NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Basiulis, A.; Buzzard, R. J.
1971-01-01
Unit moves heat radially from small diameter shell to larger diameter shell, or vice versa, with negligible temperature drop, making device useful wherever heating or cooling of concentrically arranged materials, substances, and structures is desired.
Valenzuela, Javier (Hanover, NH)
2001-01-01
A radial flow heat exchanger (20) having a plurality of first passages (24) for transporting a first fluid (25) and a plurality of second passages (26) for transporting a second fluid (27). The first and second passages are arranged in stacked, alternating relationship, are separated from one another by relatively thin plates (30) and (32), and surround a central axis (22). The thickness of the first and second passages are selected so that the first and second fluids, respectively, are transported with laminar flow through the passages. To enhance thermal energy transfer between first and second passages, the latter are arranged so each first passage is in thermal communication with an associated second passage along substantially its entire length, and vice versa with respect to the second passages. The heat exchangers may be stacked to achieve a modular heat exchange assembly (300). Certain heat exchangers in the assembly may be designed slightly differently than other heat exchangers to address changes in fluid properties during transport through the heat exchanger, so as to enhance overall thermal effectiveness of the assembly.
Lilley, D.G.
1987-01-01
Analytical and numerical methods, including both finite difference and finite element techniques, are presented with applications to heat conduction problems. Numerical and analytical methods are integrated throughout the text and a variety of complexities are thoroughly treated with many problems, solutions and computer programs. This book is presented as a fundamental course suitable for senior undergraduate and first year graduate students, with end-of-chapter problems and answers included. Sample case studies and suggested projects are included.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meydaneri, Fatma; Saati, Buket; Gndz, Mehmet; zdemir, Mehmet
2013-11-01
The variations of thermal conductivities of solid phases versus temperature for pure Sn, pure Zn and Sn-9 wt.% Zn, Sn-14 wt.% Zn, Sn-50 wt.% Zn, Sn-80 wt.% Zn binary alloys were measured with a radial heat flow apparatus. The thermal conductivity ratios of liquid phase to solid phase for the pure Sn, pure Zn and eutectic Sn-9 wt.% Zn alloy at their melting temperature are found with a Bridgman-type directional solidification apparatus. Thus, the thermal conductivities of liquid phases for pure Sn, pure Zn and eutectic Sn-9 wt.% Zn binary alloy at their melting temperature were evaluated by using the values of solid phase thermal conductivities and the thermal conductivity ratios of liquid phase to solid phase.
Stirling Engine With Radial Flow Heat Exchangers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vitale, N.; Yarr, George
1993-01-01
Conflict between thermodynamical and structural requirements resolved. In Stirling engine of new cylindrical configuration, regenerator and acceptor and rejector heat exchangers channel flow of working gas in radial direction. Isotherms in regenerator ideally concentric cylinders, and gradient of temperature across regenerator radial rather than axial. Acceptor and rejector heat exchangers located radially inward and outward of regenerator, respectively. Enables substantial increase in power of engine without corresponding increase in diameter of pressure vessel.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2003-01-01
Heat conduction plays an important role in the efficiency and life span of electronic components. To keep electronic components running efficiently and at a proper temperature, thermal management systems transfer heat generated from the components to thermal surfaces such as heat sinks, heat pipes, radiators, or heat spreaders. Thermal surfaces absorb the heat from the electrical components and dissipate it into the environment, preventing overheating. To ensure the best contact between electrical components and thermal surfaces, thermal interface materials are applied. In addition to having high conductivity, ideal thermal interface materials should be compliant to conform to the components, increasing the surface contact. While many different types of interface materials exist for varying purposes, Energy Science Laboratories, Inc. (ESLI), of San Diego, California, proposed using carbon velvets as thermal interface materials for general aerospace and electronics applications. NASA s Johnson Space Center granted ESLI a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract to develop thermal interface materials that are lightweight and compliant, and demonstrate high thermal conductance even for nonflat surfaces. Through Phase II SBIR work, ESLI created Vel-Therm for the commercial market. Vel-Therm is a soft, carbon fiber velvet consisting of numerous high thermal conductivity carbon fibers anchored in a thin layer of adhesive. The velvets are fabricated by precision cutting continuous carbon fiber tows and electrostatically flocking the fibers into uncured adhesive, using proprietary techniques.
The Usefulness of Proximal Radial Motor Conduction in Acute Compressive Radial Neuropathy
Kim, Kun Hyun; Park, Kee-Duk; Chung, Pil-Wook; Moon, Heui-Soo; Kim, Yong Bum; Yoon, Won Tae
2015-01-01
Background and Purpose The objective of this study was to determine diagnostic and prognostic values of proximal radial motor conduction in acute compressive radial neuropathy. Methods Thirty-nine consecutive cases of acute compressive radial neuropathy with radial conduction studies-including stimulation at Erb's point-performed within 14 days from clinical onset were reviewed. The radial conduction data of 39 control subjects were used as reference data. Results Thirty-one men and eight women (age, 45.212.7 years, meanSD) were enrolled. All 33 patients in whom clinical follow-up data were available experienced complete recovery, with a recovery time of 46.834.3 days. Partial conduction block was found frequently (17 patients) on radial conduction studies. The decrease in the compound muscle action potential area between the arm and Erb's point was an independent predictor for recovery time. Conclusions Proximal radial motor conduction appears to be a useful method for the early detection and prediction of prognosis of acute compressive radial neuropathy. PMID:25851897
Conduction heat transfer solutions
VanSant, J.H.
1983-08-01
This text is a collection of solutions to a variety of heat conduction problems found in numerous publications, such as textbooks, handbooks, journals, reports, etc. Its purpose is to assemble these solutions into one source that can facilitate the search for a particular problem solution. Generally, it is intended to be a handbook on the subject of heat conduction. There are twelve sections of solutions which correspond with the class of problems found in each. Geometry, state, boundary conditions, and other categories are used to classify the problems. Each problem is concisely described by geometry and condition statements, and many times a descriptive sketch is also included. The introduction presents a synopsis on the theory, differential equations, and boundary conditions for conduction heat transfer. Some discussion is given on the use and interpretation of solutions. Supplementary data such as mathematical functions, convection correlations, and thermal properties are included for aiding the user in computing numerical values from the solutions. 155 figs., 92 refs., 9 tabs.
Conduction heat transfer solutions
VanSant, J.H.
1980-03-01
This text is a collection of solutions to a variety of heat conduction problems found in numerous publications, such as textbooks, handbooks, journals, reports, etc. Its purpose is to assemble these solutions into one source that can facilitate the search for a particular problem solution. Generally, it is intended to be a handbook on the subject of heat conduction. This material is useful for engineers, scientists, technologists, and designers of all disciplines, particularly those who design thermal systems or estimate temperatures and heat transfer rates in structures. More than 500 problem solutions and relevant data are tabulated for easy retrieval. There are twelve sections of solutions which correspond with the class of problems found in each. Geometry, state, boundary conditions, and other categories are used to classify the problems. A case number is assigned to each problem for cross-referencing, and also for future reference. Each problem is concisely described by geometry and condition statements, and many times a descriptive sketch is also included. At least one source reference is given so that the user can review the methods used to derive the solutions. Problem solutions are given in the form of equations, graphs, and tables of data, all of which are also identified by problem case numbers and source references.
Variable conductance heat pipe technology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marcus, B. D.; Edwards, D. K.; Anderson, W. T.
1973-01-01
Research and development programs in variable conductance heat pipe technology were conducted. The treatment has been comprehensive, involving theoretical and/or experimental studies in hydrostatics, hydrodynamics, heat transfer into and out of the pipe, fluid selection, and materials compatibility, in addition to the principal subject of variable conductance control techniques. Efforts were not limited to analytical work and laboratory experimentation, but extended to the development, fabrication and test of spacecraft hardware, culminating in the successful flight of the Ames Heat Pipe Experiment on the OAO-C spacecraft.
Heat Transfer Experiments in the Internal Cooling Passages of a Cooled Radial Turbine Rotor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, B. V.; Wagner, J. H.
1996-01-01
An experimental study was conducted (1) to experimentally measure, assess and analyze the heat transfer within the internal cooling configuration of a radial turbine rotor blade and (2) to obtain heat transfer data to evaluate and improve computational fluid dynamics (CFD) procedures and turbulent transport models of internal coolant flows. A 1.15 times scale model of the coolant passages within the NASA LERC High Temperature Radial Turbine was designed, fabricated of Lucite and instrumented for transient beat transfer tests using thin film surface thermocouples and liquid crystals to indicate temperatures. Transient heat transfer tests were conducted for Reynolds numbers of one-fourth, one-half, and equal to the operating Reynolds number for the NASA Turbine. Tests were conducted for stationary and rotating conditions with rotation numbers in the range occurring in the NASA Turbine. Results from the experiments showed the heat transfer characteristics within the coolant passage were affected by rotation. In general, the heat transfer increased and decreased on the sides of the straight radial passages with rotation as previously reported from NASA-HOST-sponsored experiments. The heat transfer in the tri-passage axial flow region adjacent to the blade exit was relatively unaffected by rotation. However, the heat transfer on one surface, in the transitional region between the radial inflow passage and axial, constant radius passages, decreased to approximately 20 percent of the values without rotation. Comparisons with previous 3-D numerical studies indicated regions where the heat transfer characteristics agreed and disagreed with the present experiment.
Calculation of heat transfer in a radially rotating coolant passage
Tolpadi, A.K. )
1994-12-01
The three-dimensional flow field and heat transfer in a radially rotating coolant passage are studied numerically. The passage chosen has a square cross section with smooth isothermal walls of finite length. The axis rotation is normal to the flow direction with the flow radially outward. The effects of Coriolis forces, centrifugal buoyancy, and fluid Reynolds number on the flow and heat transfer have all been considered. The analysis has been performed by using a fully elliptic, three-dimensional, body-fitted computational fluid dynamics code based on pressure correction techniques. The numerical technique employs a multigrid iterative solution procedure and the standard k [minus] [epsilon] turbulence model for both the hydrodynamics and heat transfer. The effect of rotation is included by considering the governing equations of motion in a relative frame of reference that moves with the passage. The consequence of rotation is to bring higher velocity fluid from the core to the trailing surface, thereby increasing both the friction and heat transfer at this face. At the same time, the heat transfer is predicted to decrease along the leading surface. The effect of buoyancy is to increase the radial velocity of the fluid, thus generally increasing the heat transfer along both the leading and trailing surfaces. These effects and trends that have been predicted are in agreement with experimental heat transfer data available in the literature. The quantitative agreement with the data was also found to be quite satisfactory.
One-Dimensional Heat Conduction
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1992-03-09
ICARUS-LLNL was developed to solve one-dimensional planar, cylindrical, or spherical conduction heat transfer problems. The IBM PC version is a family of programs including ICARUSB, an interactive BASIC heat conduction program; ICARUSF, a FORTRAN heat conduction program; PREICAR, a BASIC preprocessor for ICARUSF; and PLOTIC and CPLOTIC, interpretive BASIC and compiler BASIC plot postprocessor programs. Both ICARUSB and ICARUSF account for multiple material regions and complex boundary conditions, such as convection or radiation. In addition,more » ICARUSF accounts for temperature-dependent material properties and time or temperature-dependent boundary conditions. PREICAR is a user-friendly preprocessor used to generate or modify ICARUSF input data. PLOTIC and CPLOTIC generate plots of the temperature or heat flux profile at specified times, plots of the variation of temperature or heat flux with time at selected nodes, or plots of the solution grid. First developed in 1974 to allow easy modeling of complex one-dimensional systems, its original application was in the nuclear explosive testing program. Since then it has undergone extensive revision and been applied to problems dealing with laser fusion target fabrication, heat loads on underground tests, magnetic fusion switching tube anodes, and nuclear waste isolation canisters.« less
Mathematical model for solar drying of potato cylinders with thermal conductivity radially modulated
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trujillo Arredondo, Mariana
2014-05-01
A mathematical model for drying potato cylinders using solar radiation is proposed and solved analytically. The model incorporates the energy balance for the heat capacity of the potato, the radiation heat transfer from the potato toward the drying chamber and the solar radiation absorbed by the potato during the drying process. Potato cylinders are assumed to exhibit a thermal conductivity which is radially modulated. The method of the Laplace transform, with integral Bromwich and residue theorem will be applied and the analytic solutions for the temperature profiles in the potato cylinder will be derived in the form of an infinite series of Bessel functions, when the thermal conductivity is constant; and in the form of an infinite series of Heun functions, when the thermal conductivity has a linear radial modulation. All computations are performed using computer algebra, specifically Maple. It is expected that the analytical results obtained will be useful in food engineering and industry. Our results suggest some lines for future investigations such as the adoption of more general forms of radial modulation for the thermal conductivity of potato cylinders; and possible applications of other computer algebra software such as Maxima and Mathematica.
Analysis of radial fin assembly heat transfer with dehumidification
Rosario, L.; Rahman, M.M.
1996-12-31
The aim of this paper is the analysis of heat transfer in a radial fin assembly during the process of dehumidification. An individual finned tube geometry is a reasonable representation of heat exchangers used in air conditioning. The condensation process involves both heat and mass transfer and the cooling takes place by the removal of sensible as well as latent heat. The ratio of sensible to total heat is an important quantity that defines the heat transfer process during a dehumidifier operation. A one-dimensional model for heat transfer in the fin and the heat exchanger block is developed to study the effects of condensation on the fin surface. The combined heat and mass transfer process is modeled by incorporating the ratio of sensible to total heat in the formulation. The augmentation of heat transfer due to fin was established by comparing heat transfer rate with and without fins under the same operating conditions. Numerical calculations were carried out to study the effects of relative humidity and dry bulb temperature of the incoming air, and cold fluid temperature inside the coil on the performance of the heat exchanger. Results were compared to those published for rectangular fin under humid condition showed excellent agreement when the present model was used to compute that limiting condition. It was found that the heat transfer rate increased with increment in both dry bulb temperature and relative humidity of the air. The augmentation factor, however, decreased with increment in relative humidity and the dry bulb temperature.
Heat transfer from a pair of radial jet reattachment flames
Mohr, J.W.; Seyed-Yagoobi, J.; Page, R.H.
1996-12-01
Flame jet impingement heat transfer for a pair of Radial Jet Reattachment Combustion (RJRC) nozzles has been studied for flames which were highly, moderately, and weakly interactive. The most uniform heat flux and temperature distributions occurred at the closest between-nozzle spacing, when the flames were highly interacting, while the highest heat flux and surface temperatures were measured when the two flame jets were moderately interacting at intermediate between-nozzle spacings. The optimal spacing for two nozzles was determined based on maximum heat flux and surface temperature. In addition, the percent overall heat transfer to the impingement surface decreased with increasing between-nozzle spacing. The results of this study provide valuable information for applying RJRC nozzles to industrial flame jet impingement heat-treatment processes.
Variable-Conductance Heat Pipes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Antoniuk, D.
1986-01-01
In response to need to accurately and efficiently predict performance of variable-conductance heat pipes (VCHP's) incorporated in spacecraft thermalcontrol systems, computer code VCHPDA developed to interact with thermal analyzer programs such as SINDA (Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer). Calculates length of gas-blocked region and vapor temperature in active portion. Advantages of VCHPDA over prior programs improved accuracy, unconditional stability, and increased efficiency of solution resulting from novel approach and use of state-of-the-art numerical techniques for solving VCHP mathematical model. Code valuable tool in design and evaluation of advanced thermal-control systems using variable-conductance heat pipes. Written in FORTRAN IV for use on CDC 600 computers.
Resistive Heating in Radial Geometry Diamond Anvil Cell
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zepeda-Alarcon, E.; Knight, J. W.; MacDowell, A.; Miyagi, L. M.; Kaercher, P. M.; Kanitpanyacharoen, W.; Wenk, H.; Williams, Q. C.
2012-12-01
High temperature and pressure experiments are important for understanding deep Earth geodynamics. Radial x-ray diffraction from samples under high pressure within a diamond anvil cell(DAC) provide information on lattice strain and crystallite preferred orientation. Understanding the development of crystallographic preferred orientation is essential for identifying deformation mechanisms as well as assessing anisotropy of bulk physical properties. Many high pressure radial diffraction experiments in the diamond anvil cell are performed at room temperature. For high temperatures, laser heating can be used but this technique produces large temperature gradients. Resistive heating provides a more homogeneous temperature distribution and covers the inaccessible low temperature range (<~1400K) of laser heating. Another advantage of this technique is stability, allowing long time period in-situ temperature experiments to be possible. Applying both heating techniques simultaneously covers a wider temperature range while minimizing temperature gradients. We are developing a resistive heating system for diamond anvil cells in radial geometry (rDAC) at beamline 12.2.2 of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to recreate deep Earth deformation conditions. The design is based on a previous one by Due et al., in revision. The heater is laser-milled from high-purity solid graphite, and designed to fit slightly displaced from the diamond culets. Due to the low inherent resistivity and small size of the graphite heater, 6x3x0.5mm, we can achieve temperatures at the cullet of 300 to >1300 K at relatively low power loads of ~ 200 watts. The laser machining produces very uniform heater geometry which allows us to obtain reproducible temperatures in the rDAC. The assembly is modular and self supporting which allows for ease of assembly a requirement if users are to install the heater in a cell themselves. We are currently applying this technique to study lattice preferred orientation changes during phase transformations. We study the transformation of coesite and stishovite that occurs in the deep crust, and olivine transforming to ringwoodite and then to magnesiowuestite and perovskite in the lower mantle.
Performance of a variable conductance heat pipe heat exchanger
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chancelor, P. D.
1983-02-01
The performance of an air to air heat exchanger in which heat is transferred to a finned evaporator and from a finned condenser via a heat pipe was evaluated. The variable conductance heat pipe is to the condenser fins a heat source and to the evaporator fins a heat sink. The principal advantage of the variable conductance heat pipe heat exchanger is the ability to modulate power transfer independent of stream inlet conditions. This type of heat exchanger is of particular interest to the commercial aircraft industry because of its control system. The results from this research will help to provide the engineer with experimental data necessary to design a full scale prototype heat exchanger to be tested in situ.
Heat conduction fronts in planetary nebulae
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Soker, Noam
1994-01-01
We present arguments which suggest that many of the x-ray, some optical, and some UV observations of planetary nebulae, can be explained by the presence of heat conduction fronts. The heat flows from the hot bubble formed by the shocked fast wind to the cool shell and halo. Heat conduction fronts are likely to account for emission of x rays from plasma at lower temperature than the expected temperature of the hot bubble. In the presence of magnetic fields, only a small fraction of the fast wind luminosity emerges as radiation. Heat conduction fronts can naturally produce some unusual line flux ratios, which are observed in some planetary nebulae. Heat conduction fronts may heat the halo and cause some material at the inner surface of the shell to expand slower than the rest of the shell. In the presence of an asymmetrical magnetic field, this flow, the x-ray intensity, and the emission lines, may acquire asymmetrical structure as well.
Hyperbolic Heat Conduction in a Functionally Graded Hollow Sphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babaei, M. H.; Chen, Z. T.
2008-08-01
Non-Fourier hyperbolic heat conduction in a heterogeneous sphere is investigated in this article. Except for the thermal relaxation time, which is assumed to be constant, all other material properties vary continuously within the sphere in the radial direction following a power law. Boundary conditions of the sphere are assumed to be spherically symmetric, leading to a one-dimensional heat conduction problem. The problem is solved analytically in the Laplace domain, and the final results in the time domain are obtained using numerical inversion of the Laplace transform. The transient responses of temperature and heat flux are investigated for different non-homogeneity parameters and normalized thermal relaxation constants. The current results for the specific case of a homogeneous sphere are validated by results available in the literature.
Radial heat flux limits in potassium heat pipes: An experimental and analytical investigation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Woloshun, K. A.; Sena, J. Tom; Keddy, E. S.; Merrigan, Michael A.
A radial flux limit of 147 W/sq cm at the wetted inner tube wall has been demonstrated with a Nb-1 percent Zr/K heat pipe, a flux 5 times greater than the previously accepted safe design level of 25 to 30 W/sq cm. The wick structure was an annular gap type fabricated from 100 times 100 mesh Nb-1 percent Zr screen. Rigorous fabrication and cleaning procedures are believed to be critical to good wetting, resulting in significantly reduced active nucleation site size and a higher boiling limit. The procedure used to clean this heat pipe included acid wash, Freon-TF degrease, ethanol wash, high-vacuum firing, and operation as a lithium heat pipe. A heat pipe boiling limit model, based on the active nucleation site radius, is described. An active nucleation site radius of 6 times 10(exp -6) m 2.4 times 10(exp -4) in. correlates the radial flux boiling limit measured in these tests.
Information filtering via biased heat conduction.
Liu, Jian-Guo; Zhou, Tao; Guo, Qiang
2011-09-01
The process of heat conduction has recently found application in personalized recommendation [Zhou et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 4511 (2010)], which is of high diversity but low accuracy. By decreasing the temperatures of small-degree objects, we present an improved algorithm, called biased heat conduction, which could simultaneously enhance the accuracy and diversity. Extensive experimental analyses demonstrate that the accuracy on MovieLens, Netflix, and Delicious datasets could be improved by 43.5%, 55.4% and 19.2%, respectively, compared with the standard heat conduction algorithm and also the diversity is increased or approximately unchanged. Further statistical analyses suggest that the present algorithm could simultaneously identify users' mainstream and special tastes, resulting in better performance than the standard heat conduction algorithm. This work provides a creditable way for highly efficient information filtering. PMID:22060533
Information filtering via biased heat conduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Jian-Guo; Zhou, Tao; Guo, Qiang
2011-09-01
The process of heat conduction has recently found application in personalized recommendation [Zhou , Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA PNASA60027-842410.1073/pnas.1000488107107, 4511 (2010)], which is of high diversity but low accuracy. By decreasing the temperatures of small-degree objects, we present an improved algorithm, called biased heat conduction, which could simultaneously enhance the accuracy and diversity. Extensive experimental analyses demonstrate that the accuracy on MovieLens, Netflix, and Delicious datasets could be improved by 43.5%, 55.4% and 19.2%, respectively, compared with the standard heat conduction algorithm and also the diversity is increased or approximately unchanged. Further statistical analyses suggest that the present algorithm could simultaneously identify users' mainstream and special tastes, resulting in better performance than the standard heat conduction algorithm. This work provides a creditable way for highly efficient information filtering.
Cryogenic regenerator including sarancarbon heat conduction matrix
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jones, Jack A. (Inventor); Petrick, S. Walter (Inventor); Britcliffe, Michael J. (Inventor)
1989-01-01
A saran carbon matrix is employed to conduct heat through the heat storing volume of a cryogenic regenerator. When helium is adsorbed into the saran carbon matrix, the combination exhibits a volumetric specific heat much higher than previously used lead balls. A helium adsorbed saran regenerator should allow much lower refrigerator temperatures than those practically obtainable with lead based regenerators for regenerator type refrigeration systems.
North, Gretchen B; Lynch, Frank H; Maharaj, Franklin D R; Phillips, Carly A; Woodside, Walter T
2013-01-01
Epiphytic plants in the Bromeliaceae known as tank bromeliads essentially lack stems and absorptive roots and instead take up water from reservoirs formed by their overlapping leaf bases. For such plants, leaf hydraulic conductance is plant hydraulic conductance. Their simple strap-shaped leaves and parallel venation make them suitable for modeling leaf hydraulic conductance based on vasculature and other anatomical and morphological traits. Plants of the tank bromeliad Guzmania lingulata were investigated in a lowland tropical forest in Costa Rica and a shaded glasshouse in Los Angeles, CA, USA. Stomatal conductance to water vapor and leaf anatomical variables related to hydraulic conductance were measured for both groups. Tracheid diameters and numbers of vascular bundles (veins) were used with the Hagen-Poiseuille equation to calculate axial hydraulic conductance. Measurements of leaf hydraulic conductance using the evaporative flux method were also made for glasshouse plants. Values for axial conductance and leaf hydraulic conductance were used in a model based on leaky cable theory to estimate the conductance of the radial pathway from the vein to the leaf surface and to assess the relative contributions of both axial and radial pathways. In keeping with low stomatal conductance, low stomatal density, low vein density, and narrow tracheid diameters, leaf hydraulic conductance for G. lingulata was quite low in comparison with most other angiosperms. Using the predicted axial conductance in the leaky cable model, the radial resistance across the leaf mesophyll was predicted to predominate; lower, more realistic values of axial conductance resulted in predicted radial resistances that were closer to axial resistance in their impact on total leaf resistance. Tracer dyes suggested that water uptake through the tank region of the leaf was not limiting. Both dye movement and the leaky cable model indicated that the leaf blade of G. lingulata was structurally and hydraulically well-suited to conserve water. PMID:23596446
North, Gretchen B.; Lynch, Frank H.; Maharaj, Franklin D. R.; Phillips, Carly A.; Woodside, Walter T.
2013-01-01
Epiphytic plants in the Bromeliaceae known as tank bromeliads essentially lack stems and absorptive roots and instead take up water from reservoirs formed by their overlapping leaf bases. For such plants, leaf hydraulic conductance is plant hydraulic conductance. Their simple strap-shaped leaves and parallel venation make them suitable for modeling leaf hydraulic conductance based on vasculature and other anatomical and morphological traits. Plants of the tank bromeliad Guzmania lingulata were investigated in a lowland tropical forest in Costa Rica and a shaded glasshouse in Los Angeles, CA, USA. Stomatal conductance to water vapor and leaf anatomical variables related to hydraulic conductance were measured for both groups. Tracheid diameters and numbers of vascular bundles (veins) were used with the Hagen–Poiseuille equation to calculate axial hydraulic conductance. Measurements of leaf hydraulic conductance using the evaporative flux method were also made for glasshouse plants. Values for axial conductance and leaf hydraulic conductance were used in a model based on leaky cable theory to estimate the conductance of the radial pathway from the vein to the leaf surface and to assess the relative contributions of both axial and radial pathways. In keeping with low stomatal conductance, low stomatal density, low vein density, and narrow tracheid diameters, leaf hydraulic conductance for G. lingulata was quite low in comparison with most other angiosperms. Using the predicted axial conductance in the leaky cable model, the radial resistance across the leaf mesophyll was predicted to predominate; lower, more realistic values of axial conductance resulted in predicted radial resistances that were closer to axial resistance in their impact on total leaf resistance. Tracer dyes suggested that water uptake through the tank region of the leaf was not limiting. Both dye movement and the leaky cable model indicated that the leaf blade of G. lingulata was structurally and hydraulically well-suited to conserve water. PMID:23596446
The Conduction of Heat through Cryogenic Regenerative Heat Exchangers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Superczynski, W. F.; Green, G. F.
2006-04-01
The need for improved regenerative cryocooler efficiency may require the replacement of conventional matrices with ducts. The ducts can not be continuous in the direction of temperature gradient when using conventional materials to prevent unacceptable conduction losses. However, this discontinuity creates a complex geometry to model and determine conduction losses. Chesapeake Cryogenics, Inc. has designed, fabricated and tested an apparatus for measuring the heat conduction through regenerative heat exchangers implementing different matrices. Data is presented for stainless steel photo etched disk, phophorus-bronze embossed ribbon coils and screens made of both stainless steel and phosphorus-bronze. The heat conduction was measured with the regenerators evacuated and pressurized with helium gas. In this test apparatus, helium gas presence increased the heat leak significantly. A description of the test apparatus, instrumentation, experimental methods and data analysis are presented.
Compact pulsed laser having improved heat conductance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yang, L. C. (Inventor)
1977-01-01
A highly efficient, compact pulsed laser having high energy to weight and volume ratios is provided. The laser utilizes a cavity reflector that operates as a heat sink and is essentially characterized by having a high heat conductivity, by being a good electrical insulator and by being substantially immune to the deleterious effects of ultra-violet radiation. Manual portability is accomplished by eliminating entirely any need for a conventional circulating fluid cooling system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruiz, Maritza
Thermal management of systems under high heat fluxes on the order of hundreds of W/cm2 is important for the safety, performance and lifetime of devices, with innovative cooling technologies leading to improved performance of electronics or concentrating solar photovoltaics. A novel, spiraling radial inflow microchannel heat sink for high flux cooling applications, using a single phase or vaporizing coolant, has demonstrated enhanced heat transfer capabilities. The design of the heat sink provides an inward swirl flow between parallel, coaxial disks that form a microchannel of 1 cm radius and 300 micron channel height with a single inlet and a single outlet. The channel is heated on one side through a conducting copper surface, and is essentially adiabatic on the opposite side to simulate a heat sink scenario for electronics or concentrated photovoltaics cooling. Experimental results on the heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics in the heat sink, using single phase water as a working fluid, revealed heat transfer enhancements due to flow acceleration and induced secondary flows when compared to unidirectional laminar fully developed flow between parallel plates. Additionally, thermal gradients on the surface are small relative to the bulk fluid temperature gain, a beneficial feature for high heat flux cooling applications. Heat flux levels of 113 W/cm2 at a surface temperature of 77 deg C were reached with a ratio of pumping power to heat rate of 0.03%. Analytical models on single phase flow are used to explore the parametric trends of the flow rate and passage geometry on the streamlines and pressure drop through the device. Flow boiling heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics were obtained for this heat sink using water at near atmospheric pressure as the working fluid for inlet subcooling levels ranging from 20 to 80 deg C and mean mass flux levels ranging from 184-716 kg/m. 2s. Flow enhancements similar to singlephase flow were expected, as well as enhancements due to increased buoyant forces on vapor bubbles resulting from centripetal acceleration in the flow which will tend to draw the vapor towards the outlet. This can also aid in the reduction of vapor obstruction of the flow. The flow was identified as transitioning through three regimes as the heat rate was increased: partial subcooled flow boiling, oscillating boiling and fully developed flow boiling. During partial subcooled flow boiling, both forced convective and nucleate boiling effects are important. During oscillating boiling, the system fluctuated between partial subcooled flow boiling and fully developed nucleate boiling. Temperature and pressure oscillations were significant in this regime and are likely due to bubble constriction of flow in the microchannel. This regime of boiling is generally undesirable due to the large oscillations in temperatures and pressure and design constraints should be established to avoid large oscillations from occurring. During fully developed flow boiling, water vapor rapidly leaves the surface and the flow does not sustain large oscillations. Reducing inlet subcooling levels was found to reduce the magnitude of oscillations in the oscillating boiling regime. Additionally, reduced inlet subcooling levels reduced the average surface temperature at the highest heat flux levels tested when heat transfer was dominated by nucleate boiling, yet increased the average surface temperatures at low heat flux levels when heat transfer was dominated by forced convection. Experiments demonstrated heat fluxes up to 301 W/cm. 2at an average surface temperature of 134 deg C under partial subcooled flow boiling conditions. At this peak heat flux, the system required a pumping power to heat rate ratio of 0.01%. This heat flux is 2.4 times the typical values for critical heat flux in pool boiling under similar conditions.
Measurement of heat conduction through stacked screens
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lewis, M. A.; Kuriyama, T.; Kuriyama, F.; Radebaugh, R.
1998-01-01
This paper describes the experimental apparatus for the measurement of heat conduction through stacked screens as well as some experimental results taken with the apparatus. Screens are stacked in a fiberglass-epoxy cylinder, which is 24.4 mm in diameter and 55 mm in length. The cold end of the stacked screens is cooled by a Gifford-McMahon (GM) cryocooler at cryogenic temperature, and the hot end is maintained at room temperature. Heat conduction through the screens is determined from the temperature gradient in a calibrated heat flow sensor mounted between the cold end of the stacked screens and the GM cryocooler. The samples used for these experiments consisted of 400-mesh stainless steel screens, 400-mesh phosphor bronze screens, and two different porosities of 325-mesh stainless steel screens. The wire diameter of the 400-mesh stainless steel and phosphor bronze screens was 25.4 micrometers and the 325-mesh stainless steel screen wire diameters were 22.9 micrometers and 27.9 micrometers. Standard porosity values were used for the experimental data with additional porosity values used on selected experiments. The experimental results showed that the helium gas between each screen enhanced the heat conduction through the stacked screens by several orders of magnitude compared to that in vacuum. The conduction degradation factor is the ratio of actual heat conduction to the heat conduction where the regenerator material is assumed to be a solid rod of the same cross sectional area as the metal fraction of the screen. This factor was about 0.1 for the stainless steel and 0.022 for the phosphor bronze, and almost constant for the temperature range of 40 to 80 K at the cold end.
Single-mode heat conduction by photons.
Meschke, Matthias; Guichard, Wiebke; Pekola, Jukka P
2006-11-01
The thermal conductance of a single channel is limited by its unique quantum value G(Q), as was shown theoretically in 1983. This result closely resembles the well-known quantization of electrical conductance in ballistic one-dimensional conductors. Interestingly, all particles-irrespective of whether they are bosons or fermions-have the same quantized thermal conductance when they are confined within dimensions that are small compared to their characteristic wavelength. The single-mode heat conductance is particularly relevant in nanostructures. Quantized heat transport through submicrometre dielectric wires by phonons has been observed, and it has been predicted to influence cooling of electrons in metals at very low temperatures due to electromagnetic radiation. Here we report experimental results showing that at low temperatures heat is transferred by photon radiation, when electron-phonon as well as normal electronic heat conduction is frozen out. We study heat exchange between two small pieces of normal metal, connected to each other only via superconducting leads, which are ideal insulators against conventional thermal conduction. Each superconducting lead is interrupted by a switch of electromagnetic (photon) radiation in the form of a DC-SQUID (a superconducting loop with two Josephson tunnel junctions). We find that the thermal conductance between the two metal islands mediated by photons indeed approaches the expected quantum limit of G(Q) at low temperatures. Our observation has practical implications-for example, for the performance and design of ultra-sensitive bolometers (detectors of far-infrared light) and electronic micro-refrigerators, whose operation is largely dependent on weak thermal coupling between the device and its environment. PMID:17093446
Heat Conduction in Novel Electronic Films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goodson, Kenneth E.; Ju, Y. Sungtaek
1999-08-01
Heat conduction in novel electronic films influences the performance and reliability of micromachined transistors, lasers, sensors, and actuators. This article reviews experimental and theoretical research on heat conduction in single-crystal semiconducting and superconducting films and superlattices, polycrystalline diamond films, and highly disordered organic and oxide films. The thermal properties of these films can differ dramatically from those of bulk samples owing to the dependence of the material structure and purity on film processing conditions and to the scattering of heat carriers at material boundaries. Predictions and data show that phonon scattering and transmission at boundaries strongly influence the thermal conductivities of single-crystal films and superlattices, although more work is needed to resolve the importance of strain-induced lattice defects. For polycrystalline films, phonon scattering on grain boundaries and associated defects causes the thermal conductivity to be strongly anisotropic and nonhomogeneous. For highly disordered films, preliminary studies have illustrated the influences of impurities on the volumetric heat capacity and, for the case of organic films, molecular orientation on the conductivity anisotropy. More work on disordered films needs to resolve the interplay among atomic-scale disorder, porosity, partial crystallinity, and molecular orientation.
Large variable conductance heat pipe. Transverse header
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edelstein, F.
1975-01-01
The characteristics of gas-loaded, variable conductance heat pipes (VCHP) are discussed. The difficulties involved in developing a large VCHP header are analyzed. The construction of the large capacity VCHP is described. A research project to eliminate some of the problems involved in large capacity VCHP operation is explained.
Heat Rejection from a Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Radiator Panel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jaworske, D. A.; Gibson, M. A.; Hervol, D. S.
2012-01-01
A titanium-water heat pipe radiator having an innovative proprietary evaporator configuration was evaluated in a large vacuum chamber equipped with liquid nitrogen cooled cold walls. The radiator was manufactured by Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT), Lancaster, PA, and delivered as part of a Small Business Innovative Research effort. The radiator panel consisted of five titanium-water heat pipes operating as thermosyphons, sandwiched between two polymer matrix composite face sheets. The five variable conductance heat pipes were purposely charged with a small amount of non-condensable gas to control heat flow through the condenser. Heat rejection was evaluated over a wide range of inlet water temperature and flow conditions, and heat rejection was calculated in real-time utilizing a data acquisition system programmed with the Stefan-Boltzmann equation. Thermography through an infra-red transparent window identified heat flow across the panel. Under nominal operation, a maximum heat rejection value of over 2200 Watts was identified. The thermal vacuum evaluation of heat rejection provided critical information on understanding the radiator s performance, and in steady state and transient scenarios provided useful information for validating current thermal models in support of the Fission Power Systems Project.
Effects of anisotropic heat conduction on solidification
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weaver, J. A.; Viskanta, R.
1989-01-01
Two-dimensional solidification influenced by anisotropic heat conduction has been considered. The interfacial energy balance was derived to account for the heat transfer in one direction (x or y) depending on the temperature gradient in both the x and y directions. A parametric study was made to determine the effects of the Stefan number, aspect ratio, initial superheat, and thermal conductivity ratios on the solidification rate. Because of the imposed boundary conditions, the interface became skewed and sometimes was not a straight line between the interface position at the upper and lower adiabatic walls (spatially nonlinear along the height). This skewness depends on the thermal conductivity ratio k(yy)/k(yx). The nonlinearity of the interface is influenced by the solidification rate, aspect ratio, and k(yy/k(yx).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maasilta, I. J.; Puurtinen, T. A.; Tian, Y.; Geng, Z.
2015-11-01
We discuss two alternative and complementary means of controlling radial phonon conduction for bolometers in two dimensions: by using phononic crystals or by roughening the surface of the membranes (Casimir limit). For phononic crystals, we present new experiments with a modified geometry and a larger hole periodicity than before, achieving a low thermal conductance { }2 pW/K at 150 mK. Calculations in the Casimir limit, on the other hand, show that for small detector dimensions thermal conductance below 1 fW/K seems achievable.
Interfacial Heat Conduction in Modern Semiconductor Nanostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goodson, Kenneth
2015-03-01
Heat conduction through interfaces in electronic nanostructures grows more important with the dimensional scaling trends throughout the semiconductor industry. The complexity of interfacial transport has increased owing to frequent examples of severe lattice mismatch and strain, boundaries with nanoscale non-planar features and, in some cases, the critical role of electron-phonon interactions. This talk will describe measurements and modeling of phonon heat conduction through interfaces in some of the latest semiconductor nanotechnologies and feature a range of material combinations. Examples include GaN-diamond and silicon-diamond composites, chalcogenide-metal multilayers, metal-semiconductor nanolayer stacks, and nonplanar interfaces in modern nanotransistors and interconnect structures. Applications range from conventional CMOS electronics and phase change memory to quantum cascade lasers and RF amplifiers for satellites.
2-D Finite Element Heat Conduction
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1989-10-30
AYER is a finite element program which implicitly solves the general two-dimensional equation of thermal conduction for plane or axisymmetric bodies. AYER takes into account the effects of time (transient problems), in-plane anisotropic thermal conductivity, a three-dimensional velocity distribution, and interface thermal contact resistance. Geometry and material distributions are arbitrary, and input is via subroutines provided by the user. As a result, boundary conditions, material properties, velocity distributions, and internal power generation may be mademore » functions of, e.g., time, temperature, location, and heat flux.« less
Heat conduction of laser vanadate crystals
Zagumennyi, A I; Zavartsev, Yu D; Kutovoi, S A; Shcherbakov, I A; Popov, P A; Zerouk, F
2008-03-31
The heat conduction of laser vanadate crystals GdVO{sub 4} and YVO{sub 4} and their solid solutions is measured in the temperature interval from 50 to 350 K. Mixed rare-earth vanadates have the common chemical formula Re'{sub 1-x}Re''{sub x}VO{sub 4}, where Re' and Re'' are two or more types of ions from a series La{sup 3+}, Pr{sup 3+}, Nd{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+}, Gd{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+}, Ho{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+}, Tm{sup 3+}, Yb{sup 3+}, Lu{sup 3+}, Sc{sup 3+}, Y{sup 3+}. The heat conduction of Nd:YVO{sub 4} measured at room temperature proved to be more than twice higher than that reported in the literature and in certificate characteristics of laser Nd:YVO{sub 4} elements manufactured by numerous commercial companies. The empirical dependences of the heat conduction along the crystallographic axes <100> and <001> on the composition of rare-earth vanadates Re'{sub 1-x}Re''{sub x}VO{sub 4}, are obtained in the temperature interval from 200 to 350 K. (active media)
Mohan, R.S.; Kovacevic, R.; Beardsley, H.E.
