of Fuch’s Dystrophy. One patient underwent a penetrating keratoplasty in one eye and a Descemet’s stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) in the other eye. Conclusions RK may induce a spectrum of endothelial degeneration. In elderly patients, the findings of guttata may signify comorbid Fuch’s dystrophy in which RK incisions could potentially hasten endothelial decomposition. In these select patients with stable cornea topography and prior RK, DSAEK may successfully treat RK endothelial degeneration. PMID:22347792

  12. Combination radial and thrust magnetic bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumenstock, Kenneth A. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A combination radial and thrust magnetic bearing is disclosed that allows for both radial and thrust axes control of an associated shaft. The combination radial and thrust magnetic bearing comprises a rotor and a stator. The rotor comprises a shaft, and first and second rotor pairs each having respective rotor elements. The stator comprises first and second stator elements and a magnet-sensor disk. In one embodiment, each stator element has a plurality of split-poles and a corresponding plurality of radial force coils and, in another embodiment, each stator element does not require thrust force coils, and radial force coils are replaced by double the plurality of coils serving as an outer member of each split-pole half.

  13. Effect of blade outlet angle on radial thrust of single-blade centrifugal pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishi, Y.; Fukutomi, J.; Fujiwara, R.

    2012-11-01

    Single-blade centrifugal pumps are widely used as sewage pumps. However, a large radial thrust acts on a single blade during pump operation because of the geometrical axial asymmetry of the impeller. This radial thrust causes vibrations of the pump shaft, reducing the service life of bearings and shaft seal devices. Therefore, to ensure pump reliability, it is necessary to quantitatively understand the radial thrust and clarify the behavior and generation mechanism. This study investigated the radial thrust acting on two kinds of single-blade centrifugal impellers having different blade outlet angles by experiments and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. Furthermore, the radial thrust was modeled by a combination of three components, inertia, momentum, and pressure, by applying an unsteady conservation of momentum to this impeller. As a result, the effects of the blade outlet angle on both the radial thrust and the modeled components were clarified. The total head of the impeller with a blade outlet angle of 16 degrees increases more than the impeller with a blade outlet angle of 8 degrees at a large flow rate. In this case, since the static pressure of the circumference of the impeller increases uniformly, the time-averaged value of the radial thrust of both impellers does not change at every flow rate. On the other hand, since the impeller blade loading becomes large, the fluctuation component of the radial thrust of the impeller with the blade outlet angle of 16 degrees increases. If the blade outlet angle increases, the fluctuation component of the inertia component will increase, but the time-averaged value of the inertia component is located near the origin despite changes in the flow rate. The fluctuation component of the momentum component becomes large at all flow rates. Furthermore, although the time-averaged value of the pressure component is almost constant, the fluctuation component of the pressure component becomes large at a large flow rate. In addition to the increase of the fluctuation component of this pressure component, because the fluctuation component of the inertia and momentum components becomes large (as mentioned above), the radial thrust increases at a large flow rate, as is the case for the impeller with a large blade outlet angle.

  14. Affinity chromatography: general methods.

    PubMed

    Urh, Marjeta; Simpson, Dan; Zhao, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Affinity chromatography is one of the most diverse and powerful chromatographic methods for purification of a specific molecule or a group of molecules from complex mixtures. It is based on highly specific biological interactions between two molecules, such as interactions between enzyme and substrate, receptor and ligand, or antibody and antigen. These interactions, which are typically reversible, are used for purification by placing one of the interacting molecules, referred to as affinity ligand, onto a solid matrix to create a stationary phase while the target molecule is in the mobile phase. Successful affinity purification requires a certain degree of knowledge and understanding of the nature of interactions between the target molecule and the ligand to help determine the selection of an appropriate affinity ligand and purification procedure. With the growing popularity of affinity purification, many of the commonly used ligands coupled to affinity matrices are now commercially available and are ready to use. However, in some cases new affinity chromatographic material may need to be developed by coupling the ligand onto the matrix such that the ligand retains specific binding affinity for the molecule of interest. In this chapter, we discuss factors which are important to consider when selecting the ligand, proper attachment chemistry, and the matrix. In recent years, matrices with unique features which overcome some of the limitations of more traditional materials have been developed and these are also described. Affinity purification can provide significant time savings and several hundred-fold or higher purification, but the success depends on the method used. Thus, it is important to optimize the purification protocol to achieve efficient capture and maximum recovery of the target. PMID:19892186

  15. Automated gas chromatography

    DOEpatents

    Mowry, C.D.; Blair, D.S.; Rodacy, P.J.; Reber, S.D.

    1999-07-13

    An apparatus and process for the continuous, near real-time monitoring of low-level concentrations of organic compounds in a liquid, and, more particularly, a water stream. A small liquid volume of flow from a liquid process stream containing organic compounds is diverted by an automated process to a heated vaporization capillary where the liquid volume is vaporized to a gas that flows to an automated gas chromatograph separation column to chromatographically separate the organic compounds. Organic compounds are detected and the information transmitted to a control system for use in process control. Concentrations of organic compounds less than one part per million are detected in less than one minute. 7 figs.

  16. Design of a Polymer-Based Radial Thermoelectric Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, Akanksha; Yee, Shannon

    2014-03-01

    Polymers possess desirable properties such as low thermal conductivity, low cost, and scalable processability as compared to inorganic materials. These characteristics make polymers attractive for thermoelectric (TE) applications. Current examples of polymer thin-film TE devices are limited to traditional rectangular/parallel plate geometries. The focus of this work is to investigate the effect of radial device geometry on TE performance. Each TE module consists of many divided discs of p- and n-type polymers on a thermally insulating circular substrate. In the center of the disc a channel of warm fluid flows as the source of heat, which creates a radial temperature gradient across the TE. Many discs can be stacked and connected electrically in series, thus generating an appreciable output voltage. In this work, analytic thermal and electrical models are developed to present an optimized device geometry for maximum power, maximum efficiency, and low /W scenarios. While the efficiency equation is identical to that for a rectangular geometry, the non-linear resistance of the radial device offers a higher power density and greater thermal insulation than traditional rectangular TEs. Graduate student at Georgia Tech

  17. imagination at work Data file 29-0452-69AA Size exclusion chromatography

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    imagination at work Data file 29-0452-69AA Size exclusion chromatography SuperdexTM 200 Increase 200 Increase columns is based on a high-flow agarose base matrix with good pressure/flow properties.2/300, Superdex 200 Increase 5/150 GL, and Superdex 200 Increase 10/300 GL columns. #12;2 29-0452-69AA

  18. Preparative optical chromatography with external collection and analysis.

    PubMed

    Hart, Sean J; Terray, Alex; Arnold, Jonathan; Leski, Tomasz A

    2008-11-10

    Optical chromatography, used for particle separation, involves loosely focusing a laser into a fluid flowing opposite the direction of laser propagation. When microscopic particles in the flow path encounter this beam they are trapped axially along the beam and are pushed upstream from the laser focal point to rest at a point where the optical and fluid forces on the particle balance. Because optical and fluid forces are sensitive to differences in the physical and chemical properties of a particle, separations are possible. An optical chromatography beam which completely fills a fluid channel can operate as an optically tunable filter for the preparative separation of polymeric/colloidal and biological samples. We show how the technique can be used to separate injected samples containing large numbers of colloids. The power of optical chromatographic separations is illustrated through combination with epi-fluorescence microscopy and sample purification for real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detection of Bacillus anthracis spores. PMID:19581966

  19. Spectral distortion in a radially inhomogeneous cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, R. R.; Maksimova, N. A.

    2013-11-01

    The spectral distortion of the cosmic microwave background blackbody spectrum in a radially inhomogeneous space-time, designed to exactly reproduce a ?CDM expansion history along the past light cone, is shown to exceed the upper bound established by COBE-FIRAS by a factor of approximately 3700. This simple observational test helps uncover a slew of pathological features that lie hidden inside the past light cone, including a radially contracting phase at decoupling and, if followed to its logical extreme, a naked singularity at the radially inhomogeneous big bang.

  20. Scintillating lustre induced by radial fins

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kohske; Fukuda, Haruaki; Watanabe, Katsumi; Ueda, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Radial lines of Ehrenstein patterns induce illusory scintillating lustre in gray disks inserted into the central gaps (scintillating-lustre effect). We report a novel variant of this illusion by replacing the radial lines with white and black radial fins. Both white and gray disks inserted into the central gaps were perceived as scintillating, if the ratio of the black/white fin width were balanced (ie, close to 1.0). Thus, the grayness of the central disk is not a prerequisite for the scintillation. However, the scintillation was drastically reduced when the ratio was imbalanced. Furthermore, the optimal ratio depended on the color of the center disks. PMID:23145270

  1. Sample displacement batch chromatography of proteins.

    PubMed

    Kotasinska, Marta; Richter, Verena; Kwiatkowski, Marcel; Schlüter, Hartmut

    2014-01-01

    In downstream processing large scale chromatography plays an important role. For its development screening experiments followed by pilot plant chromatography are mandatory steps. Here we describe fast, simple, and inexpensive methods for establishing a preparative chromatography for the separation of complex protein mixtures, based on sample displacement batch chromatography. The methods are demonstrated by anion-exchange chromatography of a human plasma protein fraction (Cohn IV-4), including the screening step and scaling up of the chromatography by a factor of 100. The results of the screening experiments and the preparative chromatography are monitored by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. In summary we provide a protocol which should be easily adaptable for the chromatographic large scale purification of other proteins, in the laboratory as well as in industry for commercial manufacturing. For the latter these protocols cover the initial piloting steps for establishing a sample batch chromatography based on packed columns rather than batch chromatography. PMID:24648085

  2. Sample injector for high pressure liquid chromatography

    DOEpatents

    Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Arnold, Don W. (Livermore, CA); Neyer, David W. (Castro Valley, CA)

    2001-01-01

    Apparatus and method for driving a sample, having a well-defined volume, under pressure into a chromatography column. A conventional high pressure sampling valve is replaced by a sample injector composed of a pair of injector components connected in series to a common junction. The injector components are containers of porous dielectric material constructed so as to provide for electroosmotic flow of a sample into the junction. At an appropriate time, a pressure pulse from a high pressure source, that can be an electrokinetic pump, connected to the common junction, drives a portion of the sample, whose size is determined by the dead volume of the common junction, into the chromatographic column for subsequent separation and analysis. The apparatus can be fabricated on a substrate for microanalytical applications.

  3. 14 CFR 71.7 - Bearings, radials, and mileages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bearings, radials, and mileages. 71.7 Section...ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS § 71.7 Bearings, radials, and mileages. All bearings and radials in this part are true and are...

  4. 14 CFR 71.7 - Bearings, radials, and mileages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bearings, radials, and mileages. 71.7 Section...ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS § 71.7 Bearings, radials, and mileages. All bearings and radials in this part are true and are...

  5. 14 CFR 71.7 - Bearings, radials, and mileages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bearings, radials, and mileages. 71.7 Section...ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS § 71.7 Bearings, radials, and mileages. All bearings and radials in this part are true and are...

  6. 14 CFR 71.7 - Bearings, radials, and mileages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bearings, radials, and mileages. 71.7 Section...ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS § 71.7 Bearings, radials, and mileages. All bearings and radials in this part are true and are...

  7. 14 CFR 71.7 - Bearings, radials, and mileages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bearings, radials, and mileages. 71.7 Section...ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS § 71.7 Bearings, radials, and mileages. All bearings and radials in this part are true and are...

  8. Composite flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendroff, Burton

    1992-11-01

    Composite flow models are an extension of the equations for a single compressible gas flows with multiple components, multiple phases, or multiple layers. Examples of such flows include the transport of oil, water, and polymers in porous reservoirs; separation of adsorbable solutes by chromatography; distillation columns; thermoclines in the ocean; multiphase flows in reactors; and separation of DNA fragments by electrophoresis. In many examples local equilibrium assumptions, such as Darcy's law or the Langmuir isotherm assumption, lead to nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws which can be analyzed in terms of Riemann problems and elementary waves. In these cases front tracking algorithms show great promise for resolving very complicated wave interactions, in one dimension. We survey some of the recent developments in this field and present some computational examples. When local equilibrium assumptions are inappropriate, as is the case in many multiphase and multilayer flows, considerable difficulties, both theoretical and numerical, arise from the fact that the equations may be neither hyperbolic nor in conservation form. We give some examples of this and discuss the possibilities for analyzing these flows in terms of elementary and solitary waves.

  9. Experimental evaluation of a translating nozzle sidewall radial turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roelke, Richard J.; Rogo, Casimir

    1987-01-01

    Studies have shown that reduced specific fuel consumption of rotorcraft engines can be achieved with a variable capacity engine. A key component in such an engine in a high-work, high-temperature variable geometry gas generator turbine. An optimization study indicated that a radial turbine with a translating nozzle sidewall could produce high efficiency over a wide range of engine flows but substantiating data were not available. An experimental program with Teledyne CAE, Toledo, Ohio was undertaken to evaluate the moving sidewall concept. A variety of translating nozzle sidewall turbine configurations were evaluated. The effects of nozzle leakage and coolant flows were also investigated. Testing was done in warm air (121 C). The results of the contractual program were summarized.

  10. Variable area radial turbine fabrication and test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogo, C.

    1986-01-01

    A variable area radial turbine with a moveable nozzle sidewall was experimentally evaluated. The turbine was designed for an advanced variable capacity gas turbine rotorcraft engine. The turbine has a mass flow rate of 2.27 kg/sec (5.0 lbs/sec), and a rotor inlet temperature of 1477K (2200 F). Testing was conducted at a reduced inlet temperature, but the aerodynamic parameters and Reynolds numbers were duplicated. Overall performance was obtained for a range of nozzle areas from 50% to 100% of the maximum area. The test program determined the effect on performance of: (1) Moving the hub or shroud sidewall; (2) Sidewall-vane clearance leakage; (3) Vaneless space geometry change; and (4) Nozzle cooling flows. Data were obtained for a range of pressure ratios and speeds and are presented in a number of performance maps.

  11. High-temperature open tubular liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lena M. Nyholm; Per J. R. Sjöberg; Karin E. Markides

    1996-01-01

    A micro heated nebuliser interface was constructed and used for coupling of open tubular liquid chromatography at 150°C to atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry. For the chromatography, 50 ?m I.D. columns were utilised at a flow-rate of 0.1–1.6 ?l\\/min. The efficiency loss due to the MS detector, including the interface, was found to correspond to only 5% for a

  12. High-performance-liquid chromatography of Thermus aquaticus 50S and 30S ribosomal proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Molnar; R. I. Boysen; V. A. Erdmann

    1989-01-01

    Summary  The ribosomal 50S and 30S subunit proteins (r-proteins) ofThermus aquaticus have, for the first time, been characterized by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RPC). To ensure that the best resolution in the RPC was obtained. the elution conditions, such as gradient time, flow rate, temperature, ionic strength of the eluent and the type

  13. Combination of integrated expanded bed adsorption chromatography and countercurrent chromatography for the direct extraction and purification of pseudohypericin and hypericin from St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.).

    PubMed

    Cai, Fanfan; Li, Yang; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Hongyang; Wang, Yuerong; Hu, Ping

    2015-08-01

    St. John's wort has attracted particular attention because of its beneficial effects as an antidepressant, antiviral, and anticancer agent. A method for the combination of integrated expanded bed adsorption chromatography and countercurrent chromatography for the simultaneous extraction and purification of pseudohypericin and hypericin from the herb is presented in this paper. Firstly, the constituents were extracted and directly adsorbed by expanded bed adsorption chromatography under optimal conditions. The stepwise elution was then performed by expanded bed adsorption chromatography that enriched the targets with higher purities and recoveries compared to other methods. Secondly, the eluent fractions from expanded bed adsorption chromatography were further separated by two-step high-speed countercurrent chromatography. A two-step high-speed countercurrent chromatography method with a biphasic solvent system composed of n-hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water with a volume ratio of 1:2:1:2 was performed by stepwise changing the flow rate of the mobile phase. Consequently, 5.6 mg of pseudohypericin and 2.2 mg of hypericin with purities of 95.5 and 95.0%, respectively, were successfully obtained from 40 mg of crude sample. PMID:25964189

  14. Radial transport with perturbed magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazeltine, R. D.

    2015-05-01

    It is pointed out that the viscosity coefficient describing radial transport of toroidal angular momentum is proportional to the second power of the gyro-radius—like the corresponding coefficients for particle and heat transport—regardless of any geometrical symmetry. The observation is widely appreciated, but worth emphasizing because some literature gives the misleading impression that asymmetry can allow radial moment transport in first-order.

  15. Radial averages of astigmatic TEM images.

    PubMed

    Fernando, K Vince

    2008-10-01

    The Contrast Transfer Function (CTF) of an image, which modulates images taken from a Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), is usually determined from the radial average of the power spectrum of the image (Frank, J., Three-dimensional Electron Microscopy of Macromolecular Assemblies, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2006). The CTF is primarily defined by the defocus. If the defocus estimate is accurate enough then it is possible to demodulate the image, which is popularly known as the CTF correction. However, it is known that the radial average is somewhat attenuated if the image is astigmatic (see Fernando, K.V., Fuller, S.D., 2007. Determination of astigmatism in TEM images. Journal of Structural Biology 157, 189-200) but this distortion due to astigmatism has not been fully studied or understood up to now. We have discovered the exact mathematical relationship between the radial averages of TEM images with and without astigmatism. This relationship is determined by a zeroth order Bessel function of the first kind and hence we can exactly quantify this distortion in the radial averages of signal and power spectra of astigmatic images. The argument to this Bessel function is similar to an aberration function (without the spherical aberration term) except that the defocus parameter is replaced by the differences of the defoci in the major and minor axes of astigmatism. The ill effects due this Bessel function are twofold. Since the zeroth order Bessel function is a decaying oscillatory function, it introduces additional zeros to the radial average and it also attenuates the CTF signal in the radial averages. Using our analysis, it is possible to simulate the effects of astigmatism in radial averages by imposing Bessel functions on idealized radial averages of images which are not astigmatic. We validate our theory using astigmatic TEM images. PMID:18662790

  16. Dry-Column Flash Chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shusterman, Alan J.; McDougal, Patrick G.; Glasfeld, Arthur

    1997-10-01

    Dry-column flash chromatography is a safe, powerful, yet easily learned preparative chromatography technique. It has proven useful in research, and an adaptation of the technique for use in large teaching laboratories (general chemistry, organic chemistry) is described here. The student version is similar to vacuum filtration, uses the same compact, readily available glassware, and inexpensive and safe solvents (ethyl acetate and hexane) and adsorbent (Merck grade 60 silica gel). The technique is sufficiently simple and powerful that a beginning student can successfully resolve diastereomers on sample scales ranging from 100 mg to >1 g.

