NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Basiulis, A.; Buzzard, R. J.
1971-01-01
Unit moves heat radially from small diameter shell to larger diameter shell, or vice versa, with negligible temperature drop, making device useful wherever heating or cooling of concentrically arranged materials, substances, and structures is desired.
Valenzuela, Javier (Hanover, NH)
2001-01-01
A radial flow heat exchanger (20) having a plurality of first passages (24) for transporting a first fluid (25) and a plurality of second passages (26) for transporting a second fluid (27). The first and second passages are arranged in stacked, alternating relationship, are separated from one another by relatively thin plates (30) and (32), and surround a central axis (22). The thickness of the first and second passages are selected so that the first and second fluids, respectively, are transported with laminar flow through the passages. To enhance thermal energy transfer between first and second passages, the latter are arranged so each first passage is in thermal communication with an associated second passage along substantially its entire length, and vice versa with respect to the second passages. The heat exchangers may be stacked to achieve a modular heat exchange assembly (300). Certain heat exchangers in the assembly may be designed slightly differently than other heat exchangers to address changes in fluid properties during transport through the heat exchanger, so as to enhance overall thermal effectiveness of the assembly.
Stirling Engine With Radial Flow Heat Exchangers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vitale, N.; Yarr, George
1993-01-01
Conflict between thermodynamical and structural requirements resolved. In Stirling engine of new cylindrical configuration, regenerator and acceptor and rejector heat exchangers channel flow of working gas in radial direction. Isotherms in regenerator ideally concentric cylinders, and gradient of temperature across regenerator radial rather than axial. Acceptor and rejector heat exchangers located radially inward and outward of regenerator, respectively. Enables substantial increase in power of engine without corresponding increase in diameter of pressure vessel.
Conduction heat transfer solutions
VanSant, J.H.
1983-08-01
This text is a collection of solutions to a variety of heat conduction problems found in numerous publications, such as textbooks, handbooks, journals, reports, etc. Its purpose is to assemble these solutions into one source that can facilitate the search for a particular problem solution. Generally, it is intended to be a handbook on the subject of heat conduction. There are twelve sections of solutions which correspond with the class of problems found in each. Geometry, state, boundary conditions, and other categories are used to classify the problems. Each problem is concisely described by geometry and condition statements, and many times a descriptive sketch is also included. The introduction presents a synopsis on the theory, differential equations, and boundary conditions for conduction heat transfer. Some discussion is given on the use and interpretation of solutions. Supplementary data such as mathematical functions, convection correlations, and thermal properties are included for aiding the user in computing numerical values from the solutions. 155 figs., 92 refs., 9 tabs.
Conduction heat transfer solutions
VanSant, J.H.
1980-03-01
This text is a collection of solutions to a variety of heat conduction problems found in numerous publications, such as textbooks, handbooks, journals, reports, etc. Its purpose is to assemble these solutions into one source that can facilitate the search for a particular problem solution. Generally, it is intended to be a handbook on the subject of heat conduction. This material is useful for engineers, scientists, technologists, and designers of all disciplines, particularly those who design thermal systems or estimate temperatures and heat transfer rates in structures. More than 500 problem solutions and relevant data are tabulated for easy retrieval. There are twelve sections of solutions which correspond with the class of problems found in each. Geometry, state, boundary conditions, and other categories are used to classify the problems. A case number is assigned to each problem for cross-referencing, and also for future reference. Each problem is concisely described by geometry and condition statements, and many times a descriptive sketch is also included. At least one source reference is given so that the user can review the methods used to derive the solutions. Problem solutions are given in the form of equations, graphs, and tables of data, all of which are also identified by problem case numbers and source references.
One-Dimensional Heat Conduction
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1992-03-09
ICARUS-LLNL was developed to solve one-dimensional planar, cylindrical, or spherical conduction heat transfer problems. The IBM PC version is a family of programs including ICARUSB, an interactive BASIC heat conduction program; ICARUSF, a FORTRAN heat conduction program; PREICAR, a BASIC preprocessor for ICARUSF; and PLOTIC and CPLOTIC, interpretive BASIC and compiler BASIC plot postprocessor programs. Both ICARUSB and ICARUSF account for multiple material regions and complex boundary conditions, such as convection or radiation. In addition,more »ICARUSF accounts for temperature-dependent material properties and time or temperature-dependent boundary conditions. PREICAR is a user-friendly preprocessor used to generate or modify ICARUSF input data. PLOTIC and CPLOTIC generate plots of the temperature or heat flux profile at specified times, plots of the variation of temperature or heat flux with time at selected nodes, or plots of the solution grid. First developed in 1974 to allow easy modeling of complex one-dimensional systems, its original application was in the nuclear explosive testing program. Since then it has undergone extensive revision and been applied to problems dealing with laser fusion target fabrication, heat loads on underground tests, magnetic fusion switching tube anodes, and nuclear waste isolation canisters.« less
Heat Transfer Experiments in the Internal Cooling Passages of a Cooled Radial Turbine Rotor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, B. V.; Wagner, J. H.
1996-01-01
An experimental study was conducted (1) to experimentally measure, assess and analyze the heat transfer within the internal cooling configuration of a radial turbine rotor blade and (2) to obtain heat transfer data to evaluate and improve computational fluid dynamics (CFD) procedures and turbulent transport models of internal coolant flows. A 1.15 times scale model of the coolant passages within the NASA LERC High Temperature Radial Turbine was designed, fabricated of Lucite and instrumented for transient beat transfer tests using thin film surface thermocouples and liquid crystals to indicate temperatures. Transient heat transfer tests were conducted for Reynolds numbers of one-fourth, one-half, and equal to the operating Reynolds number for the NASA Turbine. Tests were conducted for stationary and rotating conditions with rotation numbers in the range occurring in the NASA Turbine. Results from the experiments showed the heat transfer characteristics within the coolant passage were affected by rotation. In general, the heat transfer increased and decreased on the sides of the straight radial passages with rotation as previously reported from NASA-HOST-sponsored experiments. The heat transfer in the tri-passage axial flow region adjacent to the blade exit was relatively unaffected by rotation. However, the heat transfer on one surface, in the transitional region between the radial inflow passage and axial, constant radius passages, decreased to approximately 20 percent of the values without rotation. Comparisons with previous 3-D numerical studies indicated regions where the heat transfer characteristics agreed and disagreed with the present experiment.
Pierre Collet; Jean-Pierre Eckmann
2008-04-18
We define a deterministic ``scattering'' model for heat conduction which is continuous in space, and which has a Boltzmann type flavor, obtained by a closure based on memory loss between collisions. We prove that this model has, for stochastic driving forces at the boundary, close to Maxwellians, a unique non-equilibrium steady state.
Effective Conductivity of Spiral and other Radial Symmetric Assemblages
Andrej Cherkaev; Alexander D. Pruss
2012-06-20
Assemblies of circular inclusions with spiraling laminate structure inside them are studied, such as spirals with inner inclusions, spirals with shells, assemblies of "wheels" - structures from laminates with radially dependent volume fractions, complex axisymmetric three-dimensional micro-geometries called Connected Hubs and Spiky Balls. The described assemblages model structures met in rock mechanics, biology, etc. The classical effective medium theory coupled with hierarchical homogenization is used. It is found that fields in spiral assemblages satisfy a coupled system of two second order differential equations, rather than a single differential equation; a homogeneous external field applied to the assembly is transformed into a rotated homogeneous field inside of the inclusions. The effective conductivity of the two-dimensional Star assembly is equivalent to that of Hashin-Shtrikman coated circles, but the conductivity of analogous three-dimensional Spiky Ball is different from the conductivity of coated sphere geometry.
Mathematical model for solar drying of potato cylinders with thermal conductivity radially modulated
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trujillo Arredondo, Mariana
2014-05-01
A mathematical model for drying potato cylinders using solar radiation is proposed and solved analytically. The model incorporates the energy balance for the heat capacity of the potato, the radiation heat transfer from the potato toward the drying chamber and the solar radiation absorbed by the potato during the drying process. Potato cylinders are assumed to exhibit a thermal conductivity which is radially modulated. The method of the Laplace transform, with integral Bromwich and residue theorem will be applied and the analytic solutions for the temperature profiles in the potato cylinder will be derived in the form of an infinite series of Bessel functions, when the thermal conductivity is constant; and in the form of an infinite series of Heun functions, when the thermal conductivity has a linear radial modulation. All computations are performed using computer algebra, specifically Maple. It is expected that the analytical results obtained will be useful in food engineering and industry. Our results suggest some lines for future investigations such as the adoption of more general forms of radial modulation for the thermal conductivity of potato cylinders; and possible applications of other computer algebra software such as Maxima and Mathematica.
Reconstruction of radial thermal conductivity depth profile in case hardened steel rods
Mandelis, Andreas
Reconstruction of radial thermal conductivity depth profile in case hardened steel rods Ricardo the radial thermal conductivity of which varies continuously. It is demonstrated numerically that, using with continuously varying radial thermal conductivity can be calculated with high accuracy. Next, an inverse
Extremal structures of multiphase heat conducting composites
Cherkaev, Andrej
Extremal structures of multiphase heat conducting composites A.V. Cherkaev \\Lambda L.V. Gibiansky y usual properties: their heat conductivity in one direction is equal to the harmonic or arithmetic mean of the phases' heat conductivities and the conductivity in an orthogonal direction does not equal either
Heat transfer from a pair of radial jet reattachment flames
Mohr, J.W.; Seyed-Yagoobi, J.; Page, R.H.
1996-12-01
Flame jet impingement heat transfer for a pair of Radial Jet Reattachment Combustion (RJRC) nozzles has been studied for flames which were highly, moderately, and weakly interactive. The most uniform heat flux and temperature distributions occurred at the closest between-nozzle spacing, when the flames were highly interacting, while the highest heat flux and surface temperatures were measured when the two flame jets were moderately interacting at intermediate between-nozzle spacings. The optimal spacing for two nozzles was determined based on maximum heat flux and surface temperature. In addition, the percent overall heat transfer to the impingement surface decreased with increasing between-nozzle spacing. The results of this study provide valuable information for applying RJRC nozzles to industrial flame jet impingement heat-treatment processes.
M. Bahrami ENSC 388 (F09) Transient Conduction Heat Transfer 1 Transient Heat Conduction
Bahrami, Majid
M. Bahrami ENSC 388 (F09) Transient Conduction Heat Transfer 1 Transient Heat Conduction In general, temperature of a body varies with time) Transient Conduction Heat Transfer 2 Fig. 2: Temperature of a lump system. Using above
M. Bahrami ENSC 388 (F09) Steady Conduction Heat Transfer 1 Steady Heat Conduction
Bahrami, Majid
M. Bahrami ENSC 388 (F09) Steady Conduction Heat Transfer 1 Steady Heat Conduction In thermodynamics, we considered the amount of heat transfer as a system as 2 / mW A Q q Steady Heat Conduction in Plane Walls Conduction is the transfer of energy from
Heat conduction fronts in planetary nebulae
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Soker, Noam
1994-01-01
We present arguments which suggest that many of the x-ray, some optical, and some UV observations of planetary nebulae, can be explained by the presence of heat conduction fronts. The heat flows from the hot bubble formed by the shocked fast wind to the cool shell and halo. Heat conduction fronts are likely to account for emission of x rays from plasma at lower temperature than the expected temperature of the hot bubble. In the presence of magnetic fields, only a small fraction of the fast wind luminosity emerges as radiation. Heat conduction fronts can naturally produce some unusual line flux ratios, which are observed in some planetary nebulae. Heat conduction fronts may heat the halo and cause some material at the inner surface of the shell to expand slower than the rest of the shell. In the presence of an asymmetrical magnetic field, this flow, the x-ray intensity, and the emission lines, may acquire asymmetrical structure as well.
Heat conductivity in linear mixing systems
Baowen Li; Giulio Casati; Jiao Wang
2002-08-06
We present analytical and numerical results on the heat conduction in a linear mixing system. In particular we consider a quasi one dimensional channel with triangular scatterers with internal angles irrational multiples of pi and we show that the system obeys Fourier law of heat conduction. Therefore deterministic diffusion and normal heat transport which are usually associated to full hyperbolicity, actually take place in systems without exponential instability.
Information filtering via biased heat conduction.
Liu, Jian-Guo; Zhou, Tao; Guo, Qiang
2011-09-01
The process of heat conduction has recently found application in personalized recommendation [Zhou et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 4511 (2010)], which is of high diversity but low accuracy. By decreasing the temperatures of small-degree objects, we present an improved algorithm, called biased heat conduction, which could simultaneously enhance the accuracy and diversity. Extensive experimental analyses demonstrate that the accuracy on MovieLens, Netflix, and Delicious datasets could be improved by 43.5%, 55.4% and 19.2%, respectively, compared with the standard heat conduction algorithm and also the diversity is increased or approximately unchanged. Further statistical analyses suggest that the present algorithm could simultaneously identify users' mainstream and special tastes, resulting in better performance than the standard heat conduction algorithm. This work provides a creditable way for highly efficient information filtering. PMID:22060533
Information filtering via biased heat conduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Jian-Guo; Zhou, Tao; Guo, Qiang
2011-09-01
The process of heat conduction has recently found application in personalized recommendation [Zhou , Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA PNASA60027-842410.1073/pnas.1000488107107, 4511 (2010)], which is of high diversity but low accuracy. By decreasing the temperatures of small-degree objects, we present an improved algorithm, called biased heat conduction, which could simultaneously enhance the accuracy and diversity. Extensive experimental analyses demonstrate that the accuracy on MovieLens, Netflix, and Delicious datasets could be improved by 43.5%, 55.4% and 19.2%, respectively, compared with the standard heat conduction algorithm and also the diversity is increased or approximately unchanged. Further statistical analyses suggest that the present algorithm could simultaneously identify users' mainstream and special tastes, resulting in better performance than the standard heat conduction algorithm. This work provides a creditable way for highly efficient information filtering.
Cryogenic regenerator including sarancarbon heat conduction matrix
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jones, Jack A. (Inventor); Petrick, S. Walter (Inventor); Britcliffe, Michael J. (Inventor)
1989-01-01
A saran carbon matrix is employed to conduct heat through the heat storing volume of a cryogenic regenerator. When helium is adsorbed into the saran carbon matrix, the combination exhibits a volumetric specific heat much higher than previously used lead balls. A helium adsorbed saran regenerator should allow much lower refrigerator temperatures than those practically obtainable with lead based regenerators for regenerator type refrigeration systems.
The Conduction of Heat through Cryogenic Regenerative Heat Exchangers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Superczynski, W. F.; Green, G. F.
2006-04-01
The need for improved regenerative cryocooler efficiency may require the replacement of conventional matrices with ducts. The ducts can not be continuous in the direction of temperature gradient when using conventional materials to prevent unacceptable conduction losses. However, this discontinuity creates a complex geometry to model and determine conduction losses. Chesapeake Cryogenics, Inc. has designed, fabricated and tested an apparatus for measuring the heat conduction through regenerative heat exchangers implementing different matrices. Data is presented for stainless steel photo etched disk, phophorus-bronze embossed ribbon coils and screens made of both stainless steel and phosphorus-bronze. The heat conduction was measured with the regenerators evacuated and pressurized with helium gas. In this test apparatus, helium gas presence increased the heat leak significantly. A description of the test apparatus, instrumentation, experimental methods and data analysis are presented.
Compact pulsed laser having improved heat conductance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yang, L. C. (inventor)
1977-01-01
A highly efficient, compact pulsed laser having high energy to weight and volume ratios is provided. The laser utilizes a cavity reflector that operates as a heat sink and is essentially characterized by having a high heat conductivity, by being a good electrical insulator and by being substantially immune to the deleterious effects of ultra-violet radiation. Manual portability is accomplished by eliminating entirely any need for a conventional circulating fluid cooling system.
Measurement of heat conduction through stacked screens
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lewis, M. A.; Kuriyama, T.; Kuriyama, F.; Radebaugh, R.
1998-01-01
This paper describes the experimental apparatus for the measurement of heat conduction through stacked screens as well as some experimental results taken with the apparatus. Screens are stacked in a fiberglass-epoxy cylinder, which is 24.4 mm in diameter and 55 mm in length. The cold end of the stacked screens is cooled by a Gifford-McMahon (GM) cryocooler at cryogenic temperature, and the hot end is maintained at room temperature. Heat conduction through the screens is determined from the temperature gradient in a calibrated heat flow sensor mounted between the cold end of the stacked screens and the GM cryocooler. The samples used for these experiments consisted of 400-mesh stainless steel screens, 400-mesh phosphor bronze screens, and two different porosities of 325-mesh stainless steel screens. The wire diameter of the 400-mesh stainless steel and phosphor bronze screens was 25.4 micrometers and the 325-mesh stainless steel screen wire diameters were 22.9 micrometers and 27.9 micrometers. Standard porosity values were used for the experimental data with additional porosity values used on selected experiments. The experimental results showed that the helium gas between each screen enhanced the heat conduction through the stacked screens by several orders of magnitude compared to that in vacuum. The conduction degradation factor is the ratio of actual heat conduction to the heat conduction where the regenerator material is assumed to be a solid rod of the same cross sectional area as the metal fraction of the screen. This factor was about 0.1 for the stainless steel and 0.022 for the phosphor bronze, and almost constant for the temperature range of 40 to 80 K at the cold end.
Finite Heat conduction in 2D Lattices
Lei Yang; Yang Kongqing
2001-07-30
This paper gives a 2D hamonic lattices model with missing bond defects, when the capacity ratio of defects is enough large, the temperature gradient can be formed and the finite heat conduction is found in the model. The defects in the 2D harmonic lattices impede the energy carriers free propagation, by another words, the mean free paths of the energy carrier are relatively short. The microscopic dynamics leads to the finite conduction in the model.
Large variable conductance heat pipe. Transverse header
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edelstein, F.
1975-01-01
The characteristics of gas-loaded, variable conductance heat pipes (VCHP) are discussed. The difficulties involved in developing a large VCHP header are analyzed. The construction of the large capacity VCHP is described. A research project to eliminate some of the problems involved in large capacity VCHP operation is explained.
Heat conduction in one dimensional chains
Bambi Hu; Baowen LI; Hong Zhao
1997-12-05
We study numerically the thermal conductivity in several different one dimensional chains. We show that the phonon-lattice interaction is the main ingredient of the Fourier heat law. Our argument provides a rather satisfactory explanation to all existing numerical results concerning this problem.
Heat conductivity of a pion gas
Antonio Dobado Gonzalez; Felipe J. Llanes-Estrada; Juan M. Torres Rincon
2007-02-13
We evaluate the heat conductivity of a dilute pion gas employing the Uehling-Uehlenbeck equation and experimental phase-shifts parameterized by means of the SU(2) Inverse Amplitude Method. Our results are consistent with previous evaluations. For comparison we also give results for an (unphysical) hard sphere gas.
North, Gretchen B.; Lynch, Frank H.; Maharaj, Franklin D. R.; Phillips, Carly A.; Woodside, Walter T.
2013-01-01
Epiphytic plants in the Bromeliaceae known as tank bromeliads essentially lack stems and absorptive roots and instead take up water from reservoirs formed by their overlapping leaf bases. For such plants, leaf hydraulic conductance is plant hydraulic conductance. Their simple strap-shaped leaves and parallel venation make them suitable for modeling leaf hydraulic conductance based on vasculature and other anatomical and morphological traits. Plants of the tank bromeliad Guzmania lingulata were investigated in a lowland tropical forest in Costa Rica and a shaded glasshouse in Los Angeles, CA, USA. Stomatal conductance to water vapor and leaf anatomical variables related to hydraulic conductance were measured for both groups. Tracheid diameters and numbers of vascular bundles (veins) were used with the Hagen–Poiseuille equation to calculate axial hydraulic conductance. Measurements of leaf hydraulic conductance using the evaporative flux method were also made for glasshouse plants. Values for axial conductance and leaf hydraulic conductance were used in a model based on leaky cable theory to estimate the conductance of the radial pathway from the vein to the leaf surface and to assess the relative contributions of both axial and radial pathways. In keeping with low stomatal conductance, low stomatal density, low vein density, and narrow tracheid diameters, leaf hydraulic conductance for G. lingulata was quite low in comparison with most other angiosperms. Using the predicted axial conductance in the leaky cable model, the radial resistance across the leaf mesophyll was predicted to predominate; lower, more realistic values of axial conductance resulted in predicted radial resistances that were closer to axial resistance in their impact on total leaf resistance. Tracer dyes suggested that water uptake through the tank region of the leaf was not limiting. Both dye movement and the leaky cable model indicated that the leaf blade of G. lingulata was structurally and hydraulically well-suited to conserve water. PMID:23596446
Heat Rejection from a Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Radiator Panel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jaworske, D. A.; Gibson, M. A.; Hervol, D. S.
2012-01-01
A titanium-water heat pipe radiator having an innovative proprietary evaporator configuration was evaluated in a large vacuum chamber equipped with liquid nitrogen cooled cold walls. The radiator was manufactured by Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT), Lancaster, PA, and delivered as part of a Small Business Innovative Research effort. The radiator panel consisted of five titanium-water heat pipes operating as thermosyphons, sandwiched between two polymer matrix composite face sheets. The five variable conductance heat pipes were purposely charged with a small amount of non-condensable gas to control heat flow through the condenser. Heat rejection was evaluated over a wide range of inlet water temperature and flow conditions, and heat rejection was calculated in real-time utilizing a data acquisition system programmed with the Stefan-Boltzmann equation. Thermography through an infra-red transparent window identified heat flow across the panel. Under nominal operation, a maximum heat rejection value of over 2200 Watts was identified. The thermal vacuum evaluation of heat rejection provided critical information on understanding the radiator s performance, and in steady state and transient scenarios provided useful information for validating current thermal models in support of the Fission Power Systems Project.
Effects of anisotropic heat conduction on solidification
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weaver, J. A.; Viskanta, R.
1989-01-01
Two-dimensional solidification influenced by anisotropic heat conduction has been considered. The interfacial energy balance was derived to account for the heat transfer in one direction (x or y) depending on the temperature gradient in both the x and y directions. A parametric study was made to determine the effects of the Stefan number, aspect ratio, initial superheat, and thermal conductivity ratios on the solidification rate. Because of the imposed boundary conditions, the interface became skewed and sometimes was not a straight line between the interface position at the upper and lower adiabatic walls (spatially nonlinear along the height). This skewness depends on the thermal conductivity ratio k(yy)/k(yx). The nonlinearity of the interface is influenced by the solidification rate, aspect ratio, and k(yy/k(yx).
Qualitative aspects in dualphaselag heat conduction Ram on Quintanilla 1
Racke, Reinhard
Qualitative aspects in dualÂphaseÂlag heat conduction Ramâ?? on Quintanilla 1 Department of Applied.racke@uniÂkonstanz.de Abstract: We consider the system of dualÂphaseÂlag heat conduction proposed by Tzou [21]. First, we prove of heat conduction based on Fourier's law predicts infinite heat propagation speed. Heat transmission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruiz, Maritza
Thermal management of systems under high heat fluxes on the order of hundreds of W/cm2 is important for the safety, performance and lifetime of devices, with innovative cooling technologies leading to improved performance of electronics or concentrating solar photovoltaics. A novel, spiraling radial inflow microchannel heat sink for high flux cooling applications, using a single phase or vaporizing coolant, has demonstrated enhanced heat transfer capabilities. The design of the heat sink provides an inward swirl flow between parallel, coaxial disks that form a microchannel of 1 cm radius and 300 micron channel height with a single inlet and a single outlet. The channel is heated on one side through a conducting copper surface, and is essentially adiabatic on the opposite side to simulate a heat sink scenario for electronics or concentrated photovoltaics cooling. Experimental results on the heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics in the heat sink, using single phase water as a working fluid, revealed heat transfer enhancements due to flow acceleration and induced secondary flows when compared to unidirectional laminar fully developed flow between parallel plates. Additionally, thermal gradients on the surface are small relative to the bulk fluid temperature gain, a beneficial feature for high heat flux cooling applications. Heat flux levels of 113 W/cm2 at a surface temperature of 77 deg C were reached with a ratio of pumping power to heat rate of 0.03%. Analytical models on single phase flow are used to explore the parametric trends of the flow rate and passage geometry on the streamlines and pressure drop through the device. Flow boiling heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics were obtained for this heat sink using water at near atmospheric pressure as the working fluid for inlet subcooling levels ranging from 20 to 80 deg C and mean mass flux levels ranging from 184-716 kg/m. 2s. Flow enhancements similar to singlephase flow were expected, as well as enhancements due to increased buoyant forces on vapor bubbles resulting from centripetal acceleration in the flow which will tend to draw the vapor towards the outlet. This can also aid in the reduction of vapor obstruction of the flow. The flow was identified as transitioning through three regimes as the heat rate was increased: partial subcooled flow boiling, oscillating boiling and fully developed flow boiling. During partial subcooled flow boiling, both forced convective and nucleate boiling effects are important. During oscillating boiling, the system fluctuated between partial subcooled flow boiling and fully developed nucleate boiling. Temperature and pressure oscillations were significant in this regime and are likely due to bubble constriction of flow in the microchannel. This regime of boiling is generally undesirable due to the large oscillations in temperatures and pressure and design constraints should be established to avoid large oscillations from occurring. During fully developed flow boiling, water vapor rapidly leaves the surface and the flow does not sustain large oscillations. Reducing inlet subcooling levels was found to reduce the magnitude of oscillations in the oscillating boiling regime. Additionally, reduced inlet subcooling levels reduced the average surface temperature at the highest heat flux levels tested when heat transfer was dominated by nucleate boiling, yet increased the average surface temperatures at low heat flux levels when heat transfer was dominated by forced convection. Experiments demonstrated heat fluxes up to 301 W/cm. 2at an average surface temperature of 134 deg C under partial subcooled flow boiling conditions. At this peak heat flux, the system required a pumping power to heat rate ratio of 0.01%. This heat flux is 2.4 times the typical values for critical heat flux in pool boiling under similar conditions.
Interfacial Heat Conduction in Modern Semiconductor Nanostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goodson, Kenneth
2015-03-01
Heat conduction through interfaces in electronic nanostructures grows more important with the dimensional scaling trends throughout the semiconductor industry. The complexity of interfacial transport has increased owing to frequent examples of severe lattice mismatch and strain, boundaries with nanoscale non-planar features and, in some cases, the critical role of electron-phonon interactions. This talk will describe measurements and modeling of phonon heat conduction through interfaces in some of the latest semiconductor nanotechnologies and feature a range of material combinations. Examples include GaN-diamond and silicon-diamond composites, chalcogenide-metal multilayers, metal-semiconductor nanolayer stacks, and nonplanar interfaces in modern nanotransistors and interconnect structures. Applications range from conventional CMOS electronics and phase change memory to quantum cascade lasers and RF amplifiers for satellites.
Heat conduction of laser vanadate crystals
Zagumennyi, A I; Zavartsev, Yu D; Kutovoi, S A; Shcherbakov, I A; Popov, P A; Zerouk, F
2008-03-31
The heat conduction of laser vanadate crystals GdVO{sub 4} and YVO{sub 4} and their solid solutions is measured in the temperature interval from 50 to 350 K. Mixed rare-earth vanadates have the common chemical formula Re'{sub 1-x}Re''{sub x}VO{sub 4}, where Re' and Re'' are two or more types of ions from a series La{sup 3+}, Pr{sup 3+}, Nd{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+}, Gd{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+}, Ho{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+}, Tm{sup 3+}, Yb{sup 3+}, Lu{sup 3+}, Sc{sup 3+}, Y{sup 3+}. The heat conduction of Nd:YVO{sub 4} measured at room temperature proved to be more than twice higher than that reported in the literature and in certificate characteristics of laser Nd:YVO{sub 4} elements manufactured by numerous commercial companies. The empirical dependences of the heat conduction along the crystallographic axes <100> and <001> on the composition of rare-earth vanadates Re'{sub 1-x}Re''{sub x}VO{sub 4}, are obtained in the temperature interval from 200 to 350 K. (active media)
Mohan, R.S.; Kovacevic, R.; Beardsley, H.E.
1996-12-31
In abrasive waterjet (AWJ) cutting, the cutting tool is a thin stream of high velocity abrasive waterjet slurry which can be considered as a moving line heat source that increases the temperature of the narrow zone along the cut kerf wall. A suitably defined inverse heat conduction problem which uses the experimentally determined temperature histories at various points in the workpiece, is adopted to determine the heat flux at the cutting zone. Temperature distribution in the workpiece and the cutting nozzle during AWJ cutting is monitored using infrared thermography. A suitable strategy for on-line monitoring of the radial and axial wear of the AWJ nozzle based on the nozzle temperature distribution is also proposed.
Equilibrium molecular dynamics study of heat conduction in octane
Wang, Yi Jenny
2015-01-01
Fluids are important components in heat transfer systems. Understanding heat conduction in liquids at the atomic level would allow better design of liquids with specific heat transfer properties. However, heat transfer in ...
Long and high conductance helium heat pipe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gully, Philippe
2014-11-01
This paper reports on the development and the thermal tests of two superfluid helium heat pipes. They feature a copper braid located inside a 6 mm outer diameter stainless tube fitted with copper ends for mechanical anchoring. The copper braid is the support of the Rollin superfluid helium film which is essential in the heat transfer. The extremely low thickness of the liquid film allows for a low filling pressure, making the technology very simple without the need for any external hot reservoir and with the possibility to easily bend the tube. We present the design and discuss the thermal performance of two heat pipes tested for several filling pressures, adverse tilt angles and in 1.4-2.0 K temperature range. A minimum filling pressure (0.6 MPa) is needed to get significant transport capacity. A 12 mW transport capacity is achieved for 3.0 MPa filling pressure. It is shown that the long heat pipe (1.2 m) and the short one (0.25 m) have similar thermal performance in adverse tilt. At 1.7 K the long heat pipe, 120 g in weight, reaches a transport capacity of 5.7 mW/4.2 mW for a tilt angle of 0 / 60° and a thermal conductance of 600 mW/K for 4 mW transferred power. When the condenser reaches the super-fluid transition temperature, the Rollin film accelerates the cool down of the evaporator down to 1.7 K with a heating power applied to the evaporator.
Heat conductivity in linear mixing systems Baowen Li,1
Heat conductivity in linear mixing systems Baowen Li,1 Giulio Casati,1,2 and Jiao Wang1,3 1 on the heat conduction in a linear mixing system. In particular we consider a quasi-one-dimensional channel obeys the Fourier law of heat conduction. Therefore, deterministic diffusion and normal heat transport
Microscale Heat Conduction Models and Doppler Feedback
Hawari, Ayman I.; Ougouag, Abderrafi
2015-01-22
The objective of this project is to establish an approach for providing the fundamental input that is needed to estimate the magnitude and time- dependence of the Doppler feedback mechanism in Very High Temperature reactors. This mechanism is the foremost contributor to the passive safety of gas-cooled, graphite-moderated high temperature reactors that use fuel based on Tristructural-Isotropic (TRISO) coated particles. Therefore, its correct prediction is essential to the conduct of safety analyses for these reactors. Since the effect is directly dependent on the actual temperature reached by the fuel during transients, the underlying phenomena of heat deposition, heat transfer and temperature rise must be correctly predicted. To achieve the above objective, this project will explore an approach that accounts for lattice effects as well as local temperature variations and the correct definition of temperature and related local effects.
Parallelized solvers for heat conduction formulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Padovan, Joe; Kwang, Abel
1991-01-01
Based on multilevel partitioning, this paper develops a structural parallelizable solution methodology that enables a significant reduction in computational effort and memory requirements for very large scale linear and nonlinear steady and transient thermal (heat conduction) models. Due to the generality of the formulation of the scheme, both finite element and finite difference simulations can be treated. Diverse model topologies can thus be handled, including both simply and multiply connected (branched/perforated) geometries. To verify the methodology, analytical and numerical benchmark trends are verified in both sequential and parallel computer environments.
Thermoelastic damping in thin microrings with two-dimensional heat conduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fang, Yuming; Li, Pu
2015-05-01
Accurate determination of thermoelastic damping (TED) is very challenging in the design of micro-resonators. Microrings are widely used in many micro-resonators. In the past, to model the TED effect on the microrings, some analytical models have been developed. However, in the previous works, the heat conduction within the microring is modeled by using the one-dimensional approach. The governing equation for heat conduction is solved only for the one-dimensional heat conduction along the radial thickness of the microring. This paper presents a simple analytical model for TED in microrings. The two-dimensional heat conduction over the thermoelastic temperature gradients along the radial thickness and the circumferential direction are considered in the present model. A two-dimensional heat conduction equation is developed. The solution of the equation is represented by the product of an assumed sine series along the radial thickness and an assumed trigonometric series along the circumferential direction. The analytical results obtained by the present 2-D model show a good agreement with the numerical (FEM) results. The limitations of the previous 1-D model are assessed.
Panchagnula, Mahesh
. Undergraduate conduction and convection heat transfer, or equivalent 2. Advanced undergraduate mathematicsME 6010 CONDUCTION HEAT TRANSFER 1998 Catalog Data: ME 6010. Conduction Heat Transfer. Lec. 3. Cr heat transfer and to demonstrate the variety of analytical and numerical techniques used
Information filtering via weighted heat conduction algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Jian-Guo; Guo, Qiang; Zhang, Yi-Cheng
2011-06-01
In this paper, by taking into account effects of the user and object correlations on a heat conduction (HC) algorithm, a weighted heat conduction (WHC) algorithm is presented. We argue that the edge weight of the user-object bipartite network should be embedded into the HC algorithm to measure the object similarity. The numerical results indicate that both the accuracy and diversity could be improved greatly compared with the standard HC algorithm and the optimal values reached simultaneously. On the Movielens and Netflix datasets, the algorithmic accuracy, measured by the average ranking score, can be improved by 39.7% and 56.1% in the optimal case, respectively, and the diversity could reach 0.9587 and 0.9317 when the recommendation list equals to 5. Further statistical analysis indicates that, in the optimal case, the distributions of the edge weight are changed to the Poisson form, which may be the reason why HC algorithm performance could be improved. This work highlights the effect of edge weight on a personalized recommendation study, which maybe an important factor affecting personalized recommendation performance.
Heat conduction in X-ray clusters: Spitzer over 3
Andrei Gruzinov
2002-03-04
Effective heat conduction in a random variable magnetic field should be equal to one third of the Spitzer's value. Recent observations indicate that this heat conduction is sufficient to account for the bremsstrahlung in cooling X-ray clusters.
A generalization of Beck's method for Inverse Heat Conduction Problems
Reinhardt, Hans-JÃ¼rgen
A generalization of Beck's method for Inverse Heat Conduction Problems H.-J. Reinhardt and Dinh Nho H`ao 1 Introduction Inverse Heat Conduction Problems (abbr.: IHCP) occur whenever surface are used. In this paper we present the Inverse Heat Conduction Problem in a general setting and outline
Hierarchical Bayesian Models for Inverse Problems in Heat Conduction
Zabaras, Nicholas J.
Hierarchical Bayesian Models for Inverse Problems in Heat Conduction Jingbo Wang and Nicholas inverse problems in heat conduction with consideration of uncertainties in the measured temperature data. § Corresponding author: Nicholas Zabaras (zabaras@cornell.edu) #12;Bayesian model for inverse heat conduction 2 1
COMPRESSIBLE NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS WITH HYPERBOLIC HEAT CONDUCTION
Racke, Reinhard
COMPRESSIBLE NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS WITH HYPERBOLIC HEAT CONDUCTION YUXI HU AND REINHARD RACKE heat conduction, i.e., replacing the Fourier's law by Cattaneo's law. First, by using Kawashima: Compressible Navier-Stokes; hyperbolic heat conduction; global so- lution; singular limit AMS classification
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF A VISCOELASTIC FLUID WITH ANISOTROPIC HEAT CONDUCTION
Wapperom, Peter
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF A VISCOELASTIC FLUID WITH ANISOTROPIC HEAT CONDUCTION P. WAPPEROM and M contraction. Key words: shift factors, dissipation, anisotropic heat conduction, finite elements, streamline with Fourier's law, where the heat conduction may be anisotropic. In the derivation of a temperature equation
October 2011 SDI FEP Issues Heat Conduction Issues (HC)
October 2011 SDI FEP Issues Heat Conduction Issues (HC) SDI(HC) -1 DOE needs to provide of the run-of-mine salt would conduct less heat away from the heater than that analyzed here, and potentially temperature halite and run-of-mine salt would conduct less heat away from the heater and potentially produce
Heat conduction in 2d nonlinear lattices
A. Lippi; R. Livi
1999-10-26
The divergence of the heat conductivity in the thermodynamic limit is investigated in 2d-lattice models of anharmonic solids with nearest-neighbour interaction from single-well potentials. Two different numerical approaches based on nonequilibrium and equilibrium simulations provide consistent indications in favour of a logarithmic divergence in "ergodic", i.e. highly chaotic, dynamical regimes. Analytical estimates obtained in the framework of linear-response theory confirm this finding, while tracing back the physical origin of this {\\sl anomalous} transport to the slow diffusion of the energy of long-wavelength effective Fourier modes. Finally, numerical evidence of {\\sl superanomalous} transport is given in the weakly chaotic regime, typically found below some energy density threshold.
Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Heat Conduction in Nanostructures: Effect of Heat Bath
Li, Baowen
Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Heat Conduction in Nanostructures: Effect of Heat Bath Jie CHEN1 on heat conduction in nanostructures exemplified by silicon nanowires (SiNWs) and silicon/germanium nano produce consistent results with experiment in large heat bath parameter range. KEYWORDS: heat conduction
Gan, K F; Ahn, J-W; Park, J-W; Maingi, R; McLean, A G; Gray, T K; Gong, X; Zhang, X D
2013-02-01
The divertor heat flux footprint in tokamaks is often observed to be non-axisymmetric due to intrinsic error fields, applied 3D magnetic fields or during transients such as edge localized modes. Typically, only 1D radial heat flux profiles are analyzed; however, analysis of the full 2D divertor measurements provides opportunities to study the asymmetric nature of the deposited heat flux. To accomplish this an improved 3D Fourier analysis method has been successfully applied in a heat conduction solver (TACO) to determine the 2D heat flux distribution at the lower divertor surface in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) tokamak. This advance enables study of helical heat deposition onto the divertor. In order to account for heat transmission through poorly adhered surface layers on the divertor plate, a heat transmission coefficient, defined as the surface layer thermal conductivity divided by the thickness of the layer, was introduced to the solution of heat conduction equation. This coefficient is denoted as ? and a range of values were tested in the model to ensure a reliable heat flux calculation until a specific value of ? led to the constant total deposited energy in the numerical solution after the end of discharge. A comparison between 1D heat flux profiles from TACO and from a 2D heat flux calculation code, THEODOR, shows good agreement. Advantages of 2D heat flux distribution over the conventional 1D heat flux profile are also discussed, and examples of 2D data analysis in the study of striated heat deposition pattern as well as the toroidal degree of asymmetry of peak heat flux and heat flux width are demonstrated. PMID:23464209
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gan, K. F.; Ahn, J.-W.; Park, J.-W.; Maingi, R.; McLean, A. G.; Gray, T. K.; Gong, X.; Zhang, X. D.
2013-02-01
The divertor heat flux footprint in tokamaks is often observed to be non-axisymmetric due to intrinsic error fields, applied 3D magnetic fields or during transients such as edge localized modes. Typically, only 1D radial heat flux profiles are analyzed; however, analysis of the full 2D divertor measurements provides opportunities to study the asymmetric nature of the deposited heat flux. To accomplish this an improved 3D Fourier analysis method has been successfully applied in a heat conduction solver (TACO) to determine the 2D heat flux distribution at the lower divertor surface in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) tokamak. This advance enables study of helical heat deposition onto the divertor. In order to account for heat transmission through poorly adhered surface layers on the divertor plate, a heat transmission coefficient, defined as the surface layer thermal conductivity divided by the thickness of the layer, was introduced to the solution of heat conduction equation. This coefficient is denoted as ? and a range of values were tested in the model to ensure a reliable heat flux calculation until a specific value of ? led to the constant total deposited energy in the numerical solution after the end of discharge. A comparison between 1D heat flux profiles from TACO and from a 2D heat flux calculation code, THEODOR, shows good agreement. Advantages of 2D heat flux distribution over the conventional 1D heat flux profile are also discussed, and examples of 2D data analysis in the study of striated heat deposition pattern as well as the toroidal degree of asymmetry of peak heat flux and heat flux width are demonstrated.
Radial effects in heating and thermal stability of a sub-ignited tokamak
Fuchs, V.; Shoucri, M.M.; Thibaudeau, G.; Harten, L.; Bers, A.
1982-02-01
The existence of thermally stable sub-ignited equilibria of a tokamak reactor, sustained in operation by a feedback-controlled supplementary heating source, is demonstrated. The establishment of stability depends on a number of radially non-uniform, nonlinear processes whose effect is analyzed. One-dimensional (radial) stability analyses of model transport equations, together with numerical results from a 1-D transport code, are used in studying the heating of DT-plasmas in the thermonuclear regime. Plasma core supplementary heating is found to be a thermally more stable process than bulk heating. In the presence of impurity line radiation, however, core-heated temperature profiles may collapse, contracting inward from the limiter, the result of an instability caused by the increasing nature of the radiative cooling rate, with decreasing temperature. Conditions are established for the realization of a sub-ignited high-Q, toroidal reactor plasma with appreciable output power (approx. = 2000 MW thermal).
Electrohydrodynamic instability in an annular liquid layer with radial conductivity gradients.
Ding, Zijing; Wong, Teck Neng
2014-03-01
In this paper, the electrohydrodynamic stability in an annular liquid layer with a radial electrical conductivity gradient is investigated. A weak shear flow arises from a constant pressure gradient in the axial direction. In the radial direction, an electric field is applied. The three-dimensional linear instability analysis is implemented to study the influence of the inner radius, electrical conductivity gradient, shear flow, and ionic diffusion on the dynamics of the fluid layer. It is found that the critical unstable mode may either be oscillatory or stationary. The system becomes more unstable as the dimensionless inner radius a increases. When the inner radius a is small, the critical unstable mode is stationary, while it is given by three-dimensional oblique waves when a is large. When the conductivity gradient is small, the critical unstable mode is the three-dimensional oblique wave, while when the conductivity gradient is large, it would switch to the stationary mode rather than the oscillatory mode. The system becomes more unstable when the Reynolds number is slightly increased from zero. Additionally, it is found that the electrical Schmidt number has dual effects. The liquid layer becomes either more unstable or stable as the electric Schmidt number increases. PMID:24730940
Compact laser through improved heat conductance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yang, L. C.
1975-01-01
A 16-joule-pulse laser has been developed in which a boron nitride heat-conductor enclosure is used to remove heat from the elements. Enclosure is smaller and lighter than systems in which cooling fluids are used.
Solid water phantom heat conduction: Heating and cooling rates.
Butson, Martin J; Cheung, Tsang; Yu, Peter K N
2008-01-01
Solid water is often the phantom material of choice for dosimetry procedures in radiotherapy high-energy X-ray and electron beam radiation calibration and quality assurance. This note investigates variation in heat conduction that can occur for a common commercially available solid water stack phantom when a temperature differential occurs between the phantom and ambient temperature. These variations in temperature can then affect radiation measurements and thus the accuracy of radiation dosimetry. In this manuscript, we aim to investigate the variations in temperature which can occur in radiation measurement incorporated (RMI) solid water phantoms, their thermal properties and the effects on radiation dosimetry which can occur because of temperature differentials. Results have shown that the rate of temperature change at a phantom center is a complex function but appears relatively proportional to the surface area of the phantom in normal clinical usage. It is also dependent on the thermal conductivity of any material in contact with the phantom; and the nature of the phantom construction, i.e., the number and thickness of slices within the phantom. A thermal time constant of approximately 20 min was measured for a 2-cm solid water phantom slice when located on a steel workbench in comparison to 60 min when located on a wooden workbench (linac couch insert). It is found that for larger solid water stack phantoms, a transient (within 1 degrees C) thermal equilibrium exists at the center for up to 2 h, before the temperature begins to change. This is assumed to be due to the insulating properties of multiple slices within the stack, whereby very small air spaces are introduced inhibiting the heat conduction through the phantom material. It is therefore recommended that the solid water/phantom material is kept within the treatment room for closest thermal accuracy conditions or at least placed within the room approximately 10 h before dosimetry measurements. If these options are not available, a standard linear interpolation method for calculation of temperature should be used to minimize uncertainty of temperature measurements. PMID:20041049
Inverse Heat Conduction Using Measured Back Surface Temperature and Heat Flux
Zhang, Yuwen
. (1) h = convection heat transfer coefficient, W=m2 K k = thermal conductivity, W=m K L = thicknessInverse Heat Conduction Using Measured Back Surface Temperature and Heat Flux Jianhua Zhou, Yuwen are not directly measurable, but they can be estimated by solving an inverse heat conduction problem based
Universality of anomalous one-dimensional heat conductivity Stefano Lepri*
Politi, Antonio
Universality of anomalous one-dimensional heat conductivity Stefano Lepri* Istituto Nazionale di of heat conductivity for d 2. After the publication of the first convincing numerical evidence behavior is addressed with reference to the problem of heat transport in one-dimensional crystals, modeled
Heat Conduction in Fine Scale Mixtures With Interfacial Contact Resistance
Heat Conduction in Fine Scale Mixtures With Interfacial Contact Resistance Robert Lipton Department of the imperfect heat conduction problem (1.3) - (1.6) is given by Z k1[ k2 k(x)ruk r dx + #12; Z k [uk][ ]ds = Z of Mathematical Sciences Worcester Polytechnic Institute 100 Institute Road Worcester, MA 01609 Abstract Heat
Radial and temporal variations in surface heat transfer during cryogen spray cooling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Franco, Walfre; Liu, Jie; Wang, Guo-Xiang; Nelson, J. Stuart; Aguilar, Guillermo
2005-01-01
Cryogen spray cooling (CSC) is a heat extraction process that protects the epidermis from thermal damage during dermatologic laser surgery. The objective of the present work is to investigate radial and temporal variations in the heat transferred through the surface of a skin phantom during CSC. A fast-response thermal sensor is used to measure surface temperatures every 1 mm across a 16 mm diameter of the sprayed surface of the phantom. An analytical expression based on Fourier's law and Duhamel's theorem is used to compute surface heat fluxes from temperature measurements. Results show that radial and temporal variations of the boundary conditions have a strong influence on the homogeneity of heat extraction from the skin phantom. However, there is a subregion of uniform cooling whose size is time dependent. It is also observed that the surface heat flux undergoes a marked dynamic variation, with a maximum heat flux occurring at the centre of the sprayed surface early in the spurt followed by a quick decrease. The study shows that radial and temporal variations of boundary conditions must be taken into account and ideally controlled to guarantee uniform protection during CSC of human skin.
The effect of heat conduction on the interaction of disk and corona around black holes
E. Meyer-Hofmeister; F. Meyer
2005-12-21
Heat conduction plays an important role in the balance between heating and cooling in many astrophysical objects, e.g. cooling flows in clusters of galaxies. Here we investigate the effect of heat conduction on the interaction between a cool disk and a hot corona around black holes. Using the one-radial-zone approximation, we study the vertical structure of the disk corona and derive evaporation and coronal mass flow rates for various reduced thermal conductivities. We find lower evaporation rates and a shift in the evaporation maxima to smaller radii. This implies that the spectral state transition occurs at a lower mass flow rate and a disk truncation closer to the black hole. Reductions of thermal conductivity are thought to be magnetically caused and might vary from object to object by a different configuration of the magnetic fields.
Extended Development of Variable Conductance Heat Pipes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Antoniuk, D.; Edwards, D. K.; Luedke, E. E.
1978-01-01
A high-capacity vapor-modulated heat pipe was designed and tested. In 1977, a program was undertaken to use the aforementioned heat pipe to study protection from freezing-point failure, increase control sensitivity, and transient behavior under a wide range of operating conditions in order to determine the full performance potential of the heat pipe. A new concept, based on the vapor-induced-dry-out principle, was developed for passive feedback temperature control as a heat pipe diode. This report documents this work and describes: (1) the experimental and theoretical investigation of the performance of the vapor-modulated heat pipe; and (2) the design, fabrication and test of the heat pipe diode.
Superfluid Heat Conduction and the Cooling of Magnetized Neutron Stars
Deborah N. Aguilera; Vincenzo Cirigliano; José A. Pons; Sanjay Reddy; Rishi Sharma
2008-07-29
We report on a new mechanism for heat conduction in the neutron star crust. We find that collective modes of superfluid neutron matter, called superfluid phonons (sPhs), can influence heat conduction in magnetized neutron stars. They can dominate the heat conduction transverse to magnetic field when the magnetic field $B \\gsim 10^{13}$ G. At density $\\rho \\simeq 10^{12}-10^{14} $ g/cm$^3$ the conductivity due to sPhs is significantly larger than that due to lattice phonons and is comparable to electron conductivity when temperature $\\simeq 10^8$ K. This new mode of heat conduction can limit the surface anisotropy in highly magnetized neutron stars. Cooling curves of magnetized neutron stars with and without superfluid heat conduction could show observationally discernible differences.
Superfluid Heat Conduction and the Cooling of Magnetized Neutron Stars
Aguilera, Deborah N.; Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Reddy, Sanjay; Sharma, Rishi; Pons, Jose A.
2009-03-06
We report on a new mechanism for heat conduction in the neutron star crust. We find that collective modes of superfluid neutron matter, called superfluid phonons, can influence heat conduction in magnetized neutron stars. They can dominate the heat conduction transverse to the magnetic field when the magnetic field B > or approx. 10{sup 13} G. At a density of {rho}{approx_equal}10{sup 12}-10{sup 14} g/cm{sup 3}, the conductivity due to superfluid phonons is significantly larger than that due to lattice phonons and is comparable to electron conductivity when the temperature {approx_equal}10{sup 8} K. This new mode of heat conduction can limit the surface anisotropy in highly magnetized neutron stars. Cooling curves of magnetized neutron stars with and without superfluid heat conduction could show observationally discernible differences.
Superfluid heat conduction and the cooling of magnetized neutron stars.