1996-12-31
In abrasive waterjet (AWJ) cutting, the cutting tool is a thin stream of high velocity abrasive waterjet slurry which can be considered as a moving line heat source that increases the temperature of the narrow zone along the cut kerf wall. A suitably defined inverse heat conduction problem which uses the experimentally determined temperature histories at various points in the workpiece, is adopted to determine the heat flux at the cutting zone. Temperature distribution in the workpiece and the cutting nozzle during AWJ cutting is monitored using infrared thermography. A suitable strategy for on-line monitoring of the radial and axial wear of the AWJ nozzle based on the nozzle temperature distribution is also proposed.
Effects of a radially varying electrical conductivity on 3D numerical dynamos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gómez-Pérez, Natalia; Heimpel, Moritz; Wicht, Johannes
2010-07-01
The transition from liquid metal to silicate rock in the cores of the terrestrial planets is likely to be accompanied by a gradient in the composition of the outer core liquid. The electrical conductivity of a volatile-enriched liquid alloy can be substantially lower than a light-element-depleted fluid found close to the inner core boundary. In this paper, we investigate the effect of radially variable electrical conductivity on planetary dynamo action using an electrical conductivity that decreases exponentially as a function of radius. We find that numerical solutions with continuous, radially outward decreasing electrical conductivity profiles result in strongly modified flow and magnetic field dynamics, compared to solutions with homogeneous electrical conductivity. The force balances at the top of the simulated fluid determine the overall character of the flow. The relationship between Coriolis, and Lorentz forces near the outer core boundary controls the flow and magnetic field intensity and morphology of the system. Our results imply that a low conductivity layer near the top of Mercury's liquid outer core is consistent with its weak magnetic field.
Radial effects in heating and thermal stability of a sub-ignited tokamak
Fuchs, V.; Shoucri, M.M.; Thibaudeau, G.; Harten, L.; Bers, A.
1982-02-01
The existence of thermally stable sub-ignited equilibria of a tokamak reactor, sustained in operation by a feedback-controlled supplementary heating source, is demonstrated. The establishment of stability depends on a number of radially non-uniform, nonlinear processes whose effect is analyzed. One-dimensional (radial) stability analyses of model transport equations, together with numerical results from a 1-D transport code, are used in studying the heating of DT-plasmas in the thermonuclear regime. Plasma core supplementary heating is found to be a thermally more stable process than bulk heating. In the presence of impurity line radiation, however, core-heated temperature profiles may collapse, contracting inward from the limiter, the result of an instability caused by the increasing nature of the radiative cooling rate, with decreasing temperature. Conditions are established for the realization of a sub-ignited high-Q, toroidal reactor plasma with appreciable output power (approx. = 2000 MW thermal).
Long and high conductance helium heat pipe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gully, Philippe
2014-11-01
This paper reports on the development and the thermal tests of two superfluid helium heat pipes. They feature a copper braid located inside a 6 mm outer diameter stainless tube fitted with copper ends for mechanical anchoring. The copper braid is the support of the Rollin superfluid helium film which is essential in the heat transfer. The extremely low thickness of the liquid film allows for a low filling pressure, making the technology very simple without the need for any external hot reservoir and with the possibility to easily bend the tube. We present the design and discuss the thermal performance of two heat pipes tested for several filling pressures, adverse tilt angles and in 1.4-2.0 K temperature range. A minimum filling pressure (0.6 MPa) is needed to get significant transport capacity. A 12 mW transport capacity is achieved for 3.0 MPa filling pressure. It is shown that the long heat pipe (1.2 m) and the short one (0.25 m) have similar thermal performance in adverse tilt. At 1.7 K the long heat pipe, 120 g in weight, reaches a transport capacity of 5.7 mW/4.2 mW for a tilt angle of 0 / 60° and a thermal conductance of 600 mW/K for 4 mW transferred power. When the condenser reaches the super-fluid transition temperature, the Rollin film accelerates the cool down of the evaporator down to 1.7 K with a heating power applied to the evaporator.
Microscale Heat Conduction Models and Doppler Feedback
Hawari, Ayman I.; Ougouag, Abderrafi
2015-01-22
The objective of this project is to establish an approach for providing the fundamental input that is needed to estimate the magnitude and time- dependence of the Doppler feedback mechanism in Very High Temperature reactors. This mechanism is the foremost contributor to the passive safety of gas-cooled, graphite-moderated high temperature reactors that use fuel based on Tristructural-Isotropic (TRISO) coated particles. Therefore, its correct prediction is essential to the conduct of safety analyses for these reactors. Since the effect is directly dependent on the actual temperature reached by the fuel during transients, the underlying phenomena of heat deposition, heat transfer and temperature rise must be correctly predicted. To achieve the above objective, this project will explore an approach that accounts for lattice effects as well as local temperature variations and the correct definition of temperature and related local effects.
Parallelized solvers for heat conduction formulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Padovan, Joe; Kwang, Abel
1991-01-01
Based on multilevel partitioning, this paper develops a structural parallelizable solution methodology that enables a significant reduction in computational effort and memory requirements for very large scale linear and nonlinear steady and transient thermal (heat conduction) models. Due to the generality of the formulation of the scheme, both finite element and finite difference simulations can be treated. Diverse model topologies can thus be handled, including both simply and multiply connected (branched/perforated) geometries. To verify the methodology, analytical and numerical benchmark trends are verified in both sequential and parallel computer environments.
Falabella, S.
1988-05-11
A small Radial Energy Analyzer (REA) was used on the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U), at Lawerence Livermore National Laboratory, to investigate the radial profiles of ion temperature, density, and plasma potential during Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH). The probe has been inserted into the central-cell plasma at temperatures of 200 eV and densities of 3 x 10/sup 12/cm/sup /minus 3// without damage to the probe, or major degradation of the plasma. This analyzer has indicated an increase in ion temperature from near 20 eV before ICRH to near 150 eV during ICRH, with about 60 kW of broadcast power. The REA measurements were cross-checked against other diagnostics on TMX-U and found to be consistent. The ion density measurement was compared to the line-density measured by microwave interferometry and found to agree within 10 to 20%. A radial intergral of n/sub i/T/sub i/ as measured by the REA shows good agreement with the diamagnetic loop measurement of plasma energy. The radial density profile is observed to broaden during the RF heating pulses, without inducing additional radial losses in the core plasma. The radial profile of plasma is seen to vary from axially peaked, to nearly flat as the plasma conditions carried over the series of experiments. To relate the increase in ion temperature to power absorbed by the plasma, a power balance as a function of radius was performed. The RF power absorbed is set equal to the sum of the losses during ICRH, minus those without ICRH. This method accounts for more than 70% of the broadcast power using a simple power balance model. The measured radial profile of the RF heating was compared to the calculations of two codes, ANTENA and GARFIELD, to test their effectiveness as predictors of power absorption profiles for TMX-U. 62 refs., 63 figs., 7 tabs.
Phonon heat conduction in layered anisotropic crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Minnich, A. J.
2015-02-01
The thermal properties of anisotropic crystals are of both fundamental and practical interest, but transport phenomena in anisotropic materials such as graphite remain poorly understood because solutions of the Boltzmann equation often assume isotropy. Here, we extend an analytic solution of the transient, frequency-dependent Boltzmann equation to highly anisotropic solids and examine its predictions for graphite. We show that this simple model predicts key results, such as long c -axis phonon mean free paths and a negative correlation of cross-plane thermal conductivity with in-plane group velocity, that were previously observed with computationally expensive molecular-dynamics simulations. Further, using our analytic solution, we demonstrate a method to reconstruct the anisotropic mean free path spectrum of crystals with arbitrary dispersion relations without any prior knowledge of their harmonic or anharmonic properties using observations of quasiballistic heat conduction. These results provide a useful analytic framework to understand thermal transport in anisotropic crystals.
Thermoelastic damping in thin microrings with two-dimensional heat conduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fang, Yuming; Li, Pu
2015-05-01
Accurate determination of thermoelastic damping (TED) is very challenging in the design of micro-resonators. Microrings are widely used in many micro-resonators. In the past, to model the TED effect on the microrings, some analytical models have been developed. However, in the previous works, the heat conduction within the microring is modeled by using the one-dimensional approach. The governing equation for heat conduction is solved only for the one-dimensional heat conduction along the radial thickness of the microring. This paper presents a simple analytical model for TED in microrings. The two-dimensional heat conduction over the thermoelastic temperature gradients along the radial thickness and the circumferential direction are considered in the present model. A two-dimensional heat conduction equation is developed. The solution of the equation is represented by the product of an assumed sine series along the radial thickness and an assumed trigonometric series along the circumferential direction. The analytical results obtained by the present 2-D model show a good agreement with the numerical (FEM) results. The limitations of the previous 1-D model are assessed.
Information filtering via weighted heat conduction algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Jian-Guo; Guo, Qiang; Zhang, Yi-Cheng
2011-06-01
In this paper, by taking into account effects of the user and object correlations on a heat conduction (HC) algorithm, a weighted heat conduction (WHC) algorithm is presented. We argue that the edge weight of the user-object bipartite network should be embedded into the HC algorithm to measure the object similarity. The numerical results indicate that both the accuracy and diversity could be improved greatly compared with the standard HC algorithm and the optimal values reached simultaneously. On the Movielens and Netflix datasets, the algorithmic accuracy, measured by the average ranking score, can be improved by 39.7% and 56.1% in the optimal case, respectively, and the diversity could reach 0.9587 and 0.9317 when the recommendation list equals to 5. Further statistical analysis indicates that, in the optimal case, the distributions of the edge weight are changed to the Poisson form, which may be the reason why HC algorithm performance could be improved. This work highlights the effect of edge weight on a personalized recommendation study, which maybe an important factor affecting personalized recommendation performance.
Radial and temporal variations in surface heat transfer during cryogen spray cooling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Franco, Walfre; Liu, Jie; Wang, Guo-Xiang; Nelson, J. Stuart; Aguilar, Guillermo
2005-01-01
Cryogen spray cooling (CSC) is a heat extraction process that protects the epidermis from thermal damage during dermatologic laser surgery. The objective of the present work is to investigate radial and temporal variations in the heat transferred through the surface of a skin phantom during CSC. A fast-response thermal sensor is used to measure surface temperatures every 1 mm across a 16 mm diameter of the sprayed surface of the phantom. An analytical expression based on Fourier's law and Duhamel's theorem is used to compute surface heat fluxes from temperature measurements. Results show that radial and temporal variations of the boundary conditions have a strong influence on the homogeneity of heat extraction from the skin phantom. However, there is a subregion of uniform cooling whose size is time dependent. It is also observed that the surface heat flux undergoes a marked dynamic variation, with a maximum heat flux occurring at the centre of the sprayed surface early in the spurt followed by a quick decrease. The study shows that radial and temporal variations of boundary conditions must be taken into account and ideally controlled to guarantee uniform protection during CSC of human skin.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Weiping; Xie, Xiujuan; Yang, Huihui; Li, Laifeng; Gong, Linghui
High performance heat exchangers are critical component in many cryogenic systems and its performance is typically very sensitive to longitudinal heat conduction, parasitic heat loads and property variations. This paper gives an analytical study on 1-D model for multi-stream parallel-plate fin heat exchanger by using the method of decoupling transformations. The results obtained in the present paper are valuable for the reference on optimization for heat exchanger design.
In situ laser heating and radial synchrotron x-ray diffraction in a diamond anvil cell.
Kunz, Martin; Caldwell, Wendel A; Miyagi, Lowell; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf
2007-06-01
We report a first combination of diamond anvil cell radial x-ray diffraction with in situ laser heating. The laser-heating setup of ALS beamline 12.2.2 was modified to allow one-sided heating of a sample in a diamond anvil cell with an 80 W yttrium lithium fluoride laser while probing the sample with radial x-ray diffraction. The diamond anvil cell is placed with its compressional axis vertical, and perpendicular to the beam. The laser beam is focused onto the sample from the top while the sample is probed with hard x-rays through an x-ray transparent boron-epoxy gasket. The temperature response of preferred orientation of (Fe,Mg)O is probed as a test experiment. Recrystallization was observed above 1500 K, accompanied by a decrease in stress. PMID:17614626
In situ laser heating and radial synchrotron x-ray diffraction in a diamond anvil cell
Kunz, Martin; Caldwell, Wendel A.; Miyagi, Lowell; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf
2007-06-15
We report a first combination of diamond anvil cell radial x-ray diffraction with in situ laser heating. The laser-heating setup of ALS beamline 12.2.2 was modified to allow one-sided heating of a sample in a diamond anvil cell with an 80 W yttrium lithium fluoride laser while probing the sample with radial x-ray diffraction. The diamond anvil cell is placed with its compressional axis vertical, and perpendicular to the beam. The laser beam is focused onto the sample from the top while the sample is probed with hard x-rays through an x-ray transparent boron-epoxy gasket. The temperature response of preferred orientation of (Fe,Mg)O is probed as a test experiment. Recrystallization was observed above 1500 K, accompanied by a decrease in stress.
Solonenko, Oleg P.; Smirnov, Audrey V.
2006-05-05
Potential possibilities of an advanced approach based on the usage of DC cascade torch providing an axially symmetric plasma jet outflow, and continuous radial injection of powder into a plasma flow are discussed. Comparison is made of the results, obtained using two models of interphase heat and momentum exchange between polydisperse alumina particles and air plasma jet, other factors being the same. The widely used model of gradientless particles' heating was applied for computing the two-phase plasma jets' temperature and velocity fields. The model is compared with corresponding model of gradient particle heating computed by using an efficient numerical method developed. Calculations were conducted under different scales of dense loading conditions to estimate the maximum productivity of plasma spray process.
Transient Heat Conduction in a Porous Medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gordeliy, Elizaveta; Crouch, Steven L.; Mogilevskaya, Sofia G.
2008-02-01
This paper is concerned with modeling time-dependent effects due to the diffusion processes in a medium containing multiple circular (in two dimensions) or spherical (in three dimensions) cavities (pores). The cavities may have different sizes provided that they do not overlap. The application of interest is for transient heat conduction in a porous material, and the aim is to devise a method that is capable of accurately computing the temperature and heat flux at any point and any time, without the need to consider a series of discrete time steps, as in conventional numerical solution procedures involving finite elements and finite differences. The approach is based on the use of the analytical solution to a corresponding problem of a single cavity in an infinite domain and superposition. Application of the analytical Laplace transform and its inversion results in a semi-analytical solution for the case of multiple cavities in the form of a truncated Fourier series (in two dimensions) or a series of surface spherical harmonics (in three dimensions). The limiting case of large time is investigated and the asymptotic formula that describes the behavior of the solution for this case is obtained by using the analytical solution in the Laplace transform domain. The use of the asymptotic formula increases the effectiveness of the method and further reduces the cost of the computations.
Transport of radial heat flux and second sound in fusion plasmas
Guercan, Oe. D.; Berionni, V.; Hennequin, P.; Morel, P.; Vermare, L.; Diamond, P. H.; Garbet, X.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Kosuga, Y.
2013-02-15
Simple flux-gradient relations that involve time delay and radial coupling are discussed. Such a formulation leads to a rather simple description of avalanches and may explain breaking of gyroBohm transport scaling. The generalization of the flux-gradient relation (i.e., constitutive relation), which involve both time delay and spatial coupling, is derived from drift-kinetic equation, leading to kinetic definitions of constitutive elements such as the flux of radial heat flux. This allows numerical simulations to compute these cubic quantities directly. The formulation introduced here can be viewed as an extension of turbulence spreading to include the effect of spreading of cross-phase as well as turbulence intensity, combined in such a way to give the flux. The link between turbulence spreading and entropy production is highlighted. An extension of this formulation to general quasi-linear theory for the distribution function in the phase space of radial position and parallel velocity is also discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Yiying; Li, Junchang; Zhou, Ling-Yun
1999-09-01
In order to overcome the so called heat conduction paradox which was caused by Fourier heat conduction leading to the infinitive heat conduction velocity, M. Chester proposed a modification heat conduction eq. from macroscopic point of view, but this paper derived Chester's modification heat conduction eq. from microscopic point of view by means of phonon model. Furthermore, we solved the Chester's eq. by means of Solid Quantum Theory, and made us of it to compute the temperature field by laser heating.
Gan, K F; Ahn, J-W; Park, J-W; Maingi, R; McLean, A G; Gray, T K; Gong, X; Zhang, X D
2013-02-01
The divertor heat flux footprint in tokamaks is often observed to be non-axisymmetric due to intrinsic error fields, applied 3D magnetic fields or during transients such as edge localized modes. Typically, only 1D radial heat flux profiles are analyzed; however, analysis of the full 2D divertor measurements provides opportunities to study the asymmetric nature of the deposited heat flux. To accomplish this an improved 3D Fourier analysis method has been successfully applied in a heat conduction solver (TACO) to determine the 2D heat flux distribution at the lower divertor surface in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) tokamak. This advance enables study of helical heat deposition onto the divertor. In order to account for heat transmission through poorly adhered surface layers on the divertor plate, a heat transmission coefficient, defined as the surface layer thermal conductivity divided by the thickness of the layer, was introduced to the solution of heat conduction equation. This coefficient is denoted as ? and a range of values were tested in the model to ensure a reliable heat flux calculation until a specific value of ? led to the constant total deposited energy in the numerical solution after the end of discharge. A comparison between 1D heat flux profiles from TACO and from a 2D heat flux calculation code, THEODOR, shows good agreement. Advantages of 2D heat flux distribution over the conventional 1D heat flux profile are also discussed, and examples of 2D data analysis in the study of striated heat deposition pattern as well as the toroidal degree of asymmetry of peak heat flux and heat flux width are demonstrated. PMID:23464209
E × B shear pattern formation by radial propagation of heat flux waves
Kosuga, Y.; Diamond, P. H.; CASS and CMTFO, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 ; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Gürcan, Ö. D.
2014-05-15
A novel theory to describe the formation of E×B flow patterns by radially propagating heat flux waves is presented. A model for heat avalanche dynamics is extended to include a finite delay time between the instantaneous heat flux and the mean flux, based on an analogy between heat avalanche dynamics and traffic flow dynamics. The response time introduced here is an analogue of the drivers' response time in traffic dynamics. The microscopic foundation for the time delay is the time for mixing of the phase space density. The inclusion of the finite response time changes the model equation for avalanche dynamics from Burgers equation to a nonlinear telegraph equation. Based on the telegraph equation, the formation of heat flux jams is predicted. The growth rate and typical interval of jams are calculated. The connection of the jam interval to the typical step size of the E×B staircase is discussed.
Flame jet impingement heat transfer from an array of radial jet reattachment flames
Mohr, J.W.; Seyed-Yagoobi, J.; Page, R.H.
1997-07-01
The use of gas-fired rapid heating techniques for metal and glass products has many advantages over typical furnace heating techniques, namely: high thermal efficiency, improved product quality, faster heating response time, and increased productivity. Recent reviews have focused on understanding the heat transfer aspects of impinging flame jets. In their two reviews, Baukal and Gebhart discuss the experimental conditions as well as the measurements made with impinging flame jet systems. Their findings add more detailed information to the earlier work of Viskanta (1993) but these reviews clearly demonstrate the scarcity of data regarding impinging flame jets. Here, flame jet impingement heat transfer for an array of Radial Jet Reattachment Combustion (RJRC) nozzles has been studied for flames which were highly, moderately, and weakly interactive. The low, however, the most uniform between-nozzle heat flux distribution on the impingement surface occurred at the closest between-nozzle spacing, when the flames were highly interacting. The highest between-nozzle heat flux was measured when the flame jets were moderately interacting at intermediate between-nozzle spacing. At large spacings, the RJRC nozzles became weakly interacting and behaved much like independent RJRC nozzles with relatively low heat flux to the impingement surface. Based on the heat flux profiles, the optimal between-nozzle spacing was identified and flame temperatures as well as additional heat flux profiles in the direction perpendicular to the line connecting the RJRC nozzles were measured.
Solid water phantom heat conduction: Heating and cooling rates.
Butson, Martin J; Cheung, Tsang; Yu, Peter K N
2008-01-01
Solid water is often the phantom material of choice for dosimetry procedures in radiotherapy high-energy X-ray and electron beam radiation calibration and quality assurance. This note investigates variation in heat conduction that can occur for a common commercially available solid water stack phantom when a temperature differential occurs between the phantom and ambient temperature. These variations in temperature can then affect radiation measurements and thus the accuracy of radiation dosimetry. In this manuscript, we aim to investigate the variations in temperature which can occur in radiation measurement incorporated (RMI) solid water phantoms, their thermal properties and the effects on radiation dosimetry which can occur because of temperature differentials. Results have shown that the rate of temperature change at a phantom center is a complex function but appears relatively proportional to the surface area of the phantom in normal clinical usage. It is also dependent on the thermal conductivity of any material in contact with the phantom; and the nature of the phantom construction, i.e., the number and thickness of slices within the phantom. A thermal time constant of approximately 20 min was measured for a 2-cm solid water phantom slice when located on a steel workbench in comparison to 60 min when located on a wooden workbench (linac couch insert). It is found that for larger solid water stack phantoms, a transient (within 1 degrees C) thermal equilibrium exists at the center for up to 2 h, before the temperature begins to change. This is assumed to be due to the insulating properties of multiple slices within the stack, whereby very small air spaces are introduced inhibiting the heat conduction through the phantom material. It is therefore recommended that the solid water/phantom material is kept within the treatment room for closest thermal accuracy conditions or at least placed within the room approximately 10 h before dosimetry measurements. If these options are not available, a standard linear interpolation method for calculation of temperature should be used to minimize uncertainty of temperature measurements. PMID:20041049
Extended Development of Variable Conductance Heat Pipes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Antoniuk, D.; Edwards, D. K.; Luedke, E. E.
1978-01-01
A high-capacity vapor-modulated heat pipe was designed and tested. In 1977, a program was undertaken to use the aforementioned heat pipe to study protection from freezing-point failure, increase control sensitivity, and transient behavior under a wide range of operating conditions in order to determine the full performance potential of the heat pipe. A new concept, based on the vapor-induced-dry-out principle, was developed for passive feedback temperature control as a heat pipe diode. This report documents this work and describes: (1) the experimental and theoretical investigation of the performance of the vapor-modulated heat pipe; and (2) the design, fabrication and test of the heat pipe diode.
Modeling Earth's Outer Radiation Belt Electron Dynamics---Radial Diffusion, Heating, and Loss
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tu, Weichao
Earth's outer radiation belt is a relativistic electron environment that is hazardous to space systems. It is characterized by large variations in the electron flux, which are controlled by the competition between source, transport, and loss processes. One of the central questions in outer radiation belt research is to resolve the relative contribution of radial diffusion, wave heating, and loss to the enhancement and decay of the radiation belt electrons. This thesis studies them together and separately. Firstly, we develop an empirical Fokker-Planck model that includes radial diffusion, an internal source, and finite electron lifetimes parameterized as functions of geomagnetic indices. By simulating the observed electron variations, the model suggests that the required magnitudes of radial diffusion and internal heating for the enhancement of energetic electrons in the outer radiation belt vary from storm to storm, and generally internal heating contributes more to the enhancements of MeV energy electrons at L=4 (L is approximately the radial distance in Earth radii at the equator). However, since the source, transport, and loss terms in the model are empirical, the model results have uncertainties. To eliminate the uncertainty in the loss rate, both the precipitation and the adiabatic loss of radiation belt electrons are quantitatively studied. Based on the observations from Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX), a Drift-Diffusion model is applied to quantify electron precipitation loss, which is the dominant non-adiabatic loss mechanism for electrons in the heart of the outer radiation belt. Model results for a small storm, a moderate storm, and an intense storm indicate that fast precipitation losses of relativistic electrons, on the time scale of hours, persistently occur in the storm main phases and with more efficient losses at higher energies over wide range of L regions. Additionally, calculations of adiabatic effects on radiation belt electrons at low altitudes demonstrate that the adiabatic flux drop of electrons during the storm main phase is both altitude and storm dependent. During the main phase of a moderate geomagnetic storm, due solely to adiabatic effects a satellite at low altitude sees either zero electron flux or a fractional flux drop depending on its altitude. To physically quantify the radial diffusion rate, we use power spectral density and global mode structure of the Ultra-Low-Frequency (ULF) waves, which are derived from the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) MHD simulation and validated by field data from real satellites. The calculated total diffusion rate is shown to be dominated by the contribution from magnetic field perturbations, and much less from the electric field. Fast diffusion generally occurs when solar wind dynamic pressure is high or nightside geomagnetic activity is strong and with higher diffusion rates at higher L regions. Work performed in this thesis provides realistic loss rate and radial diffusion rate of radiation belt electrons, as well as a comprehensive Fokker-Planck model that can take the loss and radial diffusion rates as inputs and then determine the internal heating rate with less uncertainty. By this approach, we will be able to quantitatively understand the relative contribution of radial diffusion, wave heating, and loss to the variations of radiation belt electrons.
In situ laser heating and radial synchrotron X-ray diffraction ina diamond anvil cell
Kunz, Martin; Caldwell, Wendel A.; Miyagi, Lowell; Wenk,Hans-Rudolf
2007-06-29
We report a first combination of diamond anvil cell radialx-ray diffraction with in situ laser heating. The laser-heating setup ofALS beamline 12.2.2 was modified to allow one-sided heating of a samplein a diamond anvil cell with an 80 W yttrium lithium fluoride laser whileprobing the sample with radial x-ray diffraction. The diamond anvil cellis placed with its compressional axis vertical, and perpendicular to thebeam. The laser beam is focused onto the sample from the top while thesample is probed with hard x-rays through an x-ray transparentboron-epoxy gasket. The temperature response of preferred orientation of(Fe,Mg)O is probed as a test experiment. Recrystallization was observedabove 1500 K, accompanied by a decrease in stress.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meher, K. C.; Tiwari, N.; Ghorui, S.; Sahasrabudhe, S. N.; Das, A. K.
2014-12-01
Axial evolutions of radial heat flux profiles in argon and nitrogen plasma jets from an atmospheric pressure dc non-transferred arc plasma torch are determined using a double calorimetric technique. Results are presented for power levels suitable for the processing of high temperature ceramic oxides, where the heat flux data reported in the literature is rare. Variations of the profile widths and profile maxima are presented as a function of axial distance as well as power. Relatively uniform profile width over prolonged axial distance for nitrogen plasma compared to argon is an important observation which has the potential to offer a much longer dwell time of the injected particles inside the plasma, avoiding the problem of unmelts, especially for ceramics. A comparative study of the heat flux profiles for argon and nitrogen plasma is presented. The obtained results are compared with the data reported in literature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farthing, P. R.; Long, C. A.; Rogers, R. H.
1991-06-01
An internal theory is used to model the flow, and predict heat transfer rates, for corotating compressor disks with a superposed radial inflow of air. Measurements of heat transfer are also made, both in an experimental rig and in an engine. The flow structure comprises source and sink regions, Ekman-type layers and an inviscid central core. Entrainment occurs in the source region, the fluid being distributed into the two nonentraining Ekman-type layers. Fluid leaves the cavity via the sink region. The integral model is validated against the experimental data, although there are some uncertainties in modeling the exact thermal conditions of the experiment. The magnitude of the Nusselt numbers is affected by the rotational Reynolds number and dimensionless flowrate; the maximum value of Nu is found to occur near the edge of the source region. The heat transfer measurements using the engine data show acceptable agreement with theory and experiment.
Superfluid heat conduction and the cooling of magnetized neutron stars.
Aguilera, Deborah N; Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Pons, Jos A; Reddy, Sanjay; Sharma, Rishi
2009-03-01
We report on a new mechanism for heat conduction in the neutron star crust. We find that collective modes of superfluid neutron matter, called superfluid phonons, can influence heat conduction in magnetized neutron stars. They can dominate the heat conduction transverse to the magnetic field when the magnetic field B> approximately 10(13) G. At a density of rho approximately 10(12)-10(14) g/cm3, the conductivity due to superfluid phonons is significantly larger than that due to lattice phonons and is comparable to electron conductivity when the temperature approximately 10(8) K. This new mode of heat conduction can limit the surface anisotropy in highly magnetized neutron stars. Cooling curves of magnetized neutron stars with and without superfluid heat conduction could show observationally discernible differences. PMID:19392503
Superfluid heat conduction and the cooling of magnetized neutron stars
Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Reddy, Sanjay; Sharma, Rishi; Aguilera, Deborah N
2008-01-01
We report on a new mechanism for heat conduction in the neutron star crust. We find that collective modes of superftuid neutron matter, called superfiuid phonons (sPhs), can influence heat conduction in magnetized neutron stars. They can dominate the heat conduction transverse to magnetic field when the magnetic field B {approx}> 10{sup 13} C. At density p {approx_equal} 10{sup 12}--10{sup 14} g/cm{sup 3} the conductivity due to sPhs is significantly larger than that due to lattice phonons and is comparable to electron conductivity at when temperature {approx_equal} 10{sup 8} K. This new mode of heat conduction can limit the surface anisotropy in highly magnetized neutron stars. Cooling curves of magnetized neutron stars with and without superfluid heat conduction show observationally discernible differences.
Superfluid Heat Conduction and the Cooling of Magnetized Neutron Stars
Aguilera, Deborah N.; Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Reddy, Sanjay; Sharma, Rishi; Pons, Jose A.
2009-03-06
We report on a new mechanism for heat conduction in the neutron star crust. We find that collective modes of superfluid neutron matter, called superfluid phonons, can influence heat conduction in magnetized neutron stars. They can dominate the heat conduction transverse to the magnetic field when the magnetic field B > or approx. 10{sup 13} G. At a density of {rho}{approx_equal}10{sup 12}-10{sup 14} g/cm{sup 3}, the conductivity due to superfluid phonons is significantly larger than that due to lattice phonons and is comparable to electron conductivity when the temperature {approx_equal}10{sup 8} K. This new mode of heat conduction can limit the surface anisotropy in highly magnetized neutron stars. Cooling curves of magnetized neutron stars with and without superfluid heat conduction could show observationally discernible differences.
Communications technology satellite - A variable conductance heat pipe application
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mock, P. R.; Marcus, B. D.; Edelman, E. A.
1974-01-01
A variable-conductance heat pipe system (VCHPS) has been designed to provide thermal control for a transmitter experiment package (TEP) to be flown on the Communications Technology Satellite. The VCHPS provides for heat rejection during TEP operation and minimizes the heat leak during power down operations. The VCHPS described features a unique method of aiding priming of arterial heat pipes and a novel approach to balancing heat pipe loads by staggering their control ranges.
Theory and design of variable conductance heat pipes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marcus, B. D.
1972-01-01
A comprehensive review and analysis of all aspects of heat pipe technology pertinent to the design of self-controlled, variable conductance devices for spacecraft thermal control is presented. Subjects considered include hydrostatics, hydrodynamics, heat transfer into and out of the pipe, fluid selection, materials compatibility and variable conductance control techniques. The report includes a selected bibliography of pertinent literature, analytical formulations of various models and theories describing variable conductance heat pipe behavior, and the results of numerous experiments on the steady state and transient performance of gas controlled variable conductance heat pipes. Also included is a discussion of VCHP design techniques.
Interchangeable variable conductance heat pipes for sodium-sulfur batteries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hartenstine, John R.
1991-08-01
Sodium-sulfur batteries can provide electrical power to satellite instrumentation operating in geosynchronous-earth-orbit (GEO) and low-earth-orbit (LEO) conditions. While on orbit, the sodium-sulfur battery requires thermal management as the battery is cycled between discharge in solar eclipse and recharge in sunlight. As the battery discharges in solar eclipse waste heat is generated and the battery requires cooling. During recharge in sunlight the battery temperature needs to be maintained above 320 C. In this Phase 1 program, Thermacore developed and demonstrated a dual titanium/cesium heat pipe to provide passive, lightweight management of the battery during orbital cycling. The dual heat pipe concept uses both constant and variable conductance heat pipes. Constant conductance heat pipes are inserted between sodium-sulfur cells. The cells radiate to the constant conductance heat pipes and this energy is transferred to a variable conductance heat pipe and radiated to deep space.
Efficient Reformulation of HOTFGM: Heat Conduction with Variable Thermal Conductivity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhong, Yi; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Arnold, Steven M. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
Functionally graded materials (FGMs) have become one of the major research topics in the mechanics of materials community during the past fifteen years. FGMs are heterogeneous materials, characterized by spatially variable microstructure, and thus spatially variable macroscopic properties, introduced to enhance material or structural performance. The spatially variable material properties make FGMs challenging to analyze. The review of the various techniques employed to analyze the thermodynamical response of FGMs reveals two distinct and fundamentally different computational strategies, called uncoupled macromechanical and coupled micromechanical approaches by some investigators. The uncoupled macromechanical approaches ignore the effect of microstructural gradation by employing specific spatial variations of material properties, which are either assumed or obtained by local homogenization, thereby resulting in erroneous results under certain circumstances. In contrast, the coupled approaches explicitly account for the micro-macrostructural interaction, albeit at a significantly higher computational cost. The higher-order theory for functionally graded materials (HOTFGM) developed by Aboudi et al. is representative of the coupled approach. However, despite its demonstrated utility in applications where micro-macrostructural coupling effects are important, the theory's full potential is yet to be realized because the original formulation of HOTFGM is computationally intensive. This, in turn, limits the size of problems that can be solved due to the large number of equations required to mimic realistic material microstructures. Therefore, a basis for an efficient reformulation of HOTFGM, referred to as user-friendly formulation, is developed herein, and subsequently employed in the construction of the efficient reformulation using the local/global conductivity matrix approach. In order to extend HOTFGM's range of applicability, spatially variable thermal conductivity capability at the local level is incorporated into the efficient reformulation. Analytical solutions to validate both the user-friendly and efficient reformulations am also developed. Volume discretization sensitivity and validation studies, as well as a practical application of the developed efficient reformulation are subsequently carried out. The presented results illustrate the accuracy and implementability of both the user-friendly formulation and the efficient reformulation of HOTFGM.
Evolution of the radial electric field in high-Te ECH heated plasmas on LHD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pablant, Novimir; Bitter, Manfred; Delgado Aparicio, Luis F.; Dinklage, Andreas; Gates, David; Goto, Motoshi; Ido, Takeshi; Hill, Kenneth H.; Kubo, Shin; Morita, Shigeru; Nagaoka, Kenichi; Oishi, Tetsutarou; Satake, Shinsuke; Takahashi, Hiromi; Yokoyama, Masayuki; LHD Experiment Group Team
2014-10-01
A detailed study is presented on the evolution of the radial electric field (Er) under a range of densities and injected ECH powers on the Large Helical Device (LHD). These plasmas focused on high-electron temperature ECH heated plasmas which exhibit a transition of Er from the ion-root to the electron-root when either the density is reduced or the ECH power is increased. Measurements of poloidal rotation were achieved using the X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer (XICS) and are compared with neo-classical predictions of the radial electric field using the GSRAKE and FORTEC-3D codes. This study is based on a series of experiments on LHD which used fast modulation of the gyrotrons on LHD to produce a detailed power scan with a constant power deposition profile. This is a novel application of this technique to LHD, and has provided the most detailed study to date on dependence of the radial electric field on the injected power. Detailed scans of the density at constant injected power were also made, allowing a separation of the power and density dependence.
Heat conduction errors and time lag in cryogenic thermometer installations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Warshawsky, I.
1973-01-01
Installation practices are recommended that will increase rate of heat exchange between the thermometric sensing element and the cryogenic fluid and that will reduce the rate of undesired heat transfer to higher-temperature objects. Formulas and numerical data are given that help to estimate the magnitude of heat-conduction errors and of time lag in response.
Analysis and application of variable conductance heat pipe air preheater
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Chengming; Wang, Yang; Liao, Quan; Yang, Ying
2011-09-01
The heat transfer analysis of variable conductance heat pipe air preheater was carried out. The temperature transfer matrix was obtained for the air preheater that comprises several discrete heat transfer units with same or different heat transfer surface area in a parallel or counter flow mode. By using the temperature transfer matrix, the outlet fluid temperatures could be easily calculated for a given air preheater and inlet fluid temperatures. The active length of condenser in a variable conductance heat pipe is determined according to the flat interface model. With the same initial conditions, the comparisons between variable conductance heat-pipe air preheater and regular heat pipe air preheater has been analyzed and tested in terms of heat pipe wall temperature, heat transfer surface area and outlet fluid temperatures. Based on the real industrial applications, it has been confirmed that the variable conductance heat pipe air preheater has excellent performance of anti-corrosion and anti-ash-deposition especially at the variable working condition and the sulfur coal (5%-6% mass fraction of sulfur) condition.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marshburn, J. P.; Mcintosh, R., Jr.
1978-01-01
Analysis of the Dynamics Explorer high orbiter spacecraft showed that the proposed louver system, along with existing radiator heat rejection areas on the S/C surface were insufficient to safely control the S/C's thermal excursions caused by highly varying internal power levels and solar input angles. A variable conductance heat pipe system in conjunction with a conventional radial heat pipe system was designed, built, tested, and shown to resolve this problem. The conventional pipes, radial, spinning at 10 rpm were required to carry 35 watts each after experiencing despin from 80 rpm. The VCHPs attached to the radial pipes at the S/C perimeter distributed the excess energy via a finned radiator attached around the S/C's center.
Cascade variable-conductance heat pipe (A0076)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grote, M. G.; Calhoun, L. D., II
1984-01-01
The objective is to verify the capability of a cascade variable conductance heat pipe (CVCHP) system to provide precise temperature control of long life spacecraft without the need for a feedback heater or other power sources for temperature adjustment under conditions of widely varying power input and ambient environment. Solar energy is the heat source and space the heat sink for thermally loading two series connected variable conductance heat pipes. Electronics and power supply equipment requirements are minimal. A 7.5 V lithium battery supplies the power for thermistor type temperature sensors for monitoring system performance, and a 28 V lithium battery supplies power for valve actuation.
Enhancement of heat conduction in carbon nanotubes filled with fullerene molecules.
Cui, Liu; Feng, Yanhui; Zhang, Xinxin
2015-11-01
Heat conduction in carbon nanopeapods (CNPs), i.e. carbon nanotubes (CNTs) filled with fullerene C60 molecules, is investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. The enhancement mechanisms of CNP thermal conductivity, compared with bare CNTs, are discussed via the local heat flux onto a single atom, the relative contributions of different phonon oscillation frequencies to thermal conductivity and the phonon vibrational density of states. The result shows that filled C60 can increase the CNT thermal conductivity by up to 9.6 times in the temperature range of 100-500 K. The constructive phonon mode couplings between the tube and C60 in a frequency range of 0-20 THz, especially in x-, y-direction transverse acoustic modes and the radial breath mode, are primarily responsible for the increment of thermal conductivity. In addition, filled C60 molecules in CNPs enhance the mass transfer contribution to the total heat flux. This contribution accounts for 22-58% in CNPs, much higher than 12% in CNTs. With the temperature going up, the phonon scattering increases and the contribution from mass transfer to total heat flux decreases. Therefore, the CNP thermal conductivity decreases with rising temperature. This study sheds lights on nanoscale thermal/phonon engineering by utilization of CNTs and C60. PMID:26426675
Anomalous heat conduction in asymmetric graphene Y junctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Chenhui; Pan, Feng; Niu, Chunyao; Chen, Weiguang; Jia, Yu
2015-12-01
Through MD simulation of the transient heat pulse propagation in asymmetric Y junction, we report a novel type of controllable heat conduction in graphene nanostructure. The Y junction consists of a steam breaking into a wide branch and a narrow branch. In contrast to the classic situation where heat conductivity is proportional to the cross-sectional area of the material, the transmitted part of the heat pulse in the narrow branch is anomalously much stronger than that in the wide branch. As we increase the width ratio between the wide branch and narrow branch, transmitted coefficient in the narrow branch decreases a little, while in the wide branch, it decreases sharply. Specifically under 2:1 width ratio, transmitted coefficient of the narrow branch is three times that of the coefficient of the wide branch. Further analysis shows that the anomalous heat conduction is primarily induced by the behavior of the longitude vibrational modes.
Experimental evidence of hyperbolic heat conduction in processed meat
Mitra, K.; Kumar, S.; Vedavarz, A.; Moallemi, M.K.