  17. Segmentation of the Left Ventricle from Cardiac MR Images Based on Radial GVF Snake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jia Liang; Gangyi Ding; Yuwei Wu

    2008-01-01

    Segmentation of the left ventricle (LV) is a hot topic in cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) images analysis and still remains challenging. In this paper, we propose a novel method, radial gradient vector flow (GVF) snake, to segment LV automatically. Left ventricle centroid and region of interest (ROI) are located using temporal intensity difference along with Hough transform. Taking the centroid

  18. COMPUTATION OF THE FREE SURFACE FLOW OF A THIN LIQUID FILM AT ZERO AND NORMAL GRAVITY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Rahman; A. Faghri; W. L. Hankey; T. D. Swanson

    1990-01-01

    The results of numerical computations are presented for the free surface flow of a thin liquid film in the presence or absence of a gravitational body force. Three different flow systems were studied: a falling film down a vertical wall, plane and radial film flows under zero gravity, and plane and radial film flows along a horizontal plate in the

  19. Application of radial-splitters for improved wide-angle diffuser performance in a blowdown tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, D. M.; Seshadri, S. N.

    1976-01-01

    Severe flow separation in the 15:1 area-ratio, 38 deg total angle conical diffuser preceding the settling-chamber of an intermittent blowdown wind tunnel was eliminated by the use of a novel radial-splitter arrangement. As a consequence, the operating life of settling-chamber screens was greatly extended and test-section flow steadiness improved, with no penalty in the tunnel running time.

  20. Formation and evolution of radial fracture systems on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parfitt, E. A.; Head, James W.

    1993-01-01

    A survey of approximately 90 percent of the surface of Venus using Magellan data has been carried out to locate all radial fracture systems and to assess their association with other features such as volcanic edifices and coronae. Squyres et al. and Stofan et al. have discussed the association of radial fracture features in relation to coronae features, our approach was to assess the associations of all of the fracture systems. These fracture systems have two broad types of form - some fracture systems are associated with updomed topography, radiate from a point and have relatively uniform fracture lengths while others have a wider range of fracture lengths and radiate from the outer edge of a central caldera. Squyres et al. and Stofan et al. have interpreted both types of feature as reflecting tectonic fracturing resulting from uplift of the surface as a mantle plume impinges upon the crust. While it is true that a number of features are related to uplift and that such uplift will induce stresses consistent with radial fracturing, we explore the possibility that these fractures are not exclusively of tectonic origin. Purely tectonic fracturing will tend to generate a few main fractures/faults along which most of the stresses due to uplift will be accommodated leading to the triple-junction form common for terrestrial updoming. Though this type of feature is observed on Venus (e.g., feature located at 34S86), the majority of radial fracture systems display much more intensive fracturing than this through a full 360 degrees; this is difficult to explain by purely tectonic processes. The association of many of the fractures with radial lava flows leads us to interpret these fractures as reflecting dike emplacement: the form of the fractures being consistent with primarily vertical propagation from the head of a mantle plume. In the case of the second type of fracture system (those radiating from a central caldera), an even stronger case can be made that the fractures are not of tectonic origin. These features are not as commonly associated with updoming of the surface and where they are, the fractures extend out well beyond the edge of the topographic rise - an observation which is not consistent with the fractures being of tectonic uplift origin. Furthermore the fractures have a distribution of lengths (many short, fewer long) which is characteristic of dike swarms, and show direct associations with calderas and lava flows consistent with a volcanic origin. In addition, the longest fractures have a radial pattern only close to the center of the system but bend with distance to align themselves with the regional stress field - this behavior is very difficult to explain on purely tectonic grounds but is a pattern commonly seen for terrestrial dikes. For these reasons, we argue that many, if not the majority, of radial fracture systems found on Venus are the surface reflection of dike swarms, those associated with positive topography reflecting vertical emplacement and those radiating from calderas reflecting lateral propagation.

  1. The kinematic importance of radial neck length in radial head replacement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Van Glabbeek; R. P. van Riet; J. A. Baumfeld; P. G. Neale; S. W. O’Driscoll; B. F. Morrey; K. N. An

    2005-01-01

    Comminuted radial head fractures can be treated with a radial head implant. The effects of lengthening (2.5mm, 5mm) and shortening (2.5mm, 5mm) of the radial neck, were compared to the nominal length in six human upper extremity cadavers. Total varus–valgus laxity and ulnar rotation were recorded. We hypothesized that restoring the exact length of the radius is important to maintain

  2. Thin-Layer and Paper Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherma, Joseph; Fried, Bernard

    1984-01-01

    Reviews literature on chromatography examining: books, reviews, student experiments; chromatographic systems, techniques, apparatus; detecting and identification of separated zones; preparative chromatography and radiochromatography; and applications related to specific materials (such as acids, alcohols, amino acids, antibiotics, enzymes, dyes,…

  3. Chromatography: Are We Getting It Right?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maitland, Pamela D.; Maitland, David P.

    2002-01-01

    Explains the basics of chromatography which is used to demonstrate the separation of plant photosynthetic pigments. Reports the results of an evaluative study that explored textbook errors in explaining how chromatography works. (Contains 13 references.) (Author/YDS)

  4. Illustrating Chromatography with Colorful Proteins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefebvre, Brian G.; Farrell, Stephanie; Dominiak, Richard S.

    2007-01-01

    Advances in biology are prompting new discoveries in the biotechnology, pharmaceutical, medical technology, and chemical industries. This paper presents a detailed description of an anion exchange chromatography experiment using a pair of colorful proteins and summarizes the effect of operating parameters on protein separation. This experiment…

  5. Undergraduate Separations Utilizing Flash Chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, G.

    2000-02-01

    This article describes the procedures used to carry out four flash chromatography experiments: the isolation of the carotenes, chlorophylls and xanthophylls from a spinach extract; the separation of ß-carotene from tetraphenyl cyclopentadienone; the isolation of (+) and (-) carvone from caraway and spearmint oil; and the purification of benzil from benzoin. Apparatus used is nonbreakable, easy to use, and inexpensive.

  6. Phosphopeptide separation using radially aligned titania nanotubes on titanium wire.

    PubMed

    Wijeratne, Aruna B; Wijesundera, Dharshana N; Paulose, Maggie; Ahiabu, Ivy Belinda; Chu, Wei-Kan; Varghese, Oomman K; Greis, Kenneth D

    2015-06-01

    Phosphoproteomic analysis offers a unique view of cellular function and regulation in biological systems by providing global measures of a key cellular regulator in the form of protein phosphorylation. Understanding the phosphorylation changes between normal and diseased cells or tissues offers a window into the mechanism of disease and thus potential targets for therapeutic intervention. A key step in these studies is the enrichment of phosphorylated peptides that are typically separated and analyzed by using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. The mesoporous titania beads/particles (e.g., Titansphere TiO2 beads from GL Sciences Inc., Japan) that are widely used for phosphopeptide enrichment are expensive and offer very limited opportunities for further performance improvement. Titiania nanotube arrays have shown promising characteristics for phosphopeptide separation. Here we report a proof-of-concept study to evaluate the efficacy of nanotubes on Ti-wire for phosphoproteomics research. We used titania nanotubes radially grown on titanium wires as well as the commercial beads to separate phosphopeptides generated from mouse liver complex tissue extracts. Our studies revealed that the nanotubes on metal wire provide comparable efficacy for enrichment of phophopeptides and offer an ease of use advantage versus mesoporous beads, thus having the potential to become a low cost and more practical material/methodology for phosphopeptide enrichment in biological studies. PMID:25941752

  7. Enhanced optical chromatography in a PDMS microfluidic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terray, A.; Arnold, J.; Hart, S. J.

    2005-12-01

    The purely refractive index driven separation of uniformly sized polystyrene, n = 1.59 and poly(methylmethacrylate), n = 1.49 in an optical chromatography system has been enhanced through the incorporation of a custom poly(dimethysiloxane) (PDMS) microfluidic system. A customized channel geometry was used to create separate regions with different linear flow velocities tailored to the specific application. These separate flow regions were then used to expose the entities in the separation to different linear flow velocities thus enhancing their separation relative to the same separation in a constant velocity flow environment. A microbiological sample containing spores of the biological warfare agent, Bacillus anthracis, and a common environmental interferent, mulberry pollen, was investigated to test the use of tailored velocity regions. These very different samples were analyzed simultaneously only through the use of tailored velocity regions.

  8. Radial interchange motions of plasma filaments

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, O. E.; Bian, N. H.; Fundamenski, W. [Association EURATOM-Risoe National Laboratory, P.O. Box 49, OPL-128 Risoe, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom); EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-15

    Radial convection of isolated filamentary structures due to interchange motions in magnetized plasmas is investigated. Following a basic discussion of vorticity generation, ballooning, and the role of sheaths, a two-field interchange model is studied by means of numerical simulations on a biperiodic domain perpendicular to the magnetic field. It is demonstrated that a blob-like plasma structure develops dipolar vorticity and electrostatic potential fields, resulting in rapid radial acceleration and formation of a steep front and a trailing wake. While the dynamical evolution strongly depends on the amount of collisional diffusion and viscosity, the structure travels a radial distance many times its initial size in all parameter regimes in the absence of sheath dissipation. In the ideal limit, there is an inertial scaling for the maximum radial velocity of isolated filaments. This velocity scales as the acoustic speed times the square root of the structure size relative to the length scale of the magnetic field. The plasma filament eventually decelerates due to mixing and collisional dissipation. Finally, the role of sheath dissipation is investigated. When included in the simulations, it significantly reduces the radial velocity of isolated filaments. The results are discussed in the context of convective transport in scrape-off layer plasmas, comprising both blob-like structures in low confinement modes and edge localized mode filaments in unstable high confinement regimes.

  9. The Usefulness of Proximal Radial Motor Conduction in Acute Compressive Radial Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kun Hyun; Park, Kee-Duk; Chung, Pil-Wook; Moon, Heui-Soo; Kim, Yong Bum; Yoon, Won Tae

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose The objective of this study was to determine diagnostic and prognostic values of proximal radial motor conduction in acute compressive radial neuropathy. Methods Thirty-nine consecutive cases of acute compressive radial neuropathy with radial conduction studies-including stimulation at Erb's point-performed within 14 days from clinical onset were reviewed. The radial conduction data of 39 control subjects were used as reference data. Results Thirty-one men and eight women (age, 45.2±12.7 years, mean±SD) were enrolled. All 33 patients in whom clinical follow-up data were available experienced complete recovery, with a recovery time of 46.8±34.3 days. Partial conduction block was found frequently (17 patients) on radial conduction studies. The decrease in the compound muscle action potential area between the arm and Erb's point was an independent predictor for recovery time. Conclusions Proximal radial motor conduction appears to be a useful method for the early detection and prediction of prognosis of acute compressive radial neuropathy. PMID:25851897

  10. Case report: radial artery occlusion post-radial angiogram in essential thrombocytosis.

    PubMed

    Chow, C L; Mutha, V; Farouque, O

    2015-04-01

    Coronary angiographies that are performed via the radial artery generally have lower bleeding complications, however, patients are at risk of radial artery occlusion, with resultant digital ischaemia. This report describes a case of digital ischaemia after transradial coronary angiography in a patient with essential thrombocytosis. Risk factors for thrombo-occlusive complications, and potential prevention strategies are also explored. PMID:25613239

  11. Compact bypass-flow filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, W. G.; Ulanovsky, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    Annular filter consisting of stacked rings separates particulates from bypass fluid passing through it in radial direction without slowing down main flow across unimpeded flow of fluid through its center. Applications include fluidized bed reactors, equipment for catalyst operations, and water purification.

  12. Dispersion-free radial transmission lines

    DOEpatents

    Caporaso, George J. (Livermore, CA); Nelson, Scott D. (Patterson, CA)

    2011-04-12

    A dispersion-free radial transmission line ("DFRTL") preferably for linear accelerators, having two plane conductors each with a central hole, and an electromagnetically permeable material ("EPM") between the two conductors and surrounding a channel connecting the two holes. At least one of the material parameters of relative magnetic permeability, relative dielectric permittivity, and axial width of the EPM is varied as a function of radius, so that the characteristic impedance of the DFRTL is held substantially constant, and pulse transmission therethrough is substantially dispersion-free. Preferably, the EPM is divided into concentric radial sections, with the varied material parameters held constant in each respective section but stepwise varied between sections as a step function of the radius. The radial widths of the concentric sections are selected so that pulse traversal time across each section is the same, and the varied material parameters of the concentric sections are selected to minimize traversal error.

  13. Manufacturing of Precision Forgings by Radial Forging

    SciTech Connect

    Wallner, S.; Harrer, O.; Buchmayr, B. [Chair of Metal Forming, Department Product Engineering, University of Leoben, Franz Josef Strasse 18, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Hofer, F. [GFM GmbH, Ennser Strasse 14, 4403 Steyr (Austria)

    2011-01-17

    Radial forging is a multi purpose incremental forging process using four tools on the same plane. It is widely used for the forming of tool steels, super alloys as well as titanium- and refractory metals. The range of application goes from reducing the diameters of shafts, tubes, stepped shafts and axels, as well as for creating internal profiles for tubes in Near-Net-Shape and Net-Shape quality. Based on actual development of a weight optimized transmission input shaft, the specific features of radial forging technology is demonstrated. Also a Finite Element Model for the simulation of the process is shown which leads to reduced pre-processing effort and reduced computing time compared to other published simulation methods for radial forging. The finite element model can be applied to quantify the effects of different forging strategies.

  14. Precise Near-Infrared Radial Velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plavchan, Peter; Gao, P.; Bottom, M.; Davison, C.; Mills, S.; Ciardi, D. R.; Brinkworth, C.; Tanner, A. M.; Beichman, C. A.; Catanzarite, J.; Crawford, S.; Wallace, J.; Mennesson, B.; Johnson, J. A.; White, R. J.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; von Braun, K.; Walp, B.; Vasisht, G.; Kane, S. R.; Prato, L. A.; NIRRVs

    2014-01-01

    We present precise radial velocity time-series from a 2.3 micron pilot survey to detect exoplanets around red, low mass, and young stars. We use the CSHELL spectrograph with an isotopic methane absorption gas cell for common optical path relative wavelength calibration at the NASA InfraRed Telescope Facility. We present an overview of our Nelder-Mead simplex optimization pipeline for extracting radial velocities. We will also present first light data at 1.6 microns from a near-infrared fiber scrambler used in tandem with our gas cell and CSHELL at IRTF. The fiber scrambler makes use of non-circular core fibers to stabilize the illumination of the slit and echelle grating against changes in seeing, focus, guiding and other sources of systematic radial velocity noise, complementing the wavelength calibration of a gas cell.

  15. The Stationary Condensation and Radial Outflow of a Liquid Film on a Horizontal Disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolshinskiy, Leonid; Frenkel, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The application of capillary screen liquid acquisition devices to space-based cryogenic propulsion systems is expected to necessitate thermodynamic conditioning in order to stabilize surface tension retention characteristics. The present results have been obtained in the framework of the research of low gravity condensation-flow processes for conditioning cryogenic liquid acquisition devices. The following system is studied: On the top of a subcooled horizontal disk, a liquid film condenses from the ambient saturated vapor. The liquid is forcedly removed at the disk edge, and there is an outward radial flow of the film. Stationary regimes of the flow are uncovered such that (i) the gravity is negligible, being eclipsed by the capillary forces; (ii) the film thickness is everywhere much smaller than the disk radius; and (iii) the slow-flow lubrication approximation is valid. A nonlinear differential equation for the film thickness as a function of the radial coordinate is obtained. The (two-dimensional) fields of velocities, temperature and pressure in the film are explicitly determined by the radial profile of its thickness. The equilibrium is controlled by two parameters: (i) the vapor-disk difference of temperatures and (ii) the liquid exhaust rate. For the flow regimes with a nearly uniform film thickness, the governing equation linearizes, and the film interface is analytically predicted to have a concave-up quartic parabola profile. Thus, perhaps counter-intuitively, the liquid film is thicker at the edge and thinner at the center of the disk.

  16. Development of a thermal and structural analysis procedure for cooled radial turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Ganesh N.; Deanna, Russell G.

    1988-01-01

    A procedure for computing the rotor temperature and stress distributions in a cooled radial turbine is considered. Existing codes for modeling the external mainstream flow and the internal cooling flow are used to compute boundary conditions for the heat transfer and stress analyses. An inviscid, quasi three-dimensional code computes the external free stream velocity. The external velocity is then used in a boundary layer analysis to compute the external heat transfer coefficients. Coolant temperatures are computed by a viscous one-dimensional internal flow code for the momentum and energy equation. These boundary conditions are input to a three-dimensional heat conduction code for calculation of rotor temperatures. The rotor stress distribution may be determined for the given thermal, pressure and centrifugal loading. The procedure is applied to a cooled radial turbine which will be tested at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Representative results from this case are included.