Aguilera, Deborah N; Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Pons, José A; Reddy, Sanjay; Sharma, Rishi
2009-03-01
We report on a new mechanism for heat conduction in the neutron star crust. We find that collective modes of superfluid neutron matter, called superfluid phonons, can influence heat conduction in magnetized neutron stars. They can dominate the heat conduction transverse to the magnetic field when the magnetic field B> approximately 10(13) G. At a density of rho approximately 10(12)-10(14) g/cm3, the conductivity due to superfluid phonons is significantly larger than that due to lattice phonons and is comparable to electron conductivity when the temperature approximately 10(8) K. This new mode of heat conduction can limit the surface anisotropy in highly magnetized neutron stars. Cooling curves of magnetized neutron stars with and without superfluid heat conduction could show observationally discernible differences. PMID:19392503
Superfluid heat conduction and the cooling of magnetized neutron stars
Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Reddy, Sanjay; Sharma, Rishi; Aguilera, Deborah N
2008-01-01
We report on a new mechanism for heat conduction in the neutron star crust. We find that collective modes of superftuid neutron matter, called superfiuid phonons (sPhs), can influence heat conduction in magnetized neutron stars. They can dominate the heat conduction transverse to magnetic field when the magnetic field B {approx}> 10{sup 13} C. At density p {approx_equal} 10{sup 12}--10{sup 14} g/cm{sup 3} the conductivity due to sPhs is significantly larger than that due to lattice phonons and is comparable to electron conductivity at when temperature {approx_equal} 10{sup 8} K. This new mode of heat conduction can limit the surface anisotropy in highly magnetized neutron stars. Cooling curves of magnetized neutron stars with and without superfluid heat conduction show observationally discernible differences.
Theory and design of variable conductance heat pipes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marcus, B. D.
1972-01-01
A comprehensive review and analysis of all aspects of heat pipe technology pertinent to the design of self-controlled, variable conductance devices for spacecraft thermal control is presented. Subjects considered include hydrostatics, hydrodynamics, heat transfer into and out of the pipe, fluid selection, materials compatibility and variable conductance control techniques. The report includes a selected bibliography of pertinent literature, analytical formulations of various models and theories describing variable conductance heat pipe behavior, and the results of numerous experiments on the steady state and transient performance of gas controlled variable conductance heat pipes. Also included is a discussion of VCHP design techniques.
Transport of radial heat flux and second sound in fusion plasmas
Guercan, Oe. D.; Berionni, V.; Hennequin, P.; Morel, P.; Vermare, L.; Diamond, P. H.; Garbet, X.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Kosuga, Y.
2013-02-15
Simple flux-gradient relations that involve time delay and radial coupling are discussed. Such a formulation leads to a rather simple description of avalanches and may explain breaking of gyroBohm transport scaling. The generalization of the flux-gradient relation (i.e., constitutive relation), which involve both time delay and spatial coupling, is derived from drift-kinetic equation, leading to kinetic definitions of constitutive elements such as the flux of radial heat flux. This allows numerical simulations to compute these cubic quantities directly. The formulation introduced here can be viewed as an extension of turbulence spreading to include the effect of spreading of cross-phase as well as turbulence intensity, combined in such a way to give the flux. The link between turbulence spreading and entropy production is highlighted. An extension of this formulation to general quasi-linear theory for the distribution function in the phase space of radial position and parallel velocity is also discussed.
Zhigilei, Leonid V.
Heat conduction in carbon nanotube materials: Strong effect of intrinsic thermal conductivity conductivity of interconnected networks of bundles in carbon nanotube (CNT) films reveals a strong effect of the finite thermal conductivity kT of individual nanotubes on the conductivity k of the CNT materials
E × B shear pattern formation by radial propagation of heat flux waves
Kosuga, Y.; Diamond, P. H.; CASS and CMTFO, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 ; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Gürcan, Ö. D.
2014-05-15
A novel theory to describe the formation of E×B flow patterns by radially propagating heat flux waves is presented. A model for heat avalanche dynamics is extended to include a finite delay time between the instantaneous heat flux and the mean flux, based on an analogy between heat avalanche dynamics and traffic flow dynamics. The response time introduced here is an analogue of the drivers' response time in traffic dynamics. The microscopic foundation for the time delay is the time for mixing of the phase space density. The inclusion of the finite response time changes the model equation for avalanche dynamics from Burgers equation to a nonlinear telegraph equation. Based on the telegraph equation, the formation of heat flux jams is predicted. The growth rate and typical interval of jams are calculated. The connection of the jam interval to the typical step size of the E×B staircase is discussed.
Anomalous heat conduction and anomalous diffusion in one dimensional systems
Baowen Li; Jiao Wang
2003-06-23
We establish a connection between anomalous heat conduction and anomalous diffusion in one dimensional systems. It is shown that if the mean square of the displacement of the particle is $ =2Dt^{\\alpha} (0conductivity can be expressed in terms of the system size $L$ as $\\kappa = cL^{\\beta}$ with $\\beta=2-2/\\alpha$. This result predicts that a normal diffusion ($\\alpha =1$) implies a normal heat conduction obeying the Fourier law ($\\beta=0$), a superdiffusion ($\\alpha>1$) implies an anomalous heat conduction with a divergent thermal conductivity ($\\beta>0$), and more interestingly, a subdiffusion ($\\alpha heat conduction with a convergent thermal conductivity ($\\beta<0$), consequently, the system is a thermal insulator in the thermodynamic limit. Existing numerical data support our results.
Flame jet impingement heat transfer from an array of radial jet reattachment flames
Mohr, J.W.; Seyed-Yagoobi, J.; Page, R.H.
1997-07-01
The use of gas-fired rapid heating techniques for metal and glass products has many advantages over typical furnace heating techniques, namely: high thermal efficiency, improved product quality, faster heating response time, and increased productivity. Recent reviews have focused on understanding the heat transfer aspects of impinging flame jets. In their two reviews, Baukal and Gebhart discuss the experimental conditions as well as the measurements made with impinging flame jet systems. Their findings add more detailed information to the earlier work of Viskanta (1993) but these reviews clearly demonstrate the scarcity of data regarding impinging flame jets. Here, flame jet impingement heat transfer for an array of Radial Jet Reattachment Combustion (RJRC) nozzles has been studied for flames which were highly, moderately, and weakly interactive. The low, however, the most uniform between-nozzle heat flux distribution on the impingement surface occurred at the closest between-nozzle spacing, when the flames were highly interacting. The highest between-nozzle heat flux was measured when the flame jets were moderately interacting at intermediate between-nozzle spacing. At large spacings, the RJRC nozzles became weakly interacting and behaved much like independent RJRC nozzles with relatively low heat flux to the impingement surface. Based on the heat flux profiles, the optimal between-nozzle spacing was identified and flame temperatures as well as additional heat flux profiles in the direction perpendicular to the line connecting the RJRC nozzles were measured.
Dennis, Brian
in heat conduction is presented. The present FEM formulation is capable of deter- mining temperatures are presented. KEYWORDS inverse problems, finite element method, inverse heat conduction NOMENCLATURE ¢¡¤£ Damping matrix ¢¥¤¦§£ Stiffness matrix ¨ Fourier coefficient of heat conduction © Heat flux vector Heat
Heat conduction errors and time lag in cryogenic thermometer installations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Warshawsky, I.
1973-01-01
Installation practices are recommended that will increase rate of heat exchange between the thermometric sensing element and the cryogenic fluid and that will reduce the rate of undesired heat transfer to higher-temperature objects. Formulas and numerical data are given that help to estimate the magnitude of heat-conduction errors and of time lag in response.
Efficient Reformulation of HOTFGM: Heat Conduction with Variable Thermal Conductivity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhong, Yi; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Arnold, Steven M. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
Functionally graded materials (FGMs) have become one of the major research topics in the mechanics of materials community during the past fifteen years. FGMs are heterogeneous materials, characterized by spatially variable microstructure, and thus spatially variable macroscopic properties, introduced to enhance material or structural performance. The spatially variable material properties make FGMs challenging to analyze. The review of the various techniques employed to analyze the thermodynamical response of FGMs reveals two distinct and fundamentally different computational strategies, called uncoupled macromechanical and coupled micromechanical approaches by some investigators. The uncoupled macromechanical approaches ignore the effect of microstructural gradation by employing specific spatial variations of material properties, which are either assumed or obtained by local homogenization, thereby resulting in erroneous results under certain circumstances. In contrast, the coupled approaches explicitly account for the micro-macrostructural interaction, albeit at a significantly higher computational cost. The higher-order theory for functionally graded materials (HOTFGM) developed by Aboudi et al. is representative of the coupled approach. However, despite its demonstrated utility in applications where micro-macrostructural coupling effects are important, the theory's full potential is yet to be realized because the original formulation of HOTFGM is computationally intensive. This, in turn, limits the size of problems that can be solved due to the large number of equations required to mimic realistic material microstructures. Therefore, a basis for an efficient reformulation of HOTFGM, referred to as user-friendly formulation, is developed herein, and subsequently employed in the construction of the efficient reformulation using the local/global conductivity matrix approach. In order to extend HOTFGM's range of applicability, spatially variable thermal conductivity capability at the local level is incorporated into the efficient reformulation. Analytical solutions to validate both the user-friendly and efficient reformulations am also developed. Volume discretization sensitivity and validation studies, as well as a practical application of the developed efficient reformulation are subsequently carried out. The presented results illustrate the accuracy and implementability of both the user-friendly formulation and the efficient reformulation of HOTFGM.
Thermal Conductivity of Composites Under Di erent Heating Scenarios
Thermal Conductivity of Composites Under Di#11;erent Heating Scenarios H.T. Banks #3; , J.H. Hogan y , R.E. Tirpak y , S. Wynne #3; October 5, 2003 Abstract We study the overall thermal conductivity thermal conductivities, such as diamond dust, carbon #12;bers, or aluminum particles, are added to create
Heat conduction in relativistic neutral gases revisited
A. L. Garcia-Perciante; A. R. Mendez
2010-09-30
The kinetic theory of dilute gases to first order in the gradients yields linear relations between forces and fluxes. The heat flux for the relativistic gas has been shown to be related not only to the temperature gradient but also to the density gradient in the representation where number density, temperature and hydrodynamic velocity are the independent state variables. In this work we show the calculation of the corresponding transport coefficients from the full Boltzmann equation and compare the magnitude of the relativistic correction.
Modeling Earth's Outer Radiation Belt Electron Dynamics---Radial Diffusion, Heating, and Loss
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tu, Weichao
Earth's outer radiation belt is a relativistic electron environment that is hazardous to space systems. It is characterized by large variations in the electron flux, which are controlled by the competition between source, transport, and loss processes. One of the central questions in outer radiation belt research is to resolve the relative contribution of radial diffusion, wave heating, and loss to the enhancement and decay of the radiation belt electrons. This thesis studies them together and separately. Firstly, we develop an empirical Fokker-Planck model that includes radial diffusion, an internal source, and finite electron lifetimes parameterized as functions of geomagnetic indices. By simulating the observed electron variations, the model suggests that the required magnitudes of radial diffusion and internal heating for the enhancement of energetic electrons in the outer radiation belt vary from storm to storm, and generally internal heating contributes more to the enhancements of MeV energy electrons at L=4 (L is approximately the radial distance in Earth radii at the equator). However, since the source, transport, and loss terms in the model are empirical, the model results have uncertainties. To eliminate the uncertainty in the loss rate, both the precipitation and the adiabatic loss of radiation belt electrons are quantitatively studied. Based on the observations from Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX), a Drift-Diffusion model is applied to quantify electron precipitation loss, which is the dominant non-adiabatic loss mechanism for electrons in the heart of the outer radiation belt. Model results for a small storm, a moderate storm, and an intense storm indicate that fast precipitation losses of relativistic electrons, on the time scale of hours, persistently occur in the storm main phases and with more efficient losses at higher energies over wide range of L regions. Additionally, calculations of adiabatic effects on radiation belt electrons at low altitudes demonstrate that the adiabatic flux drop of electrons during the storm main phase is both altitude and storm dependent. During the main phase of a moderate geomagnetic storm, due solely to adiabatic effects a satellite at low altitude sees either zero electron flux or a fractional flux drop depending on its altitude. To physically quantify the radial diffusion rate, we use power spectral density and global mode structure of the Ultra-Low-Frequency (ULF) waves, which are derived from the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) MHD simulation and validated by field data from real satellites. The calculated total diffusion rate is shown to be dominated by the contribution from magnetic field perturbations, and much less from the electric field. Fast diffusion generally occurs when solar wind dynamic pressure is high or nightside geomagnetic activity is strong and with higher diffusion rates at higher L regions. Work performed in this thesis provides realistic loss rate and radial diffusion rate of radiation belt electrons, as well as a comprehensive Fokker-Planck model that can take the loss and radial diffusion rates as inputs and then determine the internal heating rate with less uncertainty. By this approach, we will be able to quantitatively understand the relative contribution of radial diffusion, wave heating, and loss to the variations of radiation belt electrons.
Heat conduction in one dimensional nonintegrable systems
Bambi Hu; Baowen Li; Hong Zhao
2000-02-14
Two classes of 1D nonintegrable systems represented by the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) model and the discrete $\\phi^4$ model are studied to seek a generic mechanism of energy transport in microscopic level sustaining macroscopic behaviors. The results enable us to understand why the class represented by the $\\phi^4$ model has a normal thermal conductivity and the class represented by the FPU model does not even though the temperature gradient can be established.
Heat conductivity of DNA double helix
Savin, Alexander V; Kikot, Irina P; Manevitch, Leonid I; Onufriev, Alexey V
2010-01-01
A coarse-grain (CG) model of DNA double helix is proposed in which each base is represented by 6 grains; the grains interact via effective potentials inferred from classical molecular dynamics (MD) trajectories based on a well-established all-atom potential function. Comparisons of 10 ns long MD trajectories between the CG and the corresponding all-atom model show similar root-mean-square deviations from the canonical B-form DNA, and similar structural fluctuations. At the same time, the CG model is 10 to 100 times faster depending on the length of the DNA fragment in the simulation. Analysis of dispersion curves derived from the CG model yields longitudinal sound velocity and torsional stiffness in close agreement with the experiment. The computational efficiency of the model makes it possible to calculate thermal conductivity of a single DNA molecule not yet available experimentally. For a uniform (poly-G) DNA the estimated conductivity coefficient is 0.3 W/mK which is half the value of thermal conductivity...
Enhancement of heat conduction in carbon nanotubes filled with fullerene molecules.
Cui, Liu; Feng, Yanhui; Zhang, Xinxin
2015-10-14
Heat conduction in carbon nanopeapods (CNPs), i.e. carbon nanotubes (CNTs) filled with fullerene C60 molecules, is investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. The enhancement mechanisms of CNP thermal conductivity, compared with bare CNTs, are discussed via the local heat flux onto a single atom, the relative contributions of different phonon oscillation frequencies to thermal conductivity and the phonon vibrational density of states. The result shows that filled C60 can increase the CNT thermal conductivity by up to 9.6 times in the temperature range of 100-500 K. The constructive phonon mode couplings between the tube and C60 in a frequency range of 0-20 THz, especially in x-, y-direction transverse acoustic modes and the radial breath mode, are primarily responsible for the increment of thermal conductivity. In addition, filled C60 molecules in CNPs enhance the mass transfer contribution to the total heat flux. This contribution accounts for 22-58% in CNPs, much higher than 12% in CNTs. With the temperature going up, the phonon scattering increases and the contribution from mass transfer to total heat flux decreases. Therefore, the CNP thermal conductivity decreases with rising temperature. This study sheds lights on nanoscale thermal/phonon engineering by utilization of CNTs and C60. PMID:26426675
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meher, K. C.; Tiwari, N.; Ghorui, S.; Sahasrabudhe, S. N.; Das, A. K.
2014-12-01
Axial evolutions of radial heat flux profiles in argon and nitrogen plasma jets from an atmospheric pressure dc non-transferred arc plasma torch are determined using a double calorimetric technique. Results are presented for power levels suitable for the processing of high temperature ceramic oxides, where the heat flux data reported in the literature is rare. Variations of the profile widths and profile maxima are presented as a function of axial distance as well as power. Relatively uniform profile width over prolonged axial distance for nitrogen plasma compared to argon is an important observation which has the potential to offer a much longer dwell time of the injected particles inside the plasma, avoiding the problem of unmelts, especially for ceramics. A comparative study of the heat flux profiles for argon and nitrogen plasma is presented. The obtained results are compared with the data reported in literature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farthing, P. R.; Long, C. A.; Rogers, R. H.
1991-06-01
An internal theory is used to model the flow, and predict heat transfer rates, for corotating compressor disks with a superposed radial inflow of air. Measurements of heat transfer are also made, both in an experimental rig and in an engine. The flow structure comprises source and sink regions, Ekman-type layers and an inviscid central core. Entrainment occurs in the source region, the fluid being distributed into the two nonentraining Ekman-type layers. Fluid leaves the cavity via the sink region. The integral model is validated against the experimental data, although there are some uncertainties in modeling the exact thermal conditions of the experiment. The magnitude of the Nusselt numbers is affected by the rotational Reynolds number and dimensionless flowrate; the maximum value of Nu is found to occur near the edge of the source region. The heat transfer measurements using the engine data show acceptable agreement with theory and experiment.
In situ laser heating and radial synchrotron X-ray diffraction ina diamond anvil cell
Kunz, Martin; Caldwell, Wendel A.; Miyagi, Lowell; Wenk,Hans-Rudolf
2007-06-29
We report a first combination of diamond anvil cell radialx-ray diffraction with in situ laser heating. The laser-heating setup ofALS beamline 12.2.2 was modified to allow one-sided heating of a samplein a diamond anvil cell with an 80 W yttrium lithium fluoride laser whileprobing the sample with radial x-ray diffraction. The diamond anvil cellis placed with its compressional axis vertical, and perpendicular to thebeam. The laser beam is focused onto the sample from the top while thesample is probed with hard x-rays through an x-ray transparentboron-epoxy gasket. The temperature response of preferred orientation of(Fe,Mg)O is probed as a test experiment. Recrystallization was observedabove 1500 K, accompanied by a decrease in stress.
Anomalous heat conduction in asymmetric graphene Y junctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Chenhui; Pan, Feng; Niu, Chunyao; Chen, Weiguang; Jia, Yu
2015-12-01
Through MD simulation of the transient heat pulse propagation in asymmetric Y junction, we report a novel type of controllable heat conduction in graphene nanostructure. The Y junction consists of a steam breaking into a wide branch and a narrow branch. In contrast to the classic situation where heat conductivity is proportional to the cross-sectional area of the material, the transmitted part of the heat pulse in the narrow branch is anomalously much stronger than that in the wide branch. As we increase the width ratio between the wide branch and narrow branch, transmitted coefficient in the narrow branch decreases a little, while in the wide branch, it decreases sharply. Specifically under 2:1 width ratio, transmitted coefficient of the narrow branch is three times that of the coefficient of the wide branch. Further analysis shows that the anomalous heat conduction is primarily induced by the behavior of the longitude vibrational modes.
Experimental evidence of hyperbolic heat conduction in processed meat
Mitra, K.; Kumar, S.; Vedavarz, A.; Moallemi, M.K.
1995-08-01
The objective of this paper is to present experimental evidence of the wave nature of heat propagation in processed meat and to demonstrate that the hyperbolic heat conduction model is an accurate representation, on a macroscopic level, of the heat conduction process in such biological material. The value of the characteristic thermal time of a specific material, processed bologna meat, is determined experimentally. As a part of the work different thermophysical properties are also measured. The measured temperature distributions in the samples are compared with the Fourier results and significant deviation between the two is observed, especially during the initial stages of the transient conduction process. The measured values are found to match the theoretical non-Fourier hyperbolic predictions very well. The superposition of waves occurring inside the meat sample due to the hyperbolic nature of heat conduction is also proved experimentally. 14 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.
Kohlrausch Heat Conductivity Apparatus for Intermediate or Advanced Laboratory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jensen, H. G.
1970-01-01
Describes student experiment in measuring heat conductivity according to Kohlrausch's method. Theory, apparatus design, and experimental procedure is outlined. Results for copper are consistent to within 2 percent. (LC)
Weak coupling limits in a stochastic model of heat conduction
Frank Redig; Kiamars Vafayi
2011-01-14
We study the Brownian momentum process, a model of heat conduction, weakly coupled to heat baths. In two different settings of weak coupling to the heat baths, we study the non-equilibrium steady state and its proximity to the local equilibrium measure in terms of the strength of coupling. For three and four site systems, we obtain the two-point correlation function and show it is generically not multilinear.
Heat conduction in relativistic systems: alternatives and perspectives
C. S. Lopez-Monsalvo
2010-11-30
The non-equilibrium thermodynamics of relativistic systems have a rich phenomenology. The simplest phenomenon in the class of dissipative processes is that of heat. This letter presents a brief summary of the efforts made to tackle the problem of relativistic heat conduction. In particular, we focus on the multi-fluid approach to relativistic dissipation.
Stationary non-equilibrium properties for a heat conduction model
Cedric Bernardin
2008-08-05
We consider a stochastic heat conduction model for solids composed by N interacting atoms. The system is in contact with two heat baths at different temperature $T_\\ell$ and $T_r$. The bulk dynamics conserve two quantities: the energy and the deformation between atoms. If $T_\\ell \
Nanometer-scale heat-conductivity measurements on biological samples.
Haeberle, W; Pantea, M; Hoerber, J K H
2006-01-01
With semiconductor structures reaching the nanometer scale, heat conductivity measurements on the mesoscopic range of some tens of nanometers become an increasingly important aspect for the further improvement in digital processing and storage. Also the attempt to use atomic-force microscopy (AFM) technology for high-density data storage by writing information bits as nanometer-sized indentations into a polymer substrate with a heated cantilever tip asks for a careful investigation of the nano-scale heat-conductivity properties of polymers. Furthermore, in many AFM imaging applications, heat conductivity can provide additional information about the material the imaged structures consist of. In this respect, heat conductivity can also become very interesting in studies of usually quite heterogeneous biological samples, if the resolution can attain the nanometer range. In standard scanning thermal microscopy application, the tip forms a thermocouple, which precludes high-resolution imaging, as thermocouples cannot be made sufficiently small. In this paper, which focuses on biological applications, we demonstrate that by using an ultra sharp AFM cantilever with a Joule heating element above the tip structure different molecular components can be distinguished thanks to their different heat-conductivity properties. In this case, the resolution is determined by the actual tip size, and it can reach 10nm. PMID:16730408
Normal heat conductivity in chains capable of dissociation
O. V. Gendelman; A. V. Savin
2013-12-26
The paper suggests a resolution for recent controversy over convergence of heat conductivity in one-dimensional chains with asymmetric nearest-neighbor potential. We conjecture that the convergence is promoted not by the mere asymmetry of the potential, but due to ability of the chain to dissociate. In other terms, the attractive part of the potential function should approach a finite value as the distance between the neighbors grows. To clarify this point, we study the simplest model of this sort -- a chain of linearly elastic disks with finite diameter. If the distance between the disk centers exceeds their diameter, the disks cease to interact. Formation of gaps between the disks is the only possible mechanism for scattering of the oscillatory waves. Heat conduction in this system turns out to be convergent. Moreover, an asymptotic behavior of the heat conduction coefficient for the case of large densities and relatively low temperatures obeys simple Arrhenius-type law. In the limit of low densities, the heat conduction coefficient converges due to triple disk collisions. Numeric observations in both limits are grounded by analytic arguments. In a chain with Lennard-Jones nearest-neighbor potential the heat conductivity also saturates in a thermodynamic limit and the coefficient also scales according to the Arrhenius law for low temperatures. This finding points on a universal role played by the possibility of dissociation, as convergence of the heat conduction coefficient is considered.
Vandegehuchte, Maurits W; Steppe, Kathy
2012-05-01
Heat-pulse methods to determine sap flux density in trees are founded on the theory of heat conduction and heat convection in an isotropic medium. However, sapwood is clearly anisotropic, implying a difference in thermal conductivity along and across the grain, and hence necessitates the theory for an anisotropic medium. This difference in thermal conductivities, which can be up to 50%, is, however, not taken into account in the key equation leading to the currently available heat-pulse methods. Despite this major flaw, the methods remain theoretically correct as they are based on derivations of the key equation, ruling out any anisotropic aspects. The importance of specifying the thermal characteristics of the sapwood according to axial, tangential or radial direction is revealed as well as referring to and using the proper anisotropic theory in order to avoid confusion and misinterpretation of thermal properties when dealing with sap flux density measurements or erroneous results when modelling heat transport in sapwood. PMID:22407648
Convective heat transfer from a pulsating radial jet reattachment (PRJR) nozzle
Pak, J.Y.; James, D.L.; Parameswaran, S.
1999-07-01
Impinging jets of fluid have been used to cool, heat or dry surfaces in many industries including high temperature gas turbines, paper and glass manufacturing, textile drying, and electronic components. Jets may be broadly classified as either inline or radial. Inline jets typically have some type of circular or planer opening through which the fluid exits. The circular opening may be converging, well rounded, or of the same diameter as the nozzle or tube through which the fluid is delivered. Here, a numerical investigation for air exiting a Pulsating Radial Jet Reattachment (PRJR) nozzle was performed with various flow and geometric conditions. The transient ensemble averaged Navier-Stokes equation with the standard {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence model and the standard transient turbulent energy equation were solved to predict the velocity, pressure, and temperature distributions as a function of the pulsation rate, nondimensionalized nozzle-to-plate spacing, amplitude ratio, exit angle and gap Reynolds number. Sinusoidal profile, square and triangular pulsation profiles were simulated to determine the effect on the convective heat transfer during pulsation of nozzle. Grid movement is coupled to the flow field in a manner by a grid convection. Calculated reattachment radii for various conditions correlated well with previously obtained experimental results. Calculated convective heat transfer coefficients and surface pressure profiles for various geometric and flow conditions were compared with experimental results. Convective heat transfer coefficient calculations matched the experimental values very well outside the reattachment regions and underpredicted the convective heat transfer data underneath the nozzle in the dead water region and on the reattachment radius.
A variable conductance heat pipe flight experiment - Performance in space
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wanous, D. J.; Marcus, B. D.; Kirkpatrick, J. P.
1975-01-01
The Ames Heat Pipe Experiment (AHPE) is a variable conductance heat pipe/radiator system which was launched aboard the OAO-C spacecraft in August, 1972. All available flight data was reviewed and those from a few orbits were selected for correlation with predictions from an analytical model of the system. The principal conclusion of this study is that gas controlled variable conductance heat pipes can perform reliably for long time periods in the space environment and can effectively provide temperature stabilization for spacecraft electronics. Furthermore, the performance of such systems can be adequately predicted using existing analysis tools.
Single-photon heat conduction in electrical circuits
P. J. Jones; J. A. M. Huhtamäki; K. Y. Tan; M. Möttönen
2011-07-14
We study photonic heat conduction between two resistors coupled weakly to a single superconducting microwave cavity. At low enough temperature, the dominating part of the heat exchanged between the resistors is transmitted by single-photon excitations of the fundamental mode of the cavity. This manifestation of single-photon heat conduction should be experimentally observable with the current state of the art. Our scheme can possibly be utilized in remote interference-free temperature control of electric components and environment engineering for superconducting qubits coupled to cavities.
Heat Pipe Embedded AlSiC Plates for High Conductivity - Low CTE Heat Spreaders
Johnson, Matthew ); Weyant, J.; Garner, S. ); Occhionero, M. )
2010-01-07
Heat pipe embedded aluminum silicon carbide (AlSiC) plates are innovative heat spreaders that provide high thermal conductivity and low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Since heat pipes are two phase devices, they demonstrate effective thermal conductivities ranging between 50,000 and 200,000 W/m-K, depending on the heat pipe length. Installing heat pipes into an AlSiC plate dramatically increases the plate’s effective thermal conductivity. AlSiC plates alone have a thermal conductivity of roughly 200 W/m-K and a CTE ranging from 7-12 ppm/ deg C, similar to that of silicon. An equivalent sized heat pipe embedded AlSiC plate has effective thermal conductivity ranging from 400 to 500 W/m-K and retains the CTE of AlSiC.
Fourier analysis of conductive heat transfer for glazed roofing materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roslan, Nurhana Lyana; Bahaman, Nurfaradila; Almanan, Raja Noorliyana Raja; Ismail, Razidah; Zakaria, Nor Zaini
2014-07-01
For low-rise buildings, roof is the most exposed surface to solar radiation. The main mode of heat transfer from outdoor via the roof is conduction. The rate of heat transfer and the thermal impact is dependent on the thermophysical properties of roofing materials. Thus, it is important to analyze the heat distribution for the various types of roofing materials. The objectives of this paper are to obtain the Fourier series for the conductive heat transfer for two types of glazed roofing materials, namely polycarbonate and polyfilled, and also to determine the relationship between the ambient temperature and the conductive heat transfer for these materials. Ambient and surface temperature data were collected from an empirical field investigation in the campus of Universiti Teknologi MARA Shah Alam. The roofing materials were installed on free-standing structures in natural ventilation. Since the temperature data are generally periodic, Fourier series and numerical harmonic analysis are applied. Based on the 24-point harmonic analysis, the eleventh order harmonics is found to generate an adequate Fourier series expansion for both glazed roofing materials. In addition, there exists a linear relationship between the ambient temperature and the conductive heat transfer for both glazed roofing materials. Based on the gradient of the graphs, lower heat transfer is indicated through polyfilled. Thus polyfilled would have a lower thermal impact compared to polycarbonate.
Fourier analysis of conductive heat transfer for glazed roofing materials
Roslan, Nurhana Lyana; Bahaman, Nurfaradila; Almanan, Raja Noorliyana Raja; Ismail, Razidah; Zakaria, Nor Zaini
2014-07-10
For low-rise buildings, roof is the most exposed surface to solar radiation. The main mode of heat transfer from outdoor via the roof is conduction. The rate of heat transfer and the thermal impact is dependent on the thermophysical properties of roofing materials. Thus, it is important to analyze the heat distribution for the various types of roofing materials. The objectives of this paper are to obtain the Fourier series for the conductive heat transfer for two types of glazed roofing materials, namely polycarbonate and polyfilled, and also to determine the relationship between the ambient temperature and the conductive heat transfer for these materials. Ambient and surface temperature data were collected from an empirical field investigation in the campus of Universiti Teknologi MARA Shah Alam. The roofing materials were installed on free-standing structures in natural ventilation. Since the temperature data are generally periodic, Fourier series and numerical harmonic analysis are applied. Based on the 24-point harmonic analysis, the eleventh order harmonics is found to generate an adequate Fourier series expansion for both glazed roofing materials. In addition, there exists a linear relationship between the ambient temperature and the conductive heat transfer for both glazed roofing materials. Based on the gradient of the graphs, lower heat transfer is indicated through polyfilled. Thus polyfilled would have a lower thermal impact compared to polycarbonate.
An Experiment in Heat Conduction Using Hollow Cylinders
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ortuno, M.; Marquez, A.; Gallego, S.; Neipp, C.; Belendez, A.
2011-01-01
An experimental apparatus was designed and built to allow students to carry out heat conduction experiments in hollow cylinders made of different materials, as well as to determine the thermal conductivity of these materials. The evolution of the temperature difference between the inner and outer walls of the cylinder as a function of time is…
Quantal Heating of Conducting Electrons with Discrete Spectrum
Vitkalov, S. A.; Bykov, A. A.
2011-12-23
Usually heating of conducting electrons by dc electric field results in an increase of electron temperature. In this paper we show that the dc heating of 2D electrons, placed in quantized magnetic fields, results in a peculiar electron distribution, which has the same broadening or an effective 'temperature' as the unbiased electron system. The quantal heating, however, violates strongly the Ohm's Law. In the conducting system with discrete electron spectrum the quantal heating results in spectacular decrease of electron resistance and transition of the electrons into a state with zero differential resistance (ZDR). Finally the heating leads to apparent dc driven metal-insulator transition, which correlates with the transition into the ZDR state. The correlation is very unexpected and is not understood.
Quantal Heating of Conducting Electrons with Discrete Spectrum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vitkalov, S. A.; Bykov, A. A.
2011-12-01
Usually heating of conducting electrons by dc electric field results in an increase of electron temperature. In this paper we show that the dc heating of 2D electrons, placed in quantized magnetic fields, results in a peculiar electron distribution, which has the same broadening or an effective "temperature" as the unbiased electron system. The quantal heating, however, violates strongly the Ohm's Law. In the conducting system with discrete electron spectrum the quantal heating results in spectacular decrease of electron resistance and transition of the electrons into a state with zero differential resistance (ZDR). Finally the heating leads to apparent dc driven metal-insulator transition, which correlates with the transition into the ZDR state. The correlation is very unexpected and is not understood.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rainey, E. S. G.; Kavner, A.
2014-11-01
We test and characterize a new method to measure 2-D radial temperature distributions in the laser-heated diamond anvil cell using comparisons against real and synthetic data. We show that this method (1) incorporates an inexpensive and robust design for laser-heated diamond cell temperature measurements, (2) yields precise measurements of radial temperature distributions of laser-heated samples, and (3) can be used in conjunction with numerical models to measure the pressure and temperature dependence of thermal conductivity of materials. We apply the method to determine the high-pressure, high-temperature thermal conductivity of MgO.
Heat transfer in rotating passages with smooth walls and radial outward flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wagner, J. H.; Johnson, B. V.; Hajek, T. J.
1991-01-01
Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of rotation on heat transfer in turbine blade internal coolant passages. The experiments were conducted with a smooth wall, large-scale heat transfer model. The objective was to obtain the heat transfer data base required to develop heat transfer correlations and to assess computational fluid dynamic techniques for rotating coolant passages. An analysis of the governing equations showed that four parameters influence the heat transfer in rotating passages (coolant density ratio, Rossby number, Reynolds number, and radius ratio). These four parameters were varied over ranges that exceed the ranges of current open literature results, but that are typical of current and advanced gas turbine engine operating conditions. Rotation affected the heat transfer coefficients differently for different locations in the coolant passage. For example, heat transfer at some locations increased with rotation, but decreased and then increased again at other locations. Heat transfer coefficients varied by as much as a factor of five between the leading and trailing surfaces for the same test condition and streamwise location. Comparisons with previous results are presented.
A new heat-conduction logging technique and its application
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Bin; Li, Zishun; Zhu, Guotong; Fu, Zhifang
2005-06-01
The results of a heat-conduction experiment with a central point source in a sand barrel shows that the temperature of the heat source increase much faster in sand saturated with oil and air (dry sand) than in water sand. During cooling the temperature of the central heat source goes down slower in oil- or air-saturated sands than in water sands. Based on the theory of heat-conduction in porous media and the experimental results, we developed a new heat-conduction logging technique which utilizes an artificial heat source (dynamite charge or electric heater) to heat up target formations in the borehole and then measure the change of temperature at a later time. Post-frac oil production is shown to be directly proportional to the size of the temperature anomaly when other reservoir parameters are fairly consistent. The method is used to evaluate potential oil production for marginal reservoirs in the FY formation in Song-Liao basin of China.
Heat conductance in nonlinear lattices at small temperature gradients
T. Yu. Astakhova; V. N. Likhachev; G. A. Vinogradov
2010-06-09
This paper proposes a new methodological framework within which the heat conductance in 1D lattices can be studied. The total process of heat conductance is separated into two parts where the first one is the equilibrium process at equal temperatures $T$ of both ends and the second one -- non-equilibrium with the temperature $\\Delta T$ of one end and zero temperature of the other. This approach allows significant decrease of computational time at $\\Delta T \\to 0$. The threshold temperature $T_{\\rm thr}$ is found which scales $T_{\\rm thr}(N) \\sim N^{-3}$ with the lattice size $N$ and by convention separates two mechanisms of heat conductance: phonon mechanism dominates at $T T_{\\rm thr}$. Solitons and breathers are directly visualized in numerical experiments. The problem of heat conductance in non-linear lattices in the limit $\\Delta T \\to 0$ can be reduced to the heat conductance of harmonic lattice with time-dependent stochastic rigidities determined by the equilibrium process at temperature $T$. The detailed analysis is done for the $\\beta$-FPU lattice though main results are valid for one-dimensional lattices with arbitrary potentials.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arbaban, M.; Salimpour, M. R.
2015-03-01
In the present study, laminar natural convection of nanofluids confined between two horizontal concentric cylinders with eight radial fins attached to the inner cylinder is studied. Governing equations are solved using the finite volume method. The computations are performed for various Rayleigh numbers, nanofluids and volume fractions of nanoparticles. From the results, it is found that the average Nusselt number enhances when volume fraction and thermal conductivity of nanoparticles increases. Also, it is observed that the average Nusselt number of Cu-water nanofluid is highest among the nanofluids of the present study. Moreover, it is seen that the temperature gradient and absolute value of stream function decrease by addition of nanoparticles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kosaka, Masataka; Monde, Masanori
2015-09-01
For safe and fast fueling of hydrogen in a fuel cell electric vehicle at hydrogen fueling stations, an understanding of the heat transferred from the gas into the tank wall (carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) material) during hydrogen fueling is necessary. Its thermal properties are needed in estimating heat loss accurately during hydrogen fueling. The CFRP has anisotropic thermal properties, because it consists of an adhesive agent and layers of the CFRP which is wound with a carbon fiber. In this paper, the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of the tank wall material were measured by an inverse solution for one-dimensional unsteady heat conduction. As a result, the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity were 2.09 × 10^{-6}{ m}2{\\cdot }{s}^{-1} and 3.06{ W}{\\cdot }{m}{\\cdot }^{-1}{K}^{-1} for the axial direction, while they were 6.03 × 10^{-7} {m}2{\\cdot }{s}^{-1} and 0.93 {W}{\\cdot }{m}^{-1}{\\cdot }{K}^{-1} for the radial direction. The thermal conductivity for the axial direction was about three times higher than that for the radial direction. The thermal diffusivity shows the same trend in both directions because the thermal capacity, ? c , is independent of direction, where ? is the density and c is the heat capacity.
Thermally conductive cementitious grout for geothermal heat pump systems
Allan, Marita (Old Field, NY)
2001-01-01
A thermally conductive cement-sand grout for use with a geothermal heat pump system. The cement sand grout contains cement, silica sand, a superplasticizer, water and optionally bentonite. The present invention also includes a method of filling boreholes used for geothermal heat pump systems with the thermally conductive cement-sand grout. The cement-sand grout has improved thermal conductivity over neat cement and bentonite grouts, which allows shallower bore holes to be used to provide an equivalent heat transfer capacity. In addition, the cement-sand grouts of the present invention also provide improved bond strengths and decreased permeabilities. The cement-sand grouts can also contain blast furnace slag, fly ash, a thermoplastic air entraining agent, latex, a shrinkage reducing admixture, calcium oxide and combinations thereof.
Hydrodynamic Modeling of Heat Conduction in Nanoscale Systems.
Dong, Yuan; Guo, Zeng-Yuan
2015-04-01
Heat conduction in nanoscale systems has different behavior from bulk materials, which is applied to develop high performance thermoelectric material. The non-trivial behavior is caused by the ballistic-diffusive transport of heat carriers such as phonons. In this paper, we use the thermomass theory and phonon hydrodynamics model to establish a hydrodynamic model for phonon transport. In nanoscale systems, a Poiseuille flow of phonon gas is formed due to the boundary scattering. The thickness of boundary layer is proportional to the mean free paths of phonon. When the boundary layer thickness is comparable with the whole flow region, strong decrease of effective thermal conductivity happens. This method can serve as a fast evaluation method for nanoscale heat conduction. PMID:26353568
Mechanical control of heat conductivity in molecular chains.
Savin, A V; Gendelman, O V
2014-01-01
We discuss a possibility to control heat conductivity in molecular chains by means of external mechanical loads. To illustrate such possibilities we consider first well-studied one-dimensional chain with degenerate double-well potential of the nearest-neighbor interaction. We consider varying lengths of the chain with fixed number of particles. Number of possible energetically degenerate ground states strongly depends on the overall length of the chain, or, in other terms, on average length of the link between neighboring particles. These degenerate states correspond to mechanical equilibria; therefore, one can say that formation of such structures mimics a process of plastic deformation. We demonstrate that such modification of the chain length can lead to quite profound (almost fivefold) reduction of the heat conduction coefficient. Even more profound effect is revealed for a model with a single-well nonconvex potential. It is demonstrated that in a certain range of constant external forcing, this model becomes effectively double-well and has a multitude of possible states of equilibrium for fixed value of the external load. Due to this degeneracy, the heat-conduction coefficient can be reduced by two orders of magnitude. We suggest a mechanical model of a chain with periodic double-well potential, which allows control of the heat transport. The models considered may be useful for description of heat transfer in biological macromolecules and for control of the heat transport in microsystems. The possibility of the heat transport control in more realistic three-dimensional systems is illustrated by simulation of a three-dimensional model of polymer ?-helix. In this model, the mechanical stretching also brings about the structural inhomogeneity and, in turn, to essential reduction of the heat conductivity. PMID:24580199
Neutrino Heat Conduction and Inhomogeneities in the Early Universe
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heckler, A.; Hogan, C. J.
1993-01-01
Constraints on parameters of inhomogeneous nucteosynthesis, namely, the overdensity and size of baryon lumps, are found by calculatig the blackbody neutrino heat conduction into the lumps, which tends to inflate them away. The scale size for efficient heat conduction is determined by the mean free path lambda of the neutrino, and so we compute lambda in our case of a high-temperature plasma with low chemical potential, and find a general result that many-body effects are unimportant, simplifying the calculation. We find that in the region of interest for nucleosynthesis, neutrino inflation is important for overdensities greater than 10(exp 4).
A mechanical model for Fourier's law of heat conduction
David Ruelle
2011-02-27
Nonequilibrium statistical mechanics close to equilibrium is a physically satisfactory theory centered on the linear response formula of Green-Kubo. This formula results from a formal first order perturbation calculation without rigorous justification. A rigorous derivation of Fourier's law for heat conduction from the laws of mechanics remains thus a major unsolved problem. In this note we present a deterministic mechanical model of a heat-conducting chain with nontrivial interactions, where kinetic energy fluctuations at the nodes of the chain are removed. In this model the derivation of Fourier's law can proceed rigorously.
Assessing the RELAPS-3D Heat Conduction Enclosure Model
McCann, Larry D.
2008-09-30
Three heat conduction problems that have exact solutions are modeled with RELAP5-3D using the conduction enclosure model. These comparisons are designed to be used in the RELAP5-3D development assessment scheduled to be completed in 2009. It is shown that with proper input choices and adequate model detail the exact solutions can be matched. In addition, this analysis identified an error and the required correction in the cylindrical and spherical heat conductor models in RELAP5-3D which will be corrected in a future version of RELAP5-3D.
MOLECULAR DYNAMICS SIMULATION OF QUASI-BALLISTIC HEAT CONDUCTION IN CARBON NANOTUBES
Maruyama, Shigeo
MOLECULAR DYNAMICS SIMULATION OF QUASI-BALLISTIC HEAT CONDUCTION IN CARBON NANOTUBES J Shiomi. While experimental attempts to characterize heat conduction of carbon nanotubes encounter technical difficulties, the classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations hold an advantage as the heat conduction
Why asymmetric interparticle interaction can result in convergent heat conductivity
Shunda Chen; Yong Zhang; Jiao Wang; Hong Zhao
2013-09-27
We show that the asymmetric inter-particle interactions may induce rapid decay of heat current autocorrelation in one-dimensional momentum conserving lattices. When the asymmetry degree and the temperature are appropriate, the decay is sufficient rapid for resulting a convergence conductivity practically. To understand the underlying mechanism, we further studied the relaxation behavior of the hydrodynamic modes. It is shown that for lattice with symmetric potential, the heat mode relaxs in the superdiffusive manner, while in the case of asymmetric potential, the heat mode may relax in the normal manner.
Tunable heat conduction through coupled Fermi-Pasta-Ulam chains.
Su, Ruixia; Yuan, Zongqiang; Wang, Jun; Zheng, Zhigang
2015-01-01
We conduct a study on heat conduction through coupled Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) chains by using classical molecular dynamics simulations. Our attention is dedicated to showing how the phonon transport is affected by the interchain coupling. It has been well accepted that the heat conduction could be impeded by the interchain interaction due to the interface phonon scattering. However, recent theoretical and experimental studies suggest that the thermal conductivity of nanoscale materials can be counterintuitively enhanced by the interaction with the substrate. In the present paper, by consecutively varying the interchain coupling intensity, we observed both enhancement and suppression of thermal transport through the coupled FPU chains. For weak interchain couplings, it is found that the heat flux increases with the coupling intensity, whereas in the case of strong interchain couplings, the energy transport is found to be suppressed by the interchain interaction. Based on the phonon spectral energy density method, we attribute the enhancement of the energy transport to the excited phonon modes (in addition to the intrinsic phonon modes), while the upward shift of the high-frequency phonon branch and the interface phonon-phonon scattering account for the suppressed heat conduction. PMID:25679599
Parsons, J.A.; Han, J.C.; Lee, C.P.
1998-01-01
The effect of channel rotation on jet impingement cooling by arrays of circular jets in two channels was studied. Jet flow direction was in the direction of rotation in one channel and opposite to the rotation direction in the other channel. The jets impinged normally on two smooth target walls. Heat transfer results are presented for these two target walls, for the jet walls containing the jet producing orifices, and for side walls connecting the target and jet walls. The flow exited the channels in a single direction, radially outward, creating a crossflow on jets at larger radii. The mean test model radius-to-jet diameter ratio was 397. The jet rotation number was varied from 0.0 to 0.0028 and the isolated effects of jet Reynolds number (5000 and 10,000), and wall-to-coolant temperature difference ratio (0.0855 and 0.129) were measured. The results for nonrotating conditions show that the Nusselt numbers for the target and jet walls in both channels are about the same and are greater than those for the side walls of both channels. However, as rotation number increases, the heat transfer coefficients for all walls in both channels decrease up to 20% below those results that correspond to nonrotating conditions. As the wall-to-coolant temperature difference ratio increases, heat transfer coefficient decreases up to 10% with other parameters held constant.
Heat conduction in partial vacuum. Final technical progress report
Thomas, J R
1980-09-01
Methods developed for computing conduction heat losses from evacuated solar collectors are reported. Results of such calculations are given, including the minimum vacuum necessary to effectively eliminate conduction. Experiments performed at Owens-Illinois, Inc. to assess helium penetration rates into evacuated collectors are analyzed, and estimates are given as to the likely penetration rate of atmospheric helium. Conclusions are drawn as to the probable effect of helium penetration on the lifetimes of evacuated solar collectors.
Modelling heat conduction in polycrystalline hexagonal boron-nitride films.
Mortazavi, Bohayra; Pereira, Luiz Felipe C; Jiang, Jin-Wu; Rabczuk, Timon
2015-01-01
We conducted extensive molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the thermal conductivity of polycrystalline hexagonal boron-nitride (h-BN) films. To this aim, we constructed large atomistic models of polycrystalline h-BN sheets with random and uniform grain configuration. By performing equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD) simulations, we investigated the influence of the average grain size on the thermal conductivity of polycrystalline h-BN films at various temperatures. Using the EMD results, we constructed finite element models of polycrystalline h-BN sheets to probe the thermal conductivity of samples with larger grain sizes. Our multiscale investigations not only provide a general viewpoint regarding the heat conduction in h-BN films but also propose that polycrystalline h-BN sheets present high thermal conductivity comparable to monocrystalline sheets. PMID:26286820
Modelling heat conduction in polycrystalline hexagonal boron-nitride films
Mortazavi, Bohayra; Pereira, Luiz Felipe C.; Jiang, Jin-Wu; Rabczuk, Timon
2015-01-01
We conducted extensive molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the thermal conductivity of polycrystalline hexagonal boron-nitride (h-BN) films. To this aim, we constructed large atomistic models of polycrystalline h-BN sheets with random and uniform grain configuration. By performing equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD) simulations, we investigated the influence of the average grain size on the thermal conductivity of polycrystalline h-BN films at various temperatures. Using the EMD results, we constructed finite element models of polycrystalline h-BN sheets to probe the thermal conductivity of samples with larger grain sizes. Our multiscale investigations not only provide a general viewpoint regarding the heat conduction in h-BN films but also propose that polycrystalline h-BN sheets present high thermal conductivity comparable to monocrystalline sheets. PMID:26286820
Subramaniam, Anandh
Vacuum Induction Melting Unit Induction heating is a process wherein induced eddy currents heat conductive materials. This heating can be used to melt metals and make alloys. Vacuum Induction melting offers an attractive combination of a controlled atmosphere (vacuum or inert gas) and precise control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grinchuk, P. S.
2014-03-01
A mathematical model for calculating the effective heat conductivity of fibrous materials at high temperatures and variable density has been suggested and substantiated. Consideration is focused basically on accounting for heat conduction in the solid phase of a fibrous material. The calculated results were compared with experimental data that demonstrated a good accuracy of the proposed model. The effective heat conductivity of a fibrous heat-insulating material has been calculated as a function of density for a number of temperatures within the range from 200 to 1000°C.
Experimental study of heat transfer from shaft in cooled radial bearing of GNT-25 gas turbine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rukhlinskiy, V. V.; Usayev, I. D.; Yermolenko, A. V.
1984-02-01
The heat transfer from the shaft in a cooled radial bearing design was studied experimentally in a GTN-25 gas turbine. The basic dimensions of the bearing were 315 mm inside diameter and 140 mm width. This split bearing had two oil feed orifices in the plane of separation and its housing was cooled with oil fed through an annular chamber. Heating of the shaft neck and the bearing housing under operating conditions was simulated. The experimental data have been processed according to methods of similarity and dimensional analysis, the results yielding semiempirical relations for the temperature and the thermal flux at the rubbing surface during laminar and transitional flow. Relations have also been obtained from these data for the hot spot temperature and the friction coefficient at the rubbing surface. The former characterizes the cooling system design and performance, the latter characterizes the bearing efficiency and economy. The results confirm that the effect of energy dissipation in the lubricant on the intensity of heat transfer from the shaft depends largely on the size and the shape of the shaft bearing clearance.
Duality and exact correlations for a model of heat conduction
C. Giardiná; J. Kurchan; F. Redig
2006-12-07
We study a model of heat conduction with stochastic diffusion of energy. We obtain a dual particle process which describes the evolution of all the correlation functions. An exact expression for the covariance of the energy exhibits long-range correlations in the presence of a current. We discuss the formal connection of this model with the simple symmetric exclusion process.
Element-by-element factorization algorithms for heat conduction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hughes, T. J. R.; Winget, J. M.; Park, K. C.
1983-01-01
Element-by-element solution strategies are developed for transient heat conduction problems. Results of numerical tests indicate the effectiveness of the procedures proposed. The small database requirements and attractive architectural features of the algorithms suggest considerable potential for solving large scale problems.
Validation of a heat conduction model for finite domain, non-uniformly heated, laminate bodies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Desgrosseilliers, Louis; Kabbara, Moe; Groulx, Dominic; White, Mary Anne
2015-08-01
Infrared thermographic validation is shown for a closed-form analytical heat conduction model for non-uniformly heated, laminate bodies with an insulated domain boundary. Experiments were conducted by applying power to rectangular electric heaters and cooled by natural convection in air, but also apply to constant-temperature heat sources and forced convection. The model accurately represents two-dimensional laminate heat conduction behaviour giving rise to heat spreading using one-dimensional equations for the temperature distributions and heat transfer rates under steady-state and pseudo-steady-state conditions. Validation of the model with an insulated boundary (complementing previous studies with an infinite boundary) provides useful predictions of heat spreading performance and simplified temperature uniformity calculations (useful in log-mean temperature difference style heat exchanger calculations) for real laminate systems such as found in electronics heat sinks, multi-ply stovetop cookware and interface materials for supercooled salt hydrates. Computational determinations of implicit insulated boundary condition locations in measured data, required to assess model equation validation, were also demonstrated. Excellent goodness of fit was observed (both root-mean-square error and R 2 values), in all cases except when the uncertainty of low temperatures measured via infrared thermography hindered the statistical significance of the model fit. The experimental validation in all other cases supports use of the model equations in design calculations and heat exchange simulations.