1995-08-01
The objective of this paper is to present experimental evidence of the wave nature of heat propagation in processed meat and to demonstrate that the hyperbolic heat conduction model is an accurate representation, on a macroscopic level, of the heat conduction process in such biological material. The value of the characteristic thermal time of a specific material, processed bologna meat, is determined experimentally. As a part of the work different thermophysical properties are also measured. The measured temperature distributions in the samples are compared with the Fourier results and significant deviation between the two is observed, especially during the initial stages of the transient conduction process. The measured values are found to match the theoretical non-Fourier hyperbolic predictions very well. The superposition of waves occurring inside the meat sample due to the hyperbolic nature of heat conduction is also proved experimentally. 14 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.
Kohlrausch Heat Conductivity Apparatus for Intermediate or Advanced Laboratory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jensen, H. G.
1970-01-01
Describes student experiment in measuring heat conductivity according to Kohlrausch's method. Theory, apparatus design, and experimental procedure is outlined. Results for copper are consistent to within 2 percent. (LC)
Single-photon heat conduction in electrical circuits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jones, P. J.; Huhtamäki, J. A. M.; Tan, K. Y.; Möttönen, M.
2012-02-01
We study photonic heat conduction between two resistors coupled weakly to a single superconducting microwave cavity. At low enough temperature, the dominant part of the heat exchanged between the resistors is transmitted by single-photon excitations of the fundamental mode of the cavity. This manifestation of single-photon heat conduction should be experimentally observable with the current state of the art. Our scheme can possibly be utilized in remote interference-free temperature control of electric components and environment engineering for superconducting quantum bits coupled to cavities.
A variable conductance heat pipe flight experiment - Performance in space
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wanous, D. J.; Marcus, B. D.; Kirkpatrick, J. P.
1975-01-01
The Ames Heat Pipe Experiment (AHPE) is a variable conductance heat pipe/radiator system which was launched aboard the OAO-C spacecraft in August, 1972. All available flight data was reviewed and those from a few orbits were selected for correlation with predictions from an analytical model of the system. The principal conclusion of this study is that gas controlled variable conductance heat pipes can perform reliably for long time periods in the space environment and can effectively provide temperature stabilization for spacecraft electronics. Furthermore, the performance of such systems can be adequately predicted using existing analysis tools.
Fourier analysis of conductive heat transfer for glazed roofing materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roslan, Nurhana Lyana; Bahaman, Nurfaradila; Almanan, Raja Noorliyana Raja; Ismail, Razidah; Zakaria, Nor Zaini
2014-07-01
For low-rise buildings, roof is the most exposed surface to solar radiation. The main mode of heat transfer from outdoor via the roof is conduction. The rate of heat transfer and the thermal impact is dependent on the thermophysical properties of roofing materials. Thus, it is important to analyze the heat distribution for the various types of roofing materials. The objectives of this paper are to obtain the Fourier series for the conductive heat transfer for two types of glazed roofing materials, namely polycarbonate and polyfilled, and also to determine the relationship between the ambient temperature and the conductive heat transfer for these materials. Ambient and surface temperature data were collected from an empirical field investigation in the campus of Universiti Teknologi MARA Shah Alam. The roofing materials were installed on free-standing structures in natural ventilation. Since the temperature data are generally periodic, Fourier series and numerical harmonic analysis are applied. Based on the 24-point harmonic analysis, the eleventh order harmonics is found to generate an adequate Fourier series expansion for both glazed roofing materials. In addition, there exists a linear relationship between the ambient temperature and the conductive heat transfer for both glazed roofing materials. Based on the gradient of the graphs, lower heat transfer is indicated through polyfilled. Thus polyfilled would have a lower thermal impact compared to polycarbonate.
Fourier analysis of conductive heat transfer for glazed roofing materials
Roslan, Nurhana Lyana; Bahaman, Nurfaradila; Almanan, Raja Noorliyana Raja; Ismail, Razidah; Zakaria, Nor Zaini
2014-07-10
For low-rise buildings, roof is the most exposed surface to solar radiation. The main mode of heat transfer from outdoor via the roof is conduction. The rate of heat transfer and the thermal impact is dependent on the thermophysical properties of roofing materials. Thus, it is important to analyze the heat distribution for the various types of roofing materials. The objectives of this paper are to obtain the Fourier series for the conductive heat transfer for two types of glazed roofing materials, namely polycarbonate and polyfilled, and also to determine the relationship between the ambient temperature and the conductive heat transfer for these materials. Ambient and surface temperature data were collected from an empirical field investigation in the campus of Universiti Teknologi MARA Shah Alam. The roofing materials were installed on free-standing structures in natural ventilation. Since the temperature data are generally periodic, Fourier series and numerical harmonic analysis are applied. Based on the 24-point harmonic analysis, the eleventh order harmonics is found to generate an adequate Fourier series expansion for both glazed roofing materials. In addition, there exists a linear relationship between the ambient temperature and the conductive heat transfer for both glazed roofing materials. Based on the gradient of the graphs, lower heat transfer is indicated through polyfilled. Thus polyfilled would have a lower thermal impact compared to polycarbonate.
Quantal Heating of Conducting Electrons with Discrete Spectrum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vitkalov, S. A.; Bykov, A. A.
2011-12-01
Usually heating of conducting electrons by dc electric field results in an increase of electron temperature. In this paper we show that the dc heating of 2D electrons, placed in quantized magnetic fields, results in a peculiar electron distribution, which has the same broadening or an effective "temperature" as the unbiased electron system. The quantal heating, however, violates strongly the Ohm's Law. In the conducting system with discrete electron spectrum the quantal heating results in spectacular decrease of electron resistance and transition of the electrons into a state with zero differential resistance (ZDR). Finally the heating leads to apparent dc driven metal-insulator transition, which correlates with the transition into the ZDR state. The correlation is very unexpected and is not understood.
Quantal Heating of Conducting Electrons with Discrete Spectrum
Vitkalov, S. A.; Bykov, A. A.
2011-12-23
Usually heating of conducting electrons by dc electric field results in an increase of electron temperature. In this paper we show that the dc heating of 2D electrons, placed in quantized magnetic fields, results in a peculiar electron distribution, which has the same broadening or an effective 'temperature' as the unbiased electron system. The quantal heating, however, violates strongly the Ohm's Law. In the conducting system with discrete electron spectrum the quantal heating results in spectacular decrease of electron resistance and transition of the electrons into a state with zero differential resistance (ZDR). Finally the heating leads to apparent dc driven metal-insulator transition, which correlates with the transition into the ZDR state. The correlation is very unexpected and is not understood.
An Experiment in Heat Conduction Using Hollow Cylinders
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ortuno, M.; Marquez, A.; Gallego, S.; Neipp, C.; Belendez, A.
2011-01-01
An experimental apparatus was designed and built to allow students to carry out heat conduction experiments in hollow cylinders made of different materials, as well as to determine the thermal conductivity of these materials. The evolution of the temperature difference between the inner and outer walls of the cylinder as a function of time is…
An Experiment in Heat Conduction Using Hollow Cylinders
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ortuno, M.; Marquez, A.; Gallego, S.; Neipp, C.; Belendez, A.
2011-01-01
An experimental apparatus was designed and built to allow students to carry out heat conduction experiments in hollow cylinders made of different materials, as well as to determine the thermal conductivity of these materials. The evolution of the temperature difference between the inner and outer walls of the cylinder as a function of time is
Heat Pipe Embedded AlSiC Plates for High Conductivity - Low CTE Heat Spreaders
Johnson, Matthew ); Weyant, J.; Garner, S. ); Occhionero, M. )
2010-01-07
Heat pipe embedded aluminum silicon carbide (AlSiC) plates are innovative heat spreaders that provide high thermal conductivity and low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Since heat pipes are two phase devices, they demonstrate effective thermal conductivities ranging between 50,000 and 200,000 W/m-K, depending on the heat pipe length. Installing heat pipes into an AlSiC plate dramatically increases the plate’s effective thermal conductivity. AlSiC plates alone have a thermal conductivity of roughly 200 W/m-K and a CTE ranging from 7-12 ppm/ deg C, similar to that of silicon. An equivalent sized heat pipe embedded AlSiC plate has effective thermal conductivity ranging from 400 to 500 W/m-K and retains the CTE of AlSiC.
THERM3D -- A boundary element computer program for transient heat conduction problems
Ingber, M.S.
1994-02-01
The computer code THERM3D implements the direct boundary element method (BEM) to solve transient heat conduction problems in arbitrary three-dimensional domains. This particular implementation of the BEM avoids performing time-consuming domain integrations by approximating a ``generalized forcing function`` in the interior of the domain with the use of radial basis functions. An approximate particular solution is then constructed, and the original problem is transformed into a sequence of Laplace problems. The code is capable of handling a large variety of boundary conditions including isothermal, specified flux, convection, radiation, and combined convection and radiation conditions. The computer code is benchmarked by comparisons with analytic and finite element results.
A new heat-conduction logging technique and its application
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Bin; Li, Zishun; Zhu, Guotong; Fu, Zhifang
2005-06-01
The results of a heat-conduction experiment with a central point source in a sand barrel shows that the temperature of the heat source increase much faster in sand saturated with oil and air (dry sand) than in water sand. During cooling the temperature of the central heat source goes down slower in oil- or air-saturated sands than in water sands. Based on the theory of heat-conduction in porous media and the experimental results, we developed a new heat-conduction logging technique which utilizes an artificial heat source (dynamite charge or electric heater) to heat up target formations in the borehole and then measure the change of temperature at a later time. Post-frac oil production is shown to be directly proportional to the size of the temperature anomaly when other reservoir parameters are fairly consistent. The method is used to evaluate potential oil production for marginal reservoirs in the FY formation in Song-Liao basin of China.
A Global Assessment of Oceanic Heat Loss: Conductive Cooling and Hydrothermal Redistribution of Heat
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hasterok, D. P.; Chapman, D. S.; Davis, E. E.
2011-12-01
A new dataset of ~15000 oceanic heat flow measurements is analyzed to determine the conductive heat loss through the seafloor. Many heat flow values in seafloor younger than 60 Ma are lower than predicted by models of conductively cooled lithosphere. This heat flow deficit is caused by ventilated hydrothermal circulation discharging at crustal outcrops or through thin sedimentary cover. Globally filtering of heat flow data to retain sites with sediment cover >400 m thick and located >60 km from the nearest seamount minimizes the effect of hydrothermal ventilation. Filtered heat flow exhibit a much higher correlation coefficient with seafloor age (up to 0.95 for filtered data in contrast to 0.5 for unfiltered data) and lower variability (reduction by 30%) within an age bin. A small heat flow deficit still persists at ages <25 Ma, possibly as a result of global filtering limitations and incomplete thermal rebound following sediment burial. Detailed heat flow surveys co-located with seismic data can identify environments favoring conductive heat flow; heat flow collected in these environments is higher than that determined by the global dataset, and is more consistent with conductive cooling of the lithosphere. The new filtered data analysis and a growing number of site specific surveys both support estimates of global heat loss in the range 40-47 TW. The estimated hydrothermal deficit is consistent with estimates from geochemical studies ~7 TW, but is a few TW lower than previous estimates derived from heat flow determinations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kosaka, Masataka; Monde, Masanori
2015-09-01
For safe and fast fueling of hydrogen in a fuel cell electric vehicle at hydrogen fueling stations, an understanding of the heat transferred from the gas into the tank wall (carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) material) during hydrogen fueling is necessary. Its thermal properties are needed in estimating heat loss accurately during hydrogen fueling. The CFRP has anisotropic thermal properties, because it consists of an adhesive agent and layers of the CFRP which is wound with a carbon fiber. In this paper, the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of the tank wall material were measured by an inverse solution for one-dimensional unsteady heat conduction. As a result, the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity were 2.09 10^{-6}{ m}2{\\cdot }{s}^{-1} and 3.06{ W}{\\cdot }{m}{\\cdot }^{-1}{K}^{-1} for the axial direction, while they were 6.03 10^{-7} {m}2{\\cdot }{s}^{-1} and 0.93 {W}{\\cdot }{m}^{-1}{\\cdot }{K}^{-1} for the radial direction. The thermal conductivity for the axial direction was about three times higher than that for the radial direction. The thermal diffusivity shows the same trend in both directions because the thermal capacity, ? c , is independent of direction, where ? is the density and c is the heat capacity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kosaka, Masataka; Monde, Masanori
2015-11-01
For safe and fast fueling of hydrogen in a fuel cell electric vehicle at hydrogen fueling stations, an understanding of the heat transferred from the gas into the tank wall (carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) material) during hydrogen fueling is necessary. Its thermal properties are needed in estimating heat loss accurately during hydrogen fueling. The CFRP has anisotropic thermal properties, because it consists of an adhesive agent and layers of the CFRP which is wound with a carbon fiber. In this paper, the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of the tank wall material were measured by an inverse solution for one-dimensional unsteady heat conduction. As a result, the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity were 2.09 10^{-6}{ m}2{\\cdot }{s}^{-1} and 3.06{ W}{\\cdot }{m}{\\cdot }^{-1}{K}^{-1} for the axial direction, while they were 6.03 10^{-7} {m}2{\\cdot }{s}^{-1} and 0.93 {W}{\\cdot }{m}^{-1}{\\cdot }{K}^{-1} for the radial direction. The thermal conductivity for the axial direction was about three times higher than that for the radial direction. The thermal diffusivity shows the same trend in both directions because the thermal capacity, ? c, is independent of direction, where ? is the density and c is the heat capacity.
Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Performance after Extended Periods of Freezing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ellis, Michael C.; Anderson, William G.
2009-03-01
Radiators operating in lunar or Martian environments must be designed to reject the maximum heat load at the maximum sink temperature, while maintaining acceptable temperatures at lower powers or sink temperatures. Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) radiators can passively adjust to these changing conditions. Due to the presence of non-condensable gas (NCG) within each VCHP, the active condensing section adjusts with changes in either thermal load or sink temperature. In a Constant Conductance Heat Pipe (CCHP) without NCG, it is possible for all of the water to freeze in the condenser, by either sublimation or vaporization. With a dry evaporator, startup is difficult or impossible. Several previous studies have shown that adding NCG suppresses evaporator dryout when the condenser is frozen. These tests have been for relatively short durations, with relatively short condensers. This paper describes freeze/thaw experiments involving a VCHP with similar dimensions to the current reactor and cavity cooling radiator heat pipe designs.
Mechanical control of heat conductivity in molecular chains.
Savin, A V; Gendelman, O V
2014-01-01
We discuss a possibility to control heat conductivity in molecular chains by means of external mechanical loads. To illustrate such possibilities we consider first well-studied one-dimensional chain with degenerate double-well potential of the nearest-neighbor interaction. We consider varying lengths of the chain with fixed number of particles. Number of possible energetically degenerate ground states strongly depends on the overall length of the chain, or, in other terms, on average length of the link between neighboring particles. These degenerate states correspond to mechanical equilibria; therefore, one can say that formation of such structures mimics a process of plastic deformation. We demonstrate that such modification of the chain length can lead to quite profound (almost fivefold) reduction of the heat conduction coefficient. Even more profound effect is revealed for a model with a single-well nonconvex potential. It is demonstrated that in a certain range of constant external forcing, this model becomes effectively double-well and has a multitude of possible states of equilibrium for fixed value of the external load. Due to this degeneracy, the heat-conduction coefficient can be reduced by two orders of magnitude. We suggest a mechanical model of a chain with periodic double-well potential, which allows control of the heat transport. The models considered may be useful for description of heat transfer in biological macromolecules and for control of the heat transport in microsystems. The possibility of the heat transport control in more realistic three-dimensional systems is illustrated by simulation of a three-dimensional model of polymer ?-helix. In this model, the mechanical stretching also brings about the structural inhomogeneity and, in turn, to essential reduction of the heat conductivity. PMID:24580199
Thermally conductive cementitious grout for geothermal heat pump systems
Allan, Marita
2001-01-01
A thermally conductive cement-sand grout for use with a geothermal heat pump system. The cement sand grout contains cement, silica sand, a superplasticizer, water and optionally bentonite. The present invention also includes a method of filling boreholes used for geothermal heat pump systems with the thermally conductive cement-sand grout. The cement-sand grout has improved thermal conductivity over neat cement and bentonite grouts, which allows shallower bore holes to be used to provide an equivalent heat transfer capacity. In addition, the cement-sand grouts of the present invention also provide improved bond strengths and decreased permeabilities. The cement-sand grouts can also contain blast furnace slag, fly ash, a thermoplastic air entraining agent, latex, a shrinkage reducing admixture, calcium oxide and combinations thereof.
Computer Program For Variable-Conductance Heat Pipes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Antoniuk, D.
1992-01-01
VCHPDA provides accurate mathematical models of transient as well as steady-state performance of variable-conductance heat pipes over wide range of operating conditions. Applies to heat pipes with either cold, wicked or hot, nonwicked gas reservoirs and uses ideal-gas law and "flat-front" (negligible vapor diffusion) gas theory. Calculates length of gas-blocked region and temperature of vapor in active portion of heat pipe by solving set of nonlinear equations for conservation of energy and mass. Written in FORTRAN 77.
Radial profile and q dependence of electron heat diffusion measured with ECH modulation in RTP
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mantica, P.; Peters, M.; DeLuca, F.; DeLauri, A.; Gorini, G.; Hogeweij, G. M. D.; Jacchia, A.; Lopes Cardozo, N. J.
1996-10-01
Perturbative measurements of the electron thermal diffusivity (?pert) in the RTP tokamak are presented. Electron temperature perturbations are induced by on- and off-axis modulated electron cyclotron heating (MECH) and the sawtooth instability. The radial profile of ?pert is deduced from the phase and amplitude profiles at several harmonics of the modulation frequency. The effect of the edge safety factor (qa) on the profile is investigated in a qa scan with 3.2 < qa < 5. It is found that ?pert increases approximately parabolically between the sawtooth inversion radius (rinv) and the edge. Outside rinv no dependence of the ?pert profile on qa is observed. In this region ?pert exceeds the power balance diffusivity (?pb) by a factor of 2 to 3 at all qa values. Different behaviour with the ECH resonance just in or outside rinv provides evidence for a transport barrier in this region. All data, i.e. for all qa and with MECH at different radii, can be fitted using a single ?pert profile, which features a transport barrier near rinv. Placing these results in the context of earlier studies at both tokamaks and stellarators, it is found that no single, local model can account for the combined phenomenology
Neutrino Heat Conduction and Inhomogeneities in the Early Universe
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heckler, A.; Hogan, C. J.
1993-01-01
Constraints on parameters of inhomogeneous nucteosynthesis, namely, the overdensity and size of baryon lumps, are found by calculatig the blackbody neutrino heat conduction into the lumps, which tends to inflate them away. The scale size for efficient heat conduction is determined by the mean free path lambda of the neutrino, and so we compute lambda in our case of a high-temperature plasma with low chemical potential, and find a general result that many-body effects are unimportant, simplifying the calculation. We find that in the region of interest for nucleosynthesis, neutrino inflation is important for overdensities greater than 10(exp 4).
Assessing the RELAPS-3D Heat Conduction Enclosure Model
McCann, Larry D.
2008-09-30
Three heat conduction problems that have exact solutions are modeled with RELAP5-3D using the conduction enclosure model. These comparisons are designed to be used in the RELAP5-3D development assessment scheduled to be completed in 2009. It is shown that with proper input choices and adequate model detail the exact solutions can be matched. In addition, this analysis identified an error and the required correction in the cylindrical and spherical heat conductor models in RELAP5-3D which will be corrected in a future version of RELAP5-3D.
Analysis of the conductive resistance of double-walled heat exchangers
Xu, H.; Phelan, P.E.; Wood, B.D.
1999-07-01
Double-walled heat exchangers (DWHX), in which the two fluids are separated by a void space, are commonly utilized in solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems, in which one fluid is a glycol solution, and the other is potable water. The purpose of the void space is to ensure the integrity of the potable water against in-leaks from the glycol solution, but at the expense of reduced rates of heat transfer across the double wall, relative to a comparable single-wall heat exchanger. Due to the geometrical complexity of a typical DWHX, improvements in the design of DWHX have been hampered by the lack of relatively simple analytical formulations describing the heat transfer. Here, a finite-element analysis is applied to a configuration consisting of two concentric pipes separated by radial ribs. A critical outer radius, analogous to the well-known critical radius for singe-walled heat exchangers, is described, and is shown to vary with the void fraction. Results for the conductive resistance demonstrate that the conductive resistance reaches a minimum value for void fractions above 20%. The results are finally presented in normalized fashion, providing a useful design tool for constructing more efficient DWHX.
Structure of fast shocks in the presence of heat conduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsai, C. L.; Chen, H. H.; Wu, B. H.; Lee, L. C.
2007-12-01
There are three types of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks: the fast shock, intermediate shock, and slow shock. The structure of slow shocks and intermediate shocks in the presence of heat conduction has been studied earlier [C. L. Tsai, R. H. Tsai, B. H. Wu, and L. C. Lee, Phys. Plasmas 9, 1185 (2002); C. L. Tsai, B. H. Wu, and L. C. Lee, Phys. Plasmas 12, 82501 (2005)]. Based on one-dimensional MHD numerical simulations with a heat conduction term, the evolution and structure of fast shocks are studied. The fast shock will form a foreshock in the presence of heat conduction. The foreshock is formed due to the heat flow from downstream to upstream and located in the immediate upstream of the main shock. In the steady state, the value of diffusion velocity Vd in the foreshock is found to nearly equal the upstream convection velocity in the fast shock frame. It is found that the density jump across the main shock in high Mach number case can be much larger than 4 in the early simulation time. However the density jump will gradually evolve to a value smaller than 4 at steady state. By using the modified Rankine-Hugoniot relations with heat flux, the density jump across the fast shock is examined for various upstream parameters. The results show that the calculated density jump with heat flux is very close to the simulation value and the density jump can far exceed the maximum value of 4 without heat conduction. The structure of foreshock and main shock is also studied under different plasma parameters, such as the heat conductivity K0, the ratio of upstream plasma pressure to magnetic pressure ?1, Alfvn Mach number MA1, and the angle ?1 between shock normal and magnetic field. It is found that as the upstream shock parameters K0, ?1, and MA1 increase or ?1 decreases, the width of foreshock Ld increases. The present results can be applied to fast shocks in the solar corona, solar wind, and magnetosphere, in which the heat conduction effects are important.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haug, F.; Busse, C. A.
1985-06-01
The pressure recovery in a cylindrical heat pipe has been investigated. The experiments cover average radial Reynolds numbers between 5 and 150 and average Mach numbers up to the velocity of sound. During preliminary experiments in a cylindrical, gravity-assisted heat pipe at high Mach numbers large condensate flow instabilities were observed. As a consequence the heat pipe power varied strongly. Based on these observations an improved heat pipe design was made that resulted in steady operating conditions throughout the entire parameter range. This heat pipe is described. The pressure recovery was measured and compared with results from a two-dimensional analytical model for describing compressible vapor flow in heat pipes. Good agreement with the experimental data was found.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pthe, Christoph; Kuvshinov, Alexey; Khan, Amir; Olsen, Nils
2015-12-01
We present a new model of the radial (1-D) conductivity structure of Earth's mantle. This model is derived from more than 10 yr of magnetic measurements from the satellites rsted, CHAMP, SAC-C and the Swarm trio as well as the global network of geomagnetic observatories. After removal of core and crustal field as predicted by a recent field model, we fit the magnetic data with spherical harmonic coefficients describing ring current activity and associated induction effects and estimate global C-responses at periods between 1.5 and 150 d. The C-responses are corrected for 3-D effects due to induction in the oceans and inverted for a 1-D model of mantle conductivity using both probabilistic and deterministic methods. Very similar results are obtained, consisting of a highly resistive upper mantle, an increase in conductivity in and beneath the transition zone and a conductive lower mantle. Analysis of the Hessian of the cost function reveals that the data are most sensitive to structures at depths between 800 and 1200 km, in agreement with the results obtained from the probabilistic approach. Preliminary interpretation of the inverted conductivity structure based on laboratory-based conductivity profiles shows that the recovered structure in the lower mantle either requires higher temperatures or the presence of material of high conductivity related to ponding of carbonate melts below the transition zone.
High Conductance Loop Heat Pipes for Space Application
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Semenov, Sergey Y.; Cho, Wei-Lin; Jensen, Scott M.
2006-01-01
Three high conductance Loop Heat Pipes (LHPs) for the Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) were designed, fabricated and thermal vacuum tested. One LHP with ammonia working fluid was designed for heat removal from a cryocooler cold head. Two ethane LHPs were designed to reject heat from the aft and fore optics to space. Thermal performance tests were performed in a vacuum chamber with attached masses simulating actual components. Thermal tests were also conducted on the bench and in an environmental chamber. The following features of the GIFTS LHPs were observed: (a) reliable startup and steady state operation with conductance as high as 83W/°C at various temperatures; (b) precision temperature control using compensation chamber heater during thermal cycling. Heat input power and condenser temperatures were varied periodically, while evaporator was maintained at a constant temperature. Temperature of the evaporator heat input surface fluctuated only by a fraction of a degree; (c) in addition there was no thermal performance degradation after 16 month of storage. The LHPs are installed on the instrument and waiting for a launch platform.
Modelling heat conduction in polycrystalline hexagonal boron-nitride films.
Mortazavi, Bohayra; Pereira, Luiz Felipe C; Jiang, Jin-Wu; Rabczuk, Timon
2015-01-01
We conducted extensive molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the thermal conductivity of polycrystalline hexagonal boron-nitride (h-BN) films. To this aim, we constructed large atomistic models of polycrystalline h-BN sheets with random and uniform grain configuration. By performing equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD) simulations, we investigated the influence of the average grain size on the thermal conductivity of polycrystalline h-BN films at various temperatures. Using the EMD results, we constructed finite element models of polycrystalline h-BN sheets to probe the thermal conductivity of samples with larger grain sizes. Our multiscale investigations not only provide a general viewpoint regarding the heat conduction in h-BN films but also propose that polycrystalline h-BN sheets present high thermal conductivity comparable to monocrystalline sheets. PMID:26286820
Modelling heat conduction in polycrystalline hexagonal boron-nitride films
Mortazavi, Bohayra; Pereira, Luiz Felipe C.; Jiang, Jin-Wu; Rabczuk, Timon
2015-01-01
We conducted extensive molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the thermal conductivity of polycrystalline hexagonal boron-nitride (h-BN) films. To this aim, we constructed large atomistic models of polycrystalline h-BN sheets with random and uniform grain configuration. By performing equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD) simulations, we investigated the influence of the average grain size on the thermal conductivity of polycrystalline h-BN films at various temperatures. Using the EMD results, we constructed finite element models of polycrystalline h-BN sheets to probe the thermal conductivity of samples with larger grain sizes. Our multiscale investigations not only provide a general viewpoint regarding the heat conduction in h-BN films but also propose that polycrystalline h-BN sheets present high thermal conductivity comparable to monocrystalline sheets. PMID:26286820
Temperature in nonequilibrium states and non-Fourier heat conduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Yuan; Cao, Bing-Yang; Guo, Zeng-Yuan
2013-03-01
Macroscopic models beyond Fourier's law for fast-transient heating and heat transport in nanosystems have been proposed. Consequently, some basic quantities such as entropy and temperature need to be modified. From the viewpoint of the thermomass theory, we show that in nonequilibrium systems where heat conduction occurs, the static pressure of thermomass is lower than the total pressure, corresponding to a nonequilibrium temperature lower than the local-equilibrium temperature. The definition of entropy is also modified since the phonon kinetic energy conserves the ability to do work. The nonequilibrium temperature based on the thermomass theory is close to that in the extended irreversible thermodynamics. The microscopic foundation is explored through a phonon Boltzmann derivation. The higher-order contributions to the distribution function are found to be responsible for such modification of temperature. Therefore, the thermomass model gives not only non-Fourier conduction law, but also a physical picture about modified state variables in nonequilibrium states.
Variable conductance heat pipes from the laboratory to space
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kirkpatrick, J. P.
1973-01-01
Heat pipes were developed which can be used as (1) a variable conductance link between a heat source and sink which provides temperature stability; (2) a feedback control mechanism that acts to directly maintain the source at a constant temperature; (3) or as a thermal diode that allows heat to be transferred in one direction only. To establish flight level confidence in these basic control techniques, the Ames Heat Pipe Experiment (AHPE) was launched in August 1972 and the Advanced Thermal Control Flight Experiment (ATFE) is scheduled for launch in May 1973. The major efforts of the technology development, initial flight results of the AHPE, and ground test data of the ATFE are discussed.
Validation of a heat conduction model for finite domain, non-uniformly heated, laminate bodies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Desgrosseilliers, Louis; Kabbara, Moe; Groulx, Dominic; White, Mary Anne
2015-08-01
Infrared thermographic validation is shown for a closed-form analytical heat conduction model for non-uniformly heated, laminate bodies with an insulated domain boundary. Experiments were conducted by applying power to rectangular electric heaters and cooled by natural convection in air, but also apply to constant-temperature heat sources and forced convection. The model accurately represents two-dimensional laminate heat conduction behaviour giving rise to heat spreading using one-dimensional equations for the temperature distributions and heat transfer rates under steady-state and pseudo-steady-state conditions. Validation of the model with an insulated boundary (complementing previous studies with an infinite boundary) provides useful predictions of heat spreading performance and simplified temperature uniformity calculations (useful in log-mean temperature difference style heat exchanger calculations) for real laminate systems such as found in electronics heat sinks, multi-ply stovetop cookware and interface materials for supercooled salt hydrates. Computational determinations of implicit insulated boundary condition locations in measured data, required to assess model equation validation, were also demonstrated. Excellent goodness of fit was observed (both root-mean-square error and R 2 values), in all cases except when the uncertainty of low temperatures measured via infrared thermography hindered the statistical significance of the model fit. The experimental validation in all other cases supports use of the model equations in design calculations and heat exchange simulations.
High temperature electrically conducting ceramic heating element and control system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Halbach, C. R.; Page, R. J.
1975-01-01
Improvements were made in both electrode technology and ceramic conductor quality to increase significantly the lifetime and thermal cycling capability of electrically conducting ceramic heater elements. These elements were operated in vacuum, inert and reducing environments as well as oxidizing atmospheres adding to the versatility of the conducting ceramic as an ohmic heater. Using stabilized zirconia conducting ceramic heater elements, a furnace was fabricated and demonstrated to have excellent thermal response and cycling capability. The furnace was used to melt platinum-20% rhodium alloy (melting point 1904 C) with an isothermal ceramic heating element having a nominal working cavity size of 2.5 cm diameter by 10.0 cm long. The furnace was operated to 1940 C with the isothermal ceramic heating element. The same furnace structure was fitted with a pair of main heater elements to provide axial gradient temperature control over a working cavity length of 17.8 cm.
Analysis of gas heat conduction in evacuated tube solar collectors
Beikircher, T.; Spirkl, W.
1996-08-01
The authors investigated the gas heat conduction in two types of evacuated tubular solar collectors for a wide range of Knudsen numbers. For tube-in-tube collectors, they generalized a solution of the gas kinetic Boltzmann equation, which has been obtained by the four-momentum method, to polyatomic gases. The resulting equation coincides with Sherman`s interpolation formula. For a plate-in-tube collector, they measured the stationary heat loss for gas pressures varying between 10{sup {minus}2} and 10{sup 4} Pa. The accuracy of an earlier experiment was improved. For analysis they applied the temperature jump method: a heat conduction equation with boundary conditions of the third kind involving the temperature gradient and the pressure was numerically solved. The results with the temperature jump method agree with the experimental values nearly within the error bands. They also applied Sherman`s interpolation formula and found, as expected, that the heat conduction as function of the pressure is too steep. For both types of collectors, the influence of geometric parameters was theoretically studied.
Analysis of gas heat conduction in evacuated tube solar collectors
Beikircher, T.; Spirkl, W.
1996-12-31
The authors investigated the gas heat conduction in two types of evacuated tubular solar collectors for a wide range of Knudsen numbers. For tube-in-tube collectors, they generalized a solution of the gas kinetic Boltzmann equation, which has been obtained by the 4-momentum method, to polyatomic gases. The resulting equation coincides with Sherman`s interpolation formula. For a plate-in-tube collector, they measured the stationary heat loss for gas pressures varying between 10{sup {minus}2} and 10{sup 4} Pa. The accuracy of an earlier experiment was improved. For analysis the authors applied the temperature jump method: a heat conduction equation with boundary conditions of the third kind involving the temperature gradient and the pressure was numerically solved. The results with the temperature jump method agree with the experimental values nearly within the error bands. They also applied Sherman`s interpolation formula and found, as expected, that the heat conduction as function of the pressure is too steep. For both types of collectors, the influence of geometric parameters was theoretically studied.
Thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity and specific heat of copper-carbon fiber composite
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kuniya, Keiichi; Arakawa, Hideo; Kanai, Tsuneyuki; Chiba, Akio
1988-01-01
A new material of copper/carbon fiber composite is developed which retains the properties of copper, i.e., its excellent electrical and thermal conductivity, and the property of carbon, i.e., a small thermal expansion coefficient. These properties of the composite are adjustable within a certain range by changing the volume and/or the orientation of the carbon fibers. The effects of carbon fiber volume and arrangement changes on the thermal and electrical conductivity, and specific heat of the composite are studied. Results obtained are as follows: the thermal and electrical conductivity of the composite decrease as the volume of the carbon fiber increases, and were influenced by the fiber orientation. The results are predictable from a careful application of the rule of mixtures for composites. The specific heat of the composite was dependent, not on fiber orientation, but on fiber volume. In the thermal fatigue tests, no degradation in the electrical conductivity of this composite was observed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bunker, R. S.; Metzger, D. E.; Wittig, S.
1990-06-01
The detailed radial distributions of rotor heat-transfer coefficients for three basic disk-cavity geometries applicable to gas turbines are presented. The coefficients are obtained over a range of parameters including disk rotational Reynolds numbers of 200,000 to 50,000, rotor/stator spacing-to-disk ratios of 0.025 to 0.15, and jet mass flow rates between 0.10 and 0.40 times the turbulent pumped flow rate of a free disk. The effects of a parallel rotor are analyzed, and strong variations in local Nusselt numbers for all but the rotational speed are pointed out and compared with the associated hub-injection data from a previous study. It is demonstrated that the overall rotor heat transfer is optimized by either the hub injection or radial location injection of a coolant, dependent on the configuration.
Estimating interfacial thermal conductivity in metamaterials through heat flux mapping
Canbazoglu, Fatih M.; Vemuri, Krishna P.; Bandaru, Prabhakar R.
2015-04-06
The variability of the thickness as well as the thermal conductivity of interfaces in composites may significantly influence thermal transport characteristics and the notion of a metamaterial as an effective medium. The consequent modulations of the heat flux passage are analytically and experimentally examined through a non-contact methodology using radiative imaging, on a model anisotropic thermal metamaterial. It was indicated that a lower Al layer/silver interfacial epoxy ratio of ∼25 compared to that of a Al layer/alumina interfacial epoxy (of ∼39) contributes to a smaller deviation of the heat flux bending angle.
Development of a high capacity variable conductance heat pipe.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kosson, R.; Hembach, R.; Edelstein, F.; Loose, J.
1973-01-01
The high-capacity, pressure-primed, tunnel-artery wick concept was used in a gas-controlled variable conductance heat pipe. A variety of techniques were employed to control the size of gas/vapor bubbles trapped within the artery. Successful operation was attained with a nominal 6-foot long, 1-inch diameter cold reservoir VCHP using ammonia working fluid and nitrogen control gas. The pipe contained a heat exchanger to subcool the liquid in the artery. Maximum transport capacity with a 46-inch effective length was 1200 watts level (more than 50,000 watt-inches) and 800 watts at 0.5-inch adverse tilt.
Heating rate controller for thermally stimulated conductivity and thermoluminescence measurements.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Manning, E. G.; Littlejohn, M. A.; Oakley, E. M.; Hutchby , J. A.
1972-01-01
A temperature controller is described which enables the temperature of a sample mounted on a cold finger to be varied linearly with time. Heating rates between 0.5 and 10 K/min can be achieved for temperatures between 90 and 300 K. Provision for terminating the sample heating at any temperature between these extremes is available. The temperature can be held at the terminating temperature or be reduced to the starting temperature in a matter of minutes. The controller has been used for thermally stimulated conductivity measurements and should be useful for thermoluminescence measurements as well.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Qiming
2012-10-01
We study the breakup of an axisymmetric viscous liquid thread with finite conductivity immersed in another viscous fluid, which are confined to a concentrically placed cylindrical electrode that is held at a constant voltage potential. The annular fluid between the core thread and the electrode is assumed to be insulating. The flow then is driven by a radial electric field together with capillary and viscous forces. A linear stability analysis is carried out when the perturbation on the thread interface is small and nonlinear evolution and satellite drop formation near pinch-off are investigated by direct numerical simulations based on boundary integral method. The numerical results reveal that satellite formation as well as breakup time is affected significantly when the effect of charge convection is important compared with electric conduction. For large conduction, the evolutions of the thread are close to those obtained for a perfectly conducting core fluid. Finally, we show numerically that the local dynamics may be altered when the conduction is weak compared to the perfect conductor limit. New scalings near breakup are obtained from a long wave model.
Heat, Light, and Videotapes: Experiments in Heat Conduction Using Liquid Crystal Film.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bacon, Michael E.; And Others
1995-01-01
Presents a range of experiments in heat conduction suitable for upper-level undergraduate laboratories that make use of heat sensitive liquid crystal film to measure temperature contours. Includes experiments mathematically described by Laplace's equation, experiments theoretically described by Poisson's equation, and experiments that involve
Increasing Boiling Heat Transfer using Low Conductivity Materials
Mahamudur Rahman, Md; Pollack, Jordan; McCarthy, Matthew
2015-01-01
We report the counterintuitive mechanism of increasing boiling heat transfer by incorporating low-conductivity materials at the interface between the surface and fluid. By embedding an array of non-conductive lines into a high-conductivity substrate, in-plane variations in the local surface temperature are created. During boiling the surface temperature varies spatially across the substrate, alternating between high and low values, and promotes the organization of distinct liquid and vapor flows. By systematically tuning the peak-to-peak wavelength of this spatial temperature variation, a resonance-like effect is seen at a value equal to the capillary length of the fluid. Replacing ~18% of the surface with a non-conductive epoxy results in a greater than 5x increase in heat transfer rate at a given superheat temperature. This drastic and counterintuitive increase is shown to be due to optimized bubble dynamics, where ordered pathways allow for efficient removal of vapor and the return of replenishing liquid. The use of engineered thermal gradients represents a potentially disruptive approach to create high-efficiency and high-heat-flux boiling surfaces which are naturally insensitive to fouling and degradation as compared to other approaches. PMID:26281890
Increasing Boiling Heat Transfer using Low Conductivity Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahamudur Rahman, Md; Pollack, Jordan; McCarthy, Matthew
2015-08-01
We report the counterintuitive mechanism of increasing boiling heat transfer by incorporating low-conductivity materials at the interface between the surface and fluid. By embedding an array of non-conductive lines into a high-conductivity substrate, in-plane variations in the local surface temperature are created. During boiling the surface temperature varies spatially across the substrate, alternating between high and low values, and promotes the organization of distinct liquid and vapor flows. By systematically tuning the peak-to-peak wavelength of this spatial temperature variation, a resonance-like effect is seen at a value equal to the capillary length of the fluid. Replacing ~18% of the surface with a non-conductive epoxy results in a greater than 5x increase in heat transfer rate at a given superheat temperature. This drastic and counterintuitive increase is shown to be due to optimized bubble dynamics, where ordered pathways allow for efficient removal of vapor and the return of replenishing liquid. The use of engineered thermal gradients represents a potentially disruptive approach to create high-efficiency and high-heat-flux boiling surfaces which are naturally insensitive to fouling and degradation as compared to other approaches.
Revealing the complex conduction heat transfer mechanism of nanofluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sergis, A.; Hardalupas, Y.