  17. Global Radially Anisotropic Whole-Mantle Structure from Multiple Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, A. M.; Chang, S. J.; Ritsema, J.; van Heijst, H. J.; Woodhouse, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    When detected, seismic anisotropy can potentially be an indicator of mantle flow and thus can help us discriminating different geodynamical processes and competitive thermo-chemical convective models of the Earth's interior. However, the imaging and interpretation of global anisotropy is challenging. For example, Ferreira et al. (2010) reported that a data misfit reduction of only around 2% is obtained when lateral variations in radial anisotropy in global tomographic inversions are included compared to inversions only allowing 1-D variations in anisotropy. This small misfit reduction is comparable to the effect on data misfit of using different crustal corrections, thereby indicating a strong influence of the crust in the models. We discuss new high-resolution (degree 35) inversions for models of 3-D isotropic and radially anisotropic shear-wave velocity in the whole mantle incorporating crustal thickness perturbations as model parameters in the inversions to properly consider crustal effects. We use a massive data set of over 43 million surface-wave and 420,000 body-wave measurements from several published studies with complementary sensitivities to Earth's structure. It includes relatively short period group velocity data down to T~16 s that constrain crustal thickness. We find that the various datasets used are highly complementary, allowing us to achieve good resolution in isotropic structure in the whole mantle and throughout the upper ~1,400 km of the mantle for anisotropic structure. Our images of isotropic structure share common features with previous 3-D S-velocity models, such as high-velocity anomalies beneath cratons and subduction zones. The anisotropic models are consistent with various persistent features in previous regional studies of radial anisotropy and show some peculiar features near subduction zones in the transition zone. We discuss these features and their potential implications, as well as the challenges and outlook for the next generation of global 3-D anisotropy models.

  18. Plasma Signatures of Radial Field Power Dropouts

    SciTech Connect

    Lucek, E.A.; Horbury, T.S.; Balogh, A.; McComas, D.J.

    1998-10-04

    A class of small scale structures, with a near-radial magnetic field and a drop in magnetic field fluctuation power, have recently been identified in the polar solar wind. An earlier study of 24 events, each lasting for 6 hours or more, identified no clear plasma signature. In an extension of that work, radial intervals lasting for 4 hours or more (89 in total), have been used to search for a statistically significant plasma signature. It was found that, despite considerable variations between intervals, there was a small but significant drop, on average, in plasma temperature, density and {beta} during these events.

  19. Aircraft radial-belted tire evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.; Stubbs, Sandy M.; Davis, Pamela A.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is given of the ongoing joint NASA/FAA/Industry Surface Traction And Radial Tire (START) Program being conducted at NASA Langley's Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF). The START Program involves tests using three different tire sizes to evaluate tire rolling resistance, braking, and cornering performance throughout the aircraft ground operational speed range for both dry and wet runway surfaces. Preliminary results from recent 40 x 14 size bias-ply, radial-belted, and H-type aircraft tire tests are discussed. The paper concludes with a summary of the current program status and planned ALDF test schedule.

  20. The radial velocity search for extrasolar planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmillan, Robert S.

    1991-01-01

    Radial velocity measurements are being made to search for planets orbiting stars other than the Sun. The reflex acceleration induced on stars by planets can be sensed by measuring the small, slow changes in the line-of-site velocities of stars. To detect these planetary perturbations, the data series must be made on a uniform instrumental scale for as long as it takes a planet to orbit its star. A spectrometer of extreme stability and unprecedented sensitivity to changes in stellar radial velocities was operated.

  1. Note on radial correlation factors of atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koga, Toshikatsu

    2014-11-01

    A peculiar property is reported for the pth order (2 ? p ? N) radial correlation factor of an N-electron atom (N ? 2). When the pth electron goes away from the nucleus, the correlation factor reduces, apart from the constant unity, to the ratio between the (p ? 1)th order reduced radial densities of the (N ? 1)- and N-electron atoms, where both atoms are considered to be in their non-degenerate ground states. The result implies that an ‘electron annihilation function’ for the reduced densities is defined by a particular case of the correlation factor. A numerical illustration is given for a simple system.

  2. The radial pulsation of AI Aurigae

    E-print Network

    L. L. Kiss; B. A. Skiff

    2001-02-13

    We present an analysis of eleven years of Stromgren by photometry of the red semiregular variable star AI Aurigae. An early period determination of 63.9 days is confirmed by the long-term light curve behaviour. The light curve shows semi-regular changes with a mean period of 65 days reaching an amplitude of 0.6 mag in some cycles. The b-y colour changes perfectly parallel the V light curve, suggesting radial oscillation to be the main reason for the observed variations. We estimate the main characteristics of the star (mass, radius, effective temperature) that suggest radial pulsation in fundamental or first overtone mode.

  3. Ultrasonic scanner for radial and flat panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, R. L.; Hill, E. K. (inventors)

    1973-01-01

    An ultrasonic scanning mechanism is described that scans panels of honeycomb construction or with welded seams. It incorporates a device which by simple adjustment is adapted to scan either a flat panel or a radial panel. The supporting structure takes the form of a pair of spaced rails. An immersion tank is positioned between the rails and below their level. A work holder is mounted in the tank and is adapted to hold the flat or radial panel. A traveling bridge is movable along the rails and a carriage is mounted on the bridge.

  4. Lipidomics by Supercritical Fluid Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Laboureur, Laurent; Ollero, Mario; Touboul, David

    2015-01-01

    This review enlightens the role of supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) in the field of lipid analysis. SFC has been popular in the late 1980s and 1990s before almost disappearing due to the commercial success of liquid chromatography (LC). It is only 20 years later that a regain of interest appeared when new commercial instruments were introduced. As SFC is fully compatible with the injection of extracts in pure organic solvent, this technique is perfectly suitable for lipid analysis and can be coupled with either highly universal (UV or evaporative light scattering) or highly specific (mass spectrometry) detection methods. A short history of the use of supercritical fluids as mobile phase for the separation oflipids will be introduced first. Then, the advantages and drawbacks of SFC are discussed for each class of lipids (fatty acyls, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, sterols, prenols, polyketides) defined by the LIPID MAPS consortium. PMID:26090714

  5. Experimental Characterization of Piezoelectric Radial Field Diaphragms for Fluidic Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, R. G.; Kavli, S. E.; Thomas, R. A., Jr.; Darji, K. J.; Mossi, K. M.

    2004-01-01

    NASA has recently developed a new piezoelectric actuator, the Radial Field Diaphragm or RFD. This actuator uses a radially-directed electric field to generate concentric out-of-plane (Z-axis) motion that allows this packaged device to be used as a pump or valve diaphragm. In order to efficiently use this new active device, experimental determination of pressure, flow rate, mechanical work, power consumption and overall efficiency needs to be determined by actually building a pump. However, without an optimized pump design, it is difficult to assess the quality of the data, as these results are inherent to the actual pump. Hence, separate experiments must be conducted in order to generate independent results to help guide the design criteria and pump quality. This paper focuses on the experiments used to generate the RFD's operational parameters and then compares these results to the experimentally determined results of several types of ball pumps. Also discussed are how errors are inherently introduced into the experiments, the pump design, experimental hardware and their effects on the overall system efficiency.

  6. Forced responses on a radial turbine with nozzle guide vanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yixiong; Yang, Ce; Ma, Chaochen; Lao, DaZhong

    2014-04-01

    Radial turbines with nozzle guide vanes are widely used in various size turbochargers. However, due to the interferences with guide vanes, the blades of impellers are exposed to intense unsteady aerodynamic excitations, which cause blade vibrations and lead to high cycle failures (HCF). Moreover, the harmonic resonance in some frequency regions are unavoidable due to the wide operation conditions. Aiming to achieve a detail insight into vibration characteristics of radial flow turbine, a numerical method based on fluid structure interaction (FSI) is presented. Firstly, the unsteady aerodynamic loads are determined by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). And the fluctuating pressures are transformed from time domain to frequency domain by fast Fourier-transform (FFT). Then, the entire rotor model is adopted to analyze frequencies and mode shapes considering mistuning in finite element (FE) method. Meanwhile, harmonic analyses, applying the pressure fluctuation from CFD, are conducted to investigate the impeller vibration behavior and blade forced response in frequency domain. The prediction of the vibration dynamic stress shows acceptable agreement to the blade actual damage in consistent tendency.

  7. LES of radial wall jets over smooth and rough surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banyassady, Rayhaneh; Piomelli, Ugo

    2013-11-01

    Large-eddy simulations of turbulent radial wall jets were conducted over both smooth and rough surfaces (5 radial wall jets spread faster compared to the plane ones due to expansion in two directions. However, the effects of roughness are similar and mostly confined to the inner layer of the wall jet. Roughness enhances isotropy in this region. The damping of wall normal velocity fluctuations by the wall decreases over the rough wall which increases the penetration height of the wall jet. In the outer layer, normalizing with maximum velocity and wall jet half-height, y1 / 2, can collapse mean velocity and Reynolds stresses profiles. There is no significant structural difference at the same non-dimensional height from the wall (y /y1 / 2) over the smooth and the rough wall. An analysis of the effect of surface roughness on the instantaneous flow structures is also presented.

  8. Principles of Gel Permeation Chromatography

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Principles of Gel Permeation Chromatography presents the principles of gel permeation chromatography (GPC) for students in introductory undergraduate courses of chemistry and biochemistry. These principles are presented in four sections: Introduction, Real Lab, Virtual Lab, and Microscopic Model. The Introduction and Real Lab sections present a brief view of the basic experimental apparatus typically used in laboratory GPC in order to provide a concrete connection of the real process of separation. The basic elements of column chromatography, emphasizing the stationary and mobile phases, are presented in the Introduction, followed by a sequence of pictures and texts describing major steps in GPC analysis in the Real Lab section. The Virtual Lab section is a simulator. Three samples are available for a virtual GPC experiment: sample 1, containing hemoglobin; sample 2, containing methylene blue; and sample 3, containing both methylene blue and hemoglobin. Each sample undergoes a virtual separation run, which is dynamically represented in three ways in the software: a virtual column, the collected fractions, and a virtual chromatogram. This threefold representation allows the simultaneous view of key aspects of the process to demonstrate the correlation between the experimental procedure and the resulting chromatogram.

  9. Hierarchical CaCO3 chromatography: a stationary phase based on biominerals.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kosuke; Oaki, Yuya; Takahashi, Daisuke; Toshima, Kazunobu; Imai, Hiroaki

    2015-03-23

    In biomineralization, acidic macromolecules play important roles for the growth control of crystals through a specific interaction. Inspired by this interaction, we report on an application of the hierarchical structures in CaCO3 biominerals to a stationary phase of chromatography. The separation and purification of acidic small organic molecules are achieved by thin-layer chromatography and flash chromatography using the powder of biominerals as the stationary phase. The unit nanocrystals and their oriented assembly, the hierarchical structure, are suitable for the adsorption site of the target organic molecules and the flow path of the elution solvents, respectively. The separation mode is ascribed to the specific adsorption of the acidic molecules on the crystal face and the coordination of the functional groups to the calcium ions. The results imply that a new family of stationary phase of chromatography can be developed by the fine tuning of hierarchical structures in CaCO3 materials. PMID:25677568

  10. The HI Kinematics of NGC 4013: a Steep and Radially Shallowing Extra-planar Rotational Lag

    E-print Network

    Zschaechner, Laura K

    2015-01-01

    NGC 4013 is a distinctly warped galaxy with evidence of disk-halo activity. Through deep HI observations and modeling we confirm that the HI disk is thin (central exponential scale height of with an upper limit of 4" or 280 pc), but flaring. We detect a vertical gradient in rotation velocity (lag), which shallows radially from a value of -35 +7/-28 km/s/kpc at 1.4' (5.8 kpc), to a value of zero near R_25 (11.2 kpc). Over much of this radial range, the lag is relatively steep. Both the steepness and the radial shallowing are consistent with recent determinations for a number of edge-ons, which have been difficult to explain. We briefly consider the lag measured in NGC 4013 in the context of this larger sample and theoretical models, further illuminating disk-halo flows.

  11. Three-dimensional modelling of radial segregation due to weak convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do-Quang, Minh; Amberg, Gustav; Carlberg, Torbjörn

    2004-09-01

    A comprehensive three-dimensional, time-dependent model of heat, momentum and solute transfer during solidification is carried out to illustrate the influence of weak convection, caused by surface tension forces, on radial dopant segregation occurring in crystal growth under micro-gravity conditions. 3D adaptive finite element method is used in order to simulate the motion and deformation of the solidification interface. The geometry studied is a Bridgman configuration with a partly coated surface. The small slots in the coating gives a free surface in a controlled way, and is varied in order to alter the Marangoni flow. In this study, A comparison is made between the numerical results and the experimental results. A good agreement has been observed for the effective distribution coefficient keff and for the radial segregation ? c'. The radial dopant segregation is affected by weak convection.

  12. ARIES-CS Radial Builds and Compositions

    E-print Network

    everywhere (no shield-only zones). · 1% nuclear heating in LT shield and/or VV. · Shield, VV, and magnet Configuration R = 8.25 m a = 1.85 m #12;08/30/2004 10 Internal VV #12;08/30/2004 11 Flibe/FS Radial Build (Water

  13. Radial velocities of 44 interacting galaxies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. P. Arkhipova; V. L. Afanasev; V. A. Dostal; A. V. Zasov; I. D. Karachentsev; R. I. Noskova; M. Y. Saveleva

    1981-01-01

    The results of measurements of the radial velocities of 44 interacting galaxies are reported, many of which were obtained for the first time. The observations were made from 1977-1979 with the UAGS spectrograph at the principal focus of the 6-m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory. Pertinent data and additional notes are provided for the individual galaxes. It is also

  14. Quantum Interference in Radial Heterostructure Nanowires

    E-print Network

    Choi, Mahn-Soo

    Quantum Interference in Radial Heterostructure Nanowires Minkyung Jung,,X Joon Sung Lee, Woon Song suitable for the study of quantum interference phenomena. Here, we report on experimental observations of an electron result in an interference pattern. As demonstrated already in 1960s, when the two paths enclose

  15. Determining Enzyme Activity by Radial Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Bill D.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses advantages of radial diffusion assay in determining presence of enzyme and/or rough approximation of amount of enzyme activities. Procedures are included for the preparation of starch-agar plates, and the application and determination of enzyme. Techniques using plant materials (homogenates, tissues, ungerminated embryos, and seedlings)…

  16. Extended foil capacitor with radially spoked electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Foster, James C. (Indian Shores, FL)

    1990-01-01

    An extended foil capacitor has a conductive disk electrically connected in oncrushing contact to the extended foil. A conductive paste is placed through spaces between radial spokes on the disk to electrically and mechanically connect the extended foil to the disk.

  17. Scene Identification Using Invariant Radial Feature Descriptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Worthy; Eric Sinzinger

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the challenge of identifying and retrieving related scenes from image databases with a focus on low-level feature descriptor construction. A set of affine covariant regions are identified via a radial segmentation algorithm. Local descriptors are built using two different types of histograms: (i) polar image gradient (PIG) orientation histogram, and (ii) saturation-weighted hue histogram. The combination of

  18. Radial velocities in the globular cluster ? Centauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reijns, R. A.; Seitzer, P.; Arnold, R.; Freeman, K. C.; Ingerson, T.; van den Bosch, R. C. E.; van de Ven, G.; de Zeeuw, P. T.

    2006-01-01

    We have used the ARGUS multi-object spectrometer at the CTIO 4 m Blanco telescope to obtain 2756 radial velocity measurements for 1966 individual stars in the globular cluster ? Centauri brighter than blue photographic magnitude of about 16.5. Of these, 1589 stars are cluster members. A comparison with two independent radial velocity studies, carried out by Suntzeff & Kraft and by Mayor et al., demonstrates that the median error of our measurements is below 2 km s-1 for the stars brighter than B-magnitude 15, which constitute the bulk of the sample. The observed velocity dispersion decreases from about 15 km s-1 in the inner few arcmin to about 6 km s-1 at a radius of 25'. The cluster shows significant rotation, with a maximum amplitude of about 6 km s-1 in the radial zone between 6' and 10'. In a companion paper by van de Ven et al., we correct these radial velocities for the perspective rotation caused by the space motion of the cluster, and combine them with the internal proper motions of nearly 8000 cluster members measured by van Leeuwen et al., to construct a detailed dynamical model of ? Centauri and to measure its distance.

  19. Geometric Derivation of Radial Acceleration Magnitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, David W.; Motz, Lloyd

    1995-01-01

    Standard treatments of uniform circular motion generally employ a combination of geometric and kinematic arguments to obtain the magnitude of radial acceleration. Presents a novel approach to the geometric portion of the derivation that uses the property that vectors can be translated parallel to themselves. (JRH)

  20. Probing polyelectrolyte elasticity using radial distribution function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roya Zandi; Joseph Rudnick; Ramin Golestanian

    2003-01-01

    We study the effect of electrostatic interactions on the distribution function of the end-to-end distance of a single polyelectrolyte chain in the rodlike limit. The extent to which the radial distribution function of a polyelectrolyte is reproduced by that of a wormlike chain with an adjusted persistence length is investigated. Strong evidence is found for a universal scaling formula connecting

  1. Radial distribution function of amorphous carbon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fang Li; Jeffrey S. Lannin

    1990-01-01

    The radial distribution function obtained by neutron diffraction on amorphous carbon films is compared to recent theoretical models. The first-neighbor peak is found to be quite broad for an amorphous semiconductor, in qualitative agreement with the predictions of molecular dynamics. However, the detailed shape of the first two peaks, including contributions in the minimum region, differs from all current models.

  2. Perturbation Correction to the Radial Distribution Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Lado

    1964-01-01

    The effect on the radial distribution function g(r) of adding a small, long-range interaction to a short-range potential is investigated. Two equations are obtained for the corrected g, corresponding to approximations similar to those used in obtaining the Percus-Yevick and convolution hypernetted chain integral equations. The equations relate the \\

  3. Radial velocities of more old open clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friel, Eileen D.; Liu, Tianxing; Janes, Kenneth A.

    1989-12-01

    Moderate-resolution CCD spectra in the Mg b region of red giants in 13 old or metal-poor open clusters were obtained with the kitt Peak 2.1-m telescope. Radial velocities for these giants, measured by cross-correlation techniques, are accurate to 10 km/s. For the six clusters in the sample with previous measurements, the velocities are in good agreement with published values. Results are presented for seven clusters (NGC 1193, NGC 1817, NGC 6819, NGC 7142, Be 21, King 8, IC 166) with no previous radial-velocity measurements. The majority of clusters in the sample, supplemented with ten more clusters older than 1 Gyr which have published velocities, show radial velocities which are consistent with those expected from the reflex of solar motion and simple galactic rotation. A few of the clusters, including the newly measured NGC 1193 and NGC 1817, show surprisingly large radial velocities, indicating significant deviation from the general rotation of the remaining old cluster system.