High temperature electrically conducting ceramic heating element and control system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Halbach, C. R.; Page, R. J.
1975-01-01
Improvements were made in both electrode technology and ceramic conductor quality to increase significantly the lifetime and thermal cycling capability of electrically conducting ceramic heater elements. These elements were operated in vacuum, inert and reducing environments as well as oxidizing atmospheres adding to the versatility of the conducting ceramic as an ohmic heater. Using stabilized zirconia conducting ceramic heater elements, a furnace was fabricated and demonstrated to have excellent thermal response and cycling capability. The furnace was used to melt platinum-20% rhodium alloy (melting point 1904 C) with an isothermal ceramic heating element having a nominal working cavity size of 2.5 cm diameter by 10.0 cm long. The furnace was operated to 1940 C with the isothermal ceramic heating element. The same furnace structure was fitted with a pair of main heater elements to provide axial gradient temperature control over a working cavity length of 17.8 cm.
Disparate quasiballistic heat conduction regimes from periodic heat sources on a substrate
Zeng, Lingping
We report disparate quasiballistic heat conduction trends for periodic nanoscale line heaters deposited on a substrate, depending upon whether measurements are based on the peak temperature of the heaters or the temperature ...
Connection between heat diffusion and heat conduction in one-dimensional systems
Shunda Chen; Yong Zhang; Jiao Wang; Hong Zhao
2015-11-01
Heat and energy are conceptually different, but often are assumed to be the same without justification. An effective method for investigating diffusion properties in equilibrium systems is discussed. With this method, we demonstrate that for one-dimensional systems, using the indices of particles as the space variable , which has been accepted as a convention, may lead to misleading conclusions. We then show that though in one-dimensional systems there is no general connection between energy diffusion and heat conduction, however, a general connection between heat diffusion and heat conduction may exist. Relaxation behavior of local energy current fluctuations and that of local heat current fluctuations are also studied. We find that they are significantly different, though the global energy current equals the globe heat current.
Connection between heat diffusion and heat conduction in one-dimensional systems
Chen, Shunda; Wang, Jiao; Zhao, Hong
2015-01-01
Heat and energy are conceptually different, but often are assumed to be the same without justification. An effective method for investigating diffusion properties in equilibrium systems is discussed. With this method, we demonstrate that for one-dimensional systems, using the indices of particles as the space variable , which has been accepted as a convention, may lead to misleading conclusions. We then show that though in one-dimensional systems there is no general connection between energy diffusion and heat conduction, however, a general connection between heat diffusion and heat conduction may exist. Relaxation behavior of local energy current fluctuations and that of local heat current fluctuations are also studied. We find that they are significantly different, though the global energy current equals the globe heat current.
Thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity and specific heat of copper-carbon fiber composite
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kuniya, Keiichi; Arakawa, Hideo; Kanai, Tsuneyuki; Chiba, Akio
1988-01-01
A new material of copper/carbon fiber composite is developed which retains the properties of copper, i.e., its excellent electrical and thermal conductivity, and the property of carbon, i.e., a small thermal expansion coefficient. These properties of the composite are adjustable within a certain range by changing the volume and/or the orientation of the carbon fibers. The effects of carbon fiber volume and arrangement changes on the thermal and electrical conductivity, and specific heat of the composite are studied. Results obtained are as follows: the thermal and electrical conductivity of the composite decrease as the volume of the carbon fiber increases, and were influenced by the fiber orientation. The results are predictable from a careful application of the rule of mixtures for composites. The specific heat of the composite was dependent, not on fiber orientation, but on fiber volume. In the thermal fatigue tests, no degradation in the electrical conductivity of this composite was observed.
Heat, Light, and Videotapes: Experiments in Heat Conduction Using Liquid Crystal Film.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bacon, Michael E.; And Others
1995-01-01
Presents a range of experiments in heat conduction suitable for upper-level undergraduate laboratories that make use of heat sensitive liquid crystal film to measure temperature contours. Includes experiments mathematically described by Laplace's equation, experiments theoretically described by Poisson's equation, and experiments that involve…
Analysis of gas heat conduction in evacuated tube solar collectors
Beikircher, T.; Spirkl, W.
1996-08-01
The authors investigated the gas heat conduction in two types of evacuated tubular solar collectors for a wide range of Knudsen numbers. For tube-in-tube collectors, they generalized a solution of the gas kinetic Boltzmann equation, which has been obtained by the four-momentum method, to polyatomic gases. The resulting equation coincides with Sherman`s interpolation formula. For a plate-in-tube collector, they measured the stationary heat loss for gas pressures varying between 10{sup {minus}2} and 10{sup 4} Pa. The accuracy of an earlier experiment was improved. For analysis they applied the temperature jump method: a heat conduction equation with boundary conditions of the third kind involving the temperature gradient and the pressure was numerically solved. The results with the temperature jump method agree with the experimental values nearly within the error bands. They also applied Sherman`s interpolation formula and found, as expected, that the heat conduction as function of the pressure is too steep. For both types of collectors, the influence of geometric parameters was theoretically studied.
Analysis of gas heat conduction in evacuated tube solar collectors
Beikircher, T.; Spirkl, W.
1996-12-31
The authors investigated the gas heat conduction in two types of evacuated tubular solar collectors for a wide range of Knudsen numbers. For tube-in-tube collectors, they generalized a solution of the gas kinetic Boltzmann equation, which has been obtained by the 4-momentum method, to polyatomic gases. The resulting equation coincides with Sherman`s interpolation formula. For a plate-in-tube collector, they measured the stationary heat loss for gas pressures varying between 10{sup {minus}2} and 10{sup 4} Pa. The accuracy of an earlier experiment was improved. For analysis the authors applied the temperature jump method: a heat conduction equation with boundary conditions of the third kind involving the temperature gradient and the pressure was numerically solved. The results with the temperature jump method agree with the experimental values nearly within the error bands. They also applied Sherman`s interpolation formula and found, as expected, that the heat conduction as function of the pressure is too steep. For both types of collectors, the influence of geometric parameters was theoretically studied.
Experimental study of convective heat transfer of compressed air flow in radially rotating ducts
Hwang, G.J,; Tzeng, S.C.; Mao, C.P.
1999-07-01
The convective heat transfer of pressurized air flow in radially rotating serpentine channel is investigated experimentally in the present study. The main governing parameters are the Prandtl number, the Reynolds number for forced convection, the rotation number for the Coriolis force induced cross stream secondary flow and the Grashof number for natural convection. To simulate the operation conditions of a real gas turbine, the present study kept the parameters in the test rig approximately the same as those in a real engine. The air in the present serpentine channel was pressurized to increase the air density for making up the low rotational speed in the experiment. Before entering the rotating ducts, the air was also cooled to gain a high density ratio of approximately 1/3 in the ducts. This high density ratio will give a similar order of magnitude of Grashof number in a real operation condition. The local heat transfer rate on the four channel walls are present and compared with that in existing literature.
Heating rate controller for thermally stimulated conductivity and thermoluminescence measurements.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Manning, E. G.; Littlejohn, M. A.; Oakley, E. M.; Hutchby , J. A.
1972-01-01
A temperature controller is described which enables the temperature of a sample mounted on a cold finger to be varied linearly with time. Heating rates between 0.5 and 10 K/min can be achieved for temperatures between 90 and 300 K. Provision for terminating the sample heating at any temperature between these extremes is available. The temperature can be held at the terminating temperature or be reduced to the starting temperature in a matter of minutes. The controller has been used for thermally stimulated conductivity measurements and should be useful for thermoluminescence measurements as well.
Increasing Boiling Heat Transfer using Low Conductivity Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahamudur Rahman, Md; Pollack, Jordan; McCarthy, Matthew
2015-08-01
We report the counterintuitive mechanism of increasing boiling heat transfer by incorporating low-conductivity materials at the interface between the surface and fluid. By embedding an array of non-conductive lines into a high-conductivity substrate, in-plane variations in the local surface temperature are created. During boiling the surface temperature varies spatially across the substrate, alternating between high and low values, and promotes the organization of distinct liquid and vapor flows. By systematically tuning the peak-to-peak wavelength of this spatial temperature variation, a resonance-like effect is seen at a value equal to the capillary length of the fluid. Replacing ~18% of the surface with a non-conductive epoxy results in a greater than 5x increase in heat transfer rate at a given superheat temperature. This drastic and counterintuitive increase is shown to be due to optimized bubble dynamics, where ordered pathways allow for efficient removal of vapor and the return of replenishing liquid. The use of engineered thermal gradients represents a potentially disruptive approach to create high-efficiency and high-heat-flux boiling surfaces which are naturally insensitive to fouling and degradation as compared to other approaches.
Increasing Boiling Heat Transfer using Low Conductivity Materials
Mahamudur Rahman, Md; Pollack, Jordan; McCarthy, Matthew
2015-01-01
We report the counterintuitive mechanism of increasing boiling heat transfer by incorporating low-conductivity materials at the interface between the surface and fluid. By embedding an array of non-conductive lines into a high-conductivity substrate, in-plane variations in the local surface temperature are created. During boiling the surface temperature varies spatially across the substrate, alternating between high and low values, and promotes the organization of distinct liquid and vapor flows. By systematically tuning the peak-to-peak wavelength of this spatial temperature variation, a resonance-like effect is seen at a value equal to the capillary length of the fluid. Replacing ~18% of the surface with a non-conductive epoxy results in a greater than 5x increase in heat transfer rate at a given superheat temperature. This drastic and counterintuitive increase is shown to be due to optimized bubble dynamics, where ordered pathways allow for efficient removal of vapor and the return of replenishing liquid. The use of engineered thermal gradients represents a potentially disruptive approach to create high-efficiency and high-heat-flux boiling surfaces which are naturally insensitive to fouling and degradation as compared to other approaches. PMID:26281890
Qualitative aspects in dual-phase-lag heat conduction Ramon Quintanilla1
Racke, Reinhard
Qualitative aspects in dual-phase-lag heat conduction RamÂ´on Quintanilla1 Department of Applied.racke@uni-konstanz.de Abstract: We consider the system of dual-phase-lag heat conduction proposed by Tzou [21]. First, we prove of heat conduction based on Fourier's law predicts infinite heat propagation speed. Heat transmission
Revealing the complex conduction heat transfer mechanism of nanofluids.
Sergis, A; Hardalupas, Y
2015-12-01
Nanofluids are two-phase mixtures consisting of small percentages of nanoparticles (sub 1-10 %vol) inside a carrier fluid. The typical size of nanoparticles is less than 100 nm. These fluids have been exhibiting experimentally a significant increase of thermal performance compared to the corresponding carrier fluids, which cannot be explained using the classical thermodynamic theory. This study deciphers the thermal heat transfer mechanism for the conductive heat transfer mode via a molecular dynamics simulation code. The current findings are the first of their kind and conflict with the proposed theories for heat transfer propagation through micron-sized slurries and pure matter. The authors provide evidence of a complex new type of heat transfer mechanism, which explains the observed abnormal heat transfer augmentation. The new mechanism appears to unite a number of popular speculations for the thermal heat transfer mechanism employed by nanofluids as predicted by the majority of the researchers of the field into a single one. The constituents of the increased diffusivity of the nanoparticle can be attributed to mismatching of the local temperature profiles between parts of the surface of the solid and the fluid resulting in increased local thermophoretic effects. These effects affect the region surrounding the solid manifesting interfacial layer phenomena (Kapitza resistance). In this region, the activity of the fluid and the interactions between the fluid and the nanoparticle are elevated. Isotropic increased nanoparticle mobility is manifested as enhanced Brownian motion and diffusion effects. PMID:26058515
Peletier, Mark A.; Redig, Frank; Vafayi, Kiamars
2014-09-01
We consider three one-dimensional continuous-time Markov processes on a lattice, each of which models the conduction of heat: the family of Brownian Energy Processes with parameter m (BEP(m)), a Generalized Brownian Energy Process, and the Kipnis-Marchioro-Presutti (KMP) process. The hydrodynamic limit of each of these three processes is a parabolic equation, the linear heat equation in the case of the BEP(m) and the KMP, and a nonlinear heat equation for the Generalized Brownian Energy Process with parameter a (GBEP(a)). We prove the hydrodynamic limit rigorously for the BEP(m), and give a formal derivation for the GBEP(a). We then formally derive the pathwise large-deviation rate functional for the empirical measure of the three processes. These rate functionals imply gradient-flow structures for the limiting linear and nonlinear heat equations. We contrast these gradient-flow structures with those for processes describing the diffusion of mass, most importantly the class of Wasserstein gradient-flow systems. The linear and nonlinear heat-equation gradient-flow structures are each driven by entropy terms of the form -log ?; they involve dissipation or mobility terms of order ?² for the linear heat equation, and a nonlinear function of ? for the nonlinear heat equation.
Mark A. Peletier; Frank Redig; Kiamars Vafayi
2014-03-19
We consider three one-dimensional continuous-time Markov processes on a lattice, each of which models the conduction of heat: the family of Brownian Energy Processes with parameter $m$, a Generalized Brownian Energy Process, and the Kipnis-Marchioro-Presutti process. The hydrodynamic limit of each of these three processes is a parabolic equation, the linear heat equation in the case of the BEP$(m)$ and the KMP, and a nonlinear heat equation for the GBEP($a$). We prove the hydrodynamic limit rigorously for the BEP$(m)$, and give a formal derivation for the GBEP($a$). We then formally derive the pathwise large-deviation rate functional for the empirical measure of the three processes. These rate functionals imply gradient-flow structures for the limiting linear and nonlinear heat equations. We contrast these gradient-flow structures with those for processes describing the diffusion of mass, most importantly the class of Wasserstein gradient-flow systems. The linear and nonlinear heat-equation gradient-flow structures are each driven by entropy terms of the form $-\\log \\rho$; they involve dissipation or mobility terms of order $\\rho^2$ for the linear heat equation, and a nonlinear function of $\\rho$ for the nonlinear heat equation.
Heat conduction in one-dimensional nonintegrable systems Bambi Hu,1,2
Heat conduction in one-dimensional nonintegrable systems Bambi Hu,1,2 Baowen Li,1,3, * and Hong the underlying mechanism of the Fourier heat conduction law, the study of heat conduction has attracted the thermal con- ductivity is a constant independent of system size N. The Fourier heat conduction law (J d
Collins, Kimberlee C. (Kimberlee Chiyoko)
2015-01-01
Studies of non-diffusive heat conduction provide insight into the fundamentals of heat transport in condensed matter. The mean free paths (MFPs) of phonons that are most important for conducting heat are well represented ...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glass, David E.; Tamma, Kumar K.; Railkar, Sudhir B.
1989-01-01
The paper describes the numerical simulation of hyperbolic heat conduction with convection boundary conditions. The effects of a step heat loading, a sudden pulse heat loading, and an internal heat source are considered in conjunction with convection boundary conditions. Two methods of solution are presened for predicting the transient behavior of the propagating thermal disturbances. In the first method, MacCormack's predictor-corrector method is employed for integrating the hyperbolic system of equations. Next, the transfinite element method, which employs specially tailored elements, is used for accurately representing the transient response of the propagating thermal wave fronts. The agreement between the results of various numerical test cases validate the representative behavior of the thermal wave fronts. Both methods represent hyperbolic heat conduction behavior by effectively modeling the sharp discontinuities of the propagating thermal disturbances.
Heat conduction nanocalorimeter for pl-scale single cell measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johannessen, E. A.; Weaver, J. M. R.; Cobbold, P. H.; Cooper, J. M.
2002-03-01
An ultrasensitive nanocalorimeter for use with pl-scale biological samples using silicon microfabrication technology has been developed in which a 720 pl reaction vessel, a calibration heater, and a thermoelectric transducer of 125 ?K sensitivity were integrated into a single multilayer thin-film configuration. The resolution of the system ranged from 10 to 25 nW depending on the heat capacity, conductance and power density of the samples studied. The device has been used in heat conduction measurements of the energy released from the enzyme catalyzed hydrolysis of hydrogen peroxide using purified catalase, and for the determination of the catalase activity within a single mouse hepatocyte. The nanocalorimeter has the potential for integration in a high-density array format, where the change in temperature from ultralow volume cellular assays could be used as a generic analytical tool for high throughput screening of bioactive compounds.
An eigenvalue method for solving transient heat conduction problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shih, T. M.; Skladany, J. T.
1983-01-01
The eigenvalue method, which has been used by researchers in structure mechanics, is applied to problems in heat conduction. Its formulation is decribed in terms of an examination of transient heat conduction in a square slab. Taking advantage of the availability of the exact solution, we compare the accuracy and other numerical properties of the eigenvalue method with those of existing numerical schemes. The comparsion shows that, overall, the eigenvalue method appears to be fairly attractive. Furthermore, only a few dominant eigenvalues and their corresponding eigenvectors need to be computed and retained to yield reasonably high accuracy. Greater savings are attained in the computation time for a transient problem with long time duration and a large computational domain.
Kinematic Self-Similar Heat Conducting and Charge Solutions
M. Sharif; Wajiha Javed
2010-12-01
The objective of this paper is to study the plane symmetric kinematic self-similar heat conducting fluid and charge dust solutions of the Einstein field equations. These solutions are classified according to self-similarity of the first, second, zeroth and infinite kinds with different equations of state. We take the self-similar vector to be tilted, orthogonal and parallel to the fluid flow. For heat conducting fluid, it is found that there exist only \\emph{one} solution in parallel case. In all other possibilities, these solutions reduce to the perfect fluid kinematic self-similar solutions. For charge dust case, we also obtain only \\emph{one} kinematic self-similar solution.
Modelling of transient heat conduction with diffuse interface methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ettrich, J.; Choudhury, A.; Tschukin, O.; Schoof, E.; August, A.; Nestler, B.
2014-12-01
We present a survey on different numerical interpolation schemes used for two-phase transient heat conduction problems in the context of interface capturing phase-field methods. Examples are general transport problems in the context of diffuse interface methods with a non-equal heat conductivity in normal and tangential directions to the interface. We extend the tonsorial approach recently published by Nicoli M et al (2011 Phys. Rev. E 84 1-6) to the general three-dimensional (3D) transient evolution equations. Validations for one-dimensional, two-dimensional and 3D transient test cases are provided, and the results are in good agreement with analytical and numerical reference solutions.
Non-steady state heat conduction in composite walls
Bernard Deconinck; Beatrice Pelloni; Natalie Sheils
2014-02-12
The problem of heat conduction in one-dimensional piecewise homogeneous composite materials is examined by providing an explicit solution of the one-dimensional heat equation in each domain. The location of the interfaces is known, but neither temperature nor heat flux are prescribed there. Instead, the physical assumptions of their continuity at the interfaces are the only conditions imposed. The problem of two semi-infinite domains and that of two finite-sized domains are examined in detail. We indicate also how to extend the solution method to the setting of one finite-sized domain surrounded on both sides by semi-infinite domains, and on that of three finite-sized domains.
Fuzzy and interval finite element method for heat conduction problem
Sarangam Majumdar; Sukanta Nayak; S. Chakraverty
2012-09-26
Traditional finite element method is a well-established method to solve various problems of science and engineering. Different authors have used various methods to solve governing differential equation of heat conduction problem. In this study, heat conduction in a circular rod has been considered which is made up of two different materials viz. aluminum and copper. In earlier studies parameters in the differential equation have been taken as fixed (crisp) numbers which actually may not. Those parameters are found in general by some measurements or experiments. So the material properties are actually uncertain and may be considered to vary in an interval or as fuzzy and in that case complex interval arithmetic or fuzzy arithmetic has to be considered in the analysis. As such the problem is discretized into finite number of elements which depend on interval/fuzzy parameters. Representation of interval/fuzzy numbers may give the clear picture of uncertainty. Hence interval/fuzzy arithmetic is applied in the finite element method to solve a steady state heat conduction problem. Application of fuzzy finite element method in the said problem gives fuzzy system of linear equations in general. Here new methods have also been proposed to handle such type of fuzzy system of linear equations. Corresponding results are computed and has been reported here.
A heat exchanger model that includes axial conduction, parasitic heat loads, and property variations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nellis, G. F.
2003-09-01
High performance heat exchangers are a critical component in many cryogenic systems and the performance of these devices is typically very sensitive to axial conduction, property variations, and parasitic heat losses to the environment. This paper presents a numerical model of a heat exchanger in which these effects are explicitly modeled. The governing equations are derived, nondimensionalized, discretized, and solved on an exponentially distributed grid. The resulting numerical model is simple to implement and computationally efficient and can therefore easily be integrated into complex system models. The numerical model is validated against analytical solutions in the appropriate limits and then used to investigate the effect of heat exchanger end conditions (adiabatic vs fixed temperature) and radiation parasitics. The numerical model, which explicitly considers the combined effect of several loss mechanisms as they interact, is compared to simple models that consider these effects separately. Finally, the model is applied to an example heat exchanger core under a specific set of operating conditions in order to demonstrate its utility. This numerical model may also be used to examine the effect of property variations including temperature driven changes in specific heat capacity, metal conductivity, parasitic heat load, and heat transfer coefficients and is therefore useful in the design of a variety of cryogenic system components including counter- and parallel-flow heat exchangers for gas liquefaction, mixed-gas refrigeration, and reverse Brayton systems.
Thermal conductivity measurements of proton-heated warm dense matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McKelvey, A.; Fernandez-Panella, A.; Hua, R.; Kim, J.; King, J.; Sio, H.; McGuffey, C.; Kemp, G. E.; Freeman, R. R.; Beg, F. N.; Shepherd, R.; Ping, Y.
2015-06-01
Accurate knowledge of conductivity characteristics in the strongly coupled plasma regime is extremely important for ICF processes such as the onset of hydrodynamic instabilities, thermonuclear burn propagation waves, shell mixing, and efficient x-ray conversion of indirect drive schemes. Recently, an experiment was performed on the Titan laser platform at the Jupiter Laser Facility to measure the thermal conductivity of proton-heated warm dense matter. In the experiment, proton beams generated via target normal sheath acceleration were used to heat bi-layer targets with high-Z front layers and lower-Z back layers. The stopping power of a material is approximately proportional to Z2 so a sharp temperature gradient is established between the two materials. The subsequent thermal conduction from the higher-Z material to the lower-Z was measured with time resolved streaked optical pyrometry (SOP) and Fourier domain interferometry (FDI) of the rear surface. Results will be used to compare predictions from the thermal conduction equation and the Wiedemann-Franz Law in the warm dense matter regime. Data from the time resolved diagnostics for Au/Al and Au/C Targets of 20-200 nm thickness will be presented.
Extremes of heat conduction-Pushing the boundaries of the thermal conductivity of materials
Cahill, DG
2012-09-12
Thermal conductivity is a familiar property of materials: silver conducts heat well, and plastic does not. In recent years, an interdisciplinary group of materials scientists, engineers, physicists, and chemists have succeeded in pushing back long-established limits in the thermal conductivity of materials. Carbon nanotubes and graphene are at the high end of the thermal conductivity spectrum due to their high sound velocities and relative lack of processes that scatter phonons. Unfortunately, the superlative thermal properties of carbon nanotubes have not found immediate application in composites or interface materials because of difficulties in making good thermal contact with the nanotubes. At the low end of the thermal conductivity spectrum, solids that combine order and disorder in the random stacking of two-dimensional crystalline sheets, so-called "disordered layered crystals," show a thermal conductivity that is only a factor of 2 larger than air. The cause of this low thermal conductivity may be explained by the large anisotropy in elastic constants that suppresses the density of phonon modes that propagate along the soft direction. Low-dimensional quantum magnets demonstrate that electrons and phonons are not the only significant carriers of heat. Near room temperature, the spin thermal conductivity of spin-ladders is comparable to the electronic thermal conductivities of metals. Our measurements of nanoscale thermal transport properties employ a variety of ultrafast optical pump-probe metrology tools that we have developed over the past several years. We are currently working to extend these techniques to high pressures (60 GPa), high magnetic fields (5 T), and high temperatures (1000 K).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Püthe, Christoph; Kuvshinov, Alexey; Khan, Amir; Olsen, Nils
2015-12-01
We present a new model of the radial (1-D) conductivity structure of Earth's mantle. This model is derived from more than 10 yr of magnetic measurements from the satellites Ørsted, CHAMP, SAC-C and the Swarm trio as well as the global network of geomagnetic observatories. After removal of core and crustal field as predicted by a recent field model, we fit the magnetic data with spherical harmonic coefficients describing ring current activity and associated induction effects and estimate global C-responses at periods between 1.5 and 150 d. The C-responses are corrected for 3-D effects due to induction in the oceans and inverted for a 1-D model of mantle conductivity using both probabilistic and deterministic methods. Very similar results are obtained, consisting of a highly resistive upper mantle, an increase in conductivity in and beneath the transition zone and a conductive lower mantle. Analysis of the Hessian of the cost function reveals that the data are most sensitive to structures at depths between 800 and 1200 km, in agreement with the results obtained from the probabilistic approach. Preliminary interpretation of the inverted conductivity structure based on laboratory-based conductivity profiles shows that the recovered structure in the lower mantle either requires higher temperatures or the presence of material of high conductivity related to ponding of carbonate melts below the transition zone.
A study on the non-Fourier heat conduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Woo-Seung, Kim
Heat conduction problem in many engineering situations has been analyzed by using the heat conduction equation based on the classical Fourier model. However, Fourier's law implies that any thermal disturbances on a body is instantaneously felt throughout the body, that is, the propagation speed of thermal disturbances is infinite. Clearly, this phenomenon is the paradoxical result from the physical point of view due to the fact that thermal waves travel with a finite speed. Despite this apparent paradox, the classical heat conduction equation based on Fourier model is quite acceptable for the majority of practical situations. However, it fails to adequately predict temperatures in situations for extremely short periods of time, extreme temperature gradients, and temperatures near absolute zero. Therefore, non-Fourier model has been used to alleviate these shortcomings in the analysis of the temperature field in the laser applications. The present study is concerned with the temperature response in an ortho tropic medium due to axisymmetric surface laser sources. The surface sources are activated on the solid surface with very high heat flux for a short period of time. Both the semi-infinite and finite medium are considered and the effect of the thermal reflection is observed in the finite medium. Most pulsed solid state lasers operate in the lowest-order spatial mode which is known as Gaussian mode. Since many high power CO2 lasers generally produce a complicated mixture of the Gaussian and doughnut modes, The two modes are considered in this study. The differences between the non-Fourier model and Fourier model have been compared, and the effects of both the isotropic and orthotropic property of the medium on the temperature field have been considered.
MHD Simulations of a Moving Subclump with Heat Conduction
Naoki Asai; Naoya Fukuda; Ryoji Matsumoto
2004-12-15
High resolution observations of cluster of galaxies by Chandra have revealed the existence of an X-ray emitting comet-like galaxy C153 in the core of cluster of galaxies A2125. The galaxy C153 moving fast in the cluster core has a distinct X-ray tail on one side, obviously due to ram pressure stripping, since the galaxy C153 crossed the central region of A2125. The X-ray emitting plasma in the tail is substantially cooler than the ambient plasma. We present results of two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the time evolution of a subclump like C153 moving in magnetized intergalactic matter. Anisotropic heat conduction is included. We found that the magnetic fields are essential for the existence of the cool X-ray tail, because in non-magnetized plasma the cooler subclump tail is heated up by isotropic heat conduction from the hot ambient plasma and does not form such a comet-like tail.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kachanov, Mark
1998-01-01
Analysis of the effective thermal conductivity of ceramic coatings and its relation to the microstructure continued. Results (obtained in Task 1) for the three-dimensional problem of heat conduction in a solid containing an inclusion (or, in particular, cavity - thermal insulator) of the ellipsoidal shape, were further advanced in the following two directions: (1) closed form expressions of H tensor have been derived for special cases of ellipsoidal cavity geometry: spheroid, crack-like spheroidal cavity and needle shaped spheroidal cavity; (2) these results for one cavity have been incorporated to construct heat energy potential for a solid with many spheroidal cavities (in the approximation of non-interacting defects). This problem constitutes a basic building block for further analyses.
Sodium Variable Conductance Heat Pipe for Radioisotope Stirling Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tarau, Calin; Anderson, William G.; Walker, Kara
2009-01-01
In a Stirling radioisotope system, heat must continually be removed from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules to maintain the modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. Normally, the Stirling convertor provides this cooling. If the converter stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS, and also ending the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) has been designed to allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling convertor in an Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG). When the Stirling convertor is turned off, the VCHP will activate when the temperatures rises 30 C above the setpoint temperature. A prototype VCHP with sodium as the working fluid was fabricated and tested in both gravity aided and against gravity conditions for a nominal heater head temperature of 790 C. The results show very good agreement with the predictions and validate the model. The gas front was located at the exit of the reservoir when heater head temperature was 790 C while cooling was ON, simulating an operating Advanced Stirling Converter (ASC). When cooling stopped, the temperature increased by 30 C, allowing the gas front to move past the radiator, which transferred the heat to the case. After resuming the cooling flow, the front returned at the initial location turning OFF the VCHP. The against gravity working conditions showed a colder reservoir and faster transients.
Variable Conductance Heat Pipes for Radioisotope Stirling Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, William G.; Tarau, Calin
2008-01-01
In a Stirling radioisotope system, heat must continually be removed from the GPHS modules, to maintain the GPHS modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. Normally, the Stirling convertor provides this cooling. If the Stirling engine stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS, but also ending the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) was designed to allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling engine. A VCHP turns on with a delta T of 30 C, which is high enough to not risk standard ASRG operation but low enough to save most heater head life. This VCHP has a low mass, and low thermal losses for normal operation. In addition to the design, a proof-of-concept NaK VCHP was fabricated and tested. While NaK is normally not used in heat pipes, it has an advantage in that it is liquid at the reservoir operating temperature, while Na or K alone would freeze. The VCHP had two condensers, one simulating the heater head, and the other simulating the radiator. The experiments successfully demonstrated operation with the simulated heater head condenser off and on, while allowing the reservoir temperature to vary over 40 to 120 C, the maximum range expected. In agreement with previous NaK heat pipe tests, the evaporator delta T was roughly 70 C, due to distillation of the NaK in the evaporator.
Maruyama, Shigeo
Non-Fourier heat conduction in a single-walled carbon nanotube: Classical molecular dynamics of the simulations exhibit non-Fourier heat conduction where the distinct amount of heat is transported in a wavelike called non-Fourier heat conduction equations in order to investigate the applicability
A note on stability in three-phase-lag heat conduction Ramon Quintanilla1
Racke, Reinhard
A note on stability in three-phase-lag heat conduction RamÂ´on Quintanilla1 Department of Applied.racke@uni-konstanz.de Abstract: In this note we consider two cases in the theory of the heat conduction models with three the heat conduction, the latter also being called theories of second sound, where the propagation of heat
Thermal Conductivity of One-Dimensional Lattices with Self-Consistent Heat Baths
Li, Baowen
Thermal Conductivity of One-Dimensional Lattices with Self-Consistent Heat Baths: A Heuristic and breathers. KEYWORDS: heat conduction, classical transport, Langevin dynamics DOI: 10.1143/JPSJ.78.044001 1. Introduction Heat conduction exhibits diversified behaviors for one- dimensional lattices in terms of heat
DSMC Convergence for Microscale Gas-Phase Heat Conduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rader, D. J.; Gallis, M. A.; Torczynski, J. R.
2004-11-01
The convergence of Bird's Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is investigated for gas-phase heat conduction at typical microscale conditions. A hard-sphere gas is confined between two fully accommodating walls of unequal temperature. Simulations are performed for small system and local Knudsen numbers, so continuum flow exists outside the Knudsen layers. The ratio of the DSMC thermal conductivity to the Chapman-Enskog value in the central region is determined for over 200 combinations of time step, cell size, and number of computational molecules per cell. In the limit of vanishing error, this ratio approaches 1.000 to within the correlation uncertainty. In the limit of infinite computational molecules per cell, the difference from unity depends quadratically on time step and cell size as these quantities become small. The coefficients of these quadratic terms are in good agreement with Green-Kubo values found by Hadjiconstantinou, Garcia, and co-workers. These results demonstrate that DSMC can accurately simulate microscale gas-phase heat conduction. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Numerical Model for Conduction-Cooled Current Lead Heat Loads
White, M.J.; Wang, X.L.; Brueck, H.D.; /DESY
2011-06-10
Current leads are utilized to deliver electrical power from a room temperature junction mounted on the vacuum vessel to a superconducting magnet located within the vacuum space of a cryostat. There are many types of current leads used at laboratories throughout the world; however, conduction-cooled current leads are often chosen for their simplicity and reliability. Conduction-cooled leads have the advantage of using common materials, have no superconducting/normal state transition, and have no boil-off vapor to collect. This paper presents a numerical model for conduction-cooled current lead heat loads. This model takes into account varying material and fluid thermal properties, varying thicknesses along the length of the lead, heat transfer in the circumferential and longitudinal directions, electrical power dissipation, and the effect of thermal intercepts. The model is validated by comparing the numerical model results to ideal cases where analytical equations are valid. In addition, the XFEL (X-Ray Free Electron Laser) prototype current leads are modeled and compared to the experimental results from testing at DESY's XFEL Magnet Test Stand (XMTS) and Cryomodule Test Bench (CMTB).
Numerical modeling of thermal conductive heating in fractured bedrock.
Baston, Daniel P; Falta, Ronald W; Kueper, Bernard H
2010-01-01
Numerical modeling was employed to study the performance of thermal conductive heating (TCH) in fractured shale under a variety of hydrogeological conditions. Model results show that groundwater flow in fractures does not significantly affect the minimum treatment zone temperature, except near the beginning of heating or when groundwater influx is high. However, fracture and rock matrix properties can significantly influence the time necessary to remove all liquid water (i.e., reach superheated steam conditions) in the treatment area. Low matrix permeability, high matrix porosity, and wide fracture spacing can contribute to boiling point elevation in the rock matrix. Consequently, knowledge of these properties is important for the estimation of treatment times. Because of the variability in boiling point throughout a fractured rock treatment zone and the absence of a well-defined constant temperature boiling plateau in the rock matrix, it may be difficult to monitor the progress of thermal treatment using temperature measurements alone. PMID:20550586
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, W. T.; Edwards, D. K.; Eninger, J. E.; Marcus, B. D.
1974-01-01
A research and development program in variable conductance heat pipe technology is reported. The project involved: (1) theoretical and/or experimental studies in hydrostatics, (2) hydrodynamics, (3) heat transfer into and out of the pipe, (4) fluid selection, and (5) materials compatibility. The development, fabrication, and test of the space hardware resulted in a successful flight of the heat pipe experiment on the OAO-3 satellite. A summary of the program is provided and a guide to the location of publications on the project is included.
Combined conduction and radiation heat transfer in concentric cylindrical media
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pandey, D. K.
1987-01-01
The exact radiative transfer expressions for gray and nongray gases which are absorbing, emitting and nonscattering, contained between infinitely long concentric cylinders with black surfaces, are given in local thermodynamic equilibrium. Resulting energy equations due to the combination of conduction and radiation modes of heat transfer, under steady state conditions for gray and nongray media, are solved numerically using the undetermined parameters method. A single 4.3-micron band of CO2 is considered for the nongray problems. The present solutions for gray and nongray gases obtained in the plane-parallel limit (radius ratio approaches to one) are compared with the plane-parallel results reported in the literature.
Tunable single-photon heat conduction in electrical circuits
P. J. Jones; J. A. M. Huhtamäki; M. Partanen; K. Y. Tan; M. Möttönen
2012-05-21
We build on the study of single-photon heat conduction in electronic circuits taking into account the back-action of the superconductor--insulator--normal-metal thermometers. In addition, we show that placing capacitors, resistors, and superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) into a microwave cavity can severely distort the spatial current profile which, in general, should be accounted for in circuit design. The introduction of SQUIDs also allows for in situ tuning of the photonic power transfer which could be utilized in experiments on superconducting quantum bits.
Hierarchical Parallelism in Finite Difference Analysis of Heat Conduction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Padovan, Joseph; Krishna, Lala; Gute, Douglas
1997-01-01
Based on the concept of hierarchical parallelism, this research effort resulted in highly efficient parallel solution strategies for very large scale heat conduction problems. Overall, the method of hierarchical parallelism involves the partitioning of thermal models into several substructured levels wherein an optimal balance into various associated bandwidths is achieved. The details are described in this report. Overall, the report is organized into two parts. Part 1 describes the parallel modelling methodology and associated multilevel direct, iterative and mixed solution schemes. Part 2 establishes both the formal and computational properties of the scheme.
AdS/CFT Correspondence with Heat Conduction
James Alsup; Chad Middleton; George Siopsis
2007-06-28
We study an extension of the gravity dual to a perfect fluid model found by Janik and Peschanski. By relaxing one of the constraints, namely invariance under reflection in the longitudinal direction, we introduce a metric ansatz which includes off-diagonal terms. We also include an $R$-charge following Bak and Janik. We solve the Maxwell-Einstein equations and through holographic renormalization, we show that the off-diagonal components of the bulk metric give rise to heat conduction in the corresponding CFT on the boundary.
Pseudo-updated constrained solution algorithm for nonlinear heat conduction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tovichakchaikul, S.; Padovan, J.
1983-01-01
This paper develops efficiency and stability improvements in the incremental successive substitution (ISS) procedure commonly used to generate the solution to nonlinear heat conduction problems. This is achieved by employing the pseudo-update scheme of Broyden, Fletcher, Goldfarb and Shanno in conjunction with the constrained version of the ISS. The resulting algorithm retains the formulational simplicity associated with ISS schemes while incorporating the enhanced convergence properties of slope driven procedures as well as the stability of constrained approaches. To illustrate the enhanced operating characteristics of the new scheme, the results of several benchmark comparisons are presented.
Maruyama, Shigeo
1 Version Date: October 30, 2001 A Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Heat Conduction in Finite-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan Abstract The heat conduction in finite length single walled carbon nanotubes conductivity compared to the infinitely long nanotubes. The finite length effect on the heat conduction
Anomalous Heat Conduction and Anomalous Diffusion in One-Dimensional Systems and Jiao Wang2
Li, Baowen
Anomalous Heat Conduction and Anomalous Diffusion in One-Dimensional Systems Baowen Li1 and Jiao normal heat conduction obeying the Fourier law (#12; 0) and that superdiffusion ( > 1) implies anomalous heat conduction with a divergent thermal conductivity (#12; > 0). More interestingly, subdiffusion
The form of Abstract Molecular dynamics simulations of diffusive-ballistic heat conduction
Maruyama, Shigeo
The form of Abstract Molecular dynamics simulations of diffusive-ballistic heat conduction amount of electrical current in the system. In this study, we have calculated SWNT heat conduction conduction characteristics and to gain fundamental understanding of heat conduction in quasi
Time fractional dual-phase-lag heat conduction equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Huan-Ying; Jiang, Xiao-Yun
2015-03-01
We build a fractional dual-phase-lag model and the corresponding bioheat transfer equation, which we use to interpret the experiment results for processed meat that have been explained by applying the hyperbolic conduction. Analytical solutions expressed by H-functions are obtained by using the Laplace and Fourier transforms method. The inverse fractional dual-phase-lag heat conduction problem for the simultaneous estimation of two relaxation times and orders of fractionality is solved by applying the nonlinear least-square method. The estimated model parameters are given. Finally, the measured and the calculated temperatures versus time are compared and discussed. Some numerical examples are also given and discussed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11102102, 11472161, and 91130017), the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province, China (Grant No. ZR2014AQ015), and the Independent Innovation Foundation of Shandong University, China (Grant No. 2013ZRYQ002).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bunker, R. S.; Metzger, D. E.; Wittig, S.
1990-06-01
The detailed radial distributions of rotor heat-transfer coefficients for three basic disk-cavity geometries applicable to gas turbines are presented. The coefficients are obtained over a range of parameters including disk rotational Reynolds numbers of 200,000 to 50,000, rotor/stator spacing-to-disk ratios of 0.025 to 0.15, and jet mass flow rates between 0.10 and 0.40 times the turbulent pumped flow rate of a free disk. The effects of a parallel rotor are analyzed, and strong variations in local Nusselt numbers for all but the rotational speed are pointed out and compared with the associated hub-injection data from a previous study. It is demonstrated that the overall rotor heat transfer is optimized by either the hub injection or radial location injection of a coolant, dependent on the configuration.
Application of inverse heat conduction problem on temperature measurement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, X.; Zhou, G.; Dong, B.; Li, Q.; Liu, L. Q.
2013-09-01
For regenerative cooling devices, such as G-M refrigerator, pulse tube cooler or thermoacoustic cooler, the gas oscillating bring about temperature fluctuations inevitably, which is harmful in many applications requiring high stable temperatures. To find out the oscillating mechanism of the cooling temperature and improve the temperature stability of cooler, the inner temperature of the cold head has to be measured. However, it is difficult to measure the inner oscillating temperature of the cold head directly because the invasive temperature detectors may disturb the oscillating flow. Fortunately, the outer surface temperature of the cold head can be measured accurately by invasive temperature measurement techniques. In this paper, a mathematical model of inverse heat conduction problem is presented to identify the inner surface oscillating temperature of cold head according to the measured temperature of the outer surface in a GM cryocooler. Inverse heat conduction problem will be solved using control volume approach. Outer surface oscillating temperature could be used as input conditions of inverse problem and the inner surface oscillating temperature of cold head can be inversely obtained. A simple uncertainty analysis of the oscillating temperature measurement also will be provided.
Heating, conduction and minimum temperatures in cooling flows
Mateusz Ruszkowski; Mitchell C. Begelman
2002-08-12
There is mounting observational evidence from Chandra for strong interaction between keV gas and AGN in cooling flows. It is now widely accepted that the temperatures of cluster cores are maintained at a level of 1 keV and that the mass deposition rates are lower than earlier ROSAT/Einstein values. Recent theoretical results suggest that thermal conduction can be very efficient even in magnetized plasmas. Motivated by these discoveries, we consider a ``double heating model'' which incorporates the effects of simultaneous heating by both the central AGN and thermal conduction from the hot outer layers of clusters. Using hydrodynamical simulations, we demonstrate that there exists a family of solutions that does not suffer from the cooling catastrophe. In these cases, clusters relax to a stable final state, which is characterized by minimum temperatures of order 1 keV and density and temperature profiles consistent with observations. Moreover, the accretion rates are much reduced, thereby reducing the need for excessive mass deposition rates required by the standard cooling flow models.
High Temperature Variable Conductance Heat Pipes for Radioisotope Stirling Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tarau, Calin; Walker, Kara L.; Anderson, William G.
2009-03-01
In a Stirling radioisotope system, heat must continually be removed from the GPHS modules, to maintain the GPHS modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. Normally, the Stirling converter provides this cooling. If the Stirling engine stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS, but also ending the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) is under development to allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling engine. The status of the ongoing effort in developing this technology is presented in this paper. An earlier, preliminary design had a radiator outside the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) casing, used NaK as the working fluid, and had the reservoir located on the cold side adapter flange. The revised design has an internal radiator inside the casing, with the reservoir embedded inside the insulation. A large set of advantages are offered by this new design. In addition to reducing the overall size and mass of the VCHP, simplicity, compactness and easiness in assembling the VCHP with the ASRG are significantly enhanced. Also, the permanently elevated temperatures of the entire VCHP allows the change of the working fluid from a binary compound (NaK) to single compound (Na). The latter, by its properties, allows higher performance and further mass reduction of the system. Preliminary design and analysis shows an acceptable peak temperature of the ASRG case of 140° C while the heat losses caused by the addition of the VCHP are 1.8 W.
High Temperature Variable Conductance Heat Pipes for Radioisotope Stirling Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tarau, Calin; Walker, Kara L.; Anderson, William G.
2009-01-01
In a Stirling radioisotope system, heat must continually be removed from the GPHS modules, to maintain the GPHS modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. Normally, the Stirling convertor provides this cooling. If the Stirling convertor stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS, but also ending the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) is under development to allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling convertor. The status of the ongoing effort in developing this technology is presented in this paper. An earlier, preliminary design had a radiator outside the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) casing, used NaK as the working fluid, and had the reservoir located on the cold side adapter flange. The revised design has an internal radiator inside the casing, with the reservoir embedded inside the insulation. A large set of advantages are offered by this new design. In addition to reducing the overall size and mass of the VCHP, simplicity, compactness and easiness in assembling the VCHP with the ASRG are significantly enhanced. Also, the permanently elevated temperatures of the entire VCHP allows the change of the working fluid from a binary compound (NaK) to single compound (Na). The latter, by its properties, allows higher performance and further mass reduction of the system. Preliminary design and analysis shows an acceptable peak temperature of the ASRG case of 140 C while the heat losses caused by the addition of the VCHP are 1.8 W.
Phase-Dependent Thermal Conductivity and Heat Flux Variation at the Core Mantle Boundary
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walker, A. M.; Ammann, M. W.; Stackhouse, S.; Wookey, J.; Brodholt, J. P.; Dobson, D. P.
2012-12-01
We have combined atomic scale simulations of thermal conductivity in MgSiO3 perovskite and post-perovskite with a models of texture development and temperature distribution in the lowermost mantle in order to better understand the constraints on the distribution of heat flux across the core mantle boundary (CMB). In order to calculate the thermal conductivity we make use of a simple non-equilibrium molecular dynamics scheme with the interactions between atoms described using density functional theory or one of two parameterised interatomic-potential based models. These simulations yield the thermal conductivity of the two phases as a function of pressure and temperature. Under the conditions expected in the lowermost mantle we find that the thermal conductivity of the post-perovskite phase (˜12 W/mK) is about 1.5 times larger than that of MgSiO3 perovskite (˜8.5 W/mK). This increase in conductivity is similar to that measured for the CaIrO3 analogue and sufficient, in simple models of convection, to increase the velocity of downwelling material and the asymmetry of the convective planform. The variation of thermal conductivity across the CMB, with high conductivity in cold post-perovskite bearing areas and low conductivity in hotter areas, also has implications for convection in the outer core. Effectively, areas containing post-perovskite appear even colder from the point of view of the heat flux out of the top of the core enhancing the thermal interaction between the core and mantle. The approach also yields the anisotropy of thermal conductivity tensor. We find that the perovskite phase is weakly anisotropic with conductivity along the c-axis about 10% higher than conductivity along the a-axis. In contrast the post-perovskite phase is found to be strongly anisotropic at relatively low temperature (1000 K) with conductivity along the a-axis about 40% higher than conductivity along the c-axis. However, the anisotropy decreases with increasing temperature and, by 4000 K, conductivity becomes nearly isotropic. We have used the results of these simulations in combination with a model of the development of lattice preferred orientation (LPO) in D? to examine the controls on the distribution of heat flux at the CMB. Although the model parameters are not well constrained, we believe they place reasonable upper bounds on the strength of the texture and the magnitude of the temperature variation. We are able to separately consider the effects of: (a) an inhomogeneous temperature distribution in D?, (b) temperature dependent thermal conductivity, (c) the spatial distribution of perovskite and post-perovskite and (d) the development of a LPO in post-perovksite. Our model parameters suggest that the strongest control on the distribution of CMB heat flux is the temperature distribution in the lower mantle. However, the influence of of the development of texture in post-perovskite may be geodynamically significant around the base of mantle plumes, which may be anchored in place by a radial pattern of conductivity maxima.
Tataranni, Giuseppe; Santarcangelo, Michele; Sofo, Adriano; Xiloyannis, Cristos; Tyerman, Stephen D; Dichio, Bartolomeo
2015-12-01
The effects of prolonged drought were studied on olive (Olea europaea L.; drought-sensitive cultivar Biancolilla and drought-tolerant cultivar Coratina) to examine how morpho-anatomical modifications in roots impact on root radial hydraulic conductivity (Lpr). Two-year-old self-rooted plants were subjected to a gradual water depletion. The levels of drought stress were defined by pre-dawn leaf water potentials (?w) of -1.5, -3.5 and -6.5?MPa. After reaching the maximum level of drought, plants were rewatered for 23 days. Progressive drought stress, for both cultivars, caused a strong reduction in Lpr (from 1.2 to 1.3?×?10(-5)?m?MPa(-1)?s(-1) in unstressed plants to 0.2-0.6?×?10(-5)?m?MPa(-1)?s(-1) in plants at ?w?=?-6.5?MPa), particularly evident in the more suberized (brown) roots, accompanied with decreases in stomatal conductance (gs). No significant differences in Lpr and gs between the two olive cultivars were observed. Epifluorescence microscopy and image analyses revealed a parallel increase of wall suberization that doubled in white stressed roots and tripled in brown ones when compared with unstressed plants. In drought-stressed plants, the number of suberized cellular layers from the endodermis towards the cortex increased from 1-2 to 6-7. Recovery in Lpr during rewatering was correlated to the physical disruption of hydrophobic barriers, while the time necessary to obtain new mature roots likely accounted for the observed delay in the complete recovery of gs. Radial hydraulic conductivity in olive roots was strongly influenced by soil and plant water availability and it was also modulated by structural root modifications, size, growth and anatomy. These findings could be important for maintaining an optimal water status in cultivated olive trees by scheduling efficient irrigation methods, saving irrigation water and obtaining yield of high quality. PMID:26446266
Variable Conductance Heat Pipes for Radioisotope Stirling Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, William G.; Tarau, Calin
2008-01-01
In a Stirling radioisotope system, heat must continually be removed from the GPHS modules, to maintain the GPHS modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. Normally, the Stirling convertor provides this cooling. If the Stirling engine stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS, but also ending the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) was designed to allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling engine. A VCHP was designed for the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator, with a 850 °C heater head temperature. The VCHP turns on with a ?T of 30 °C, which is high enough to not risk standard ASRG operation but low enough to save most heater head life. This VCHP has a low mass, and low thermal losses for normal operation. In addition to the design, a proof-of-concept NaK VCHP was fabricated and tested. While NaK is normally not used in heat pipes, it has an advantage in that it is liquid at the reservoir operating temperature, while Na or K alone would freeze. The VCHP had two condensers, one simulating the heater head, and the other simulating the radiator. The experiments successfully demonstrated operation with the simulated heater head condenser off and on, while allowing the reservoir temperature to vary over 40 to 120 °C, the maximum range expected. In agreement with previous NaK heat pipe tests, the evaporator ?T was roughly 70 °C, due to distillation of the NaK in the evaporator.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abramov, Oleg; Spencer, John R.