2015-06-01
Nanofluids are two-phase mixtures consisting of small percentages of nanoparticles (sub 1-10 %vol) inside a carrier fluid. The typical size of nanoparticles is less than 100 nm. These fluids have been exhibiting experimentally a significant increase of thermal performance compared to the corresponding carrier fluids, which cannot be explained using the classical thermodynamic theory. This study deciphers the thermal heat transfer mechanism for the conductive heat transfer mode via a molecular dynamics simulation code. The current findings are the first of their kind and conflict with the proposed theories for heat transfer propagation through micron-sized slurries and pure matter. The authors provide evidence of a complex new type of heat transfer mechanism, which explains the observed abnormal heat transfer augmentation. The new mechanism appears to unite a number of popular speculations for the thermal heat transfer mechanism employed by nanofluids as predicted by the majority of the researchers of the field into a single one. The constituents of the increased diffusivity of the nanoparticle can be attributed to mismatching of the local temperature profiles between parts of the surface of the solid and the fluid resulting in increased local thermophoretic effects. These effects affect the region surrounding the solid manifesting interfacial layer phenomena (Kapitza resistance). In this region, the activity of the fluid and the interactions between the fluid and the nanoparticle are elevated. Isotropic increased nanoparticle mobility is manifested as enhanced Brownian motion and diffusion effects
Revealing the complex conduction heat transfer mechanism of nanofluids.
Sergis, A; Hardalupas, Y
2015-12-01
Nanofluids are two-phase mixtures consisting of small percentages of nanoparticles (sub 1-10 %vol) inside a carrier fluid. The typical size of nanoparticles is less than 100 nm. These fluids have been exhibiting experimentally a significant increase of thermal performance compared to the corresponding carrier fluids, which cannot be explained using the classical thermodynamic theory. This study deciphers the thermal heat transfer mechanism for the conductive heat transfer mode via a molecular dynamics simulation code. The current findings are the first of their kind and conflict with the proposed theories for heat transfer propagation through micron-sized slurries and pure matter. The authors provide evidence of a complex new type of heat transfer mechanism, which explains the observed abnormal heat transfer augmentation. The new mechanism appears to unite a number of popular speculations for the thermal heat transfer mechanism employed by nanofluids as predicted by the majority of the researchers of the field into a single one. The constituents of the increased diffusivity of the nanoparticle can be attributed to mismatching of the local temperature profiles between parts of the surface of the solid and the fluid resulting in increased local thermophoretic effects. These effects affect the region surrounding the solid manifesting interfacial layer phenomena (Kapitza resistance). In this region, the activity of the fluid and the interactions between the fluid and the nanoparticle are elevated. Isotropic increased nanoparticle mobility is manifested as enhanced Brownian motion and diffusion effects. PMID:26058515
Peletier, Mark A.; Redig, Frank; Vafayi, Kiamars
2014-09-01
We consider three one-dimensional continuous-time Markov processes on a lattice, each of which models the conduction of heat: the family of Brownian Energy Processes with parameter m (BEP(m)), a Generalized Brownian Energy Process, and the Kipnis-Marchioro-Presutti (KMP) process. The hydrodynamic limit of each of these three processes is a parabolic equation, the linear heat equation in the case of the BEP(m) and the KMP, and a nonlinear heat equation for the Generalized Brownian Energy Process with parameter a (GBEP(a)). We prove the hydrodynamic limit rigorously for the BEP(m), and give a formal derivation for the GBEP(a). We then formally derive the pathwise large-deviation rate functional for the empirical measure of the three processes. These rate functionals imply gradient-flow structures for the limiting linear and nonlinear heat equations. We contrast these gradient-flow structures with those for processes describing the diffusion of mass, most importantly the class of Wasserstein gradient-flow systems. The linear and nonlinear heat-equation gradient-flow structures are each driven by entropy terms of the form -log ρ; they involve dissipation or mobility terms of order ρ² for the linear heat equation, and a nonlinear function of ρ for the nonlinear heat equation.
Heating of foods in space-vehicle environments. [by conductive heat transfer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bannerot, R. B.; Cox, J. E.; Chen, C. K.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.
1973-01-01
In extended space missions, foods will be heated to enhance the psychological as well as the physiological well-being of the crew. In the low-gravity space environment natural convection is essentially absent so that the heat transfer within the food is by conduction alone. To prevent boiling in reduced pressure environments the maximum temperature of the heating system is severely limited. The Skylab food-heating system utilizes a tray with receptables for the food containers. The walls of the receptacles are lined with thermally controlled, electrical-resistance, blanket-type heating elements. A finite difference model is employed to perform parametric studies on the food-heating system. The effects on heating time of the (1) thermophysical properties of the food, (2) heater power level, (3) initial food temperatures, (4) container geometry, and (5) heater control temperature are presented graphically. The optimal heater power level and container geometry are determined.
Disparate quasiballistic heat conduction regimes from periodic heat sources on a substrate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeng, Lingping; Chen, Gang
2014-08-01
We report disparate quasiballistic heat conduction trends for periodic nanoscale line heaters deposited on a substrate, depending upon whether measurements are based on the peak temperature of the heaters or the temperature difference between the peak and the valley of two neighboring heaters. The degree of quasiballistic transport is characterized by the effective thermal conductivities of the substrate which are obtained by matching the diffusion solutions to the phonon Boltzmann transport equation results. We find that while the ballistic heat conduction effect based on the peak temperature diminishes as the two heaters become closer, it becomes stronger based on the peak-valley temperature difference. Our results also show that the collective behavior of closely spaced heaters can counteract the nonlocal effects caused by an isolated nanoscale hot spot. These results are relevant to thermal conductivity spectroscopy techniques under development and also have important implications for understanding nonlocal heat conduction in integrated circuits and carbon nanotube array thermal interface materials.
Jang, Ho-Jun; Kim, Ji-Young; Han, Jae Deok; Lee, Hyun Jong; Kim, Je Sang; Park, Jin Sik; Choi, Rak Kyeong; Choi, Young Jin; Shim, Won-Heum; Kwon, Sung Woo
2016-01-01
Background and Objectives Numbness on the hand occurs infrequently after a transradial cardiac catheterization (TRC). The symptom resembles that of neuropathy. We, therefore, investigated the prevalence, the predicting factors and the presence of neurological abnormalities of numbness, using a nerve conduction study (NCS). Subjects and Methods From April to December 2013, all patients who underwent a TRC were prospectively enrolled. From among these, the patients who experienced numbness on the ipsilateral hand were instructed to describe their symptoms using a visual analogue scale; subsequently, NCSs were performed on these patients. Results Of the total 479 patients in the study sample, numbness occurred in nine (1.8%) following the procedure. The NCS was performed for eight out of the nine patients, four (50%) of which had an abnormal NCS result at the superficial radial nerve. A larger sheath and history of myocardial infarction (p=0.14 and 0.08 respectively) tended towards the occurrence of numbness; however, only the use of size 7 French sheaths was an independent predictor for the occurrence of numbness (odds ratio: 5.50, 95% confidence interval: 1.06-28.58, p=0.042). The symptoms disappeared for all patients but one, within four months. Conclusion A transient injury of the superficial radial nerve could be one reason for numbness after a TRC. A large sheath size was an independent predictor of numbness; therefore, large sized sheaths should be used with caution when performing a TRC. PMID:27014346
Non-steady-state heat conduction in composite walls
Deconinck, Bernard; Pelloni, Beatrice; Sheils, Natalie E.
2014-01-01
The problem of heat conduction in one-dimensional piecewise homogeneous composite materials is examined by providing an explicit solution of the one-dimensional heat equation in each domain. The location of the interfaces is known, but neither temperature nor heat flux is prescribed there. Instead, the physical assumptions of their continuity at the interfaces are the only conditions imposed. The problem of two semi-infinite domains and that of two finite-sized domains are examined in detail. We indicate also how to extend the solution method to the setting of one finite-sized domain surrounded on both sides by semi-infinite domains, and on that of three finite-sized domains. PMID:24808751
Heat conduction nanocalorimeter for pl-scale single cell measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johannessen, E. A.; Weaver, J. M. R.; Cobbold, P. H.; Cooper, J. M.
2002-03-01
An ultrasensitive nanocalorimeter for use with pl-scale biological samples using silicon microfabrication technology has been developed in which a 720 pl reaction vessel, a calibration heater, and a thermoelectric transducer of 125 ?K sensitivity were integrated into a single multilayer thin-film configuration. The resolution of the system ranged from 10 to 25 nW depending on the heat capacity, conductance and power density of the samples studied. The device has been used in heat conduction measurements of the energy released from the enzyme catalyzed hydrolysis of hydrogen peroxide using purified catalase, and for the determination of the catalase activity within a single mouse hepatocyte. The nanocalorimeter has the potential for integration in a high-density array format, where the change in temperature from ultralow volume cellular assays could be used as a generic analytical tool for high throughput screening of bioactive compounds.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pthe, Christoph; Kuvshinov, Alexey; Olsen, Nils; Khan, Amir
2015-04-01
We present a new model of the radial (1-D) conductivity structure of Earth's mantle. This model was derived from more than ten years of magnetic measurements taken by the satellites rsted, CHAMP, SAC-C and the Swarm trio as well as the global network of geomagnetic observatories. After removal of core and crustal field as predicted by a recent field model we fit the data with spherical harmonic coefficients describing ring current activity and associated induction effects, and estimate global C-responses at periods between 1.5 days and 150 days. An iterative approach is used to correct the estimated C-responses for 3-D effects arising from induction in a heterogeneous surface shell that takes into account the distribution of oceans and continents. We invert the corrected C-responses for a 1-D model of mantle conductivity using both probabilistic and deterministic methods. The different methods yield very similar results, consisting of a highly resistive upper mantle, a conductive lower mantle, and an increase in conductivity in and beneath the transition zone. Analysis of the Hessian of the cost function reveals that the data are most sensitive to structures at depths between 700 km and 1200 km, in agreement with the results obtained from the probabilistic approach. The recovered models feature a marked kink in this well-resolved depth range.
Human body thermal images generated by conduction or radiation heat
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gavriloaia, Gheorghe; Sofron, Emil; Fumarel, Radu
2009-01-01
Humans and animals in general, are usually in a thermal steady state with respect to their surroundings. The tissues heat, generated at normal or diseases states, is lost to environment though several mechanisms: radiation, conduction, convection, evaporation, etc. Skin temperature is not the same on the entire body and a thermal body signature can be got. The temperature at skin level was measured by a thermistor, conduction component and by an IR camera, radiation component. A theoretical analysis using Weinhaum and JIJI model was done. The three images are investigated in order to get a cheap method for the early cancer diagnosis.
Coupled three-dimensional conduction and natural convection heat transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tolpadi, Anil Kumar
1987-09-01
A numerical and experimental investigation of three-dimensional natural convection heat transfer coupled with conduction was performed. This general problem is of great importance because of its widespread applicability in areas such as compact natural convection heat exchangers, cooling of electronic equipment, and porous media flows. The determination of flow patterns and heat transfer coefficients in such situations is necessary because of its practical use in various industries. A vectorized finite difference code was developed for the Cray-2 supercomputer which has the capability of simulating a wide class of three-dimensional coupled conduction-convection problems. This program numerically solves the transient form of the complete laminar Navier-Stokes equations of motion using the vorticity-vector potential methods. Using this program, numerical solutions were obtained for 3-D natural convection from a horizontal isothermal heat exchanger tube with an attached circular cooling fin array. Experiments were performed to measure three-dimensional temperature fields using Mach-Zehnder interferometry. Software was developed to digitize and process fringe patterns and inversion algorithms used to compute the 3-D temperature field.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glass, David E.; Tamma, Kumar K.; Railkar, Sudhir B.
1989-01-01
The paper describes the numerical simulation of hyperbolic heat conduction with convection boundary conditions. The effects of a step heat loading, a sudden pulse heat loading, and an internal heat source are considered in conjunction with convection boundary conditions. Two methods of solution are presened for predicting the transient behavior of the propagating thermal disturbances. In the first method, MacCormack's predictor-corrector method is employed for integrating the hyperbolic system of equations. Next, the transfinite element method, which employs specially tailored elements, is used for accurately representing the transient response of the propagating thermal wave fronts. The agreement between the results of various numerical test cases validate the representative behavior of the thermal wave fronts. Both methods represent hyperbolic heat conduction behavior by effectively modeling the sharp discontinuities of the propagating thermal disturbances.
A heat exchanger model that includes axial conduction, parasitic heat loads, and property variations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nellis, G. F.
2003-09-01
High performance heat exchangers are a critical component in many cryogenic systems and the performance of these devices is typically very sensitive to axial conduction, property variations, and parasitic heat losses to the environment. This paper presents a numerical model of a heat exchanger in which these effects are explicitly modeled. The governing equations are derived, nondimensionalized, discretized, and solved on an exponentially distributed grid. The resulting numerical model is simple to implement and computationally efficient and can therefore easily be integrated into complex system models. The numerical model is validated against analytical solutions in the appropriate limits and then used to investigate the effect of heat exchanger end conditions (adiabatic vs fixed temperature) and radiation parasitics. The numerical model, which explicitly considers the combined effect of several loss mechanisms as they interact, is compared to simple models that consider these effects separately. Finally, the model is applied to an example heat exchanger core under a specific set of operating conditions in order to demonstrate its utility. This numerical model may also be used to examine the effect of property variations including temperature driven changes in specific heat capacity, metal conductivity, parasitic heat load, and heat transfer coefficients and is therefore useful in the design of a variety of cryogenic system components including counter- and parallel-flow heat exchangers for gas liquefaction, mixed-gas refrigeration, and reverse Brayton systems.
Thermal conductivity measurements of proton-heated warm dense matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McKelvey, A.; Fernandez-Panella, A.; Hua, R.; Kim, J.; King, J.; Sio, H.; McGuffey, C.; Kemp, G. E.; Freeman, R. R.; Beg, F. N.; Shepherd, R.; Ping, Y.
2015-06-01
Accurate knowledge of conductivity characteristics in the strongly coupled plasma regime is extremely important for ICF processes such as the onset of hydrodynamic instabilities, thermonuclear burn propagation waves, shell mixing, and efficient x-ray conversion of indirect drive schemes. Recently, an experiment was performed on the Titan laser platform at the Jupiter Laser Facility to measure the thermal conductivity of proton-heated warm dense matter. In the experiment, proton beams generated via target normal sheath acceleration were used to heat bi-layer targets with high-Z front layers and lower-Z back layers. The stopping power of a material is approximately proportional to Z2 so a sharp temperature gradient is established between the two materials. The subsequent thermal conduction from the higher-Z material to the lower-Z was measured with time resolved streaked optical pyrometry (SOP) and Fourier domain interferometry (FDI) of the rear surface. Results will be used to compare predictions from the thermal conduction equation and the Wiedemann-Franz Law in the warm dense matter regime. Data from the time resolved diagnostics for Au/Al and Au/C Targets of 20-200 nm thickness will be presented.
A study on the non-Fourier heat conduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Woo-Seung, Kim
Heat conduction problem in many engineering situations has been analyzed by using the heat conduction equation based on the classical Fourier model. However, Fourier's law implies that any thermal disturbances on a body is instantaneously felt throughout the body, that is, the propagation speed of thermal disturbances is infinite. Clearly, this phenomenon is the paradoxical result from the physical point of view due to the fact that thermal waves travel with a finite speed. Despite this apparent paradox, the classical heat conduction equation based on Fourier model is quite acceptable for the majority of practical situations. However, it fails to adequately predict temperatures in situations for extremely short periods of time, extreme temperature gradients, and temperatures near absolute zero. Therefore, non-Fourier model has been used to alleviate these shortcomings in the analysis of the temperature field in the laser applications. The present study is concerned with the temperature response in an ortho tropic medium due to axisymmetric surface laser sources. The surface sources are activated on the solid surface with very high heat flux for a short period of time. Both the semi-infinite and finite medium are considered and the effect of the thermal reflection is observed in the finite medium. Most pulsed solid state lasers operate in the lowest-order spatial mode which is known as Gaussian mode. Since many high power CO2 lasers generally produce a complicated mixture of the Gaussian and doughnut modes, The two modes are considered in this study. The differences between the non-Fourier model and Fourier model have been compared, and the effects of both the isotropic and orthotropic property of the medium on the temperature field have been considered.
Calibrated Heat Flow Model for Determining the Heat Conduction Losses in Laser Cutting of CFRP
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mucha, P.; Weber, R.; Speker, N.; Berger, P.; Sommer, B.; Graf, T.
Laser machining has great potential regarding automation in fabrication of CFRP (carbon-fiber-reinforced plastics) parts, due to the nearly force and tool-wear free processing at high process speeds. The high vaporization temperatures and the large heat conductivity of the carbon fibers lead to a large heat transport into the sample. This causes the formation of a heat-affected zone and a decrease of the process speed. In the present paper,an analytical heat flow model was adapted in order to understand and investigate the heat conduction losses. Thermal sensors were embedded in samples at different distances from the kerf to fit the calculated to the measured temperatures. Heat conduction losses of up to 30% of the laser power were determined. Furthermore, the energy not absorbed by the sample, the energy for sublimating the composite material in the kerf, the energy for the formation of the HAZ, and the residual heat in the sample are compared in an energy balance.
Heat conduction in multifunctional nanotrusses studied using Boltzmann transport equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dou, Nicholas G.; Minnich, Austin J.
2016-01-01
Materials that possess low density, low thermal conductivity, and high stiffness are desirable for engineering applications, but most materials cannot realize these properties simultaneously due to the coupling between them. Nanotrusses, which consist of hollow nanoscale beams architected into a periodic truss structure, can potentially break these couplings due to their lattice architecture and nanoscale features. In this work, we study heat conduction in the exact nanotruss geometry by solving the frequency-dependent Boltzmann transport equation using a variance-reduced Monte Carlo algorithm. We show that their thermal conductivity can be described with only two parameters, solid fraction and wall thickness. Our simulations predict that nanotrusses can realize unique combinations of mechanical and thermal properties that are challenging to achieve in typical materials.
Thermal conductivity and specific heat of metallic micro and nanowires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Myasishchev, Denis; Cepak, Josef; Holtz, Mark; Berg, Jordan
2012-10-01
Thermal conductivity drops dramatically at the nanoscale. Effective power dissipation is crucial for solid state devices, but thermal conductivity decreasing with size complicates miniaturization efforts. There are few direct measurements of thermal conductivity of nanoscale structures. We report fabrication and characterization of nickel nanowires. The data analysis used by previous authors neglects time-varying and higher-order terms in a series expansion of the one-dimensional transient heat equation. This approximation is inaccurate at ``high'' currents, restricting the attainable signal-to-noise ratio. We remove this source of estimation error with a transient electrothermal finite element model. The approach has been validated on a 25?m diameter platinum wire over a broad temperature range and extension to the nickel nanowires will be discussed.
Extremes of heat conduction-Pushing the boundaries of the thermal conductivity of materials
Cahill, DG
2012-09-12
Thermal conductivity is a familiar property of materials: silver conducts heat well, and plastic does not. In recent years, an interdisciplinary group of materials scientists, engineers, physicists, and chemists have succeeded in pushing back long-established limits in the thermal conductivity of materials. Carbon nanotubes and graphene are at the high end of the thermal conductivity spectrum due to their high sound velocities and relative lack of processes that scatter phonons. Unfortunately, the superlative thermal properties of carbon nanotubes have not found immediate application in composites or interface materials because of difficulties in making good thermal contact with the nanotubes. At the low end of the thermal conductivity spectrum, solids that combine order and disorder in the random stacking of two-dimensional crystalline sheets, so-called "disordered layered crystals," show a thermal conductivity that is only a factor of 2 larger than air. The cause of this low thermal conductivity may be explained by the large anisotropy in elastic constants that suppresses the density of phonon modes that propagate along the soft direction. Low-dimensional quantum magnets demonstrate that electrons and phonons are not the only significant carriers of heat. Near room temperature, the spin thermal conductivity of spin-ladders is comparable to the electronic thermal conductivities of metals. Our measurements of nanoscale thermal transport properties employ a variety of ultrafast optical pump-probe metrology tools that we have developed over the past several years. We are currently working to extend these techniques to high pressures (60 GPa), high magnetic fields (5 T), and high temperatures (1000 K).
Sodium Variable Conductance Heat Pipe for Radioisotope Stirling Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tarau, Calin; Anderson, William G.; Walker, Kara
2009-01-01
In a Stirling radioisotope system, heat must continually be removed from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules to maintain the modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. Normally, the Stirling convertor provides this cooling. If the converter stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS, and also ending the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) has been designed to allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling convertor in an Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG). When the Stirling convertor is turned off, the VCHP will activate when the temperatures rises 30 C above the setpoint temperature. A prototype VCHP with sodium as the working fluid was fabricated and tested in both gravity aided and against gravity conditions for a nominal heater head temperature of 790 C. The results show very good agreement with the predictions and validate the model. The gas front was located at the exit of the reservoir when heater head temperature was 790 C while cooling was ON, simulating an operating Advanced Stirling Converter (ASC). When cooling stopped, the temperature increased by 30 C, allowing the gas front to move past the radiator, which transferred the heat to the case. After resuming the cooling flow, the front returned at the initial location turning OFF the VCHP. The against gravity working conditions showed a colder reservoir and faster transients.
Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Radiators for Lunar and Martian Environments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, William G.; Ellis, Michael C.; Walker, Kara L.
2009-03-01
Long-term Lunar and Martian surface systems present challenges to thermal system design, including changes in thermal load, and large changes in the thermal environment between Lunar (or Martian) day and night. For example, the heat sink temperature at the Lunar equator can vary from 210 to 315 K. The radiator must be sized to reject the design power at the maximum temperature, but must also be able to accommodate both the changing heat sink temperature, as well as changes in power. Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) radiators were examined for the main reactor of a fission surface power system, as well as the cavity cooling radiator. A VCHP radiator was designed for Lunar Equator that is capable of maintaining a 16 K temperature drop with a 4% addition to overall mass. Without the VCHP the radiator would experience a 43 K drop in temperature. This design is also capable of handling turndown on the power without an effect to the outlet temperature. At Shackleton Crater, the temperature drop for a conventional heat pipe radiator is small enough that a VCHP is not beneficial at constant power. However, a VCHP will allow turndown ratios of 5:1 or more. A conventional radiator can not be turned down more than 2:1, without valves to bypass part of the radiator. VCHPs are also easier to start than conventional radiators, since the gas-loading prevents sublimation from the evaporator when the condenser is frozen.
Variable Conductance Heat Pipes for Radioisotope Stirling Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, William G.; Tarau, Calin
2008-01-01
In a Stirling radioisotope system, heat must continually be removed from the GPHS modules, to maintain the GPHS modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. Normally, the Stirling convertor provides this cooling. If the Stirling engine stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS, but also ending the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) was designed to allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling engine. A VCHP turns on with a delta T of 30 C, which is high enough to not risk standard ASRG operation but low enough to save most heater head life. This VCHP has a low mass, and low thermal losses for normal operation. In addition to the design, a proof-of-concept NaK VCHP was fabricated and tested. While NaK is normally not used in heat pipes, it has an advantage in that it is liquid at the reservoir operating temperature, while Na or K alone would freeze. The VCHP had two condensers, one simulating the heater head, and the other simulating the radiator. The experiments successfully demonstrated operation with the simulated heater head condenser off and on, while allowing the reservoir temperature to vary over 40 to 120 C, the maximum range expected. In agreement with previous NaK heat pipe tests, the evaporator delta T was roughly 70 C, due to distillation of the NaK in the evaporator.
Fabrication and test of a variable conductance heat pipe
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lehtinen, A. M.
1978-01-01
A variable conductance heat pipe (VCHP) with feedback control was fabricated with a reservoir-condenser volume ratio of 10 and an axially grooved action section. Tests of the heat transport capability were greater than or equal to the analytical predictions for the no gas case. When gas was added, the pipe performance degraded by 18% at zero tilt as was expected. The placement of the reservoir heater and the test fixture cooling fins are believed to have caused a superheated vapor condition in the reservoir. Erroneously high reservoir temperature indications resulted from this condition. The observed temperature gradients in the reservoir lend support to this theory. The net result was higher than predicted reservoir temperatures. Also, significant increases in minimum heat load resulted for controller set point temperatures higher than 0 C. At 30 C, control within the tolerance band was maintained, but high reservoir heater power was required. Analyses showed that control is not possible for reasonably low reservoir heater power. This is supported by the observation of a significant reservoir heat leak through the condenser.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kachanov, Mark
1998-01-01
Analysis of the effective thermal conductivity of ceramic coatings and its relation to the microstructure continued. Results (obtained in Task 1) for the three-dimensional problem of heat conduction in a solid containing an inclusion (or, in particular, cavity - thermal insulator) of the ellipsoidal shape, were further advanced in the following two directions: (1) closed form expressions of H tensor have been derived for special cases of ellipsoidal cavity geometry: spheroid, crack-like spheroidal cavity and needle shaped spheroidal cavity; (2) these results for one cavity have been incorporated to construct heat energy potential for a solid with many spheroidal cavities (in the approximation of non-interacting defects). This problem constitutes a basic building block for further analyses.
Scanning thermal microscopy with heat conductive nanowire probes.
Timofeeva, Maria; Bolshakov, Alexey; Tovee, Peter D; Zeze, Dagou A; Dubrovskii, Vladimir G; Kolosov, Oleg V
2016-03-01
Scanning thermal microscopy (SThM), which enables measurement of thermal transport and temperature distribution in devices and materials with nanoscale resolution is rapidly becoming a key approach in resolving heat dissipation problems in modern processors and assisting development of new thermoelectric materials. In SThM, the self-heating thermal sensor contacts the sample allowing studying of the temperature distribution and heat transport in nanoscaled materials and devices. The main factors that limit the resolution and sensitivities of SThM measurements are the low efficiency of thermal coupling and the lateral dimensions of the probed area of the surface studied. The thermal conductivity of the sample plays a key role in the sensitivity of SThM measurements. During the SThM measurements of the areas with higher thermal conductivity the heat flux via SThM probe is increased compared to the areas with lower thermal conductivity. For optimal SThM measurements of interfaces between low and high thermal conductivity materials, well defined nanoscale probes with high thermal conductivity at the probe apex are required to achieve a higher quality of the probe-sample thermal contact while preserving the lateral resolution of the system. In this paper, we consider a SThM approach that can help address these complex problems by using high thermal conductivity nanowires (NW) attached to a tip apex. We propose analytical models of such NW-SThM probes and analyse the influence of the contact resistance between the SThM probe and the sample studied. The latter becomes particularly important when both tip and sample surface have high thermal conductivities. These models were complemented by finite element analysis simulations and experimental tests using prototype probe where a multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) is exploited as an excellent example of a high thermal conductivity NW. These results elucidate critical relationships between the performance of the SThM probe on one hand and thermal conductivity, geometry of the probe and its components on the other. As such, they provide a pathway for optimizing current SThM for nanothermal studies of high thermal conductivity materials. Comparison between experimental and modeling results allows us to provide direct estimates of the contact thermal resistances for various interfaces such as MWCNT-Al (5×10(-9)±1×10(-9)Km(2)W(-1)), Si3N4-Al (6×10(-8)±2.5×10(-8)Km(2)W(-1)) and Si3N4-graphene (~10(-8)Km(2)W(-1)). It was also demonstrated that the contact between the MWCNT probe and Al is relatively perfect, with a minimal contact resistance. In contrast, the thermal resistance between a standard Si3N4 SThM probe and Al is an order of magnitude higher than reported in the literature, suggesting that the contact between these materials may have a multi-asperity nature that can significantly degrade the contact resistance. PMID:26735005
Numerical modeling of thermal conductive heating in fractured bedrock.
Baston, Daniel P; Falta, Ronald W; Kueper, Bernard H
2010-01-01
Numerical modeling was employed to study the performance of thermal conductive heating (TCH) in fractured shale under a variety of hydrogeological conditions. Model results show that groundwater flow in fractures does not significantly affect the minimum treatment zone temperature, except near the beginning of heating or when groundwater influx is high. However, fracture and rock matrix properties can significantly influence the time necessary to remove all liquid water (i.e., reach superheated steam conditions) in the treatment area. Low matrix permeability, high matrix porosity, and wide fracture spacing can contribute to boiling point elevation in the rock matrix. Consequently, knowledge of these properties is important for the estimation of treatment times. Because of the variability in boiling point throughout a fractured rock treatment zone and the absence of a well-defined constant temperature boiling plateau in the rock matrix, it may be difficult to monitor the progress of thermal treatment using temperature measurements alone. PMID:20550586
DSMC Convergence for Microscale Gas-Phase Heat Conduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rader, D. J.; Gallis, M. A.; Torczynski, J. R.
2004-11-01
The convergence of Bird's Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is investigated for gas-phase heat conduction at typical microscale conditions. A hard-sphere gas is confined between two fully accommodating walls of unequal temperature. Simulations are performed for small system and local Knudsen numbers, so continuum flow exists outside the Knudsen layers. The ratio of the DSMC thermal conductivity to the Chapman-Enskog value in the central region is determined for over 200 combinations of time step, cell size, and number of computational molecules per cell. In the limit of vanishing error, this ratio approaches 1.000 to within the correlation uncertainty. In the limit of infinite computational molecules per cell, the difference from unity depends quadratically on time step and cell size as these quantities become small. The coefficients of these quadratic terms are in good agreement with Green-Kubo values found by Hadjiconstantinou, Garcia, and co-workers. These results demonstrate that DSMC can accurately simulate microscale gas-phase heat conduction. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Numerical Model for Conduction-Cooled Current Lead Heat Loads
White, M.J.; Wang, X.L.; Brueck, H.D.; /DESY
2011-06-10
Current leads are utilized to deliver electrical power from a room temperature junction mounted on the vacuum vessel to a superconducting magnet located within the vacuum space of a cryostat. There are many types of current leads used at laboratories throughout the world; however, conduction-cooled current leads are often chosen for their simplicity and reliability. Conduction-cooled leads have the advantage of using common materials, have no superconducting/normal state transition, and have no boil-off vapor to collect. This paper presents a numerical model for conduction-cooled current lead heat loads. This model takes into account varying material and fluid thermal properties, varying thicknesses along the length of the lead, heat transfer in the circumferential and longitudinal directions, electrical power dissipation, and the effect of thermal intercepts. The model is validated by comparing the numerical model results to ideal cases where analytical equations are valid. In addition, the XFEL (X-Ray Free Electron Laser) prototype current leads are modeled and compared to the experimental results from testing at DESY's XFEL Magnet Test Stand (XMTS) and Cryomodule Test Bench (CMTB).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tabakoff, W.
1975-01-01
A two-dimensional finite difference numerical technique is presented to determine the temperature distribution in a solid blade of a radial turbine guide vane. A computer program is written in FORTRAN 4 for the IBM 370/165 computer. The computer results obtained from these programs have a similar behavior and trend as those obtained by experimental results.
Tataranni, Giuseppe; Santarcangelo, Michele; Sofo, Adriano; Xiloyannis, Cristos; Tyerman, Stephen D; Dichio, Bartolomeo
2015-12-01
The effects of prolonged drought were studied on olive (Olea europaea L.; drought-sensitive cultivar Biancolilla and drought-tolerant cultivar Coratina) to examine how morpho-anatomical modifications in roots impact on root radial hydraulic conductivity (Lpr). Two-year-old self-rooted plants were subjected to a gradual water depletion. The levels of drought stress were defined by pre-dawn leaf water potentials (Ψw) of -1.5, -3.5 and -6.5 MPa. After reaching the maximum level of drought, plants were rewatered for 23 days. Progressive drought stress, for both cultivars, caused a strong reduction in Lpr (from 1.2 to 1.3 × 10(-5) m MPa(-1) s(-1) in unstressed plants to 0.2-0.6 × 10(-5) m MPa(-1) s(-1) in plants at Ψw = -6.5 MPa), particularly evident in the more suberized (brown) roots, accompanied with decreases in stomatal conductance (gs). No significant differences in Lpr and gs between the two olive cultivars were observed. Epifluorescence microscopy and image analyses revealed a parallel increase of wall suberization that doubled in white stressed roots and tripled in brown ones when compared with unstressed plants. In drought-stressed plants, the number of suberized cellular layers from the endodermis towards the cortex increased from 1-2 to 6-7. Recovery in Lpr during rewatering was correlated to the physical disruption of hydrophobic barriers, while the time necessary to obtain new mature roots likely accounted for the observed delay in the complete recovery of gs. Radial hydraulic conductivity in olive roots was strongly influenced by soil and plant water availability and it was also modulated by structural root modifications, size, growth and anatomy. These findings could be important for maintaining an optimal water status in cultivated olive trees by scheduling efficient irrigation methods, saving irrigation water and obtaining yield of high quality. PMID:26446266
Seyed-Yagoobi, J.; Narayanan, V.; Page, R.H.; Wirtz, J.W.
1996-12-31
The heat transfer characteristics of three submerged radial jet reattachment (RJR) nozzles with exit angles of +45{degree}, 0{degree}, and {minus}10{degree} are compared to the heat transfer characteristics of a conventional submerged in-line jet (ILJ) nozzle. The comparisons are made under identical air flow power and at each nozzle`s favorable spacing from the impingement surface. The local and area averaged Nusselt numbers are presented. The results indicate that significant enhancements in local and area averaged Nusselt numbers can be achieved with the RJR nozzle over the conventional ILJ nozzle while being able to control the net exerted force on the impingement surface. Also a comparison is made between the ILJ and RJR nozzles on the basis of the same peak pressure exerted on the impingement surface. This comparison indicates that the RJR nozzle heat transfer characteristics are superior to the ILJ nozzle.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, W. T.; Edwards, D. K.; Eninger, J. E.; Marcus, B. D.
1974-01-01
A research and development program in variable conductance heat pipe technology is reported. The project involved: (1) theoretical and/or experimental studies in hydrostatics, (2) hydrodynamics, (3) heat transfer into and out of the pipe, (4) fluid selection, and (5) materials compatibility. The development, fabrication, and test of the space hardware resulted in a successful flight of the heat pipe experiment on the OAO-3 satellite. A summary of the program is provided and a guide to the location of publications on the project is included.
Combined conduction and radiation heat transfer in concentric cylindrical media
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pandey, D. K.
1987-01-01
The exact radiative transfer expressions for gray and nongray gases which are absorbing, emitting and nonscattering, contained between infinitely long concentric cylinders with black surfaces, are given in local thermodynamic equilibrium. Resulting energy equations due to the combination of conduction and radiation modes of heat transfer, under steady state conditions for gray and nongray media, are solved numerically using the undetermined parameters method. A single 4.3-micron band of CO2 is considered for the nongray problems. The present solutions for gray and nongray gases obtained in the plane-parallel limit (radius ratio approaches to one) are compared with the plane-parallel results reported in the literature.
Hierarchical Parallelism in Finite Difference Analysis of Heat Conduction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Padovan, Joseph; Krishna, Lala; Gute, Douglas
1997-01-01
Based on the concept of hierarchical parallelism, this research effort resulted in highly efficient parallel solution strategies for very large scale heat conduction problems. Overall, the method of hierarchical parallelism involves the partitioning of thermal models into several substructured levels wherein an optimal balance into various associated bandwidths is achieved. The details are described in this report. Overall, the report is organized into two parts. Part 1 describes the parallel modelling methodology and associated multilevel direct, iterative and mixed solution schemes. Part 2 establishes both the formal and computational properties of the scheme.
Homogeneous Thermal Cloak with Constant Conductivity and Tunable Heat Localization
Han, Tiancheng; Yuan, Tao; Li, Baowen; Qiu, Cheng-Wei
2013-01-01
Invisible cloak has long captivated the popular conjecture and attracted intensive research in various communities of wave dynamics, e.g., optics, electromagnetics, acoustics, etc. However, their inhomogeneous and extreme parameters imposed by transformation-optic method will usually require challenging realization with metamaterials, resulting in narrow bandwidth, loss, polarization-dependence, etc. In this paper, we demonstrate that thermodynamic cloak can be achieved with homogeneous and finite conductivity only employing naturally available materials. It is demonstrated that the thermal localization inside the coating layer can be tuned and controlled robustly by anisotropy, which enables an incomplete cloak to function perfectly. Practical realization of such homogeneous thermal cloak has been suggested by using two naturally occurring conductive materials, which provides an unprecedentedly plausible way to flexibly realize thermal cloak and manipulate heat flow with phonons. PMID:23549139
Time fractional dual-phase-lag heat conduction equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Huan-Ying; Jiang, Xiao-Yun
2015-03-01
We build a fractional dual-phase-lag model and the corresponding bioheat transfer equation, which we use to interpret the experiment results for processed meat that have been explained by applying the hyperbolic conduction. Analytical solutions expressed by H-functions are obtained by using the Laplace and Fourier transforms method. The inverse fractional dual-phase-lag heat conduction problem for the simultaneous estimation of two relaxation times and orders of fractionality is solved by applying the nonlinear least-square method. The estimated model parameters are given. Finally, the measured and the calculated temperatures versus time are compared and discussed. Some numerical examples are also given and discussed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11102102, 11472161, and 91130017), the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province, China (Grant No. ZR2014AQ015), and the Independent Innovation Foundation of Shandong University, China (Grant No. 2013ZRYQ002).
High Temperature Variable Conductance Heat Pipes for Radioisotope Stirling Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tarau, Calin; Walker, Kara L.; Anderson, William G.
2009-01-01
In a Stirling radioisotope system, heat must continually be removed from the GPHS modules, to maintain the GPHS modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. Normally, the Stirling convertor provides this cooling. If the Stirling convertor stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS, but also ending the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) is under development to allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling convertor. The status of the ongoing effort in developing this technology is presented in this paper. An earlier, preliminary design had a radiator outside the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) casing, used NaK as the working fluid, and had the reservoir located on the cold side adapter flange. The revised design has an internal radiator inside the casing, with the reservoir embedded inside the insulation. A large set of advantages are offered by this new design. In addition to reducing the overall size and mass of the VCHP, simplicity, compactness and easiness in assembling the VCHP with the ASRG are significantly enhanced. Also, the permanently elevated temperatures of the entire VCHP allows the change of the working fluid from a binary compound (NaK) to single compound (Na). The latter, by its properties, allows higher performance and further mass reduction of the system. Preliminary design and analysis shows an acceptable peak temperature of the ASRG case of 140 C while the heat losses caused by the addition of the VCHP are 1.8 W.
Variable Conductance Heat Pipes for Radioisotope Stirling Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, William G.; Tarau, Calin
2008-01-01
In a Stirling radioisotope system, heat must continually be removed from the GPHS modules, to maintain the GPHS modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. Normally, the Stirling convertor provides this cooling. If the Stirling engine stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS, but also ending the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) was designed to allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling engine. A VCHP was designed for the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator, with a 850 °C heater head temperature. The VCHP turns on with a ΔT of 30 °C, which is high enough to not risk standard ASRG operation but low enough to save most heater head life. This VCHP has a low mass, and low thermal losses for normal operation. In addition to the design, a proof-of-concept NaK VCHP was fabricated and tested. While NaK is normally not used in heat pipes, it has an advantage in that it is liquid at the reservoir operating temperature, while Na or K alone would freeze. The VCHP had two condensers, one simulating the heater head, and the other simulating the radiator. The experiments successfully demonstrated operation with the simulated heater head condenser off and on, while allowing the reservoir temperature to vary over 40 to 120 °C, the maximum range expected. In agreement with previous NaK heat pipe tests, the evaporator ΔT was roughly 70 °C, due to distillation of the NaK in the evaporator.
Instability of the vertical annular flow with a radial heating and rotating inner cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoshikawa, H. N.; Nagata, M.; Mutabazi, I.
2013-11-01
A linear stability analysis of the flow confined in a differentially rotating cylindrical annulus with a radial temperature gradient has been performed. Depending on values of control parameters (the Taylor number, the Grashof number, and the Froude number), it has shown flow destabilization to axisymmetric or non-axisymmetric modes. Analysis of different terms involved in the evolution rate of the perturbation kinetic energy has allowed us to isolate the dominant terms (centrifugal force or buoyancy force) in the destabilization process. We have shown that the centrifugal buoyancy can induce the asymmetry of the temperature gradient on critical states.
Thermal conductivity and specific heat of glass ceramics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cahill, D. G.; Olson, J. R.; Fischer, Henry E.; Watson, S. K.; Stephens, R. B.; Tait, R. H.; Ashworth, T.; Pohl, R. O.