  4. The interaction between two radial jets 

    E-print Network

    Gruber, Thomas Clifton

    1993-01-01

    Arrays of impinging jets are used in industry for heat and mass transfer processes. A new type of jet was recently developed which could be utilized in such arrays. This jet is the radial jet and it offers the advantages of variable net force...

  5. Swept Inducer Blades With Tandem Radial Slots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meng, Sen Y.

    1995-01-01

    Slanted radial slots at tandem positions along approximate streamlines incorporated into swept inducer blades in turbopump, according to proposal. With suitable design, slots suppress low-frequency oscillations induced by cavitation, without causing excessive loss of inducer head. Slots cut into solid blades by wire electrical-discharge machining.

  6. Operative correction of radial club hand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Lamb; H. Scott; W. L. Lam; W. J. Gillespie; G. Hooper

    1997-01-01

    We have reviewed the clinical and functional results of 21 centralizations for radial club hand in 17 patients, 21 to 31 (mean 27) years after operation. There were 13 associated pollicizations. Although the ulna was always short, no premature fusions of the distal ulnar epiphysis were found. Overall upper limb function was assessed by grip strengths and Moberg and Jebsen

  7. Fracture in Bending, Torsion and Radial Pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Gurney

    1968-01-01

    I HAVE shown1 that glass rods with normally damaged surfaces, and subjected to sustained loading, fracture in equal times when subjected to numerically equal prior principal stresses, in bending, torsion and radial fluid pressure. The term prior stress refers to the stress distribution which exists before any cracking has occurred. I interpreted these results in terms of quasistatic crack growth

  8. The fluid mechanics of coating flows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. J. Ruschak

    1974-01-01

    Coating flows, which are viscous free surface flows, were investigated to obtain analytic results for selected prototypes of actual coating processes. Regular and singular perturbation methods were used. The boundary conditions applicable at a free surface for an incompressible Newtonian fluid are derived for a general orthogonal coordinate system. The radial flow of a liquid down an inclined plane is

  9. Radial Wave Crystals: Radially Periodic Structures from Anisotropic Metamaterials for Engineering Acoustic or Electromagnetic Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrent, Daniel; Sánchez-Dehesa, José

    2009-08-01

    We demonstrate that metamaterials with anisotropic properties can be used to develop a new class of periodic structures that has been named radial wave crystals. They can be sonic or photonic, and wave propagation along the radial directions is obtained through Bloch states like in usual sonic or photonic crystals. The band structure of the proposed structures can be tailored in a large amount to get exciting novel wave phenomena. For example, it is shown that acoustical cavities based on radial sonic crystals can be employed as passive devices for beam forming or dynamically orientated antennas for sound localization.

  10. Experimental Evaluation of a Cooled Radial-inflow Turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tirres, Lizet; Dicicco, L. Danielle; Nowlin, Brent C.

    1993-01-01

    Two 14.4 inch tip diameter rotors were installed and tested in the Small Engines Component Turbine Facility (SECTF) at NASA Lewis Research Center. The rotors, a solid and a cooled version of a radial-inflow turbine, were tested with a 15 vane stat or over a set of rotational speeds ranging from 80 to 120 percent design speed (17,500 to 21,500 rpm). The total-to-total stage pressure ratios ranged from 2.5 to 5.5. The data obtained at the equivalent conditions using the solid version of the rotor are presented with the cooled rotor data. A Reynolds number of 381,000 was maintained for both rotors, whose stages had a design mass flow of 4.0 Ibm/sec, a design work level of 59.61 Btu/lbm, and a design efficiency of 87 percent. The results include mass flow data, turbine torque, turbine exit flow angles, stage efficiency, and rotor inlet and exit surveys.

  11. Identification of new transformation products during enzymatic treatment of tetracycline and erythromycin antibiotics at laboratory scale by an on-line turbulent flow liquid-chromatography coupled to a high resolution mass spectrometer LTQ-Orbitrap.

    PubMed

    Llorca, Marta; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara; Couillerot, Olivier; Panigoni, Karine; de Gunzburg, Jean; Bayer, Sally; Czaja, Rico; Barceló, Damià

    2015-01-01

    This work describes the formation of transformation products (TPs) by the enzymatic degradation at laboratory scale of two highly consumed antibiotics: tetracycline (Tc) and erythromycin (ERY). The analysis of the samples was carried out by a fast and simple method based on the novel configuration of the on-line turbulent flow system coupled to a hybrid linear ion trap - high resolution mass spectrometer. The method was optimized and validated for the complete analysis of ERY, Tc and their transformation products within 10 min without any other sample manipulation. Furthermore, the applicability of the on-line procedure was evaluated for 25 additional antibiotics, covering a wide range of chemical classes in different environmental waters with satisfactory quality parameters. Degradation rates obtained for Tc by laccase enzyme and ERY by EreB esterase enzyme without the presence of mediators were ?78% and ?50%, respectively. Concerning the identification of TPs, three suspected compounds for Tc and five of ERY have been proposed. In the case of Tc, the tentative molecular formulas with errors mass within 2 ppm have been based on the hypothesis of dehydroxylation, (bi)demethylation and oxidation of the rings A and C as major reactions. In contrast, the major TP detected for ERY has been identified as the "dehydration ERY-A", with the same molecular formula of its parent compound. In addition, the evaluation of the antibiotic activity of the samples along the enzymatic treatments showed a decrease around 100% in both cases. PMID:24972175

  12. Performance of a high-work, low-aspect-ratio turbine stator tested with a realistic inlet radial temperature gradient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stabe, Roy G.; Schwab, John R.

    1991-01-01

    A 0.767-scale model of a turbine stator designed for the core of a high-bypass-ratio aircraft engine was tested with uniform inlet conditions and with an inlet radial temperature profile simulating engine conditions. The principal measurements were radial and circumferential surveys of stator-exit total temperature, total pressure, and flow angle. The stator-exit flow field was also computed by using a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver. Other than temperature, there were no apparent differences in performance due to the inlet conditions. The computed results compared quite well with the experimental results.

  13. Wave-Vortex Mode Coupling in Astrophysical Accretion Disks under Combined Radial and Vertical Stratification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salhi, A.; Lehner, T.; Godeferd, F.; Cambon, C.

    2013-07-01

    We examine accretion disk flow under combined radial and vertical stratification utilizing a local Cartesian (or "shearing box") approximation. We investigate both axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric disturbances with the Boussinesq approximation. Under axisymmetric disturbances, a new dispersion relation is derived. It reduces to the Solberg-Hoïland criterion in the case without vertical stratification. It shows that, asymptotically, stable radial and vertical stratification cannot induce any linear instability; Keplerian flow is accordingly stable. Previous investigations strongly suggest that the so-called bypass concept of turbulence (i.e., that fine-tuned disturbances of any inviscid smooth shear flow can reach arbitrarily large transient growth) can also be applied to Keplerian disks. We present an analysis of this process for three-dimensional plane-wave disturbances comoving with the shear flow of a general rotating shear flow under combined stable radial and vertical rotation. We demonstrate that large transient growth occurs for K 2/k 1 Gt 1 and k 3 = 0 or k 1 ~ k 3, where k 1, K 2, and k 3 are the azimuthal, radial, and vertical components of the initial wave vector, respectively. By using a generalized "wave-vortex" decomposition of the disturbance, we show that the large transient energy growth in a Keplerian disk is mainly generated by the transient dynamics of the vortex mode. The analysis of the power spectrum of total (kinetic+potential) energy in the azimuthal or vertical directions shows that the contribution coming from the vortex mode is dominant at large scales, while the contribution coming from the wave mode is important at small scales. These findings may be confirmed by appropriate numerical simulations in the high Reynolds number regime.

  14. WAVE-VORTEX MODE COUPLING IN ASTROPHYSICAL ACCRETION DISKS UNDER COMBINED RADIAL AND VERTICAL STRATIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Salhi, A. [Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, 1060 Tunis (Tunisia); Lehner, T. [LUTH, UMR 8102 CNRS, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, 5 place de Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France); Godeferd, F.; Cambon, C. [Laboratoire de Mecanique des Fluides et d'Acoustique, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, Universite de Lyon, UMR 5509, CNRS, INSA, UCB, F-69134 Ecully Cedex (France)

    2013-07-10

    We examine accretion disk flow under combined radial and vertical stratification utilizing a local Cartesian (or ''shearing box'') approximation. We investigate both axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric disturbances with the Boussinesq approximation. Under axisymmetric disturbances, a new dispersion relation is derived. It reduces to the Solberg-Hoieland criterion in the case without vertical stratification. It shows that, asymptotically, stable radial and vertical stratification cannot induce any linear instability; Keplerian flow is accordingly stable. Previous investigations strongly suggest that the so-called bypass concept of turbulence (i.e., that fine-tuned disturbances of any inviscid smooth shear flow can reach arbitrarily large transient growth) can also be applied to Keplerian disks. We present an analysis of this process for three-dimensional plane-wave disturbances comoving with the shear flow of a general rotating shear flow under combined stable radial and vertical rotation. We demonstrate that large transient growth occurs for K{sub 2}/k{sub 1} >> 1 and k{sub 3} = 0 or k{sub 1} {approx} k{sub 3}, where k{sub 1}, K{sub 2}, and k{sub 3} are the azimuthal, radial, and vertical components of the initial wave vector, respectively. By using a generalized ''wave-vortex'' decomposition of the disturbance, we show that the large transient energy growth in a Keplerian disk is mainly generated by the transient dynamics of the vortex mode. The analysis of the power spectrum of total (kinetic+potential) energy in the azimuthal or vertical directions shows that the contribution coming from the vortex mode is dominant at large scales, while the contribution coming from the wave mode is important at small scales. These findings may be confirmed by appropriate numerical simulations in the high Reynolds number regime.

  15. Aerodynamically induced radial forces in a centrifugal gas compressor. Part 1: Experimental measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.J.; Flathers, M.B. [Solar Turbines Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Net radial loading arising from asymmetric pressure fields in the volutes of centrifugal pumps during off-design operation is well known and has been studied extensively. In order to achieve a marked improvement in overall efficiency in centrifugal gas compressors, vaneless volute diffusers are matched to specific impellers to yield improved performance over a wide application envelope. As observed in centrifugal pumps, nonuniform pressure distributions that develop during operation above and below the design flow create static radial loads on the rotor. In order to characterize these radial forces, a novel experimental measurement and post-processing technique is employed that yields both the magnitude and direction of the load by measuring the shaft centerline locus in the tilt-pad bearings. The method is applicable to any turbomachinery operating on fluid film radial bearings equipped with proximity probes. The forces are found to be a maximum near surge and increase with higher pressures and speeds. The results are nondimensionalized, allowing the radial loading for different operating conditions to be predicted.

  16. Radial inlet guide vanes for a combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo, Baifang; Simons, Derrick; York, William; Ziminsky, Willy S

    2013-02-12

    A combustor may include an interior flow path therethrough, a number of fuel nozzles in communication with the interior flow path, and an inlet guide vane system positioned about the interior flow path to create a swirled flow therein. The inlet guide vane system may include a number of windows positioned circumferentially around the fuel nozzles. The inlet guide vane system may also include a number of inlet guide vanes positioned circumferentially around the fuel nozzles and adjacent to the windows to create a swirled flow within the interior flow path.

  17. The design of a MSE polarimetry diagnostic for the measurement of radial electric fields on the HSX stellarator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbins, T.; Kumar, S. T. A.; Anderson, D. T.; Anderson, F. S. B.

    2014-10-01

    HSX is a quasi-symmetric stellarator that is designed to reduce neoclassical transport. Neoclassical codes estimate a large positive radial electric field (40-50 kV/m) near the core of the HSX plasma. Impurity ion flow measurements could not resolve this large electric field. A single channel, dual PEM (Photo Elastic Modulators) MSE polarimetry diagnostic has therefore been designed for the HSX stellarator to directly measure the radial electric field near the core of the plasma. The design has been optimized to get a maximum change in polarization angle from a radial electric field with a good spatial resolution. A change in radial electric field as small as 1.5 kV/m can be detected with a careful selection of the sightline. The diagnostic design and initial characterization are presented.

  18. Simple proposal for radial 3D needlets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durastanti, C.; Fantaye, Y.; Hansen, F.; Marinucci, D.; Pesenson, I. Z.

    2014-11-01

    We present here a simple construction of a wavelet system for the three-dimensional ball, which we label radial 3D needlets. The construction envisages a data collection environment in which an observer located at the center of the ball is surrounded by concentric spheres with the same pixelization at different radial distances, for any given resolution. The system is then obtained by weighting the projector operator built on the corresponding set of eigenfunctions and performing a discretization step which turns out to be computationally very convenient. The resulting wavelets can be shown to have very good localization properties in the real and harmonic domain; their implementation is computationally very convenient, and they allow for exact reconstruction as they form a tight frame system. Our theoretical results are supported by an extensive numerical analysis.

  19. Radial velocity eclipse mapping of exoplanets

    E-print Network

    Nikolov, Nikolay

    2015-01-01

    Planetary rotation rates and obliquities provide information regarding the history of planet formation, but have not yet been measured for evolved extrasolar planets. Here we investigate the theoretical and observational perspective of the Rossiter-McLauglin effect during secondary eclipse (RMse) ingress and egress for transiting exoplanets. Near secondary eclipse, when the planet passes behind the parent star, the star sequentially obscures light from the approaching and receding parts of the rotating planetary surface. The temporal block of light emerging from the approaching (blue-shifted) or receding (red-shifted) parts of the planet causes a temporal distortion in the planet's spectral line profiles resulting in an anomaly in the planet's radial velocity curve. We demonstrate that the shape and the ratio of the ingress-to-egress radial velocity amplitudes depends on the planetary rotational rate, axial tilt and impact factor (i.e. sky-projected planet spin-orbital alignment). In addition, line asymmetrie...

  20. Magnetohydrodynamic stability of plasmas with radial motion

    SciTech Connect

    Scholle, E.A. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The stability of a screw-pinch plasma with radial motion is explored. The linear theory of ideal magnetohydrodynamic (NHD) stability for stationary equilibrium has been generalized to include radial motion. This generalization results in the force operator, F, being non-self-adjoint and the widely used energy principle being no longer useful in this case. Because of this, a set of seven complex, first-order, simultaneous ordinary differential equations needs to be solved to determine the stability. The equations are solved subject to appropriate boundary conditions using the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg. The eigenvalues for the set of equations are also complex, with the imaginary part of the eigenvalue corresponding to the exponential growth or decay of the instability. While the method derived can be used for any cylindrical equilibrium profiles, the results will be presented for imploding screw-pinch plasmas.

  1. Magnetohydrodynamic stability of plasmas with radial motion

    SciTech Connect

    Scholle, E.A. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The stability of a screw-pinch plasma with radial motion is explored. The linear theory of ideal magnetohydrodynamic (NHD) stability for stationary equilibrium has been generalized to include radial motion. This generalization results in the force operator, F, being non-self-adjoint and the widely used energy principle being no longer useful in this case. Because of this, a set of seven complex, first-order, simultaneous ordinary differential equations needs to be solved to determine the stability. The equations are solved subject to appropriate boundary conditions using the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg. The eigenvalues for the set of equations are also complex, with the imaginary part of the eigenvalue corresponding to the exponential growth or decay of the instability. While the method derived can be used for any cylindrical equilibrium profiles, the results will be presented for imploding screw-pinch plasmas.

  2. Development of large radial turbine turbochargers

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, K.R.; Hirst, P.; Kay, P. [European Gas Turbines Ltd., Lincoln (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    The use of fully radial turbochargers for medium speed diesel engines have largely been restricted to distillate fuel operation at relatively modest pressure ratios. Pressures on costs per kW have forced the industry to push for increases in rating and range of operation for these machines. The development of a high pressure ratio radial turbocharger with the capability to operate reliably on heavy fuel has become a high priority. This paper discusses the development of a range of such machines to cover engine output of between 500 kW and 1.6 MW. The original design of the first turbocharger in the range, the NAPIER 047, is reviewed together with the development and operational experiences gained to date. These have been incorporated into the latest two turbochargers in the range, the NAPIER 057 and 067. The paper includes descriptions of the means taken to achieve minimum time to market and low cost of manufacture.

  3. Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum with radial anomaly in child.

    PubMed

    Taksande, Amar; Vilhekar, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum (OAVS) or Goldenhar syndrome is a wide spectrum of congenital anomalies that involves structures arising from the first and second branchial arches. It is characterized by a wide spectrum of symptoms and physical features. These abnormalities mainly involve the cheekbones, jaws, mouth, ears, eyes, or vertebrae. Other conditions with ear and/or radial involvement, such as, the Nager syndrome, Holt-Oram syndrome, Radial-renal syndrome, facioauriculoradial dysplasia, Fanconi anemia, and Vertebral, Anal atresia, Cardiac, Trachea, Esophageal, Renal, and Limb (VACTERL) association should be considered for differential diagnosis. Here we report a child who had facial asymmetry, microsomia, microtia, congenital facial nerve palsy, conductive hearing loss, skin tags, iris coloboma, and preaxial polydactyly. PMID:24479055

  4. Steady-State Characteristics of Lithium Isotope Separation by a Circuit of Continuous Displacement Chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Fujine; K. Saito; K. Shiba; T. Itoi

    1982-01-01

    Height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP), which is an important factor to determine separation performance, is experimentally obtained for lithium isotope separation by a circuit of continuous displacement chromatography. The values of HETP are related to the flow rates and concentrations of the displacement reagents. A new equation to estimate HETP is derived and shows good agreement with the

  5. Steady-state characteristics of lithium isotope separation by a circuit of continuous displacement chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Fujine; K. Saito; K. Shiba; T. Itoi

    2009-01-01

    Height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP), which is an important factor to determine separation performance, is experimentally obtained for lithium isotope separation by a circuit of continuous displacement chromatography. The values of HETP are related to the flow rates and concentrations of the displacement reagents. A new equation to estimate HETP is derived and shows good agreement with the

  6. Topics in Chemical Instrumentation--An Introduction to Supercritical Fluid Chromatography: Part 1: Principles and Instrumentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmieri, Margo D.