2009-01-01
Linear features dubbed "tiger stripes" in the south polar region of Enceladus have anomalously high heat fluxes and are the apparent source of the observed plume. Several explanations for the observed activity have been proposed, including venting from a subsurface reservoir of liquid water, sublimation of surface ice, dissociation of clathrates, and shear heating. Thermal modeling presented in this work, coupled with observations from the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) instrument, seeks to elucidate the underlying physical mechanism by constraining vent temperatures and thermal emission sources, using a model in which the observed thermal signature results primarily from conductive heating of the surface by warm subsurface fractures. The fractures feed surface vents, which may themselves contribute to the observed thermal emission. Model variables include vent temperature, presence of a surface insulating layer, vent width, time-variable heat input, and heat sources other than the central vent. Results indicate that CIRS spectra are best fitted with a model in which the surface is heated by narrow vents at temperatures as high as 223 K. Although equally good fits can be obtained for vent temperatures in the range of 130 to 155 K if the vents are wider (180 m and 22 m respectively) and dominate the emission spectrum, these models are probably less realistic because vents with these temperatures and widths cannot supply the observed H 2O vapor flux. The lack of emission angle dependence of the thermal emission when July 2005 and November 2006 CIRS observations are compared also argues against thermal emission being dominated by the vents themselves. Thus, results favor high-temperature models, possibly venting from a subsurface liquid water reservoir. However, a fracture filled with liquid water near the surface would produce significantly higher radiances than were detected unless masked by a thermally insulating surface layer. Models that best match the CIRS data are characterized by small fractions of the surface at high temperatures, which strengthens the case for the vents and/or their conductively-heated margins being the primary heat source. Models where the thermal emission is dominated by conductive heating of the surface from below by a laterally-extensive buried heat source cannot reproduce the observed spectrum. Models with a 10 cm thick upper insulating layer produce a poor match to the CIRS spectra, suggesting high thermal inertias near the tiger stripes. Finally, tiger stripe thermal emission measured by CIRS varied by less than 15% over the 16 month period from July 2005 to November 2006.
Heat conduction through a trapped solid: effect of structural changes on thermal conductance
Debasish Chaudhuri; Abhishek Chaudhuri; Surajit Sengupta
2007-03-20
We study the conduction of heat across a narrow solid strip trapped by an external potential and in contact with its own liquid. Structural changes, consisting of addition and deletion of crystal layers in the trapped solid, are produced by altering the depth of the confining potential. Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations and, wherever possible, simple analytical calculations are used to obtain the thermal resistance in the liquid, solid and interfacial regions (Kapitza or contact resistance). We show that these layering transitions are accompanied by sharp jumps in the contact thermal resistance. Dislocations, if present, are shown to increase the thermal resistance of the strip drastically.
Heat conduction in nanoscale materials: a statistical-mechanics derivation of the local heat flux.
Li, Xiantao
2014-09-01
We derive a coarse-grained model for heat conduction in nanoscale mechanical systems. Starting with an all-atom description, this approach yields a reduced model, in the form of conservation laws of momentum and energy. The model closure is accomplished by introducing a quasilocal thermodynamic equilibrium, followed by a linear response approximation. Of particular interest is the constitutive relation for the heat flux, which is expressed nonlocally in terms of the spatial and temporal variation of the temperature. Nanowires made of copper and silicon are presented as examples. PMID:25314400
HEAT CONDUCTION OF SINGLE-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBE IN VARIOUS ENVIRONMENTS
Maruyama, Shigeo
HEAT CONDUCTION OF SINGLE-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBE IN VARIOUS ENVIRONMENTS Junichiro Shiomi-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan ABSTRACT Some of our recent studies on the heat conduction of single-walled carbon, the heat conduction is investigated in more practical situations under the influence of inter
A blow-up criterion for compressible viscous heat-conductive flows
are the specific heat at constant volume and thermal conductivity coefficient, respectively. P is the pressureA blow-up criterion for compressible viscous heat-conductive flows Jishan Fan Department boundary value problem for the three-dimensional Navier- Stokes equations of viscous heat-conductive fluids
A note on stability in dualphaselag heat conduction Ram on Quintanilla 1
Racke, Reinhard
A note on stability in dualÂphaseÂlag heat conduction Ramâ?? on Quintanilla 1 Department of Applied Introduction There are several hyperbolic theories of heat conduction, also called theories of second sound a theory of heat conduction, # t + div q = 0 (1.1) 0 AMS subject classification: 35 L 35, 80 A 20 Keywords
A MECHANICAL MODEL FOR FOURIER'S LAW OF HEAT CONDUCTION. by David Ruelle+.
Ruelle, David
A MECHANICAL MODEL FOR FOURIER'S LAW OF HEAT CONDUCTION. by David Ruelle+. Abstract. Nonequilibrium mechanical model of a heatÂconducting chain with nontrivial interactions, where kinetic energy fluctuations, as remarked by van Kampen [22]. A fundamental derivation of Fourier's law for heat conduction remains thus
Heat Conduction in a One-Dimensional Harmonic Chain with Three-Dimensional Vibrations
Li, Baowen
Heat Conduction in a One-Dimensional Harmonic Chain with Three-Dimensional Vibrations Zonghua LIU1 chain connected by three-dimensional (3D) harmonic springs, the coefficient of heat conduction changes where the coefficient is independent of the lattice constant. KEYWORDS: heat conduction, harmonic chain
A HEAT CONDUCTION STUDY AT NON-CONTINUUM SCALES A Dissertation
Sen, Mihir
A HEAT CONDUCTION STUDY AT NON-CONTINUUM SCALES A Dissertation Submitted to the Graduate School Rights Reserved #12;A HEAT CONDUCTION STUDY AT NON-CONTINUUM SCALES Abstract by Alejandro Guajardo Cu´ellar An extensive and detailed description of heat conduction at the micro- and nano-scale is presented. During
PAMM header will be provided by the publisher Multidimensional Inverse Heat Conduction Calculations
Reinhardt, Hans-JÃ¼rgen
PAMM header will be provided by the publisher Multidimensional Inverse Heat Conduction Calculations for multidimensional inverse heat conduction problems. In this contri- bution, we outline and refer to several of our 2-d. calculations. The importance of inverse heat conduction problems and appropriate solution
Maruyama, Shigeo
Influence of interfaces on diffusive-ballistic heat conduction of carbon nanotubes Shiomi temperature. Although the characteristics of intrinsic heat conduction of SWNTs have been explored extensively not only give rise to thermal boundary resistances but also influence the intrinsic heat conduction
Molecular Dynamics of Diffusive-Ballistic Heat Conduction in Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes
Maruyama, Shigeo
Molecular Dynamics of Diffusive-Ballistic Heat Conduction in Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku Tokyo 113-8656, Japan Diffusive-ballistic heat conduction of finite-length single. A gradual transition from nearly pure ballistic to diffusive-ballistic heat conduction was identified from
Zabaras, Nicholas J.
A Bayesian inference approach to the inverse heat conduction problem Jingbo Wang and Nicholas inference approach is presented for the solution of the inverse heat conduction problem. The posterior inverse heat conduction examples are presented to demonstrate the potential of the MCMC-based Bayesian
Li, Baowen
Anomalous heat conduction and anomalous diffusion in nonlinear lattices, single walled nanotubes 2004; accepted 13 October 2004; published online 28 March 2005 We study anomalous heat conduction nanotubes, to billiard gas channels. We find that in all discussed systems, the anomalous heat conductivity
A MOLECULAR DYNAMICS SIMULATION OF HEAT CONDUCTION IN A CARBON NANOTUBE
Maruyama, Shigeo
A MOLECULAR DYNAMICS SIMULATION OF HEAT CONDUCTION IN A CARBON NANOTUBE Shigeo Maruyama to be order of 100nm ~ 1µm, heat conduction of nanotubes with shorter than 1µm should have the nearly's law of heat conduction may not be obeyed for these almost one-dimensional materials when rather high
Variational formulation of hyperbolic heat conduction problems applying Laplace transform technique
Variational formulation of hyperbolic heat conduction problems applying Laplace transform technique In this paper, a non-Fourier heat conduction problem is analyzed by employing newly developed theory-transformed hyperbolic heat conduction equation is developed. The results were used for evaluation of parameters used
Maruyama, Shigeo
Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Heat Conduction of Peapods Shigeo Maruyama, Yuki Taniguchi-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan We have been studying the heat conduction along a single-walled carbon nanotubes configuration, thermal conductivity was calculated from temperature gradient and heat flux which was obtained
Spatial behavior in phase-lag heat conduction Ramon Quintanilla and Reinhard Racke
Racke, Reinhard
Spatial behavior in phase-lag heat conduction RamÂ´on Quintanilla and Reinhard Racke Abstract approximations to the heat conduction dual-phase-lag and three-phase- lag theories, reflecting SaintÂ´e inequality 1 Introduction Fourier's heat conduction theory implies that thermal perturbations at some point
Maruyama, Shigeo
Influence of surrounding materials on heat conduction of carbon nanotubes: Molecular dynamics the characteristics of intrinsic heat conduction of SWNTs have been explored extensively for ideal thermal boundary boundary resistances but also influence the intrinsic heat conduction. In a system with significant
A Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Heat Conduction of Finite Length SWNTs SHIGEO MARUYAMA
Maruyama, Shigeo
A Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Heat Conduction of Finite Length SWNTs SHIGEO MARUYAMA The heat conduction of finite length single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) was simulated by the molecular is estimated, as order of 100nm 1µm, heat conduction of nanotubes with about 1µm length should have the nearly
Maruyama, Shigeo
1 Heat conduction of single-walled carbon nanotube isotope-superlattice structures: A molecular-mail address: maruyama@photon.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp Heat conduction of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) isotope and junctions, which alter the heat conduction. In general, these nanoscale impurities, having scales comparable
A note on stability in dual-phase-lag heat conduction Ramon Quintanilla1
Racke, Reinhard
A note on stability in dual-phase-lag heat conduction RamÂ´on Quintanilla1 Department of Applied Introduction There are several hyperbolic theories of heat conduction, also called theories of second sound a theory of heat conduction, t + div q = 0 (1.1) 0 AMS subject classification: 35 L 35, 80 A 20 Keywords
From Anomalous Energy Diffusion to Levy Walks and Heat Conductivity in One-Dimensional Systems
Politi, Antonio
From Anomalous Energy Diffusion to Levy Walks and Heat Conductivity in One-Dimensional Systems P invoked to explain anomalous heat conductivity in the context of non- interacting particles is here shown the divergence rate of heat conductivity which turns out to be 0:333 0:004, in perfect agreement
Phase-lag heat conduction: decay rates for limit problems and well-posedness
Racke, Reinhard
Phase-lag heat conduction: decay rates for limit problems and well-posedness Karin Borgmeyer, Ram approximations to dual-phase-lag and three-phase-lag heat conduction equations. However, for several limit cases analysis is rigorously proved exemplarily. 1 Introduction It is well known that Fourier's heat conduction
Maruyama, Shigeo
Diffusive-Ballistic Heat Conduction of Carbon Nanotubes and Nanographene Ribbons Junichiro Shiomi-3-5800-6983 Abstract Investigations of diffusive-ballistic heat conduction of finite-length single-walled carbon of the balance between ballistic and diffusive heat conduction. For both systems, the profile indicates
Correlations and scaling in one-dimensional heat conduction J. M. Deutsch and Onuttom Narayan
Deutsch, Josh
Correlations and scaling in one-dimensional heat conduction J. M. Deutsch and Onuttom Narayan of the heat current, through the Kubo formula, gives a thermal conductivity exponent of 1/3 in agreement.40.Mg I. INTRODUCTION Heat conduction in one-dimensional systems is a simple example of the general
Diffusive-Ballistic Heat Conduction along a Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Shigeo Maruyama
Maruyama, Shigeo
Diffusive-Ballistic Heat Conduction along a Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Shigeo Maruyama *E-mail address: maruyama@photon.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp The diffusive-ballistic heat conduction of finite unique stationary and non-stationary heat conduction characteristics [3,4]. Furthermore, several issues
Efficient linear and nonlinear heat conduction with a quadrilateral element
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, W. K.; Belytschko, T.
1984-01-01
A method is presented for performing efficient and stable finite element calculations of heat conduction with quadrilaterals using one-point quadrature. The stability in space is obtained by using a stabilization matrix which is orthogonal to all linear fields and its magnitude is determined by a stabilization parameter. It is shown that the accuracy is almost independent of the value of the stabilization parameter over a wide range of values; in fact, the values 3, 2 and 1 for the normalized stabilization parameter lead to the 5-point finite difference, 9-point finite difference and fully integrated finite element operators, respectively, for rectangular meshes; numerical experiments reported here show that the three have identical rates of convergence in the L2 norm. Eigenvalues of the element matrices, which are needed for stability limits, are also given. Numerical applications are used to show that the method yields accurate solutions with large increases in efficiency, particularly in nonlinear problems.
Efficient linear and nonlinear heat conduction with a quadrilateral element
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, W. K.; Belytschko, T.
1983-01-01
A method is presented for performing efficient and stable finite element calculations of heat conduction with quadrilaterals using one-point quadrature. The stability in space is obtained by using a stabilization matrix which is orthogonal to all linear fields and its magnitude is determined by a stabilization parameter. It is shown that the accuracy is almost independent of the value of the stabilization parameter over a wide range of values; in fact, the values 3, 2, and 1 for the normalized stabilization parameter lead to the 5-point, 9-point finite difference, and fully integrated finite element operators, respectively, for rectangular meshes and have identical rates of convergence in the L2 norm. Eigenvalues of the element matrices, which are needed for stability limits, are also given. Numerical applications are used to show that the method yields accurate solutions with large increases in efficiency, particularly in nonlinear problems.
Application of the boundary element method to transient heat conduction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dargush, G. F.; Banerjee, P. K.
1991-01-01
An advanced boundary element method (BEM) is presented for the transient heat conduction analysis of engineering components. The numerical implementation necessarily includes higher-order conforming elements, self-adaptive integration and a multiregion capability. Planar, three-dimensional and axisymmetric analyses are all addressed with a consistent time-domain convolution approach, which completely eliminates the need for volume discretization for most practical analyses. The resulting general purpose algorithm establishes BEM as an attractive alternative to the more familiar finite difference and finite element methods for this class of problems. Several detailed numerical examples are included to emphasize the accuracy, stability and generality of the present BEM. Furthermore, a new efficient treatment is introduced for bodies with embedded holes. This development provides a powerful analytical tool for transient solutions of components, such as casting moulds and turbine blades, which are cumbersome to model when employing the conventional domain-based methods.
Thermal conductivity and specific heat of glass ceramics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cahill, D. G.; Olson, J. R.; Fischer, Henry E.; Watson, S. K.; Stephens, R. B.; Tait, R. H.; Ashworth, T.; Pohl, R. O.
1991-12-01
The effect of crystallization on the lattice vibrations of two glass ceramics, a magnesium aluminosilicate (Corning Code 9606) and a lithium aluminosilicate (Corning Code 9623), is studied through measurements of the thermal conductivity and specific heat below 300 K. Because of grain boundaries and magnetic impurities, measurements below a few kelvins are of limited value. At higher temperatures, however, the experimental results show that the lattice vibrations of one of the glass ceramics (Code 9606) change from glassy to crystalline upon crystallization. Those of Code 9623, however, remain glassy even in the fully crystallized state. In contrast to the crystalline Code 9606 sample, the Code 9623 sample accommodates large concentrations of interstitial lithium and magnesium ions in its crystal lattice, and it is suggested that the glasslike lattice vibrations in the Code 9623 sample are caused by these ions.
A Global Stability Analysis of Clusters of Galaxies with Conduction and AGN Feedback Heating
Fulai Guo; S. Peng Oh; M. Ruszkowski
2008-08-07
We investigate a series of steady-state models of galaxy clusters, in which the hot intracluster gas is efficiently heated by active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback and thermal conduction, and in which the mass accretion rates are highly reduced compared to those predicted by the standard cooling flow models. We perform a global Lagrangian stability analysis. We show for the first time that the global radial instability in cool core clusters can be suppressed by the AGN feedback mechanism, provided that the feedback efficiency exceeds a critical lower limit. Furthermore, our analysis naturally shows that the clusters can exist in two distinct forms. Globally stable clusters are expected to have either: 1) cool cores stabilized by both AGN feedback and conduction, or 2) non-cool cores stabilized primarily by conduction. Intermediate central temperatures typically lead to globally unstable solutions. This bimodality is consistent with the recently observed anticorrelation between the flatness of the temperature profiles and the AGN activity (Dunn & Fabian 2008) and the observation by Rafferty et al. (2008) that the shorter central cooling times tend to correspond to significantly younger AGN X-ray cavities.
High Temperature Variable Conductance Heat Pipes for Radioisotope Stirling Systems
Tarau, Calin; Walker, Kara L.; Anderson, William G.
2009-03-16
In a Stirling radioisotope system, heat must continually be removed from the GPHS modules, to maintain the GPHS modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. Normally, the Stirling converter provides this cooling. If the Stirling engine stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS, but also ending the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) is under development to allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling engine. The status of the ongoing effort in developing this technology is presented in this paper. An earlier, preliminary design had a radiator outside the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) casing, used NaK as the working fluid, and had the reservoir located on the cold side adapter flange. The revised design has an internal radiator inside the casing, with the reservoir embedded inside the insulation. A large set of advantages are offered by this new design. In addition to reducing the overall size and mass of the VCHP, simplicity, compactness and easiness in assembling the VCHP with the ASRG are significantly enhanced. Also, the permanently elevated temperatures of the entire VCHP allows the change of the working fluid from a binary compound (NaK) to single compound (Na). The latter, by its properties, allows higher performance and further mass reduction of the system. Preliminary design and analysis shows an acceptable peak temperature of the ASRG case of 140 deg. C while the heat losses caused by the addition of the VCHP are 1.8 W.
Manipulating Steady Heat Conduction by Sensu-shaped Thermal Metamaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Tiancheng; Bai, Xue; Liu, Dan; Gao, Dongliang; Li, Baowen; Thong, John T. L.; Qiu, Cheng-Wei
2015-05-01
The ability to design the control of heat flow has innumerable benefits in the design of electronic systems such as thermoelectric energy harvesters, solid-state lighting, and thermal imagers, where the thermal design plays a key role in performance and device reliability. In this work, we employ one identical sensu-unit with facile natural composition to experimentally realize a new class of thermal metamaterials for controlling thermal conduction (e.g., thermal concentrator, focusing/resolving, uniform heating), only resorting to positioning and locating the same unit element of sensu-shape structure. The thermal metamaterial unit and the proper arrangement of multiple identical units are capable of transferring, redistributing and managing thermal energy in a versatile fashion. It is also shown that our sensu-shape unit elements can be used in manipulating dc currents without any change in the layout for the thermal counterpart. These could markedly enhance the capabilities in thermal sensing, thermal imaging, thermal-energy storage, thermal packaging, thermal therapy, and more domains beyond.
Manipulating Steady Heat Conduction by Sensu-shaped Thermal Metamaterials.
Han, Tiancheng; Bai, Xue; Liu, Dan; Gao, Dongliang; Li, Baowen; Thong, John T L; Qiu, Cheng-Wei
2015-01-01
The ability to design the control of heat flow has innumerable benefits in the design of electronic systems such as thermoelectric energy harvesters, solid-state lighting, and thermal imagers, where the thermal design plays a key role in performance and device reliability. In this work, we employ one identical sensu-unit with facile natural composition to experimentally realize a new class of thermal metamaterials for controlling thermal conduction (e.g., thermal concentrator, focusing/resolving, uniform heating), only resorting to positioning and locating the same unit element of sensu-shape structure. The thermal metamaterial unit and the proper arrangement of multiple identical units are capable of transferring, redistributing and managing thermal energy in a versatile fashion. It is also shown that our sensu-shape unit elements can be used in manipulating dc currents without any change in the layout for the thermal counterpart. These could markedly enhance the capabilities in thermal sensing, thermal imaging, thermal-energy storage, thermal packaging, thermal therapy, and more domains beyond. PMID:25974383
Manipulating Steady Heat Conduction by Sensu-shaped Thermal Metamaterials
Han, Tiancheng; Bai, Xue; Liu, Dan; Gao, Dongliang; Li, Baowen; Thong, John T. L.; Qiu, Cheng-Wei
2015-01-01
The ability to design the control of heat flow has innumerable benefits in the design of electronic systems such as thermoelectric energy harvesters, solid-state lighting, and thermal imagers, where the thermal design plays a key role in performance and device reliability. In this work, we employ one identical sensu-unit with facile natural composition to experimentally realize a new class of thermal metamaterials for controlling thermal conduction (e.g., thermal concentrator, focusing/resolving, uniform heating), only resorting to positioning and locating the same unit element of sensu-shape structure. The thermal metamaterial unit and the proper arrangement of multiple identical units are capable of transferring, redistributing and managing thermal energy in a versatile fashion. It is also shown that our sensu-shape unit elements can be used in manipulating dc currents without any change in the layout for the thermal counterpart. These could markedly enhance the capabilities in thermal sensing, thermal imaging, thermal-energy storage, thermal packaging, thermal therapy, and more domains beyond. PMID:25974383
High-conductivity, lightweight graphite foams (GF) can potentially increase heat transfer while
Pennycook, Steve
transfer while reducing both the size and weight of heat transfer devices significantly impacting in increased heat transfer. This high thermal conductivity also allows a given amount of heat to be distributed be optimized for specific heat transfer applications. In addition, heat transfer devices for the electronics
Spring 2005 Test #1 1. Steady state heat conduction in a slab with heat generation. (40 points)
McCready, Mark J.
ChEg 356 Spring 2005 Test #1 2/17/05 1. Steady state heat conduction in a slab with heat generation for the temperature profile for the case of finite S (that is again with heat conduction), but this time the thermal are infinite and completely uniform. There is a heat generation rate of S W/m3 -s. The wall at x=0 is insulated
Seyed-Yagoobi, J.; Narayanan, V.; Page, R.H.; Wirtz, J.W.
1996-12-31
The heat transfer characteristics of three submerged radial jet reattachment (RJR) nozzles with exit angles of +45{degree}, 0{degree}, and {minus}10{degree} are compared to the heat transfer characteristics of a conventional submerged in-line jet (ILJ) nozzle. The comparisons are made under identical air flow power and at each nozzle`s favorable spacing from the impingement surface. The local and area averaged Nusselt numbers are presented. The results indicate that significant enhancements in local and area averaged Nusselt numbers can be achieved with the RJR nozzle over the conventional ILJ nozzle while being able to control the net exerted force on the impingement surface. Also a comparison is made between the ILJ and RJR nozzles on the basis of the same peak pressure exerted on the impingement surface. This comparison indicates that the RJR nozzle heat transfer characteristics are superior to the ILJ nozzle.
Theory and design of variable conductance heat pipes: Steady state and transient performance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edwards, D. K.; Fleischman, G. L.; Marcus, B. D.
1972-01-01
Heat pipe technology pertinent to the design and application of self-controlled, variable conductance heat pipes for spacecraft thermal control is discussed. Investigations were conducted to: (1) provide additional confidence in existing design tools, (2) to generate new design tools, and (3) to develop superior variable conductance heat pipe designs. A computer program for designing and predicting the performance of the heat pipe systems was developed.
Ping, Y.; Fernandez-Panella, A.; Sio, H.; Correa, A.; Shepherd, R.; Landen, O.; London, R. A.; Sterne, P. A.; Whitley, H. D.; Fratanduono, D.; et al
2015-09-04
We propose a method for thermal conductivity measurements of high energy density matter based on differential heating. A temperature gradient is created either by surface heating of one material or at an interface between two materials by different energy deposition. The subsequent heat conduction across the temperature gradient is observed by various time-resolved probing techniques. Conceptual designs of such measurements using laser heating, proton heating, and x-ray heating are presented. As a result, the sensitivity of the measurements to thermal conductivity is confirmed by simulations.
Martin, Timothy
Summary Weusedthreemethodstomeasureboundarylayer conductance to heat transfer (gbH) and water vapor of transpiration). The boundary layer conductance to heat transfer is small enough that leaf temperature can become diffusion, the boundary layer around a leaf also provides resistance to the transfer of heat between a leaf
Heat conduction in simple networks: The effect of interchain coupling Zonghua Liu1,2
Li, Baowen
Heat conduction in simple networks: The effect of interchain coupling Zonghua Liu1,2 and Baowen Li2; published 16 November 2007 Heat conduction in simple networks consisting of different one dimensional nonlinear chains is studied. We find that the coupling between chains has a different function in heat
Li, Baowen
Wave transmission, phonon localization, and heat conduction of a one-dimensional Frenkel the fundamental properties, such as the wave transmission, heat conduction, and other low these related properties, namely, the wave transmission, the heat conduc- tion, and the phonon localization in 1
Optimal Operation of Finite-time Tricycles with Heat Conduction Losses Raj K. Pathria
Salamon, Peter
(1) Optimal Operation of Finite-time Tricycles with Heat Conduction Losses Raj K. Pathria the heat conduction br anches for a wide variety of cost functions. One point on this boundary represents-principle limits to the finite-time operation of a cycling working fluid acting as an agent in the transfer of heat
Solution of the Heat Equation for transient conduction by LaPlace
McCready, Mark J.
Solution of the Heat Equation for transient conduction by LaPlace Transform This notebook has been for copying and dissemination Version: 3/17/98 #12;This notebook shows how to solve transient heat conduction in Mathematica. This problem is the heat transfer analog to the "Rayleigh" problem that starts on page 91
Convection under a lid of finite conductivity: Heat flux scaling and application to continents
Tackley, Paul J.
Convection under a lid of finite conductivity: Heat flux scaling and application to continents C. J. Tackley (2007), Convection under a lid of finite conductivity: Heat flux scaling and application April 2007; published 1 August 2007. [1] A scaling law for the heat flux out of a convective fluid
Influence of Conductive Heat-Losses on the Propagation of Premixed Flames in Channels
Sidorov, Nikita
Influence of Conductive Heat-Losses on the Propagation of Premixed Flames in Channels J. DAOU of arbitrary width, accounting for heat losses by conduction to the walls. The ratio of the width-3125, USA We study the propagation of premixed flames in two-dimensional channels accounting for heat
Heat conduction across irregular and fractal-like surfaces M.G. Blyth a
Blyth, Mark
Heat conduction across irregular and fractal-like surfaces M.G. Blyth a , C. Pozrikidis b on the rate of heat conduction from a two-dimensional isothermal surface into a semi- infinite medium wall shapes. Ã? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction The study of heat
SEP BIMOD variable conductance heat pipes acceptance and characterization tests
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hemminger, J. A.
1981-08-01
A series of six heat pipes, similar in design to those flown on the Comunications Technology Satellite Hermes, for use in a prototype Solar Electric Propulsion BIMOD thrust module are evaluated. The results of acceptance and characterization tests performed on the heat pipe subassemble are reported. The performance of all the heat pipes met, or exceeded, design specifications.
SEP BIMOD variable conductance heat pipes acceptance and characterization tests
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hemminger, J. A.
1981-01-01
A series of six heat pipes, similar in design to those flown on the Comunications Technology Satellite Hermes, for use in a prototype Solar Electric Propulsion BIMOD thrust module are evaluated. The results of acceptance and characterization tests performed on the heat pipe subassemble are reported. The performance of all the heat pipes met, or exceeded, design specifications.
Thermographic validation of a novel, laminate body, analytical heat conduction model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Desgrosseilliers, Louis; Groulx, Dominic; White, Mary Anne
2014-07-01
The two-region fin model captures the heat spreading behaviour in multilayered composite bodies (i.e., laminates), heated only over a small part of their domains (finite heat source), where there is an inner layer that has a substantial capacity for heat conduction parallel to the heat exchange surface (convection cooling). This resulting heat conduction behaviour improves the overall heat transfer process when compared to heat conduction in homogeneous bodies. Long-term heat storage using supercooling salt hydrate phase change materials, stovetop cookware, and electronics cooling applications could all benefit from this kind of heat-spreading in laminates. Experiments using laminate films reclaimed from post-consumer Tetra Brik cartons were conducted with thin rectangular and circular heaters to confirm the laminate body, steady-state, heat conduction behaviour predicted by the two-region fin model. Medium to high accuracy experimental validation of the two-region fin model was achieved in Cartesian and cylindrical coordinates for forced external convection and natural convection, the latter for Cartesian only. These were conducted using constant heat flux finite heat source temperature profiles that were measured by infrared thermography. This validation is also deemed valid for constant temperature heat sources.
C. AVILES-RAMOS; C. RUDY
2000-11-01
The transient exact solution of heat conduction in a two-domain composite cylinder is developed using the separation of variables technique. The inner cylinder is isotropic and the outer cylindrical layer is orthotropic. Temperature solutions are obtained for boundary conditions of the first and second kinds at the outer surface of the orthotropic layer. These solutions are applied to heat flow calorimeters modeling assuming that there is heat generation due to nuclear reactions in the inner cylinder. Heat flow calorimeter simulations are carried out assuming that the inner cylinder is filled with plutonium oxide powder. The first objective in these simulations is to predict the onset of thermal equilibrium of the calorimeter with its environment. Two types of boundary conditions at the outer surface of the orthotropic layer are used to predict thermal equilibrium. The procedure developed to carry out these simulations can be used as a guideline for the design of calorimeters. Another important application of these solutions is on the estimation of thermophysical properties of orthotropic cylinders. The thermal conductivities in the vertical, radial and circumferential directions of the orthotropic outer layer can be estimated using this exact solution and experimental data. Simultaneous estimation of the volumetric heat capacity and thermal conductivities is also possible. Furthermore, this solution has potential applications to the solution of the inverse heat conduction problem in this cylindrical geometry. An interesting feature of the construction of this solution is that two different sets of eigenfunctions need to be considered in the eigenfunction expansion. These eigenfunctions sets depend on the relative values of the thermal diffusivity of the inner cylinder and the thermal diffusivity in the vertical direction of the outer cylindrical layer.
Chen, Lin; Li, Zhen; Guo, Zeng-Yuan
2009-07-15
In this paper, two modified types of polypropylene (PP) with high thermal conductivity up to 2.3 W/m K and 16.5 W/m K are used to manufacture the finned-tube heat exchangers, which are prospected to be used in liquid desiccant air conditioning, heat recovery, water source heat pump, sea water desalination, etc. A third plastic heat exchanger is also manufactured with ordinary PP for validation and comparison. Experiments are carried out to determine the thermal performance of the plastic heat exchangers. It is found that the plastic finned-tube heat exchanger with thermal conductivity of 16.5 W/m K can achieve overall heat transfer coefficient of 34 W/m{sup 2} K. The experimental results are compared with calculation and they agree well with each other. Finally, the effect of material thermal conductivity on heat exchanger thermal performance is studied in detail. The results show that there is a threshold value of material thermal conductivity. Below this value improving thermal conductivity can considerably improve the heat exchanger performance while over this value improving thermal conductivity contributes very little to performance enhancement. For the finned-tube heat exchanger designed in this paper, when the plastic thermal conductivity can reach over 15 W/m K, it can achieve more than 95% of the titanium heat exchanger performance and 84% of the aluminum or copper heat exchanger performance with the same dimension. (author)
A MOLECULAR DYNAMICS SIMULATION OF HEAT CONDUCTION OF A FINITE LENGTH SINGLE-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBE
Maruyama, Shigeo
A MOLECULAR DYNAMICS SIMULATION OF HEAT CONDUCTION OF A FINITE LENGTH SINGLE-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBE Heat conduction of finite length single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) was simulated by the molecular by the phantom technique, and the thermal conductivity was calculated with Fourier's law from the measured
Maruyama, Shigeo
Isotope Effects on Heat Conduction of Carbon Nanotubes Shigeo Maruyama, Yuki Taniguchi and Yasushi that the inclusion of only 1 % of 13 C natural isotope dramatically reduces the thermal conductivity of diamond. However, isotope effects on heat conduction of SWNTs have not been elucidated. We estimated isotope
Transition from near-field thermal radiation to phonon heat conduction at sub-nanometre gaps
Chiloyan, Vazrik
When the separation of two surfaces approaches sub-nanometre scale, the boundary between the two most fundamental heat transfer modes, heat conduction by phonons and radiation by photons, is blurred. Here we develop an ...
Analysis of heat conduction in a disk brake system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Talati, Faramarz; Jalalifar, Salman
2009-06-01
In this paper, the governing heat equations for the disk and the pad are extracted in the form of transient heat equations with heat generation that is dependant to time and space. In the derivation of the heat equations, parameters such as the duration of braking, vehicle velocity, geometries and the dimensions of the brake components, materials of the disk brake rotor and the pad and contact pressure distribution have been taken into account. The problem is solved analytically using Green’s function approach. It is concluded that the heat generated due to friction between the disk and the pad should be ideally dissipated to the environment to avoid decreasing the friction coefficient between the disk and the pad and to avoid the temperature rise of various brake components and brake fluid vaporization due to excessive heating.
An Experimental Study of a Radially Arranged Thin Film Heat Flux Gauge
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cho, Christoper S. K.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Bhatt, Hemanshu D.
1997-01-01
A new thin-film heat-flux gauge was designed and fabricated on three different substrate materials. Forty pairs of Pt-Pt/10% Rh thermocouple junctions were deposited in a circular pattern on the same plane of the substrate. Over the thermocouples, 5 and 10 micron thick thermal resistance layers were deposited to create a temperature gradient across those layers. Calibration and testing of these gauges were carried out in an arc-lamp calibration facility. The heat flux calculated from the gauge output is in good agreement with the value obtained from the pre-calibrated standard sensor. A CO2 laser was also used to test the steady-state and dynamic responses of the heat-flux gauge. During the steady-state test, the time constant for the heating period was 30 s. The frequency response of the heat-flux gauge was measured in the frequency domain using a CO2 laser and a chopper. The responses from an infrared detector and the heat-flux gauge were measured simultaneously and compared. It was found that the thin-film heat-flux gauge has a dynamic frequency response of 3 kHz.
Heat Conduction with Flux Condition on a Free Patch
Kuttler, Kenneth L. Shillor, Meir
2004-08-15
A new free boundary or free patch problem for the heat equation is presented. In the problem a nonlinear heat flux condition is prescribed on a free portion of the boundary, the patch, the position of which depends on the solution. The existence of a weak solution is established using the theory of set-valued pseudo monotone operators.
The role of heat conduction to the formation ofThe role of heat conduction to the formation-dependent Radiation Hydrodynamics models with heat conduction for such conditions. We have then calculated of our work is that heat conduction is needed to explain X-ray properties of wind-blown bubbles also in H
Heat conductivity of particle stacking structured SiO2 porous film
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xia, Zhilin; Wu, Yuting
2011-11-01
Particle stacking structured SiO2 porous films were prepared by sol-gel method. A model has been established to analyze the heat conductivity of these films. It is assumed that the heat energy mainly transfers through particles and their contact points. In particle stacking structured materials, a particle contacts with twelve contiguous particles, and forms twelve heat conduction branches. This model is suit to the conditions that: the size of particles in the porous material is uniform; heat conductivity of particle skeleton is much greater than particle clearance; and all contact area between particles approximately equal. The results show that: heat conductivity of particles stacking porous material is anisotropic, material heat conductivity depends on that of the particle skeleton and the ratio between radiuses of particle contact area and particle itself.
Heat conductivity of particle stacking structured SiO2 porous film
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xia, Zhilin; Wu, Yuting
2012-01-01
Particle stacking structured SiO2 porous films were prepared by sol-gel method. A model has been established to analyze the heat conductivity of these films. It is assumed that the heat energy mainly transfers through particles and their contact points. In particle stacking structured materials, a particle contacts with twelve contiguous particles, and forms twelve heat conduction branches. This model is suit to the conditions that: the size of particles in the porous material is uniform; heat conductivity of particle skeleton is much greater than particle clearance; and all contact area between particles approximately equal. The results show that: heat conductivity of particles stacking porous material is anisotropic, material heat conductivity depends on that of the particle skeleton and the ratio between radiuses of particle contact area and particle itself.
A two-parameter nondiffusive heat conduction model for data analysis in pump-probe experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Yanbao
2014-12-01
Nondiffusive heat transfer has attracted intensive research interests in last 50 years because of its importance in fundamental physics and engineering applications. It has unique features that cannot be described by the Fourier law. However, current studies of nondiffusive heat transfer still focus on studying the effective thermal conductivity within the framework of the Fourier law due to a lack of a well-accepted replacement. Here, we show that nondiffusive heat conduction can be characterized by two inherent material properties: a diffusive thermal conductivity and a ballistic transport length. We also present a two-parameter heat conduction model and demonstrate its validity in different pump-probe experiments. This model not only offers new insights of nondiffusive heat conduction but also opens up new avenues for the studies of nondiffusive heat transfer outside the framework of the Fourier law.
Shiomi, Junichiro; Maruyama, Shigeo
2006-05-15
Nonstationary heat conduction in a single-walled carbon nanotube was investigated by applying a local heat pulse with duration of subpicoseconds. The investigation was based on classical molecular dynamics simulations, where the heat pulse was generated as coherent fluctuations by connecting a thermostat to the local cell for a short duration. The heat conduction through the nanotube was observed in terms of spatiotemporal temperature profiles. Results of the simulations exhibit non-Fourier heat conduction where a distinct amount of heat is transported in a wavelike form. The geometry of carbon nanotubes allows us to observe such a phenomenon in the actual scale of the material. The resulting spatiotemporal profile was compared with the available macroscopic equations, the so-called non-Fourier heat conduction equations, in order to investigate the applicability of the phenomenological models to a quasi-one-dimensional system. The conventional hyperbolic diffusion equation fails to predict the heat conduction due to the lack of local diffusion. It is shown that this can be remedied by adopting a model with dual relaxation time. Further modal analyses using wavelet transformations reveal a significant contribution of the optical phonon modes to the observed wavelike heat conduction. The result suggests that, in carbon nanotubes with finite length where the long-wavelength acoustic phonons behave ballistically, even optical phonons can play a major role in the non-Fourier heat conduction.
Li, Baowen
Nonballistic heat conduction in an integrable random-exchange Ising chain studied with quantum numerically investigate the heat conduction in a random-exchange Ising spin chain by using the quantum master equation. The chain is subject to a uniform transverse field h, while the exchange couplings Qn between
Melnik, Roderick
Phase transitions in shape memory alloys with hyperbolic heat conduction and differential are given. Keywords Phase transitions, Shape memory alloys, Hyperbolic heat conduction 1 Introduction One-called solidsolid phase transformations, in ``smart'' materials known as shape memory alloys (SMAs
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2012-12-12
... COMMISSION Certain Integrated Circuit Packages Provided with Multiple Heat- Conducting Paths and Products... integrated circuit packages provided with multiple heat-conducting paths and products containing same by..., California (collectively, ``ITRI''). 77 FR 39735 (Jul. 5, 2012). The complaint, as amended,...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2012-07-05
... COMMISSION Certain Integrated Circuit Packages Provided With Multiple Heat- Conducting Paths and Products... the sale within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuit packages provided... integrated circuit packages provided with multiple heat-conducting paths and products containing same...
The evolution of interstellar clouds in a streaming hot plasma including heat conduction
W. Vieser; G. Hensler
2007-04-26
To examine the evolution of giant molecular clouds in the stream of a hot plasma we performed two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations that take full account of self-gravity, heating and cooling effects and heat conduction by electrons. We use the thermal conductivity of a fully ionized hydrogen plasma proposed by Spitzer and a saturated heat flux according to Cowie & McKee in regions where the mean free path of the electrons is large compared to the temperature scaleheight. Significant structural and evolutionary differences occur between simulations with and without heat conduction. Dense clouds in pure dynamical models experience dynamical destruction by Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability. In static models heat conduction leads to evaporation of such clouds. Heat conduction acting on clouds in a gas stream smooths out steep temperature and density gradients at the edge of the cloud because the conduction timescale is shorter than the cooling timescale. This diminishes the velocity gradient between the streaming plasma and the cloud, so that the timescale for the onset of KH instabilities increases, and the surface of the cloud becomes less susceptible to KH instabilities. The stabilisation effect of heat conduction against KH instability is more pronounced for smaller and less massive clouds. As in the static case more realistic cloud conditions allow heat conduction to transfer hot material onto the cloud's surface and to mix the accreted gas deeper into the cloud.
Calculation of heat conductivity of organic liquids as function of temperature
Safarov, M.M.; Khadzhidov, Kh.
1995-12-01
Results of generalization of experimental data on heat conductivity of a series of organic liquids as a function of temperature at atmospheric pressure are presented. The approximation dependence for calculation of heat conductivity of liquid organic compounds as a function of temperature, normal boiling temperature, and molar mass is obtained.
Huang, Shaopeng
-pressure metamorphic belt. In this paper, we report measurements of borehole temperature, thermal conductivity conductivities and radiogenic heat productions on more than 400 core samples from CCSD MH. The measured thermalHeat flow study at the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling site: Borehole temperature, thermal
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF HEAT TRANSFER IN MATERIALS WITH ANISOTROPIC THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF HEAT TRANSFER IN MATERIALS WITH ANISOTROPIC THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY: A FINITE/626-7370 URL: http://www.ima.umn.edu #12;Numerical simulation of heat transfer in materials with anisotropic, and Peter Philip May 24, 2005 Abstract We devise a finite volume scheme for nonlinear heat transfer
A Simple Rate Law Experiment Using a Custom-Built Isothermal Heat Conduction Calorimeter
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wadso, Lars; Li, Xi.
2008-01-01
Most processes (whether physical, chemical, or biological) produce or consume heat: measuring thermal power (the heat production rate) is therefore a typical method of studying processes. Here we describe the design of a simple isothermal heat conduction calorimeter built for use in teaching; we also provide an example of its use in simultaneously…
Numerical model for combined conductive and radiative heat transfer in annular packed beds
Kamiuto, K.; Saito, S.; Ito, K. . Dept. of Production Systems Engineering)
1993-06-01
A numerical model is developed for quantitatively analyzing combined conductive and radiative heat transfer in concentric annular packed beds. A packed bed is considered to be a continuous medium for heat transfer, but the porosity distribution within a packed bed is taken into account. To examine the validity of the proposed model, combined conductive and radiative heat transfer through annular packed beds of cordierite or porcelain beads is analyzed numerically using finite differences under conditions corresponding to heat transfer experiments of these packed beds. The resultant temperature profiles and heat transfer characteristics are compared with the experimental results.
Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Cooling of Stirling Convertor and General Purpose Heat Source
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tarau, Calin; Schwendeman, Carl; Anderson, William G.; Cornell, Peggy A.; Schifer, Nicholas A.
2013-01-01
In a Stirling Radioisotope Power System (RPS), heat must be continuously removed from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules to maintain the modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. The Stirling convertor normally provides this cooling. If the Stirling convertor stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS at the cost of an early termination of the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) can be used to passively allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling convertor. In a previous NASA SBIR Program, Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) developed a series of sodium VCHPs as backup cooling systems for Stirling RPS. The operation of these VCHPs was demonstrated using Stirling heater head simulators and GPHS simulators. In the most recent effort, a sodium VCHP with a stainless steel envelope was designed, fabricated and tested at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) with a Stirling convertor for two concepts; one for the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) back up cooling system and one for the Long-lived Venus Lander thermal management system. The VCHP is designed to activate and remove heat from the stopped convertor at a 19 degC temperature increase from the nominal vapor temperature. The 19 degC temperature increase from nominal is low enough to avoid risking standard ASRG operation and spoiling of the Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI). In addition, the same backup cooling system can be applied to the Stirling convertor used for the refrigeration system of the Long-lived Venus Lander. The VCHP will allow the refrigeration system to: 1) rest during transit at a lower temperature than nominal; 2) pre-cool the modules to an even lower temperature before the entry in Venus atmosphere; 3) work at nominal temperature on Venus surface; 4) briefly stop multiple times on the Venus surface to allow scientific measurements. This paper presents the experimental results from integrating the VCHP with an operating Stirling convertor and describes the methodology used to achieve their successful combined operation.
The role of asymmetric inter-particle interactions in heat conduction
Chen, Shunda; Wang, Jiao; Zhao, Hong
2012-01-01
We numerically calculate the heat conductivity by using the Green-Kubo formula to confirm that asymmetric inter-particle interactions in one-dimensional momentum conserving lattices can induce normal heat conduction. The Lennard-Jones (L-J) inter-particle interactions are focused in view of their practical significance. The effects of the asymmetric inter-particle interactions on the cross-correlation coefficient between the heat and mass fluxes are also discussed.
Investigation of Heat Conductivity in Relativistic Systems using a Partonic Cascade
M. Greif; F. Reining; I. Bouras; G. S. Denicol; Z. Xu; C. Greiner
2013-01-07
Motivated by the classical picture of heat flow we construct a stationary temperature gradient in a relativistic microscopic transport model. Employing the relativistic Navier-Stokes ansatz we extract the heat conductivity {\\kappa} for a massless Boltzmann gas using only binary collisions with isotropic cross sections. We compare the numerical results to analytical expressions from different theories and discuss the final results. The directly extracted value for the heat conductivity can be referred to as a literature reference within the numerical uncertainties.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brandon, S.; Derby, J. J.
1992-01-01
In the present investigation of crystalline phase internal radiation and heat conduction during the vertical Bridgman growth of a YAG-like oxide crystal, where transport through the melt is dominated by convection and conduction, heat is also noted to be conducted through ampoule walls via natural convection and enclosure radiation. The results of a quasi-steady-state axisymmetric Galerkin FEM indicate that heat transfer through the system is powerfully affected by the optical absorption coefficient of the crystal. The coupling of internal radiation through the crystal with conduction through the ampoule walls promotes melt/crystal interface shapes that are highly reflected near the ampoule wall.
A two-fluid model for relativistic heat conduction
López-Monsalvo, César S.
2014-01-14
Three years ago it was presented in these proceedings the relativistic dynamics of a multi-fluid system together with various applications to a set of topical problems [1]. In this talk, I will start from such dynamics and present a covariant formulation of relativistic thermodynamics which provides us with a causal constitutive equation for the propagation of heat in a relativistic setting.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Y. Jun; Li, Chen-Lin; Xue, Zhang-Na; Tian, Xiao-Geng
2016-01-01
To model transiently thermal responses of numerous thermal shock issues at nano-scale, Fourier heat conduction law is commonly extended by introducing time rate of heat flux, and comes to hyperbolic heat conduction (HHC). However, solution to HHC under Dirichlet boundary condition depicts abnormal phenomena, e.g. heat conducts from the cold to the hot, and there are two temperatures at one location. In this paper, HHC model is further perfected with the aids of spatially nonlocal effect, and the exceeding temperature as well as the discontinuity at the wave front are avoided. The effect of nonlocal parameter on temperature response is discussed. From the analysis, the importance of size effect for nano-scale heat conduction is emphasized, indicating that spatial and temporal extensions should be simultaneously made to nano-scale heat conduction. Beyond that, it is found that heat flux boundary conditions should be directly given, instead of Neumann boundary condition, which does not make sense any longer for non-classical heat conductive models. And finally, it is observed that accurate solution to such problems may be obtained using Laplace transform method, especially for the time-dependent boundary conditions, e.g. heat flux boundary condition.
Low heat conduction in white dwarf boundary layers?
F. K. Liu; F. Meyer; E. Meyer-Hofmeister; V. Burwitz
2008-03-13
X-ray spectra of dwarf novae in quiescence observed by Chandra and XMM-Newton provide new information on the boundary layers of their accreting white dwarfs. Comparison of observations and models allows us to extract estimates for the thermal conductivity in the accretion layer and reach conclusions on the relevant physical processes. We calculate the structure of the dense thermal boundary layer that forms under gravity and cooling at the white dwarf surface on accretion of gas from a hot tenuous ADAF-type coronal inflow. The distribution of density and temperature obtained allows us to calculate the strength and spectrum of the emitted X-ray radiation. They depend strongly on the values of thermal conductivity and mass accretion rate. We apply our model to the dwarf nova system VW Hyi and compare the spectra predicted for different values of the thermal conductivity with the observed spectrum. We find a significant deviation for all values of thermal conductivity that are a sizable fraction of the Spitzer conductivity. A good fit arises however for a conductivity of about 1% of the Spitzer value. This also seems to hold for other dwarf nova systems in quiescence. We compare this result with thermal conduction in other astrophysical situations. The highly reduced thermal conductivity in the boundary layer requires magnetic fields perpendicular to the temperature gradient. Locating their origin in the accretion of magnetic fields from the hot ADAF-type coronal flow we find that dynamical effects of these fields will lead to a spatially intermittent, localized accretion geometry at the white dwarf surface.
Heat conduction in cooling flows. [in clusters of galaxies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bregman, Joel N.; David, L. P.
1988-01-01
It has been suggested that electron conduction may significantly reduce the accretion rate (and star foramtion rate) for cooling flows in clusters of galaxies. A numerical hydrodynamics code was used to investigate the time behavior of cooling flows with conduction. The usual conduction coefficient is modified by an efficiency factor, mu, to realize the effects of tangled magnetic field lines. Two classes of models are considered, one where mu is independent of position and time, and one where inflow stretches the field lines and changes mu. In both cases, there is only a narrow range of initial conditions for mu in which the cluster accretion rate is reduced while a significant temperature gradient occurs. In the first case, no steady solution exists in which both conditions are met. In the second case, steady state solutions occur in which both conditions are met, but only for a narrow range of initial values where mu = 0.001.
Cu/Diamond composite heat-conducting shims
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galashov, E. N.; Yusuf, A. A.; Mandrik, E. M.
2015-11-01
Composite material with high thermal conductivity was obtained by the method of thermal sintering of a diamond (50 – 75%) with a size of 20 to 250 ?m in a matrix of copper.Coefficient of thermal conductivity of copper diamond composite materials was measured and is 450 – 650 W·m-1·K-1. The coefficient of thermal expansion CTE was measured and is 5.5 – 7.5 · 10-6/°C. The obtained copper diamond composite materials are promising objects for use in THz and microwave devices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ryter, F.; Cavedon, M.; Happel, T.; McDermott, R. M.; Viezzer, E.; Conway, G. D.; Fischer, R.; Kurzan, B.; Pütterich, T.; Tardini, G.; Willensdorfer, M.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team
2016-01-01
Previous work carried out in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak on the role of the edge radial electric field and ion heat flux in the L-H transition physics in deuterium plasmas has been extended in hydrogen plasmas. Similar discharges were performed in the two gases providing a detailed comparison of the edge kinetic profiles and heat fluxes in L-mode up to the L-H transition, as the heating power is increased. At the L-H transition, the edge ion heat flux just inside the separatrix is about two times higher in hydrogen than in deuterium. However, the ion plasma parameters at the plasma edge, T i and \
Pokorny, Richard; Rice, Jarrett A.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Hrma, Pavel R.