1991-12-01
The effect of crystallization on the lattice vibrations of two glass ceramics, a magnesium aluminosilicate (Corning Code 9606) and a lithium aluminosilicate (Corning Code 9623), is studied through measurements of the thermal conductivity and specific heat below 300 K. Because of grain boundaries and magnetic impurities, measurements below a few kelvins are of limited value. At higher temperatures, however, the experimental results show that the lattice vibrations of one of the glass ceramics (Code 9606) change from glassy to crystalline upon crystallization. Those of Code 9623, however, remain glassy even in the fully crystallized state. In contrast to the crystalline Code 9606 sample, the Code 9623 sample accommodates large concentrations of interstitial lithium and magnesium ions in its crystal lattice, and it is suggested that the glasslike lattice vibrations in the Code 9623 sample are caused by these ions.
Application of the boundary element method to transient heat conduction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dargush, G. F.; Banerjee, P. K.
1991-01-01
An advanced boundary element method (BEM) is presented for the transient heat conduction analysis of engineering components. The numerical implementation necessarily includes higher-order conforming elements, self-adaptive integration and a multiregion capability. Planar, three-dimensional and axisymmetric analyses are all addressed with a consistent time-domain convolution approach, which completely eliminates the need for volume discretization for most practical analyses. The resulting general purpose algorithm establishes BEM as an attractive alternative to the more familiar finite difference and finite element methods for this class of problems. Several detailed numerical examples are included to emphasize the accuracy, stability and generality of the present BEM. Furthermore, a new efficient treatment is introduced for bodies with embedded holes. This development provides a powerful analytical tool for transient solutions of components, such as casting moulds and turbine blades, which are cumbersome to model when employing the conventional domain-based methods.
Efficient linear and nonlinear heat conduction with a quadrilateral element
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, W. K.; Belytschko, T.
1983-01-01
A method is presented for performing efficient and stable finite element calculations of heat conduction with quadrilaterals using one-point quadrature. The stability in space is obtained by using a stabilization matrix which is orthogonal to all linear fields and its magnitude is determined by a stabilization parameter. It is shown that the accuracy is almost independent of the value of the stabilization parameter over a wide range of values; in fact, the values 3, 2, and 1 for the normalized stabilization parameter lead to the 5-point, 9-point finite difference, and fully integrated finite element operators, respectively, for rectangular meshes and have identical rates of convergence in the L2 norm. Eigenvalues of the element matrices, which are needed for stability limits, are also given. Numerical applications are used to show that the method yields accurate solutions with large increases in efficiency, particularly in nonlinear problems.
High Temperature Variable Conductance Heat Pipes for Radioisotope Stirling Systems
Tarau, Calin; Walker, Kara L.; Anderson, William G.
2009-03-16
In a Stirling radioisotope system, heat must continually be removed from the GPHS modules, to maintain the GPHS modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. Normally, the Stirling converter provides this cooling. If the Stirling engine stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS, but also ending the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) is under development to allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling engine. The status of the ongoing effort in developing this technology is presented in this paper. An earlier, preliminary design had a radiator outside the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) casing, used NaK as the working fluid, and had the reservoir located on the cold side adapter flange. The revised design has an internal radiator inside the casing, with the reservoir embedded inside the insulation. A large set of advantages are offered by this new design. In addition to reducing the overall size and mass of the VCHP, simplicity, compactness and easiness in assembling the VCHP with the ASRG are significantly enhanced. Also, the permanently elevated temperatures of the entire VCHP allows the change of the working fluid from a binary compound (NaK) to single compound (Na). The latter, by its properties, allows higher performance and further mass reduction of the system. Preliminary design and analysis shows an acceptable peak temperature of the ASRG case of 140 deg. C while the heat losses caused by the addition of the VCHP are 1.8 W.
High Temperature Variable Conductance Heat Pipes for Radioisotope Stirling Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tarau, Calin; Walker, Kara L.; Anderson, William G.
2009-03-01
In a Stirling radioisotope system, heat must continually be removed from the GPHS modules, to maintain the GPHS modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. Normally, the Stirling converter provides this cooling. If the Stirling engine stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS, but also ending the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) is under development to allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling engine. The status of the ongoing effort in developing this technology is presented in this paper. An earlier, preliminary design had a radiator outside the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) casing, used NaK as the working fluid, and had the reservoir located on the cold side adapter flange. The revised design has an internal radiator inside the casing, with the reservoir embedded inside the insulation. A large set of advantages are offered by this new design. In addition to reducing the overall size and mass of the VCHP, simplicity, compactness and easiness in assembling the VCHP with the ASRG are significantly enhanced. Also, the permanently elevated temperatures of the entire VCHP allows the change of the working fluid from a binary compound (NaK) to single compound (Na). The latter, by its properties, allows higher performance and further mass reduction of the system. Preliminary design and analysis shows an acceptable peak temperature of the ASRG case of 140° C while the heat losses caused by the addition of the VCHP are 1.8 W.
Manipulating Steady Heat Conduction by Sensu-shaped Thermal Metamaterials.
Han, Tiancheng; Bai, Xue; Liu, Dan; Gao, Dongliang; Li, Baowen; Thong, John T L; Qiu, Cheng-Wei
2015-01-01
The ability to design the control of heat flow has innumerable benefits in the design of electronic systems such as thermoelectric energy harvesters, solid-state lighting, and thermal imagers, where the thermal design plays a key role in performance and device reliability. In this work, we employ one identical sensu-unit with facile natural composition to experimentally realize a new class of thermal metamaterials for controlling thermal conduction (e.g., thermal concentrator, focusing/resolving, uniform heating), only resorting to positioning and locating the same unit element of sensu-shape structure. The thermal metamaterial unit and the proper arrangement of multiple identical units are capable of transferring, redistributing and managing thermal energy in a versatile fashion. It is also shown that our sensu-shape unit elements can be used in manipulating dc currents without any change in the layout for the thermal counterpart. These could markedly enhance the capabilities in thermal sensing, thermal imaging, thermal-energy storage, thermal packaging, thermal therapy, and more domains beyond. PMID:25974383
Manipulating Steady Heat Conduction by Sensu-shaped Thermal Metamaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Tiancheng; Bai, Xue; Liu, Dan; Gao, Dongliang; Li, Baowen; Thong, John T. L.; Qiu, Cheng-Wei
2015-05-01
The ability to design the control of heat flow has innumerable benefits in the design of electronic systems such as thermoelectric energy harvesters, solid-state lighting, and thermal imagers, where the thermal design plays a key role in performance and device reliability. In this work, we employ one identical sensu-unit with facile natural composition to experimentally realize a new class of thermal metamaterials for controlling thermal conduction (e.g., thermal concentrator, focusing/resolving, uniform heating), only resorting to positioning and locating the same unit element of sensu-shape structure. The thermal metamaterial unit and the proper arrangement of multiple identical units are capable of transferring, redistributing and managing thermal energy in a versatile fashion. It is also shown that our sensu-shape unit elements can be used in manipulating dc currents without any change in the layout for the thermal counterpart. These could markedly enhance the capabilities in thermal sensing, thermal imaging, thermal-energy storage, thermal packaging, thermal therapy, and more domains beyond.
Manipulating Steady Heat Conduction by Sensu-shaped Thermal Metamaterials
Han, Tiancheng; Bai, Xue; Liu, Dan; Gao, Dongliang; Li, Baowen; Thong, John T. L.; Qiu, Cheng-Wei
2015-01-01
The ability to design the control of heat flow has innumerable benefits in the design of electronic systems such as thermoelectric energy harvesters, solid-state lighting, and thermal imagers, where the thermal design plays a key role in performance and device reliability. In this work, we employ one identical sensu-unit with facile natural composition to experimentally realize a new class of thermal metamaterials for controlling thermal conduction (e.g., thermal concentrator, focusing/resolving, uniform heating), only resorting to positioning and locating the same unit element of sensu-shape structure. The thermal metamaterial unit and the proper arrangement of multiple identical units are capable of transferring, redistributing and managing thermal energy in a versatile fashion. It is also shown that our sensu-shape unit elements can be used in manipulating dc currents without any change in the layout for the thermal counterpart. These could markedly enhance the capabilities in thermal sensing, thermal imaging, thermal-energy storage, thermal packaging, thermal therapy, and more domains beyond. PMID:25974383
Heat conduction in nanoscale materials: a statistical-mechanics derivation of the local heat flux.
Li, Xiantao
2014-09-01
We derive a coarse-grained model for heat conduction in nanoscale mechanical systems. Starting with an all-atom description, this approach yields a reduced model, in the form of conservation laws of momentum and energy. The model closure is accomplished by introducing a quasilocal thermodynamic equilibrium, followed by a linear response approximation. Of particular interest is the constitutive relation for the heat flux, which is expressed nonlocally in terms of the spatial and temporal variation of the temperature. Nanowires made of copper and silicon are presented as examples. PMID:25314400
An Experimental Study of a Radially Arranged Thin Film Heat Flux Gauge
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cho, Christoper S. K.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Bhatt, Hemanshu D.
1997-01-01
A new thin-film heat-flux gauge was designed and fabricated on three different substrate materials. Forty pairs of Pt-Pt/10% Rh thermocouple junctions were deposited in a circular pattern on the same plane of the substrate. Over the thermocouples, 5 and 10 micron thick thermal resistance layers were deposited to create a temperature gradient across those layers. Calibration and testing of these gauges were carried out in an arc-lamp calibration facility. The heat flux calculated from the gauge output is in good agreement with the value obtained from the pre-calibrated standard sensor. A CO2 laser was also used to test the steady-state and dynamic responses of the heat-flux gauge. During the steady-state test, the time constant for the heating period was 30 s. The frequency response of the heat-flux gauge was measured in the frequency domain using a CO2 laser and a chopper. The responses from an infrared detector and the heat-flux gauge were measured simultaneously and compared. It was found that the thin-film heat-flux gauge has a dynamic frequency response of 3 kHz.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khan, M.; Munir, A.; Shahzad, A.; Shah, A.
2015-03-01
A steady boundary layer flow and heat transfer over a radially stretching isothermal porous sheet is analyzed. Stretching is assumed to follow a radial power law, and the fluid is electrically conducting in the presence of a transverse magnetic field with a very small magnetic Reynolds number. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations are reduced to a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations by using appropriate similarity transformations, which are solved analytically by the homotopy analysis method (HAM) and numerically by employing the shooting method with the adaptive Runge-Kutta method and Broyden's method in the domain [0,?). Analytical expressions for the velocity and temperature fields are derived. The influence of pertinent parameters on the velocity and temperature profiles is discussed in detail. The skin friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number are calculated as functions of several influential parameters. The results predicted by both methods are demonstrated to be in excellent agreement. Moreover, HAM results for a particular problem are also compared with exact solutions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maksimov, Vyacheslav I.; Nagornova, Tatiana A.; Glazyrin, Viktor P.
2016-02-01
Is solved the problem of heat transfer in the closed volume, limited by heat-conducting walls, with the local source of heat emission and the heterogeneous conditions of heat sink on the outer boundaries of solution area. The problem of convective heat transfer is solved with using a system of differential Navier-Stokes equations in the Boussinesq approximation. The simulation of turbulent flow conditions of heated air is carried out within the framework to k-ɛ model. On the basis the analysis of the obtained temperature field and the contour lines of stream functions is made conclusion about the essential transiency of the process in question. The obtained values of temperatures and speeds in different sections of region illustrate turbulence of the process. Are investigated laws governing the formation of temperature fields in closed areas with a local heat emission source under the conditions of intensive local heat sink into environment and accumulation of heat in the enclosing constructions.
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2012-07-05
... COMMISSION Certain Integrated Circuit Packages Provided With Multiple Heat- Conducting Paths and Products... with multiple heat-conducting paths and products containing same by reason of infringement of certain... integrated circuit packages provided with multiple heat-conducting paths and products containing same...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2012-06-06
... COMMISSION Certain Integrated Circuit Packages Provided With Multiple Heat- Conducting Paths and Products... With Multiple Heat-Conducting Paths and Products Containing Same, DN 2899; the Commission is soliciting... multiple heat-conducting paths and products containing same. The complaint names as respondents...
SEP BIMOD variable conductance heat pipes acceptance and characterization tests
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hemminger, J. A.
1981-01-01
A series of six heat pipes, similar in design to those flown on the Comunications Technology Satellite Hermes, for use in a prototype Solar Electric Propulsion BIMOD thrust module are evaluated. The results of acceptance and characterization tests performed on the heat pipe subassemble are reported. The performance of all the heat pipes met, or exceeded, design specifications.
Theory and design of variable conductance heat pipes: Steady state and transient performance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edwards, D. K.; Fleischman, G. L.; Marcus, B. D.
1972-01-01
Heat pipe technology pertinent to the design and application of self-controlled, variable conductance heat pipes for spacecraft thermal control is discussed. Investigations were conducted to: (1) provide additional confidence in existing design tools, (2) to generate new design tools, and (3) to develop superior variable conductance heat pipe designs. A computer program for designing and predicting the performance of the heat pipe systems was developed.
Microbeam Beam Heating Analysis of Thin Foils Using Heat Conduction Theory
Lovelace, B.; Haberl, A. W.; Bakhru, H.; Kimball, J. C.; Benenson, R. E.
2009-03-10
The temperature distribution in and near the scan region of an ion microbeam is estimated using heat conduction theory. In the calculation, the energy deposited by a beam spot on a thin foil is treated as a point energy source. The spatial and time dependent temperature contributions from energy deposited by the ion beam rastering in a square scan pattern were then computed. The results showed that for poor conductors, the temperature of the material under the scan region can rise rapidly by up to two orders of magnitude, while that of good conductors remains virtually unchanged. The calculated results were consistent with experimental data where Mylar foils were scanned using an He microbeam and the time for melt through was measured. Radiational cooling effects were also investigated and found to contribute little to the heat losses at typical microbeam beam powers.
Analysis of heat conduction in a disk brake system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Talati, Faramarz; Jalalifar, Salman
2009-06-01
In this paper, the governing heat equations for the disk and the pad are extracted in the form of transient heat equations with heat generation that is dependant to time and space. In the derivation of the heat equations, parameters such as the duration of braking, vehicle velocity, geometries and the dimensions of the brake components, materials of the disk brake rotor and the pad and contact pressure distribution have been taken into account. The problem is solved analytically using Greens function approach. It is concluded that the heat generated due to friction between the disk and the pad should be ideally dissipated to the environment to avoid decreasing the friction coefficient between the disk and the pad and to avoid the temperature rise of various brake components and brake fluid vaporization due to excessive heating.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ping, Y.; Fernandez-Panella, A.; Sio, H.; Correa, A.; Shepherd, R.; Landen, O.; London, R. A.; Sterne, P. A.; Whitley, H. D.; Fratanduono, D.; Boehly, T. R.; Collins, G. W.
2015-09-01
We propose a method for thermal conductivity measurements of high energy density matter based on differential heating. A temperature gradient is created either by surface heating of one material or at an interface between two materials by different energy deposition. The subsequent heat conduction across the temperature gradient is observed by various time-resolved probing techniques. Conceptual designs of such measurements using laser heating, proton heating, and x-ray heating are presented. The sensitivity of the measurements to thermal conductivity is confirmed by simulations.
Ping, Y.; Fernandez-Panella, A.; Sio, H.; Correa, A.; Shepherd, R.; Landen, O.; London, R. A.; Sterne, P. A.; Whitley, H. D.; Fratanduono, D.; et al
2015-09-04
We propose a method for thermal conductivity measurements of high energy density matter based on differential heating. A temperature gradient is created either by surface heating of one material or at an interface between two materials by different energy deposition. The subsequent heat conduction across the temperature gradient is observed by various time-resolved probing techniques. Conceptual designs of such measurements using laser heating, proton heating, and x-ray heating are presented. As a result, the sensitivity of the measurements to thermal conductivity is confirmed by simulations.
C. AVILES-RAMOS; C. RUDY
2000-11-01
The transient exact solution of heat conduction in a two-domain composite cylinder is developed using the separation of variables technique. The inner cylinder is isotropic and the outer cylindrical layer is orthotropic. Temperature solutions are obtained for boundary conditions of the first and second kinds at the outer surface of the orthotropic layer. These solutions are applied to heat flow calorimeters modeling assuming that there is heat generation due to nuclear reactions in the inner cylinder. Heat flow calorimeter simulations are carried out assuming that the inner cylinder is filled with plutonium oxide powder. The first objective in these simulations is to predict the onset of thermal equilibrium of the calorimeter with its environment. Two types of boundary conditions at the outer surface of the orthotropic layer are used to predict thermal equilibrium. The procedure developed to carry out these simulations can be used as a guideline for the design of calorimeters. Another important application of these solutions is on the estimation of thermophysical properties of orthotropic cylinders. The thermal conductivities in the vertical, radial and circumferential directions of the orthotropic outer layer can be estimated using this exact solution and experimental data. Simultaneous estimation of the volumetric heat capacity and thermal conductivities is also possible. Furthermore, this solution has potential applications to the solution of the inverse heat conduction problem in this cylindrical geometry. An interesting feature of the construction of this solution is that two different sets of eigenfunctions need to be considered in the eigenfunction expansion. These eigenfunctions sets depend on the relative values of the thermal diffusivity of the inner cylinder and the thermal diffusivity in the vertical direction of the outer cylindrical layer.
Heat Conduction with Flux Condition on a Free Patch
Kuttler, Kenneth L. Shillor, Meir
2004-08-15
A new free boundary or free patch problem for the heat equation is presented. In the problem a nonlinear heat flux condition is prescribed on a free portion of the boundary, the patch, the position of which depends on the solution. The existence of a weak solution is established using the theory of set-valued pseudo monotone operators.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ryter, F.; Cavedon, M.; Happel, T.; McDermott, R. M.; Viezzer, E.; Conway, G. D.; Fischer, R.; Kurzan, B.; Ptterich, T.; Tardini, G.; Willensdorfer, M.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team
2016-01-01
Previous work carried out in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak on the role of the edge radial electric field and ion heat flux in the L-H transition physics in deuterium plasmas has been extended in hydrogen plasmas. Similar discharges were performed in the two gases providing a detailed comparison of the edge kinetic profiles and heat fluxes in L-mode up to the L-H transition, as the heating power is increased. At the L-H transition, the edge ion heat flux just inside the separatrix is about two times higher in hydrogen than in deuterium. However, the ion plasma parameters at the plasma edge, T i and \
Chen, Lin; Li, Zhen; Guo, Zeng-Yuan
2009-07-15
In this paper, two modified types of polypropylene (PP) with high thermal conductivity up to 2.3 W/m K and 16.5 W/m K are used to manufacture the finned-tube heat exchangers, which are prospected to be used in liquid desiccant air conditioning, heat recovery, water source heat pump, sea water desalination, etc. A third plastic heat exchanger is also manufactured with ordinary PP for validation and comparison. Experiments are carried out to determine the thermal performance of the plastic heat exchangers. It is found that the plastic finned-tube heat exchanger with thermal conductivity of 16.5 W/m K can achieve overall heat transfer coefficient of 34 W/m{sup 2} K. The experimental results are compared with calculation and they agree well with each other. Finally, the effect of material thermal conductivity on heat exchanger thermal performance is studied in detail. The results show that there is a threshold value of material thermal conductivity. Below this value improving thermal conductivity can considerably improve the heat exchanger performance while over this value improving thermal conductivity contributes very little to performance enhancement. For the finned-tube heat exchanger designed in this paper, when the plastic thermal conductivity can reach over 15 W/m K, it can achieve more than 95% of the titanium heat exchanger performance and 84% of the aluminum or copper heat exchanger performance with the same dimension. (author)
In vitro burn model illustrating heat conduction patterns using compressed thermal papers.
Lee, Jun Yong; Jung, Sung-No; Kwon, Ho
2015-01-01
To date, heat conduction from heat sources to tissue has been estimated by complex mathematical modeling. In the present study, we developed an intuitive in vitro skin burn model that illustrates heat conduction patterns inside the skin. This was composed of tightly compressed thermal papers with compression frames. Heat flow through the model left a trace by changing the color of thermal papers. These were digitized and three-dimensionally reconstituted to reproduce the heat conduction patterns in the skin. For standardization, we validated K91HG-CE thermal paper using a printout test and bivariate correlation analysis. We measured the papers' physical properties and calculated the estimated depth of heat conduction using Fourier's equation. Through contact burns of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 seconds on porcine skin and our burn model using a heated brass comb, and comparing the burn wound and heat conduction trace, we validated our model. The heat conduction pattern correlation analysis (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.846, p?heat conduction depth correlation analysis (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.93, p?heat conduction patterns. PMID:25421614
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuznetzov, G. V.; Polovnikov, V. Yu.
2012-04-01
The results of numerical investigation are reported on thermal regimes in the systems of heat transport based on the solution of the conjugative problem of conductive-convective heat transfer in the system twin-tube-channel underground heat pipeline environmental medium. It is shown that the use of the proposed approach allows one to perform the comprehensive analysis of the heating regimes in such systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Polovnikov, V. Yu.; Razumov, N. V.
2016-02-01
This paper describes the numerical modeling of a convective-conductive heat transfer the area placing of a heat pipeline under flooding conditions. We have established that the heat loss of a heat pipeline under flooding conditions increases in the range from 1.5 to 64.3%, depending on the volume fraction of water in the insulation structure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rainey, E. S.; Kavner, A.; Hernlund, J. W.; Pilon, L.; Veitch, M.
2012-12-01
The thermal conductivity of minerals in the lowermost mantle controls the total heat flow across the core-mantle boundary and is critical for the thermal evolution of the Earth. However, lower mantle thermal conductivity values and their pressure, temperature, and compositional dependencies are not well known. Here we present our recent progress combining 3D models of heat flow in the laser-heated diamond cell (LHDAC) with laboratory measurements of hotspot temperature distributions to assess the thermal conductivity of lower mantle minerals as a function of pressure and temperature. Using our numerical model of heat flow in the LHDAC, central hotspot temperature and radial and axial temperature gradients are calculated as a function of laser power, sample thermal conductivity, and sample geometry. For a given geometry, the relationship between peak sample temperature and laser power depends on the sample thermal conductivity. However, quantifying the experimental parameters sufficiently to precisely determine an absolute value of sample thermal conductivity is difficult. But relative differences in thermal conductivity are easily inferred by comparing the slopes of differing temperature vs. laser power curves measured on the same system. This technique can be used to measure the pressure dependence of thermal conductivity for minerals at lower mantle conditions. We confirm the effectiveness of this approach by measuring the pressure slope of thermal conductivity for MgO between 10 and 30 GPa. MgO retains the B1 phase throughout the experimental pressure range, and existing experimental measurements and theoretical calculations are in good agreement on the pressure- and temperature- dependence of the thermal conductivity of MgO. We also use this technique to measure the relative thermal conductivity of high pressure assemblages created from San Carlos olivine starting material. Both MgO and (Mg,Fe)2SiO4 materials show a shallower temperature vs. laser power slope as a function of pressure as expected for increasing thermal conductivity. In addition, olivine undergoes a series of phase transformations which changes its thermal behavior at upper mantle conditions (10-20 GPa) where olivine and wadsleyite are stable compared with lower mantle (25-30 GPa) conditions where the olivine transforms to a perovskite + oxide assemblage.
Two-dimensional heat conducting simulation of plasma armatures
Huerta, M.A.; Boynton, G. . Dept. of Physics)
1991-01-01
This paper reports on our development of a two-dimensional MHD code to simulate internal motions in a railgun plasma armature. The authors use the equations of resistive MHD, with Ohmic heating, and radiation heat transport. The authors use a Flux Corrected Transport code to advance all quantities in time. Our runs show the development of complex flows, subsequent shedding of secondary arcs, and a drop in the acceleration of the armature.
Linear Electrical Conductivity of a Bipolar Semiconductor: Heating and Recombination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lashkevych, Igor; Gurevich, Yuri G.
2016-01-01
The linear electrical conductivity of a nondegenerate bipolar semiconductor, with metal contacts at both sides, is investigated for small values of the thermal conductivity in a general case, i.e., when both nonequilibrium charge carriers (electrons and holes) and nonequilibrium temperature are present. It must be emphasized that both concentration and energy nonequilibria arise automatically when an electric current flows, even in a linear approximation with respect to perturbation. The expression for the electrical conductivity is obtained. This expression depends on electrical conductivities of electrons and holes, the thermal conductivity, the bandgap, the lifetime of charge carriers, and the surface recombination rate at the contacts of a semiconductor with a metal.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mihaila, Bogdan; Stan, Marius; Crapps, Justin
2012-11-01
We study the coupled thermal transport, oxygen diffusion, and thermal expansion of a generic nuclear fuel element consisting of a UO2 fuel pellet and stainless steel cladding separated by a helium gap for the purpose of evaluating the impact of various thermal conductivity models on the predictions of the temperature profile and deformation. Using a series of steady-state and time-dependent finite-element simulations with a variety of initial- and boundary-value conditions, thermo-mechanical response of the fuel element is evaluated. The results show that including the deviation from stoichiometry, x, in the thermal conductivity model is paramount for obtaining accurate predictions in the centerline temperature and the extent of the radial deformation of the fuel pellet. In a surprising result, the coupling between the heat transport and the oxygen diffusion is relatively strong for small values of the fixed composition boundary conditions xb, whereas the coupling becomes weaker for large values of xb.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khan, Masood; Malik, Rabia; Munir, Asif
2015-08-01
In this article, the mixed convective heat transfer to Sisko fluid over a radially stretching surface in the presence of convective boundary conditions is investigated. The viscous dissipation and thermal radiation effects are also taken into account. The suitable transformations are applied to convert the governing partial differential equations into a set of nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations. The analytical solution of the governing problem is obtained by using the homotopy analysis method (HAM). Additionally, these analytical results are compared with the numerical results obtained by the shooting technique. The obtained results for the velocity and temperature are analyzed graphically for several physical parameters for the assisting and opposing flows. It is found that the effect of buoyancy parameter is more prominent in case of the assisting flow as compared to the opposing flow. Further, in tabular form the numerical values are given for the local skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number. A remarkable agreement is noticed by comparing the present results with the results reported in the literature as a special case.
A two-fluid model for relativistic heat conduction
López-Monsalvo, César S.
2014-01-14
Three years ago it was presented in these proceedings the relativistic dynamics of a multi-fluid system together with various applications to a set of topical problems [1]. In this talk, I will start from such dynamics and present a covariant formulation of relativistic thermodynamics which provides us with a causal constitutive equation for the propagation of heat in a relativistic setting.
A two-parameter nondiffusive heat conduction model for data analysis in pump-probe experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Yanbao
2014-12-01
Nondiffusive heat transfer has attracted intensive research interests in last 50 years because of its importance in fundamental physics and engineering applications. It has unique features that cannot be described by the Fourier law. However, current studies of nondiffusive heat transfer still focus on studying the effective thermal conductivity within the framework of the Fourier law due to a lack of a well-accepted replacement. Here, we show that nondiffusive heat conduction can be characterized by two inherent material properties: a diffusive thermal conductivity and a ballistic transport length. We also present a two-parameter heat conduction model and demonstrate its validity in different pump-probe experiments. This model not only offers new insights of nondiffusive heat conduction but also opens up new avenues for the studies of nondiffusive heat transfer outside the framework of the Fourier law.
Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Cooling of Stirling Convertor and General Purpose Heat Source
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tarau, Calin; Schwendeman, Carl; Anderson William G.; Cornell, Peggy A.; Schifer, Nicholas A.
2013-01-01
In a Stirling Radioisotope Power System (RPS), heat must be continuously removed from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules to maintain the modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. The Stirling convertor normally provides this cooling. If the Stirling convertor stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS at the cost of an early termination of the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) can be used to passively allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling convertor. In a previous NASA SBIR Program, Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) developed a series of sodium VCHPs as backup cooling systems for Stirling RPS. The operation of these VCHPs was demonstrated using Stirling heater head simulators and GPHS simulators. In the most recent effort, a sodium VCHP with a stainless steel envelope was designed, fabricated and tested at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) with a Stirling convertor for two concepts; one for the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) back up cooling system and one for the Long-lived Venus Lander thermal management system. The VCHP is designed to activate and remove heat from the stopped convertor at a 19 degC temperature increase from the nominal vapor temperature. The 19 degC temperature increase from nominal is low enough to avoid risking standard ASRG operation and spoiling of the Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI). In addition, the same backup cooling system can be applied to the Stirling convertor used for the refrigeration system of the Long-lived Venus Lander. The VCHP will allow the refrigeration system to: 1) rest during transit at a lower temperature than nominal; 2) pre-cool the modules to an even lower temperature before the entry in Venus atmosphere; 3) work at nominal temperature on Venus surface; 4) briefly stop multiple times on the Venus surface to allow scientific measurements. This paper presents the experimental results from integrating the VCHP with an operating Stirling convertor and describes the methodology used to achieve their successful combined operation.
RODCON: a finite difference heat conduction computer code in cylindrical coordinates
Conklin, J.C.
1980-09-16
RODCON, a finite difference computer code, was developed to calculate the internal temperature distribution of the fuel rod simulator (FRS) for the Core Flow Test Loop (CFTL). RODCON solves the implicit, time-dependent forward-differencing heat transfer equation in 2-dimensional (Rtheta) cylindrical coordinates at an axial plane with user specified radial material zones and surface conditions at the FRS periphery. Symmetry of the boundary conditions of coolant bulk temperatures and film coefficients at the FRS periphery is not necessary.
Equation of motion of a phonon gas and non-Fourier heat conduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Bing-Yang; Guo, Zeng-Yuan
2007-09-01
Heat conduction in solids is due to the motion of the phonon gas. A more general description of the heat transport in solids includes consideration of the mass, pressure, and inertial force of the phonon gas. The mass of the phonon gas refers to the equivalent mass of its energy based on Einstein's mass-energy relation. The thermal vibration of the lattice creates the phonon gas pressure and the momentum change of the phonon gas results in an inertial force. The phonon gas velocity is directly proportional to the heat flux. These concepts are used to establish an equation of motion for the phonon gas including the driving, inertial, and resistant forces using Newtonian dynamics. This equation reduces to Fourier's law of heat conduction when the inertial force can be neglected relative to the other terms so that heat conduction becomes pure diffusion. However, Fourier's law of heat conduction no longer holds if the heat flux is very high, such that the inertial force of the phonon gas is not negligible. In such cases, the heat conduction behavior deviates from Fourier's law even for steady-state conditions so that the heat conduction is characterized by a nonlinear relationship between the heat flux and the temperature gradient.
A Simple Rate Law Experiment Using a Custom-Built Isothermal Heat Conduction Calorimeter
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wadso, Lars; Li, Xi.
2008-01-01
Most processes (whether physical, chemical, or biological) produce or consume heat: measuring thermal power (the heat production rate) is therefore a typical method of studying processes. Here we describe the design of a simple isothermal heat conduction calorimeter built for use in teaching; we also provide an example of its use in simultaneously…
A Simple Rate Law Experiment Using a Custom-Built Isothermal Heat Conduction Calorimeter
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wadso, Lars; Li, Xi.
2008-01-01
Most processes (whether physical, chemical, or biological) produce or consume heat: measuring thermal power (the heat production rate) is therefore a typical method of studying processes. Here we describe the design of a simple isothermal heat conduction calorimeter built for use in teaching; we also provide an example of its use in simultaneously
Numerical model for combined conductive and radiative heat transfer in annular packed beds
Kamiuto, K.; Saito, S.; Ito, K. . Dept. of Production Systems Engineering)
1993-06-01
A numerical model is developed for quantitatively analyzing combined conductive and radiative heat transfer in concentric annular packed beds. A packed bed is considered to be a continuous medium for heat transfer, but the porosity distribution within a packed bed is taken into account. To examine the validity of the proposed model, combined conductive and radiative heat transfer through annular packed beds of cordierite or porcelain beads is analyzed numerically using finite differences under conditions corresponding to heat transfer experiments of these packed beds. The resultant temperature profiles and heat transfer characteristics are compared with the experimental results.
Heat conduction in cooling flows. [in clusters of galaxies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bregman, Joel N.; David, L. P.
1988-01-01
It has been suggested that electron conduction may significantly reduce the accretion rate (and star foramtion rate) for cooling flows in clusters of galaxies. A numerical hydrodynamics code was used to investigate the time behavior of cooling flows with conduction. The usual conduction coefficient is modified by an efficiency factor, mu, to realize the effects of tangled magnetic field lines. Two classes of models are considered, one where mu is independent of position and time, and one where inflow stretches the field lines and changes mu. In both cases, there is only a narrow range of initial conditions for mu in which the cluster accretion rate is reduced while a significant temperature gradient occurs. In the first case, no steady solution exists in which both conditions are met. In the second case, steady state solutions occur in which both conditions are met, but only for a narrow range of initial values where mu = 0.001.
Calculation of heat conductivity of organic liquids as function of temperature
Safarov, M.M.; Khadzhidov, Kh.
1995-12-01
Results of generalization of experimental data on heat conductivity of a series of organic liquids as a function of temperature at atmospheric pressure are presented. The approximation dependence for calculation of heat conductivity of liquid organic compounds as a function of temperature, normal boiling temperature, and molar mass is obtained.
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2012-12-12
... COMMISSION Certain Integrated Circuit Packages Provided with Multiple Heat- Conducting Paths and Products..., California (collectively, ``ITRI''). 77 FR 39735 (Jul. 5, 2012). The complaint, as amended, alleges... integrated circuit packages provided with multiple heat-conducting paths and products containing same...
Cu/Diamond composite heat-conducting shims
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galashov, E. N.; Yusuf, A. A.; Mandrik, E. M.
2015-11-01
Composite material with high thermal conductivity was obtained by the method of thermal sintering of a diamond (50 75%) with a size of 20 to 250 ?m in a matrix of copper.Coefficient of thermal conductivity of copper diamond composite materials was measured and is 450 650 Wm-1K-1. The coefficient of thermal expansion CTE was measured and is 5.5 7.5 10-6/C. The obtained copper diamond composite materials are promising objects for use in THz and microwave devices.
Method of integral cross sections in heat conduction problems
Novikov, V.V.; Papkovskaya, O.B.
1995-10-01
We substantiate estimates of the upper and lower bounds of the effective thermal conductivity of piecewise homogeneous bodies. A numerical scheme for calculating the temperature field has been developed and implemented, and a comparison between the results of calculations by different schemes has been carried out.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Y. Jun; Li, Chen-Lin; Xue, Zhang-Na; Tian, Xiao-Geng
2016-01-01
To model transiently thermal responses of numerous thermal shock issues at nano-scale, Fourier heat conduction law is commonly extended by introducing time rate of heat flux, and comes to hyperbolic heat conduction (HHC). However, solution to HHC under Dirichlet boundary condition depicts abnormal phenomena, e.g. heat conducts from the cold to the hot, and there are two temperatures at one location. In this paper, HHC model is further perfected with the aids of spatially nonlocal effect, and the exceeding temperature as well as the discontinuity at the wave front are avoided. The effect of nonlocal parameter on temperature response is discussed. From the analysis, the importance of size effect for nano-scale heat conduction is emphasized, indicating that spatial and temporal extensions should be simultaneously made to nano-scale heat conduction. Beyond that, it is found that heat flux boundary conditions should be directly given, instead of Neumann boundary condition, which does not make sense any longer for non-classical heat conductive models. And finally, it is observed that accurate solution to such problems may be obtained using Laplace transform method, especially for the time-dependent boundary conditions, e.g. heat flux boundary condition.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brandon, S.; Derby, J. J.
1992-01-01
In the present investigation of crystalline phase internal radiation and heat conduction during the vertical Bridgman growth of a YAG-like oxide crystal, where transport through the melt is dominated by convection and conduction, heat is also noted to be conducted through ampoule walls via natural convection and enclosure radiation. The results of a quasi-steady-state axisymmetric Galerkin FEM indicate that heat transfer through the system is powerfully affected by the optical absorption coefficient of the crystal. The coupling of internal radiation through the crystal with conduction through the ampoule walls promotes melt/crystal interface shapes that are highly reflected near the ampoule wall.
Girka, V. O.; Girka, I. O.
2006-12-15
A theoretical study is made of the possibility of additional heating of a radially inhomogeneous plasma in confinement systems with a rippled magnetic field via the absorption of satellite harmonics of the surface flute modes with frequencies below the electron gyrofrequency in the local resonance region, {epsilon}{sub 1} (r{sub 1}) = [2{pi}c/({omega}L)]{sup 2}, where {epsilon}{sub 1} is the diagonal element of the plasma dielectric tensor in the hydrodynamic approximation, L is the period of a constant external rippled magnetic field, and the radical coordinate r{sub 1} determines the position of the local resonance. It is found that the high-frequency power absorbed near the local resonance is proportional to the square of the ripple amplitude of the external magnetic field. The mechanism proposed is shown to ensure the absorption of the energy of surface flute modes and, thereby, the heating of a radially inhomogeneous plasma.
Gas-kinetic model of heat conduction of heterogeneous substances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gladkov, S. O.
2008-07-01
A theoretical approach is proposed for calculating thermal conductivity κ of an arbitrary type of porous structures as a function of porosity ξ, temperature T, density ρ, and a number of other parameters. The general computational algorithm is based on the theory of nonequilibrium processes. Its modification in the language of gas-kinetic approximation makes it possible to derive compact relations for κ and to easily estimate the corresponding dependences. Theoretical formulas are compared to experimental results and their good agreement is demonstrated for a specific example of refractory concrete, which is a very important substance for practical applications.
Pokorny, Richard; Rice, Jarrett A.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Hrma, Pavel R.
2013-06-01
The cold cap is a layer of reacting glass batch floating on the surface of melt in an all-electric continuous glass melter. The heat needed for the conversion of the melter feed to molten glass must be transferred to and through the cold cap. Since the heat flux into the cold cap determines the rate of melting, the heat conductivity is a key property of the reacting feed. We designed an experimental setup consisting of a large cylindrical crucible with an assembly of thermocouples that monitors the evolution of the temperature field while the crucible is heated at a constant rate. Then we used two methods to calculate the heat conductivity and thermal diffusivity of the reacting feed: the approximation of the temperature field by polynomial functions and the finite-volume method coupled with least-squares analysis. Up to 680°C, the heat conductivity of the reacting melter feed was represented by a linear function of temperature.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tamma, Kumar K.; Railkar, Sudhir B.
1989-01-01
The phenomenon of hyperbolic heat conduction in contrast to the classical (parabolic) form of Fourier heat conduction involves thermal energy transport that propagates only at finite speeds, as opposed to an infinite speed of thermal energy transport. To accommodate the finite speed of thermal wave propagation, a more precise form of heat flux law is involved, thereby modifying the heat flux originally postulated in the classical theory of heat conduction. As a consequence, for hyperbolic heat conduction problems, the thermal energy propagates with very sharp discontinuities at the wave front. Accurate solutions are found for a class of one-dimensional hyperbolic heat conduction problems involving non-Fourier effects that can be used effectively for representative benchmark tests and for validating alternate schemes. Modeling/analysis formulations via specially tailored hybrid computations are provided for accurately modeling the sharp discontinuities of the propagating thermal wave front. Comparative numerical test models are presented for various hyperbolic heat conduction models involving non-Fourier effects to demonstrate the present formulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dede, Ercan M.; Nomura, Tsuyoshi; Schmalenberg, Paul; Seung Lee, Jae
2013-08-01
Experimental results are presented for heat flux cloaking, focusing, and reversal in ultra-thin anisotropic composites. A two-material system is utilized in the device design, which features an annular region for heat flow control. The effective thermal conductivity layout of the composite is specified through logical combination of the base material constituents. Heat transfer considering conduction-convection is numerically predicted and experimentally verified via infrared thermography. A Biot number analysis reveals the significance of high rates of convection for large-area planar devices, while the experimental results indicate the feasibility of such heat flow control techniques for advanced electronics applications involving natural convection.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wads, Lars; Smith, Allan L.; Shirazi, Hamid; Mulligan, S. Rose; Hofelich, Thomas
2001-08-01
An approach to teaching calorimetry is offered through practical, versatile undergraduate experiments using an isothermal heat conduction calorimeter, which measures a variety of heat changes--enthalpies of phase changes, hydration, dissolution, adsorption and desorption, and reaction--as well as the metabolic rate of living organisms. Isothermal heat-conduction calorimetry is contrasted with adiabatic calorimetry. The general design and calibration of an instrument is discussed and five student experiments are described: heat capacity of solids, enthalpy of acid-base reaction, enthalpy of vaporization, hydration of cement, and metabolic rates of insects.