    1988-01-01

    Identifies the properties and characteristics of supercritical fluids. Discusses the methodology for supercritical fluid chromatography including flow rate, plate height, column efficiency, viscosity, and other factors. Reviews instruments, column types, and elution conditions. Lists supercritical fluid data for 22 compounds, mostly organic. (MVL)

  7. Thin-Layer Chromatography Experiments That Illustrate General Problems in Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederer, M.; Leipzig-Pagani, E.

    1996-01-01

    Describes experiments that illustrate a number of general principles such as pattern identification, displacement chromatography, and salting-out adsorption, plus an experiment that demonstrates that identification by chromatography alone is impossible. Illustrates that chromatography is still possible with quite simple means, notwithstanding the…

  8. Radial compression of picosecond electrical pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Bamber, C.; Donaldson, W.; Juhasz, T.; Kingsley, L.; Melissinos, A.C.

    1987-11-01

    We used 1ps, 1mJ pulses from a Nd:glass laser system to produce kilovolt electrical pulses with rise time of the order of 15ps. The pulses propagated radially between two circular discs resulting in a voltage gain of 2 at the center of the discs as compared to the circumference in qualitative agreement with calculation. Such structures can be used to produce very high gradient accelerating fields. (WRF)

  9. Radial distribution functions of amorphous silicon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Fortner; J. S. Lannin

    1989-01-01

    Substantial changes in the radial distribution function of amorphous Si films have been observed in neutron-diffraction studies. The spectra indicate changes in short-range order associated with an ~11% modification in the bond-angle distribution width. The results allow the first direct comparison of structural and vibrational Raman probes of variations in local order in thin-film amorphous solids. Good agreement is obtained

  10. Perturbation theory for the radial distribution function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. E. Gubbins; W. R. Smith; M. K. Tham; E. W. Tiepel

    1971-01-01

    Perturbation theory is used to consider expansions for the radial distribution function, g2(r), of a fluid with a soft core. We consider the Lennard-Jones (12, 6) potential and divide it into repulsive and attractive regions. In the repulsive region we expand the function exp (?u(r))g2(r) about a hard sphere value. For the first-order contribution of the attractive region we consider

  11. Radial Distribution Functions of Liquid Krypton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashfaq A. Khan

    1964-01-01

    Radial distribution functions g of liquid krypton have been computed at several values of temperature and density from the Percus-Yevick (PY) and the convolution-hypernetted-chain (CHNC) integral equations using two different interaction potentials [the Lennard-Jones (LJ) and Guggenheim-McGlashan (GM)] between the krypton atoms. The computed g's are compared with the neutron diffraction experimental g's of Clayton and Heaton. From the computed

  12. Radial distribution function for hard spheres

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Bravo Yuste; A. Santos

    1991-01-01

    The radial distribution function g(r) provided by the solution of the Percus-Yevick (PY) equation for hard spheres is rederived in terms of the simplest Padé approximant of a function defined in the Laplace space that is consistent with the following physical requirements: g(r) is continuous for r>1, the isothermal compressibility is finite, and the zeroth- and first-order coefficients in the

  13. Radial fretting behaviours of dental ceramics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Zhu; H. Y. Yu; Z. R. Zhou

    2006-01-01

    Radial fretting tests on a Si3N4 ceramics ball opposite to the two dental ceramics flats (Vita VMK95 and Cerec Vita Mark II) have been carried out. The test apparatus was developed from a tension-compression hydraulic machine. Maximum normal load (Fmax) was varied from 100 to 800N with a speed of 6mm\\/min, and the number of cycles from 1 to 105.

  14. Gradient Descent and Radial Basis Functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mercedes Fernández-redondo; Joaquín Torres-sospedra; Carlos Hernández-espinosa

    2006-01-01

    \\u000a In this paper, we present experiments comparing different training algorithms for Radial Basis Functions (RBF) neural networks.\\u000a In particular we compare the classical training which consists of an unsupervised training of centers followed by a supervised\\u000a training of the weights at the output, with the full supervised training by gradient descent proposed recently in same papers.\\u000a We conclude that a

  15. Failure of metal radial head replacement.

    PubMed

    van Riet, R P; Sanchez-Sotelo, J; Morrey, B F

    2010-05-01

    There is little information available at present regarding the mechanisms of failure of modern metallic radial head implants. Between 1998 and 2008, 44 consecutive patients (47 elbows) underwent removal of a failed metallic radial head replacement. In 13 patients (13 elbows) the initial operation had been undertaken within one week of a fracture of the radial head, at one to six weeks in seven patients (seven elbows) and more than six weeks (mean of 2.5 years (2 to 65 months)) in 22 patients (25 elbows). In the remaining two elbows the replacement was inserted for non-traumatic reasons. The most common indication for further surgery was painful loosening (31 elbows). Revision was undertaken for stiffness in 18 elbows, instability in nine, and deep infection in two. There were signs of over-lengthening of the radius in 11 elbows. Degenerative changes were found in all but one. Only three loose implants had been fixed with cement. Instability was not identified in any of the bipolar implants. PMID:20436003

  16. Drying: a comparison of radial jet reattachment and standard in-line jets

    E-print Network

    Habetz, Darren Keith

    1991-01-01

    . , Texas A&M University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Robert H. Page A new concept for application in the industrial drying of moist materials centers on the novel design of a nozzle which produces a Radial Jet Reattachment (RJR). Research previously.... In this research endeavor, RJR nozzles have been compared to the drying industry's common method of air impingement drying, namely, standard In-Line Jets (ILJ), for several different combinations of flow and geometrical parameters. This gives evidence...

  17. Investigation of the axial and radial thrusts in a centrifugal pump

    E-print Network

    Park, Chong Hwan

    1984-01-01

    : Dr. Peter E. Jenkins Experiments have been performed to investigate the axial and radial thrusts in a centrifugal pump. The experiments were done with varying flow rates at two different speeds (1150rpm, 1750rpm), for two different impellers... Calibration Data (Test g2) ------------ 94 4 Pressure Distribution Measurements in a 3" x 4" Pump with Impeller Back-vanes Rotating at 1150 rpm 5 Pressure Distribution Measurements in a 3" x 4" Pump without Impeller Back-vance Rotating at 1150 rpm...

  18. A numerical study of the temperature field in a cooled radial turbine rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamed, A.; Baskharone, E.; Tabakoff, W.

    1977-01-01

    The three dimensional temperature distribution in the cooled rotor of a radial inflow turbine is determined numerically using the finite element method. Through this approach, the complicated geometries of the hot rotor and coolant passage surfaces are handled easily, and the temperatures are determined without loss of accuracy at these convective boundaries. Different cooling techniques with given coolant to primary flow ratios are investigated, and the corresponding rotor temperature fields are presented for comparison.

  19. Improved GVF Based Left Ventricle Segmentation from Cardiac MR Images Using Radial B-Snake Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jia Liang; Yuanquan Wang

    2008-01-01

    Segmentation of the left ventricle (LV) is a hot topic in cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) images analysis and still remains an open issue. In this paper, we propose a novel method, radial B-Snake model based on improved gradient vector flow (GVF), to segment LV automatically. Due to the left ventriclepsilas circle-like shape prior in short-axis view, the region of interest

  20. OPTIMAL DISTRIBUTION OF CENTERS FOR RADIAL BASIS FUNCTION METHODS

    E-print Network

    Iske, Armin

    OPTIMAL DISTRIBUTION OF CENTERS FOR RADIAL BASIS FUNCTION METHODS ARMIN ISKE Abstract. Both the approximation quality and the stability of radial basis function interpolation depend on the distribution' performance. We #12;rst show that for radial basis function interpolation it is desirable to work

  1. ON FOURIER TRANSFORMS OF RADIAL FUNCTIONS AND DISTRIBUTIONS

    E-print Network

    Grafakos, Loukas

    ON FOURIER TRANSFORMS OF RADIAL FUNCTIONS AND DISTRIBUTIONS LOUKAS GRAFAKOS AND GERALD TESCHL analogous results for radial tempered distributions. 1. Introduction The Fourier transform of a function Abstract. We find a formula that relates the Fourier transform of a radial function on Rn with the Fourier

  2. Orthogonal least squares learning algorithm for radial basis function networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Chen; C. F. N. Cowan; P.M. Grant

    1991-01-01

    The radial basis function network offers a viable alternative to the two-layer neural network in many applications of signal processing. A common learning algorithm for radial basis function networks is based on first choosing randomly some data points as radial basis function centers and then using singular-value decomposition to solve for the weights of the network. Such a procedure has

  3. Kinetic behaviour in supercritical fluid chromatography with modified mobile phase for 5 ?m particle size. Part II: Effect of outlet pressure changes.

    PubMed

    Lesellier, E; Fougere, L

    2014-12-19

    In the first part of this series of papers, we have described the efficiency variations observed in sub/supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) for a column filled with 5?m particles, in relation to the flow rate variations, at varied temperatures, from 10 to 60°C, with 5% of methanol as modifier mixed to CO2. A cooling effect due to CO2 depressurisation along the column was reported, which decreased the efficiency at high flow rates (up to 6ml/min) for oven temperatures above 35°C. In the same way as the frictional heating observed in UHPLC, this cooling induces a radial temperature gradient which increases the C term of the efficiency curve. In this second part, we achieved a study on the outlet pressure changes (from 8 to 25MPa) on the chromatographic efficiency in term of equivalent plate number (H). Moreover, because the temperature changes related to the cooling effect also modify the fluid viscosity, i.e. the pressure drop, a specific, and simple, data treatment on inlet pressure values is applied to correlate non linear variations of the pressure drop to temperature changes along the column. This data treatment seems to describe the temperature changes along the column, without using temperature measurement. Two phenomena are observed, the previously described cooling effect due to CO2 depressurisation, but also a frictional warming effect, such as the one reported in UHPLC with sub-2?m particles. The combination of these two effects leads to varied and complex efficiency changes depending on the outlet pressure and the flow rates in SFC. PMID:25464994

  4. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) of Chlorophyll Pigments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Jerry

    1984-01-01

    Background information, list of materials needed, procedures used, and discussion of typical results are provided for an experiment on the thin layer chromatography of chlorophyll pigments. The experiment works well in high school, since the chemicals used are the same as those used in paper chromatography of plant pigments. (JN)

  5. Analysis of essential oils, using capillary chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. N. Paukov; B. A. Rudenko; V. F. Kucherov

    1968-01-01

    1.The possibility of using capillary chromatography for a complete analysis of essential oils without preliminary separation into fractions was demonstrated.2.The relative retainable volumes and Kovach indices of a number of components of the essential oils of fennel, geranium, and coriander were determined.3.All the components of the essential oils of fennel, coriander, and geranium detected in capillary chromatography were identified.

  6. Displacement chromatography as first separating step in online two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry analysis of a complex protein sample--the proteome of neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Trusch, Maria; Tillack, Kati; Kwiatkowski, Marcel; Bertsch, Andreas; Ahrends, Robert; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Martin, Roland; Sospedra, Mireia; Schlüter, Hartmut

    2012-04-01

    Displacement chromatography provides some advantages over elution chromatography such as the opportunity to enrich trace amounts of molecules and to elute molecules in highest concentrations achievable with liquid chromatography. In a previous study we demonstrated that displacement chromatography is a well-suited alternative to gradient elution in an offline two-dimensional (2D-)LC-MS approach for the analysis of proteomes. In this study we present a method for applying displacement chromatography in an online 2D-LC-MS system including a cation exchange (CEX) column and a reversed phase column. We circumvented the problem of determining the sample capacity of the CEX column by repeated injection (pulses) of sample aliquots monitored by an LC-MS analysis of each flow-through fraction of the CEX column. Elution of tryptic peptides from the CEX column was achieved by repeated injection (pulses) of the displacer spermine. Pulsed displacer injections offer the advantage through physical separation of preventing post-column mixing of already separated compounds. As a proof of principle we analyzed the cytosolic proteome of human neutrophils. PMID:22391494

  7. Plasma rotation and the radial electric field during off-axis NBI in the DIII - D tokamak

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Gohil; K. H. Burrell; A. B. Hassam; T. H. Osborne

    1996-01-01

    Experiments have been carried out on the DIII - D tokamak to investigate whether off-axis NBI can: (a) drive significant perpendicular flow to lead to increased suppression of turbulence and improved confinement, and (b) be used to control the radial electric field profile. Measurements of both impurity ion poloidal and toroidal rotation profiles were made using charge exchange recombination spectroscopy.

  8. Plasma rotation and the radial electric field during off-axis NBI in the DIII-D tokamak

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Gohil; K. H. Burrell; T. H. Osborne; A. B. Hassam

    1995-01-01

    Experiments have been carried out on the DIII-D tokamak to investigate whether off-axis NBI can: (a) drive significant perpendicular flow to lead to increased suppression of turbulence and improved confinement, and (b) be used to control the radial electric field profile. Measurements of both impurity ion poloidal and toroidal rotation profiles were made using charge exchange recombination spectroscopy. These experiments

  9. Effect of blade wrap angle on efficiency and noise of small radial fan impellers—A computational and experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheit, C.; Karic, B.; Becker, S.

    2012-02-01

    Radial impellers have several technical applications. Regarding their aerodynamic performance, they are well optimized nowadays, but this is in general not true regarding acoustics. This work was therefore concerned with analyzing the flow structures inside isolated radial impellers together with the far-field sound radiated from them in order to optimize the aerodynamic and acoustic performance. Both numerical and experimental techniques were applied in order to study the effect of varying wrap angle and otherwise identical geometric configuration on aerodynamics and acoustics of the radial impellers. The results give a detailed insight into the processes leading to sound generation in radial impellers. Measurements were performed using laser Doppler anemometry for the flow field and microphone measurements to analyze the radiated noise. In addition, unsteady aerodynamic simulations were carried out to calculate the compressible flow field. An acoustic analogy was employed to compute far-field noise. Finally, the phenomena responsible for tonal noise and the role of the wrap angle could be identified. Using this knowledge, design guidelines are given to optimize the impeller with respect to the radiated noise. This work shows that improved aerodynamic efficiency for isolated impellers does not automatically lead to a smaller flow-induced sound radiation.

  10. Thermal Lens Spectrometric Detection in Flow Injection Analysis and Separation Techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mladen Franko

    2008-01-01

    Recent applications of thermal lens spectrometry in liquid chromatography (HPLC, ion chromatography), capillary electrophoresis, and flow injection analysis are reviewed. Possible effects of performing TLS measurements in flows are discussed initially for different TLS configurations. The emphasis is given to the analysis of real samples, and the performances of various detection schemes in combination with chromatographic techniques and FIA are

  11. Video: High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This video, distributed on YouTube by the Royal Society of Chemistry, is on the basic principles of High Performance Liquid Chromatography. This video is a short primer (5 minutes, thirty seconds) which introduces the basic technique and instrumentation. The theory of HPLC is described at a very basic level. Separation theory is presented in a qualitiative fashion, and both the mechanics and applications of HPLC were generally described. The ultimate strength of this video is the general nature of the content that makes it appealing to a wide audience. The video may be most appropriate in a lower-level general education science course (i.e forensic science) or as a quick orientation video for instrumental analysis students.

  12. Liquid phase chromatography on microchips.

    PubMed

    Kutter, Jörg P

    2012-01-20

    Over the past twenty years, the field of microfluidics has emerged providing one of the main enabling technologies to realize miniaturized chemical analysis systems, often referred to as micro-Total Analysis Systems (uTAS), or, more generally, Lab-on-a-Chip Systems (LOC) [1,2]. While microfluidics was driven forward a lot from the engineering side, especially with respect to ink jet and dispensing technology, the initial push and interest from the analytical chemistry community was through the desire to develop miniaturized sensors, detectors, and, very early on, separation systems. The initial almost explosive development of, in particular, chromatographic separation systems on microchips, has, however, slowed down in recent years. This review takes a closer, critical look at how liquid phase chromatography has been implemented in miniaturized formats over the past several years, what is important to keep in mind when developing or working with separations in a miniaturized format, and what challenges and pitfalls remain. PMID:22071425

  13. Monolithic Phases for Ion Chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordborg, Anna; Hilder, Emily F.; Haddad, Paul R.

    2011-07-01

    Monolithic media are continuing to increase in popularity in chromatographic applications, and the ongoing use of commercially available materials in ion chromatography (IC) has made monoliths a viable alternative to packed-bed columns for routine use. We discuss different strategies for the synthesis of polymeric and silica monoliths with ion-exchange functionality, such as direct incorporation of ion-exchange functionality during monolith preparation and different postpolymerization alterations such as grafting and coating. The formulations and strategies presented are focused on materials intended for use in IC. We also discuss strategies for materials characterization, with emphasis on nondestructive techniques for the characterization of monolith surface functionality, especially those with applicability to in situ analysis. Finally, we describe selected IC applications of polymeric and silica monoliths published from 2008 to 2010.

  14. Anomalous optical forces on radially anisotropic nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. L.; Gao, L.

    2015-04-01

    Full-wave electromagnetic scattering theory and Maxwell stress tensor integration techniques have been established to study the optical force on the radially anisotropic nanowires. The optical forces on the isotropic nanowires are dependent on the size of the nanowire and the wave vector in the media with the Rayleigh's law. However, the optical forces on the anisotropic nanowires have the anomalous behaviors under non-Rayleigh vanishing condition and non-Rayleigh diverging condition. Therefore, the optical forces on the anisotropic nanowires may be enhanced or reduced by tuning the anisotropic parameters. These results may promote the potential applications in the field of nanotechnology.

  15. Radial heat transfer from a moving plasma 

    E-print Network

    Johnson, James Randall

    1966-01-01

    . The radiative heat flux from shock heat argor. to the stagr ation point of a blunt body has beer, investigated by Brown and Ross (13). Free ? free and free-bound electron-ion recombination in addition to tie characteristic line radiatior were the processes...RADIAL HEAT TRANSFER FROM A MOVING PLASMA A Thesis By JAMES RANDALL JOHNSON Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A!&I University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1966 Major...