2013-06-01
The cold cap is a layer of reacting glass batch floating on the surface of melt in an all-electric continuous glass melter. The heat needed for the conversion of the melter feed to molten glass must be transferred to and through the cold cap. Since the heat flux into the cold cap determines the rate of melting, the heat conductivity is a key property of the reacting feed. We designed an experimental setup consisting of a large cylindrical crucible with an assembly of thermocouples that monitors the evolution of the temperature field while the crucible is heated at a constant rate. Then we used two methods to calculate the heat conductivity and thermal diffusivity of the reacting feed: the approximation of the temperature field by polynomial functions and the finite-volume method coupled with least-squares analysis. Up to 680°C, the heat conductivity of the reacting melter feed was represented by a linear function of temperature.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tamma, Kumar K.; Railkar, Sudhir B.
1989-01-01
The phenomenon of hyperbolic heat conduction in contrast to the classical (parabolic) form of Fourier heat conduction involves thermal energy transport that propagates only at finite speeds, as opposed to an infinite speed of thermal energy transport. To accommodate the finite speed of thermal wave propagation, a more precise form of heat flux law is involved, thereby modifying the heat flux originally postulated in the classical theory of heat conduction. As a consequence, for hyperbolic heat conduction problems, the thermal energy propagates with very sharp discontinuities at the wave front. Accurate solutions are found for a class of one-dimensional hyperbolic heat conduction problems involving non-Fourier effects that can be used effectively for representative benchmark tests and for validating alternate schemes. Modeling/analysis formulations via specially tailored hybrid computations are provided for accurately modeling the sharp discontinuities of the propagating thermal wave front. Comparative numerical test models are presented for various hyperbolic heat conduction models involving non-Fourier effects to demonstrate the present formulations.
Heat conductivity in the beta-FPU lattice. Solitons and breathers as energy carriers
T. Yu. Astakhova; V. N. Likhachev; G. A. Vinogradov
2011-03-18
This paper consists of two parts. The first part proposes a new methodological framework within which the heat conductivity in 1D lattices can be studied. The total process of heat conductivity is decomposed into two contributions where the first one is the equilibrium process at equal temperatures T of both lattice ends and the second -- non-equilibrium process with the temperature \\Delta T of one end and zero temperature of the other. The heat conductivity in the limit \\Delta T \\to 0 is reduced to the heat conductivity of harmonic lattice. A threshold temperature T_{thr} scales T_{thr}(N) \\sim N^{-3} with the lattice size N. Some unusual properties of heat conductivity can be exhibited on nanoscales at low temperatures. The thermodynamics of the \\beta-FPU lattice can be adequately approximated by the harmonic lattice. The second part testifies in the favor of the soliton and breather contribution to the heat conductivity in contrast to [N. Li, B. Li, S. Flach, PRL 105 (2010) 054102]. In the continuum limit the \\beta-FPU lattice is reduced to the modified Korteweg - de Vries equation with soliton and breather solutions. Numerical simulations demonstrate their high stability. New method for the visualization of moving solitons and breathers is suggested. An accurate expression for the dependence of the sound velocity on temperature is also obtained. Our results support the conjecture on the solitons and breathers contribution to the heat conductivity.
Method of integral cross sections in heat conduction problems
Novikov, V.V.; Papkovskaya, O.B.
1995-10-01
We substantiate estimates of the upper and lower bounds of the effective thermal conductivity of piecewise homogeneous bodies. A numerical scheme for calculating the temperature field has been developed and implemented, and a comparison between the results of calculations by different schemes has been carried out.
Plate Fin Heat Exchanger Model with Axial Conduction and Variable Properties
Hansen, B J; Klebaner, A; 10.1063/1.4706971
2012-01-01
Future superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities, as part of Project X at Fermilab, will be cooled to superfluid helium temperatures by a cryogenic distribution system supplying cold supercritical helium. To reduce vapor fraction during the final Joule-Thomson (J-T) expansion into the superfluid helium cooling bath, counter-flow, plate-fin heat exchangers will be utilized. Due to their compact size and ease of fabrication, plate-fin heat exchangers are an effective option. However, the design of compact and high-effectiveness cryogenic heat exchangers operating at liquid helium temperatures requires consideration of axial heat conduction along the direction of flow, in addition to variable fluid properties. Here we present a numerical model that includes the effects of axial conduction and variable properties for a plate fin heat exchanger. The model is used to guide design decisions on heat exchanger material choice and geometry. In addition, the J-T expansion process is modeled with the heat exchanger ...
Tables for solution of the heat-conduction equation with a time-dependent heating rate
Bergles A. E.
1962-01-01
Tables are presented for the solution of the transient onedimensional heat flow in a solid body of constant material properties with the heating rate at one boundary dependent on time. These tables allow convenient and ...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aziz, Abdul; Khani, Farzad; Darvishi, Mohammad Taghi
2010-10-01
The homotopy analysis method (HAM) has been used to develop an analytical solution for the thermal performance of a circular-thin-foil heat flux gage with temperature dependent thermal conductivity and thermal contact resistance between the edge of the foil and the heat sink. Temperature distributions in the foil are presented illustrating the effect of incident heat flux, radiation emission from the foil, variable thermal conductivity, and contact resistance between the foil and the heat sink. The HAM results agree up to four places of decimal with the numerical solutions generated using the symbolic algebra package Maple. This close comparison vouches for the high accuracy and stability of the analytic solution.
Author's personal copy Pyroelectric waste heat energy harvesting using heat conduction
Pilon, Laurent
-product of power, refrigeration, or heat pump cycles according to the second law of thermodynamics [1]. In 2009 pump, cryogenic refrigeration, and air liquefaction applications [3]. Organic Rankine cycles use heat harvesting Olsen cycle a b s t r a c t Waste heat can be directly converted into electrical energy
Heat conduction in a one-dimensional chain of hard disks with substrate potential.
Gendelman, O V; Savin, A V
2004-02-20
Heat conduction in a one-dimensional chain of equivalent rigid particles in the field of the external on-site potential is considered. The zero diameters of the particles correspond to the integrable case with the divergent heat conduction coefficient. By means of a simple analytical model it is demonstrated that for any nonzero particle size the integrability is violated and the heat conduction coefficient converges. The result of the analytical computation is verified by means of numerical simulation in a plausible diapason of parameters, and good agreement is observed. PMID:14995858
Problems in suppressing cooling flows in clusters of galaxies by global heat conduction
Noam Soker
2003-02-19
I use a simple analytical model to show that simple heat conduction models cannot significantly suppress cluster cooling flows. I build a static medium where heat conduction globally balances radiative cooling, and then perturb it. I show that a perturbation extending over a large fraction of the cooling flow region will grow to the non-linear regime within a Hubble time. Such perturbations are reasonable in clusters which frequently experience mergers and/or AGN activity. This result strengthens previous findings which show that a steady solution does not exist for a constant heat conduction coefficient.
An approximate substitution principle for viscous heat conducting flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greitzer, E. M.; Paterson, R. W.; Tan, C. S.
1985-09-01
A new, approximate substitution principle is presented for a class of steady flows in which both heat transfer and momentum interchange by viscous stresses are significant. The principle, which has important implications for the design and scaling of mixing experiments, can be regarded as an extension of the Munk and Prim substitution principle (for steady isentropic flows) to nonisentropic flows (Munk and Prim, 1947). The concepts that are developed explain the scaling and distribution of various fluid dynamic properties observed in several different types of flow mixing experiments. Calculations are done to indicate the expected regimes of applicability of the approximate principle and comparison with experiment is made to show its utility in practical situations.
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2012-12-12
...COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-851] Certain Integrated Circuit Packages Provided with Multiple Heat- Conducting...within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuit packages provided with multiple...
Transition from near-field thermal radiation to phonon heat conduction at sub-nanometre gaps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiloyan, Vazrik; Garg, Jivtesh; Esfarjani, Keivan; Chen, Gang
2015-04-01
When the separation of two surfaces approaches sub-nanometre scale, the boundary between the two most fundamental heat transfer modes, heat conduction by phonons and radiation by photons, is blurred. Here we develop an atomistic framework based on microscopic Maxwell's equations and lattice dynamics to describe the convergence of these heat transfer modes and the transition from one to the other. For gaps >1 nm, the predicted conductance values are in excellent agreement with the continuum theory of fluctuating electrodynamics. However, for sub-nanometre gaps we find the conductance is enhanced up to four times compared with the continuum approach, while avoiding its prediction of divergent conductance at contact. Furthermore, low-frequency acoustic phonons tunnel through the vacuum gap by coupling to evanescent electric fields, providing additional channels for energy transfer and leading to the observed enhancement. When the two surfaces are in or near contact, acoustic phonons become dominant heat carriers.
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2012-06-06
... COMMISSION Certain Integrated Circuit Packages Provided With Multiple Heat- Conducting Paths and Products.... International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Integrated Circuit Packages Provided... sale within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuit packages provided...
Molecular dynamics analysis of spectral characteristics of phonon heat conduction in silicon
Henry, Asegun Sekou Famake
2006-01-01
Due to the technological significance of silicon, its heat conduction mechanisms have been studied extensively. However, there have been some lingering questions surrounding the phonon mean free path and importance of ...
Transition from near-field thermal radiation to phonon heat conduction at sub-nanometre gaps.
Chiloyan, Vazrik; Garg, Jivtesh; Esfarjani, Keivan; Chen, Gang
2015-01-01
When the separation of two surfaces approaches sub-nanometre scale, the boundary between the two most fundamental heat transfer modes, heat conduction by phonons and radiation by photons, is blurred. Here we develop an atomistic framework based on microscopic Maxwell's equations and lattice dynamics to describe the convergence of these heat transfer modes and the transition from one to the other. For gaps >1?nm, the predicted conductance values are in excellent agreement with the continuum theory of fluctuating electrodynamics. However, for sub-nanometre gaps we find the conductance is enhanced up to four times compared with the continuum approach, while avoiding its prediction of divergent conductance at contact. Furthermore, low-frequency acoustic phonons tunnel through the vacuum gap by coupling to evanescent electric fields, providing additional channels for energy transfer and leading to the observed enhancement. When the two surfaces are in or near contact, acoustic phonons become dominant heat carriers. PMID:25849305
Effect of viscosity and wall heat conduction on shock attenuation in narrow channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deshpande, A.; Puranik, B.
2015-02-01
In the present work, the effects due to viscosity and wall heat conduction on shock propagation and attenuation in narrow channels are numerically investigated. A two-dimensional viscous shock tube configuration is simulated, and heat conduction in the channel walls is explicitly included. The simulation results indicate that the shock attenuation is significantly less in case of an adiabatic wall, and the use of an isothermal wall model is adequate to take into account the wall heat conduction. A parametric study is performed to characterize the effects of viscous forces and wall heat conduction on shock attenuation, and the behaviour is explained on the basis of boundary layer formation in the post-shock region. A dimensionless parameter that describes the shock attenuation is correlated with the diaphragm pressure ratio and a dimensionless parameter which is expressed using the characteristic Reynolds number and the dimensionless shock travel.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huerre, P.; Karamcheti, K.
1976-01-01
The theory of sound propagation is examined in a viscous, heat-conducting fluid, initially at rest and in a uniform state, and contained in a rigid, impermeable duct with isothermal walls. Topics covered include: (1) theoretical formulation of the small amplitude fluctuating motions of a viscous, heat-conducting and compressible fluid; (2) sound propagation in a two dimensional duct; and (3) perturbation study of the inplane modes.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Masiulaniec, K. C.; Keith, T. G., Jr.; Dewitt, K. J.
1984-01-01
A numerical procedure is presented for analyzing a wide variety of heat conduction problems in multilayered bodies having complex geometry. The method is based on a finite difference solution of the heat conduction equation using a body fitted coordinate system transformation. Solution techniques are described for steady and transient problems with and without internal energy generation. Results are found to compare favorably with several well known solutions.
Heat conduction in anisotropic media: Nonlinear self-adjointness and conservation laws
Nail H. Ibragimov; Elena D. Avdonina
2012-02-27
Nonlinear self-adjointness of the anisotropic nonlinear heat equation is investigated. Mathematical models of heat conduction in anisotropic media with a source are considered and a class of self-adjoint models is identified. Conservation laws corresponding to the symmetries of the equations in question are computed.
Gopinath, A.; Sadhal, S.S.; Jones, P.D.; Seyed-Yagoobi, J.; Woodbury, K.A.
1996-12-31
In the first section on heat transfer in microgravity, the papers cover phase-change phenomena and thermocapillary flows and surface effects. In the second section, several papers cover solution methods for radiative heat transfer while the rest cover heat transfer in low-temperature environments. The last section covers papers containing valuable information for thermal contact conductance of various materials plus papers on inverse problems in heat transfer. Separate abstracts were prepared for most papers in this volume.
Effects of anisotropic conduction and heat pipe interaction on minimum mass space radiators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, Karl W.; Lund, Kurt O.
1991-01-01
Equations are formulated for the two dimensional, anisotropic conduction of heat in space radiator fins. The transverse temperature field was obtained by the integral method, and the axial field by numerical integration. A shape factor, defined for the axial boundary condition, simplifies the analysis and renders the results applicable to general heat pipe/conduction fin interface designs. The thermal results are summarized in terms of the fin efficiency, a radiation/axial conductance number, and a transverse conductance surface Biot number. These relations, together with those for mass distribution between fins and heat pipes, were used in predicting the minimum radiator mass for fixed thermal properties and fin efficiency. This mass is found to decrease monotonically with increasing fin conductivity. Sensitivities of the minimum mass designs to the problem parameters are determined.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khan, Masood; Malik, Rabia; Munir, Asif
2015-08-01
In this article, the mixed convective heat transfer to Sisko fluid over a radially stretching surface in the presence of convective boundary conditions is investigated. The viscous dissipation and thermal radiation effects are also taken into account. The suitable transformations are applied to convert the governing partial differential equations into a set of nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations. The analytical solution of the governing problem is obtained by using the homotopy analysis method (HAM). Additionally, these analytical results are compared with the numerical results obtained by the shooting technique. The obtained results for the velocity and temperature are analyzed graphically for several physical parameters for the assisting and opposing flows. It is found that the effect of buoyancy parameter is more prominent in case of the assisting flow as compared to the opposing flow. Further, in tabular form the numerical values are given for the local skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number. A remarkable agreement is noticed by comparing the present results with the results reported in the literature as a special case.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Haihui; Wang, Wanlin; Zhou, Lejun
2015-10-01
A novel method for the estimation of the mold hot surface heat flux based on the measured responding temperatures from two columns of thermocouples that embedded inside the mold during continuous casting has been developed. The method includes a Two-Dimensional Inverse transient Heat Conduction Problem (2D-IHCP) model that was solved by the conjugate gradient method with Adjoint Equation. The model was validated by comparing the results with those calculated by a robust One-Dimensional Inverse transient Heat Conduction Problem (1D-IHCP). The solution of a test problem indicated that the Mean Absolute Percentage Error of the estimated heat flux calculated by the new method is about 9 to 40 pct of those calculated by the 1D-IHCP. Then, the method is applied to compute the heat flux for a mold simulator experiment. The results indicated that the heat fluxes and temperatures across mold hot surface calculated by 2D-IHCP show the same variation tendency as those calculated by 1D-IHCP. However, the heat fluxes calculated by 2D-IHCP are about 1.2 to 2 times larger than those calculated by 1D-IHCP for the locations below the liquid mold flux surface and are about 50 to 90 pct of those calculated by 1D-IHCP for the locations above the liquid mold flux surface.
Instability in Super-Conducting Magnets — A Review of Heat Input from Mechanical Disturbances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Evans, D.
2004-06-01
At low temperatures, specific heats are low and therefore small amounts of heat can result in significant temperature rises. Heat inputs in the micro-Joule range, if sufficiently localised, may be sufficient to cause some magnets to quench. Any source of heat could be a potential source of a `training' step or of a spontaneous quench from steady state operating conditions. This paper examines the major mechanical effects that have the potential to release sufficient heat to cause a `quench' in a super-conducting magnet. Each of the potential heat sources is examined and the `evidence' that the heat source causes premature quenching in a superconducting magnet is considered. Electromagnetic disturbances, such as `super-currents' and `flux jumping' are not considered.
About Influence of Gravity on Heat Conductivity Process of the Planets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gladkov, S. O.; Yadav, A.; Ray, Saibal; Rahaman, F.
2015-09-01
In the present study it is shown that the interaction of a quasi-static gravitational wave through density fluctuations give rise to a heat conductivity coefficient and hence rise in temperature. This fact is a very important characteristics needed to establish a heat equilibrium process of such massive body as the Earth and other Planets. To carry out this exercise, general mechanism has been provided, which makes a bridge between classical physics and quantum theory. The specific dependence of heat conductivity coefficient in wide region has also been calculated.
to bring down the largest single cost associated with tapping geothermal heat,and conducting
Gildor, Hezi
to bring down the largest single cost associated with tapping geothermal heat,and conducting resource assessments of geothermal potential in the U.S. While the U.S.Geological Survey conducted an assessment of national geothermal resources in the 1970s,the project ran short of funding, according to Karl
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chiou, Guo-Li; Anderson, O. Roger
2010-01-01
This study proposes a multi-dimensional approach to investigate, represent, and categorize students' in-depth understanding of complex physics concepts. Clinical interviews were conducted with 30 undergraduate physics students to probe their understanding of heat conduction. Based on the data analysis, six aspects of the participants' responses…
2012-01-01
PHYSICAL REVIEW B 85, 205439 (2012) Suppression of phonon heat conduction in cross with the high lattice thermal conductivity can be used as heat spreaders and interconnects710 for enhanced heat and the lattice thermal conductivity in the denominator: ZT = S2 T /(ph + el), where S is the Seebeck coefficient
Li, Baowen
Mode-coupling theory and molecular dynamics simulation for heat conduction in a chain 2004) We study heat conduction in a 1D chain of particles with longitudinal as well as transverse, 66.70. f I. INTRODUCTION The problem of heat conduction is a well-studied field. More than two
Ahlers, Guenter
results illustrating the influence of the finite conductivity of the top and bottom plates on the heat that plates of finite conductivity diminish the heat transport in the fluid. The Nusselt number N for plates of the con- vection sample, when they have a finite conductivity, dimin- ish the heat transport in t
Model of the plasma discharge in a Hall thruster with heat conduction E. Ahedo and J. M. Gallardo
Carlos III de Madrid, Universidad
Model of the plasma discharge in a Hall thruster with heat conduction E. Ahedo and J. M. Gallardo E The inclusion of heat conduction into a one-dimensional, macroscopic model of the plasma inside a Hall thruster the simplified treatment of the electron energy equation, which included neither heat conduction nor the losses
Thermal conductivity of cementitious grouts for geothermal heat pumps. Progress report FY 1997
Allan, M.L.
1997-11-01
Grout is used to seal the annulus between the borehole and heat exchanger loops in vertical geothermal (ground coupled, ground source, GeoExchange) heat pump systems. The grout provides a heat transfer medium between the heat exchanger and surrounding formation, controls groundwater movement and prevents contamination of water supply. Enhanced heat pump coefficient of performance (COP) and reduced up-front loop installation costs can be achieved through optimization of the grout thermal conductivity. The objective of the work reported was to characterize thermal conductivity and other pertinent properties of conventional and filled cementitious grouts. Cost analysis and calculations of the reduction in heat exchanger length that could be achieved with such grouts were performed by the University of Alabama. Two strategies to enhance the thermal conductivity of cementitious grouts were used simultaneously. The first of these was to incorporate high thermal conductivity filler in the grout formulations. Based on previous tests (Allan and Kavanaugh, in preparation), silica sand was selected as a suitable filler. The second strategy was to reduce the water content of the grout mix. By lowering the water/cement ratio, the porosity of the hardened grout is decreased. This results in higher thermal conductivity. Lowering the water/cement ratio also improves such properties as permeability, strength, and durability. The addition of a liquid superplasticizer (high range water reducer) to the grout mixes enabled reduction of water/cement ratio while retaining pumpability. Superplasticizers are commonly used in the concrete and grouting industry to improve rheological properties.
Fourier Heat Conduction as a phenomenon described within the scope of the Second Law
Christopher G. Jesudason
2014-07-29
The historical development of the Carnot cycle necessitated the construction of isothermal and adiabatic pathways within the cycle that were also mechanically "reversible" which lead eventually to the Kelvin-Clausius development of the entropy function where the heat absorption is for the diathermal (isothermal) paths of the cycle only. It is deduced from traditional arguments that Fourier heat conduction involves mechanically "reversible" heat transfer with irreversible entropy increase. Here we model heat conduction as a thermodynamically reversible but mechanically irreversible process. The MD simulations conducted shows excellent agreement with the theory. Such views and results as these, if developed to a successful conclusion could imply that the Carnot cycle be viewed as describing a local process of energy-work conversion and that irreversible local processes might be brought within the scope of this cycle, implying a unified treatment of thermodynamically (i) irreversible, (ii) reversible, (iii) isothermal and (iv) adiabatic processes.
Variable thermal properties and thermal relaxation time in hyperbolic heat conduction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glass, David E.; Mcrae, D. Scott
1989-01-01
Numerical solutions were obtained for a finite slab with an applied surface heat flux at one boundary using both the hyperbolic (MacCormack's method) and parabolic (Crank-Nicolson method) heat conduction equations. The effects on the temperature distributions of varying density, specific heat, and thermal relaxation time were calculated. Each of these properties had an effect on the thermal front velocity (in the hyperbolic solution) as well as the temperatures in the medium. In the hyperbolic solutions, as the density or specific heat decreased with temperature, both the temperatures within the medium and the thermal front velocity increased. The value taken for the thermal relaxation time was found to determine the 'hyperbolicity' of the heat conduction model. The use of a time dependent relaxation time allowed for solutions where the thermal energy propagated as a high temperature wave initially, but approached a diffusion process more rapidly than was possible with a constant large relaxation time.
Heat conduction: hyperbolic self-similar shock-waves in solids
Imre Ferenc Barna; Robert Kersner
2012-04-19
Analytic solutions for cylindrical thermal waves in solid medium is given based on the nonlinear hyperbolic system of heat flux relaxation and energy conservation equations. The Fourier-Cattaneo phenomenological law is generalized where the relaxation time and heat propagation coefficient have a general power law temperature dependence. From such laws one cannot form a second order parabolic or telegraph-type equation. We consider the original non-linear hyperbolic system itself with the self-similar Ansatz for the temperature distribution and for the heat flux. As results continuous and shock-wave solutions are presented. For physical establishment numerous materials with various temperature dependent heat conduction coefficients are mentioned.
On Energy and Entropy Influxes in the Green-Naghdi Type III Theory of Heat Conduction
Swantje Bargmann; Antonino Favata; Paolo Podio-Guidugli
2012-09-13
The energy-influx/entropy-influx relation in the Green-Naghdi Type III theory of heat conduction is examined within a thermodynamical framework \\`a la Mueller-Liu, where that relation is not specified a priori irrespectively of the constitutive class under attention. It is shown that the classical assumption, i.e., that the entropy influx and the energy influx are proportional via the absolute temperature, holds true if heat conduction is, in a sense that is made precise, isotropic. In addition, it is proven that the standard assumption does not hold in case of transversely isotropic conduction.
Plate Fin Heat Exchanger Model with Axial Conduction and Variable Properties
Hansen, B.J.; White, M.J.; Klebaner, A.; /Fermilab
2011-06-10
Future superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities, as part of Project X at Fermilab, will be cooled to superfluid helium temperatures by a cryogenic distribution system supplying cold supercritical helium. To reduce vapor fraction during the final Joule-Thomson (J-T) expansion into the superfluid helium cooling bath, counter-flow, plate-fin heat exchangers will be utilized. Due to their compact size and ease of fabrication, plate-fin heat exchangers are an effective option. However, the design of compact and high-effectiveness cryogenic heat exchangers operating at liquid helium temperatures requires consideration of axial heat conduction along the direction of flow, in addition to variable fluid properties. Here we present a numerical model that includes the effects of axial conduction and variable properties for a plate fin heat exchanger. The model is used to guide design decisions on heat exchanger material choice and geometry. In addition, the J-T expansion process is modeled with the heat exchanger to analyze the effect of heat load and cryogenic supply parameters. A numerical model that includes the effects of axial conduction and variable properties for a plate fin heat exchanger was developed and the effect of various design parameters on overall heat exchanger size was investigated. It was found that highly conductive metals should be avoided in the design of compact JT heat exchangers. For the geometry considered, the optimal conductivity is around 3.5 W/m-K and can range from 0.3-10 W/m-K without a large loss in performance. The model was implemented with an isenthalpic expansion process. Increasing the cold side inlet temperature from 2K to 2.2 K decreased the liquid fraction from 0.856 to 0.839 which corresponds to a 0.12 g/s increase in supercritical helium supply needed to maintain liquid level in the cooling bath. Lastly, it was found that the effectiveness increased when the heat load was below the design value. Therefore, the heat exchanger should be sized on the high end of the required heat load.
Conductivity heating a subterranean oil shale to create permeability and subsequently produce oil
Van Meurs, P.; DeRouffignac, E.P.; Vinegar, H.J.; Lucid, M.F.
1989-12-12
This patent describes an improvement in a process in which oil is produced from a subterranean oil shale deposit by extending at least one each of heat-injecting and fluid-producing wells into the deposit, establishing a heat-conductive fluid-impermeable barrier between the interior of each heat-injecting well and the adjacent deposit, and then heating the interior of each heat-injecting well at a temperature sufficient to conductively heat oil shale kerogen and cause pyrolysis products to form fractures within the oil shale deposit through which the pyrolysis products are displaced into at least one production well. The improvement is for enhancing the uniformity of the heat fronts moving through the oil shale deposit. Also described is a process for exploiting a target oil shale interval, by progressively expanding a heated treatment zone band from about a geometric center of the target oil shale interval outward, such that the formation or extension of vertical fractures from the heated treatment zone band to the periphery of the target oil shale interval is minimized.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, Ming-Ming; Faghri, Amir
1990-01-01
A numerical analysis is presented for the overall performance of heat pipes with single or multiple heat sources. The analysis includes the heat conduction in the wall and liquid-wick regions as well as the compressibility effect of the vapor inside the heat pipe. The two-dimensional elliptic governing equations in conjunction with the thermodynamic equilibrium relation and appropriate boundary conditions are solved numerically. The solutions are in agreement with existing experimental data for the vapor and wall temperatures at both low and high operating temperatures.
Heat conduction in a chain of dissociating particles: Effect of dimensionality.
Zolotarevskiy, V; Savin, A V; Gendelman, O V
2015-03-01
The paper considers heat conduction in a model chain of composite particles with hard core and elastic external shell. Such model mimics three main features of realistic interatomic potentials--hard repulsive core, quasilinear behavior in a ground state, and possibility of dissociation. It has become clear recently that this latter feature has crucial effect on convergence of the heat conduction coefficient in thermodynamic limit. We demonstrate that in one-dimensional chain of elastic particles with hard core the heat conduction coefficient also converges, as one could expect. Then we explore effect of dimensionality on the heat transport in this model. For this sake, longitudinal and transversal motions of the particles are allowed in a long narrow channel. With varying width of the channel, we observe sharp transition from "one-dimensional" to "two-dimensional" behavior. Namely, the heat conduction coefficient drops by about order of magnitude for relatively small widening of the channel. This transition is not unique for the considered system. Similar phenomenon of transition to quasi-1D behavior with growth of aspect ratio of the channel is observed also in a gas of densely packed hard (billiard) particles, both for two- and three-dimensional cases. It is the case despite the fact that the character of transition in these two systems is not similar, due to different convergence properties of the heat conductivity. In the billiard model, the divergence pattern of the heat conduction coefficient smoothly changes from logarithmic to power-like law with increase of the length. PMID:25871074
Girka, V. O.; Girka, I. O.
2006-12-15
A theoretical study is made of the possibility of additional heating of a radially inhomogeneous plasma in confinement systems with a rippled magnetic field via the absorption of satellite harmonics of the surface flute modes with frequencies below the electron gyrofrequency in the local resonance region, {epsilon}{sub 1} (r{sub 1}) = [2{pi}c/({omega}L)]{sup 2}, where {epsilon}{sub 1} is the diagonal element of the plasma dielectric tensor in the hydrodynamic approximation, L is the period of a constant external rippled magnetic field, and the radical coordinate r{sub 1} determines the position of the local resonance. It is found that the high-frequency power absorbed near the local resonance is proportional to the square of the ripple amplitude of the external magnetic field. The mechanism proposed is shown to ensure the absorption of the energy of surface flute modes and, thereby, the heating of a radially inhomogeneous plasma.
Thermal conductivity from hierarchical heat sinks using carbon nanotubes and graphene nanosheets.
Hsieh, Chien-Te; Lee, Cheng-En; Chen, Yu-Fu; Chang, Jeng-Kuei; Teng, Hsi-Sheng
2015-11-28
The in-plane (kip) and through-plane (ktp) thermal conductivities of heat sinks using carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene nanosheets (GNs), and CNT/GN composites are extracted from two experimental setups within the 323-373 K temperature range. Hierarchical three-dimensional CNT/GN frameworks display higher kip and ktp values, as compared to the CNT- and GN-based heat sinks. The kip and ktp values of the CNT/GN-based heat sink reach as high as 1991 and 76 W m(-1) K(-1) at 323 K, respectively. This improved thermal conductivity is attributed to the fact that the hierarchical heat sink offers a stereo thermal conductive network that combines point, line, and plane contact, leading to better heat transport. Furthermore, the compression treatment provided an efficient route to increase both kip and ktp values. This result reveals that the hierarchical carbon structures become denser, inducing more thermal conductive area and less thermal resistivity, i.e., a reduced possibility of phonon-boundary scattering. The correlation between thermal and electrical conductivity (?) can be well described by two empirical equations: kip = 567?ln(?) + 1120 and ktp = 20.6?ln(?) + 36.1. The experimental results are obtained within the temperature range of 323-373 K, suitably complementing the thermal management of chips for consumer electronics. PMID:26498343
Thermal conductivity from hierarchical heat sinks using carbon nanotubes and graphene nanosheets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsieh, Chien-Te; Lee, Cheng-En; Chen, Yu-Fu; Chang, Jeng-Kuei; Teng, Hsi-Sheng
2015-11-01
The in-plane (kip) and through-plane (ktp) thermal conductivities of heat sinks using carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene nanosheets (GNs), and CNT/GN composites are extracted from two experimental setups within the 323-373 K temperature range. Hierarchical three-dimensional CNT/GN frameworks display higher kip and ktp values, as compared to the CNT- and GN-based heat sinks. The kip and ktp values of the CNT/GN-based heat sink reach as high as 1991 and 76 W m-1 K-1 at 323 K, respectively. This improved thermal conductivity is attributed to the fact that the hierarchical heat sink offers a stereo thermal conductive network that combines point, line, and plane contact, leading to better heat transport. Furthermore, the compression treatment provided an efficient route to increase both kip and ktp values. This result reveals that the hierarchical carbon structures become denser, inducing more thermal conductive area and less thermal resistivity, i.e., a reduced possibility of phonon-boundary scattering. The correlation between thermal and electrical conductivity (?) can be well described by two empirical equations: kip = 567 ln(?) + 1120 and ktp = 20.6 ln(?) + 36.1. The experimental results are obtained within the temperature range of 323-373 K, suitably complementing the thermal management of chips for consumer electronics.
The radiant component of steam heat conductivity at high pressures and temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panchenko, S. V.; Dli, M. I.; Borisov, V. V.
2015-07-01
The problem of energy transfer by heat conduction and radiation is brought to a differential equation containing temperature derivatives at the boundaries and based on the selectively gray approximation of absorbing medium. A method for analytically solving the linearized problem radiant-conductive heat transfer in a flat layer of selectively absorbing medium is proposed, using which an unsymmetrical temperature profile more accurately approximating the experimental results can be obtained. The adequacy of the solution method is demonstrated by comparing the calculation results with the experimental and the results obtained using numerical methods. The effect the intermolecular interactions have on the optical properties of highly compressed media is analyzed. A dependence for determining the integral intensity of steam bands at pressures of up to 100 MPa is obtained. Quite satisfactory agreement is obtained between the calculated values of absorption intensities at increased pressures, including those for steam. The radiant component values obtained from steam heat conductivity measurements carried out in a wide range of temperatures taking into account the absorption selectivity and deviation of heat conductivity coefficients with absorption and for a transparent gas model are presented. The study results can be used for estimating the radiant component in heat conductivity measurements of absorbing fluids.
Recovery of normal heat conduction in harmonic chains with correlated disorder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herrera-González, I. F.; Izrailev, F. M.; Tessieri, L.
2015-06-01
We consider heat transport in one-dimensional harmonic chains with isotopic disorder, focusing our attention mainly on how disorder correlations affect heat conduction. Our approach reveals that long-range correlations can change the number of low-frequency extended states. As a result, with a proper choice of correlations one can control how the conductivity ? scales with the chain length N. We present a detailed analysis of the role of specific long-range correlations for which a size-independent conductivity is exactly recovered in the case of fixed boundary conditions. As for free boundary conditions, we show that disorder correlations can lead to a conductivity scaling as ? ? N\\varepsilon , with the scaling exponent ? being arbitrarily small (although not strictly zero), so that normal conduction is almost recovered even in this case.
Barber, James R.
THE CONDUCTION OF HEAT FROM SLIDING SOLIDS J. R. BARBER Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of the lubricant. A number of solutions to the relevant heat conduction problem have been published, but these haveht. J. Heat Mass Tmnsfer. Vol. 13,pp. 857469. Pergamon Press 1970. Printed in Great Britain
Radiative heat exchange of a meteor body in the approximation of radiant heat conduction
Pilyugin, N.N.; Chernova, T.A.
1986-07-01
The problem of the thermal and dynamic destruction of large meteor bodies moving in planetary atmospheres is fundamental for the clarification of optical observations and anomalous phenomena in the atmosphere, the determination of the physicochemical properties of meteoroids, and the explanation of the fall of remnants of large meteorites. Therefore, it is important to calculate the coefficient of radiant heat exchange (which is the determining factor under these conditions) for large meteor bodies as they move with hypersonic velocities in an atmosphere. The solution of this problem enables one to find the ablation of a meteorite during its aerodynamic heating and to determine the initial conditions for the solution of problems of the breakup of large bodies and their subsequent motion and ablation. Hypersonic flow of an inviscid gas stream over an axisymmetric blunt body is analyzed with allowance for radiative transfer in a thick-thin approximation. The gas-dynamic problem of the flow of an optically thick gas over a large body is solved by the method of asymptotic joined expansions, using a hypersonic approximation and local self-similarity. An equation is obtained for the coefficient of radiant heat exchange and the peculiarities of such heat exchange for meteor bodies of large size are noted.
Absence of local thermal equilibrium in two models of heat conduction
Abhishek Dhar; Deepak Dhar
1998-12-14
A crucial assumption in the conventional description of thermal conduction is the existence of local thermal equilibrium. We test this assumption in two simple models of heat conduction. Our first model is a linear chain of planar spins with nearest neighbour couplings, and the second model is that of a Lorentz gas. We look at the steady state of the system when the two ends are connected to heat baths at temperatures T1 and T2. If T1=T2, the system reaches thermal equilibrium. If T1 is not equal to T2, there is a heat current through the system, but there is no local thermal equilibrium. This is true even in the limit of large system size, when the heat current goes to zero. We argue that this is due to the existence of an infinity of local conservation laws in their dynamics.
Empirical evaluation of diving wet suit material heat transfer and thermal conductivity
West, P.B.
1993-10-01
This wet suit material testing program provides a quantitative thermal conductivity and heat transfer analysis, and comparison of various materials used in skin diving and SCUBA diving. Thermal resistance represents the primary subject examined, but due to compressibility of the baseline materials and its effect on heat transfer, this program also examines compression at simulated depth. This article reports the empirical heat transfer coefficients for both thermal conductivity and convection. Due to the limitations of the test apparatus, this analysis must restrict the convection evaluation to an approximately 20-cm-height, free-convection model. As a consequence, this model best simulates the overall heat transfer coefficient of a diver hovering in a horizontal position. This program also includes evaluations of some nonstandard materials in an effort to identify alternative wet suit materials.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tamma, Kumar K.; D'Costa, Joseph F.
1991-01-01
This paper describes the evaluation of mixed implicit-explicit finite element formulations for hyperbolic heat conduction problems involving non-Fourier effects. In particular, mixed implicit-explicit formulations employing the alpha method proposed by Hughes et al. (1987, 1990) are described for the numerical simulation of hyperbolic heat conduction models, which involves time-dependent relaxation effects. Existing analytical approaches for modeling/analysis of such models involve complex mathematical formulations for obtaining closed-form solutions, while in certain numerical formulations the difficulties include severe oscillatory solution behavior (which often disguises the true response) in the vicinity of the thermal disturbances, which propagate with finite velocities. In view of these factors, the alpha method is evaluated to assess the control of the amount of numerical dissipation for predicting the transient propagating thermal disturbances. Numerical test models are presented, and pertinent conclusions are drawn for the mixed-time integration simulation of hyperbolic heat conduction models involving non-Fourier effects.
Note on heat conduction in liquid metals. A comparison of laminar and turbulent flow effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Talmage, G.
1994-05-01
The difference between heat transfer in liquid metals with electric currents and magnetic fields on the one hand and heat transfer in electrically insulating fluids and in conducting solids on the other is pointed out. Laminar and turbulent flow effects in liquid metal sliding electric contacts for homopolar machines are considered. Large temperature gradients can develop within a small region of liquid metal. A model of a liquid-metal sliding electrical contact is developed and analyzed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mutabazi, Innocent; Yoshikawa, Harunori; Peixinho, Jorge; Kahouadji, Lyes
2013-11-01
Görtler vortices appear in a flow over a concave wall as a result of centrifugal instability [Saric, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 26, 379 (1994)]. They may have a strong influence on heat transfer [Momayez et al., Int. J. heat Mass transfer 47, 3783 (2004)]. The purpose of this work is to model heat transfer by Görtler vortices using a weakly nonlinear analysis of Smith &-Haj- Hariri [Phys. Fluids A 5, 2815 (1993)]. We have investigated the coupling of the convective heat transfer by the stationary vortices with the heat conduction inside the solid wall. The finite thickness and thermal conductivity of the wall enter into the boundary conditions of the problem through the ratio ? of the wall thickness to the boundary layer thickness and through the ratio K of the thermal conductivities of the fluid and the wall. The parametric dependence Nu (? , K) of the Nusselt number is performed and it is shown that found the heat transfer is quite well modified by these two parameters. The local thermal stress can be estimated in order to analyze the effects on ageing of the wall material. The authors acknowledge the financial support of the french Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR), through the program ``Investissements d'Avenir'' (ANR-10-LABX-09-01), LabEx EMC3.
Naoki Asai; Naoya Fukuda; Ryoji Matsumoto
2004-04-07
Recent Chandra observations of clusters of galaxies revealed the existence of a sharp ridge in the X-ray surface brightness where the temperature drops across the front. This front is called the cold front. We present the results of two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the time evolution of a dense subcluster plasma moving in a cluster of galaxies. Anisotropic heat conduction along the magnetic field lines is included. In the models without magnetic fields, the numerical results indicate that the heat conduction from the hot ambient plasma heats the cold dense plasma of the subcluster and diffuses out the cold front. When magnetic fields exist in a cluster of galaxies, however, cold fronts can be maintained because the heat conduction across the magnetic field lines is suppressed. We found that, even when the magnetic fields in a cluster of galaxies are disordered, heat conduction across the front is restricted because the magnetic field lines are stretched along the front. Numerical results reproduced the X-ray intensity distribution observed in the A3667 cluster of galaxies.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Enginer, J. E.; Luedke, E. E.; Wanous, D. J.
1976-01-01
Continuing efforts in large gains in heat-pipe performance are reported. It was found that gas-controlled variable-conductance heat pipes can perform reliably for long periods in space and effectively provide temperature stabilization for spacecraft electronics. A solution was formulated that allows the control gas to vent through arterial heat-pipe walls, thus eliminating the problem of arterial failure under load, due to trace impurities of noncondensable gas trapped in an arterial bubble during priming. This solution functions well in zero gravity. Another solution was found that allows priming at a much lower fluid charge. A heat pipe with high capacity, with close temperature control of the heat source and independent of large variations in sink temperature was fabricated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarman, Sten; Laaksonen, Aatto
2010-01-01
The temperature dependence of the heat conductivity has been obtained for a liquid crystal model based on the Gay-Berne fluid, from the isotropic phase at high temperatures through the nematic phase to the smectic A phase at low temperatures. The ratio of the parallel and the perpendicular components of the heat conductivity is about 2.5:1 in the nematic phase, which is similar to that of real systems. Both Green-Kubo methods and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics methods have been applied and the results agree within in a relative error of a couple of percent, but the latter method is much more efficient.
Normal heat conduction in one dimensional momentum conserving lattices with asymmetric interactions
Yi Zhong; Yong Zhang; Jiao Wang; Hong Zhao
2012-07-02
The heat conduction behavior of one dimensional momentum conserving lattice systems with asymmetric interparticle interactions is numerically investigated. It is found that with certain degree of interaction asymmetry, the heat conductivity measured in nonequilibrium stationary states converges in the thermodynamical limit, in clear contrast to the well accepted viewpoint that Fourier's law is generally violated in low dimensional momentum conserving systems. It suggests in nonequilibrium stationary states the mass gradient resulted from the asymmetric interactions may provide an additional phonon scattering mechanism other than that due to the nonlinear interactions.
Are X-ray Clusters Cooled by Heat Conduction to the Surrounding Intergalactic Medium?
Abraham Loeb
2002-04-29
We show that X-ray clusters would have cooled substantially over a Hubble time by transport of heat from their hot interior to the their envelope, if the heat conductivity had not been heavily suppressed relative to the Spitzer value due to magnetic fields. The suppression is required in order for the observed abundance of hot X-ray clusters to be consistent with predictions from popular cosmological models. If a similar or stronger suppression factor applies to cluster cores, then thermal conduction can not be the mechanism that prevents cooling flows there.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brennan, P. J.; Groll, M.
1976-01-01
Tests results obtained with an ATS axial groove aluminum extrusion adapted for use as a cryogenic thermal diode and/or a variable conductance heat pipe are presented. Ethane at a nominal operating temperature of 185 C was used as working fluid. In addition to both active and passive gas control, diode designs utilizing gas blockage or liquid trap were investigated. Specific requirements and performance parameters such as transient behavior, reservoir sizes, shutdown energy, etc., were evaluated. Results are also presented for tests where the liquid trap was used as a secondary heat pipe to demonstrate thermal switching with simultaneous heat pipe operation and diode shutdown.
Electrical conductivity of carbonaceous chondrites and electric heating of meteorite parent bodies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duba, AL
1987-01-01
Electromagnetic heating of rock-forming materials most probably was an important process in the early history of the solar system. Electrical conductivity experiments of representative materials such as carbonaceous chondrites are necessary to obtain data for use in electromagnetic heating models. With the assumption that carbon was present at grain boundaries in the material that comprised the meteorite parent bodies, the electrical heating of such bodies was calculated as a function of body size and solar distance using the T-Tauri model of Sonett and Herbert (1977). The results are discussed.
Estimating thermal diffusivity and specific heat from needle probe thermal conductivity data
Waite, W.F.; Gilbert, L.Y.; Winters, W.J.; Mason, D.H.
2006-01-01
Thermal diffusivity and specific heat can be estimated from thermal conductivity measurements made using a standard needle probe and a suitably high data acquisition rate. Thermal properties are calculated from the measured temperature change in a sample subjected to heating by a needle probe. Accurate thermal conductivity measurements are obtained from a linear fit to many tens or hundreds of temperature change data points. In contrast, thermal diffusivity calculations require a nonlinear fit to the measured temperature change occurring in the first few tenths of a second of the measurement, resulting in a lower accuracy than that obtained for thermal conductivity. Specific heat is calculated from the ratio of thermal conductivity to diffusivity, and thus can have an uncertainty no better than that of the diffusivity estimate. Our thermal conductivity measurements of ice Ih and of tetrahydrofuran (THF) hydrate, made using a 1.6 mm outer diameter needle probe and a data acquisition rate of 18.2 pointss, agree with published results. Our thermal diffusivity and specific heat results reproduce published results within 25% for ice Ih and 3% for THF hydrate. ?? 2006 American Institute of Physics.
LDEF (Prelaunch), AO076 : Cascade Variable-Conductance Heat Pipe, Tray F09
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1983-01-01
LDEF (Prelaunch), AO076 : Cascade Variable-Conductance Heat Pipe, Tray F09 EL-1994-00302 LDEF (Prelaunch), AO076 : Cascade Variable-Conductance Heat Pipe, Tray F09 The prelaunch photograph was taken in SAEF II at KSC prior to installation of the Cascade Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Experiment (CVCHPE) on the LDEF. The Cascade Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Experiment (CVCHPE) occupies a 6 inch deep LDEF peripheral experiment tray and consist of two series connected variable conductance heatpipes, a black chrome solar collector panel and a silvered TEFLON® radiator panel, a power source to support six thermistor-type temperature monitoring sensors and actuations of two valves. Fiberglass standoffs and internal insulation blankets thermally isolated the experiment from the experiment tray and the LDEF interior. The outside of the CVCHPE, except the collector and radiator panels, was covered with an aluminumized Kapton multilayer insulation (MLI) blanket with an outer layer of 0.076 mm thick Kapton. The two patches of thin film materials, part of Experiment S1001 by NASA GSFC, were attached to the cover of the external thermal blanket with Kapton tape. The experiment was assembled and mounted in the experiment tray with non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners.
Michal Beneš
2011-08-08
We study an initial-boundary-value problem for time-dependent flows of heat-conducting viscous incompressible fluids in channel-like domains on a time interval $(0,T)$. For the parabolic system with strong nonlinearities and including the artificial (the so called "do nothing") boundary conditions, we prove the local in time existence, global uniqueness and smoothness of the solution on a time interval $(0,T^*)$, where $0< T^* \\leq T$.
Thermal Conductivity of Lower Mantle Minerals and Heat Flux Across the Core-Mantle Boundary
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bennett, C.; Rainey, E.; Kavner, A.
2014-12-01
The thermal conductivity properties of the minerals comprising the Earth's lowermost mantle control the core-mantle boundary heat flux, and are therefore critical properties for determining the thermal state and evolution of the Earth's interior. Here we present measurements of the thermal conductivity of lower mantle oxides and silicates as a function of pressure, temperature, and iron content determined in the laser-heated diamond anvil cell using a combination of measurements and 3-D modeling. Our models and measurements demonstrate that the measured steady-state temperature and its increase with increasing laser power depend on the sample thermal conductivity as well as the experimental geometry, enabling measurements of the pressure- and temperature- dependence of lattice thermal conductivity in the laser-heated diamond anvil cell. We applied this technique to iron-bearing silicate perovskites and MgO at lower mantle pressure and temperature conditions. For MgO, we determine the increase in thermal conductivity k with density ? to be ?lnk/?ln?=4.7±0.6, which is in agreement with results obtained using other experimental and computational techniques. For (Mg0.8,Fe0.2)SiO3 perovskite, we find ?lnk/?ln?=2.9±0.6. We use these values in combination with independent computational and experimental results to determine thermal conductivity of lower mantle minerals up to core-mantle boundary conditions. We combine the mineralogical thermal conductivity estimates in a composite model and include an estimate for the radiative contribution to thermal conductivity. Our new value of the thermal conductivity of the lowermost mantle is ~5-6 W/m/K and is sensitive to the details of the lower mantle assemblage, but is relatively insensitive to pressure and temperature. We combine our mantle thermal conductivity with models for the lower mantle boundary layer to generate a series of two-dimensional maps of core-mantle boundary heat flux, which emphasize the importance of lateral variations in phase and boundary layer thickness. Our values imply a total core-mantle boundary heat flow of 6-8 TW, which is sufficient to drive plumes and convection, is consistent with current geochemical estimates for mantle heat content, and permits a slow growth rate for the inner core.
Rice, Jarrett A.; Pokorny, Richard; Schweiger, Michael J.; Hrma, Pavel R.
2014-06-01
The heat conductivity ({lambda}) and the thermal diffusivity (a) of reacting glass batch, or melter feed, control the heat flux into and within the cold cap, a layer of reacting material floating on the pool of molten glass in an all-electric continuous waste glass melter. After previously estimating {lambda} of melter feed at temperatures up to 680 deg C, we focus in this work on the {lambda}(T) function at T > 680 deg C, at which the feed material becomes foamy. We used a customized experimental setup consisting of a large cylindrical crucible with an assembly of thermocouples, which monitored the evolution of the temperature field while the crucible with feed was heated at a constant rate from room temperature up to 1100°C. Approximating measured temperature profiles by polynomial functions, we used the heat transfer equation to estimate the {lambda}(T) approximation function, which we subsequently optimized using the finite-volume method combined with least-squares analysis. The heat conductivity increased as the temperature increased until the feed began to expand into foam, at which point the conductivity dropped. It began to increase again as the foam turned into a bubble-free glass melt. We discuss the implications of this behavior for the mathematical modeling of the cold cap.
Cooling by Heat Conduction Inside Magnetic Flux Loops and the Moderate Cluster Cooling Flow Model
Noam Soker
2003-11-02
I study non-radiative cooling of X-ray emitting gas via heat conduction along magnetic field lines inside magnetic flux loops in cooling flow clusters of galaxies. I find that such heat conduction can reduce the fraction of energy radiated in the X-ray band by a factor of 1.5-2. This non-radiative cooling joins two other proposed non-radiative cooling processes, which can be more efficient. These are mixing of cold and hot gas, and heat conduction initiated by magnetic fields reconnection between hot and cold gas. These processes when incorporated into the moderate cooling flow model lead to a general cooling flow model with the following ingredients. (1) Cooling flow does occur, but with a mass cooling rate about 10 times lower than in old versions of the cooling flow model. Namely, heating occurs such that the effective age of the cooling flow is much below the cluster age, but the heating can't prevent cooling altogether. (2) The cooling flow region is in a non-steady state evolution. (3) Non-radiative cooling of X-ray emitting gas can bring the model to a much better agreement with observations. (4) The general behavior of the cooling flow gas, and in particular the role played by magnetic fields, make the intracluster medium in cooling flow clusters similar in some aspects to the active solar corona.
Vajravelu, K.; Kassab, A.; Hadjinicolaou, A.