Zimmermann, H M; Hartmann, K; Schreiber, L; Steudle, E
2000-01-01
The hydraulic conductivity of roots (Lp(r)) of 6- to 8-d-old maize seedlings has been related to the chemical composition of apoplastic transport barriers in the endodermis and hypodermis (exodermis), and to the hydraulic conductivity of root cortical cells. Roots were cultivated in two different ways. When grown in aeroponic culture, they developed an exodermis (Casparian band in the hypodermal layer), which was missing in roots from hydroponics. The development of Casparian bands and suberin lamellae was observed by staining with berberin-aniline-blue and Sudan-III. The compositions of suberin and lignin were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively after depolymerization (BF(3)/methanol-transesterification, thioacidolysis) using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Root Lp(r) was measured using the root pressure probe, and the hydraulic conductivity of cortical cells (Lp) using the cell pressure probe. Roots from the two cultivation methods differed significantly in (i) the Lp(r) evaluated from hydrostatic relaxations (factor of 1.5), and (ii) the amounts of lignin and aliphatic suberin in the hypodermal layer of the apical root zone. Aliphatic suberin is thought to be the major reason for the hydrophobic properties of apoplastic barriers and for their relatively low permeability to water. No differences were found in the amounts of suberin in the hypodermal layers of basal root zones and in the endodermal layer. In order to verify that changes in root Lp(r) were not caused by changes in hydraulic conductivity at the membrane level, cell Lp was measured as well. No differences were found in the Lp values of cells from roots cultivated by the two different methods. It was concluded that changes in the hydraulic conductivity of the apoplastic rather than of the cell-to-cell path were causing the observed changes in root Lp(r). PMID:10664137
Heat Exchangers for Heavy Vehicles Utilizing High Thermal Conductivity Graphite Foams
James Klett, Ron Ott; April McMillan
2000-06-19
Approximately two thirds of the world's energy consumption is wasted as heat. In an attempt to reduce heat losses, heat exchangers are utilized to recover some of the energy. A unique graphite foam developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and licensed to Poco Graphite, Inc., promises to allow for novel, more efficient heat exchanger designs. This graphite foam, Figure 1, has a density between 0.2 and 0.6 g/cm 3 and a bulk thermal conductivity between 40 and 187 W/m{center_dot}K. Because the foam has a very accessible surface area (> 4 m 2 /g) and is open celled, the overall heat transfer coefficients of foam-based heat exchangers can be up to two orders of magnitude greater than conventional heat exchangers. As a result, foam-based heat exchangers could be dramatically smaller and lighter.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marston, Philip L.; Marr-Lyon, Mark J.; Thiessen, David B.
1999-11-01
For a cylindrical bridge in low gravity of radius R and length L, the slenderness S = L/2R has a natural (Rayleigh-Plateau) limit of ? beyond which the bridge breaks into drops. We have improved our method of suppressing the growth of the first unstable mode of an electrically conducting bridge surrounded by an insulating liquid of the same density in a Plateau tank. In addition to confirming a novel control strategy, the experiments illustrate the breakup dynamics for a liquid-liquid system. The shape of the bridge is optically sensed as in our related demonstration of acoustic stabilization [M. J. Marr-Lyon et al., J. Fluid Mech. 351, 345-357 (1997)]. In the present stabilization method the optical information is used to control the potentials on a pair of ring electrodes concentric with the bridge. Slenderness values can be made to reach 4.46 when the generalized feedback force for the mode of interest is taken to be proportional to the modal amplitude. Two methods for linear feedback using E fields have been demonstrated. At S = 4.49, the next higher mode (which is not controlled in our current experiments) is predicted to become unstable. The electrical conductivity of the bridge liquid need not be large.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kk, M.; Aydo?du, Y.
2007-04-01
The thermal conductivity of polyvinylchloride (PVC), polysytrene (PS) and polypropylene (PP) were measured by heat flux DSC. Our results are in good agreement with the results observed by different methods.
Effect of viscosity and wall heat conduction on shock attenuation in narrow channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deshpande, A.; Puranik, B.
2015-02-01
In the present work, the effects due to viscosity and wall heat conduction on shock propagation and attenuation in narrow channels are numerically investigated. A two-dimensional viscous shock tube configuration is simulated, and heat conduction in the channel walls is explicitly included. The simulation results indicate that the shock attenuation is significantly less in case of an adiabatic wall, and the use of an isothermal wall model is adequate to take into account the wall heat conduction. A parametric study is performed to characterize the effects of viscous forces and wall heat conduction on shock attenuation, and the behaviour is explained on the basis of boundary layer formation in the post-shock region. A dimensionless parameter that describes the shock attenuation is correlated with the diaphragm pressure ratio and a dimensionless parameter which is expressed using the characteristic Reynolds number and the dimensionless shock travel.
Transition from near-field thermal radiation to phonon heat conduction at sub-nanometre gaps.
Chiloyan, Vazrik; Garg, Jivtesh; Esfarjani, Keivan; Chen, Gang
2015-01-01
When the separation of two surfaces approaches sub-nanometre scale, the boundary between the two most fundamental heat transfer modes, heat conduction by phonons and radiation by photons, is blurred. Here we develop an atomistic framework based on microscopic Maxwell's equations and lattice dynamics to describe the convergence of these heat transfer modes and the transition from one to the other. For gaps >1?nm, the predicted conductance values are in excellent agreement with the continuum theory of fluctuating electrodynamics. However, for sub-nanometre gaps we find the conductance is enhanced up to four times compared with the continuum approach, while avoiding its prediction of divergent conductance at contact. Furthermore, low-frequency acoustic phonons tunnel through the vacuum gap by coupling to evanescent electric fields, providing additional channels for energy transfer and leading to the observed enhancement. When the two surfaces are in or near contact, acoustic phonons become dominant heat carriers. PMID:25849305
Analysis of heat conductivity in a 2D hard disk system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Del Pozo, J.; Garrido, P. L.
2009-01-01
Using numerical simulations, we study the heat conductivity in a 2d Hard Disk system. We find nonlinear temperature profiles for diferent gradients, and use this profiles to obtain the empirical expresion of heat conductivity ?(T,?). We compare our results with predictions based on the Enskog theory, finding good agreement even for large gradients. Also we find that Henderson state equation for Hard Disk stands for our system.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huerre, P.; Karamcheti, K.
1976-01-01
The theory of sound propagation is examined in a viscous, heat-conducting fluid, initially at rest and in a uniform state, and contained in a rigid, impermeable duct with isothermal walls. Topics covered include: (1) theoretical formulation of the small amplitude fluctuating motions of a viscous, heat-conducting and compressible fluid; (2) sound propagation in a two dimensional duct; and (3) perturbation study of the inplane modes.
The importance of electron heat conduction in the energy balance of the F-region
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoegy, W. R.; Brace, L. H.
1978-01-01
Taking into account heat conduction in the analysis of electron temperature data acquired by the AE-C satellite during the daytime at middle latitudes is shown to bring theoretical electron temperature profiles in good agreement with experimental ones. Middle latitude passes were chosen because in this region the horizontal electron temperature gradient is negligible and the height variation can be approximated by the satellite data. Inclusion of heat conduction is shown to have little effect on low-latitude data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Haihui; Wang, Wanlin; Zhou, Lejun
2015-10-01
A novel method for the estimation of the mold hot surface heat flux based on the measured responding temperatures from two columns of thermocouples that embedded inside the mold during continuous casting has been developed. The method includes a Two-Dimensional Inverse transient Heat Conduction Problem (2D-IHCP) model that was solved by the conjugate gradient method with Adjoint Equation. The model was validated by comparing the results with those calculated by a robust One-Dimensional Inverse transient Heat Conduction Problem (1D-IHCP). The solution of a test problem indicated that the Mean Absolute Percentage Error of the estimated heat flux calculated by the new method is about 9 to 40 pct of those calculated by the 1D-IHCP. Then, the method is applied to compute the heat flux for a mold simulator experiment. The results indicated that the heat fluxes and temperatures across mold hot surface calculated by 2D-IHCP show the same variation tendency as those calculated by 1D-IHCP. However, the heat fluxes calculated by 2D-IHCP are about 1.2 to 2 times larger than those calculated by 1D-IHCP for the locations below the liquid mold flux surface and are about 50 to 90 pct of those calculated by 1D-IHCP for the locations above the liquid mold flux surface.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matcheva, K. I.; Strobel, D. F.
1998-09-01
Heating Jupiter's thermosphere by viscous dissipation of upward propagating gravity waves is evaluated with correct formulations of total energy conservation and the total wave induced vertical energy flux. In contrast to the results of Young et al. (1997, Science 276, 108-111), our calculations, with their wave amplitudes and parameters, yield a maximum thermospheric temperature of T=505 K at 680 km above the 1 bar level in comparison to the Galileo probe inferred temperature of T=900 K and therefore gravity waves may not be solely responsible for the observed steep temperature gradient just above the homopause. The large sensible heat flux associated with dissipating gravity waves generates net heating of the lower regions and net cooling of the upper regions of wave dissipation due to energy redistribution. The transition from net heating to net cooling occurs at the level of constant wave amplitude. In regions of substantial wave dissipation the local cooling rate due to sensible heat flux divergence can exceed the local heating due to convergence of the Eliassen-Palm flux to produce 1) net cooling of and 2) a distinct temperature decrease ( ~ 45 K) in the topside thermosphere. To simulate Jupiter's thermospheric temperature profile inferred from the Galileo probe data with 1) garvity wave heating only, 2) 100% conversion of wave energy to internal energy, and 3) radiative cooling by H_3(+) near-IR emission ~ 0.1 erg cm(-2}s({-1)) , gravity waves must deposit their energy high in the thermosphere with peak heating occurring near ~ 1000 km and with near saturation amplitudes at and above these heights.
Gopinath, A.; Sadhal, S.S.; Jones, P.D.; Seyed-Yagoobi, J.; Woodbury, K.A.
1996-12-31
In the first section on heat transfer in microgravity, the papers cover phase-change phenomena and thermocapillary flows and surface effects. In the second section, several papers cover solution methods for radiative heat transfer while the rest cover heat transfer in low-temperature environments. The last section covers papers containing valuable information for thermal contact conductance of various materials plus papers on inverse problems in heat transfer. Separate abstracts were prepared for most papers in this volume.
Instability in Super-Conducting Magnets A Review of Heat Input from Mechanical Disturbances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Evans, D.
2004-06-01
At low temperatures, specific heats are low and therefore small amounts of heat can result in significant temperature rises. Heat inputs in the micro-Joule range, if sufficiently localised, may be sufficient to cause some magnets to quench. Any source of heat could be a potential source of a `training' step or of a spontaneous quench from steady state operating conditions. This paper examines the major mechanical effects that have the potential to release sufficient heat to cause a `quench' in a super-conducting magnet. Each of the potential heat sources is examined and the `evidence' that the heat source causes premature quenching in a superconducting magnet is considered. Electromagnetic disturbances, such as `super-currents' and `flux jumping' are not considered.
Effects of anisotropic conduction and heat pipe interaction on minimum mass space radiators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, Karl W.; Lund, Kurt O.
1991-01-01
Equations are formulated for the two dimensional, anisotropic conduction of heat in space radiator fins. The transverse temperature field was obtained by the integral method, and the axial field by numerical integration. A shape factor, defined for the axial boundary condition, simplifies the analysis and renders the results applicable to general heat pipe/conduction fin interface designs. The thermal results are summarized in terms of the fin efficiency, a radiation/axial conductance number, and a transverse conductance surface Biot number. These relations, together with those for mass distribution between fins and heat pipes, were used in predicting the minimum radiator mass for fixed thermal properties and fin efficiency. This mass is found to decrease monotonically with increasing fin conductivity. Sensitivities of the minimum mass designs to the problem parameters are determined.
About Influence of Gravity on Heat Conductivity Process of the Planets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gladkov, S. O.; Yadav, A.; Ray, Saibal; Rahaman, F.
2016-03-01
In the present study it is shown that the interaction of a quasi-static gravitational wave through density fluctuations give rise to a heat conductivity coefficient and hence rise in temperature. This fact is a very important characteristics needed to establish a heat equilibrium process of such massive body as the Earth and other Planets. To carry out this exercise, general mechanism has been provided, which makes a bridge between classical physics and quantum theory. The specific dependence of heat conductivity coefficient in wide region has also been calculated.
About Influence of Gravity on Heat Conductivity Process of the Planets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gladkov, S. O.; Yadav, A.; Ray, Saibal; Rahaman, F.
2015-09-01
In the present study it is shown that the interaction of a quasi-static gravitational wave through density fluctuations give rise to a heat conductivity coefficient and hence rise in temperature. This fact is a very important characteristics needed to establish a heat equilibrium process of such massive body as the Earth and other Planets. To carry out this exercise, general mechanism has been provided, which makes a bridge between classical physics and quantum theory. The specific dependence of heat conductivity coefficient in wide region has also been calculated.
Miyagi, Lowell; Kanitpanyacharoen, Waruntorn; Kaercher, Pamela; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf; Alarcon, Eloisa Zepeda; Raju, Selva Vennila; Knight, Jason; MacDowell, Alastair; Williams, Quentin
2013-02-15
To extend the range of high-temperature, high-pressure studies within the diamond anvil cell, a Liermann-type diamond anvil cell with radial diffraction geometry (rDAC) was redesigned and developed for synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments at beamline 12.2.2 of the Advanced Light Source. The rDAC, equipped with graphite heating arrays, allows simultaneous resistive and laser heating while the material is subjected to high pressure. The goals are both to extend the temperature range of external (resistive) heating and to produce environments with lower temperature gradients in a simultaneously resistive- and laser-heated rDAC. Three different geomaterials were used as pilot samples to calibrate and optimize conditions for combined resistive and laser heating. For example, in Run1, FeO was loaded in a boron-mica gasket and compressed to 11 GPa then gradually resistively heated to 1007 K (1073 K at the diamond side). The laser heating was further applied to FeO to raise temperature to 2273 K. In Run2, Fe-Ni alloy was compressed to 18 GPa and resistively heated to 1785 K (1973 K at the diamond side). The combined resistive and laser heating was successfully performed again on (Mg{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 0.1})O in Run3. In this instance, the sample was loaded in a boron-kapton gasket, compressed to 29 GPa, resistive-heated up to 1007 K (1073 K at the diamond side), and further simultaneously laser-heated to achieve a temperature in excess of 2273 K at the sample position. Diffraction patterns obtained from the experiments were deconvoluted using the Rietveld method and quantified for lattice preferred orientation of each material under extreme conditions and during phase transformation.
An Experimental-Numerical Evaluation of Thermal Contact Conductance in Fin-Tube Heat Exchangers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Chang Nyung; Jeong, Jin; Youn, Baek; Kil, Seong Ho
The contact between fin collar and tube surface of a fin-tube heat exchanger is secured through mechanical expansion of tubes. However, the characteristics of heat transfer through the interfaces between the tubes and fins have not been clearly understood because the interfaces consist partially of metal-to-metal contact and partially of air. The objective of the present study is to develop a new method utilizing an experimental-numerical method for the estimation of the thermal contact resistance between the fin collar and tube surface and to evaluate the factors affecting the thermal contact resistance in a fin-tube heat exchanger. In this study, heat transfer characteristics of actual heat exchanger assemblies have been tested in a vacuum chamber using water as an internal fluid, and a finite difference numerical scheme has been employed to reduce the experimental data for the evaluation of the thermal contact conductance. The present study has been conducted for fin-tube heat exchangers of tube diameter of 7mm with different tube expansion ratios, fin spacings, and fin types. The results show, with an appropriate error analysis, that these parameters as well as hydrophilic fin coating affect notably the thermal contact conductance. It has been found out that the thermal contact resistance takes fairly large portion of the total thermal resistance in a fin-tube heat exchanger and it turns out that careful consideration is needed in a manufacturing process of heat exchangers to reduce the thermal contact resistance.
Variable thermal properties and thermal relaxation time in hyperbolic heat conduction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glass, David E.; Mcrae, D. Scott
1989-01-01
Numerical solutions were obtained for a finite slab with an applied surface heat flux at one boundary using both the hyperbolic (MacCormack's method) and parabolic (Crank-Nicolson method) heat conduction equations. The effects on the temperature distributions of varying density, specific heat, and thermal relaxation time were calculated. Each of these properties had an effect on the thermal front velocity (in the hyperbolic solution) as well as the temperatures in the medium. In the hyperbolic solutions, as the density or specific heat decreased with temperature, both the temperatures within the medium and the thermal front velocity increased. The value taken for the thermal relaxation time was found to determine the 'hyperbolicity' of the heat conduction model. The use of a time dependent relaxation time allowed for solutions where the thermal energy propagated as a high temperature wave initially, but approached a diffusion process more rapidly than was possible with a constant large relaxation time.
Thermal conductivity of cementitious grouts for geothermal heat pumps. Progress report FY 1997
Allan, M.L.
1997-11-01
Grout is used to seal the annulus between the borehole and heat exchanger loops in vertical geothermal (ground coupled, ground source, GeoExchange) heat pump systems. The grout provides a heat transfer medium between the heat exchanger and surrounding formation, controls groundwater movement and prevents contamination of water supply. Enhanced heat pump coefficient of performance (COP) and reduced up-front loop installation costs can be achieved through optimization of the grout thermal conductivity. The objective of the work reported was to characterize thermal conductivity and other pertinent properties of conventional and filled cementitious grouts. Cost analysis and calculations of the reduction in heat exchanger length that could be achieved with such grouts were performed by the University of Alabama. Two strategies to enhance the thermal conductivity of cementitious grouts were used simultaneously. The first of these was to incorporate high thermal conductivity filler in the grout formulations. Based on previous tests (Allan and Kavanaugh, in preparation), silica sand was selected as a suitable filler. The second strategy was to reduce the water content of the grout mix. By lowering the water/cement ratio, the porosity of the hardened grout is decreased. This results in higher thermal conductivity. Lowering the water/cement ratio also improves such properties as permeability, strength, and durability. The addition of a liquid superplasticizer (high range water reducer) to the grout mixes enabled reduction of water/cement ratio while retaining pumpability. Superplasticizers are commonly used in the concrete and grouting industry to improve rheological properties.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2005-01-01
[figure removed for brevity, see original site]
The ejecta surrounding the crater (off image to the left) in this image has undergone significant erosion by the wind. The wind has stripped the surface features from the ejecta and has started to winnow away the ejecta blanket. Near the margin of the ejecta the wind is eroding along a radial pattern -- taking advantage of radial emplacement. Note the steep margin of the ejecta blanket. Most, if not all, of the fine ejecta material has been removed and the wind in now working on the more massive continuous ejecta blanket.
Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 12.5, Longitude 197.4 East (162.6 West). 37 meter/pixel resolution.
Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.
NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chiou, Guo-Li; Anderson, O. Roger
2010-01-01
This study proposes a multi-dimensional approach to investigate, represent, and categorize students' in-depth understanding of complex physics concepts. Clinical interviews were conducted with 30 undergraduate physics students to probe their understanding of heat conduction. Based on the data analysis, six aspects of the participants' responses
Thermal Conductivity of Argillaceous Rocks: Determination Methodology Using In Situ Heating Tests
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garitte, Benoit; Gens, Antonio; Vaunat, Jean; Armand, Gilles
2014-01-01
This study focuses on the characterisation of thermal conductivity for three potential host rocks for radioactive waste disposal. First, the heat conduction process is reviewed on the basis of an analytical solution and key aspects related to anisotropic conduction are discussed. Then the existing information on the three rocks is summarised and a broad uncertainty range of thermal conductivity is estimated based on the mineralogical composition. Procedures to backanalyse the thermal conductivity on the basis of in situ heating tests are assessed and a methodology is put forward. Finally, this methodology is used to estimate the impact of experimental uncertainties and applied to the four in situ heating tests. In the three potential host rocks, a clear influence of the bedding planes was identified and anisotropic heat conduction was shown to be necessary to interpret the observed temperature field. Experimental uncertainties were also shown to induce a larger uncertainty on the anisotropy ratio than on the equivalent thermal conductivity defined as the geometric mean of the thermal conductivity in the three principal directions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chiou, Guo-Li; Anderson, O. Roger
2010-01-01
This study proposes a multi-dimensional approach to investigate, represent, and categorize students' in-depth understanding of complex physics concepts. Clinical interviews were conducted with 30 undergraduate physics students to probe their understanding of heat conduction. Based on the data analysis, six aspects of the participants' responses…
Ranganayakulu, C. ); Seetharamu, K.N. . School of Mechanical Engineering)
1999-07-01
An analysis of a crossflow plate-fin compact heat exchanger, accounting for the combined effects of two-dimensional longitudinal heat conduction through the exchanger wall and nonuniform inlet fluid flow and temperature distribution is carried out using a finite element method. A mathematical equation is developed to generate different types of fluid flow/temperature maldistribution models considering the possible deviations in fluid flow. Using these models, the exchanger effectiveness and its deterioration due to the combined effects of longitudinal heat conduction, flow nonuniformity and temperature nonuniformity are calculated for various design and operating conditions of the exchanger. It was found that the performance variations are quite significant in some typical applications.
Conductivity heating a subterranean oil shale to create permeability and subsequently produce oil
Van Meurs, P.; DeRouffignac, E.P.; Vinegar, H.J.; Lucid, M.F.
1989-12-12
This patent describes an improvement in a process in which oil is produced from a subterranean oil shale deposit by extending at least one each of heat-injecting and fluid-producing wells into the deposit, establishing a heat-conductive fluid-impermeable barrier between the interior of each heat-injecting well and the adjacent deposit, and then heating the interior of each heat-injecting well at a temperature sufficient to conductively heat oil shale kerogen and cause pyrolysis products to form fractures within the oil shale deposit through which the pyrolysis products are displaced into at least one production well. The improvement is for enhancing the uniformity of the heat fronts moving through the oil shale deposit. Also described is a process for exploiting a target oil shale interval, by progressively expanding a heated treatment zone band from about a geometric center of the target oil shale interval outward, such that the formation or extension of vertical fractures from the heated treatment zone band to the periphery of the target oil shale interval is minimized.
Plate Fin Heat Exchanger Model with Axial Conduction and Variable Properties
Hansen, B.J.; White, M.J.; Klebaner, A.; /Fermilab
2011-06-10
Future superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities, as part of Project X at Fermilab, will be cooled to superfluid helium temperatures by a cryogenic distribution system supplying cold supercritical helium. To reduce vapor fraction during the final Joule-Thomson (J-T) expansion into the superfluid helium cooling bath, counter-flow, plate-fin heat exchangers will be utilized. Due to their compact size and ease of fabrication, plate-fin heat exchangers are an effective option. However, the design of compact and high-effectiveness cryogenic heat exchangers operating at liquid helium temperatures requires consideration of axial heat conduction along the direction of flow, in addition to variable fluid properties. Here we present a numerical model that includes the effects of axial conduction and variable properties for a plate fin heat exchanger. The model is used to guide design decisions on heat exchanger material choice and geometry. In addition, the J-T expansion process is modeled with the heat exchanger to analyze the effect of heat load and cryogenic supply parameters. A numerical model that includes the effects of axial conduction and variable properties for a plate fin heat exchanger was developed and the effect of various design parameters on overall heat exchanger size was investigated. It was found that highly conductive metals should be avoided in the design of compact JT heat exchangers. For the geometry considered, the optimal conductivity is around 3.5 W/m-K and can range from 0.3-10 W/m-K without a large loss in performance. The model was implemented with an isenthalpic expansion process. Increasing the cold side inlet temperature from 2K to 2.2 K decreased the liquid fraction from 0.856 to 0.839 which corresponds to a 0.12 g/s increase in supercritical helium supply needed to maintain liquid level in the cooling bath. Lastly, it was found that the effectiveness increased when the heat load was below the design value. Therefore, the heat exchanger should be sized on the high end of the required heat load.
Radiative heat exchange of a meteor body in the approximation of radiant heat conduction
Pilyugin, N.N.; Chernova, T.A.
1986-07-01
The problem of the thermal and dynamic destruction of large meteor bodies moving in planetary atmospheres is fundamental for the clarification of optical observations and anomalous phenomena in the atmosphere, the determination of the physicochemical properties of meteoroids, and the explanation of the fall of remnants of large meteorites. Therefore, it is important to calculate the coefficient of radiant heat exchange (which is the determining factor under these conditions) for large meteor bodies as they move with hypersonic velocities in an atmosphere. The solution of this problem enables one to find the ablation of a meteorite during its aerodynamic heating and to determine the initial conditions for the solution of problems of the breakup of large bodies and their subsequent motion and ablation. Hypersonic flow of an inviscid gas stream over an axisymmetric blunt body is analyzed with allowance for radiative transfer in a thick-thin approximation. The gas-dynamic problem of the flow of an optically thick gas over a large body is solved by the method of asymptotic joined expansions, using a hypersonic approximation and local self-similarity. An equation is obtained for the coefficient of radiant heat exchange and the peculiarities of such heat exchange for meteor bodies of large size are noted.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, Ming-Ming; Faghri, Amir
1990-01-01
A numerical analysis is presented for the overall performance of heat pipes with single or multiple heat sources. The analysis includes the heat conduction in the wall and liquid-wick regions as well as the compressibility effect of the vapor inside the heat pipe. The two-dimensional elliptic governing equations in conjunction with the thermodynamic equilibrium relation and appropriate boundary conditions are solved numerically. The solutions are in agreement with existing experimental data for the vapor and wall temperatures at both low and high operating temperatures.
Heat Conduction through Surface Structures and Mixtures using Electric Circuits as Analogs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huebner, W. F.; Boice, D. C.; Green, J. R.
1998-09-01
We present a mathematical model using electric analogs to simulate vertical and lateral conductive heat flow in surface layers of planetary bodies with topography. The model can also be used to determine average electric and thermal conductivities of small-scale granular mixtures (as opposed to molecular mixtures). The algorithm is general and applicable to complex compositions. Analogies between thermal and electric conductivities are basic and well known. The model uses Kirchhoff's rules for electric networks. If a temperature difference is maintained across a solid body, the thermal energy transported per unit time and unit area, (the vector heat current per unit area, Q), is proportional to the negative temperature gradient, such that Q = - kappa nabla T. Here kappa is the heat (or thermal) conductivity of the material. For the electric analogy we use Ohm's law. If a potential difference is maintained in a resistive (ohmic) body, the electric charge transported per unit time and unit area (the vector current density, i) is proportional to the electric field, such that i = sigma E = - sigma nabla V. Here sigma is the electric conductivity (or specific conductance) of the material and V is the electric potential. With i replacing Q and V replacing T the parallel nature of thermal and electric conductivity is established. The thermal conductivity, kappa , is a direct analog to the electric conductivity, sigma . The model will be used to verify heat flow measured through porous mixtures of ice and dust as an analog of comet matter in the laboratory. Heat flow is simulated by electric currents through a three-dimensional network of resistors with emfs representing temperatures at boundaries. We illustrate our model, for simplicity, with a two-dimensional network. Each type of material with given conductivity is represented by a corresponding value for the electric resistance. The number of each type of resistor is proportional to the relative abundance of each material type. For mixtures, resistors are selected randomly.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Zhuojian; Johnson, Donald R.
1998-12-01
Utilizing Eliassen's concepts, the forcing of the isentropic azimuthally-averaged mass-weighted radial-vertical circulation by diabatic heating and torques within an extratropical cyclone and a typhoon was studied through numerical simulations based on the linear diagnostic equation derived previously. The structure of the forcing associated with diabatic heating and torques was determined from quasi-Lagrangian diagnostic analyses of actual case studies. The two cyclones studied were the Ohio extratropical cyclone of 25-27 January 1978 and typhoon Nancy of 18-23 September 1979. The Ohio cyclone, which formed over the Gulf Coast and moved through Ohio and eastern Michigan, was one of the most intense storms with blizzard conditions to ever occur in this region. Typhoon Nancy which occurred over the South China Sea during the FGGE year was selected since relatively high quality assimilated data were available. Within the Ohio cyclone, the dominant internal processes forcing the mean circulation with embedded relatively strong hydrodynamic stability were the pressure torque associated with baroclinic (asymmetric) structure and the horizontal eddy angular momentum transport associated with the typical S-shaped thermal and wind structures of self-development. Within typhoon Nancy, the dominant internal process forcing the mean circulation with embedded weak hydrodynamic stability was the latent heat release. This analysis shows that the simulated azimuthally-averaged mass-weighted radial motions within these two cyclones agree quite well with the observed? azimuthally-averaged mass-weighted radial motions. This isentropic numerical study also provides insight into the relatively important internal forcing processes and the trade off between forcing and stability within both extratropical and tropical cyclones.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anisimov, M. V.; Rekunov, V. S.; Babuta, M. N.; Bach Lien, Nguyen Thi Hong
2016-02-01
We experimentally determined the coefficients of thermal conductivity of some ultra thin liquid composite heat insulating coatings, for sample #1 λ = 0.086 W/(m·°C), for sample #2 λ = 0.091 W/(m·°C). We performed the measurement error calculation. The actual thermal conduction coefficient of the studied samples was higher than the declared one. The manufactures of liquid coatings might have used some "ideal" conditions when defining heat conductivity in the laboratory or the coefficient was obtained by means of theoretical solution of heat conduction problem in liquid composite insulating media. However, liquid insulating coatings are of great interest to builders, because they allow to warm objects of complex geometric shapes (valve chambers, complex assemblies, etc.), which makes them virtually irreplaceable. The proper accounting of heating qualities of paints will allow to avoid heat loss increase above the specified limits in insulated pipes with heat transfer materials or building structures, as well as protect them from possible thawing in the period of subzero weather.
Heat conduction in a chain of dissociating particles: Effect of dimensionality.
Zolotarevskiy, V; Savin, A V; Gendelman, O V
2015-03-01
The paper considers heat conduction in a model chain of composite particles with hard core and elastic external shell. Such model mimics three main features of realistic interatomic potentials--hard repulsive core, quasilinear behavior in a ground state, and possibility of dissociation. It has become clear recently that this latter feature has crucial effect on convergence of the heat conduction coefficient in thermodynamic limit. We demonstrate that in one-dimensional chain of elastic particles with hard core the heat conduction coefficient also converges, as one could expect. Then we explore effect of dimensionality on the heat transport in this model. For this sake, longitudinal and transversal motions of the particles are allowed in a long narrow channel. With varying width of the channel, we observe sharp transition from "one-dimensional" to "two-dimensional" behavior. Namely, the heat conduction coefficient drops by about order of magnitude for relatively small widening of the channel. This transition is not unique for the considered system. Similar phenomenon of transition to quasi-1D behavior with growth of aspect ratio of the channel is observed also in a gas of densely packed hard (billiard) particles, both for two- and three-dimensional cases. It is the case despite the fact that the character of transition in these two systems is not similar, due to different convergence properties of the heat conductivity. In the billiard model, the divergence pattern of the heat conduction coefficient smoothly changes from logarithmic to power-like law with increase of the length. PMID:25871074
Thermal conductivity from hierarchical heat sinks using carbon nanotubes and graphene nanosheets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsieh, Chien-Te; Lee, Cheng-En; Chen, Yu-Fu; Chang, Jeng-Kuei; Teng, Hsi-Sheng
2015-11-01
The in-plane (kip) and through-plane (ktp) thermal conductivities of heat sinks using carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene nanosheets (GNs), and CNT/GN composites are extracted from two experimental setups within the 323-373 K temperature range. Hierarchical three-dimensional CNT/GN frameworks display higher kip and ktp values, as compared to the CNT- and GN-based heat sinks. The kip and ktp values of the CNT/GN-based heat sink reach as high as 1991 and 76 W m-1 K-1 at 323 K, respectively. This improved thermal conductivity is attributed to the fact that the hierarchical heat sink offers a stereo thermal conductive network that combines point, line, and plane contact, leading to better heat transport. Furthermore, the compression treatment provided an efficient route to increase both kip and ktp values. This result reveals that the hierarchical carbon structures become denser, inducing more thermal conductive area and less thermal resistivity, i.e., a reduced possibility of phonon-boundary scattering. The correlation between thermal and electrical conductivity (?) can be well described by two empirical equations: kip = 567 ln(?) + 1120 and ktp = 20.6 ln(?) + 36.1. The experimental results are obtained within the temperature range of 323-373 K, suitably complementing the thermal management of chips for consumer electronics.
The radiant component of steam heat conductivity at high pressures and temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panchenko, S. V.; Dli, M. I.; Borisov, V. V.
2015-07-01
The problem of energy transfer by heat conduction and radiation is brought to a differential equation containing temperature derivatives at the boundaries and based on the selectively gray approximation of absorbing medium. A method for analytically solving the linearized problem radiant-conductive heat transfer in a flat layer of selectively absorbing medium is proposed, using which an unsymmetrical temperature profile more accurately approximating the experimental results can be obtained. The adequacy of the solution method is demonstrated by comparing the calculation results with the experimental and the results obtained using numerical methods. The effect the intermolecular interactions have on the optical properties of highly compressed media is analyzed. A dependence for determining the integral intensity of steam bands at pressures of up to 100 MPa is obtained. Quite satisfactory agreement is obtained between the calculated values of absorption intensities at increased pressures, including those for steam. The radiant component values obtained from steam heat conductivity measurements carried out in a wide range of temperatures taking into account the absorption selectivity and deviation of heat conductivity coefficients with absorption and for a transparent gas model are presented. The study results can be used for estimating the radiant component in heat conductivity measurements of absorbing fluids.
Thermal conductivity from hierarchical heat sinks using carbon nanotubes and graphene nanosheets.
Hsieh, Chien-Te; Lee, Cheng-En; Chen, Yu-Fu; Chang, Jeng-Kuei; Teng, Hsi-sheng
2015-11-28
The in-plane (kip) and through-plane (ktp) thermal conductivities of heat sinks using carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene nanosheets (GNs), and CNT/GN composites are extracted from two experimental setups within the 323-373 K temperature range. Hierarchical three-dimensional CNT/GN frameworks display higher kip and ktp values, as compared to the CNT- and GN-based heat sinks. The kip and ktp values of the CNT/GN-based heat sink reach as high as 1991 and 76 W m(-1) K(-1) at 323 K, respectively. This improved thermal conductivity is attributed to the fact that the hierarchical heat sink offers a stereo thermal conductive network that combines point, line, and plane contact, leading to better heat transport. Furthermore, the compression treatment provided an efficient route to increase both kip and ktp values. This result reveals that the hierarchical carbon structures become denser, inducing more thermal conductive area and less thermal resistivity, i.e., a reduced possibility of phonon-boundary scattering. The correlation between thermal and electrical conductivity (ε) can be well described by two empirical equations: kip = 567 ln(ε) + 1120 and ktp = 20.6 ln(ε) + 36.1. The experimental results are obtained within the temperature range of 323-373 K, suitably complementing the thermal management of chips for consumer electronics. PMID:26498343
Electrical conductivity and physical properties of surimi-potato starch under ohmic heating.
Pongviratchai, P; Park, J W
2007-11-01
Electrical conductivities of Alaska pollock surimi mixed with native and pregelled potato starch at different concentrations (0%, 3%, and 9%) were measured at different moisture contents (75% and 81%) using a multifrequency ohmic heating system. Surimi-starch paste was tested up to 80 degrees C at frequencies from 55 Hz to 20 KHz and at alternating currents of 4.3 and 15.5 V/cm voltage gradient. Electrical conductivity increased when moisture content, applied frequency, and applied voltage increased, but decreased when starch concentration increased. Electrical conductivity was correlated linearly with temperature (R(2) approximately 0.99). Electrical conductivity pattern (magnitude) changed when temperature increased, which was clearly seen after 55 degrees C in the native potato starch system, especially at high concentration. This confirms that starch gelatinization that occurred during heating affects the electrical conductivity. Whiteness and texture properties decreased with an increase of starch concentration and a decrease of moisture content. PMID:18034719
Recovery of normal heat conduction in harmonic chains with correlated disorder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herrera-González, I. F.; Izrailev, F. M.; Tessieri, L.
2015-06-01
We consider heat transport in one-dimensional harmonic chains with isotopic disorder, focusing our attention mainly on how disorder correlations affect heat conduction. Our approach reveals that long-range correlations can change the number of low-frequency extended states. As a result, with a proper choice of correlations one can control how the conductivity κ scales with the chain length N. We present a detailed analysis of the role of specific long-range correlations for which a size-independent conductivity is exactly recovered in the case of fixed boundary conditions. As for free boundary conditions, we show that disorder correlations can lead to a conductivity scaling as κ ∼ N\\varepsilon , with the scaling exponent ε being arbitrarily small (although not strictly zero), so that normal conduction is almost recovered even in this case.
Wang, Hsin; Porter, Wallace D; Bottner, Harold; Konig, Jan; Chen, Lidong; Bai, Shengqiang; Tritt, Terry M.; Mayolett, Alex; Senawiratne, Jayantha; Smith, Charlene; Harris, Fred; Gilbert, Partricia; Sharp, J; Lo, Jason; Keinke, Holger; Kiss, Laszlo I.
2013-01-01
For bulk thermoelectrics, figure-of-merit, ZT, still needs to improve from the current value of 1.0 - 1.5 to above 2 to be competitive to other alternative technologies. In recent years, the most significant improvements in ZT were mainly due to successful reduction of thermal conductivity. However, thermal conductivity cannot be measured directly at high temperatures. The combined measurements of thermal diffusivity and specific heat and density are required. It has been shown that thermal conductivity is the property with the greatest uncertainty and has a direct influence on the accuracy of the figure of merit. The International Energy Agency (IEA) group under the implementing agreement for Advanced Materials for Transportation (AMT) has conducted two international round-robins since 2009. This paper is Part II of the international round-robin testing of transport properties of bulk bismuth telluride. The main focuses in Part II are on thermal diffusivity, specific heat and thermal conductivity.
Empirical evaluation of diving wet suit material heat transfer and thermal conductivity
West, P.B.
1993-10-01
This wet suit material testing program provides a quantitative thermal conductivity and heat transfer analysis, and comparison of various materials used in skin diving and SCUBA diving. Thermal resistance represents the primary subject examined, but due to compressibility of the baseline materials and its effect on heat transfer, this program also examines compression at simulated depth. This article reports the empirical heat transfer coefficients for both thermal conductivity and convection. Due to the limitations of the test apparatus, this analysis must restrict the convection evaluation to an approximately 20-cm-height, free-convection model. As a consequence, this model best simulates the overall heat transfer coefficient of a diver hovering in a horizontal position. This program also includes evaluations of some nonstandard materials in an effort to identify alternative wet suit materials.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vanevenhoven, D. E.; Antoniak, D.
1989-01-01
The application of variable conductance heat pipe technology for achieving precise temperature control to + or - 0.1 C for a space-based laser diode transmitter is described. Heat pipe theory of operation and test data are presented along with a discussion of its applicability for NASA's Direct Detection Laser Transceiver (DDLT) program. This design for the DDLT transmitter features a reduction in space radiator size and up to 42 percent reduction in prime power requirements.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tamma, Kumar K.; D'Costa, Joseph F.
1991-01-01
This paper describes the evaluation of mixed implicit-explicit finite element formulations for hyperbolic heat conduction problems involving non-Fourier effects. In particular, mixed implicit-explicit formulations employing the alpha method proposed by Hughes et al. (1987, 1990) are described for the numerical simulation of hyperbolic heat conduction models, which involves time-dependent relaxation effects. Existing analytical approaches for modeling/analysis of such models involve complex mathematical formulations for obtaining closed-form solutions, while in certain numerical formulations the difficulties include severe oscillatory solution behavior (which often disguises the true response) in the vicinity of the thermal disturbances, which propagate with finite velocities. In view of these factors, the alpha method is evaluated to assess the control of the amount of numerical dissipation for predicting the transient propagating thermal disturbances. Numerical test models are presented, and pertinent conclusions are drawn for the mixed-time integration simulation of hyperbolic heat conduction models involving non-Fourier effects.
Development and implementation of sensitivity coefficient equations for heat conduction problems
Blackwell, B.F.; Cochran, R.J.; Dowding, K.J.