  16. The effect of forward skewed rotor blades on aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performance of axial-flow fan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Wei; Fangyuan Zhong

    1988-01-01

    Based on comparative experiment, this paper deals with using tangentially skewed rotor blades in axial-flow fan. It is seen from the comparison of the overall performance of the fan with skewed bladed rotor and radial bladed rotor that the skewed blades operate more efficiently than the radial blades, especially at low volume flows. Meanwhile, decrease in pressure rise and flow

  17. On the Origin of Near-Radial Magnetic Fields in the Heliosphere: Numerical Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikic, Zoran; Riley, Pete; Gosling, T. J.

    2007-01-01

    Deviations from the direction of the "Parker spiral" can be found in in situ measurements of the interplanetary magnetic field on essentially all scales. One intriguing subset is the intervals of near-radial magnetic field, lasting for many hours. Some such intervals are obviously associated with coronal mass ejections, while others appear to be embedded within the ambient solar wind. Most occur on declining speed profiles, such that, when mapped back to the Sun, an entire radial field interval appears to have been launched at approximately the same time. It has been proposed that these events are the result of abrupt, semipermanent speed decreases on these field lines close to the Sun, and that such speed changes might be due to interchange reconnection. In this study, we use a three-dimensional, time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic model to assess to what extent this can account for near-radial magnetic fields observed relatively far out in the heliosphere. We find that sudden speed drops on the trailing portions of high-speed flows can produce strongly underwound (that is near radial) field lines in the heliosphere, although significantly larger speed gradients are required than are typically observed. Moreover, the simulations also reproduce the decreases in density, temperature, and magnetic field strength that are also commonly observed within these events. The question of what produces the abrupt speed drops remains to be answered.

  18. Aerodynamically induced radial forces in a centrifugal gas compressor: Part 2 -- Computational investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Flathers, M.B.; Bache, G.E.

    1999-10-01

    Radial loads and direction of a centrifugal gas compressor containing a high specific speed mixed flow impeller and a single tongue volute were determined both experimentally and computationally at both design and off-design conditions. The experimental methodology was developed in conjunction with a traditional ASME PTC-10 closed-loop test to determine radial load and direction. The experimental study is detailed in Part 1 of this paper (Moore and Flathers, 1998). The computational method employs a commercially available, fully three-dimensional viscous code to analyze the impeller and the volute interaction. An uncoupled scheme was initially used where the impeller and volute were analyzed as separate models using a common vaneless diffuser geometry. The two calculations were then repeated until the boundary conditions at a chosen location in the common vaneless diffuser were nearly the same. Subsequently, a coupled scheme was used where the entire stage geometry was analyzed in one calculation, thus eliminating the need for manual iteration of the two independent calculations. In addition to radial load and direction information, this computational procedure also provided aerodynamic stage performance. The effect of impeller front face and rear face cavities was also quantified. The paper will discuss computational procedures, including grid generation and boundary conditions, as well as comparisons of the various computational schemes to experiment. The results of this study will show the limitations and benefits of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for determination of radial load, direction, and aerodynamic stage performance.

  19. Vortex generator for flow control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Jr., Earl R. (Inventor); Marner, Wilbur J. (Inventor); Rohatgi, Naresh K. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Fluidics flow control of a multiphase supply using a cylindrical chamber is achieved by introducing the supply flow radially into the chamber. The supply flow exits through a port in the center at the chamber. A control fluid is then introduced tangentially about 90.degree. upstream from the supply port. A second control fluid port may be added about 90.degree. upstream from the first control fluid port, but preferably two sets of supply and control ports are added with like ports diametrically opposite each other. The control fluid flows against the circular wall of the control chamber, which introduces a vortex in the flow of the supply flow that decays into a spiral path to the exit port in the center of the chamber. The control flow rate may thus be used to control the spiral path, and therefore the supply flow rate through the exit port.

  20. Radial Velocity Variability of Field Brown Dwarfs

    E-print Network

    Prato, L; Rice, E L; McLean, I S; Kirkpatrick, J D; Burgasser, A J; Kim, S S

    2015-01-01

    We present paper six of the NIRSPEC Brown Dwarf Spectroscopic Survey, an analysis of multi-epoch, high-resolution (R~20,000) spectra of 25 field dwarf systems (3 late-type M dwarfs, 16 L dwarfs, and 6 T dwarfs) taken with the NIRSPEC infrared spectrograph at the W. M. Keck Observatory. With a radial velocity precision of ~2 km/s, we are sensitive to brown dwarf companions in orbits with periods of a few years or less given a mass ratio of 0.5 or greater. We do not detect any spectroscopic binary brown dwarfs in the sample. Given our target properties, and the frequency and cadence of observations, we use a Monte Carlo simulation to determine the detection probability of our sample. Even with a null detection result, our 1 sigma upper limit for very low mass binary frequency is 18%. Our targets included 7 known, wide brown dwarf binary systems. No significant radial velocity variability was measured in our multi-epoch observations of these systems, even for those pairs for which our data spanned a significant ...

  1. Predictive steady-state chromatography. 1. Algorithms for leading and trailing edges of resolved and unresolved peaks in liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Pardue, H L

    1994-11-01

    This paper describes mathematical models and curve-fitting procedures that permit steady-state saturation signals to be computed accurately from data along leading and trailing edges of liquid chromatograms. This new approach to quantitative chromatography is called predictive steady-state chromatography (PSSC). It is shown that the computed saturation signals are virtually the same when determined from data along leading and trailing edges and they vary linearly with analyte concentration. Most importantly, the computed saturation signals for a given analyte concentration are virtually independent of experimental variables such as sample volume and flow rate. For example, for sample volumes between 25 and 45 microL, the average computed saturation signal for a 0.025 mM solution of theophylline was 0.11 V with a standard deviation of 0.00097 V (RSD = 0.8%); similar results were found for other concentrations and for changes in flow rate. Dependencies of the PSSC method on sample volume and flow rate were compared with dependencies for peak-height and peak-area methods by using relative error coefficients. Dependencies on sample volume were 0.04%/microL for the PSSC method and 3 and 4%/microL for peak-height and peak-area methods, respectively. Dependencies on flow rate were 2%/mL/min for the PSSC method and 17 and 120%/mL/min for the peak-height and peak-area methods, respectively. Thus, the predictive steady-state method is 10-100-fold more rugged than peak-height and peak-area methods. PMID:7802259

  2. Analyzing Flows In Rocket Nuclear Reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, J. S.; Walton, J. T.; Mcguire, M.

    1994-01-01

    CAC is analytical prediction program to study heat-transfer and fluid-flow characteristics of circular coolant passage. Predicts, as function of time, axial and radial fluid conditions, temperatures of passage walls, rates of flow in each coolant passage, and approximate maximum material temperatures. Written in ANSI standard FORTRAN 77.

  3. Water flow in filter paper and capillary suction time

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. E. Smiles

    1998-01-01

    Flow of water in Whatman #17 chromatography paper and the interpretation of the capillary suction time method for determining filterability of suspensions is examined. Filter paper water flow is described by well-established theory of water flow in porous media. This theory is based on material balance for the water and Darcy’s law. Assuming that the matric potential or suction (arising

  4. Determination of the triacylglycerol fraction in fish oil by comprehensive liquid chromatography techniques with the support of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry data.

    PubMed

    Beccaria, Marco; Costa, Rosaria; Sullini, Giuseppe; Grasso, Elisa; Cacciola, Francesco; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2015-07-01

    Fish oil made from menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) can be used as a dietary supplement for the presence of high levels of the long-chained omega-3 fatty acids, viz. epentaenoic and docosahexanoic. In this work, for the first time, two different multidimensional approaches were developed and compared, in terms of peak capacity, for triacylglycerol characterization. In particular, silver ion chromatography with a silver-ion column and non-aqueous reverse-phase liquid chromatography with a C18 column were tested in both comprehensive (stop-flow) and off-line modes. The use of mass spectra attained by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization for both LC approaches, and the fatty acids methyl esters profile of menhaden oil obtained by gas chromatography analysis, greatly supported the elucidation of the triacylglycerol content in menhaden oil. The off-line approach afforded a better separation and, thus, higher peak capacity to allow identifying and semiquantifying more than 250 triacylglycerols. Such a huge number has never been reported for a menhaden oil sample.The main disadvantage of such an approach over the stop-flow one was the longer analysis time, mainly attributable to solvent exchange between the two dimensions. Graphical Abstract Top: stop-flow Ag+-LC × RP-LC-APCI-MS plot of the TAGs in menhaden oil. Bottom: modulated detector response. Left: 2D analysis of a selected fraction. PMID:25963648

  5. Fabricating Radial Groove Gratings Using Projection Photolithography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iazikov, Dmitri; Mossberg, Thomas W.

    2009-01-01

    Projection photolithography has been used as a fabrication method for radial grove gratings. Use of photolithographic method for diffraction grating fabrication represents the most significant breakthrough in grating technology in the last 60 years, since the introduction of holographic written gratings. Unlike traditional methods utilized for grating fabrication, this method has the advantage of producing complex diffractive groove contours that can be designed at pixel-by-pixel level, with pixel size currently at the level of 45 45 nm. Typical placement accuracy of the grating pixels is 10 nm over 30 nm. It is far superior to holographic, mechanically ruled or direct e-beam written gratings and results in high spatial coherence and low spectral cross-talk. Due to the smooth surface produced by reactive ion etch, such gratings have a low level of randomly scattered light. Also, due to high fidelity and good surface roughness, this method is ideally suited for fabrication of radial groove gratings. The projection mask is created using a laser writer. A single crystal silicon wafer is coated with photoresist, and then the projection mask, with its layer of photoresist, is exposed for patterning in a stepper or scanner. To develop the photoresist, the fabricator either removes the exposed areas (positive resist) of the unexposed areas (negative resist). Next, the patterned and developed photoresist silicon substrate is subjected to reactive ion etching. After this step, the substrate is cleaned. The projection mask is fabricated according to electronic design files that may be generated in GDS file format using any suitable CAD (computer-aided design) or other software program. Radial groove gratings in off-axis grazing angle of incidence mount are of special interest for x-ray spectroscopy, as they allow achieving higher spectral resolution for the same grating area and have lower alignment tolerances than traditional in-plane grating scheme. This is especially critical for NASA Constellation- X project that will utilize hundreds of gratings all of which need to be precisely aligned for x-ray observation of space.

  6. Performance with and without inlet radial distortion of a transonic fan stage designed for reduced loading in the tip region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, J. F.; Ruggeri, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    A transonic compressor stage designed for a reduced loading in the tip region of the rotor blades was tested with and without inlet radial distortion. The rotor was 50 cm in diameter and designed for an operating tip speed of 420 m/sec. Although the rotor blade loading in the tip region was reduced to provide additional operating range, analysis of the data indicates that the flow around the damper appears to be critical and limited the stable operating range of this stage. For all levels of tip and hub radial distortion, there was a large reduction in the rotor stall margin.

  7. Three-dimensional calculation of the mixing of radial jets from slanted slots with a reactive cylindrical crossflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winowich, N. S.; Nguyen, H. L.; Moeykens, S. A.

    1991-01-01

    A numerical model that calculates the 3D chemically reacting flowfield in an experimental low emission combustor is described. The ICEd-ALE finite volume computational methodology is employed in this study. Radial jets issuing from slanted slots interact with a cylindrical axially flowing mainstream to produce a bulk swirl velocity downstream of the slot region. The swirl pattern at a given axial station is composed of a clockwise rotating region near the wall and a counterclockwise rotating region extending from the combustor centerline. The jet radial penetration and downstream swirl velocity axial development are shown to depend principally on the jet-to-mainstream momentum flux ratio.

  8. Electrostatic interactions in gas-solid chromatography.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, S. W.; King, J., Jr.

    1966-01-01

    Electrostatic theory of physical adsorption applied to gas-solid chromatography, discussing chromatographic inseparability of argon and oxygen at room temperature, prediction of elution order of many gases, etc

  9. An Inexpensive, Foolproof Apparatus for Flash Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Wayne J.; Hanson, Bryan A.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a new, modified "flash chromatography" apparatus which overcomes difficulties found in conventional apparatus. For example, an expensive teflon pressure valve is not necessary in the modified version. The apparatus is suitable as an instructional tool in undergraduate courses. (JN)

  10. The Chromatography of Leaves and Inks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemecology, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Describes the use of a simple process known as chromatography to separate and observe the color pigments in leaves, inks, and other materials. Provides some historical background and detailed procedures. (DDR)

  11. Multielement detector for gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Sklarew, D.S.; Evans, J.C.; Olsen, K.B.

    1988-11-01

    This report describes the results of a study to improve the capabilities of a gas chromatography-microwave-induced plasma (GC- MIP) detector system, determine the feasibility of empirical formula determination for simple mixtures containing elements of interest to fossil fuel analysis and, subsequently, explore applications for analysis of the complex mixtures associated with fossil fuels. The results of this study indicate that the GC-MIP system is useful as a specific-element detector that provides excellent elemental specificity for a number of elements of interest to the analysis of fossil fuels. It has reasonably good sensitivity for carbon, hydrogen, sulfur, and nickel, and better sensitivity for chlorine and fluorine. Sensitivity is poor for nitrogen and oxygen, however, probably because of undetected leaks or erosion of the plasma tube. The GC-MIP can also provide stoichiometric information about components of simple mixtures. If this powerful technique is to be available for complex mixtures, it will be necessary to greatly simplify the chromatograms by chemical fractionation. 38 refs., 46 figs., 16 tabs.

  12. Regulation of radial glial motility by visual experience.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Marc; Fugère, Vincent; Tsui, Jennifer; Schohl, Anne; Tavakoli, Aydin; Travençolo, Bruno A N; Costa, Luciano da F; Ruthazer, Edward S

    2009-11-11

    Radial glia in the developing optic tectum express the key guidance molecules responsible for topographic targeting of retinal axons. However, the extent to which the radial glia are themselves influenced by retinal inputs and visual experience remains unknown. Using multiphoton live imaging of radial glia in the optic tectum of intact Xenopus laevis tadpoles in conjunction with manipulations of neural activity and sensory stimuli, radial glia were observed to exhibit spontaneous calcium transients that were modulated by visual stimulation. Structurally, radial glia extended and retracted many filopodial processes within the tectal neuropil over minutes. These processes interacted with retinotectal synapses and their motility was modulated by nitric oxide (NO) signaling downstream of neuronal NMDA receptor (NMDAR) activation and visual stimulation. These findings provide the first in vivo demonstration that radial glia actively respond both structurally and functionally to neural activity, via NMDAR-dependent NO release during the period of retinal axon ingrowth. PMID:19906955

  13. Miniaturized planar chromatography using office peripherals--office chromatography.

    PubMed

    Morlock, Gertrud E

    2015-02-20

    Office chromatography (OC) harnesses the novel combination of miniaturized planar separation science and modern print & media technologies. Interdisciplinary knowledge is the essence: Printing of solutions on powerful miniaturized planar separation materials in combination with image capturing and evaluation tools enables an innovative analytical online system. Site-specific printing as lines or areas on defined sections of the layer comprises important steps like application of samples, feeding of the mobile phase as well as supply of the derivatization reagent. Also printing of bioassays can be combined for effect-directed detections and the homogeneous printing of the ultrathin layer itself, enabling tailor-made gradient-layer or multi-layer plates. OC exploits image-giving miniaturized chromatograms being captured and processed with a flatbed scanner or mini-camera. Thus, miniaturized separation materials are the core of OC. Monolithic, electrospun, nanostructured glancing angle deposition and carbon nanotube-templated microfabricated layers or even pillar arrays or polymer brush coated sub-?m silica particles were demonstrated, showing promising results. Layer thicknesses from 50 ?m down to few micrometers were explored. A high-throughput capacity is given through the parallel development of as many as possible tiny-printed samples on the separation material. The migration time was reduced to a few minutes and the calculated analysis time per sample lasted few seconds. Considering a substantially reduced solvent consumption at short run times for parallel analysis of numerous samples at the same time, OC is an appropriate analytical technique for green chemistry. OC facilitates the whole planar separation process to be performed with no other equipment but a combined device of printer and flatbed scanner or mini-camera. At the same time, OC can be expected to become a widespread and economical technique with the user-friendliness of high-end office tools, appealing to users. PMID:25442326

  14. High pressure superconducting radial magnetic bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eyssa, Y. M.; Huang, X.

    1990-01-01

    In a conventional radial magnetic bearing, the rotor (soft magnetic material) can only have attraction force from one of the electromagnets in the stator. The stator electromagnets consist of small copper windings with a soft magnetic material iron yoke. The maximum pressure obtainable is about 200 N/sq cm. It is shown that replacing the stator copper winding by a superconducting winding in the above configuration can increase the pressure to about 1000 N/sq cm. It is also shown that replacing the iron in the rotor by a group of superconducting windings in persistent mode and using a group of saddle coils in the stator can produce a pressure in excess of 2000 N/sq cm.

  15. Radial thickness variations of Orientale basin ejecta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordell, B. M.

    1978-01-01

    Moore et al. (1974) measure the thickness of Orientale basin ejecta on the basis of filling of individual prebasin craters and a depth-diameter relation for fresh lunar craters. In the reported investigation the concept of filling of preexisting craters with basin ejecta is utilized somewhat differently to ascertain Orientale basin ejecta thicknesses and volume from the Cordillera ring with a radius of 450 km out to almost 2 radii. Briefly, the approach is to assume a reasonable geometric model for the form of Orientale ejecta, calculate how many pre-Orientale craters would be destroyed by the deposition of the ejecta, and match the model to Orientale crater statistics. The results of the investigation show that a radial ejecta thickness function can be derived from crater statistics.