1996-11-08
The nonlinear partial differential equations for the transient free convective heat transfer in a viscous, electrically conducting, and heat-generating fluid past a vertical porous plate in the presence of free stream oscillations are solved by the boundary element method (BEM). Time-dependent fundamental solutions are employed in a time marching scheme to resolve the field variables. Numerical results are compared with previously reported analytical solutions in order to validate the developed BEM algorithm. These previous studies reported results for simpler versions of the problem, in which the convective effects in the momentum and energy equations were neglected in order to obtain analytical numerical solutions. The BEM results are shown to be in close agreement with the reported data. The effects of convection currents, the temperature-dependent heat sources (or sinks), the magnetic currents, and the viscous dissipation on the flow and heat transfer characteristics are assessed in a parametric study, which considers a variety of the dimensionless parameters Gr, Ec, Pr, M, and {gamma}. It is observed that {gamma} plays an important role in delaying the fluid flow reversal, present in the case of air, and acts to enhance the effect of Gr in augmenting the rate of heat transfer at the wall. The skin friction is observed to be an increasing function of Gr, Ec, and {gamma} and a decreasing function of M and Pr. However, the rate of heat transfer (in an absolute sense) is an increasing function of M, {gamma}, Gr, and Ec and a decreasing function of Pr. Of all the parameters, the Prandtl number has the strongest effect on the flow and heat transfer characteristics.
Deutsch, Josh
One-dimensional heat conductivity exponent from a random collision model J. M. Deutsch and Onuttom to conductivity would predict that if the temperature gradient "T in a material is small, the heat current flowing January 2003; published 18 July 2003 We obtain numerically the thermal conductivity of a quasi
Numerical study of conductive heat losses from a magmatic source at Phlegraean Fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di Maio, Rosa; Piegari, Ester; Mancini, Cecilia; Scandone, R.
2015-01-01
The thermal evolution of the Phlegraean magmatic system (southern Italy) is studied by analyzing the influence of the thermal property variations on the solution of the heat conduction equation. The aim of this paper is to verify if appropriate choices of thermal parameters can reproduce, at least to greater depths, the high temperatures measured in the geothermal wells, drilled inside the caldera, under the assumption of heat loss from a magma chamber by conduction. Since the main purpose is to verify the plausibility of such an assumption, rather simple models of the magmatic system are adopted and only major volcanic events (i.e., the Campanian Ignimbrite and the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff eruptions) are considered. The results of the simulated two-dimensional model scenarios show that by assuming an extended source region, whose emplacement time is longer than 40 ka, heat conduction mechanisms can provide temperatures as high as those measured at depths deeper than about 2000 m. On the other hand, the 1D simulations show that appropriate choices for the thermal conductivity depth profiles can reproduce the observed temperatures at depths deeper than about 1000 m. These findings question the apparent consensus that convection is the only dominant form of heat transfer at Phlegraean Fields and might motivate new research for reconstructing the thermal evolution of the Phlegraean magmatic system.
Heat transfer in a gray tube with forced convection, internal radiation and axial wall conduction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chung, B. T. F.; Thompson, J. E.
1983-01-01
A method of successive approximations is employed to solve the problem of heat transfer to a transparent gas flowing through a radiating-conducting tube with turbulent forced convection between the tube wall and the gas, and with energy generation in the wall. Emphasis is given to the effect of emissivity of the wall to the tube and gas temperature profiles.
Heat transfer and effective thermal conductivity analyses in carbon-based foams for use in thermal
Grujicic, Mica
.1243/146442005X34485 Abstract: The applicability of carbon-based foams as an insulation material in the thermal are very effective thermal insulators, but they suffer from a number of shortcomings, primarily (aHeat transfer and effective thermal conductivity analyses in carbon-based foams for use in thermal
TOPAZ - a finite element heat conduction code for analyzing 2-D solids
Shapiro, A.B.
1984-03-01
TOPAZ is a two-dimensional implicit finite element computer code for heat conduction analysis. This report provides a user's manual for TOPAZ and a description of the numerical algorithms used. Sample problems with analytical solutions are presented. TOPAZ has been implemented on the CRAY and VAX computers.
COYOTE: a finite-element computer program for nonlinear heat-conduction problems
Gartling, D.K.
1982-10-01
COYOTE is a finite element computer program designed for the solution of two-dimensional, nonlinear heat conduction problems. The theoretical and mathematical basis used to develop the code is described. Program capabilities and complete user instructions are presented. Several example problems are described in detail to demonstrate the use of the program.
An analytical solution to the one-dimensional heat conduction-convection equation in soil
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Heat transfer in soil occurs by conduction and convection. Infiltrating water affects soil temperature distributions, and measuring soil temperature distributions below infiltrating water can provide a signal for the flux of water. In earlier work a sine wave function (hereinafter referred to as the...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mendez, Sergio; AungYong, Lisa
2014-01-01
To help students make the connection between the concepts of heat conduction and convection to real-world phenomenon, we developed a combined experimental and computational module that can be incorporated into lecture or lab courses. The experimental system we present requires materials and apparatus that are readily accessible, and the procedure…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Tao
2015-09-01
We establish an initial-boundary value problem for the compressible magnetohydrodynamic equations in one space dimension with large initial data when the heat conductivity is some positive power of the temperature. We prove that as the shear viscosity vanishes, global weak solutions convergence to a solution of the original equations with zero shear viscosity.
Heat Flow, Thermal Conductivity, and the Plausibility of the White Mars Hypothesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Urquhart, M. L.; Gulick, V. C.
2002-01-01
Due to the low thermal conductivity of CO2 ice and clathrate vs. water ice, we find that liquid water reservoirs would not be confined to the deep subsurface as predicted by the controversial White Mars model, even assuming low global heat flow. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.
Miyagi, Lowell; Kanitpanyacharoen, Waruntorn; Kaercher, Pamela; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf; Alarcon, Eloisa Zepeda; Raju, Selva Vennila; Knight, Jason; MacDowell, Alastair; Williams, Quentin
2013-02-15
To extend the range of high-temperature, high-pressure studies within the diamond anvil cell, a Liermann-type diamond anvil cell with radial diffraction geometry (rDAC) was redesigned and developed for synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments at beamline 12.2.2 of the Advanced Light Source. The rDAC, equipped with graphite heating arrays, allows simultaneous resistive and laser heating while the material is subjected to high pressure. The goals are both to extend the temperature range of external (resistive) heating and to produce environments with lower temperature gradients in a simultaneously resistive- and laser-heated rDAC. Three different geomaterials were used as pilot samples to calibrate and optimize conditions for combined resistive and laser heating. For example, in Run1, FeO was loaded in a boron-mica gasket and compressed to 11 GPa then gradually resistively heated to 1007 K (1073 K at the diamond side). The laser heating was further applied to FeO to raise temperature to 2273 K. In Run2, Fe-Ni alloy was compressed to 18 GPa and resistively heated to 1785 K (1973 K at the diamond side). The combined resistive and laser heating was successfully performed again on (Mg{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 0.1})O in Run3. In this instance, the sample was loaded in a boron-kapton gasket, compressed to 29 GPa, resistive-heated up to 1007 K (1073 K at the diamond side), and further simultaneously laser-heated to achieve a temperature in excess of 2273 K at the sample position. Diffraction patterns obtained from the experiments were deconvoluted using the Rietveld method and quantified for lattice preferred orientation of each material under extreme conditions and during phase transformation.
Heat conduction in systems with Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser phase space structure
I. F. Herrera-González; H. I. Pérez-Aguilar; A. Mendoza-Suárez; E. S Tututi
2012-09-28
We study heat conduction in a billiard channel formed by two sinusoidal walls and the diffusion of particles in the corresponding channel of infinite length; the latter system has an infinite horizon, i.e., a particle can travel an arbitrary distance without colliding with the rippled walls. For small ripple amplitudes, the dynamics of the heat carriers is regular and analytical results for the temperature profile and heat flux are obtained using an effective potential. The study also proposes a formula for the temperature profile that is valid for any ripple amplitude. When the dynamics is regular, ballistic conductance and ballistic diffusion are present. The Poincar\\'e plots of the associated dynamical system (the infinitely long channel) exhibit the generic transition to chaos as ripple amplitude is increased.When no Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser (KAM) curves are present to forbid the connection of all chaotic regions, the mean square displacement grows asymptotically with time t as tln(t).
Soliton mechanism of the uranium nitride microdynamics and heat conductivity at high temperatures
Semenov, V. A.; Dubovsky, O. A. Orlov, A. V.
2011-12-15
The microdynamics of soliton waves and localized modes of nonlinear acoustic and optical oscillations in uranium nitride has been investigated. It is shown that, upon heating, the energies of solitons in the gap between the optical and acoustic phonon bands increase, while the energies of local modes decrease. The experimentally observed quasi-resonance features, which are shifted in the gap with a change in temperature, can be manifestations of the revealed soliton waves and local modes. The microdynamics of uranium nitride heat conductivity with the stochastic generation of the observed solitons and local modes at remote energy absorption have been investigated. The temperature dependence of the heat conductivity coefficient has been determined from the temperature gradient and energy flux within the standard approach (which is to be generalized).
The effect of discrete breathers on heat conduction in nonlinear chains
Daxing Xiong; Jiao Wang; Yong Zhang; Hong Zhao
2011-08-22
Intensive studies in the past decades have suggested that the heat conductivity $\\kappa$ diverges with the system size $L$ as $\\kappa\\sim L^{\\alpha}$ in one dimensional momentum conserving nonlinear lattices and the value of $\\alpha$ is universal. But in the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-$\\beta$ lattices with next-nearest-neighbor interactions we find that $\\alpha$ strongly depends on $\\gamma$, the ratio of the next-nearest-neighbor coupling to the nearest-neighbor coupling. We relate the $\\gamma$-dependent heat conduction to the interactions between the long-wavelength phonons and the randomly distributed discrete breathers. Our results provide an evidence to show that the nonlinear excitations affect the heat transport.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tamma, Kumar K.; Railkar, Sudhir B.
1988-01-01
The present paper describes the applicability of hybrid transfinite element modeling/analysis formulations for nonlinear heat conduction problems involving phase change. The methodology is based on application of transform approaches and classical Galerkin schemes with finite element formulations to maintain the modeling versatility and numerical features for computational analysis. In addition, in conjunction with the above, the effects due to latent heat are modeled using enthalpy formulations to enable a physically realistic approximation to be dealt computationally for materials exhibiting phase change within a narrow band of temperatures. Pertinent details of the approach and computational scheme adapted are described in technical detail. Numerical test cases of comparative nature are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed formulations for numerical modeling/analysis of nonlinear heat conduction problems involving phase change.
Remediation of NAPL below the water table by steam-induced heat conduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gudbjerg, J.; Sonnenborg, T. O.; Jensen, K. H.
2004-08-01
Previous experimental studies have shown that NAPL will be removed when it is contacted by steam. However, in full-scale operations, steam may not contact the NAPL directly and this is the situation addressed in this study. A two-dimensional intermediate scale sand box experiment was performed where an organic contaminant was emplaced below the water table at the interface between a coarse and a fine sand layer. Steam was injected above the water table and after an initial heating period the contaminant was recovered at the outlet. The experiment was successfully modeled using the numerical code T2VOC and the dominant removal mechanism was identified to be heat conduction induced boiling of the separate phase contaminant. Subsequent numerical modeling showed that this mechanism was insensitive to the porous medium properties and that it could be evaluated by considering only one-dimensional heat conduction.
Effect of heat treatment time on microstructure and electrical conductivity in LATP glass ceramics
Sonigra, Dhiren E-mail: ajit.kulkarni@iitb.ac.in; Soman, Swati E-mail: ajit.kulkarni@iitb.ac.in; Kulkarni, Ajit R. E-mail: ajit.kulkarni@iitb.ac.in
2014-04-24
Glass-ceramic is prepared by heat treatment of melt quenched 14Li{sub 2}O?9Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}?38TiO{sub 2}?39P{sub 2}O{sub 5} glass in the vicinity of crystallization temperature. Growth of ceramic phase is controlled by tuning heat treatment time at fixed temperature. Ceramic phase was identified to be LiTi{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} from X Ray Diffraction analysis. Microstructural evolution of this phase with hold time was observed under high resolution Scanning Electron Microscope. DC conductivity is observed to increase by 4-5 orders of magnitude in this glass-ceramic compared to parent glass. However, formation of pores and cracks with very large heat treatment time seem to hinder further increase of conductivity.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Han, J.-C.; Zhang, Y. M.
1992-01-01
The effect of uneven wall temperature on the local heat transfer coefficient in a rotating square channel with smooth walls and radial outward flow is investigated for Reynolds numbers from 2500 to 25,000 and rotation numbers from 0 to 0.352. Three cases of thermal boundary conditions are studied: (1) four walls uniform temperature, (2) four walls uniform heat flux, and (3) leading and trailing walls hot and two side walls cold. It is shown that the heat transfer coefficients on the leading surface are much lower than that of the trailing surface due to rotation. For case 1, the leading surface heat transfer coefficient decreases and then increases with increasing rotation numbers, and the trailing surface heat transfer coefficient increases monotonically with rotation numbers. The trailing surface heat transfer coefficients, as well as those for the side walls, for case 2 are higher than for case 1, and the leading surface heat transfer coefficients for cases 2 and 3 are significantly higher than for case 1.
A Review on the Finite Element Methods for Heat Conduction in Functionally Graded Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, R.; Jadon, V. K.; Singh, B.
2015-01-01
The review presented in this paper focuses mainly on the application of finite element methods for investigating the effect of heat transfer, variation of temperature and other parameters in the functionally graded materials. Different methods have been investigated for thermal conduction in functionally graded materials. The use of FEM for steady state heat transfer has been addressed in this work. The authors have also discussed the utilization of FEM based shear deformation theories and FEM in combination with other methods for the problems involving complexity of the shape and geometry of functionally graded materials. Finite element methods proved to be effective for the solution of heat transfer problem in functionally graded materials. These methods can be used for steady state heat transfer and as well as for transient state.
Armstrong, Jeff; Bresme, Fernando
2014-06-28
The coupling of mass and heat fluxes is responsible for the Soret effect in fluid mixtures containing particles of dissimilar mass and/or size. We investigate using equilibrium and non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations the relevance of these coupling effects in determining the thermal transport in fluids consisting of binary mixtures where the individual components feature significant mass, 1?:?8, or size, 1?:?3, asymmetries. We quantify the thermal transport by using both boundary driven molecular dynamics simulations (NEMD) and the equilibrium Green-Kubo (GK) approach and investigate the impact of different heat flux definitions, relevant in kinetic theory and experiments, in the quantification of the thermal conductivity. We find that the thermal conductivities obtained from the different definitions agree within numerical accuracy, suggesting that the Soret coefficient does not lead to significant changes in the thermal conduction, even for the large asymmetries considered here, which lead to significant Soret coefficients (?10(-2) K(-1)). The asymmetry in size and mass introduces large differences in the specific enthalpy of the individual components that must be carefully considered to compute accurate thermal conductivities using the GK approach. Neglecting the enthalpic contributions, results in large overestimations of the thermal conductivity, typically between 20% and 50%. Further, we quantify the time dependent behavior of the internal energy and mass flux correlation functions and propose a microscopic mechanism for the heat transport in these asymmetric mixtures. PMID:24818599
Heat conduction in double-walled carbon nanotubes with intertube additional carbon atoms.
Cui, Liu; Feng, Yanhui; Tan, Peng; Zhang, Xinxin
2015-07-01
Heat conduction of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) with intertube additional carbon atoms was investigated for the first time using a molecular dynamics method. By analyzing the phonon vibrational density of states (VDOS), we revealed that the intertube additional atoms weak the heat conduction along the tube axis. Moreover, the phonon participation ratio (PR) demonstrates that the heat transfer in DWCNTs is dominated by low frequency modes. The added atoms cause the mode weight factor (MWF) of the outer tube to decrease and that of the inner tube to increase, which implies a lower thermal conductivity. The effects of temperature, tube length, and the number and distribution of added atoms were studied. Furthermore, an orthogonal array testing strategy was designed to identify the most important structural factor. It is indicated that the tendencies of thermal conductivity of DWCNTs with added atoms change with temperature and length are similar to bare ones. In addition, thermal conductivity decreases with the increasing number of added atoms, more evidently for atom addition concentrated at some cross-sections rather than uniform addition along the tube length. Simultaneously, the number of added atoms at each cross-section has a considerably more remarkable impact, compared to the tube length and the density of chosen cross-sections to add atoms. PMID:26051798
Experimental and Theoretical Study of Heat Conduction for Air up to 5000 K
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peng, Tzy-Cheng; Ahtye, Warren F.
1961-01-01
The theoretical value of the integral of thermal conductivity is compared with the experimental values from shock-tube measurements. The particular case considered is the one-dimensional nonsteady flow of heat through air at constant pressure. This approach has been previously described in NASA TR R-27. experiment was uncertain because of the large scatter in the experimental data. In this paper, an attempt is made to improve the correlation by use of a more refined calculation of the integral of thermal conductivity, and by use of improved experimental techniques and instrumentation. As a result of these changes, a much closer correlation is shown between the experimental and theoretical heat-flux potentials. This indicates that the predicted values of the coefficient of thermal conductivity for high-temperature air may be suitably accurate for many engineering needs, up to the limits of the test (4600 K).
Fourier heat conduction as a phenomenon described within the scope of the second law
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jesudason, Christopher G.
2014-12-01
The historical development of the Carnot cycle necessitated the construction of isothermal and adiabatic pathways within the cycle that were also mechanically "reversible" which lead eventually to the Kelvin-Clausius development of the entropy function S where for any reversible closed path C, ?C dS = 0 based on an infinite number of concatenated Carnot engines that approximated the said path and where for each engine ?Q1/T1+?Q2/T2 = 0 where the Q's and T's are the heat absorption increments and temperature respectively with the subscripts indicating the isothermal paths (1;2) where for the Carnot engine, the heat absorption is for the diathermal (isothermal) paths of the cycle only. Since 'heat' has been defined as that form of energy that is transferred as a result of a temperature difference and a corollary of the Clausius statement of the Second law is that it is impossible for heat to be transferred from a cold to a hot reservoir with no other effect on the environment, these statements suggested that the local mode of transfer of 'heat' in the isothermal segments of the pathway does imply a Fourier heat conduction mechanism (to conform to the definition of 'heat') albeit of a "reversible" kind, but on the other hand, the Fourier mechanism is apparently irreversible, leading to an increase in entropy of the combined reservoirs at either end of the material involved in the conveyance of the heat energy. These and several other considerations lead Benofy and Quay (BQ) to postulate the Fourier heat conduction phenomenon to be an ancillary principle in thermodynamics, with this principle being strictly local in nature, where the global Second law statements could not be applied to this local process. Here we present equations that model heat conduction as a thermodynamically reversible but mechanically irreversible process where due to the belief in mechanical time reversible symmetry, thermodynamical reversibility has been unfortunately linked to mechanical reversibility, that has discouraged such an association. The modeling is based on an application of a "recoverable transition", defined and developed earlier on ideas derived from thermal desorption of particles from a surface where the Fourier heat conduction process is approximated as a series of such desorption processes. We recall that the original Carnot engine required both adiabatic and isothermal steps to complete the zero entropy cycle, and this construct lead to the consequent deduction that any Second law statement that refers to heat-work conversion processes are only globally relevant. Here, on the other hand, we examine Fourier heat conduction from MD simulation and model this process as a zero-entropy forward scattering process relative to each of the atoms in the lattice chain being treated as a system where the Carnot cycle can be applied individually. The equations developed predicts the "work" done to be equal to the energy transfer rate. The MD simulations conducted shows excellent agreement with the theory. Such views and results as these, if developed to a successful conclusion could imply that the Carnot cycle be viewed as describing a local process of energy-work conversion and that irreversible local processes might be brought within the scope of this cycle, implying a unified treatment of thermodynamically (i) irreversible, (ii) reversible, (iii) isothermal and (iv) adiabatic processes.
Fourier heat conduction as a phenomenon described within the scope of the second law
Jesudason, Christopher G.
2014-12-10
The historical development of the Carnot cycle necessitated the construction of isothermal and adiabatic pathways within the cycle that were also mechanically 'reversible' which lead eventually to the Kelvin-Clausius development of the entropy function S where for any reversible closed path C, ?{sub C} dS = 0 based on an infinite number of concatenated Carnot engines that approximated the said path and where for each engine ?Q{sub 1}/T{sub 1}+?Q{sub 2}/T{sub 2}?=?0 where the Q's and T's are the heat absorption increments and temperature respectively with the subscripts indicating the isothermal paths (1;2) where for the Carnot engine, the heat absorption is for the diathermal (isothermal) paths of the cycle only. Since 'heat' has been defined as that form of energy that is transferred as a result of a temperature difference and a corollary of the Clausius statement of the Second law is that it is impossible for heat to be transferred from a cold to a hot reservoir with no other effect on the environment, these statements suggested that the local mode of transfer of 'heat' in the isothermal segments of the pathway does imply a Fourier heat conduction mechanism (to conform to the definition of 'heat') albeit of a 'reversible' kind, but on the other hand, the Fourier mechanism is apparently irreversible, leading to an increase in entropy of the combined reservoirs at either end of the material involved in the conveyance of the heat energy. These and several other considerations lead Benofy and Quay (BQ) to postulate the Fourier heat conduction phenomenon to be an ancillary principle in thermodynamics, with this principle being strictly local in nature, where the global Second law statements could not be applied to this local process. Here we present equations that model heat conduction as a thermodynamically reversible but mechanically irreversible process where due to the belief in mechanical time reversible symmetry, thermodynamical reversibility has been unfortunately linked to mechanical reversibility, that has discouraged such an association. The modeling is based on an application of a 'recoverable transition', defined and developed earlier on ideas derived from thermal desorption of particles from a surface where the Fourier heat conduction process is approximated as a series of such desorption processes. We recall that the original Carnot engine required both adiabatic and isothermal steps to complete the zero entropy cycle, and this construct lead to the consequent deduction that any Second law statement that refers to heat-work conversion processes are only globally relevant. Here, on the other hand, we examine Fourier heat conduction from MD simulation and model this process as a zero-entropy forward scattering process relative to each of the atoms in the lattice chain being treated as a system where the Carnot cycle can be applied individually. The equations developed predicts the 'work' done to be equal to the energy transfer rate. The MD simulations conducted shows excellent agreement with the theory. Such views and results as these, if developed to a successful conclusion could imply that the Carnot cycle be viewed as describing a local process of energy-work conversion and that irreversible local processes might be brought within the scope of this cycle, implying a unified treatment of thermodynamically (i) irreversible, (ii) reversible, (iii) isothermal and (iv) adiabatic processes.
Evaluation of heat transfer in acupuncture needles: convection and conduction approaches.
Tzou, Chieh-Han John; Yang, Tzyy-Yih; Chung, Ya-Chien
2015-04-01
Originating in ancient China, acupuncture using needles has been developed for thousands of years and has received attention for its reported medical remedies, such as pain relief and chronic disease treatment. Heat transfer through the needles, which might have effects on the biomechanism of acupuncture, providing a stimulus and regulating homeostasis, has never been studied. This article analyzes the significance of heat transfer through needles via convection and conduction, approached by means of computational analysis. The needle is a cylindrical body, and an axis symmetrical steady-state heat-transfer model that viscosity and static pressure was not applied. This article evaluates heat transfer via acupuncture needles by using five metal materials: silver, copper, brass, iron, and stainless steel. A silver needle of the type extensively applied in acupuncture can dissipate more than seven times as much heat as a stainless steel needle of the same type. Heat transfer through such a needle is significant, compared to natural body-energy consumption over a range of ambient temperatures. The mechanism by which heat flows in or out of the body through the needles may be crucial in the remedial efficacy of acupuncture. PMID:25952124
High performance heat curing copper-silver powders filled electrically conductive adhesives
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cui, Hui-Wang; Jiu, Jin-Ting; Sugahara, Tohru; Nagao, Shijo; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Uchida, Hiroshi
2015-03-01
In this study, high performance electrically conductive adhesives were fabricated from a vinyl ester resin, a thermal initiator, silver coated copper powders, and pure silver powders, without using any other coupling agent, dispersing agent, and reducing agent. The heat cured copper-silver powders filled electrically conductive adhesives presented low bulk resistivity (e.g., 4.53 × 10-5 ?·cm) due to the silver powders that had given high electrical conductivity to the adhesives, and high shear strength (e.g., 16.22 MPa) provided by the crosslinked structures of vinyl ester resin. These high performance copper-silver powders filled electrically conductive adhesives have lower cost than those filled by pure silver powders, which can be well used in the electronic packaging and can enlarge the application prospects of electrically conductive adhesives. [Figure not available: see fulltext.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parker, Hermon M
1953-01-01
An analysis is made of the transient heat-conduction effects in three simple semi-infinite bodies: the flat insulated plate, the conical shell, and the slender solid cone. The bodies are assumed to have constant initial temperatures and, at zero time, to begin to move at a constant speed and zero angle of attack through a homogeneous atmosphere. The heat input is taken as that through a laminar boundary layer. Radiation heat transfer and transverse temperature gradients are assumed to be zero. The appropriate heat-conduction equations are solved by an iteration method, the zeroeth-order terms describing the situation in the limit of small time. The method is presented and the solutions are calculated to three orders which are sufficient to give reasonably accurate results when the forward edge has attained one-half the total temperature rise (nose half-rise time). Flight Mach number and air properties occur as parameters in the result. Approximate expressions for the extent of the conduction region and nose half-rise times as functions of the parameters of the problem are presented. (author)
Heat Conduction Analysis in a Tissue Phantom Calculated by FDTD and HCE Method
Endoh, Nobuyuki; Tsuchiya, Takenobu; Saito, Yoshikazu; Ishizeki, Takahiro
2005-03-28
In order to study hyperthermia in tissue, it is important to predict accurately the heat distribution. This paper describes a preliminary study of the comparison between simulation and experiment for heat conduction in a simple tissue phantom. Since it is well known that the heat increase in tissue depends on the sound intensity and the absorption coefficient, the sound pressure distribution is calculated using a Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. The thermal diffusion profile in tissue generated by the energy of the sound pulse is also simulated using the Heat Conduction Equation (HCE) method. The calculation area is 100 x 40 [mm]. The simple tissue phantom is made of agar, water and graphite. The phantom whose attenuation coefficient is 1.1 dB/cm/MHz is placed in a temperature controlled water bath. This is kept at 37 deg. [C] while sound pulses of 1 MHz are emitted over 10 minutes. Temperatures at six points on the acoustic axis are measured in the phantom. The calculation and experiment results are compared to confirm the accuracy of the proposed method. As a result, the calculation results show the validity of the combined FDTD-HCE method for thermal conduction analysis.
Variation of thermal conductivity and heat flux at the Earth's core mantle boundary
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ammann, Michael W.; Walker, Andrew M.; Stackhouse, Stephen; Wookey, James; Forte, Alessandro M.; Brodholt, John P.; Dobson, David P.
2014-03-01
The two convective systems that dominate Earth's internal dynamics meet at the boundary between the rocky mantle and metallic liquid core. Energy transfer between processes driving plate tectonics and the geodynamo is controlled by thermal conduction in the lowermost mantle (D?). We use atomic scale simulations to determine the thermal conductivity of MgSiO3 perovskite and post-perovskite under D? conditions and probe how these two convective systems interact. We show that the thermal conductivity of post-perovskite (?12 W/mK) is 50% larger than that of perovskite under the same conditions (?8.5 W/mK) and is anisotropic, with conductivity along the a-axis being 40% higher than conductivity along the c-axis. This enhances the high heat flux into cold regions of D? where post-perovskite is stable, strengthening the feedback between convection in the core and mantle. Reminiscent of the situation in the lithosphere, there is potential for deformation induced texturing associated with mantle convection to modify how the mantle is heated from below. We test this by coupling our atomic scale results to models of texture in D? and suggest that anisotropic thermal conductivity may help to stabilise the roots of mantle plumes over their protracted lifetime.
Ritchie, R.H.; Sakakura, A.Y.
1956-01-01
The formal solutions of problems involving transient heat conduction in infinite internally bounded cylindrical solids may be obtained by the Laplace transform method. Asymptotic series representing the solutions for large values of time are given in terms of functions related to the derivatives of the reciprocal gamma function. The results are applied to the case of the internally bounded infinite cylindrical medium with, (a) the boundary held at constant temperature; (b) with constant heat flow over the boundary; and (c) with the "radiation" boundary condition. A problem in the flow of gas through a porous medium is considered in detail.
Nonequilibrium Temperature and Thermometry in Heat-Conducting Phi-4 Models
Wm. G. Hoover; Carol G. Hoover
2008-02-23
We analyze temperature and thermometry for simple nonequilibrium heat-conducting models. We show in detail, for both two- and three-dimensional systems, that the ideal gas thermometer corresponds to the concept of a local instantaneous mechanical kinetic temperature. For the Phi-4 models investigated here the mechanical temperature closely approximates the local thermodynamic equilibrium temperature. There is a significant difference between kinetic temperature and the nonlocal configurational temperature. Neither obeys the predictions of extended irreversible thermodynamics. Overall, we find that kinetic temperature, as modeled and imposed by the Nos\\'e-Hoover thermostats developed in 1984, provides the simplest means for simulating, analyzing, and understanding nonequilibrium heat flows.
Thermal conductance of and heat generation in tire-pavement interface and effect on aircraft braking
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, C. D.
1976-01-01
A finite-difference analysis was performed on temperature records obtained from a free rolling automotive tire and from pavement surface. A high thermal contact conductance between tire and asphalt was found on a statistical basis. Average slip due to squirming between tire and asphalt was about 1.5 mm. Consequent friction heat was estimated as 64 percent of total power absorbed by bias-ply, belted tire. Extrapolation of results to aircraft tire indicates potential braking improvement by even moderate increase of heat absorbing capacity of runway surface.
Innovative hybrid heat sink materials with high thermal conductivities and tailored CTE
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kitzmantel, M.; Neubauer, E.
2015-02-01
This paper talks about high performance heat sinks and heat spreaders made by hybrid structures based on metaldiamond composites. Thermal conductivities can be tuned between 450 and 650 W/mK while maintaining customizable thermal expansion of 6-10 ppm/K (@30°C). Using different hybrid structures in combination with the metal-diamond core significant changes in thermal properties can be identified. Applications targeted are LED, disc laser and laser diode heatsinks with these high performance inserts without the need of CTE matched submounts.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Zhuojian; Johnson, Donald R.
1998-12-01
Utilizing Eliassen's concepts, the forcing of the isentropic azimuthally-averaged mass-weighted radial-vertical circulation by diabatic heating and torques within an extratropical cyclone and a typhoon was studied through numerical simulations based on the linear diagnostic equation derived previously. The structure of the forcing associated with diabatic heating and torques was determined from quasi-Lagrangian diagnostic analyses of actual case studies. The two cyclones studied were the Ohio extratropical cyclone of 25-27 January 1978 and typhoon Nancy of 18-23 September 1979. The Ohio cyclone, which formed over the Gulf Coast and moved through Ohio and eastern Michigan, was one of the most intense storms with blizzard conditions to ever occur in this region. Typhoon Nancy which occurred over the South China Sea during the FGGE year was selected since relatively high quality assimilated data were available. Within the Ohio cyclone, the dominant internal processes forcing the mean circulation with embedded relatively strong hydrodynamic stability were the pressure torque associated with baroclinic (asymmetric) structure and the horizontal eddy angular momentum transport associated with the typical S-shaped thermal and wind structures of self-development. Within typhoon Nancy, the dominant internal process forcing the mean circulation with embedded weak hydrodynamic stability was the latent heat release. This analysis shows that the simulated azimuthally-averaged mass-weighted radial motions within these two cyclones agree quite well with the “ observed? azimuthally-averaged mass-weighted radial motions. This isentropic numerical study also provides insight into the relatively important internal forcing processes and the trade off between forcing and stability within both extratropical and tropical cyclones.
Coupled Ablation, Heat Conduction, Pyrolysis, Shape Change and Spallation of the Galileo Probe
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Milos, Frank S.; Chen, Y.-K.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)
1995-01-01
The Galileo probe enters the atmosphere of Jupiter in December 1995. This paper presents numerical methodology and detailed results of our final pre-impact calculations for the heat shield response. The calculations are performed using a highly modified version of a viscous shock layer code with massive radiation coupled with a surface thermochemical ablation and spallation model and with the transient in-depth thermal response of the charring and ablating heat shield. The flowfield is quasi-steady along the trajectory, but the heat shield thermal response is dynamic. Each surface node of the VSL grid is coupled with a one-dimensional thermal response calculation. The thermal solver includes heat conduction, pyrolysis, and grid movement owing to surface recession. Initial conditions for the heat shield temperature and density were obtained from the high altitude rarefied-flow calculations of Haas and Milos. Galileo probe surface temperature, shape, mass flux, and element flux are all determined as functions of time along the trajectory with spallation varied parametrically. The calculations also estimate the in-depth density and temperature profiles for the heat shield. All this information is required to determine the time-dependent vehicle mass and drag coefficient which are necessary inputs for the atmospheric reconstruction experiment on board the probe.
Lateral conduction effects on heat-transfer data obtained with the phase-change paint technique
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maise, G.; Rossi, M. J.
1974-01-01
A computerized tool, CAPE, (Conduction Analysis Program using Eigenvalues) has been developed to account for lateral heat conduction in wind tunnel models in the data reduction of the phase-change paint technique. The tool also accounts for the effects of finite thickness (thin wings) and surface curvature. A special reduction procedure using just one time of melt is also possible on leading edges. A novel iterative numerical scheme was used, with discretized spatial coordinates but analytic integration in time, to solve the inverse conduction problem involved in the data reduction. A yes-no chart is provided which tells the test engineer when various corrections are large enough so that CAPE should be used. The accuracy of the phase-change paint technique in the presence of finite thickness and lateral conduction is also investigated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Esmaili Sikarudi, M. A.; Nikseresht, A. H.
2016-01-01
Smoothed particle hydrodynamics is a robust Lagrangian particle method which is widely used in various applications, from astrophysics to hydrodynamics and heat conduction. It has intrinsic capabilities for simulating large deformation, composites, multiphysics events, and multiphase fluid flows. It is vital to use reliable boundary conditions when boundary value problems like heat conduction or Poisson equation for incompressible flows are solved. Since smoothed particle hydrodynamics is not a boundary fitted grids method, implementation of boundary conditions can be problematic. Many methods have been proposed for enhancing the accuracy of implementation of boundary conditions. In the present study a new approach for facilitating the implementation of Robin and Neumann boundary conditions is proposed and proven to give accurate results. Also there is no need to use complicated preprocessing as in virtual particle method. The new method is compared to an equivalent one dimensional moving least square scheme and it is shown that the present method is less sensitive to particle disorder.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Winget, J. M.; Hughes, T. J. R.
1985-01-01
The particular problems investigated in the present study arise from nonlinear transient heat conduction. One of two types of nonlinearities considered is related to a material temperature dependence which is frequently needed to accurately model behavior over the range of temperature of engineering interest. The second nonlinearity is introduced by radiation boundary conditions. The finite element equations arising from the solution of nonlinear transient heat conduction problems are formulated. The finite element matrix equations are temporally discretized, and a nonlinear iterative solution algorithm is proposed. Algorithms for solving the linear problem are discussed, taking into account the form of the matrix equations, Gaussian elimination, cost, and iterative techniques. Attention is also given to approximate factorization, implementational aspects, and numerical results.
Mass-lumping numerical models of three-dimensional heat conduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hromadka, T. V., II; Guymon, G. L.
1983-09-01
A variable mass-lumping numerical model (nodal domain integration) of three-dimensional heat conduction in an inhomogeneous continuum is developed. The domain is discretized by tetrahedron-shaped elements and the state variable is approximated by linear trial functions. The resulting model represents the Galerkin finite-element, subdomain intergration, and integrated finite-difference methods as special cases and accommodates both Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions similar to a Galerkin finite-element model. Consequently, a unified domain numerical model is developed that readily represents each of the abovementioned domain numerical methods and an infnity of finite-element mass-lumping schemes by the specification of a single constant model parameter. Application of the nodal domain integration model to linear heat conduction problems indicates that the degree of model mass lumping must vary to minimize the approximation error.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murio, Diego A.
1991-01-01
An explicit and unconditionally stable finite difference method for the solution of the transient inverse heat conduction problem in a semi-infinite or finite slab mediums subject to nonlinear radiation boundary conditions is presented. After measuring two interior temperature histories, the mollification method is used to determine the surface transient heat source if the energy radiation law is known. Alternatively, if the active surface is heated by a source at a rate proportional to a given function, the nonlinear surface radiation law is then recovered as a function of the interface temperature when the problem is feasible. Two typical examples corresponding to Newton cooling law and Stefan-Boltzmann radiation law respectively are illustrated. In all cases, the method predicts the surface conditions with an accuracy suitable for many practical purposes.
Hamiltonian Dynamics of Thermostated Systems: Two-Temperature Heat-Conducting phi-4 Chains
Wm G Hoover; Carol G Hoover
2007-01-20
We consider and compare four Hamiltonian formulations of thermostated mechanics, three of them kinetic, and the other one configurational. Though all four approaches ``work'' at equilibrium, their application to many-body nonequilibrium simulations can fail to provide a proper flow of heat. All the Hamiltonian formulations considered here are applied to the same prototypical two-temperature "phi-4" model of a heat-conducting chain. This model incorporates nearest-neighbor Hooke's-Law interactions plus a quartic tethering potential. Physically correct results, obtained with the isokinetic Gaussian and Nose-Hoover thermostats, are compared with two other Hamiltonian results. The latter results, based on constrained Hamiltonian thermostats, fail correctly to model the flow of heat.
An inverse problem for a heat equation with piecewise-constant thermal conductivity
is as follows. IP: Given f t and g t for all t 0 , find a x . Assumption A: a x is a piecewise-constant function for the IP was proved in Ref. 4 and an algorithm for finding a x was proposed. The stability conductivity, a 1 u 1,t is the heat flux, g t is the measurement, the extra data. The inverse problem IP
Time decay rates for the equations of the compressible heat-conductive flow through porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Qing; Tan, Zhong; Wu, Guochun
2015-11-01
We consider the time decay rates of smooth solutions to the Cauchy problem for the equations of the compressible heat-conductive flow through porous media. We prove the global existence and uniqueness of the solutions by the standard energy method. Moreover, we establish the optimal decay rates of the solution as well as its higher-order spatial derivatives. And the damping effect on the time decay rates of the solution is studied in detail.
On heat conduction in multicomponent, non-Maxwellian spherically symmetric solar wind plasmas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cuperman, S.; Dryer, M.
1985-01-01
A generalized expression for the steady-state heat flux in multicomponent, moderately non-Maxwellian spherically symmetric plasmas is presented and discussed. The work was motivated by the inability of the simple, Fourier-type formula for the thermal conductivity to explain the observed correlations in the solar wind. The results hold for situations not far from local thermodynamic equilibrium. The generalized expression includes not only correlations that have been observed but also correlations not sought for previously.
A blow-up criterion for compressible viscous heat-conductive flows
Song Jiang; Yaobin Ou
2010-06-12
We study an initial boundary value problem for the Navier-Stokes equations of compressible viscous heat-conductive fluids in a 2-D periodic domain or the unit square domain. We establish a blow-up criterion for the local strong solutions in terms of the gradient of the velocity only, which coincides with the famous Beale-Kato-Majda criterion for ideal incompressible flows.
The initial value problem for motion of micropolar fluids with heat conduction in Banach spaces
Ryôhei Kakizawa
2010-06-04
We consider the abstract initial value problem for the system of evolution equations which describe motion of micropolar fluids with heat conduction in a bounded domain. This problem has uniquely a mild solution locally in time for general initial data, and globally in time for small initial data. Moreover, a mild solution of this problem can be a strong or classical solution under appropriate assumptions for initial data. We prove the above properties by the theory of analytic semigroups on Banach spaces.
Tree-Shaped Fluid Flow and Heat Storage in a Conducting Solid
Combelles, L.; Lorente, S.; Anderson, R.; Bejan, A.
2012-01-01
This paper documents the time-dependent thermal interaction between a fluid stream configured as a plane tree of varying complexity embedded in a conducting solid with finite volume and insulated boundaries. The time scales of the convection-conduction phenomenon are identified. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional configurations are simulated numerically. The number of length scales of the tree architecture varies from one to four. The results show that the heat transfer density increases, and the time of approach to equilibrium decreases as the complexity of the tree designs increases. These results are then formulated in the classical notation of energy storage by sensible heating, which shows that the effective number of heat transfer units increases as the complexity of the tree design increases. The complexity of heat transfer designs in many applications is constrained by first cost and operating cost considerations. This work provides a fundamental basis for objective evaluation of cost and performance tradeoffs in thermal design of energy systems with complexity as an unconstrained parameter that can be actively varied over a broad range to determine the optimum system design.
Accuracy of lumped-parameter representations for heat conduction modeling in multilayer slabs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gori, Paola; Guattari, Claudia; de Lieto Vollaro, Roberto; Evangelisti, Luca
2015-11-01
Heat conduction in homogeneous solids can be studied by resorting to one-dimensional schemes, as is often done, e.g., for building construction elements. In such situations, a simple model often employed makes use of an electrical analogy between temperature and heat flux, on one side, and voltage and electrical current on the other side. Within this framework, a few lumped-parameter representations have been described in literature to describe the thermal behavior of a single homogeneous slab or of multilayer slabs. Such models have the advantage of providing some physical insight into the phenomenon of one-dimensional heat conduction, by conveying the concepts of thermal resistance and thermal capacitance, the latter related to heat storage ability. There is, however, a certain degree of approximation in such models. The simplifying assumptions and approximations underlying these approaches will be reviewed and discussed in this contribution. The accuracy of some lumped-parameter model will be analyzed in order to show under which circumstances the approximate solutions can be satisfactorily employed. In particular, the focus will be on the comparison of the predictions that approximate and accurate methods provide when studying the influence of layer order and distribution on the thermal performance of multilayer structures.
Mixed Convection with Conduction and Surface Radiation from a Vertical Channel with Discrete Heating
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Londhe, S. D.; Rao, C. G.
2013-10-01
A numerical investigation into fluid flow and heat transfer for the geometry of a vertical parallel plate channel subjected to conjugate mixed convection with radiation is attempted here. The channel considered has three identical flush-mounted discrete heat sources in its left wall, while the right wall that does not contain any heat source acts as a sink. Air, assumed to be a radiatively non-participating and having constant thermophysical properties subject to the Boussinesq approximation, is the cooling agent. The heat generated in the left wall gets conducted along it and is later dissipated by mixed convection and radiation. The governing equations, considered in their full strength sans the boundary layer approximations, are converted into vorticity-stream function form and are then normalized. These equations along with pertinent boundary conditions are solved through finite volume method coupled with Gauss-Seidel iterative technique. The effects of modified Richardson number, surface emissivity, thermal conductivity and aspect ratio on local temperature distribution along the channel, maximum channel temperature and relative contributions of mixed convection and radiation have been thoroughly studied. The prominence of radiation in the present problem has been highlighted.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2005-01-01
[figure removed for brevity, see original site]
The ejecta surrounding the crater (off image to the left) in this image has undergone significant erosion by the wind. The wind has stripped the surface features from the ejecta and has started to winnow away the ejecta blanket. Near the margin of the ejecta the wind is eroding along a radial pattern -- taking advantage of radial emplacement. Note the steep margin of the ejecta blanket. Most, if not all, of the fine ejecta material has been removed and the wind in now working on the more massive continuous ejecta blanket.
Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 12.5, Longitude 197.4 East (162.6 West). 37 meter/pixel resolution.
Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.
NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.
Xu, Zhijie
2012-07-01
We introduce a method of solution for the convective heat transfer under forced laminar flow that is confined by two parallel plates with a distance of 2a or by a circular tube with a radius of a. The advection-conduction equation is first mapped onto the boundary. The original problem of solving the unknown field is reduced to seek the solutions of T at the boundary (r=a or r=0, r is the distance from the centerline shown in Fig. 1), i.e. the boundary functions and/or . In this manner, the original problem is significantly simplified by reducing the problem dimensionality from 3 to 2. The unknown field can be eventually solved in terms of these boundary functions. The method is applied to the convective heat transfer with uniform wall temperature boundary condition and with heat exchange between flowing fluids and its surroundings that is relevant to the geothermal applications. Analytical solutions are presented and validated for the steady state problem using the proposed method.
Zhijie Xu
2012-07-01
We introduce a new method of solution for the convective heat transfer under forced laminar flow that is confined by two parallel plates with a distance of 2a or by a circular tube with a radius of a. The advection-conduction equation is first mapped onto the boundary. The original problem of solving the unknown field T(x,r,t) is reduced to seek the solutions of T at the boundary (r = a or r = 0, r is the distance from the centerline shown in Fig. 1), i.e., the boundary functions T{sub a}(x,t) {triple_bond} T(x,r=a,t) and/or T{sub 0}(x,t) {triple_bond} T(x,r=0,t). In this manner, the original problem is significantly simplified by reducing the problem dimensionality from 3 to 2. The unknown field T(x,r,t) can be eventually solved in terms of these boundary functions. The method is applied to the convective heat transfer with uniform wall temperature boundary condition and with heat exchange between flowing fluids and its surroundings that is relevant to the geothermal applications. Analytical solutions are presented and validated for the steady-state problem using the proposed method.
Conditions for Aeronomic Applicability of the Classical Electron Heat Conduction Formula
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cole, K. D.; Hoegy, W. R.
1998-01-01
Conditions for the applicability of the classical formula for heat conduction in the electrons in ionized gas are investigated. In a fully ionised gas ( V(sub en) much greater than V(sub ei)), when the mean free path for electron-electron (or electron-ion) collisions is much larger than the characteristic thermal scale length of the observed system, the conditions for applicability break down. In the case of the Venus ionosphere this breakdown is indicated for a large fraction of the electron temperature data from altitudes greater than 180 km, for electron densities less than 10(exp 4)/cc cm. In a partially ionised gas such that V(sub en) much greater than V(sub ei) there is breakdown of the formula not only when the mean free path of electrons greatly exceeds the thermal scale length, but also when the gradient of neutral particle density exceeds the electron thermal gradient. It is shown that electron heat conduction may be neglected in estimating the temperature of joule heated electrons by observed strong 100 Hz electric fields when the conduction flux is limited by the saturation flux. The results of this paper support our earlier aeronomical arguments against the hypothesis of planetary scale whistlers for the 100 Hz electric field signal. In turn this means that data from the 100 Hz signal may not be used to support the case for lightning on Venus.
A direct approach to finding unknown boundary conditions in steady heat conduction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Martin, Thomas J.; Dulikravich, George S.
1993-01-01
The capability of the boundary element method (BEM) in determining thermal boundary conditions on surfaces of a conducting solid where such quantities are unknown was demonstrated. The method uses a non-iterative direct approach in solving what is usually called the inverse heat conduction problem (IHCP). Given any over-specified thermal boundary conditions such as a combination of temperature and heat flux on a surface where such data is readily available, the algorithm computes the temperature field within the object and any unknown thermal boundary conditions on surfaces where thermal boundary values are unavailable. A two-dimensional, steady-state BEM program was developed and was tested on several simple geometries where the analytic solution was known. Results obtained with the BEM were in excellent agreement with the analytic values. The algorithm is highly flexible in treating complex geometries, mixed thermal boundary conditions, and temperature-dependent material properties and is presently being extended to three-dimensional and unsteady heat conduction problems. The accuracy and reliability of this technique was very good but tended to deteriorate when the known surface conditions were only slightly over-specified and far from the inaccessible surface.
Li, Baowen
a device that can conduct heat in only one direction. The directional thermal effect was first ob- servedWhen it comes to transporting energy, nature has two vital tools at its disposal: conduction by heat and by electricity. But these two phenomena have never been treated equally by scientists
Review and comparison of nanofluid thermal conductivity and heat transfer enhancements.
Yu, W.; France, D. M.; Routbort, J. L.; Choi, S. U.S.; Energy Systems; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago; Korea Inst. of Energy Research
2008-05-01
This study provides a detailed literature review and an assessment of results of the research and development work forming the current status of nanofluid technology for heat transfer applications. Nanofluid technology is a relatively new field, and as such, the supporting studies are not extensive. Specifically, experimental results were reviewed in this study regarding the enhancement of the thermal conductivity and convective heat transfer of nanofluids relative to conventional heat transfer fluids, and assessments were made as to the state-of-the-art of verified parametric trends and magnitudes. Pertinent parameters of particle volume concentration, particle material, particle size, particle shape, base fluid material, temperature, additive, and acidity were considered individually, and experimental results from multiple research groups were used together when assessing results. To this end, published research results from many studies were recast using a common parameter to facilitate comparisons of data among research groups and to identify thermal property and heat transfer trends. The current state of knowledge is presented as well as areas where the data are presently inconclusive or conflicting. Heat transfer enhancement for available nanofluids is shown to be in the 15-40% range, with a few situations resulting in orders of magnitude enhancement.
Single-side conduction modeling for high heat flux coolant channels
Boyd, R.D. Sr.
1999-01-01
In the development of plasma-facing components (PFCs), most investigators have erroneously postulated negligible water critical heat flux dependence on the coolant channel length-to-diameter (L/D) ratio above a constant value of L/D. Although encouraging results have been obtained in characterizing peaking factors for local two-dimensional boiling curves and critical heat flux, additional experimental data and theoretical model development are needed to validate the applicability to PFCs. Both these and related issues will affect the flow boiling correlation and data reduction associated with the development of PFCs for fusion reactors and other physical problems that are dependent on conduction modeling in the heat flux spectrum of applications. Both exact solutions and numerical conjugate analyses are presented for a one-side heated (OSH) geometry. The results show (a) the coexistence of three flow regimes inside an OSH circular geometry, (b) the correlational dependence of the inside wall heat flux and temperature, and (c) inaccuracies that could arise in some data reduction procedures.
Entropy and Nonlinear Nonequilibrium Thermodynamic Relation for Heat Conducting Steady States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Komatsu, Teruhisa S.; Nakagawa, Naoko; Sasa, Shin-Ichi; Tasaki, Hal
2011-01-01
Among various possible routes to extend entropy and thermodynamics to nonequilibrium steady states (NESS), we take the one which is guided by operational thermodynamics and the Clausius relation. In our previous study, we derived the extended Clausius relation for NESS, where the heat in the original relation is replaced by its "renormalized" counterpart called the excess heat, and the Gibbs-Shannon expression for the entropy by a new symmetrized Gibbs-Shannon-like expression. Here we concentrate on Markov processes describing heat conducting systems, and develop a new method for deriving thermodynamic relations. We first present a new simpler derivation of the extended Clausius relation, and clarify its close relation with the linear response theory. We then derive a new improved extended Clausius relation with a "nonlinear nonequilibrium" contribution which is written as a correlation between work and heat. We argue that the "nonlinear nonequilibrium" contribution is unavoidable, and is determined uniquely once we accept the (very natural) definition of the excess heat. Moreover it turns out that to operationally determine the difference in the nonequilibrium entropy to the second order in the temperature difference, one may only use the previous Clausius relation without a nonlinear term or must use the new relation, depending on the operation (i.e., the path in the parameter space). This peculiar "twist" may be a clue to a better understanding of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics of NESS.