1997-12-15
Three different methods are discussed for computing the sensitivity of the temperature field to changes in material properties and initial-boundary condition parameters for heat conduction problems. The most general method is to derive sensitivity equations by differentiating the energy equation with respect to the parameter of interest and numerically solving the resulting sensitivity equations. An example problem in which there are twelve parameters of interest is presented and the resulting sensitivity equations are derived. Numerical results are presented for thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity sensitivity coefficients for heat conduction in a 2-D orthotropic body. The numerical results are compared with the analytical solution to demonstrate that the numerical method is second order accurate as the mesh is refined spatially.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mutabazi, Innocent; Yoshikawa, Harunori; Peixinho, Jorge; Kahouadji, Lyes
2013-11-01
Grtler vortices appear in a flow over a concave wall as a result of centrifugal instability [Saric, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 26, 379 (1994)]. They may have a strong influence on heat transfer [Momayez et al., Int. J. heat Mass transfer 47, 3783 (2004)]. The purpose of this work is to model heat transfer by Grtler vortices using a weakly nonlinear analysis of Smith &-Haj- Hariri [Phys. Fluids A 5, 2815 (1993)]. We have investigated the coupling of the convective heat transfer by the stationary vortices with the heat conduction inside the solid wall. The finite thickness and thermal conductivity of the wall enter into the boundary conditions of the problem through the ratio ? of the wall thickness to the boundary layer thickness and through the ratio K of the thermal conductivities of the fluid and the wall. The parametric dependence Nu (? , K) of the Nusselt number is performed and it is shown that found the heat transfer is quite well modified by these two parameters. The local thermal stress can be estimated in order to analyze the effects on ageing of the wall material. The authors acknowledge the financial support of the french Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR), through the program ``Investissements d'Avenir'' (ANR-10-LABX-09-01), LabEx EMC3.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Enginer, J. E.; Luedke, E. E.; Wanous, D. J.
1976-01-01
Continuing efforts in large gains in heat-pipe performance are reported. It was found that gas-controlled variable-conductance heat pipes can perform reliably for long periods in space and effectively provide temperature stabilization for spacecraft electronics. A solution was formulated that allows the control gas to vent through arterial heat-pipe walls, thus eliminating the problem of arterial failure under load, due to trace impurities of noncondensable gas trapped in an arterial bubble during priming. This solution functions well in zero gravity. Another solution was found that allows priming at a much lower fluid charge. A heat pipe with high capacity, with close temperature control of the heat source and independent of large variations in sink temperature was fabricated.
Evaluation of liquid behavior in a Variable Conductance Heat Pipe by neutron radiography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sugimoto, K.; Asano, H.; Murakawa, H.; Takenaka, N.; Nagayasu, T.; Ipposhi, S.
2011-09-01
A Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) is used as a cooling device for electrical equipments. The condensation area is passively controlled by the non-condensable gas volume in the VCHP depending on the heat load. The VCHP has often a bent pipe between the evaporation and condensation area. The heat pipe performance depends much on the bent pipe shape and configuration because a liquid plug is formed in the bent pipe and disturbs the refrigerant circulation. However, the mechanism has not been clarified well. The neutron radiography system at the JRR-3 in Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) was used to visualize the refrigerant behavior in the VCHP. Effects of the thin plate inserted in the pipe, refrigerant filling ratios and heat pipe configuration were examined on the heat pipe performance. The liquid plug was formed at the bend and caused to decrease the performance. It was confirmed that the thin plate insert was effective to disturb the liquid plug formation.
Electrical conductivity of carbonaceous chondrites and electric heating of meteorite parent bodies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duba, AL
1987-01-01
Electromagnetic heating of rock-forming materials most probably was an important process in the early history of the solar system. Electrical conductivity experiments of representative materials such as carbonaceous chondrites are necessary to obtain data for use in electromagnetic heating models. With the assumption that carbon was present at grain boundaries in the material that comprised the meteorite parent bodies, the electrical heating of such bodies was calculated as a function of body size and solar distance using the T-Tauri model of Sonett and Herbert (1977). The results are discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brennan, P. J.; Groll, M.
1976-01-01
Tests results obtained with an ATS axial groove aluminum extrusion adapted for use as a cryogenic thermal diode and/or a variable conductance heat pipe are presented. Ethane at a nominal operating temperature of 185 C was used as working fluid. In addition to both active and passive gas control, diode designs utilizing gas blockage or liquid trap were investigated. Specific requirements and performance parameters such as transient behavior, reservoir sizes, shutdown energy, etc., were evaluated. Results are also presented for tests where the liquid trap was used as a secondary heat pipe to demonstrate thermal switching with simultaneous heat pipe operation and diode shutdown.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Cheng-An; Sadat, Hamou; Tan, Jian-Yu
2016-01-01
A diffuse approximation meshless method (DAM) is employed as a means of solving the coupled radiative and conductive heat transfer problems in semi-transparent refractive index media contained in 1D and 2D geometries. The meshless approach for radiative transfer is based on the discrete ordinates equation. Cases of combined conduction- radiation are presented, including plane parallel slab, square enclosure, and semicircular enclosure with an inner circle. The influence of the refractive index on the temperature distributions and heat fluxes is investigated. Results obtained using the proposed meshless method are compared with those reported in the literature to demonstrate the flexibility and accuracy of the method.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sonett, C. P.; Duba, A.
1975-01-01
Three-layer monotonic electrical conductivity models for the lunar interior to a depth of 600 km are used in conjunction with laboratory measurements of the electrical conductivity of olivine and pyroxene to estimate a temperature-depth profile. The temperatures calculated for depths of 400-600 km are consistent with attenuation of the seismic shear wave. The temperature calculated at a depth of 100-250 km yields a heat flow that is in good agreement with the directly measured lunar heat flow. The temperature, however, is sufficiently close to melting that mascon anisostasy would not be maintained. Thus a better conductor is required at this depth.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarman, Sten; Laaksonen, Aatto
2010-01-01
The temperature dependence of the heat conductivity has been obtained for a liquid crystal model based on the Gay-Berne fluid, from the isotropic phase at high temperatures through the nematic phase to the smectic A phase at low temperatures. The ratio of the parallel and the perpendicular components of the heat conductivity is about 2.5:1 in the nematic phase, which is similar to that of real systems. Both Green-Kubo methods and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics methods have been applied and the results agree within in a relative error of a couple of percent, but the latter method is much more efficient.
Equilibration and Universal Heat Conduction in Fermi-Pasta-Ulam Chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mai, Trieu; Dhar, Abhishek; Narayan, Onuttom
2007-05-01
It is shown numerically that for Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) chains with alternating masses and heat baths at slightly different temperatures at the ends, the local temperature (LT) on small scales behaves paradoxically in steady state. This expands the long established problem of equilibration of FPU chains. A well-behaved LT appears to be achieved for equal mass chains; the thermal conductivity is shown to diverge with chain length N as N1/3, relevant for the much debated question of the universality of one-dimensional heat conduction. The reason why earlier simulations have obtained systematically higher exponents is explained.
Design and analysis of a cryogenic variable conductance axial grooved heat pipe
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1976-01-01
An investigation to adapt axial grooved designs to the gammit of heat pipe thermal control techniques, with particular emphasis on those suited for cryogenic applications was conducted. In addition to considering both active and passive gas control, diode designs utilizing liquid or gas blockage, or a liquid trap, are evaluated. The use of the liquid trap as a secondary heat pipe for forward mode operation during diode shutdown is also studied. This latter function is basically that of a thermal switch. Finally, a system capable of hybrid functions consisting of gas-controlled variable conductance and liquid trap diode shutdown or thermal switching is defined.
Estimating thermal diffusivity and specific heat from needle probe thermal conductivity data
Waite, W.F.; Gilbert, L.Y.; Winters, W.J.; Mason, D.H.
2006-01-01
Thermal diffusivity and specific heat can be estimated from thermal conductivity measurements made using a standard needle probe and a suitably high data acquisition rate. Thermal properties are calculated from the measured temperature change in a sample subjected to heating by a needle probe. Accurate thermal conductivity measurements are obtained from a linear fit to many tens or hundreds of temperature change data points. In contrast, thermal diffusivity calculations require a nonlinear fit to the measured temperature change occurring in the first few tenths of a second of the measurement, resulting in a lower accuracy than that obtained for thermal conductivity. Specific heat is calculated from the ratio of thermal conductivity to diffusivity, and thus can have an uncertainty no better than that of the diffusivity estimate. Our thermal conductivity measurements of ice Ih and of tetrahydrofuran (THF) hydrate, made using a 1.6 mm outer diameter needle probe and a data acquisition rate of 18.2 pointss, agree with published results. Our thermal diffusivity and specific heat results reproduce published results within 25% for ice Ih and 3% for THF hydrate. ?? 2006 American Institute of Physics.
LDEF (Prelaunch), AO076 : Cascade Variable-Conductance Heat Pipe, Tray F09
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1983-01-01
LDEF (Prelaunch), AO076 : Cascade Variable-Conductance Heat Pipe, Tray F09 EL-1994-00302 LDEF (Prelaunch), AO076 : Cascade Variable-Conductance Heat Pipe, Tray F09 The prelaunch photograph was taken in SAEF II at KSC prior to installation of the Cascade Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Experiment (CVCHPE) on the LDEF. The Cascade Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Experiment (CVCHPE) occupies a 6 inch deep LDEF peripheral experiment tray and consist of two series connected variable conductance heatpipes, a black chrome solar collector panel and a silvered TEFLON® radiator panel, a power source to support six thermistor-type temperature monitoring sensors and actuations of two valves. Fiberglass standoffs and internal insulation blankets thermally isolated the experiment from the experiment tray and the LDEF interior. The outside of the CVCHPE, except the collector and radiator panels, was covered with an aluminumized Kapton multilayer insulation (MLI) blanket with an outer layer of 0.076 mm thick Kapton. The two patches of thin film materials, part of Experiment S1001 by NASA GSFC, were attached to the cover of the external thermal blanket with Kapton tape. The experiment was assembled and mounted in the experiment tray with non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners.
LDEF (Prelaunch), AO076 : Cascade Variable-Conductance Heat Pipe, Tray F09
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1983-01-01
LDEF (Prelaunch), AO076 : Cascade Variable-Conductance Heat Pipe, Tray F09 EL-1994-00302 LDEF (Prelaunch), AO076 : Cascade Variable-Conductance Heat Pipe, Tray F09 The prelaunch photograph was taken in SAEF II at KSC prior to installation of the Cascade Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Experiment (CVCHPE) on the LDEF. The Cascade Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Experiment (CVCHPE) occupies a 6 inch deep LDEF peripheral experiment tray and consist of two series connected variable conductance heatpipes, a black chrome solar collector panel and a silvered TEFLON radiator panel, a power source to support six thermistor-type temperature monitoring sensors and actuations of two valves. Fiberglass standoffs and internal insulation blankets thermally isolated the experiment from the experiment tray and the LDEF interior. The outside of the CVCHPE, except the collector and radiator panels, was covered with an aluminumized Kapton multilayer insulation (MLI) blanket with an outer layer of 0.076 mm thick Kapton. The two patches of thin film materials, part of Experiment S1001 by NASA GSFC, were attached to the cover of the external thermal blanket with Kapton tape. The experiment was assembled and mounted in the experiment tray with non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners.
A peridynamic formulation for transient heat conduction in bodies with evolving discontinuities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bobaru, Florin; Duangpanya, Monchai
2012-04-01
We introduce a multidimensional peridynamic formulation for transient heat-transfer. The model does not contain spatial derivatives and uses instead an integral over a region around a material point. By construction, the formulation converges to the classical heat transfer equations in the limit of the horizon (the nonlocal region around a point) going to zero. The new model, however, is suitable for modeling, for example, heat flow in bodies with evolving discontinuities such as growing insulated cracks. We introduce the peridynamic heat flux which exists even at sharp corners or when the isotherms are not smooth surfaces. The peridynamic heat flux coincides with the classical one in simple cases and, in general, it converges to it in the limit of the peridynamic horizon going to zero. We solve test problems and compare results with analytical solutions of the classical model or with other numerical solutions. Convergence to the classical solutions is seen in the limit of the horizon going to zero. We then solve the problem of transient heat flow in a plate in which insulated cracks grow and intersect thus changing the heat flow patterns. We also model heat transfer in a fiber-reinforced composite and observe transient but steep thermal gradients at the interfaces between the highly conductive fibers and the low conductivity matrix. Such thermal gradients can lead to delamination cracks in composites from thermal fatigue. The formulation may be used to, for example, evaluate effective thermal conductivities in bodies with an evolving distribution of insulating or permeable, possibly intersecting, cracks of arbitrary shapes.
Gustavsen, Arild; Arasteh, Dariush; Jelle, Bjorn Petter; Curcija, Charlie; Kohler, Christian
2008-09-11
While window frames typically represent 20-30% of the overall window area, their impact on the total window heat transfer rates may be much larger. This effect is even greater in low-conductance (highly insulating) windows that incorporate very low-conductance glazing. Developing low-conductance window frames requires accurate simulation tools for product research and development. Based on a literature review and an evaluation of current methods of modeling heat transfer through window frames, we conclude that current procedures specified in ISO standards are not sufficiently adequate for accurately evaluating heat transfer through the low-conductance frames. We conclude that the near-term priorities for improving the modeling of heat transfer through low-conductance frames are: (1) Add 2D view-factor radiation to standard modeling and examine the current practice of averaging surface emissivity based on area weighting and the process of making an equivalent rectangular frame cavity. (2) Asses 3D radiation effects in frame cavities and develop recommendation for inclusion into the design fenestration tools. (3) Assess existing correlations for convection in vertical cavities using CFD. (4) Study 2D and 3D natural convection heat transfer in frame cavities for cavities that are proven to be deficient from item 3 above. Recommend improved correlations or full CFD modeling into ISO standards and design fenestration tools, if appropriate. (5) Study 3D hardware short-circuits and propose methods to ensure that these effects are incorporated into ratings. (6) Study the heat transfer effects of ventilated frame cavities and propose updated correlations.
Thermal Conductivity of Lower Mantle Minerals and Heat Flux Across the Core-Mantle Boundary
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bennett, C.; Rainey, E.; Kavner, A.
2014-12-01
The thermal conductivity properties of the minerals comprising the Earth's lowermost mantle control the core-mantle boundary heat flux, and are therefore critical properties for determining the thermal state and evolution of the Earth's interior. Here we present measurements of the thermal conductivity of lower mantle oxides and silicates as a function of pressure, temperature, and iron content determined in the laser-heated diamond anvil cell using a combination of measurements and 3-D modeling. Our models and measurements demonstrate that the measured steady-state temperature and its increase with increasing laser power depend on the sample thermal conductivity as well as the experimental geometry, enabling measurements of the pressure- and temperature- dependence of lattice thermal conductivity in the laser-heated diamond anvil cell. We applied this technique to iron-bearing silicate perovskites and MgO at lower mantle pressure and temperature conditions. For MgO, we determine the increase in thermal conductivity k with density ρ to be ∂lnk/∂lnρ=4.7±0.6, which is in agreement with results obtained using other experimental and computational techniques. For (Mg0.8,Fe0.2)SiO3 perovskite, we find ∂lnk/∂lnρ=2.9±0.6. We use these values in combination with independent computational and experimental results to determine thermal conductivity of lower mantle minerals up to core-mantle boundary conditions. We combine the mineralogical thermal conductivity estimates in a composite model and include an estimate for the radiative contribution to thermal conductivity. Our new value of the thermal conductivity of the lowermost mantle is ~5-6 W/m/K and is sensitive to the details of the lower mantle assemblage, but is relatively insensitive to pressure and temperature. We combine our mantle thermal conductivity with models for the lower mantle boundary layer to generate a series of two-dimensional maps of core-mantle boundary heat flux, which emphasize the importance of lateral variations in phase and boundary layer thickness. Our values imply a total core-mantle boundary heat flow of 6-8 TW, which is sufficient to drive plumes and convection, is consistent with current geochemical estimates for mantle heat content, and permits a slow growth rate for the inner core.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giri, Ashutosh; Niemel, Janne-Petteri; Szwejkowski, Chester J.; Karppinen, Maarit; Hopkins, Patrick E.
2016-01-01
We study the influence of molecular monolayers on the thermal conductivities and heat capacities of hybrid inorganic/organic superlattice thin films fabricated via atomic/molecular layer deposition. We measure the cross plane thermal conductivities and volumetric heat capacities of TiO2- and ZnO-based superlattices with periodic inclusion of hydroquinone layers via time domain thermoreflectance. In comparison to their homogeneous counterparts, the thermal conductivities in these superlattice films are considerably reduced. We attribute this reduction in the thermal conductivity mainly due to incoherent phonon boundary scattering at the inorganic/organic interface. Increasing the inorganic/organic interface density reduces the thermal conductivity and heat capacity of these films. High-temperature annealing treatment of the superlattices results in a change in the orientation of the hydroquinone molecules to a 2D graphitic layer along with a change in the overall density of the hybrid superlattice. The thermal conductivity of the hybrid superlattice increases after annealing, which we attribute to an increase in crystallinity.
Heat Transfer Investigation of Air Flow in Microtubes-Part II: Scale and Axial Conduction Effects.
Lin, Ting-Yu; Kandlikar, Satish G
2013-03-01
In this paper, the scale effects are specifically addressed by conducting experiments with air flow in different microtubes. Three stainless steel tubes of 962, 308, and 83??m inner diameter (ID) are investigated for friction factor, and the first two are investigated for heat transfer. Viscous heating effects are studied in the laminar as well as turbulent flow regimes by varying the air flow rate. The axial conduction effects in microtubes are experimentally explored for the first time by comparing the heat transfer in SS304 tube with a 910??m ID/2005??m outer diameter nickel tube specifically fabricated using an electrodeposition technique. After carefully accounting for the variable heat losses along the tube length, it is seen that the viscous heating and the axial conduction effects become more important at microscale and the present models are able to predict these effects accurately. It is concluded that neglecting these effects is the main source of discrepancies in the data reported in the earlier literature. PMID:23918039
Rice, Jarrett A.; Pokorny, Richard; Schweiger, Michael J.; Hrma, Pavel R.
2014-06-01
The heat conductivity ({lambda}) and the thermal diffusivity (a) of reacting glass batch, or melter feed, control the heat flux into and within the cold cap, a layer of reacting material floating on the pool of molten glass in an all-electric continuous waste glass melter. After previously estimating {lambda} of melter feed at temperatures up to 680 deg C, we focus in this work on the {lambda}(T) function at T > 680 deg C, at which the feed material becomes foamy. We used a customized experimental setup consisting of a large cylindrical crucible with an assembly of thermocouples, which monitored the evolution of the temperature field while the crucible with feed was heated at a constant rate from room temperature up to 1100C. Approximating measured temperature profiles by polynomial functions, we used the heat transfer equation to estimate the {lambda}(T) approximation function, which we subsequently optimized using the finite-volume method combined with least-squares analysis. The heat conductivity increased as the temperature increased until the feed began to expand into foam, at which point the conductivity dropped. It began to increase again as the foam turned into a bubble-free glass melt. We discuss the implications of this behavior for the mathematical modeling of the cold cap.
Radin, J W; Lu, Z; Percy, R G; Zeiger, E
1994-01-01
Responses of stomata to environment have been intensively studied, but little is known of genetic effects on stomatal conductance or their consequences. In Pima cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.), a crop that is bred for irrigated production in very hot environments, stomatal conductance varies genetically over a wide range and has increased with each release of new higher-yielding cultivars. A cross between heat-adapted (high-yielding) and unadapted genotypes produced F2 progeny cosegregating for stomatal conductance and leaf temperature. Within segregating populations in the field, conductance was negatively correlated with foliar temperature because of evaporative cooling. Plants were selected from the F2 generation specifically and solely for differing stomatal conductance. Among F3 and F4 populations derived from these selections, conductance and leaf cooling were significantly correlated with fruiting prolificacy during the hottest period of the year and with yield. Conductance was not associated with other factors that might have affected yield potential (single-leaf photosynthetic rate, leaf water potential). As breeders have increased the yield of this crop, genetic variability for conductance has allowed inadvertent selection for "heat avoidance" (evaporative cooling) in a hot environment. PMID:11607487
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mendez, Sergio; AungYong, Lisa
2014-01-01
To help students make the connection between the concepts of heat conduction and convection to real-world phenomenon, we developed a combined experimental and computational module that can be incorporated into lecture or lab courses. The experimental system we present requires materials and apparatus that are readily accessible, and the procedure
Heat Flow, Thermal Conductivity, and the Plausibility of the White Mars Hypothesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Urquhart, M. L.; Gulick, V. C.
2002-01-01
Due to the low thermal conductivity of CO2 ice and clathrate vs. water ice, we find that liquid water reservoirs would not be confined to the deep subsurface as predicted by the controversial White Mars model, even assuming low global heat flow. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.
Lattice thermal conductivity of lower mantle minerals and heat flux from Earths core
Manthilake, Geeth M.; de Koker, Nico; Frost, Dan J.; McCammon, Catherine A.
2011-01-01
The amount of heat flowing from Earths core critically determines the thermo-chemical evolution of both the core and the lower mantle. Consisting primarily of a polycrystalline aggregate of silicate perovskite and ferropericlase, the thermal boundary layer at the very base of Earths lower mantle regulates the heat flow from the core, so that the thermal conductivity (k) of these mineral phases controls the amount of heat entering the lowermost mantle. Here we report measurements of the lattice thermal conductivity of pure, Al-, and Fe-bearing MgSiO3 perovskite at 26GPa up to 1,073K, and of ferropericlase containing 0, 5, and 20% Fe, at 8 and 14GPa up to 1,273K. We find the incorporation of these elements in silicate perovskite and ferropericlase to result in a ?50% decrease of lattice thermal conductivity relative to the end member compositions. A model of thermal conductivity constrained from our results indicates that a peridotitic mantle would have k=9.11.2W/mK at the top of the thermal boundary layer and k=8.41.2W/mK at its base. These values translate into a heat flux of 11.01.4 terawatts (TW) from Earths core, a range of values consistent with a variety of geophysical estimates. PMID:22021444
Numerical study of conductive heat losses from a magmatic source at Phlegraean Fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di Maio, Rosa; Piegari, Ester; Mancini, Cecilia; Scandone, R.
2015-01-01
The thermal evolution of the Phlegraean magmatic system (southern Italy) is studied by analyzing the influence of the thermal property variations on the solution of the heat conduction equation. The aim of this paper is to verify if appropriate choices of thermal parameters can reproduce, at least to greater depths, the high temperatures measured in the geothermal wells, drilled inside the caldera, under the assumption of heat loss from a magma chamber by conduction. Since the main purpose is to verify the plausibility of such an assumption, rather simple models of the magmatic system are adopted and only major volcanic events (i.e., the Campanian Ignimbrite and the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff eruptions) are considered. The results of the simulated two-dimensional model scenarios show that by assuming an extended source region, whose emplacement time is longer than 40 ka, heat conduction mechanisms can provide temperatures as high as those measured at depths deeper than about 2000 m. On the other hand, the 1D simulations show that appropriate choices for the thermal conductivity depth profiles can reproduce the observed temperatures at depths deeper than about 1000 m. These findings question the apparent consensus that convection is the only dominant form of heat transfer at Phlegraean Fields and might motivate new research for reconstructing the thermal evolution of the Phlegraean magmatic system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Tao
2015-12-01
We establish an initial-boundary value problem for the compressible magnetohydrodynamic equations in one space dimension with large initial data when the heat conductivity is some positive power of the temperature. We prove that as the shear viscosity vanishes, global weak solutions convergence to a solution of the original equations with zero shear viscosity.
TOPAZ - a finite element heat conduction code for analyzing 2-D solids
Shapiro, A.B.
1984-03-01
TOPAZ is a two-dimensional implicit finite element computer code for heat conduction analysis. This report provides a user's manual for TOPAZ and a description of the numerical algorithms used. Sample problems with analytical solutions are presented. TOPAZ has been implemented on the CRAY and VAX computers.
Behavior of entropy in non-classical heat conduction of incompressible media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Serdyukov, Sergey I.; Voskresenskii, Nikolai M.
2010-10-01
The behavior of entropy of a model isolated system in which there is non-classical heat conduction is considered. Within the thermodynamic formalism developed, expressions are obtained for the entropy flux and source and also for the total entropy of the isolated system. The approach proposed leads to a strictly monotonic dependence of the total entropy on time for the model system considered.
An analytical solution to the one-dimensional heat conduction-convection equation in soil
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Heat transfer in soil occurs by conduction and convection. Infiltrating water affects soil temperature distributions, and measuring soil temperature distributions below infiltrating water can provide a signal for the flux of water. In earlier work a sine wave function (hereinafter referred to as the...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mendez, Sergio; AungYong, Lisa
2014-01-01
To help students make the connection between the concepts of heat conduction and convection to real-world phenomenon, we developed a combined experimental and computational module that can be incorporated into lecture or lab courses. The experimental system we present requires materials and apparatus that are readily accessible, and the procedure…
COYOTE: a finite-element computer program for nonlinear heat-conduction problems
Gartling, D.K.
1982-10-01
COYOTE is a finite element computer program designed for the solution of two-dimensional, nonlinear heat conduction problems. The theoretical and mathematical basis used to develop the code is described. Program capabilities and complete user instructions are presented. Several example problems are described in detail to demonstrate the use of the program.
Effect of heat treatment time on microstructure and electrical conductivity in LATP glass ceramics
Sonigra, Dhiren E-mail: ajit.kulkarni@iitb.ac.in; Soman, Swati E-mail: ajit.kulkarni@iitb.ac.in; Kulkarni, Ajit R. E-mail: ajit.kulkarni@iitb.ac.in
2014-04-24
Glass-ceramic is prepared by heat treatment of melt quenched 14Li{sub 2}O−9Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}−38TiO{sub 2}−39P{sub 2}O{sub 5} glass in the vicinity of crystallization temperature. Growth of ceramic phase is controlled by tuning heat treatment time at fixed temperature. Ceramic phase was identified to be LiTi{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} from X Ray Diffraction analysis. Microstructural evolution of this phase with hold time was observed under high resolution Scanning Electron Microscope. DC conductivity is observed to increase by 4-5 orders of magnitude in this glass-ceramic compared to parent glass. However, formation of pores and cracks with very large heat treatment time seem to hinder further increase of conductivity.
Soliton mechanism of the uranium nitride microdynamics and heat conductivity at high temperatures
Semenov, V. A.; Dubovsky, O. A. Orlov, A. V.
2011-12-15
The microdynamics of soliton waves and localized modes of nonlinear acoustic and optical oscillations in uranium nitride has been investigated. It is shown that, upon heating, the energies of solitons in the gap between the optical and acoustic phonon bands increase, while the energies of local modes decrease. The experimentally observed quasi-resonance features, which are shifted in the gap with a change in temperature, can be manifestations of the revealed soliton waves and local modes. The microdynamics of uranium nitride heat conductivity with the stochastic generation of the observed solitons and local modes at remote energy absorption have been investigated. The temperature dependence of the heat conductivity coefficient has been determined from the temperature gradient and energy flux within the standard approach (which is to be generalized).
Remediation of NAPL below the water table by steam-induced heat conduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gudbjerg, J.; Sonnenborg, T. O.; Jensen, K. H.
2004-08-01
Previous experimental studies have shown that NAPL will be removed when it is contacted by steam. However, in full-scale operations, steam may not contact the NAPL directly and this is the situation addressed in this study. A two-dimensional intermediate scale sand box experiment was performed where an organic contaminant was emplaced below the water table at the interface between a coarse and a fine sand layer. Steam was injected above the water table and after an initial heating period the contaminant was recovered at the outlet. The experiment was successfully modeled using the numerical code T2VOC and the dominant removal mechanism was identified to be heat conduction induced boiling of the separate phase contaminant. Subsequent numerical modeling showed that this mechanism was insensitive to the porous medium properties and that it could be evaluated by considering only one-dimensional heat conduction.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tamma, Kumar K.; Railkar, Sudhir B.
1988-01-01
The present paper describes the applicability of hybrid transfinite element modeling/analysis formulations for nonlinear heat conduction problems involving phase change. The methodology is based on application of transform approaches and classical Galerkin schemes with finite element formulations to maintain the modeling versatility and numerical features for computational analysis. In addition, in conjunction with the above, the effects due to latent heat are modeled using enthalpy formulations to enable a physically realistic approximation to be dealt computationally for materials exhibiting phase change within a narrow band of temperatures. Pertinent details of the approach and computational scheme adapted are described in technical detail. Numerical test cases of comparative nature are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed formulations for numerical modeling/analysis of nonlinear heat conduction problems involving phase change.
Temperature dependence of the conductivity, thermopower, and heat capacity of TICoS2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kerimova, E. M.; Mustafaeva, S. N.; Aldjanov, M. A.; Jabbarly, A. I.
2004-04-01
The temperature dependence of the conductivity and thermopower of TlCoS2 is studied over a wide range of temperatures (77-400 K). It is found that TlCoS2 is characterized by p-type conductivity in the temperature interval 77-225 K and that an inversion of the sign of the thermopower occurs at 225 K. The heat capacity of the ferromagnetic compound TlCoS2 is also measured in the temperature interval 55-300 K. It is shown that the behavior of the magnetic part of the heat capacity of TlCoS2 is typical of a quasi-low-dimensional magnet. The experimental data on the temperature dependence of the heat capacity are used to calculate the thermodynamic parameters of TlCoS2: the changes in entropy and enthalpy.
A Review on the Finite Element Methods for Heat Conduction in Functionally Graded Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, R.; Jadon, V. K.; Singh, B.
2015-01-01
The review presented in this paper focuses mainly on the application of finite element methods for investigating the effect of heat transfer, variation of temperature and other parameters in the functionally graded materials. Different methods have been investigated for thermal conduction in functionally graded materials. The use of FEM for steady state heat transfer has been addressed in this work. The authors have also discussed the utilization of FEM based shear deformation theories and FEM in combination with other methods for the problems involving complexity of the shape and geometry of functionally graded materials. Finite element methods proved to be effective for the solution of heat transfer problem in functionally graded materials. These methods can be used for steady state heat transfer and as well as for transient state.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kshirsagar, Jagdeep M.; Shrivastava, Ramakant
2015-03-01
Nanofluids, the fluid suspensions of nonmaterials, have shown many interesting properties and the unique features offer unprecedented potential for many applications. Research on nanofluids has progressed rapidly since its enhanced thermal conductivity was first noted, about a decade ago, though much debate and inconsistency have been reported. Insufficient understanding of the formulation, mechanism of nanofluids further limits their applications [1-34]. Inconsistent data have been presented in the literature on the effect that nanofluids have on the boiling heat-transfer coefficient; however, almost all researchers [35-43] have noted an enhancement in the critical heat flux during nanofluid boiling. Some researchers have observed nanoparticle deposition at the heater surface, which they have related back to the critical heat flux augmentation. In the review, the future developments of these technologies are discussed. In order to be able to put the nanofluid heat transfer technologies into practice, fundamental of these studies are greatly needed to comprehend the physical mechanisms.
Radially spreading surface flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maclatchy, Michael Ray
The present study investigated the radially spreading surface flow that is created when a vertical buoyant jet is discharged in shallow water and surfaces. Experiments were conducted for a series of vertical buoyant jets discharging into a shallow circular tank specially designed to simulate an infinite ambient water body so that downstream control effects were avoided. A range of flow rates and port diameters were utilized to determine the nature of the flow structure in the radially spreading surface region. Velocity profiles using an ADV, and temperature profiles using a thermistor array, were made throughout the radial flow region. The present study concentrated on the radial buoyant jet region of a vertical buoyant jet discharged in shallow water. In this region the surface flow rapidly entrained ambient fluid as it moved outward, and the rate at which fluid was entrained with distance was greater for the radially spreading flow than for the vertical jet itself, Both the bulk and minimum time-averaged dilutions increased linearly with radial distance. The upper layer depth increased in a parabolic fashion with radial distance, consistent with previous studies of mixing layers. The composite Froude number decreased gradually from its high initial values, but was never less than one through the entire radial extent in which measurements were made. Thus, for the range of conditions of this study the flow remained internally supercritical (on a time-averaged basis). This was also true for the stability Froude number, indicating that the radial flow was unstable and entrainment occurred throughout the radial extent investigated. No internal hydraulic jumps were found in the radially spreading surface flow in the present study. Significant entrainment into the radially spreading surface flow was found. The entrainment velocity was found to be proportional to the velocity difference between the upper and lower layers at larger radius where the radial flow had become established. The entrainment hypothesis of Morton, Taylor and Turner (1956) was consistent with the measured behaviour of the radially spreading surface flow in the present study.
Fourier heat conduction as a phenomenon described within the scope of the second law
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jesudason, Christopher G.
2014-12-01
The historical development of the Carnot cycle necessitated the construction of isothermal and adiabatic pathways within the cycle that were also mechanically "reversible" which lead eventually to the Kelvin-Clausius development of the entropy function S where for any reversible closed path C, ?C dS = 0 based on an infinite number of concatenated Carnot engines that approximated the said path and where for each engine ?Q1/T1+?Q2/T2 = 0 where the Q's and T's are the heat absorption increments and temperature respectively with the subscripts indicating the isothermal paths (1;2) where for the Carnot engine, the heat absorption is for the diathermal (isothermal) paths of the cycle only. Since 'heat' has been defined as that form of energy that is transferred as a result of a temperature difference and a corollary of the Clausius statement of the Second law is that it is impossible for heat to be transferred from a cold to a hot reservoir with no other effect on the environment, these statements suggested that the local mode of transfer of 'heat' in the isothermal segments of the pathway does imply a Fourier heat conduction mechanism (to conform to the definition of 'heat') albeit of a "reversible" kind, but on the other hand, the Fourier mechanism is apparently irreversible, leading to an increase in entropy of the combined reservoirs at either end of the material involved in the conveyance of the heat energy. These and several other considerations lead Benofy and Quay (BQ) to postulate the Fourier heat conduction phenomenon to be an ancillary principle in thermodynamics, with this principle being strictly local in nature, where the global Second law statements could not be applied to this local process. Here we present equations that model heat conduction as a thermodynamically reversible but mechanically irreversible process where due to the belief in mechanical time reversible symmetry, thermodynamical reversibility has been unfortunately linked to mechanical reversibility, that has discouraged such an association. The modeling is based on an application of a "recoverable transition", defined and developed earlier on ideas derived from thermal desorption of particles from a surface where the Fourier heat conduction process is approximated as a series of such desorption processes. We recall that the original Carnot engine required both adiabatic and isothermal steps to complete the zero entropy cycle, and this construct lead to the consequent deduction that any Second law statement that refers to heat-work conversion processes are only globally relevant. Here, on the other hand, we examine Fourier heat conduction from MD simulation and model this process as a zero-entropy forward scattering process relative to each of the atoms in the lattice chain being treated as a system where the Carnot cycle can be applied individually. The equations developed predicts the "work" done to be equal to the energy transfer rate. The MD simulations conducted shows excellent agreement with the theory. Such views and results as these, if developed to a successful conclusion could imply that the Carnot cycle be viewed as describing a local process of energy-work conversion and that irreversible local processes might be brought within the scope of this cycle, implying a unified treatment of thermodynamically (i) irreversible, (ii) reversible, (iii) isothermal and (iv) adiabatic processes.
Fourier heat conduction as a phenomenon described within the scope of the second law
Jesudason, Christopher G.
2014-12-10
The historical development of the Carnot cycle necessitated the construction of isothermal and adiabatic pathways within the cycle that were also mechanically 'reversible' which lead eventually to the Kelvin-Clausius development of the entropy function S where for any reversible closed path C, ∮{sub C} dS = 0 based on an infinite number of concatenated Carnot engines that approximated the said path and where for each engine ΔQ{sub 1}/T{sub 1}+ΔQ{sub 2}/T{sub 2} = 0 where the Q's and T's are the heat absorption increments and temperature respectively with the subscripts indicating the isothermal paths (1;2) where for the Carnot engine, the heat absorption is for the diathermal (isothermal) paths of the cycle only. Since 'heat' has been defined as that form of energy that is transferred as a result of a temperature difference and a corollary of the Clausius statement of the Second law is that it is impossible for heat to be transferred from a cold to a hot reservoir with no other effect on the environment, these statements suggested that the local mode of transfer of 'heat' in the isothermal segments of the pathway does imply a Fourier heat conduction mechanism (to conform to the definition of 'heat') albeit of a 'reversible' kind, but on the other hand, the Fourier mechanism is apparently irreversible, leading to an increase in entropy of the combined reservoirs at either end of the material involved in the conveyance of the heat energy. These and several other considerations lead Benofy and Quay (BQ) to postulate the Fourier heat conduction phenomenon to be an ancillary principle in thermodynamics, with this principle being strictly local in nature, where the global Second law statements could not be applied to this local process. Here we present equations that model heat conduction as a thermodynamically reversible but mechanically irreversible process where due to the belief in mechanical time reversible symmetry, thermodynamical reversibility has been unfortunately linked to mechanical reversibility, that has discouraged such an association. The modeling is based on an application of a 'recoverable transition', defined and developed earlier on ideas derived from thermal desorption of particles from a surface where the Fourier heat conduction process is approximated as a series of such desorption processes. We recall that the original Carnot engine required both adiabatic and isothermal steps to complete the zero entropy cycle, and this construct lead to the consequent deduction that any Second law statement that refers to heat-work conversion processes are only globally relevant. Here, on the other hand, we examine Fourier heat conduction from MD simulation and model this process as a zero-entropy forward scattering process relative to each of the atoms in the lattice chain being treated as a system where the Carnot cycle can be applied individually. The equations developed predicts the 'work' done to be equal to the energy transfer rate. The MD simulations conducted shows excellent agreement with the theory. Such views and results as these, if developed to a successful conclusion could imply that the Carnot cycle be viewed as describing a local process of energy-work conversion and that irreversible local processes might be brought within the scope of this cycle, implying a unified treatment of thermodynamically (i) irreversible, (ii) reversible, (iii) isothermal and (iv) adiabatic processes.
Armstrong, Jeff; Bresme, Fernando
2014-06-28
The coupling of mass and heat fluxes is responsible for the Soret effect in fluid mixtures containing particles of dissimilar mass and/or size. We investigate using equilibrium and non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations the relevance of these coupling effects in determining the thermal transport in fluids consisting of binary mixtures where the individual components feature significant mass, 1?:?8, or size, 1?:?3, asymmetries. We quantify the thermal transport by using both boundary driven molecular dynamics simulations (NEMD) and the equilibrium Green-Kubo (GK) approach and investigate the impact of different heat flux definitions, relevant in kinetic theory and experiments, in the quantification of the thermal conductivity. We find that the thermal conductivities obtained from the different definitions agree within numerical accuracy, suggesting that the Soret coefficient does not lead to significant changes in the thermal conduction, even for the large asymmetries considered here, which lead to significant Soret coefficients (?10(-2) K(-1)). The asymmetry in size and mass introduces large differences in the specific enthalpy of the individual components that must be carefully considered to compute accurate thermal conductivities using the GK approach. Neglecting the enthalpic contributions, results in large overestimations of the thermal conductivity, typically between 20% and 50%. Further, we quantify the time dependent behavior of the internal energy and mass flux correlation functions and propose a microscopic mechanism for the heat transport in these asymmetric mixtures. PMID:24818599
Heat conduction in double-walled carbon nanotubes with intertube additional carbon atoms.