  16. Radial evolution of ion distribution functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsch, E.

    1983-01-01

    A survey of solar wind ion velocity distributions and derived parameters (temperature, ion differential speed, heat flux, adiabatic invariants) is presented with emphasis on the heliocentric distance range between 0.3 and 1 AU traversed by the Helios solar probe. The radial evolution of nonthermal features are discussed which are observed to be most pronounced at perihelion. Within the framework of quasilinear plasma theory, wave particle interactions that may shape the ion distributions are considered. Some results of a self consistent model calculation are presented accounting for ion acceleration and heating by resonant momentum and energy exchange with ion cyclotron and magnetosonic waves propagating away from the Sun along the interplanetary magnetic field. Another tentative explanation for the occurrence of large perpendicular proton temperatures is offered in terms of heating by Landau damping of lower hybrid waves.

  17. Static Isotropic Spacetimes with Radially Imperfect Fluids

    E-print Network

    Tomasz Konopka

    2009-08-25

    When solving the equations of General Relativity in a symmetric sector, it is natural to consider the same symmetry for the geometry and stress-energy. This implies that for static and isotropic spacetimes, the most general natural stress-energy tensor is a sum of a perfect fluid and a radial imperfect fluid component. In the special situations where the perfect fluid component vanishes or is a spacetime constant, the solutions to Einstein's equations can be thought of as modified Schwarzschild and Schwarzschild-de Sitter spaces. Exact solutions of this type are derived and it is shown that whereas deviations from the unmodified solutions can be made small, among the manifestations of the imperfect fluid component is a shift in angular momentum scaling for orbiting test-bodies at large radius. Based on this effect, the question of whether the imperfect fluid component can feasibly describe dark matter phenomenology is addressed.

  18. Radial propagation of geodesic acoustic modes

    SciTech Connect

    Hager, Robert; Hallatschek, Klaus [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2009-07-15

    The GAM group velocity is estimated from the ratio of the radial free energy flux to the total free energy applying gyrokinetic and two-fluid theory. This method is much more robust than approaches that calculate the group velocity directly and can be generalized to include additional physics, e.g., magnetic geometry. The results are verified with the gyrokinetic code GYRO[J. Candy and R. E. Waltz, J. Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)], the two-fluid code NLET[K. Hallatschek and A. Zeiler, Phys. Plasmas 7, 2554 (2000)], and analytical calculations. GAM propagation must be kept in mind when discussing the windows of GAM activity observed experimentally and the match between linear theory and experimental GAM frequencies.

  19. Lossy radial diffusion of relativistic Jovian electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbosa, D. D.; Coroniti, F. V.

    1976-01-01

    The radial diffusion equation with synchrotron losses is solved by the Laplace-transform method for near equatorially mirroring relativistic electrons. The evolution of a power-law distribution function is found, and the characteristics of synchrotron burnoff are stated in terms of explicit parameters for an arbitrary diffusion coefficient of a specific form. The peaking of the 10.4-cm volume emissivity from Jupiter at an L shell of about 1.8 provides an estimate of the diffusion coefficient in the radiation belts; one value is suggested as the appropriate modification, for an equatorial field strength of 4.2 G, of the Birmingham et al. (1974) result. Nonsynchrotron losses are included phenomenologically; from the phase-space densities reported by McIlwain and Fillius (1975), the particle lifetime is estimated. Asymptotic forms for the distribution in the strong synchrotron loss regime are provided.

  20. Precise radial velocities in the near infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redman, Stephen L.

    Since the first detection of a planet outside our Solar System byWolszczan & Frail (1992), over 500 exoplanets have been found to date2, none of which resemble the Earth. Most of these planets were discovered by measuring the radial velocity (hereafter, RV) of the host star, which wobbles under the gravitational influence of any existing planetary companions. However, this method has yet to achieve the sub-m/s precision necessary to detect an Earth-mass planet in the Habitable Zone (the region around a star that can support liquid water; hereafter, HZ) (Kasting et al. 1993) around a Solar-type star. Even though Kepler (Borucki et al. 2010) has announced several Earth-sized HZ candidates, these targets will be exceptionally difficult to confirm with current astrophysical spectrographs (Borucki et al. 2011). The fastest way to discover and confirm potentiallyhabitable Earth-mass planets is to observe stars with lower masses - in particular, late M dwarfs. While M dwarfs are readily abundant, comprising some 70% of the local stellar population, their low optical luminosity presents a formidable challenge to current optical RV instruments. By observing in the near-infrared (hereafter, NIR), where the flux from M dwarfs peaks, we can potentially reach low RV precisions with significantly less telescope time than would be required by a comparable optical instrument. However, NIR precision RV measurements are a relatively new idea and replete with challenges: IR arrays, unlike CCDs, are sensitive to the thermal background; modal noise is a bigger issue in the NIR than in the optical; and the NIR currently lacks the calibration sources like the very successful thorium-argon (hereafter, ThAr) hollow-cathode lamp and Iodine gas cell of the optical. The PSU Pathfinder (hereafter, Pathfinder) was designed to explore these technical issues with the intention of mitigating these problems for future NIR high-resolution spectrographs, such as the Habitable-Zone Planet Finder (HZPF) (Mahadevan et al. 2010), and forms the core of my dissertation. I have investigated and quantified several aspects of making precision radial velocity measurements in the NIR using Pathfinder. Between 2006 and 2008, I made precise measurements of the Earth's rotational velocity with respect to the solar spectrum, with which we were able to achieve precisions of less than 10 m/s. In late 2008 and 2009, I worked on optimizing the spectrograph and reduction code in preparation for our first on-sky tests. I also began characterizing a new calibration source for the NIR, the emission spectrum of a uranium-neon hollow-cathode lamp. During 2010, Pathfinder saw first light at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (hereafter, HET), where we observed almost a dozen radial velocity standard stars and bright planet-hosting stars. Using uraniumneon as a calibration source, we were able to achieve a precision of 20 m/s in the Y band. In collaboration with Colorado University and the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST), we fed Pathfinder with a laser frequency comb, and were able to achieve precisions of less than 5 m/s in the H band. These are some of the highestprecision radial velocity measurements in the Y and H bands to date, and represent an enormous advancement in our ability to make precision measurements in the NIR.

  1. Nonlinear radial oscillations of neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Gabler, Michael [Theoretisch-Physikalisches Institut, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85741 Garching (Germany); Sperhake, Ulrich [Theoretisch-Physikalisches Institut, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Theoretical Astrophysics 350-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Andersson, Nils [School of Mathematics, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-15

    The effects of nonlinear oscillations in compact stars are attracting considerable current interest. In order to study such phenomena in the framework of fully nonlinear general relativity, highly accurate numerical studies are required. A numerical scheme specifically tailored for such a study is based on formulating the time evolution in terms of deviations from a stationary equilibrium configuration. Using this technique, we investigate over a wide range of amplitudes nonlinear effects in the evolution of radial oscillations of neutron stars. In particular, we discuss mode coupling due to nonlinear interaction, the occurrence of resonance phenomena, shock formation near the stellar surface as well as the capacity of nonlinearities to stabilize perturbatively unstable neutron star models.

  2. Radial particle distributions in PARMILA simulation beams

    SciTech Connect

    Boicourt, G.P.

    1984-03-01

    The estimation of beam spill in particle accelerators is becoming of greater importance as higher current designs are being funded. To the present, no numerical method for predicting beam-spill has been available. In this paper, we present an approach to the loss-estimation problem that uses probability distributions fitted to particle-simulation beams. The properties of the PARMILA code's radial particle distribution are discussed, and a broad class of probability distributions are examined to check their ability to fit it. The possibility that the PARMILA distribution is a mixture is discussed, and a fitting distribution consisting of a mixture of two generalized gamma distributions is found. An efficient algorithm to accomplish the fit is presented. Examples of the relative prediction of beam spill are given. 26 references, 18 figures, 1 table.

  3. Macrostrain measurement using radial collimators at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Bourke, M.A.M.; Roberts, J.A.; Davis, D.

    1996-06-01

    A series of `short` radial collimators have been implemented in the 90{degrees} scattering geometries on the neutron powder diffractometer at Los Alamos. The capability to perform macrostrain measurements has been improved by the commensurate ability to rapidly select a sampling volume appropriate to the specimen. The compact design of the collimators was dictated by the need to fit them in a cylindrical vacuum chamber as well as providing space in which to manipulate a specimen in three dimensions. Collimators of different vane lengths were fabricated to give 4 different resolutions for which 2/3 of the diffracted intensity comes form distances of 0.75, 1. 25, 2.5, and 4.0 mm along the incident beam. Qualifying scans and a demonstration of a cracked ring, containing a steep stress gradient, are included.

  4. Experimental observation of crystalline particle flows in toroidal dust clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilms, Jochen; Reichstein, Torben; Piel, Alexander

    2015-06-01

    The dust flow in a toroidal dust trap is studied experimentally. The flow is driven by the Hall component of the ion drag force in a magnetized plasma. Dust density waves are found in a torus with a large minor radius a, which allows for several wavelength, 2 a >5 ? , in the (mostly) radial direction of the ion flow. Beyond an intermediate state with radial sloshing oscillations, a crystalline dust flow with suppressed wave activity could be realized for 2 a <2 ? . The particles arrange themselves in distinct layers with hexagonal-like local order. Smooth transitions between states with different numbers of layers are found in the inhomogeneous flow.

  5. The radial velocity signature of the Canis Major dwarf galaxy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. F. Martin; R. A. Ibata; B. C. Conn; G. F. Lewis; M. Bellazzini; M. J. Irwin

    2005-01-01

    We present a radial velocity survey of the Canis Major dwarf galaxy recently discovered at the edge of the Galactic disk. Using the AAT\\/2dF multi-fiber spectrograph, we obtained radial velocities for over 1500 red giant branch (RGB) and red clump (RC) stars belonging to this stellar structure. The less contaminated RGB sample reveals a kinematically cold population with a radial

  6. Turbulence distance of radial Gaussian Schell-model array beams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Li; X. Ji; H. T. Eyyubo?lu; Y. Baykal

    2010-01-01

    The effect of turbulence on the spreading of radial Gaussian Schell-model (GSM) array beams is studied quantitatively by examining\\u000a the mean-squared beam width. The analytical expression for the turbulence distance z\\u000a T of radial GSM array beams is derived by using the integral transform technique, which indicates within what ranges radial\\u000a GSM array beams will be less affected by turbulence.

  7. Universal description of radially excited heavy and light vector mesons

    E-print Network

    S. S. Afonin; I. V. Pusenkov

    2014-11-10

    A new qualitative stringlike picture for mesons is proposed which leads to a simple and intuitively clear generalization of linear radial Regge trajectories to the case of massive quarks. The obtained universal relation is successfully tested in the sector of unflavored vector mesons, where many radial excitations are known. Some new predictions are given. Our results suggest that the quark masses can be easily estimated from the spectra of radially excited mesons.

  8. Supersymmetry and radial squeezed states for Rydberg wave packets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluhm, Robert; Kostelecky, V. Alan

    1994-01-01

    Atomic supersymmetry provides an analytical effective-potential model useful for describing certain aspects of Rydberg atoms. Experiments have recently demonstrated the existence of Rydberg wave packets localized in the radial coordinated with p-state angular distribution. This paper shows how atomic supersymmetry can be used to treat radial Rydberg wave packets via a particular analytical type of squeezed state, called a radial squeezed state.

  9. Monopole Antenna on Radial-Wires over Flat Earth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y.-S. Jin; S. Adachi; K. Sawaya

    1990-01-01

    The sinusoidal-Galerkin moment method is developed for a vertical monopole antenna erected at the center of radial-wires over the flat earth. The asymptotic extraction method and the exact image method are used to obtain fast convergence of the Sommerfeld integral. Numerical results are presented for the impedance as functions of the number of the radial-wires, the height of the radial-wires,

  10. Radial-arrayed rotary electrification for high performance triboelectric generator.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guang; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Tiejun; Jing, Qingshen; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2014-01-01

    Harvesting mechanical energy is an important route in obtaining cost-effective, clean and sustainable electric energy. Here we report a two-dimensional planar-structured triboelectric generator on the basis of contact electrification. The radial arrays of micro-sized sectors on the contact surfaces enable a high output power of 1.5?W (area power density of 19?mW?cm(-2)) at an efficiency of 24%. The triboelectric generator can effectively harness various ambient motions, including light wind, tap water flow and normal body movement. Through a power management circuit, a triboelectric-generator-based power-supplying system can provide a constant direct-current source for sustainably driving and charging commercial electronics, immediately demonstrating the feasibility of the triboelectric generator as a practical power source. Given exceptional power density, extremely low cost and unique applicability resulting from distinctive mechanism and structure, the triboelectric generator can be applied not only to self-powered electronics but also possibly to power generation at a large scale. PMID:24594501

  11. Radial-arrayed rotary electrification for high performance triboelectric generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Guang; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Tiejun; Jing, Qingshen; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2014-03-01

    Harvesting mechanical energy is an important route in obtaining cost-effective, clean and sustainable electric energy. Here we report a two-dimensional planar-structured triboelectric generator on the basis of contact electrification. The radial arrays of micro-sized sectors on the contact surfaces enable a high output power of 1.5?W (area power density of 19?mW?cm-2) at an efficiency of 24%. The triboelectric generator can effectively harness various ambient motions, including light wind, tap water flow and normal body movement. Through a power management circuit, a triboelectric-generator-based power-supplying system can provide a constant direct-current source for sustainably driving and charging commercial electronics, immediately demonstrating the feasibility of the triboelectric generator as a practical power source. Given exceptional power density, extremely low cost and unique applicability resulting from distinctive mechanism and structure, the triboelectric generator can be applied not only to self-powered electronics but also possibly to power generation at a large scale.

  12. Constraints on Average Radial Anisotropy in the Lower Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trampert, J.; De Wit, R. W. L.; Kaeufl, P.; Valentine, A. P.

    2014-12-01

    Quantifying uncertainties in seismological models is challenging, yet ideally quality assessment is an integral part of the inverse method. We invert centre frequencies for spheroidal and toroidal modes for three parameters of average radial anisotropy, density and P- and S-wave velocities in the lower mantle. We adopt a Bayesian machine learning approach to extract the information on the earth model that is available in the normal mode data. The method is flexible and allows us to infer probability density functions (pdfs), which provide a quantitative description of our knowledge of the individual earth model parameters. The parameters describing shear- and P-wave anisotropy show little deviations from isotropy, but the intermediate parameter ? carries robust information on negative anisotropy of ~1% below 1900 km depth. The mass density in the deep mantle (below 1900 km) shows clear positive deviations from existing models. Other parameters (P- and shear-wave velocities) are close to PREM. Our results require that the average mantle is about 150K colder than commonly assumed adiabats and consist of a mixture of about 60% perovskite and 40% ferropericlase containing 10-15% iron. The anisotropy favours a specific orientation of the two minerals. This observation has important consequences for the nature of mantle flow.

  13. The development of blade profiles for a supersonic axial flow compressor 

    E-print Network

    Bearden, John Lee

    1972-01-01

    engines. Unlike the aircraft gas turbines, most oi' the compressors used in vehicular and stationary gas turbines are radial or centrifugal flow instead of axial flow. There are several reasons for this fact. First, weight, in most cases, is no longer... of extreme importance. And secondly, a radial flow compressor can produce a much higher pressure ratio per stage than the conven- tional axial flow compressor. But, these high pressure ratio (4. 5 and greater) centrifugal compressure are unstable (small...

  14. Response of ionosphere and thermosphere during radial interplanetary magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Luehr, Hermann; Shue, Jihong

    2014-05-01

    The configurations of ionosphere and thermosphere have been investigated by using high-resolution measurements of CHAMP satellite. During the period IMF By and Bz components are weak and Bx keeps pointing to the Earth for almost 10 hours. The geomagnetic indices Dst is about -40 nT and AE about 100 nT on average during the interest period. The CPCP (cross polar cap potential) output by AMIE and calculated from DMSP observations have average values of 15-20 kV. Obvious hemispheric differences are shown in the configurations of FACs on the dayside and nightside. In the south pole FACs diminish in intensity with magnitudes below 0.25 µA/m2, the plasma convection retains its quiet time two cell flow pattern, and the air density is quiet low. However, there are obvious activities in the north cusp FACs. One pair of FACs emerges in the north cusp region, which shows opposite polarities to DPY FACs. The new type of currents is accompanied by sunward plasma flow channels. These ionospheric features might be manifestations of the magnetic reconnection processes occurring in the north magnetospheric flanks. The enhanced ionospheric current systems have deposited large amount of energies into the thermosphere, causing enhanced air densities in the cusp region, which subsequently propagate equatorward both on the dayside and nightside. Although the radial IMF is considered as geomagnetic quiet condition, the present study has demonstrated for the first time there are prevailing energy inputs from the magnetosphere to both the ionosphere and thermosphere in the polar cusp region.

  15. Electro-Active Device Using Radial Electric Field Piezo-Diaphragm for Control of Fluid Movement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor); Working, Dennis C. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A fluid-control electro-active device includes a piezo-diaphragm made from a ferroelectric material sandwiched by first and second electrode patterns configured to introduce an electric field into the ferroelectric material when voltage is applied thereto. The electric field originates at a region of the ferroelectric material between the first and second electrode patterns, and extends radially outward from this region of the ferroelectric material and substantially parallel to the plane of the ferroelectric material. The piezo-diaphragm deflects symmetrically about this region in a direction substantially perpendicular to the electric field. An annular region coupled to and extending radially outward from the piezo-diaphragm perimetrically borders the piezo-diaphragm, A housing is connected to the region and at least one fluid flow path with piezo-diaphragm disposed therein.

  16. Radial evolution of solar wind thermal electron distributions due to expansion and collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, J. L.; Gosling, J. T.

    1990-01-01

    ISEE 3 electron observations near 1 AU show that the solar wind thermal electron temperature anisotropy, T(parallel)/T(perpendicular), is typically 1.0 to 1.5, with densest distributions most nearly isotropic, but is sometimes much higher when density is low. For a small observational subset characterized by high density and low bulk speed, T(perpendicular) can exceed T(parallel). Based on these and other observations, a simple model is proposed for radial evolution of thermal electrons in a structureless solar wind under the influence of Coulomb collisions and geometric expansion in a spiral interplanetary magnetic field. The model, which satisfactorily explains the 1 AU observations, shows that the evolution of electron temperature and T(parallel)/T(perpendicular) is controlled by plasma density, flow speed, and initial temperature, with density the most important factor. The model makes predictions for radial distances other than 1 AU and for high solar latitudes.