A. Mohammadian Pourtalari; M. A. Jafarizadeh; M. Ghoranneviss
2011-11-23
Electron heat conduction is one of the ways that energy transports in laser heating of fusible target material. The aim of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) is to show that the thermal conductivity is strongly dependent on temperature and the equation of electron heat conduction is a nonlinear equation. In this article, we solve the one-dimensional (1-D) nonlinear electron heat conduction equation with a self-similar method (SSM). This solution has been used to investigate the propagation of 1-D thermal wave from a deuterium-tritium (DT) plane source which occurs when a giant laser pulse impinges onto a DT solid target. It corresponds to the physical problem of rapid heating of a boundary layer of material in which the energy of laser pulse is released in a finite initial thickness.
Heat conduction in disordered harmonic lattices with energy-conserving noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dhar, Abhishek; Venkateshan, K.; Lebowitz, J. L.
2011-02-01
We study heat conduction in a harmonic crystal whose bulk dynamics is supplemented by random reversals (flips) of the velocity of each particle at a rate ?. The system is maintained in a nonequilibrium stationary state (NESS) by contacts with white-noise Langevin reservoirs at different temperatures. We show that the one-body and pair correlations in this system are the same (after an appropriate mapping of parameters) as those obtained for a model with self-consistent reservoirs. This is true both for the case of equal and random (quenched) masses. While the heat conductivity in the NESS of the ordered system is known explicitly, much less is known about the random mass case. Here we investigate the random system with velocity flips. We improve the bounds on the Green-Kubo conductivity obtained by Bernardin [J. Stat. Phys.JSTPBS0022-471510.1007/s10955-008-9620-1 133, 417 (2008)]. The conductivity of the one-dimensional system is then studied both numerically and analytically. This sheds some light on the effect of noise on the transport properties of systems with localized states caused by quenched disorder.
NaK Variable Conductance Heat Pipe for Radioisotope Stirling Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tarau, Calin; Anderson, William G.; Walker, Kara
2008-01-01
In a Stirling radioisotope power system, heat must continually be removed from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules to maintain the modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. The Stirling convertor normally provides most of this cooling. If the Stirling convertor stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS, but also ending use of that convertor for the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) was designed to allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling convertor. In the design of the VCHP for the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator, the VCHP reservoir temperature can vary between 40 and 120 C. While sodium, potassium, or cesium could be used as the working fluid, their melting temperatures are above the minimum reservoir temperature, allowing working fluid to freeze in the reservoir. In contrast, the melting point of NaK is -12 C, so NaK can't freeze in the reservoir. One potential problem with NaK as a working fluid is that previous tests with NaK heat pipes have shown that NaK heat pipes can develop temperature non-uniformities in the evaporator due to NaK's binary composition. A NaK heat pipe was fabricated to measure the temperature non-uniformities in a scale model of the VCHP for the Stirling Radioisotope system. The temperature profiles in the evaporator and condenser were measured as a function of operating temperature and power. The largest delta T across the condenser was 2S C. However, the condenser delta T decreased to 16 C for the 775 C vapor temperature at the highest heat flux applied, 7.21 W/ square cm. This decrease with increasing heat flux was caused by the increased mixing of the sodium and potassium in the vapor. This temperature differential is similar to the temperature variation in this ASRG heat transfer interface without a heat pipe, so NaK can be used as the VCHP working fluid.
First Principles Modeling of Phonon Heat Conduction in Nanoscale Crystalline Structures
Sandip Mazumder; Ju Li
2010-06-30
The inability to remove heat efficiently is currently one of the stumbling blocks toward further miniaturization and advancement of electronic, optoelectronic, and micro-electro-mechanical devices. In order to formulate better heat removal strategies and designs, it is first necessary to understand the fundamental mechanisms of heat transport in semiconductor thin films. Modeling techniques, based on first principles, can play the crucial role of filling gaps in our understanding by revealing information that experiments are incapable of. Heat conduction in crystalline semiconductor films occurs by lattice vibrations that result in the propagation of quanta of energy called phonons. If the mean free path of the traveling phonons is larger than the film thickness, thermodynamic equilibrium ceases to exist, and thus, the Fourier law of heat conduction is invalid. In this scenario, bulk thermal conductivity values, which are experimentally determined by inversion of the Fourier law itself, cannot be used for analysis. The Boltzmann Transport Equation (BTE) is a powerful tool to treat non-equilibrium heat transport in thin films. The BTE describes the evolution of the number density (or energy) distribution for phonons as a result of transport (or drift) and inter-phonon collisions. Drift causes the phonon energy distribution to deviate from equilibrium, while collisions tend to restore equilibrium. Prior to solution of the BTE, it is necessary to compute the lifetimes (or scattering rates) for phonons of all wave-vector and polarization. The lifetime of a phonon is the net result of its collisions with other phonons, which in turn is governed by the conservation of energy and momentum during the underlying collision processes. This research project contributed to the state-of-the-art in two ways: (1) by developing and demonstrating a calibration-free simple methodology to compute intrinsic phonon scattering (Normal and Umklapp processes) time scales with the inclusion of optical phonons, and (2) by developing a suite of numerical algorithms for solution of the BTE for phonons. The suite of numerical algorithms includes Monte Carlo techniques and deterministic techniques based on the Discrete Ordinates Method and the Ballistic-Diffusive approximation of the BTE. These methods were applied to calculation of thermal conductivity of silicon thin films, and to simulate heat conduction in multi-dimensional structures. In addition, thermal transport in silicon nanowires was investigated using two different first principles methods. One was to apply the Green-Kubo formulation to an equilibrium system. The other was to use Non-Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics (NEMD). Results of MD simulations showed that the nanowire cross-sectional shape and size significantly affects the thermal conductivity, as has been found experimentally. In summary, the project clarified the role of various phonon modes - in particular, optical phonon - in non-equilibrium transport in silicon. It laid the foundation for the solution of the BTE in complex three-dimensional structures using deterministic techniques, paving the way for the development of robust numerical tools that could be coupled to existing device simulation tools to enable coupled electro-thermal modeling of practical electronic/optoelectronic devices. Finally, it shed light on why the thermal conductivity of silicon nanowires is so sensitive to its cross-sectional shape.
Heat conductivity in graphene and related materials: A time-domain modal analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gill-Comeau, Maxime; Lewis, Laurent J.
2015-11-01
We use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study heat conductivity in single-layer graphene and graphite. We analyze the MD trajectories through a time-domain modal analysis and show that this is essential for obtaining a reliable representation of the heat flow in graphene and graphite as it permits the proper treatment of collective vibrational excitations, in contrast to a frequency-domain formulation. Our temperature-dependent results are in very good agreement with experiment and, for temperatures in the range 300-1200 K, we find that the ZA branch allows more heat flow than all other branches combined while the contributions of the TA, LA, and ZO branches are comparable at all temperatures. Conductivity mappings reveal strong collective excitations associated with low-frequency ZA modes. We demonstrate that these collective effects are a consequence of the quadratic nature of the ZA branch as they also show up in graphite but are reduced in strained graphene, where the dispersion becomes linear, and are absent in diamond, where acoustic branches are linear. In general, neglecting collective excitations yields errors similar to those from the single-mode relaxation-time approximation.
Volman, Vladimir; Zhu, Yu; Raji, Abdul-Rahman O; Genorio, Bostjan; Lu, Wei; Xiang, Changsheng; Kittrell, Carter; Tour, James M
2014-01-01
Deicing heating layers are frequently used in covers of large radio-frequency (RF) equipment, such as radar, to remove ice that could damage the structures or make them unstable. Typically, the deicers are made using a metal framework and inorganic insulator; commercial resistive heating materials are often nontransparent to RF waves. The preparation of a sub-skin-depth thin film, whose thickness is very small relative to the RF skin (or penetration) depth, is the key to minimizing the RF absorption. The skin depth of typical metals is on the order of a micrometer at the gigahertz frequency range. As a result, it is very difficult for conventional conductive materials (such as metals) to form large-area sub-skin-depth films. In this report, we disclose a new deicing heating layer composite made using graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). We demonstrate that the GNR film is thin enough to permit RF transmission. This metal-free, ultralight, robust, and scalable graphene-based RF-transparent conductive coating could significantly reduce the size and cost of deicing coatings for RF equipment covers. This is important in many aviation and marine applications. This is a demonstration of the efficacy and applicability of GNRs to afford performances unattainable by conventional materials. PMID:24328320
ORMDIN: a finite element program for two-dimensional nonlinear inverse heat conduction analysis
Bass, B.R.; Drake, J.B.; Ott, L.J.
1980-12-01
The calculation of the surface temperature and surface heat flux from measured temperature transients at one or more interior points of a body is identified in the literature as the inverse heat conduction problem. Heretofore, analytical and computational methods of treating this problem have been limited to one-dimensional nonlinear or two-dimensional linear material models. This report presents, to the authors' knowledge, the first inverse solution technique applicable to the two-dimensional nonlinear model with temperature-dependent thermophysical properties. This technique, representing an extension of the one-dimensional formulation previously developed by one of the authors, utilizes a finite element heat conduction model and a generalization of Beck's one-dimensional nonlinear estimation procedure. A digital computer program ORMDIN (Oak Ridge Multi-Dimensional INverse) is developed from the formulation and applied to the cross section of a composite cylinder with temperature-dependent material properties. Results are presented to demonstrate that the inverse formulation is capable of successfully treating experimental data. An important feature of the method is that small time steps are permitted while avoiding severe oscillations or numerical instabilities due to experimental errors in measured data.
Waite, W.F.; Stern, L.A.; Kirby, S.H.; Winters, W.J.; Mason, D.H.
2007-01-01
Thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat of sI methane hydrate were measured as functions of temperature and pressure using a needle probe technique. The temperature dependence was measured between ?20°C and 17°C at 31.5 MPa. The pressure dependence was measured between 31.5 and 102 MPa at 14.4°C. Only weak temperature and pressure dependencies were observed. Methane hydrate thermal conductivity differs from that of water by less than 10 per cent, too little to provide a sensitive measure of hydrate content in water-saturated systems. Thermal diffusivity of methane hydrate is more than twice that of water, however, and its specific heat is about half that of water. Thus, when drilling into or through hydrate-rich sediment, heat from the borehole can raise the formation temperature more than 20 per cent faster than if the formation's pore space contains only water. Thermal properties of methane hydrate should be considered in safety and economic assessments of hydrate-bearing sediment.
GRABER: The Duct Tape of Space and JIMO Heat Conducting Foam
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gamble, Eleanor A.
2004-01-01
Crack formation in the space shuttle's heat shield during flight poses a major safety concern to everyone on board. Cracking weakens the structure of the shield and lessens the protection it offers against the high temperatures and forces encountered during re-entry. Astronauts need a way to mend these cracks while in space. This is GRABER s function; it can be spackled into the cracks by an astronaut. The material then hardens, or cures, due to being in a vacuum and the heat encountered when it faces the sun. A great deal of work and testing is necessary to create a material that will be workable in a vacuum over a wide range of temperatures, will cure without cracking, will adhere to the sides of the crack, and that can withstand the extreme temperatures of re-entry. A Brookfield PVS Rheometer is being used to characterize GRABER's viscosity at various temperatures and stirring rates. Various compositions of GRABER are being heat treated in a vacuum to determine probably curing times in space. The microstructures of cured samples of each composition are being examined using both optical and electron microscopy. Jupiter s Icy Moon Orbiter (JIMO) will be lifting off sometime around 2013. JIMO will have more power than its predecessor, Galileo, allowing it to change orbits to circle three of Jupiter s moons. Both of the engine types being considered require large heat dissipation systems. These systems will be comprised of heat conductive tubing and plates with a liquid flowing through them. In order to maximize the speed of heat transfer between the tubes and the panels, the in-between areas will be filled with heat conductive silicon carbide foam. Two different foam systems are being considered for this foam. Currently, experimentation is underway with adding Sic, carbon, and carbon fibers to a two part fuel retardant foam. The foam is them pyrolized and its mass and dimensional changes are measured. The structure of the foam will be examined using optical and electron microscopy as well. Work is also planned with a foam system developed by an Italian team.
Federico Bonetto; Joel L. Lebowitz; Jani Lukkarinen; Stefano Olla
2008-11-21
We investigate a class of anharmonic crystals in $d$ dimensions, $d\\ge 1$, coupled to both external and internal heat baths of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck type. The external heat baths, applied at the boundaries in the 1-direction, are at specified, unequal, temperatures $\\tlb$ and $\\trb$. The temperatures of the internal baths are determined in a self-consistent way by the requirement that there be no net energy exchange with the system in the non-equilibrium stationary state (NESS). We prove the existence of such a stationary self-consistent profile of temperatures for a finite system and show it minimizes the entropy production to leading order in $(\\tlb -\\trb)$. In the NESS the heat conductivity $\\kappa$ is defined as the heat flux per unit area divided by the length of the system and $(\\tlb -\\trb)$. In the limit when the temperatures of the external reservoirs goes to the same temperature $T$, $\\kappa(T)$ is given by the Green-Kubo formula, evaluated in an equilibrium system coupled to reservoirs all having the temperature $T$. This $\\kappa(T)$ remains bounded as the size of the system goes to infinity. We also show that the corresponding infinite system Green-Kubo formula yields a finite result. Stronger results are obtained under the assumption that the self-consistent profile remains bounded.
Zhang, Yuwen
Real-time solution of heat conduction in a finite slab for inverse analysis Z.C. Feng*, J.K. Chen the problem of heat conduction over a finite slab. The transfer functions relating the temperature and heat can be determined indirectly by solving an inverse heat conduction problem [1e3] based
Thermally conductive cementitious grouts for geothermal heat pumps. Progress report FY 1998
Allan, M.L.; Philippacopoulos, A.J.
1998-11-01
Research commenced in FY 97 to determine the suitability of superplasticized cement-sand grouts for backfilling vertical boreholes used with geothermal heat pump (GHP) systems. The overall objectives were to develop, evaluate and demonstrate cementitious grouts that could reduce the required bore length and improve the performance of GHPs. This report summarizes the accomplishments in FY 98. The developed thermally conductive grout consists of cement, water, a particular grade of silica sand, superplasticizer and a small amount of bentonite. While the primary function of the grout is to facilitate heat transfer between the U-loop and surrounding formation, it is also essential that the grout act as an effective borehole sealant. Two types of permeability (hydraulic conductivity) tests was conducted to evaluate the sealing performance of the cement-sand grout. Additional properties of the proposed grout that were investigated include bleeding, shrinkage, bond strength, freeze-thaw durability, compressive, flexural and tensile strengths, elastic modulus, Poisson`s ratio and ultrasonic pulse velocity.
The gravitational heat conduction and the hierarchical structure in solar interior
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yahui, Zheng; Jiulin, Du
2014-03-01
With the assumption of local Tsallis equilibrium, the newly defined gravitational temperature is calculated in the solar interior, whose distribution curve can be divided into three parts: the solar core region, the radiation region and the convection region, in excellent agreement with the solar hierarchical structure. By generalizing Fourier's law, one new mechanism of heat conduction, based on the gradient of the gravitational temperature, is introduced into the astrophysical system. This mechanism is related to the self-gravity of such self-gravitating system whose characteristic scale is large enough. It perhaps plays an important role in the astrophysical system which, in the solar interior, leads to the heat accumulation at the bottom of the convection layer and then motivates the convection motion.
Held, Markus; Steigmeir, Andreas
2015-01-01
We present and discuss three discontinuous Galerkin (dG) discretizations for the anisotropic heat conduction equation on non-aligned cylindrical grids. Our most favourable scheme relies on a self-adjoint local dG (LDG) discretization of the elliptic operator. It conserves the energy exactly and converges with arbitrary order. The pollution by numerical perpendicular heat fluxes degrades with superconvergence rates. We compare this scheme with aligned schemes that are based on the flux-coordinate independent approach for the discretization of parallel derivatives. Here, the dG method provides the necessary interpolation. The first aligned discretization can be used in an explicit time-integrator. However, the scheme violates conservation of energy and shows up stagnating convergence rates for very high resolutions. We overcome this partly by using the adjoint of the parallel derivative operator to construct a second self-adjoint aligned scheme. This scheme preserves energy, but reveals unphysical oscillations ...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zia, R. K. P.; Praestgaard, E. L.; Mouritsen, O. G.
2002-04-01
For students familiar with equilibrium statistical mechanics, the notion of a positive specific heat, being intimately related to the idea of stability, is both intuitively reasonable and mathematically provable. However, for systems in nonequilibrium stationary states, coupled to more than one energy reservoir, a negative specific heat is entirely possible. We present a minimal system that displays this phenomenon. For a system in contact with two thermal baths at different temperatures, the (internal) energy may increase when a thermostat is turned down. In another context, a similar phenomenon is negative conductivity, where a current may increase by decreasing the drive (for example, an external electric field). The counter-intuitive behavior in both processes may be described as getting more from pushing less. The crucial ingredients for this phenomenon and the elements needed for a minimal system are also presented.
Wave transmission, phonon localization and heat conduction of 1D Frenkel-Kontorova chain
Peiqing Tong; Baowen Li; Bambi Hu
1999-01-20
We study the transmission coefficient of a plane wave through a 1D finite quasi-periodic system -- the Frenkel-Kontorova (FK) model -- embedding in an infinite uniform harmonic chain. By varying the mass of atoms in the infinite uniform chain, we obtain the transmission coefficients for {\\it all} eigenfrequencies. The phonon localization of the incommensurated FK chain is also studied in terms of the transmission coefficients and the Thouless exponents. Moreover, the heat conduction of Rubin-Greer-like model for FK chain at low temperature is calculated. It is found that the stationary heat flux $J(N)\\sim N^{\\alpha}$, and $\\alpha$ depends on the strength of the external potential.
The gravitational heat conduction and the hierarchical structure in solar interior
Yahui Zheng; Jiulin Du
2014-03-10
With the assumption of local Tsallis equilibrium, the newly defined gravitational temperature is calculated in the solar interior, whose distribution curve can be divided into three parts, the solar core region, radiation region and convection region, in excellent agreement with the solar hierarchical structure. By generalizing the Fourier law, one new mechanism of heat conduction, based on the gradient of the gravitational temperature, is introduced into the astrophysical system. This mechanism is related to the self-gravity of such self-gravitating system whose characteristic scale is large enough. It perhaps plays an important role in the astrophysical system which, in the solar interior, leads to the heat accumulation at the bottom of the convection layer and then motivates the convection motion.
An implicit-iterative solution of the heat conduction equation with a radiation boundary condition
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, S. D.; Curry, D. M.
1977-01-01
For the problem of predicting one-dimensional heat transfer between conducting and radiating mediums by an implicit finite difference method, four different formulations were used to approximate the surface radiation boundary condition while retaining an implicit formulation for the interior temperature nodes. These formulations are an explicit boundary condition, a linearized boundary condition, an iterative boundary condition, and a semi-iterative boundary method. The results of these methods in predicting surface temperature on the space shuttle orbiter thermal protection system model under a variety of heating rates were compared. The iterative technique caused the surface temperature to be bounded at each step. While the linearized and explicit methods were generally more efficient, the iterative and semi-iterative techniques provided a realistic surface temperature response without requiring step size control techniques.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ngo, Quoc; Cruden, Brett A.; Cassell, Alan M.; Sims, Gerard; Li, Jun; Meyyappa, M.; Yang, Cary Y.
2005-01-01
Efforts in integrated circuit (IC) packaging technologies have recently been focused on management of increasing heat density associated with high frequency and high density circuit designs. While current flip-chip package designs can accommodate relatively high amounts of heat density, new materials need to be developed to manage thermal effects of next-generation integrated circuits. Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNT) have been shown to significantly enhance thermal conduction in the axial direction and thus can be considered to be a candidate for future thermal interface materials by facilitating efficient thermal transport. This work focuses on fabrication and characterization of a robust MWNT-copper composite material as an element in IC package designs. We show that using vertically aligned MWNT arrays reduces interfacial thermal resistance by increasing conduction surface area, and furthermore, the embedded copper acts as a lateral heat spreader to efficiently disperse heat, a necessary function for packaging materials. In addition, we demonstrate reusability of the material, and the absence of residue on the contacting material, both novel features of the MWNT-copper composite that are not found in most state-of-the-art thermal interface materials. Electrochemical methods such as metal deposition and etch are discussed for the creation of the MWNT-Cu composite, detailing issues and observations with using such methods. We show that precise engineering of the composite surface affects the ability of this material to act as an efficient thermal interface material. A thermal contact resistance measurement has been designed to obtain a value of thermal contact resistance for a variety of different thermal contact materials.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Fan; He, Wen; He, Longbiao; Rong, Zuochao
2015-12-01
The wide concern on absolute pressure calibration of acoustic transducers at low frequencies prompts the development of the pistonphone method. At low frequencies, the acoustic properties of pistonphones are governed by the pressure leakage and the heat conduction effects. However, the traditional theory for these two effects applies a linear superposition of two independent correction models, which differs somewhat from their coupled effect at low frequencies. In this paper, acoustic properties of pistonphones at low frequencies in full consideration of the pressure leakage and heat conduction effects have been quantitatively studied, and the explicit expression for the generated sound pressure has been derived. With more practical significance, a coupled correction expression for these two effects of pistonphones has been derived. In allusion to two typical pistonphones, the NPL pistonphone and our developed infrasonic pistonphone, comparisons were done for the coupled correction expression and the traditional one, whose results reveal that the traditional one produces maximum insufficient errors of about 0.1 dB above the lower limiting frequencies of two pistonphones, while at lower frequencies, excessive correction errors with an explicit limit of about 3 dB are produced by the traditional expression. The coupled correction expression should be adopted in the absolute pressure calibration of acoustic transducers at low frequencies. Furthermore, it is found that the heat conduction effect takes a limiting deviation of about 3 dB for the pressure amplitude and a small phase difference as frequency decreases, while the pressure leakage effect remarkably drives the pressure amplitude to attenuate and the phase difference tends to be 90° as the frequency decreases. The pressure leakage effect plays a more important role on the low frequency property of pistonphones.
Heat conduction: a telegraph-type model with self-similar behavior of solutions II
I. F. Barna; R. Kersner
2010-09-30
In our former study (J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 43, (2010) 325210 or arXiv:1002.0999v1 [math-ph]) we introduced a modified Fourier-Cattaneo law and derived a non-autonomous telegraph-type heat conduction equation which has desirable self-similar solution. Now we present a detailed in-depth analysis of this model and discuss additional analytic solutions for different parameters. The solutions have a very rich and interesting mathematical structure due to various special functions.
Mathematical equations for heat conduction in the fins of air-cooled engines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harper, R R; Brown, W B
1923-01-01
The problem considered in this report is that of reducing actual geometrical area of fin-cooling surface, which is, of course, not uniform in temperature, to equivalent cooling area at one definite temperature, namely, that prevailing on the cylinder wall at the point of attachment of the fin. This makes it possible to treat all the cooling surface as if it were part of the cylinder wall and 100 per cent effective. The quantities involved in the equations are the geometrical dimensions of the fin, thermal conductivity of the material composing it, and the coefficient of surface heat dissipation between the fin and the air streams.
Gartling, D.K.; Hogan, R.E.
1994-10-01
The theoretical and numerical background for the finite element computer program, COYOTE II, is presented in detail. COYOTE II is designed for the multi-dimensional analysis of nonlinear heat conduction problems and other types of diffusion problems. A general description of the boundary value problems treated by the program is presented. The finite element formulation and the associated numerical methods used in COYOTE II are also outlined. Instructions for use of the code are documented in SAND94-1179; examples of problems analyzed with the code are provided in SAND94-1180.
Multiply scaled constrained nonlinear equation solvers. [for nonlinear heat conduction problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Padovan, Joe; Krishna, Lala
1986-01-01
To improve the numerical stability of nonlinear equation solvers, a partitioned multiply scaled constraint scheme is developed. This scheme enables hierarchical levels of control for nonlinear equation solvers. To complement the procedure, partitioned convergence checks are established along with self-adaptive partitioning schemes. Overall, such procedures greatly enhance the numerical stability of the original solvers. To demonstrate and motivate the development of the scheme, the problem of nonlinear heat conduction is considered. In this context the main emphasis is given to successive substitution-type schemes. To verify the improved numerical characteristics associated with partitioned multiply scaled solvers, results are presented for several benchmark examples.
Solving nonlinear heat conduction problems with multigrid preconditioned Newton-Krylov methods
Rider, W.J.; Knoll, D.A.
1997-09-01
Our objective is to investigate the utility of employing multigrid preconditioned Newton-Krylov methods for solving initial value problems. Multigrid based method promise better performance from the linear scaling associated with them. Our model problem is nonlinear heat conduction which can model idealized Marshak waves. Here we will investigate the efficiency of using a linear multigrid method to precondition a Krylov subspace method. In effect we will show that a fixed point nonlinear iterative method provides an effective preconditioner for the nonlinear problem.
Heat conductivity from molecular chaos hypothesis in locally confined billiard systems
Thomas Gilbert; Raphael Lefevere
2008-10-14
We study the transport properties of a large class of locally confined Hamiltonian systems, in which neighboring particles interact through hard core elastic collisions. When these collisions become rare and the systems large, we derive a Boltzmann-like equation for the evolution of the probability densities. We solve this equation in the linear regime and compute the heat conductivity from a Green-Kubo formula. The validity of our approach is demonstated by comparing our predictions to the results of numerical simulations performed on a new class of high-dimensional defocusing chaotic billiards.
Analytical evaluation of thermal conductance and heat capacities of one-dimensional material systems
Saygi, Salih
2014-02-15
We theoretically predict some thermal properties versus temperature dependence of one dimensional (1D) material nanowire systems. A known method is used to provide an efficient and reliable analytical procedure for wide temperature range. Predicted formulas are expressed in terms of Bloch-Grüneisen functions and Debye functions. Computing results has proved that the expressions are in excellent agreement with the results reported in the literature even if it is in very low dimension limits of nanowire systems. Therefore the calculation method is a fully predictive approach to calculate thermal conductivity and heat capacities of nanowire material systems.
Subsurface Temperature, Moisture, Thermal Conductivity and Heat Flux, Barrow, Area A, B, C, D
Cable, William; Romanovsky, Vladimir
2014-03-31
Subsurface temperature data are being collected along a transect from the center of the polygon through the trough (and to the center of the adjacent polygon for Area D). Each transect has five 1.5m vertical array thermistor probes with 16 thermistors each. This dataset also includes soil pits that have been instrumented for temperature, water content, thermal conductivity, and heat flux at the permafrost table. Area C has a shallow borehole of 2.5 meters depth is instrumented in the center of the polygon.
Effects of friction and heat conduction on sound propagation in ducts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huerre, P.; Karamcheti, K.
1975-01-01
A theoretical formulation of the propagation of sound in a viscous and heat conducting medium is presented. The problem is reduced to the determination of two scalar potentials related to pressure and entropy fluctuations respectively, and a vector potential related to vorticity fluctuations. The particular case of a two-dimensional duct of constant width is thoroughly investigated in the low, high, and very high frequency ranges. It is shown that three distinct families of modes may propagate along the duct axis, namely, pressure, entropy, and vorticity dominated modes. Perturbation methods are used to study the variations of attenuation rates, phase velocities, and mode shapes, as a function of frequency and duct width.
Laser heating of an absorbing and conducting media applied to laser flash property measurements
Gritzo, L.A.; Anderson, E.E.
1993-12-31
The laser flash technique is widely used for determining the thermal diffusivity of a sample. In this work, the temperature distribution throughout the sample is investigated, identifying localized, highly-heated regions near the front surface of the sample as a function of: (1) pulse duration, (2) incident beam uniformity, and (3) sample opacity. These high-temperature regions result in an increase in the uncertainty due to temperature-dependent properties, an increase in the heat loss from the sample, and an increased risk of sample damage. The temperature within a semi-transparent media is also investigated in order to establish a regime for which the media can reasonably be considered as opaque. This analysis illustrates that, for same total energy deposition, treatment of the incident energy as a continuous heat source, as opposed to an infinitesimal pulse of energy, results in a factor of 2 increase in the front surface temperature during heating. Also, for the same total energy deposition and approximate beam size, use of a Gaussian intensity distribution increases the front surface temperature during heating by more than a factor of 2 as compared to the use of a uniform temperature distribution. By analyzing the front surface temperature of an absorbing and conducting semi-transparent sample subjected to a Gaussian intensity distribution, it is concluded that the media can be treated as opaque, (i.e. the energy can be applied as a boundary condition) for {var_epsilon} = kd > 50, where k is the extinction coefficient and d is the beam diameter. For materials with a sufficiently small absorption coefficient and thermal diffusivity, a closed-form solution suitable for design use is presented for the front-surface temperature at a location coincident with the beam centerline.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tamma, Kumar K.; Railkar, Sudhir B.
1988-01-01
This paper describes new and recent advances in the development of a hybrid transfinite element computational methodology for applicability to conduction/convection/radiation heat transfer problems. The transfinite element methodology, while retaining the modeling versatility of contemporary finite element formulations, is based on application of transform techniques in conjunction with classical Galerkin schemes and is a hybrid approach. The purpose of this paper is to provide a viable hybrid computational methodology for applicability to general transient thermal analysis. Highlights and features of the methodology are described and developed via generalized formulations and applications to several test problems. The proposed transfinite element methodology successfully provides a viable computational approach and numerical test problems validate the proposed developments for conduction/convection/radiation thermal analysis.
Coherent heat conduction of quantum monopoles in Yb2Ti2O7
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamashita, Takuya; Tokiwa, Yoshi; Terazawa, Daiki; Shimoyama, Yusuke; Yasui, Yukio; Udagawa, Masafumi; Shibauchi, Takasada; Matsuda, Yuji
2015-03-01
The rare-earth pyrochlore magnets are realization of spin ice which have macroscopically degenerate ground states. The elementary excitation of classical spin ice is thought to be thermally activated magnetic monopoles with dispersion-less energy gap ? ~ 2Jzz. We have measured the thermal conductivity ? of quantum spin ice Yb2Ti2O7 at magnetic field B // [100] and [111]. The field direction dependence of ? is consistent with monopole excitations. However, the temperature dependence indicates that the energy gap is at most 0.2 K, which is much smaller than ? ~ 4 K. This reduction of gap suggests the band formation of monopole excitations, giving rise to coherent heat conduction of ` ` quantum'' monopoles. Unlike diffusive monopoles in classical spin ice, the mean free path of these quantum monopoles is extremely long ~ 100 nm.
Numerical model of heat conduction in active volcanoes induced by magmatic activity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Atmojo, Antono Arif; Rosandi, Yudi
2015-09-01
We study the heat transfer mechanism of active volcanoes using the numerical thermal conduction model. A 2D model of volcano with its conduit filled by magma is considered, and acts as a constant thermal source. The temperature of the magma activity diffuses through the rock layers of the mountain to the surface. The conduction equation is solved using finite-difference method, with some adaptations to allow temperature to flow through different materials. Our model allows to simulate volcanoes having dikes, branch-pipes, and sills by constructing the domain appropriately, as well as layers with different thermal properties. Our research will show the possibility to monitor magma activity underneath a volcano by probing its surface temperature. The result of our work will be very useful for further study of volcanoes, eruption prediction, and volcanic disaster mitigation.
AC-Conductivity Measure from Heat Production of Free Fermions in Disordered Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bru, J.-B.; de Siqueira Pedra, W.; Hertling, C.
2015-10-01
We extend (Bru et al. in J Math Phys 56:051901-1-51, 2015) in order to study the linear response of free fermions on the lattice within a (independently and identically distributed) random potential to a macroscopic electric field that is time- and space-dependent. We obtain the notion of a macroscopic AC-conductivity measure which only results from the second principle of thermodynamics. The latter corresponds here to the positivity of the heat production for cyclic processes on equilibrium states. Its Fourier transform is a continuous bounded function which is naturally called (macroscopic) conductivity. We additionally derive Green-Kubo relations involving time-correlations of bosonic fields coming from current fluctuations in the system. This is reminiscent of non-commutative central limit theorems.
Heat conduction in a one-dimensional gas of elastically colliding particles of unequal masses
Abhishek Dhar
2001-02-12
We study the nonequlibrium state of heat conduction in a one-dimensional system of hard point particles of unequal masses interacting through elastic collisions. A BBGKY-type formulation is presented and some exact results are obtained from it. Extensive numerical simulations for the two-mass problem indicate that even for arbitrarily small mass differences, a nontrivial steady state is obtained. This state exhibits local thermal equilibrium and has a temperature profile in accordance with the predictions of kinetic theory. The temperature jumps typically seen in such studies are shown to be finite-size effects. The thermal conductivity appears to have a very slow divergence with system size, different from that seen in most other systems.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Perkins, R. A.; Cieszkiewicz, M. T.
1991-01-01
Experimental measurements of thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity obtained with a transient hot-wire apparatus are reported for three mixtures of nitrogen, oxygen, and argon. Values of the specific heat, Cp, are calculated from these measured values and the density calculated with an equation of state. The measurements were made at temperatures between 65 and 303 K with pressures between 0.1 and 70 MPa. The data cover the vapor, liquid, and supercritical gas phases for the three mixtures. The total reported points are 1066 for the air mixture (78.11 percent nitrogen, 20.97 percent oxygen, and 0.92 percent argon), 1058 for the 50 percent nitrogen, 50 percent oxygen mixture, and 864 for the 25 percent nitrogen, 75 oxygen mixture. Empirical thermal conductivity correlations are provided for the three mixtures.
Effects of preheating and highly heat-conductive brick on coke quality
Fukuda, K.; Arima, T.
1995-12-31
In replacing the coke ovens available currently, the introduction of a combined technique of a preheated coal charging method (preheating temperature:175 C) and the use of highly heat-conductive brick is under examination for raising the productivity of coke ovens. With such background, a study of the effects of this combined technique on the coke quality, especially the coke size was conducted. The experimental results revealed that the primary size of coke produced by the combined technique is noticeably larger than that of the coke made from wet coal and after five revolutions of drum (equivalent to mechanical impact given at a time of dropping from coke oven chamber to wharf), the coke size reduces even compared with an ordinary coke. This may be due to the fact that the coke produced by the combined technique includes a lot of fissures inside the coke lump.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.
1999-01-01
Laser high heat flux test approaches have been established to obtain critical properties of ceramic thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) under near-realistic temperature and thermal gradients that may he encountered in advanced engine systems. Thermal conductivity change kinetics of a thin ceramic coating were continuously monitored in real time at various test temperatures. A significant thermal conductivity increase was observed during the laser simulated engine heat flux tests. For a 0.25 mm thick ZrO2-8%Y2O3 coating system, the overall thermal conductivity increased from the initial value of 1.0 W/m-K to 1. 15 W/m-K, 1. 19 W/m-K and 1.5 W/m-K after 30 hour testing at surface temperatures of 990C, 1100C, and 1320C. respectively. Hardness and modulus gradients across a 1.5 mm thick TBC system were also determined as a function of laser testing time using the laser sintering/creep and micro-indentation techniques. The coating Knoop hardness values increased from the initial hardness value of 4 GPa to 5 GPa near the ceramic/bond coat interface, and to 7.5 GPa at the ceramic coating surface after 120 hour testing. The ceramic surface modulus increased from an initial value of about 70 GPa to a final value of 125 GPa. The increase in thermal conductivity and the evolution of significant hardness and modulus gradients in the TBC systems are attributed to sintering-induced micro-porosity gradients under the laser-imposed high thermal gradient conditions. The test techniques provide a viable means for obtaining coating data for use in design, development, stress modeling, and life prediction for various thermal barrier coating applications.
On the dynamical Rayleigh-Taylor instability in compressible viscous flows without heat conductivity
Fei Jiang; Song Jiang
2014-03-20
We investigate the instability of a smooth Rayleigh-Taylor steady-state solution to compressible viscous flows without heat conductivity in the presence of a uniform gravitational field in a bounded domain $\\Omega\\subset{\\mathbb R}^3$ with smooth boundary $\\partial\\Omega$. We show that the steady-state is linearly unstable by constructing a suitable energy functional and exploiting arguments of the modified variational method. Then, based on the constructed linearly unstable solutions and a local well-posedness result of classical solutions to the original nonlinear problem, we further reconstruct the initial data of linearly unstable solutions to be the one of the original nonlinear problem and establish an appropriate energy estimate of Gronwall-type. With the help of the established energy estimate, we show that the steady-state is nonlinearly unstable in the sense of Hadamard by a careful bootstrap argument. As a byproduct of our analysis, we find that the compressibility has no stabilizing effect in the linearized problem for compressible viscous flows without heat conductivity.
Advanced development of the boundary element method for steady-state heat conduction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dargush, G. F.; Banerjee, Prasanta K.
1989-01-01
Considerable progress has been made in recent years toward advancing the state-of-the-art in solid mechanics boundary element technology. In the present work, much of this new technology is applied in the development of a general-purpose boundary element method (BEM) for steady-state heat conduction. In particular, the BEM implementation involves the use of higher-order conforming elements, self-adaptive integration and multi-region capability. Two- and three-dimensional, as well as axisymmetric analysis, are incorporated within a unified framework. In addition, techniques are introduced for the calculation of boundary flux, and for the inclusion of thermal resistance across interfaces. As a final extension, an efficient formulation is developed for the analysis of solid three-dimensional bodies with embedded holes. For this last class of problems, the new BEM formulation is particularly attractive, since use of the alternatives (i.e. finite element or finite difference methods) is not practical. A number of detailed examples illustrate the suitability and robustness of the present approach for steady-state heat conduction.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lang, Christapher G.; Bey, Kim S. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
This research investigates residual-based a posteriori error estimates for finite element approximations of heat conduction in single-layer and multi-layered materials. The finite element approximation, based upon hierarchical modelling combined with p-version finite elements, is described with specific application to a two-dimensional, steady state, heat-conduction problem. Element error indicators are determined by solving an element equation for the error with the element residual as a source, and a global error estimate in the energy norm is computed by collecting the element contributions. Numerical results of the performance of the error estimate are presented by comparisons to the actual error. Two methods are discussed and compared for approximating the element boundary flux. The equilibrated flux method provides more accurate results for estimating the error than the average flux method. The error estimation is applied to multi-layered materials with a modification to the equilibrated flux method to approximate the discontinuous flux along a boundary at the material interfaces. A directional error indicator is developed which distinguishes between the hierarchical modeling error and the finite element error. Numerical results are presented for single-layered materials which show that the directional indicators accurately determine which contribution to the total error dominates.
Heat Conduction and Entropy Production in a One-Dimensional Hard-Particle Gas
Peter Grassberger; Walter Nadler; Lei Yang
2002-08-01
We present large scale simulations for a one-dimensional chain of hard-point particles with alternating masses. We correct several claims in the recent literature based on much smaller simulations. Both for boundary conditions with two heat baths at different temperatures at both ends and from heat current autocorrelations in equilibrium we find heat conductivities kappa to diverge with the number N of particles. These depended very strongly on the mass ratios, and extrapolation to N -> infty resp. t -> infty is difficult due to very large finite-size and finite-time corrections. Nevertheless, our data seem compatible with a universal power law kappa ~ N^alpha with alpha approx 0.33. This suggests a relation to the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang model. We finally show that the hard-point gas with periodic boundary conditions is not chaotic in the usual sense and discuss why the system, when kept out of equilibrium, leads nevertheless to energy dissipation and entropy production.
Contribution of inter- and intramolecular energy transfers to heat conduction in liquids.
Torii, Daichi; Nakano, Takeo; Ohara, Taku
2008-01-28
The molecular dynamics expression of heat flux, originally derived by Irving and Kirkwood [J. Chem. Phys. 18, 817 (1950)] for pairwise potentials, is generalized in this paper for systems with many-body potentials. The original formula consists of a kinetic part and a potential part, and the latter term is found in the present study to be expressible as a summation of contributions from all the many-body potentials defined in the system. The energy transfer among a set of sites for which a many-body potential is defined is discussed and evaluated by the rate of increase in the kinetic energy of each site due to the potential, and its accumulation over all the potentials in the system is shown to make up the potential part of the generalized expression. A molecular dynamics simulation for liquid n-octane was performed to demonstrate the applicability of the new expression obtained in this study to measure the heat flux and to elucidate the contributions of inter- and intramolecular potentials to heat conduction. PMID:18247966
The specific heat capacity and thermal conductivity of normal liquid /sup 3/He
Mitchell, R.; Eastop, A.D.; Faraj, E.; Hook, J.R.
1986-07-01
By observing the diffusion of a heat pulse along a 10-cm column of normal liquid /sup 3/He with the aid of two vibrating wire thermometers, it has been possible to measure the heat capacity C and thermal conductivity K of the liquid in the temperature range from T /sub c/ to 10 mK and at pressures of 0.21, 4.39, 9.97, 20.01, and 29.32 bar. By using a Pt NMR thermometer, an LCMN thermometer, and a /sup 3/He melting curve thermometer calibrated using the melting curve given by Greywall in 1983, a temperature scale has been established and (1) it has been shown that this melting curve is consistent in the temperature range 5-22 mK with the Korringa law for the Pt thermometer with a Korringa constant of 29.8 +/- 0.2 sec mK, (2) departures have been observed from the Curie-Weiss law for LCMN at low temperatures, and (3) values of the superfluid transition temperature have been obtained that are about 4% lower than the Helsinki values. The measured heat capacities agree well with those of Greywall, but values of KT are higher than those of Greywall and show more temperature dependence below 10mK. The implications for the present results of the very different melting curve given by Greywall in 1985 are discussed in an Appendix.
Sarman, Sten; Laaksonen, Aatto
2013-03-14
The lack of a centre of inversion in a cholesteric liquid crystal allows linear cross couplings between thermodynamic forces and fluxes that are polar vectors and pseudovectors, respectively. This makes it possible for a temperature gradient parallel to the cholesteric axis to induce a torque that rotates the director, a phenomenon known as the Lehmann effect or thermomechanical coupling. The converse is also possible: a torque applied parallel to the cholesteric axis rotates the director and drives a heat flow. In order to study this phenomenon, nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulation algorithms and Green-Kubo relations evaluated by equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation have been used to calculate the Leslie coefficient, i.e. the cross coupling coefficient between the temperature gradient and the director angular velocity, for a model system composed of soft prolate ellipsoids of revolution interacting via the Gay-Berne potential augmented by a chiral interaction potential causing the formation of a cholesteric phase. It is found that the Leslie coefficient is two orders of magnitudes smaller than other transport coefficients such as the heat conductivity and the twist viscosity, so that very long simulations are required to evaluate it. The Leslie coefficient decreases with the pitch but it has not been possible to determine the exact functional dependence of this coefficient on the pitch. Since very long simulations have been performed to evaluate the Leslie coefficient, very accurate values have been obtained for the twist viscosity and the heat conductivity as a by-product and it is found that they are very similar to the values of the corresponding quantities in the achiral nematic phase that arises when the pitch goes to infinity. PMID:23223192
Hendricks, L J; Zobrist, S P
1981-05-15
A method is described for the evaluation of the Gaussian curve parameters needed for the description of the temperature distribution of the heated spot produced on a target substrate by a well-focused laser beam, using an optical pyrometer to read the weighted average temperatures from two distinct distances. The parameter so found gave a calculated distribution curve in excellent agreement with experimental determinations of that distribution. PMID:20332849
Achanta, Vamsee Satish
2004-09-30
AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF ENDWALL HEAT TRANSFER ENHANCEMENT FOR FLOW PAST STAGGERED NON-CONDUCTING PIN FIN ARRAYS A Thesis by VAMSEE SATISH ACHANTA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2003 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF ENDWALL HEAT TRANSFER ENHANCEMENT FOR FLOW PAST STAGGERED NON-CONDUCTING PIN FIN ARRAYS A Thesis by VAMSEE...
Analysis of heat conduction in a drum brake system of the wheeled armored personnel carriers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Puncioiu, A. M.; Truta, M.; Vedinas, I.; Marinescu, M.; Vinturis, V.
2015-11-01
This paper is an integrated study performed over the Braking System of the Wheeled Armored Personnel Carriers. It mainly aims to analyze the heat transfer process which is present in almost any industrial and natural process. The vehicle drum brake systems can generate extremely high temperatures under high but short duration braking loads or under relatively light but continuous braking. For the proper conduct of the special vehicles mission in rough terrain, we are talking about, on one hand, the importance of the possibility of immobilization and retaining position and, on the other hand, during the braking process, the importance movement stability and reversibility or reversibility, to an encounter with an obstacle. Heat transfer processes influence the performance of the braking system. In the braking phase, kinetic energy transforms into thermal energy resulting in intense heating and high temperature states of analyzed vehicle wheels. In the present work a finite element model for the temperature distribution in a brake drum is developed, by employing commercial finite element software, ANSYS. These structural and thermal FEA models will simulate entire braking event. The heat generated during braking causes distortion which modifies thermoelastic contact pressure distribution drum-shoe interface. In order to capture the effect of heat, a transient thermal analysis is performed in order to predict the temperature distribution transitional brake components. Drum brakes are checked both mechanical and thermal. These tests aim to establish their sustainability in terms of wear and the variation coefficient of friction between the friction surfaces with increasing temperature. Modeling using simulation programs led eventually to the establishment of actual thermal load of the mechanism of brake components. It was drawn the efficiency characteristic by plotting the coefficient of effectiveness relative to the coefficient of friction shoe-drum. Thus induced thermal loads determine thermo mechanical behavior of the structure of wheels. Study the transfer of heat generated during braking is useful because results can improve and validate existing theory or may lead to the development of a mathematical model to simulate the behavior of the brake system for various tactical and operational situations. Conclusions of this paper are relevant because theoretical data analysis results are validated by experimental research.
Nathenson, Menuel; Tilling, Robert I.
1993-01-01
A steady-state solution for heat transfer from an isothermal, spherical magma chamber, with an imposed regional geothermal gradient far from the chamber, is developed. The extensive published heat-flow data set for Mount Hood, Oregon, is dominated by conductive heat transfer in the deeper parts of most drill holes and provides an ideal application of such a model. Magma-chamber volumes or depths needed to match the distribution of heat-flow data are larger or shallower than those inferred from geologic evidence.
Sapelkin, V.A.; Sergeev, Yu.V.
1988-03-01
The conjugate problem of nonsteady heat transfer between a laminar boundary layer with a pressure gradient and a wall with stepwise change in its thermophysical properties (heat conduction and volume specific heat) in the longitudinal direction is solved by the finite-difference method for an incompressible liquid and a wall whose internal surface is heat insulated. The results of the calculations show that the reaction of the thermal boundary layer to discontinuity in the thermophysical properties of the wall is nonunique and multi-parametric. Since these parameters determine the thickness of the thermal boundary layer it may be concluded that thin thermal boundary layers react more strongly than thick layers.
Anomalous heat-kernel decay for random walk among bounded random conductances
Noam Berger; Marek Biskup; Christopher E. Hoffman; Gady Kozma
2007-06-26
We consider the nearest-neighbor simple random walk on $\\Z^d$, $d\\ge2$, driven by a field of bounded random conductances $\\omega_{xy}\\in[0,1]$. The conductance law is i.i.d. subject to the condition that the probability of $\\omega_{xy}>0$ exceeds the threshold for bond percolation on $\\Z^d$. For environments in which the origin is connected to infinity by bonds with positive conductances, we study the decay of the $2n$-step return probability $P_\\omega^{2n}(0,0)$. We prove that $P_\\omega^{2n}(0,0)$ is bounded by a random constant times $n^{-d/2}$ in $d=2,3$, while it is $o(n^{-2})$ in $d\\ge5$ and $O(n^{-2}\\log n)$ in $d=4$. By producing examples with anomalous heat-kernel decay approaching $1/n^2$ we prove that the $o(n^{-2})$ bound in $d\\ge5$ is the best possible. We also construct natural $n$-dependent environments that exhibit the extra $\\log n$ factor in $d=4$. See also math.PR/0701248.
Zhijie Xu
2014-07-01
We present a new stochastic analysis for steady and transient one-dimensional heat conduction problem based on the homogenization approach. Thermal conductivity is assumed to be a random field K consisting of random variables of a total number N. Both steady and transient solutions T are expressed in terms of the homogenized solution (symbol) and its spatial derivatives (equation), where homogenized solution (symbol) is obtained by solving the homogenized equation with effective thermal conductivity. Both mean and variance of stochastic solutions can be obtained analytically for K field consisting of independent identically distributed (i.i.d) random variables. The mean and variance of T are shown to be dependent only on the mean and variance of these i.i.d variables, not the particular form of probability distribution function of i.i.d variables. Variance of temperature field T can be separated into two contributions: the ensemble contribution (through the homogenized temperature (symbol)); and the configurational contribution (through the random variable Ln(x)Ln(x)). The configurational contribution is shown to be proportional to the local gradient of (symbol). Large uncertainty of T field was found at locations with large gradient of (symbol) due to the significant configurational contributions at these locations. Numerical simulations were implemented based on a direct Monte Carlo method and good agreement is obtained between numerical Monte Carlo results and the proposed stochastic analysis.
LDEF (Flight), AO076 : Cascade Variable-Conductance Heat Pipe, Tray F09
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1990-01-01
LDEF (Flight), AO076 : Cascade Variable-Conductance Heat Pipe, Tray F09 EL-1994-00020 LDEF (Flight), AO076 : Cascade Variable-Conductance Heat Pipe, Tray F09 The flight photograph of the Cascade Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Experiment (CVCHPE) was taken while the LDEF was attached to the Orbiter's RMS arm prior to berthing in the Orbiter's cargo bay. The white paint dots on the center clamp blocks of the experiment trays right flange and lower flange appear to be slightly discolored. The LDEF structure, top intercostal, has a dark brown discoloration adjacent to the black thermal panel. Aluminum particles from the degraded CVCHPE thermal blanket are also visible in this area. The Cascade Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Experiment (CVCHPE) occupies a 6 inch deep LDEF peripheral experiment tray and consist of two series connected variable conductance heatpipes, a black chrome solar collector panel and a silvered TEFLON® radiator panel, a power source to support six thermistor-type temperature monitoring sensors and actuations of two valves. Fiberglass standoffs and internal insulation blankets thermally isolated the experiment from the experiment tray and the LDEF interior. The outside of the CVCHPE, except the collector and radiator panels, was covered with an aluminumized Kapton multilayer insulation (MLI) blanket with an outer layer of 0.076 mm thick Kapton. The two patches of thin film materials, part of an atomic oxygen experiment (see S1001) by NASA GSFC, were attached to the cover of the external thermal blanket with Kapton tape. The experiment was assembled and mounted in the experiment tray with non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners. The external CVCHPE materials have changed significantly. The Kapton on the thermal blanket aluminized Kapton cover appears to be completely eroded, except under Kel-F buttons used to secure the blanket, leaving only the very thin vapor deposited aluminum coating as a cover. Parts of the aluminum coating residue has moved to cover a portion of the black solar absorber panel and also areas of the trays upper and lower flanges. The shadow on the tray lower flange would indicate that the aluminum extends several inches out of the tray envelope. One of the two thin film atomic oxygen experiment patches is gone and the other does not appear to be securely attached. The layer of Kapton tape over the thin film strips appears to be eroded with only the adhesive remaining. The remaining atomic oxygen experiment materials have changed colors and most appear to be severely degraded. The silvered TEFLON® coating of the radiator panel appears diffuse with a light brown discoloration over most of the surface. The white, evenly spaced, discolorations along the vertical centerline and across the top of the panel appear to be above counter sunk flat head screws used to assemble the experiment. The black spots on the radiator panel appear to be impact craters where the impact penetrated the TEFLON® material and exposed the silver beneath to the atomic oxygen flux. Particles of the degraded thermal blanket material appear to be adhered to the surface of the radiator panel.