  17. Investigations on a radial compressor tandem-rotor stage with adjustable geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josuhn-Kadner, B.; Hoffmann, B.

    1992-06-01

    A radial compressor stage has been investigated experimentally for aerodynamic stage optimization. The rotor consists of a profiled axial inducer and a conventionally designed radial impeller. Inducer and impeller can be locked at different circumferential positions relative to each other thus, forming a tandem wheel with adjustable geometry. Conventional and laser-2-focus system measurements for the tandem-rotor and the stage were performed at different operating points to study the influence of the circumferential clearance geometry between inducer and impeller with respect to compressor characteristics and performance. Furthermore, 3D Navier-Stokes calculations are being developed at design point condition to analyze the flow field. Small influence of the inducer adjustment on the rotor characteristics is observed. The maximum rotor efficiency of 93.5 percent varies in a range of less than 1 percent depending on the different inducer positions.

  18. The lithosphere-asthenosphere transition and radial anisotropy beneath the Australian continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshizawa, K.; Kennett, B. L. N.

    2015-05-01

    A new 3-D S wave speed model for the Australian region derived from multimode surface waves allows us to examine the nature of the lithosphere-asthenosphere transition (LAT) and its relation to radial anisotropy. In eastern Phanerozoic Australia the estimated depths of the LAT tie well with those from receiver functions. However, in the Archean and Proterozoic lithosphere in western and central Australia, the LAT derived from the surface wave model is generally much deeper than the discontinuities recognized from receiver functions and shows a smooth transition. There is significant radial anisotropy (SH > SV) in the upper lithosphere as well as in the LAT and the underlying asthenosphere. Strong anisotropy in the asthenosphere reflects the effects of present shear flow in the mantle beneath the continent. The lateral variation of lithospheric anisotropy correlates well with the suture zones between cratonic blocks, representing frozen anisotropy associated with the ancient tectonics of Australia.

  19. Radial Profiles of the Plasma Electron Characteristics in a 30 kW Arc Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Codron, Douglas A.; Nawaz, Anuscheh

    2013-01-01

    The present effort aims to strengthen modeling work conducted at the NASA Ames Research Center by measuring the critical plasma electron characteristics within and slightly outside of an arc jet plasma column. These characteristics are intended to give physical insights while assisting in the formulation of boundary conditions to validate full scale simulations. Single and triple Langmuir probes have been used to achieve estimates of the electron temperature (T(sub e)), electron number density (n(sub e)) and plasma potential (outside of the plasma column) as probing location is varied radially from the flow centerline. Both the electron temperature and electron number density measurements show a large dependence on radial distance from the plasma column centerline with T(sub e) approx. = (3 - 12 eV and n(sub e) approx. = 10(exp 12) - 10(exp 14)/cu cm.

  20. 21 CFR 866.4800 - Radial immunodiffusion plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4800 Radial immunodiffusion plate. (a)...

  1. 21 CFR 866.4800 - Radial immunodiffusion plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4800 Radial immunodiffusion plate. (a)...

  2. 21 CFR 866.4800 - Radial immunodiffusion plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4800 Radial immunodiffusion plate. (a)...

  3. 21 CFR 866.4800 - Radial immunodiffusion plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4800 Radial immunodiffusion plate. (a)...

  4. Radial localization of toroidicity-induced Alfvén eigenmodes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhixuan; Lin, Zhihong; Holod, Ihor; Heidbrink, W W; Tobias, Benjamin; Van Zeeland, Michael; Austin, M E

    2013-10-01

    Linear gyrokinetic simulation of fusion plasmas finds a radial localization of the toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (TAEs) due to the nonperturbative energetic particle (EP) contribution. The EP-driven TAE has a radial mode width much smaller than that predicted by the magnetohydrodynamic theory. The TAE radial position stays around the strongest EP pressure gradients when the EP profile evolves. The nonperturbative EP contribution is also the main cause for the breaking of the radial symmetry of the ballooning mode structure and for the dependence of the TAE frequency on the toroidal mode number. These phenomena are beyond the picture of the conventional magnetohydrodynamic theory. PMID:24138247

  5. Viscous flow prediction within a centrifugal impeller 

    E-print Network

    Wohlschlegel, David Hale

    1976-01-01

    of impeller u kinematic viscosity S~b' t meridional component radial component component in direction of boundary layer component perpendicular to boundary layer axial component free stream value CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The centrifugal compressor... Journal. and the locations of rapid velocity changes, which indicate a boundary layer separation, may be found. The flow within a centrifugal compressor is extremely difficult to predict since it has curvature from the axial to the radial direction...

  6. A radial anisotropy model of the upper mantle from surface wave observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, T. M.; Debayle, E.; Priestley, K. F.; Chapman, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    Radial anisotropy within the upper mantle was first encountered in the early 1960's based on studies using surface waves. A disrepancy between the Love and Rayleigh wave data was observed which could not be explained using a simple isotropic model. This was later reconconciled using a transversely isotropic model now assumed in many modern day anisotropic models such as SAW642AN and S362ANI. Radial anisotropy is attributed to the lattice preferred orientation (LPO) of the anisotropic crystals believed to be organised by the flow in the upper mantle. These models are therefore important for analysing the geometry of the flow and the deformation of the mantle. Surface wave observations offer a unique way of studying the radial anisotropy. Rayleigh waves are sensitive to the vertical shear velocity (SV) and Love waves are sensitive to the horizontal shear velocity (SH). The ratio of these give the radial anisotropy parameter ?. Although radial anisotropy models exist, they are usually limited to the fundamental mode measurments with poor path coverage due to the noise on the horizontal components. Higher mode Love wave measurements are difficult for oceanic paths. This is because group velocities of the higher modes are similar to the fundamental mode between a period range of 50-100 s. These therefore arrive and interferre with each other. The higher mode information therefore cannot be extracted easily. We modify the method of Debayle and Ricard 2012 which allow the extraction of information up to the 5th overtone by mimicking the interferrence from the arrival of the fundamental and higher modes. Synthetic tests show an excellent recovery of the fundamental and higher mode information from the Love waves. The inclusion of the the higher modes greatly increases the resolution to the SH velocity and increases the sampling to deeper structures. We apply this modified method to a large dataset and construct an SH model. This is then combined with an equivalent SV model for the radial anisotropy model which we present here with added higher mode information and improved path coverage compared to recent global models.

  7. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography versus reversed phase liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry: effect of electrospray ionization source geometry on sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Periat, Aurélie; Kohler, Isabelle; Bugey, Aurélie; Bieri, Stefan; Versace, François; Staub, Christian; Guillarme, Davy

    2014-08-22

    In this study, the influence of electrospray ionization (ESI) source design on the overall sensitivity achieved in hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) and reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC), was investigated. State-of-the-art triple quadrupole mass analyzers from AB Sciex, Agilent Technologies and Waters equipped with brand specific source geometries were tested with various mobile phase pH on 53 pharmaceutical compounds. The design of the ESI source showed to strongly influence the gain in sensitivity that can be achieved in HILIC compared to RPLC mode. The 6460 Triple Quadrupole LC/MS system from Agilent Technologies was particularly affected by mobile phase settings. Indeed, compared to RPLC conditions, 92% of the compounds had an increased signal-to-noise ratio at a flow rate of 300 ?L/min in HILIC mode at pH 6, while this percentage dropped to only 7% at 1000 ?L/min and pH 3. In contrast, the influence of flow rate and mobile phase pH on the gain in sensitivity between RPLC and HILIC was found very limited with the API 5000 LC/MS/MS system from AB Sciex, as only 15 to 36% of the tested compounds showed an enhanced sensitivity in HILIC mode. With the Xevo TQ-S instrument from Waters, superior sensitivity in HILIC was noticed for 85% of the compounds with optimal conditions (i.e., pH 3 and 1000 ?L/min), whereas at sub-optimal conditions (i.e. pH 6 and 300 ?L/min), it represented less than 50%. The gain in sensitivity observed in HILIC was found less significant with the recent LC-MS platforms used in this study than for old-generation instruments. Indeed, the improved ESI sources equipping the recent mass analyzers allow for enhanced evaporation efficiency, mainly for RPLC mobile phases containing high proportion of water and this even at high flow rates. PMID:25017394

  8. Interplanetary magnetic field power spectra - Mean field radial or perpendicular to radial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sari, J. W.; Valley, G. C.

    1976-01-01

    A detailed frequency analysis of Pioneer-6 interplanetary magnetic field data is carried out for 5 to 15 hour periods during which the mean interplanetary field is approximately radial or perpendicular to radial. The reason why these data sets were chosen is that by making the usual assumption that the phase speed of any wave present is much less than the mean solar wind speed, the measured frequency spectra can be interpreted in terms of the wave number parallel or perpendicular to the mean field, without such additional assumptions as isotropy or the dominance of a particular mode and without measurements of velocity and density. The details of the calculation of the magnetic field power spectra, coherencies, and correlation functions are discussed, along with results obtained directly from the data (such as spectra, slopes, anisotropies, and coherencies). The results are interpreted in terms of MHD theory, and are related to work in other areas.

  9. Quantitative tomographic measurements of opaque multiphase flows

    SciTech Connect

    GEORGE,DARIN L.; TORCZYNSKI,JOHN R.; SHOLLENBERGER,KIM ANN; O'HERN,TIMOTHY J.; CECCIO,STEVEN L.

    2000-03-01

    An electrical-impedance tomography (EIT) system has been developed for quantitative measurements of radial phase distribution profiles in two-phase and three-phase vertical column flows. The EIT system is described along with the computer algorithm used for reconstructing phase volume fraction profiles. EIT measurements were validated by comparison with a gamma-densitometry tomography (GDT) system. The EIT system was used to accurately measure average solid volume fractions up to 0.05 in solid-liquid flows, and radial gas volume fraction profiles in gas-liquid flows with gas volume fractions up to 0.15. In both flows, average phase volume fractions and radial volume fraction profiles from GDT and EIT were in good agreement. A minor modification to the formula used to relate conductivity data to phase volume fractions was found to improve agreement between the methods. GDT and EIT were then applied together to simultaneously measure the solid, liquid, and gas radial distributions within several vertical three-phase flows. For average solid volume fractions up to 0.30, the gas distribution for each gas flow rate was approximately independent of the amount of solids in the column. Measurements made with this EIT system demonstrate that EIT may be used successfully for noninvasive, quantitative measurements of dispersed multiphase flows.

  10. Spacelab experiments on convection in a rotating spherical shell with radial gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toomre, Juri; Hart, John E.; Glatzmaier, Gary A.

    1987-01-01

    Data from the geophysical fluid flow cell experiment on Spacelab 3 revealed the diverse forms of fluid motion that can occur in geometrically simple models of global convection with rotation and radial gravity. The following types of convection were observed: midlatitude waves interacting with the low-latitude columnar convection rolls or 'banana cells', spiral waves' near the poles when latitudinal heating gradients are present on the bounding surfaces, and 'triangular waves' coupling midlatitude and equatorial disturbances under similar differential heating. It is believed that concepts based on the Taylor-Proudman theorem have a central role in many flows realized in the rapidly rotating experiments when H is approximately 0; however, the resulting banana cells are subject to secondary instabilities that produce intricate time dependence and eventually turbulent flows in which only hints of the simpler patterns are recognizable.

  11. RADIAL TRANSPORT ALONG THE HUMAN ACINAR TREE

    PubMed Central

    Henry, F.S.; Tsuda, A.

    2013-01-01

    A numerical model of an expanding asymmetric alveolated duct was developed and used to investigate lateral transport between the central acinar channel and the surrounding alveoli along the acinar tree. Our results indicate that some degree of recirculation occurs in all but the terminal generations. We found that the rate of diffusional transport of axial momentum, from the duct to the alveolus, was by far the largest contributor to the resulting momentum in the alveolar flow but that the magnitude of the axial momentum is critical in determining the nature of the flow in the alveolus. Further, we found that alveolar flow rotation, and by implication chaotic mixing, are strongest in the entrance generations. We also found that the expanding alveolus provides a pathway by which particles with little intrinsic motion can enter the alveoli. Thus, our results offer a possible explanation for why submicron particles deposit preferentially in acinar entrance region. PMID:20887011

  12. Radial Measurements of Gas Discharge Parameters of Atmospheric Pressure Microplasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caetano, R.; Hoyer, Y. D.; Barbosa, I. M.; Grigorov, K. G.; Sismanoglu, B. N.

    2013-07-01

    In this work Abel inversion technique was used for radial measurements of the microplasma in Ar-2%H2 flow at open atmosphere. The gas discharge parameters were investigated using spatially resolved high resolution optical emission spectroscopy (OES) to allow acquisition of OH (A 2?+, ? = 0 ?X 2?, ?? = 0) rotational bands at 306.357 nm, Ar I 603.213 nm line and N2(C3?u, ? = 0 ?B3?g, ?? = 0) second positive system with the band head at 337.13 nm. The nonthermal plasma was generated between microhollow anode ( 500 ?m inner diameter) and a cathode copper foil, fed by direct current source for a current ranging from 20 mA to 100 mA (Townsend discharge from 20 mA to 30 mA, normal glow discharge from 30 mA to 80 mA at 210 V and abnormal discharge beyond 90 mA). The 1.5 mm length cylindrical-shape plasma has an outspread bright disk (negative glow region) near the cathode surface. Besides the gas temperature, the excitation temperature was measured radially for a current ranging from 20 mA to 100 mA, either from Boltzmann-plot of Ar I 4p - 4s and 5p - 4s transitions of excited argon or from Cu I two lines method of excited cuprum atoms released from the cathode surface. The measurements showed a nearly bell-shaped distribution of these temperatures, peaked at 120 ?m from the center with the minimum at the plasma border. The average excitation temperature was about 8000 K (maximum 10,000 K) and the average rotational temperature was about 650 K (maximum 800 K) from 20 K to 100 K. For the N2 second positive system with ?? = -2 it was estimated the vibrational temperature for the bright disk (1500 K to 5000 K). H? line Stark broadening was employed to define the electron number density of the negative glow (1015cm-3).

  13. Quantitative determination of clobazam in serum and urine by gas chromatography, thin layer chromatography and fluorometry.

    PubMed

    Hajdú, P; Uihlein, M; Damm, D

    1980-04-01

    The procedures available for determination of clobazam (Frisium, Hoechst) are gas chromatography, fluorometry, and thin-layer chromatography. The study presents detailed descriptions of analytical procedures appropriate for routine determinations in serum and urine, and results from human trials. Moreover, the physicochemical properties of clobazam, viz., solubility, distribution, and protein binding are given. PMID:7381374

  14. Effect of intraparticle convection on the chromatography of biomacromolecules.

    PubMed

    Frey, D D; Schweinheim, E; Horváth, C

    1993-01-01

    The effect of intraparticle convection in chromatographic columns packed with gigaporous particles (i.e., where dpore/dparticle > 10(-2)) on the band spreading of unretained biomacromolecules is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. A model is developed for the analysis of mass transfer in spherical particles of bidisperse pore structure when both convection and diffusion take place in the larger pores but only diffusion occurs in the smaller pores. The predictions of the model were experimentally verified. It is demonstrated that gigaporous particles have advantages over conventional porous particles (i.e., where dpore/dparticle < 10(-3)) for applications that do not require high resolving power, to bring about fast separation. This is because columns packed with gigaporous particles can be operated at high flow velocities without significant loss of efficiency due to the enhancement of mass transfer by intraparticle convection. The results of the model are used to examine the effectiveness of gigaporous column packings for rapid analytical chromatography and for the concentration and recovery of a dilute solute in a saturation-regeneration cycle utilizing frontal chromatography. PMID:7763696

  15. QUESTIONING THE MACH NUMBER CRITERION OR WHY TURBULENT FLOW IS COMPRESSIBLE FLOW

    EPA Science Inventory

    According to Frick and Sigleo (1999) turbulence is a distinct and observable physical process in which flow, which is initially one-dimensional (the stem), is converted into two-dimensional radial flow (the cap) by shear. In the stem the incompressible equations of mass and momen...

  16. Supplementary Information for Quantum Coupled Radial-Breathing Oscillations in

    E-print Network

    Zettl, Alex

    chiral indices and the isolated radial breathing mode (RBM) vibration frequency-diameter relation1 Supplementary Information for Quantum Coupled Radial-Breathing Oscillations in Double channels. The Raman amplitudes for the low (AL) and high frequency modes (AH) can be respectively described

  17. Multiscale Voice Morphing Using Radial Basis Function Analysis

    E-print Network

    Roberts, Stephen

    Multiscale Voice Morphing Using Radial Basis Function Analysis Christina Orphanidou12 , Irene M voice morphing algorithm using radial basis function (RBF) analysis is presented in this paper in voice morphing. The aim of this algorithm is to transform one person's speech pattern so

  18. Radial Head Prosthetic Replacement with the Avanta Implant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard F. Morrey

    The first English reference we can find to prosthetic replacement of the radial head is that of Speed in 1941 [1] describing a Vitallium implant employed in three patients. Cherry [2] discussed limited experience with an acrylic implant a decade later and the use of a silicone radial head implant was popularized\\u000a by Swanson [3]. The logical reason to use

  19. Radial velocities in the direction of the cluster NGC 2287

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Amieux

    1988-01-01

    Mean radial velocities for 72 stars in the direction of NGC 2287 have been determined based on 10 plates obtained with the 40-cm Objective Prism of the La Silla ESO. The radial velocities are given in the IAU system with an accuracy of + or - 5 km\\/s. It is found that the peculiar star HD 49022 is variable and

  20. Radial Maze Proficiency of Adult Wistar Rats Given Prenatal

    E-print Network

    Turner, Ray

    Radial Maze Proficiency of Adult Wistar Rats Given Prenatal Complex Magnetic Field Treatments B. E or a sham condition. As adults, rats were trained in an acquisition/reversal radial maze task. All rats in working memory and motivation to complete the maze task were specific to the type of prenatal CMF