Hosseini Koupaie, E; Eskicioglu, C
2015-07-01
This research provides a comprehensive comparison between microwave (MW) and conductive heating (CH) sludge pretreatments under identical heating/cooling profiles at below and above boiling point temperatures. Previous comparison studies were constrained to an uncontrolled or a single heating rate due to lack of a CH equipment simulating MW under identical thermal profiles. In this research, a novel custom-built pressure-sealed vessel which could simulate MW pretreatment under identical heating/cooling profiles was used for CH pretreatment. No statistically significant difference was proven between MW and CH pretreatments in terms of sludge solubilization, anaerobic biogas yield and organics biodegradation rate (p-value>0.05), while statistically significant effects of temperature and heating rate were observed (p-value<0.05). These results explain the contradictory results of previous studies in which only the final temperature (not heating/cooling rates) was controlled. PMID:25863200
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Muraki, T.; Masubuchi, K.
1974-01-01
Reduced gravity does not significantly affect the thermal histories in the M551 specimen, even if molten metal flow pattern is different from that in terrestrial conditions. Thermal histories corresponding to terrestrial experimental conditions were calculated by use of the computer programs. Heat conduction through brazing alloy (M552 experiment) is improved in the Skylab conditions, because of the increased extent, rate and uniformity of braze spreading in space. Effects of reduced gravity on heat flow in the M553 specimen are insignificant, because convection effects appear instantaneously and conduction is a governing factor on the heat flow.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhu, Dong-Ming; Miller, Robert A.
2004-01-01
The development of low conductivity and high temperature capable thermal barrier coatings requires advanced testing techniques that can accurately and effectively evaluate coating thermal conductivity under future high-performance and low-emission engine heat-flux conditions. In this paper, a unique steady-state CO2 laser (wavelength 10.6 microns) heat-flux approach is described for determining the thermal conductivity and conductivity deduced cyclic durability of ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coating systems at very high temperatures (up to 1700 C) under large thermal gradients. The thermal conductivity behavior of advanced thermal and environmental barrier coatings for metallic and Si-based ceramic matrix composite (CMC) component applications has also been investigated using the laser conductivity approach. The relationships between the lattice and radiation conductivities as a function of heat flux and thermal gradient at high temperatures have been examined for the ceramic coating systems. The steady-state laser heat-flux conductivity approach has been demonstrated as a viable means for the development and life prediction of advanced thermal barrier coatings for future turbine engine applications.
Lisbon, University of
and the project GACR 201/05/0164. 1 #12;2 Bul´icek, Consiglieri, M´alek the heat conductivity coefficient, the heat conductivity coefficient ~k is a function of e and xe, and the viscosity ~ depends on eSlip boundary effects on unsteady flows of incompressible viscous heat conducting fluids with a non
Politi, Antonio
Heat conduction of the hard point chain at zero pressure This article has been downloaded from.Stat.Mech.(2011)P03028 ournal of Statistical Mechanics: J Theory and Experiment Heat conduction of the hard point conduction c 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd and SISSA 1742-5468/11/P03028+12$33.00 #12;J.Stat.Mech.(2011)P03028 Heat
Maruyama, Shigeo
Molecular Dynamics of Diffusive-Ballistic Heat Conduction in Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes of heat conduction characteristics of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) is one of the primary issues towards their thermal and electric device applications. In this study, diffusive-ballistic heat conduction
Glass, Micheal W.; Hogan, Roy E., Jr.; Gartling, David K.
2010-03-01
The need for the engineering analysis of systems in which the transport of thermal energy occurs primarily through a conduction process is a common situation. For all but the simplest geometries and boundary conditions, analytic solutions to heat conduction problems are unavailable, thus forcing the analyst to call upon some type of approximate numerical procedure. A wide variety of numerical packages currently exist for such applications, ranging in sophistication from the large, general purpose, commercial codes, such as COMSOL, COSMOSWorks, ABAQUS and TSS to codes written by individuals for specific problem applications. The original purpose for developing the finite element code described here, COYOTE, was to bridge the gap between the complex commercial codes and the more simplistic, individual application programs. COYOTE was designed to treat most of the standard conduction problems of interest with a user-oriented input structure and format that was easily learned and remembered. Because of its architecture, the code has also proved useful for research in numerical algorithms and development of thermal analysis capabilities. This general philosophy has been retained in the current version of the program, COYOTE, Version 5.0, though the capabilities of the code have been significantly expanded. A major change in the code is its availability on parallel computer architectures and the increase in problem complexity and size that this implies. The present document describes the theoretical and numerical background for the COYOTE program. This volume is intended as a background document for the user's manual. Potential users of COYOTE are encouraged to become familiar with the present report and the simple example analyses reported in before using the program. The theoretical and numerical background for the finite element computer program, COYOTE, is presented in detail. COYOTE is designed for the multi-dimensional analysis of nonlinear heat conduction problems. A general description of the boundary value problems treated by the program is presented. The finite element formulation and the associated numerical methods used in COYOTE are also outlined. Instructions for use of the code are documented in SAND2010-0714.
High Conductivity Carbon-Carbon Heat Pipes for Light Weight Space Power System Radiators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Juhasz, Albert J.
2008-01-01
Based on prior successful fabrication and demonstration testing of a carbon-carbon heat pipe radiator element with integral fins this paper examines the hypothetical extension of the technology via substitution of high thermal conductivity composites which would permit increasing fin length while still maintaining high fin effectiveness. As a result the specific radiator mass could approach an ultimate asymptotic minimum value near 1.0 kg/m2, which is less than one fourth the value of present day satellite radiators. The implied mass savings would be even greater for high capacity space and planetary surface power systems, which may require radiator areas ranging from hundreds to thousands of square meters, depending on system power level.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheremet, Mikhail A.; Miroshnichenko, Igor V.
2015-11-01
Three-dimensional transient natural convection in a cubic enclosure having finite thickness solid walls subject to opposing and horizontal temperature gradient has been investigated by a finite volume method. The turbulent flow considered into the volume is described mathematically by the 3D Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations using the standard k-? model with wall functions, including the energy equation. The velocity and temperature distributions were calculated at fixed Prandtl number, Pr = 0.7 and different values of the Rayleigh number, thermal conductivity ratio and dimensionless time. Three-dimensional velocity and temperature fields, temperature profiles at middle cross-sections and average Nusselt numbers have been presented. It has been found that an insertion of the third coordinate for the conjugate problem leads to a decrease in the average Nusselt number by 5.8 % in conditions of a stationary heat transfer mode.
Response-coefficient method for heat-conduction transients with time-dependent inputs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ceylan, Tamer
1993-01-01
A theoretical overview of the response coefficient method for heat conduction transients with time-dependent input forcing functions is presented with a number of illustrative applications. The method may be the most convenient and economical if the same problem is to be solved many times with different input-time histories or if the solution time is relatively long. The method is applicable to a wide variety of problems, including irregular geometries, position-dependent boundary conditions, position-dependent physical properties, and nonperiodic irregular input histories. Nonuniform internal energy generation rates within the structure can also be handled by the method. The area of interest is long-time solutions, in which initial condition is unimportant, and not the early transient period. The method can be applied to one dimensional problems in cartesian, cylindrical, and spherical coordinates as well as to two dimensional problems in cartesian and cylindrical coordinates.
Effect of the time window on the heat-conduction information filtering model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Qiang; Song, Wen-Jun; Hou, Lei; Zhang, Yi-Lu; Liu, Jian-Guo
2014-05-01
Recommendation systems have been proposed to filter out the potential tastes and preferences of the normal users online, however, the physics of the time window effect on the performance is missing, which is critical for saving the memory and decreasing the computation complexity. In this paper, by gradually expanding the time window, we investigate the impact of the time window on the heat-conduction information filtering model with ten similarity measures. The experimental results on the benchmark dataset Netflix indicate that by only using approximately 11.11% recent rating records, the accuracy could be improved by an average of 33.16% and the diversity could be improved by 30.62%. In addition, the recommendation performance on the dataset MovieLens could be preserved by only considering approximately 10.91% recent records. Under the circumstance of improving the recommendation performance, our discoveries possess significant practical value by largely reducing the computational time and shortening the data storage space.
W. Vieser; G. Hensler
2007-09-05
Shortened version: The fate of IS clouds embedded in a hot tenuous medium depends on whether the clouds suffer from evaporation or whether material condensates onto them. Analytical solutions for the rate of evaporative mass loss from an isolated spherical cloud embedded in a hot tenuous gas are deduced by Cowie & McKee (1977). In order to test the validity of the analytical results for more realistic IS conditions the full hydrodynamical equations must be treated. Therefore, 2D numerical simulations of the evolution of IS clouds %are performed with different internal density structures and surrounded by a hot plasma reservoir. Self-gravity, interstellar heating and cooling effects and heat conduction by electrons are added. Classical thermal conductivity of a fully ionized hydrogen plasma and saturated heat flux are considered. Using pure hydrodynamics and classical heat flux we can reproduce the analytical results. Heat flux saturation reduces the evaporation rate by one order of magnitude below the analytical value. The evolution changes totally for more realistic conditions when interstellar heating and cooling effects stabilize the self-gravity. Evaporation then turns into condensation, because the additional energy by heat conduction can be transported away from the interface and radiated off efficiently from the cloud's inner parts. I.e. that the saturated heat flux consideration is inevitable for IS clouds embedded in hot tenuous gas. Various consequences are discussed in the paper.
Steady-state heat conduction in multilayered composite plates and shells
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Noor, A. K.; Burton, W. S.
1991-01-01
A study is made of a predictor-corrector procedure for the accurate determination of the temperature and heat flux distributions in thick multilayered composite plates and shells. A linear through-the-thickness temperature distribution is used in the predictor phase. The functional dependence of temperature on the thickness coordinate is then calculated a posteriori and used in the corrector phase. Extensive numerical results are presented for linear steady-state heat conduction problems, showing the effects of variation in the geometric and lamination parameters on the accuracy of the thermal response predictions of the predictor-corrector approach. Both antisymmetrically laminated anisotropic plates and multilayered orthotropic cylinders are considered. The solutions are assumed to be periodic in the surface coordinates. For each problem the standard of comparison is taken to be the analytic three-dimensional solution based on treating each layer as a homogeneous anisotropic medium. The potential of the predictor-corrector approach for predicting the thermal response of multilayered plates and shells with complicated geometry is discussed.
Woodbury, K.A.; Boohaker, C.G.
1996-12-31
Determination of thermal properties by inverse methods often involves limited thermal excitation of a relatively small sample. If these thermal properties are to be found as functions of temperature, then this procedure must be replicated at several artificially elevated temperatures. For some types of materials (for example, those bearing moisture) this approach is impractical. In this paper, a procedure is developed for determining thermal properties (conductivity k and volumetric heat capacity C {equivalent_to} {rho}c{sub p}) as functions of temperature from a single experiment. This procedure is targeted for determination of k(T) and C(T) for sand molds used in castings. An inverse method based on a Gauss linearization is used to estimate these functions. The experiment used to determine these properties consists of heating a one-dimensional specimen of the material from one end. The variation of thermal properties with temperature is assumed to be a piecewise linear function, with values of properties to be determined at prescribed temperatures. A numerical experiment is used to demonstrate the technique.
Thermal conductivity and heat transport properties of nitrogen-doped graphene.
Goharshadi, Elaheh K; Mahdizadeh, Sayyed Jalil
2015-11-01
In the present study, the thermal conductivity (TC) and heat transport properties of nitrogen doped graphene (N-graphene) were investigated as a function of temperature (107-400K) and N-doped concentration (0.0-7.0%) using equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation based on Green-Kubo method. According to the results, a drastic decline in TC of graphene observed at very low N-doped concentration (0.5 and 1.0%). Substitution of just 1.0% of carbon atoms with nitrogens causes a 77.2, 65.4, 59.2, and 53.7% reduction in TC at 107, 200, 300, and 400K, respectively. The values of TC of N-graphene at different temperatures approach to each other as N-doped concentration increases. The results also indicate that TC of N-graphene is much less sensitive to temperature compared with pristine graphene and the sensitivity decreases as N-doped concentration increases. The phonon-phonon scattering relaxation times and the phonon mean free path of phonons were also calculated. The contribution of high frequency optical phonons for pristine graphene and N-graphene with 7.0% N-doped concentration is 0-2% and 4-8%, respectively. These findings imply that it is potentially feasible to control heat transfer on the nanoscale when designing N-graphene based thermal devices. PMID:26386455
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.; Nagaraj, Ben A.; Bruce, Robert W.
2000-01-01
The thermal conductivity of electron beam-physical vapor deposited (EB-PVD) Zr02-8wt%Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings was determined by a steady-state heat flux laser technique. Thermal conductivity change kinetics of the EB-PVD ceramic coatings were also obtained in real time, at high temperatures, under the laser high heat flux, long term test conditions. The thermal conductivity increase due to micro-pore sintering and the decrease due to coating micro-delaminations in the EB-PVD coatings were evaluated for grooved and non-grooved EB-PVD coating systems under isothermal and thermal cycling conditions. The coating failure modes under the high heat flux test conditions were also investigated. The test technique provides a viable means for obtaining coating thermal conductivity data for use in design, development, and life prediction for engine applications.
Influence of heat conductivity on the performance of RTV SIR coatings with different fillers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siderakis, K.; Agoris, D.; Gubanski, S.
2005-10-01
Room temperature vulcanized silicone rubber (RTV SIR) coatings are employed in order to improve the pollution performance of high voltage ceramic insulators by imparting surface hydrophobicity. In this paper, the performance of three RTV SIR coatings containing different fillers is investigated in a salt-fog test. Alumina trihydrate (ATH) and silica are the fillers included in the formulation, aiming to increase the material endurance to the energy supplied by the surface electrical activity during periods of hydrophobicity loss. The primary action of these fillers is to increase the material heat conductivity, i.e. the amount of energy conducted to the substrate. In addition, in the case of ATH relief is also achieved due to particle decomposition. The results indicate that for the compositions commercially available, where low amounts of fillers are used, and under the conditions of the test, ATH filled coatings performed better than the silica filled ones. This is attributed to ATH decomposition which further relieves the material structure and therefore decelerates material aging.
Nanoparticle synergies in modifying thermal conductivity for heat exchanger in condensing boilers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Kai; He, Shan; Butcher, Thomas; Trojanowski, Rebecca; Sun, Ning; Gersappe, Dilip; Rafailovich, Miriam
2013-03-01
The heat exchanger we are using for condensing boilers is mainly made from aluminum alloys and stainless steel. However, the metal is relatively expensive and corrosion together with maintenance is also a big problem. Therefore, we have developed a new design and material which contain carbon black, carbon nanotube, aluminum oxide and graphene as additives in polypropylene. When multiple types of particles can be melt blended simultaneously and synergies can be achieved, imparting particles to the nanocomposite, achieved much higher thermal conductivity rather than single additive. Here we show the flame retardant nanocomposite which can pass the UL-94-V0 vertical burning test, perform nice in Cone Calorimetry Test and has relatively good mechanical properties. SEM images of the blend show that the Carbon nanobute and other additives well dispersed within the polymer matrix which match our computational calculation for getting the percolation to achieve thermal conductivity around 1.5W/m .K rather than 0.23W/m .K as pure polypropylene. Haydale/Cheap Tubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stranne, Christian; O'Regan, Matt
2015-10-01
A basic premise in marine heat flow studies is that the temperature gradient varies with depth as a function of the bulk thermal conductivity of the sediments. As sediments become more deeply buried, compaction reduces the porosity and causes an increase in the bulk thermal conductivity. Therefore, while the heat flow may remain constant with depth, the thermal gradient is not necessarily linear. However, it has been argued that measurements showing increased sediment thermal conductivity with burial depth may be caused by a horizontal measurement bias generated by increasing anisotropy in sediments during consolidation. This study reanalyses a synthesis of Ocean Drilling Program data from 186 boreholes, and investigates the occurrence of nonlinear geothermal gradients in marine sediments. The aim is to identify whether observed downhole changes in thermal conductivity influence the measured temperature gradient, and to investigate potential errors in the prediction of in-situ temperatures derived from the extrapolation of near-surface thermal gradients. The results indicate that the measured thermal conductivity does influence the geothermal gradient. Furthermore, comparisons between shallow measurements (<10 m) from surface heat flow surveys and the deeply constrained temperature data from 98 ODP boreholes indicate that the shallow gradients are consistently higher by on average 19 °C km-1. This is consistent with higher porosity and generally lower thermal conductivity in near-seafloor sediments, and highlights the need to develop robust porosity-thermal conductivity models to accurately predict temperatures at depth from shallow heat flow surveys.
Expansion of a radial jet from a guillotine tube breach in a shell-and-tube heat exchanger
Velasco, F.J.S.; del Pra, C. Lopez; Herranz, Luis E.
2008-02-15
Aerodynamics of a particle-laden gas jet entering the secondary side of a shell-and-tube heat exchanger from a tube guillotine breach, determines to a large extent radioactive retention in the break stage of the steam generator (SG) during hypothetical SGTR accident sequences in pressurized nuclear water reactors (PWRs). These scenarios were shown to be risk-dominant in PWRs. The major insights gained from a set of experiments into such aerodynamics are summarized in this paper. A scaled-down mock-up with representative dimensions of a real SG was built. Two-dimensional (2D) PIV technique was used to characterize the flow field in the space between the breach and the neighbor tubes in the gas flow range investigated (Re{sub D} = 0.8-2.7 x 10{sup 5}). Pitot tube measurements and CFD simulations were used to discuss and complement PIV data. The results, reported mainly in terms of velocity and turbulent intensity profiles, show that jet penetration and gas entrainment are considerably enhanced when increasing Re{sub D}. The presence of tubes was observed to distort the jet shape and to foster gas entrainment with respect to a jet expansion free of tubes. Turbulence intensity level close to the breach increases linearly with Re{sub D}. Account of this information into aerosol modeling will enhance predictive capability of inertial impaction and turbulent deposition equations. (author)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Labibzadeh, Mojtaba
2015-11-01
A new technique is used in Discrete Least Square Meshfree(DLSM) method to remove the common existing deficiencies of meshfree methods in handling of the problems containing cracks or concave boundaries. An enhanced Discrete Least Squares Meshless method named as VDLSM(Voronoi based Discrete Least Squares Meshless) is developed in order to solve the steady-state heat conduction problem in irregular solid domains including concave boundaries or cracks. Existing meshless methods cannot estimate precisely the required unknowns in the vicinity of the above mentioned boundaries. Conducted researches are limited to domains with regular convex boundaries. To this end, the advantages of the Voronoi tessellation algorithm are implemented. The support domains of the sampling points are determined using a Voronoi tessellation algorithm. For the weight functions, a cubic spline polynomial is used based on a normalized distance variable which can provide a high degree of smoothness near those mentioned above discontinuities. Finally, Moving Least Squares(MLS) shape functions are constructed using a varitional method. This straight-forward scheme can properly estimate the unknowns(in this particular study, the temperatures at the nodal points) near and on the crack faces, crack tip or concave boundaries without need to extra backward corrective procedures, i.e. the iterative calculations for modifying the shape functions of the nodes located near or on these types of the complex boundaries. The accuracy and efficiency of the presented method are investigated by analyzing four particular examples. Obtained results from VDLSM are compared with the available analytical results or with the results of the well-known Finite Elements Method(FEM) when an analytical solution is not available. By comparisons, it is revealed that the proposed technique gives high accuracy for the solution of the steady-state heat conduction problems within cracked domains or domains with concave boundaries and at the same time possesses a high convergence rate which its accuracy is not sensitive to the arrangement of the nodal points. The novelty of this paper is the use of Voronoi concept in determining the weight functions used in the formulation of the MLS type shape functions.
LDEF (Postflight), AO076 : Cascade Variable-Conductance Heat Pipe, Tray F09
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1990-01-01
LDEF (Postflight), AO076 : Cascade Variable-Conductance Heat Pipe, Tray F09 EL-1994-00354 LDEF (Postflight), AO076 : Cascade Variable-Conductance Heat Pipe, Tray F09 The postflight photograph was taken in the SAEF II at KSC prior to removal of the experiment from the LDEF. The color of the white paint dots on the exper- iment tray clamp blocks appear to be unchanged. The LDEF structure, the intercostal on the right, has a dark brown discoloration adjacent to the black Earth end thermal panel. Aluminum pieces of the degraded CVCHPE thermal cover that were shown lodged in the vent area between the intercostal and the black thermal panel in the flight photograph are gone. The Cascade Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Experiment (CVCHPE) occupies a 6 inch deep LDEF peripheral experiment tray and consist of two series connected variable conductance heatpipes, a black chrome solar collector panel and a silvered TEFLON® radiator panel, a power source to support six thermistor-type temperature monitoring sensors and actuations of two valves. Fiberglass standoffs and internal insulation blankets thermally isolated the experiment from the experiment tray and the LDEF interior. The outside of the CVCHPE, except the collector and radiator panels, was covered with an aluminized Kapton multilayer insulation (MLI) blanket with an outer layer of 0.076 mm thick Kapton. The two patches of thin film materials, part of Experiment S1001 by NASA GSFC, were attached to the cover of the external thermal blanket with Kapton tape. The experiment was assembled and mounted in the experiment tray with non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners. The external surface of the CVCHPE has changed from that observed in the flight photograph. The thin vapor deposited aluminum coating, left after the Kapton eroded, is essentially gone with only fragments left near the edges of the thermal blanket. Pieces of a layer of Dacron mesh (bridle vail) material, used to separate the thermal cover from the thermal blanket and between thermal blanket sheets of aluminized Kapton, are visible along the edges of the blanket and near Kel-F buttons used to secure the blanket. A large fragment of the material is folded over the left side of the radiator panel. The large area of discoloration on the right side of the black solar absorber panel appears to be approximately the same shape as the aluminum coating that covered the area in the flight photograph. The orientation of the remaining thin film atomic oxygen experiment patch would indicate that the patch is attached to the Dacron mesh and that the attachment is very fragile. The layer of Kapton tape that covered the ends of the thin film strips appears to be eroded with only the adhesive remaining. The remaining strips of the atomic oxygen experiment materials have changed colors and most appear to be severely degraded. The silvered TEFLON® coating of the radiator panel appears diffuse with a light brown discoloration over most of the surface. The white, evenly spaced, discolorations along the horizontal centerline and along the edges of the panel appear to be above counter sunk flat head screws used to assemble the experiment. The black spots on the radiator panel appear to be impact craters that penetrated the TEFLON® material and exposed the silver beneath to the atomic oxygen flux. Particles of the degraded thermal blanket material that appeared to adhere to the surface of the radiator panel in the flight photograph are gone.
Radiative thermal conductivity in obsidian and estimates of heat transfer in magma bodies
Stein, J.; Shankland, T.J.; Nitsan, U.
1981-05-10
The optical transmission spectra of four ryholitic obsidian samples were measured in order to determine the importance of radiative heat transfer in granite magmas. The spectra, obtained in the temperature range 20-800/sup 0/C, show that the radiative spectral window in these samples is limited by a charge transfer band in the UV (400 nm) and Si-O stretching overtone in the IR (4500 nm). Within this window the main obstacles to radiative transfer, in order of decreasing importance, are background scattering, a water band centered at 2800 nm, and an Fe/sup 2 +/ crystal field band at 1100 nm. Unlike crystalline silicates the absorption bands in obsidian do not broaden significantly as temperature increases. As a result, the temperature dependence of the calculated radiative thermal conductivity K/sub R/ is dominated by the T/sup ..beta../ term. Actual values of K/sub R/ increase from 9 x 10/sup -5/ to 1 x 1/sup -3/ cal cm/sup -1/ s/sup -1/ deg/sup -1/ between 300/sup 0/ and 800/sup 0/C, the high-temperature value being comparable to the lattice thermal conductivity in obsidian and a lower limit for K/sub R/ in granitic melts. As the scattering coefficient in melts is probably significantly lower than in obsidian, the radiative conductivity in active plutons is likely to be much higher. As an example, if scattering and the water band are removed from the observed spectra of the obsidian samples, calculated values of K/sub R/ could increase by a factor of 5, to about 5 x 10/sup -3/ cal cm/sup -1/ s/sup -1/ deg/sup -1/ at 1000/sup 0/C.
Rana, Sohel; Kanesan, Jeevan; Reza, Ahmed Wasif; Ramiah, Harikrishnan
2014-01-01
Non-Fourier heat conduction model with dual phase lag wave-diffusion model was analyzed by using well-conditioned asymptotic wave evaluation (WCAWE) and finite element method (FEM). The non-Fourier heat conduction has been investigated where the maximum likelihood (ML) and Tikhonov regularization technique were used successfully to predict the accurate and stable temperature responses without the loss of initial nonlinear/high frequency response. To reduce the increased computational time by Tikhonov WCAWE using ML (TWCAWE-ML), another well-conditioned scheme, called mass effect (ME) T-WCAWE, is introduced. TWCAWE with ME (TWCAWE-ME) showed more stable and accurate temperature spectrum in comparison to asymptotic wave evaluation (AWE) and also partial Pade AWE without sacrificing the computational time. However, the TWCAWE-ML remains as the most stable and hence accurate model to analyze the fast transient thermal analysis of non-Fourier heat conduction model. PMID:25019096
Reza, Ahmed Wasif
2014-01-01
Non-Fourier heat conduction model with dual phase lag wave-diffusion model was analyzed by using well-conditioned asymptotic wave evaluation (WCAWE) and finite element method (FEM). The non-Fourier heat conduction has been investigated where the maximum likelihood (ML) and Tikhonov regularization technique were used successfully to predict the accurate and stable temperature responses without the loss of initial nonlinear/high frequency response. To reduce the increased computational time by Tikhonov WCAWE using ML (TWCAWE-ML), another well-conditioned scheme, called mass effect (ME) T-WCAWE, is introduced. TWCAWE with ME (TWCAWE-ME) showed more stable and accurate temperature spectrum in comparison to asymptotic wave evaluation (AWE) and also partial Pade AWE without sacrificing the computational time. However, the TWCAWE-ML remains as the most stable and hence accurate model to analyze the fast transient thermal analysis of non-Fourier heat conduction model. PMID:25019096
Conductive heat flux in VC-1 and the thermal regime of Valles caldera, Jemez Mountains, New Mexico
Sass, J.H.; Morgan, P.
1988-06-10
Over 5% of heat in the western United States is lost through Quaternary silicic volcanic centers, including the Valles caldera in north central New Mexico. These centers are the sites of major hydrothermal activity and upper crystal metamorphism, metasomatism, and mineralization, producing associated geothermal resources. We present new heat flow data from Valles caldera core hole 1 (VC-1), drilled in the southwestern margin of the Valles caldera. Thermal conductivities were measured on 55 segments of core from VC-1, waxed and wrapped to preserve fluids. These values were combined with temperature gradient data to calculate heat flow. Above 335 m, which is probably unsaturated, heat flow is 247 +- 16 mW m/sup -2/. The only deep temperature information available is from an uncalibrated commercial log made 19 months after drilling. Gradients, derived from uncalibrated temperature logs, and conductivities are inversely correlated between 335 and 737 m, indicating a conductive thermal regime, and component heat fluxes over three depth intervals (335--539 m, 549--628 m, and 628--737 m) are in excellent agreement with each other with an average of 504 +- 15 mW m/sup -2/. Temperature logs to 518 m depth with well-calibrated temperature sensors result in a revised heat flow of 463 +- 15 mW m. We use shallow thermal gradient data from 75 other sites in and around the caldera to interpret the thermal regime at the VC-1 site. A critical review of published thermal conductivity data from the Valles caldera yields an average thermal conductivity of greater than or equal to1 W m/sup -1/ K/sup -1/ for the near-surface tuffaceous material, and we assume that shallow gradient values (/sup 0/C km/sup -1/) are approximately numerically equal to heat flow (mW m/sup -2/).
Stacey, W. M.
2014-04-15
A moments equation formalism for the interpretation of the experimental ion thermal diffusivity from experimental data is used to determine the radial ion thermal conduction flux that must be used to interpret the measured data. It is shown that the total ion energy flux must be corrected for thermal and rotational energy convection, for the work done by the flowing plasma against the pressure and viscosity, and for ion orbit loss of particles and energy, and expressions are presented for these corrections. Each of these factors is shown to have a significant effect on the interpreted ion thermal diffusivity in a representative DIII-D [J. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)] discharge.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.
1990-01-01
The development of low conductivity, robust thermal and environmental barrier coatings requires advanced testing techniques that can accurately and effectively evaluate coating thermal conductivity and cyclic resistance at very high surface temperatures (up to 17OOOC) under large thermal gradients. In this study, a laser high-heat-flux test approach is established for evaluating advanced low conductivity, ultra-high temperature ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings under the NASA Ultra Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) program. The test approach emphasizes the real-time monitoring and assessment of the coating thermal conductivity: the initial conductivity rise under a steady-state high temperature thermal gradient test due to coating sintering, and the later coating conductivity reduction under a subsequent cyclic thermal gradient test due to coating cracking/delamination. The coating system is then evaluated based on the damage accumulations and failure after the combined steady-state and cyclic thermal gradient tests. The lattice and radiation thermal conductivity of advanced ceramic coatings can also be evaluated using laser heat-flux techniques. The coating external radiation resistance is assessed based on the measured specimen temperature response under a laser heated intense radiation flux source. The coating internal radiation contribution is investigated based on the measured apparent coating conductivity increases with the coating surface test temperature under large thermal gradient test conditions. Since an increased radiation contribution is observed at these very high surface test temperatures, by varying the laser heat-flux and coating average test temperature, the complex relation between the lattice and radiation conductivity as a function of surface and interface test temperature is derived.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Honqing; Tang, Jinlan
The coupling calculation method of ablation and the temperature field of the silica-phenolics lining in the divergent portion of solid rocket nozzles is discussed. The unsteady liquid layer ablative model of this lining, in which liquid, charred and pyrolitic layers are formed under high temperature, is used. The transient heat conductive model in cylindrical coordinate system is used for calculation of the temperature field, and the problem of moving boundaries caused by ablation is treated by the method of coordinate transformation. Utilizing the energy equation on the ablative boundary, the equations of ablation and heat conduction are coupled and solved so that more precise predicted calculation results are obtained.
Aamir, Muhammad; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun; Aqeel-ur-Rehman; Wang, Hong
2014-01-01
An experimental study was carried out to investigate the effects of inlet pressure, sample thickness, initial sample temperature, and temperature sensor location on the surface heat flux, surface temperature, and surface ultrafast cooling rate using stainless steel samples of diameter 27?mm and thickness (mm) 8.5, 13, 17.5, and 22, respectively. Inlet pressure was varied from 0.2?MPa to 1.8?MPa, while sample initial temperature varied from 600°C to 900°C. Beck's sequential function specification method was utilized to estimate surface heat flux and surface temperature. Inlet pressure has a positive effect on surface heat flux (SHF) within a critical value of pressure. Thickness of the sample affects the maximum achieved SHF negatively. Surface heat flux as high as 0.4024?MW/m2 was estimated for a thickness of 8.5?mm. Insulation effects of vapor film become apparent in the sample initial temperature range of 900°C causing reduction in surface heat flux and cooling rate of the sample. A sensor location near to quenched surface is found to be a better choice to visualize the effects of spray parameters on surface heat flux and surface temperature. Cooling rate showed a profound increase for an inlet pressure of 0.8?MPa. PMID:24977219
Aamir, Muhammad; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun; Aqeel-ur-Rehman; Wang, Hong; Zubair, Muhammad
2014-01-01
An experimental study was carried out to investigate the effects of inlet pressure, sample thickness, initial sample temperature, and temperature sensor location on the surface heat flux, surface temperature, and surface ultrafast cooling rate using stainless steel samples of diameter 27 mm and thickness (mm) 8.5, 13, 17.5, and 22, respectively. Inlet pressure was varied from 0.2 MPa to 1.8 MPa, while sample initial temperature varied from 600°C to 900°C. Beck's sequential function specification method was utilized to estimate surface heat flux and surface temperature. Inlet pressure has a positive effect on surface heat flux (SHF) within a critical value of pressure. Thickness of the sample affects the maximum achieved SHF negatively. Surface heat flux as high as 0.4024 MW/m(2) was estimated for a thickness of 8.5 mm. Insulation effects of vapor film become apparent in the sample initial temperature range of 900°C causing reduction in surface heat flux and cooling rate of the sample. A sensor location near to quenched surface is found to be a better choice to visualize the effects of spray parameters on surface heat flux and surface temperature. Cooling rate showed a profound increase for an inlet pressure of 0.8 MPa. PMID:24977219
T. Hadgu; S. Webb; M. Itamura
2004-02-12
Yucca Mountain, Nevada has been designated as the nation's high-level radioactive waste repository and the U.S. Department of Energy has been approved to apply to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission for a license to construct a repository. Heat transfer in the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) drift enclosures is an important aspect of repository waste emplacement. Canisters containing radioactive waste are to be emplaced in tunnels drilled 500 m below the ground surface. After repository closure, decaying heat is transferred from waste packages to the host rock by a combination of thermal radiation, natural convection and conduction heat transfer mechanism?. Current YMP mountain-scale and drift-scale numerical models often use a simplified porous medium code to model fluid and heat flow in the drift openings. To account for natural convection heat transfer, the thermal conductivity of the air was increased in the porous medium model. The equivalent thermal conductivity, defined as the ratio of total heat flow to conductive heat flow, used in the porous media models was based on horizontal concentric cylinders. Such modeling does not effectively capture turbulent natural convection in the open spaces as discussed by Webb et al. (2003) yet the approach is still widely used on the YMP project. In order to mechanistically model natural convection conditions in YMP drifts, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code FLUENT (Fluent, Incorporated, 2001) has been used to model natural convection heat transfer in the YMP emplacement drifts. A two-dimensional (2D) model representative of YMP geometry (e.g., includes waste package, drip shield, invert and drift wall) has been developed and numerical simulations made (Francis et al., 2003). Using CFD simulation results for both natural convection and conduction-only heat transfer in a single phase, single component fluid, equivalent thermal conductivities have been calculated for different Rayleigh numbers. Correlation equations for equivalent thermal conductivity as a function of Rayleigh number were developed for the Yucca Mountain geometry and comparisons were made to experimental data and correlations found in the literature on natural convection in horizontal concentric cylinders, a geometry similar to YMP. The objective of this work is to compare the results of CFD natural convection simulations and conduction-only calculations that used the equivalent thermal conductivity to represent heat transfer by turbulent natural convection. The FLUENT code was used for both simulations with heat generation boundary condition at the waste package and constant temperature boundary condition 5 meters into the host rock formation. Comparisons are made of temperature contours in the drift air and temperature profiles at surfaces of the different engineered components using the two approaches. The results show that for the two-dimensional YMP geometry considered, the average surface temperatures of the CFD natural convection and conduction-only using the equivalent thermal conductivity are similar and the maximum local temperature differences for the different surfaces were within two 2 C. The differences in temperature profiles reflect the use of a constant equivalent thermal conductivity. The effect of the differences is discussed.
Steady-State and Transient Boundary Element Methods for Coupled Heat Conduction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kontinos, Dean A.
1997-01-01
Boundary element algorithms for the solution of steady-state and transient heat conduction are presented. The algorithms are designed for efficient coupling with computational fluid dynamic discretizations and feature piecewise linear elements with offset nodal points. The steady-state algorithm employs the fundamental solution approach; the integration kernels are computed analytically based on linear shape functions, linear elements, and variably offset nodal points. The analytic expressions for both singular and nonsingular integrands are presented. The transient algorithm employs the transient fundamental solution; the temporal integration is performed analytically and the nonsingular spatial integration is performed numerically using Gaussian quadrature. A series solution to the integration is derived for the instance of a singular integrand. The boundary-only character of the algorithm is maintained by integrating the influence coefficients from initial time. Numerical results are compared to analytical solutions to verify the current boundary element algorithms. The steady-state and transient algorithms are numerically shown to be second-order accurate in space and time, respectively.
Subdiffusive heat-kernel decay in four-dimensional i.i.d. random conductance models
Marek Biskup; Omar Boukhadra
2012-01-17
We study the diagonal heat-kernel decay for the four-dimensional nearest-neighbor random walk (on $\\Z^4$) among i.i.d. random conductances that are positive, bounded from above but can have arbitrarily heavy tails at zero. It has been known that the quenched return probability $\\cmss P_\\omega^{2n}(0,0)$ after $2n$ steps is at most $C(\\omega) n^{-2} \\log n$, but the best lower bound till now has been $C(\\omega) n^{-2}$. Here we will show that the $\\log n$ term marks a real phenomenon by constructing an environment, for each sequence $\\lambda_n\\to\\infty$, such that $$ \\cmss P_\\omega^{2n}(0,0)\\ge C(\\omega)\\log(n)n^{-2}/\\lambda_n, $$ with $C(\\omega)>0$ a.s., along a deterministic subsequence of $n$'s. Notably, this holds simultaneously with a (non-degenerate) quenched invariance principle. As for the $d\\ge5$ cases studied earlier, the source of the anomalous decay is a trapping phenomenon although the contribution is in this case collected from a whole range of spatial scales.
Zhi-Jie Xu
2012-03-01
We present a general homogenization method for diffusion, heat conduction, and wave propagation in a periodic heterogeneous material with piecewise constants. The method is relevant to the frequently encountered upscaling issues for heterogeneous materials. The dispersion relation for each problem is first expressed in the general form where the frequency w (or wavenumber k) is expanded in terms of the wavenumber k (or frequency w). A general homogenization model can be directly obtained with any given dispersion relation. Next step we study the unit cell of the heterogeneous material and derive the exact dispersion relation. The final homogenized equations include both leading order terms (effective properties) and high order contributions that represent the effect of the microscopic heterogeneity on the macroscopic behavior. That effect can be lumped into a single dimensionless heterogeneity parameter, which is bounded between -1/12 less than or equal to less than or equal to 0 and has a universal expression for all three problems. Numerical examples validate the proposed method and demonstrate a significant computational saving.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kozdoba, L. A.; Krivoshei, F. A.
1985-01-01
The solution of the inverse problem of nonsteady heat conduction is discussed, based on finding the coefficient of the heat conduction and the coefficient of specific volumetric heat capacity. These findings are included in the equation used for the electrical model of this phenomenon.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christensen, W.; Kamai, T.; Fogg, G. E.
2012-12-01
The presence of metal piezometers (thermal conductivity 16.0 W m-1 K-1) in peat (thermal conductivity 0.5 W m-1 K-1) can significantly influence temperatures recorded in the subsurface. Radially symmetrical 2D numerical models of heat conduction and convection that use a transient specified temperature boundary condition (Dirichlet) and explicitly account for the difference in thermal properties differ from the commonly used 1D analytical solution by as much as 2°C at 0.15m below ground surface. Field data from temperature loggers located inside and outside piezometers show similar differences, supporting the use of the more complex numerical model. In order to better simulate field data, an energy balance approach is used to calculate the temperature along the upper boundary using hourly radiation and air temperature data, along with daily average wind velocity and cloud cover data. Normally distributed random noise is added to recorded field data to address potential natural variation between conditions at the instrument site and the field site (piezometer). Five influential parameters are considered: albedo, crop coefficient, hydraulic conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and surface water depth. Ten sets of these five parameters are generated from a uniform random distribution and constrained by values reported in the literature or measured in the field. The ten parameter sets and noise are used to generate synthetic subsurface data in the numerical model. The synthetic temperature data is offset by a constant value determined from a uniform random distribution to represent potential offset in instrument accuracy (+/- 0.1 °C). The original parameter values are satisfactorily recovered by indirect inversion of the noise-free model using UCODE. Comparison of the parameter estimates from the homogeneous numerical model (equivalent to the analytical model) and the numerical model that explicitly models the metal piezometer are compared. The same inversion scheme is used to estimate parameters from subsurface temperature records from Grass Lake, a large montane peatland located on Luther Pass, California.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ordonez-Miranda, Jose; Yang, Ronggui; Volz, Sebastian; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.
2015-08-01
Based on the phonon Boltzmann transport equation under the relaxation time approximation, analytical expressions for the temperature profiles of both the steady state and modulated heat conduction inside a thin film deposited on a substrate are derived and analyzed. It is shown that these components of the temperature depend strongly on the ratio between the film thickness and the average phonon mean free path (MFP), and they exhibit the diffusive behavior as predicted by the Fourier's law of heat conduction when this ratio is much larger than unity. In contrast, in the ballistic regime when this ratio is comparable to or smaller than unity, the steady-state temperature tends to be independent of position, while the amplitude and the phase of the modulated temperature appear to be lower than those determined by the Fourier's law. Furthermore, we derive an invariant of heat conduction and a simple formula for the cross-plane thermal conductivity of dielectric thin films, which could be a useful guide for understanding and optimizing the thermal performance of the layered systems. This work represents the Boltzmann transport equation-based extension of the Rosencwaig and Gersho work [J. Appl. Phys. 47, 64 (1976)], which is based on the Fourier's law and has widely been used as the theoretical framework for the development of photoacoustic and photothermal techniques. This work might shed some light on developing a theoretical basis for the determination of the phonon MFP and relaxation time using ultrafast laser-based transient heating techniques.
Sandin, Christer; Schönberner, Detlef; Rühling, Ute
2015-01-01
Heat conduction has been found a plausible solution to explain discrepancies between expected and measured temperatures in hot bubbles of planetary nebulae (PNe). While the heat conduction process depends on the chemical composition, to date it has been exclusively studied for pure hydrogen plasmas in PNe. A smaller population of PNe show hydrogen-deficient and helium- and carbon-enriched surfaces surrounded by bubbles of the same composition; considerable differences are expected in physical properties of these objects in comparison to the pure hydrogen case. The aim of this study is to explore how a chemistry-dependent formulation of the heat conduction affects physical properties and how it affects the X-ray emission from PN bubbles of hydrogen-deficient stars. We extend the description of heat conduction in our radiation hydrodynamics code to work with any chemical composition. We then compare the bubble-formation process with a representative PN model using both the new and the old descriptions. We also ...
Atalar, Ergin
RF Heating Due to Conductive Wires During MRI Depends on the Phase Distribution of the Transmit depends on the phase distribution of the RF transmit field. If the RF transmit field has linear phase the phase distribution of the electric field generated by an RF transmit coil may lead to an "implant
Tsokur, A.K.; Tsokur, A.Ya.; Gavrilov, V.G.
1995-10-01
Based on the heat conduction equation, mathematical models (one- and two-dimensional) have been developed to describe a nonstationary temperature field in an abrasive tool. The physicochemical transformations occurring in it and of the mobility of its peripheral surface are taken into account.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.
2000-01-01
A steady-state laser heat flux technique has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field to obtain critical thermal conductivity data of ceramic thermal barrier coatings under the temperature and thermal gradients that are realistically expected to be encountered in advanced engine systems. In this study, thermal conductivity change kinetics of a plasma-sprayed, 254-mm-thick ZrO2-8 wt % Y2O3 ceramic coating were obtained at high temperatures. During the testing, the temperature gradients across the coating system were carefully measured by the surface and back pyrometers and an embedded miniature thermocouple in the substrate. The actual heat flux passing through the coating system was determined from the metal substrate temperature drop (measured by the embedded miniature thermocouple and the back pyrometer) combined with one-dimensional heat transfer models.
Ho, Ching-Yen; Wen, Mao-Yu; Chen, Bor-Chyuan; Tsai, Yu-Hsiang
2014-07-01
This paper utilizes non-Fourier two-temperature heat conduction model to investigate the temperature field in nanometer-sized thin films irradiated by an ultrashort-pulse laser. Ultrashort-pulse laser processing for nanometer-sized devices is usually applied in MEMS and nanotechnology. For ultrashort-pulse laser interaction with metals, the two-temperature model was proposed to describe the heat transport in metals due to a substantial nonequilibrium between the electron and lattice temperature. For heat conduction in nanoscale devices, Fourier law is inadequate for describing the heat conduction in nanoscale due to the boundary scattering and the finite relaxation time of heat carriers. Therefore, in this work, the Non-Fourier two-temperature heat conduction model used to analyze ultrashort-pulse laser processing of nanoscale metal film. The result obtained from non-Fourier heat conduction equations is compared with the available experimental data. The parametric effects are also discussed. PMID:24758069
ELECTRON HEAT CONDUCTION IN THE SOLAR WIND: TRANSITION FROM SPITZER-HAeRM TO THE COLLISIONLESS LIMIT
Bale, S. D.; Quataert, E.; Pulupa, M.; Salem, C.; Chen, C. H. K.
2013-06-01
We use a statistically significant set of measurements to show that the field-aligned electron heat flux q{sub Parallel-To} in the solar wind at 1 AU is consistent with the Spitzer-Haerm collisional heat flux q{sub sh} for temperature gradient scales larger than a few mean free paths L{sub T} {approx}> 3.5{lambda}{sub fp}. This represents about 65% of the measured data and corresponds primarily to high {beta}, weakly collisional plasma ({sup s}low solar wind{sup )}. In the more collisionless regime {lambda}{sub fp}/L{sub T} {approx}> 0.28, the electron heat flux is limited to q{sub Parallel-To }/q{sub 0} {approx} 0.3, independent of mean free path, where q{sub 0} is the ''free-streaming'' value; the measured q{sub Parallel-To} does not achieve the full q{sub 0}. This constraint q{sub Parallel-To }/q{sub 0} {approx} 0.3 might be attributed to wave-particle interactions, effects of an interplanetary electric potential, or inherent flux limitation. We also show a {beta}{sub e} dependence to these results that is consistent with a local radial electron temperature profile T{sub e} {approx} r {sup -{alpha}} that is a function of the thermal electron beta {alpha} = {alpha}({beta}{sub e}) and that the {beta} dependence of the collisionless regulation constraint is not obviously consistent with a whistler heat flux instability. It may be that the observed saturation of the measured heat flux is a simply a feature of collisional transport. We discuss the results in a broader astrophysical context.
Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA); Bernhart, John Charles (Fleetwood, PA)
2012-08-21
Method for processing an article comprising mixed conducting metal oxide material. The method comprises contacting the article with an oxygen-containing gas and either reducing the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas during a cooling period or increasing the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas during a heating period; during the cooling period, reducing the oxygen activity in the oxygen-containing gas during at least a portion of the cooling period and increasing the rate at which the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas is reduced during at least a portion of the cooling period; and during the heating period, increasing the oxygen activity in the oxygen-containing gas during at least a portion of the heating period and decreasing the rate at which the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas is increased during at least a portion of the heating period.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gedeon, L.
1979-01-01
A variable-conductance heat-pipe system (VCHPS) with methanol as the working fluid and a nitrogen and helium mixture as the control gas was used for the thermal control of a 200 W RF traveling wave tube of the Communication Technology Satellite. Three stainless steel heat pipes (one redundant) and an aluminum radiator were designed to transfer 196 watts for an evaporator temperature of 50 C. The system has operated for three years with no noticeable change in performance. On four occasions the heat pipes apparently deprimed. A short time after reducing the tube power, the heat pipes reprimed and the system continued to operate normally. The description, qualification testing, and orbit data of the VCHPS are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, D.; Tanaka, S.; Miyazaki, K.; Takashiri, M.
2015-06-01
To investigate the effect of strain on specific heat, sound velocity and lattice thermal conductivity of nanocrystalline bismuth antimony telluride thin films, we performed both experimental study and modeling. The nanocrystalline thin films had mostly preferred crystal orientation along c-axis, and strains in the both directions of c-axis and a- b-axis. It was found that the thermal conductivity of nanocrystalline thin films decreased greatly as compared with that of bulk alloys. To gain insight into the thermal transport in the strained nanocrystalline thin films, we estimated the lattice thermal conductivity based on the phonon transport model of full distribution of mean free paths accounting for the effects of grain size and strain which was influenced to both the sound velocity and the specific heat. As a result, the lattice thermal conductivity was increased when the strain was shifted from compressive to tensile direction. We also confirmed that the strain was influenced by the lattice thermal conductivity but the reduction of the lattice thermal conductivity of thin films can be mainly attributed to the nano-size effect rather than the strain effect. Finally, it was found that the measured lattice thermal conductivities were in good agreement with modeling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arima, Tatsumi; Yamasaki, Sho; Idemitsu, Kazuya; Inagaki, Yaohiro
2008-05-01
The thermal conductivity of nuclear fuels such as UO2+x and (U,Pu)O2-x has been calculated by the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation in terms of oxygen stoichiometric parameter x, temperature and Pu content. In the present study, the MD calculations were carried out in both equilibrium (EMD) and nonequilibrium (NEMD) systems. In the EMD simulation, the thermal conductivity was defined as the time-integral of the correlation function of heat fluxes according to the Green-Kubo relationship. Meanwhile, in the homogeneous NEMD, it was given by the ratio of the time-averaged heat flux to the perturbed external force subjected to each particle in the simulated cell. NEMD, as compared with EMD, gave somewhat precise results efficiently. Furthermore, both MD calculations showed that the thermal conductivity of these oxide fuels decreased with increase of temperature and defects, i.e. excess oxygen or vacancy, and was rather insensitive to Pu content for the stoichiometric fuel.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Weiren; Fulton, Patrick M.; Harris, Robert N.; Tadai, Osamu; Matsubayashi, Osamu; Tanikawa, Wataru; Kinoshita, Masataka
2014-12-01
We report thermal conductivities, thermal diffusivities, and volumetric heat capacities determined by a transient plane heat source method for four whole-round core samples obtained by the Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project/Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 343. These thermal properties are necessary for the interpretation of a temperature anomaly detected in the vicinity of the plate boundary fault that ruptured during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake and other thermal processes observed within the Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project temperature observatory. Results of measured thermal conductivities are consistent with those independently measured using a transient line source method and a divided bar technique. Our measurements indicate no significant anisotropy in either thermal conductivity or thermal diffusivity.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Clough, Elizabeth Engel; Driver, Rosalind
1985-01-01
Describes main features of students' thinking about heat and temperature (developed before formal science teaching) and results of a study that shows that many notions about heat/temperature used by younger children are still apparent in the thinking of older students. The study involved interviews with 84 students in three age groups. (JN)
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Management of water content and nutrient status during space flight is a critical necessity in plant production systems. Our objectives were to determine if dual-probe heat pulse sensors could improve water content determination accuracy over single-probe heat-pulse sensors, and to test a design usi...