Cui, Liu; Feng, Yanhui; Tan, Peng; Zhang, Xinxin
2015-07-01
Heat conduction of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) with intertube additional carbon atoms was investigated for the first time using a molecular dynamics method. By analyzing the phonon vibrational density of states (VDOS), we revealed that the intertube additional atoms weak the heat conduction along the tube axis. Moreover, the phonon participation ratio (PR) demonstrates that the heat transfer in DWCNTs is dominated by low frequency modes. The added atoms cause the mode weight factor (MWF) of the outer tube to decrease and that of the inner tube to increase, which implies a lower thermal conductivity. The effects of temperature, tube length, and the number and distribution of added atoms were studied. Furthermore, an orthogonal array testing strategy was designed to identify the most important structural factor. It is indicated that the tendencies of thermal conductivity of DWCNTs with added atoms change with temperature and length are similar to bare ones. In addition, thermal conductivity decreases with the increasing number of added atoms, more evidently for atom addition concentrated at some cross-sections rather than uniform addition along the tube length. Simultaneously, the number of added atoms at each cross-section has a considerably more remarkable impact, compared to the tube length and the density of chosen cross-sections to add atoms. PMID:26051798
Naya, Daniel E.; Spangenberg, Luca; Naya, Hugo; Bozinovic, Francisco
2013-01-01
Thermal conductance measures the ease with which heat leaves or enters an organism's body. Although the analysis of this physiological variable in relation to climatic and ecological factors can be traced to studies by Scholander and colleagues, only small advances have occurred ever since. Here, we analyse the relationship between minimal thermal conductance estimated during summer (Cmin) and several ecological, climatic and geographical factors for 127 rodent species, in order to identify the exogenous factors that have potentially affected the evolution of thermal conductance. In addition, we evaluate whether there is compensation between Cmin and basal metabolic rate (BMR)in such a way that a scale-invariant ratio between both variables is equal to oneas could be expected from the ScholanderIrving model of heat transfer. Our major findings are (i) annual mean temperature is the best single predictor of mass-independent Cmin. (ii) After controlling for the effect of body mass, there is a strong positive correlation between log10 (Cmin) and log10 (BMR). Further, the slope of this correlation is close to one, indicating an almost perfect compensation between both physiological variables. (iii) Structural equation modelling indicated that Cmin values are adjusted to BMR values and not the other way around. Thus, our results strongly suggest that BMR and thermal conductance integrate a coordinated system for heat regulation in endothermic animals and that summer conductance values are adjusted (in an evolutionary sense) to track changes in BMRs. PMID:23902915
Experimental and Theoretical Study of Heat Conduction for Air up to 5000 K
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peng, Tzy-Cheng; Ahtye, Warren F.
1961-01-01
The theoretical value of the integral of thermal conductivity is compared with the experimental values from shock-tube measurements. The particular case considered is the one-dimensional nonsteady flow of heat through air at constant pressure. This approach has been previously described in NASA TR R-27. experiment was uncertain because of the large scatter in the experimental data. In this paper, an attempt is made to improve the correlation by use of a more refined calculation of the integral of thermal conductivity, and by use of improved experimental techniques and instrumentation. As a result of these changes, a much closer correlation is shown between the experimental and theoretical heat-flux potentials. This indicates that the predicted values of the coefficient of thermal conductivity for high-temperature air may be suitably accurate for many engineering needs, up to the limits of the test (4600 K).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baek, Seungwhan; Kim, Jin-Hyuck; Jeong, Sangkwon; Jung, Jeheon
2012-07-01
This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of the thermal and hydraulic performance of a printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) for use in the cryogenic temperature region. Compact PCHEs with multiple corrugated, longitudinal flow microchannels were fabricated using chemical etching and diffusion bonding to evaluate their thermal and hydraulic performance. The testing of the PCHEs was conducted with helium gas at cryogenic temperatures. The pressure drop and thermal effectiveness values obtained from the measured pressures and temperatures are discussed. The thermal performance was predominantly affected by the axial conduction heat transfer in the low Reynolds number ranges of theses experiments. A simple performance calculation model is presented, and the effectiveness calculated from the model is compared with the experimental data. The design of the cryogenic PCHE was then modified to reduce axial conduction losses.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Solov‧ev, S. V.
2015-11-01
An algorithm is proposed for calculating the convective heat exchange in a spherical cavity modeling the liquid core of the Earth with account for the internal heat sources and the Joule dissipation in the electrically conducting liquid in it.
High performance heat curing copper-silver powders filled electrically conductive adhesives
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cui, Hui-Wang; Jiu, Jin-Ting; Sugahara, Tohru; Nagao, Shijo; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Uchida, Hiroshi
2015-03-01
In this study, high performance electrically conductive adhesives were fabricated from a vinyl ester resin, a thermal initiator, silver coated copper powders, and pure silver powders, without using any other coupling agent, dispersing agent, and reducing agent. The heat cured copper-silver powders filled electrically conductive adhesives presented low bulk resistivity (e.g., 4.53 10-5 ?cm) due to the silver powders that had given high electrical conductivity to the adhesives, and high shear strength (e.g., 16.22 MPa) provided by the crosslinked structures of vinyl ester resin. These high performance copper-silver powders filled electrically conductive adhesives have lower cost than those filled by pure silver powders, which can be well used in the electronic packaging and can enlarge the application prospects of electrically conductive adhesives. [Figure not available: see fulltext.
Low conductivity water loop heat pump study at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
Chen, C.C.; Onu, C.; Smith, T.; Holda, M.
1995-12-31
Based on results of the new Water Source Heat Pump (WSHP) systems operating in the US, these highly efficient heat pumps provide energy saving that will make them economically feasible to replace the inefficient, conventional HVAC systems. Additionally, an option to replace a centrifugal-compressor CFC chiller with a non-CFC chiller can be to replace the system with a highly efficient Water-Loop Heat Pump (WSHP) system. This replacement can result in a reduction of 20 to 30% in heating and air-conditioning energy costs. Low Conductivity Water (LCW) is purified water used for cooling in experimental laboratory, process, and air-conditioning equipment. It is one of several lab-wide mechanical utilities systems provided at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LNL). The system is designed to maintain a supply temperature between 65 F and 85 F, with 100 psi at the inlet of the user building, 50--55 psi minimum differential pressures in the building, 35 psi maximum return pressure, and 0.4 umho/cm conductivity. However, this study is to utilize the existing LCW water loop to achieve the energy-efficiency improvement in a water resource heat pump (WRHP) system. The study will also utilize the life cycle costs as a tool to as the general selected criteria.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parker, Hermon M
1953-01-01
An analysis is made of the transient heat-conduction effects in three simple semi-infinite bodies: the flat insulated plate, the conical shell, and the slender solid cone. The bodies are assumed to have constant initial temperatures and, at zero time, to begin to move at a constant speed and zero angle of attack through a homogeneous atmosphere. The heat input is taken as that through a laminar boundary layer. Radiation heat transfer and transverse temperature gradients are assumed to be zero. The appropriate heat-conduction equations are solved by an iteration method, the zeroeth-order terms describing the situation in the limit of small time. The method is presented and the solutions are calculated to three orders which are sufficient to give reasonably accurate results when the forward edge has attained one-half the total temperature rise (nose half-rise time). Flight Mach number and air properties occur as parameters in the result. Approximate expressions for the extent of the conduction region and nose half-rise times as functions of the parameters of the problem are presented. (author)
Heat Conduction Analysis in a Tissue Phantom Calculated by FDTD and HCE Method
Endoh, Nobuyuki; Tsuchiya, Takenobu; Saito, Yoshikazu; Ishizeki, Takahiro
2005-03-28
In order to study hyperthermia in tissue, it is important to predict accurately the heat distribution. This paper describes a preliminary study of the comparison between simulation and experiment for heat conduction in a simple tissue phantom. Since it is well known that the heat increase in tissue depends on the sound intensity and the absorption coefficient, the sound pressure distribution is calculated using a Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. The thermal diffusion profile in tissue generated by the energy of the sound pulse is also simulated using the Heat Conduction Equation (HCE) method. The calculation area is 100 x 40 [mm]. The simple tissue phantom is made of agar, water and graphite. The phantom whose attenuation coefficient is 1.1 dB/cm/MHz is placed in a temperature controlled water bath. This is kept at 37 deg. [C] while sound pulses of 1 MHz are emitted over 10 minutes. Temperatures at six points on the acoustic axis are measured in the phantom. The calculation and experiment results are compared to confirm the accuracy of the proposed method. As a result, the calculation results show the validity of the combined FDTD-HCE method for thermal conduction analysis.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Phillips, Wayne M.
1995-01-01
Heat radiators of proposed type feature thermally conductive fibers protruding from metallic surfaces to provide increased heat-dissipation surface areas. Free of leaks and more reliable than radiators incorporating heat pipes. Also lightweight and relatively inexpensive. Radial graphite fibers carry heat away from spherical shell and radiate heat into space. Radiators prove useful on Earth in special industrial and scientific applications involving dissipation of heat in vacuum or in relatively still air.
Heat conduction from hot plate to photoresist on top of wafer including heat loss to the environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jung, Minhee; Kim, Sarah; Kim, Do Wan; Oh, Hye-Keun
2009-12-01
Post exposure bake (PEB) process among the lithography steps is important for making good patterns when the chemically amplified resist is used. During the PEB, the de-protection reaction and the acid diffusion are determined by bake temperature and time. One of the key factors that determine the de-protection and acid diffusion is the initial temperature rising inside the photoresist. The time delay due to the temperature rising from the room temperature to the pre-set bake temperature is the main cause of line width variation. It is very important to control 1~2 nm line width variation for patterns of 32 nm and below. This variation mainly comes from PEB temperature and time of the resist on top of the multi-stacking silicon wafer on hot plate. In order to predict the accurate PEB temperature and time applied to the resist, we studied heat transfer from hot plate to the resist on top of the silicon wafer. We calculated boundary temperature values of each layer and compared the change of temperature caused by different kinds and thicknesses of sublayers including antireflection coating and resist. In order to predict bake temperature, we have to consider the heat loss which was made by the temperature differences with surrounding air, conductivity difference of various layer, and nitrogen purge during the PEB process. Therefore, heat loss to the environment is included to solve real heat conduction problem in the hot plate of the track system. We also found that the resultant line width was changed by small temperature variation, stack thickness and layer numbers.
Ritchie, R.H.; Sakakura, A.Y.
1956-01-01
The formal solutions of problems involving transient heat conduction in infinite internally bounded cylindrical solids may be obtained by the Laplace transform method. Asymptotic series representing the solutions for large values of time are given in terms of functions related to the derivatives of the reciprocal gamma function. The results are applied to the case of the internally bounded infinite cylindrical medium with, (a) the boundary held at constant temperature; (b) with constant heat flow over the boundary; and (c) with the "radiation" boundary condition. A problem in the flow of gas through a porous medium is considered in detail.
Thermal conductance of and heat generation in tire-pavement interface and effect on aircraft braking
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, C. D.
1976-01-01
A finite-difference analysis was performed on temperature records obtained from a free rolling automotive tire and from pavement surface. A high thermal contact conductance between tire and asphalt was found on a statistical basis. Average slip due to squirming between tire and asphalt was about 1.5 mm. Consequent friction heat was estimated as 64 percent of total power absorbed by bias-ply, belted tire. Extrapolation of results to aircraft tire indicates potential braking improvement by even moderate increase of heat absorbing capacity of runway surface.
Innovative hybrid heat sink materials with high thermal conductivities and tailored CTE
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kitzmantel, M.; Neubauer, E.
2015-02-01
This paper talks about high performance heat sinks and heat spreaders made by hybrid structures based on metaldiamond composites. Thermal conductivities can be tuned between 450 and 650 W/mK while maintaining customizable thermal expansion of 6-10 ppm/K (@30C). Using different hybrid structures in combination with the metal-diamond core significant changes in thermal properties can be identified. Applications targeted are LED, disc laser and laser diode heatsinks with these high performance inserts without the need of CTE matched submounts.
Coupled Ablation, Heat Conduction, Pyrolysis, Shape Change and Spallation of the Galileo Probe
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Milos, Frank S.; Chen, Y.-K.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)
1995-01-01
The Galileo probe enters the atmosphere of Jupiter in December 1995. This paper presents numerical methodology and detailed results of our final pre-impact calculations for the heat shield response. The calculations are performed using a highly modified version of a viscous shock layer code with massive radiation coupled with a surface thermochemical ablation and spallation model and with the transient in-depth thermal response of the charring and ablating heat shield. The flowfield is quasi-steady along the trajectory, but the heat shield thermal response is dynamic. Each surface node of the VSL grid is coupled with a one-dimensional thermal response calculation. The thermal solver includes heat conduction, pyrolysis, and grid movement owing to surface recession. Initial conditions for the heat shield temperature and density were obtained from the high altitude rarefied-flow calculations of Haas and Milos. Galileo probe surface temperature, shape, mass flux, and element flux are all determined as functions of time along the trajectory with spallation varied parametrically. The calculations also estimate the in-depth density and temperature profiles for the heat shield. All this information is required to determine the time-dependent vehicle mass and drag coefficient which are necessary inputs for the atmospheric reconstruction experiment on board the probe.
Self-gravitational instability of rotating anisotropic heat-conducting plasma
Prajapati, R. P.; Parihar, A. K.; Chhajlani, R. K.
2008-01-15
The self-gravitational instability of rotating anisotropic heat-conducting plasma with modified Chew-Goldberger-Low equations is investigated. The general dispersion relation is obtained using normal mode analysis by constructing the linearized set of equations. This dispersion relation is further reduced for propagation parallel and perpendicular to the direction of magnetic field. These conditions are discussed for axis of rotation along and perpendicular to the magnetic field. It is found that the heat flux vector does not influence the transverse mode of propagation for both cases of rotation and Jeans condition remains unchanged. In case of propagation parallel to the magnetic field with axis of rotation perpendicular to the magnetic field, we get the dispersion relation, which shows the joint effect of rotation and heat flux vector. The two separate modes of propagation are obtained in terms of rotation and heat flux vector for rotation parallel to the magnetic field. It is demonstrated that the Alfven wave and the associated firehose instability are not affected by the presence of heat flux corrections and rotation also. The numerical analysis is performed to show the effect of rotation, pressure anisotropy, and heat flux parameter on the condition of instability in the spiral arms of galaxy. The Jeans condition of gravitational instability is obtained for both the cases of propagation.
Self-gravitational instability of rotating anisotropic heat-conducting plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prajapati, R. P.; Parihar, A. K.; Chhajlani, R. K.
2008-01-01
The self-gravitational instability of rotating anisotropic heat-conducting plasma with modified Chew-Goldberger-Low equations is investigated. The general dispersion relation is obtained using normal mode analysis by constructing the linearized set of equations. This dispersion relation is further reduced for propagation parallel and perpendicular to the direction of magnetic field. These conditions are discussed for axis of rotation along and perpendicular to the magnetic field. It is found that the heat flux vector does not influence the transverse mode of propagation for both cases of rotation and Jeans condition remains unchanged. In case of propagation parallel to the magnetic field with axis of rotation perpendicular to the magnetic field, we get the dispersion relation, which shows the joint effect of rotation and heat flux vector. The two separate modes of propagation are obtained in terms of rotation and heat flux vector for rotation parallel to the magnetic field. It is demonstrated that the Alfvn wave and the associated firehose instability are not affected by the presence of heat flux corrections and rotation also. The numerical analysis is performed to show the effect of rotation, pressure anisotropy, and heat flux parameter on the condition of instability in the spiral arms of galaxy. The Jeans condition of gravitational instability is obtained for both the cases of propagation.
Heat transfer enhancement study of a LHTS unit containing dispersed high conductivity particles
Seeniraj, R.V.; Velraj, R.; Narasimhan, N.L.
1999-07-01
A theoretical analysis is presented for the performance study of a Latent Heat Thermal Storage (LHTS) system which contains a phase change material (PCM) dispersed with high conductivity solid particles. The effect of fraction of dispersed particles in the PCM on energy storage time and heat flux is presented for laminar and turbulent flows, and also analytical expressions for various quantities of interest to study the energy storage capabilities. The combined effect of thermal and flow properties of both the heat transfer fluid (HTF) and the PCM-mixture is also included in the study. It is observed that there exists an optimum fraction of particles to be dispersed in the PCM for maximum energy storage/extraction.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murio, Diego A.
1991-01-01
An explicit and unconditionally stable finite difference method for the solution of the transient inverse heat conduction problem in a semi-infinite or finite slab mediums subject to nonlinear radiation boundary conditions is presented. After measuring two interior temperature histories, the mollification method is used to determine the surface transient heat source if the energy radiation law is known. Alternatively, if the active surface is heated by a source at a rate proportional to a given function, the nonlinear surface radiation law is then recovered as a function of the interface temperature when the problem is feasible. Two typical examples corresponding to Newton cooling law and Stefan-Boltzmann radiation law respectively are illustrated. In all cases, the method predicts the surface conditions with an accuracy suitable for many practical purposes.
CTS-type variable conductance heat pipes for SEP FM/PPU
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Antoniuk, D.; Luedke, E. E.
1978-01-01
The development effort for, and the fabrication and testing of, six CTS-type variable conductance heat pipes is described. The heat pipes are constructed of stainless steel, use methanol as a working fluid, and a nitrogen/helium mixture as the control gas. The wicking structure consists of interior wall grooves, a metal-felt diametral slab wick, and two wire-mesh arteries. The heat pipes are used to cool two Functional Model/Power Processing Units in a Solar Electric Propulsion prototype BIMOD thruster subsystem assembly. The Power Processing Units convert the electric power from a spacecraft solar array system to the voltages required to operate the electric thrusters which are part of the BIMOD assembly.
Hartenstine, J.R.
1991-08-01
Sodium-sulfur batteries can provide electrical power to satellite instrumentation operating in geosynchronous-earth-orbit (GEO) and low-earth-orbit (LEO) conditions. While on orbit, the sodium-sulfur battery requires thermal management as the battery is cycled between discharge in solar eclipse and recharge in sunlight. As the battery discharges in solar eclipses, waste heat is generated and the battery requires cooling. During recharge in sunlight, the battery temperature needs to be maintained above 320 C. In this Phase I program, Thermacore developed and demonstrated a dual titanium/cesium heat pipe to provide passive, lightweight management of the battery during orbital cycling. The dual heat pipe concept uses both constant and variable conductance heat pipes. Constant conductance heat pipes are inserted between sodium-sulfur cells. The cells radiate to the constant conductance heat pipes and this energy is transferred to a variable conductance heat pipe and radiated to deep space.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Bo; Ma, Weigang; Li, Zhixin; Zhang, Xing
2009-06-01
The electrothermal technique is developed to simultaneously measure the specific heat and thermal conductivity of individual thin samples suspended across two heat sinks, resorting to pulsed direct currents with or without a dc offset. The temperature evolution due to Joule self-heating is recorded and compared with the numerical solutions of transient heat conduction equations using the finite volume method. The thermal conductivity is determined by the steady temperature level and the specific heat by the transient temperature rise or relaxation. This technique is applied to a 10 μm thick platinum wire and the thermal conductivity and specific heat are in good agreement with the literature values. In addition, the influences of thermal radiation and thermal boundary resistance between the sample and heat sinks on the experimental results are discussed.
Lateral conduction effects on heat-transfer data obtained with the phase-change paint technique
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maise, G.; Rossi, M. J.
1974-01-01
A computerized tool, CAPE, (Conduction Analysis Program using Eigenvalues) has been developed to account for lateral heat conduction in wind tunnel models in the data reduction of the phase-change paint technique. The tool also accounts for the effects of finite thickness (thin wings) and surface curvature. A special reduction procedure using just one time of melt is also possible on leading edges. A novel iterative numerical scheme was used, with discretized spatial coordinates but analytic integration in time, to solve the inverse conduction problem involved in the data reduction. A yes-no chart is provided which tells the test engineer when various corrections are large enough so that CAPE should be used. The accuracy of the phase-change paint technique in the presence of finite thickness and lateral conduction is also investigated.
Xu, Zhijie
2012-07-01
We introduce a method of solution for the convective heat transfer under forced laminar flow that is confined by two parallel plates with a distance of 2a or by a circular tube with a radius of a. The advection-conduction equation is first mapped onto the boundary. The original problem of solving the unknown field is reduced to seek the solutions of T at the boundary (r=a or r=0, r is the distance from the centerline shown in Fig. 1), i.e. the boundary functions and/or . In this manner, the original problem is significantly simplified by reducing the problem dimensionality from 3 to 2. The unknown field can be eventually solved in terms of these boundary functions. The method is applied to the convective heat transfer with uniform wall temperature boundary condition and with heat exchange between flowing fluids and its surroundings that is relevant to the geothermal applications. Analytical solutions are presented and validated for the steady state problem using the proposed method.
Zhijie Xu
2012-07-01
We introduce a new method of solution for the convective heat transfer under forced laminar flow that is confined by two parallel plates with a distance of 2a or by a circular tube with a radius of a. The advection-conduction equation is first mapped onto the boundary. The original problem of solving the unknown field T(x,r,t) is reduced to seek the solutions of T at the boundary (r = a or r = 0, r is the distance from the centerline shown in Fig. 1), i.e., the boundary functions T{sub a}(x,t) {triple_bond} T(x,r=a,t) and/or T{sub 0}(x,t) {triple_bond} T(x,r=0,t). In this manner, the original problem is significantly simplified by reducing the problem dimensionality from 3 to 2. The unknown field T(x,r,t) can be eventually solved in terms of these boundary functions. The method is applied to the convective heat transfer with uniform wall temperature boundary condition and with heat exchange between flowing fluids and its surroundings that is relevant to the geothermal applications. Analytical solutions are presented and validated for the steady-state problem using the proposed method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Esmaili Sikarudi, M. A.; Nikseresht, A. H.
2016-01-01
Smoothed particle hydrodynamics is a robust Lagrangian particle method which is widely used in various applications, from astrophysics to hydrodynamics and heat conduction. It has intrinsic capabilities for simulating large deformation, composites, multiphysics events, and multiphase fluid flows. It is vital to use reliable boundary conditions when boundary value problems like heat conduction or Poisson equation for incompressible flows are solved. Since smoothed particle hydrodynamics is not a boundary fitted grids method, implementation of boundary conditions can be problematic. Many methods have been proposed for enhancing the accuracy of implementation of boundary conditions. In the present study a new approach for facilitating the implementation of Robin and Neumann boundary conditions is proposed and proven to give accurate results. Also there is no need to use complicated preprocessing as in virtual particle method. The new method is compared to an equivalent one dimensional moving least square scheme and it is shown that the present method is less sensitive to particle disorder.
Heat conductivity of La 1- xSr xMnO 3 surface layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El-Kassab, I.; Ahmed, A. M.; Mandal, P.; Brner, K.; Kattwinkel, A.; Sondermann, U.
2001-11-01
Using the transient thermoelectric effect (TTE), we have measured the thermoelectric power S( T) and the heat conductivity ?( T) of La 1- xSr xMnO 3 ceramic surface layers with nominal compositions x=0.075, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2 and 0.3 in the temperature range 50-340 K. Except for a shift in the characteristic temperatures, the surface layer S( T) is still similar to the bulk thermopower while the heat conductivity ?( T) is markedly different, even changing the slope at intermediate temperatures. As S is less structure sensitive than ?, we relate these differences to an increased number density of defects near the surface. In particular, a stoichiometry gradient close to the surface and oxygen vacancy related (two level tunneling-) modes are indicated. In addition, new S and ? data are presented for lower doping, i.e. x=0.075 and 0.1.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Winget, J. M.; Hughes, T. J. R.
1985-01-01
The particular problems investigated in the present study arise from nonlinear transient heat conduction. One of two types of nonlinearities considered is related to a material temperature dependence which is frequently needed to accurately model behavior over the range of temperature of engineering interest. The second nonlinearity is introduced by radiation boundary conditions. The finite element equations arising from the solution of nonlinear transient heat conduction problems are formulated. The finite element matrix equations are temporally discretized, and a nonlinear iterative solution algorithm is proposed. Algorithms for solving the linear problem are discussed, taking into account the form of the matrix equations, Gaussian elimination, cost, and iterative techniques. Attention is also given to approximate factorization, implementational aspects, and numerical results.
Two-Gradient Convection in a Vertical Slot with Maxwell-Cattaneo Heat Conduction
Papanicolaou, N. C.; Christov, C. I.; Jordan, P. M.
2009-10-29
We study the effect of the Maxwell-Cattaneo law of heat conduction (MCHC) on the 1D flow in a vertical slot subject to both vertical and horizontal temperature gradients. The gravitational acceleration is allowed to oscillate, which provides an opportunity to investigate the quantitative contribution of thermal inertia as epitomized by MCHC. The addition of the time derivative in MCHC increases the order of the system. We use a spectral expansion with Rayleigh's beam functions as the basis set, which is especially suited to fourth order boundary value problems (BVP). We show that the time derivative (relaxation of the thermal flux) has a dissipative nature and leads to the appearance of purely real negative eigenvalues. Yet it also increases the absolute value of the imaginary part and decreases the absolute value of the real part of the complex eigenvalues. Thus, the system has a somewhat more oscillatory behavior than the one based on Fourier's heat conduction law (FHC)
Accuracy of lumped-parameter representations for heat conduction modeling in multilayer slabs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gori, Paola; Guattari, Claudia; de Lieto Vollaro, Roberto; Evangelisti, Luca
2015-11-01
Heat conduction in homogeneous solids can be studied by resorting to one-dimensional schemes, as is often done, e.g., for building construction elements. In such situations, a simple model often employed makes use of an electrical analogy between temperature and heat flux, on one side, and voltage and electrical current on the other side. Within this framework, a few lumped-parameter representations have been described in literature to describe the thermal behavior of a single homogeneous slab or of multilayer slabs. Such models have the advantage of providing some physical insight into the phenomenon of one-dimensional heat conduction, by conveying the concepts of thermal resistance and thermal capacitance, the latter related to heat storage ability. There is, however, a certain degree of approximation in such models. The simplifying assumptions and approximations underlying these approaches will be reviewed and discussed in this contribution. The accuracy of some lumped-parameter model will be analyzed in order to show under which circumstances the approximate solutions can be satisfactorily employed. In particular, the focus will be on the comparison of the predictions that approximate and accurate methods provide when studying the influence of layer order and distribution on the thermal performance of multilayer structures.
Tree-shaped fluid flow and heat storage in a conducting solid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Combelles, L.; Lorente, S.; Anderson, R.; Bejan, A.
2012-01-01
This paper documents the time-dependent thermal interaction between a fluid stream configured as a plane tree of varying complexity embedded in a conducting solid with finite volume and insulated boundaries. The time scales of the convection-conduction phenomenon are identified. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional configurations are simulated numerically. The number of length scales of the tree architecture varies from one to four. The results show that the heat transfer density increases, and the time of approach to equilibrium decreases as the complexity of the tree designs increases. These results are then formulated in the classical notation of energy storage by sensible heating, which shows that the effective number of heat transfer units increases as the complexity of the tree design increases. The complexity of heat transfer designs in many applications is constrained by first cost and operating cost considerations. This work provides a fundamental basis for objective evaluation of cost and performance tradeoffs in thermal design of energy systems with complexity as an unconstrained parameter that can be actively varied over a broad range to determine the optimum system design.
Tree-Shaped Fluid Flow and Heat Storage in a Conducting Solid
Combelles, L.; Lorente, S.; Anderson, R.; Bejan, A.
2012-01-01
This paper documents the time-dependent thermal interaction between a fluid stream configured as a plane tree of varying complexity embedded in a conducting solid with finite volume and insulated boundaries. The time scales of the convection-conduction phenomenon are identified. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional configurations are simulated numerically. The number of length scales of the tree architecture varies from one to four. The results show that the heat transfer density increases, and the time of approach to equilibrium decreases as the complexity of the tree designs increases. These results are then formulated in the classical notation of energy storage by sensible heating, which shows that the effective number of heat transfer units increases as the complexity of the tree design increases. The complexity of heat transfer designs in many applications is constrained by first cost and operating cost considerations. This work provides a fundamental basis for objective evaluation of cost and performance tradeoffs in thermal design of energy systems with complexity as an unconstrained parameter that can be actively varied over a broad range to determine the optimum system design.
On heat conduction in multicomponent, non-Maxwellian spherically symmetric solar wind plasmas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cuperman, S.; Dryer, M.
1985-01-01
A generalized expression for the steady-state heat flux in multicomponent, moderately non-Maxwellian spherically symmetric plasmas is presented and discussed. The work was motivated by the inability of the simple, Fourier-type formula for the thermal conductivity to explain the observed correlations in the solar wind. The results hold for situations not far from local thermodynamic equilibrium. The generalized expression includes not only correlations that have been observed but also correlations not sought for previously.
A variable conductance heat pipe/radiator for the lunar surface magnetometer.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kirkpatrick, J. P.; Marcus, B. D.
1972-01-01
The device was developed to supplement the existing cooling system of the Apollo 16 Lunar Surface Magnetometer (LSM). Analysis and tests showed that two such devices, inserted by an astronaut into receptacles on opposite sides of the electronics package, would reduce the diurnal temperature variation by about 40% and thereby would considerably increase the reliability of 50,000 welded connections. The LSM design constraints, selection of a variable conductance technique, heat pipe/radiator design features, and thermal performance are discussed.
Conditions for Aeronomic Applicability of the Classical Electron Heat Conduction Formula
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cole, K. D.; Hoegy, W. R.
1998-11-01
Conditions for the applicability of the classical formula for heat conduction in the electrons in ionized gas are investigated. In a fully ionised gas ( Ven much greater than Vei), when the mean free path for electron-electron (or electron-ion) collisions is much larger than the characteristic thermal scale length of the observed system, the conditions for applicability break down. In the case of the Venus ionosphere this breakdown is indicated for a large fraction of the electron temperature data from altitudes greater than 180 km, for electron densities less than 104/cc cm. In a partially ionised gas such that Ven much greater than Vei there is breakdown of the formula not only when the mean free path of electrons greatly exceeds the thermal scale length, but also when the gradient of neutral particle density exceeds the electron thermal gradient. It is shown that electron heat conduction may be neglected in estimating the temperature of joule heated electrons by observed strong 100 Hz electric fields when the conduction flux is limited by the saturation flux. The results of this paper support our earlier aeronomical arguments against the hypothesis of planetary scale whistlers for the 100 Hz electric field signal. In turn this means that data from the 100 Hz signal may not be used to support the case for lightning on Venus.
Conditions for Aeronomic Applicability of the Classical Electron Heat Conduction Formula
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cole, K. D.; Hoegy, W. R.
1998-01-01
Conditions for the applicability of the classical formula for heat conduction in the electrons in ionized gas are investigated. In a fully ionised gas ( V(sub en) much greater than V(sub ei)), when the mean free path for electron-electron (or electron-ion) collisions is much larger than the characteristic thermal scale length of the observed system, the conditions for applicability break down. In the case of the Venus ionosphere this breakdown is indicated for a large fraction of the electron temperature data from altitudes greater than 180 km, for electron densities less than 10(exp 4)/cc cm. In a partially ionised gas such that V(sub en) much greater than V(sub ei) there is breakdown of the formula not only when the mean free path of electrons greatly exceeds the thermal scale length, but also when the gradient of neutral particle density exceeds the electron thermal gradient. It is shown that electron heat conduction may be neglected in estimating the temperature of joule heated electrons by observed strong 100 Hz electric fields when the conduction flux is limited by the saturation flux. The results of this paper support our earlier aeronomical arguments against the hypothesis of planetary scale whistlers for the 100 Hz electric field signal. In turn this means that data from the 100 Hz signal may not be used to support the case for lightning on Venus.
A direct approach to finding unknown boundary conditions in steady heat conduction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Martin, Thomas J.; Dulikravich, George S.
1993-01-01
The capability of the boundary element method (BEM) in determining thermal boundary conditions on surfaces of a conducting solid where such quantities are unknown was demonstrated. The method uses a non-iterative direct approach in solving what is usually called the inverse heat conduction problem (IHCP). Given any over-specified thermal boundary conditions such as a combination of temperature and heat flux on a surface where such data is readily available, the algorithm computes the temperature field within the object and any unknown thermal boundary conditions on surfaces where thermal boundary values are unavailable. A two-dimensional, steady-state BEM program was developed and was tested on several simple geometries where the analytic solution was known. Results obtained with the BEM were in excellent agreement with the analytic values. The algorithm is highly flexible in treating complex geometries, mixed thermal boundary conditions, and temperature-dependent material properties and is presently being extended to three-dimensional and unsteady heat conduction problems. The accuracy and reliability of this technique was very good but tended to deteriorate when the known surface conditions were only slightly over-specified and far from the inaccessible surface.
Entropy and Nonlinear Nonequilibrium Thermodynamic Relation for Heat Conducting Steady States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Komatsu, Teruhisa S.; Nakagawa, Naoko; Sasa, Shin-Ichi; Tasaki, Hal
2011-01-01
Among various possible routes to extend entropy and thermodynamics to nonequilibrium steady states (NESS), we take the one which is guided by operational thermodynamics and the Clausius relation. In our previous study, we derived the extended Clausius relation for NESS, where the heat in the original relation is replaced by its "renormalized" counterpart called the excess heat, and the Gibbs-Shannon expression for the entropy by a new symmetrized Gibbs-Shannon-like expression. Here we concentrate on Markov processes describing heat conducting systems, and develop a new method for deriving thermodynamic relations. We first present a new simpler derivation of the extended Clausius relation, and clarify its close relation with the linear response theory. We then derive a new improved extended Clausius relation with a "nonlinear nonequilibrium" contribution which is written as a correlation between work and heat. We argue that the "nonlinear nonequilibrium" contribution is unavoidable, and is determined uniquely once we accept the (very natural) definition of the excess heat. Moreover it turns out that to operationally determine the difference in the nonequilibrium entropy to the second order in the temperature difference, one may only use the previous Clausius relation without a nonlinear term or must use the new relation, depending on the operation (i.e., the path in the parameter space). This peculiar "twist" may be a clue to a better understanding of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics of NESS.
Review and comparison of nanofluid thermal conductivity and heat transfer enhancements.
Yu, W.; France, D. M.; Routbort, J. L.; Choi, S. U.S.; Energy Systems; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago; Korea Inst. of Energy Research
2008-05-01
This study provides a detailed literature review and an assessment of results of the research and development work forming the current status of nanofluid technology for heat transfer applications. Nanofluid technology is a relatively new field, and as such, the supporting studies are not extensive. Specifically, experimental results were reviewed in this study regarding the enhancement of the thermal conductivity and convective heat transfer of nanofluids relative to conventional heat transfer fluids, and assessments were made as to the state-of-the-art of verified parametric trends and magnitudes. Pertinent parameters of particle volume concentration, particle material, particle size, particle shape, base fluid material, temperature, additive, and acidity were considered individually, and experimental results from multiple research groups were used together when assessing results. To this end, published research results from many studies were recast using a common parameter to facilitate comparisons of data among research groups and to identify thermal property and heat transfer trends. The current state of knowledge is presented as well as areas where the data are presently inconclusive or conflicting. Heat transfer enhancement for available nanofluids is shown to be in the 15-40% range, with a few situations resulting in orders of magnitude enhancement.
NaK Variable Conductance Heat Pipe for Radioisotope Stirling Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tarau, Calin; Anderson, William G.; Walker, Kara
2008-01-01
In a Stirling radioisotope power system, heat must continually be removed from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules to maintain the modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. The Stirling convertor normally provides most of this cooling. If the Stirling convertor stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS, but also ending use of that convertor for the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) was designed to allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling convertor. In the design of the VCHP for the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator, the VCHP reservoir temperature can vary between 40 and 120 C. While sodium, potassium, or cesium could be used as the working fluid, their melting temperatures are above the minimum reservoir temperature, allowing working fluid to freeze in the reservoir. In contrast, the melting point of NaK is -12 C, so NaK can't freeze in the reservoir. One potential problem with NaK as a working fluid is that previous tests with NaK heat pipes have shown that NaK heat pipes can develop temperature non-uniformities in the evaporator due to NaK's binary composition. A NaK heat pipe was fabricated to measure the temperature non-uniformities in a scale model of the VCHP for the Stirling Radioisotope system. The temperature profiles in the evaporator and condenser were measured as a function of operating temperature and power. The largest delta T across the condenser was 2S C. However, the condenser delta T decreased to 16 C for the 775 C vapor temperature at the highest heat flux applied, 7.21 W/ square cm. This decrease with increasing heat flux was caused by the increased mixing of the sodium and potassium in the vapor. This temperature differential is similar to the temperature variation in this ASRG heat transfer interface without a heat pipe, so NaK can be used as the VCHP working fluid.
Heat, chloride, and specific conductance as ground water tracers near streams
Cox, M.H.; Su, G.W.; Constantz, J.
2007-01-01
Commonly measured water quality parameters were compared to heat as tracers of stream water exchange with ground water. Temperature, specific conductance, and chloride were sampled at various frequencies in the stream and adjacent wells over a 2-year period. Strong seasonal variations in stream water were observed for temperature and specific conductance. In observation wells where the temperature response correlated to stream water, chloride and specific conductance values were similar to stream water values as well, indicating significant stream water exchange with ground water. At sites where ground water temperature fluctuations were negligible, chloride and/or specific conductance values did not correlate to stream water values, indicating that ground water was not significantly influenced by exchange with stream water. Best-fit simulation modeling was performed at two sites to derive temperature-based estimates of hydraulic conductivities of the alluvial sediments between the stream and wells. These estimates were used in solute transport simulations for a comparison of measured and simulated values for chloride and specific conductance. Simulation results showed that hydraulic conductivities vary seasonally and annually. This variability was a result of seasonal changes in temperature-dependent hydraulic conductivity and scouring or clogging of the streambed. Specific conductance fits were good, while chloride data were difficult to fit due to the infrequent (quarterly) stream water chloride measurements during the study period. Combined analyses of temperature, chloride, and specific conductance led to improved quantification of the spatial and temporal variability of stream water exchange with shallow ground water in an alluvial system. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Peng'ao; Yin, Jian; Zhang, Hongbo; Xiong, Xiang
2016-03-01
Using 2.5-dimensional carbon fiber fabrics as the reinforcement, porous carbon/carbon(C/C) substrates were firstly fabricated by impregnation/carbonization (I/C) technique with furan resin and then treated at 2000, 2300 and 3000 °C, respectively. Finally, carbon fiber reinforced carbon and copper(C/C-Cu) composites were prepared by infiltrating melt copper alloy into C/C substrates under pressure. The effects of treating temperatures on microstructures and thermal conductivities of the composites were investigated. The results show that heat treatment plays an important role in the microstructure and thermal conductivity of C/C-Cu composites. It is conducive not only to rearrange the carbon crystallite of resin-based carbon in oriented layer structure, but also to improve the content and connectivity of copper alloy. The thermal conductivity increases with the increase in heat treatment temperature in both parallel and perpendicular direction; the thermal conductivity in parallel direction is evidently superior to that in perpendicular direction.
Heat conduction in disordered harmonic lattices with energy-conserving noise.
Dhar, Abhishek; Venkateshan, K; Lebowitz, J L
2011-02-01
We study heat conduction in a harmonic crystal whose bulk dynamics is supplemented by random reversals (flips) of the velocity of each particle at a rate ?. The system is maintained in a nonequilibrium stationary state (NESS) by contacts with white-noise Langevin reservoirs at different temperatures. We show that the one-body and pair correlations in this system are the same (after an appropriate mapping of parameters) as those obtained for a model with self-consistent reservoirs. This is true both for the case of equal and random (quenched) masses. While the heat conductivity in the NESS of the ordered system is known explicitly, much less is known about the random mass case. Here we investigate the random system with velocity flips. We improve the bounds on the Green-Kubo conductivity obtained by Bernardin [J. Stat. Phys. 133, 417 (2008)]. The conductivity of the one-dimensional system is then studied both numerically and analytically. This sheds some light on the effect of noise on the transport properties of systems with localized states caused by quenched disorder. PMID:21405819
Heat conduction in disordered harmonic lattices with energy-conserving noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dhar, Abhishek; Venkateshan, K.; Lebowitz, J. L.
2011-02-01
We study heat conduction in a harmonic crystal whose bulk dynamics is supplemented by random reversals (flips) of the velocity of each particle at a rate ?. The system is maintained in a nonequilibrium stationary state (NESS) by contacts with white-noise Langevin reservoirs at different temperatures. We show that the one-body and pair correlations in this system are the same (after an appropriate mapping of parameters) as those obtained for a model with self-consistent reservoirs. This is true both for the case of equal and random (quenched) masses. While the heat conductivity in the NESS of the ordered system is known explicitly, much less is known about the random mass case. Here we investigate the random system with velocity flips. We improve the bounds on the Green-Kubo conductivity obtained by Bernardin [J. Stat. Phys.JSTPBS0022-471510.1007/s10955-008-9620-1 133, 417 (2008)]. The conductivity of the one-dimensional system is then studied both numerically and analytically. This sheds some light on the effect of noise on the transport properties of systems with localized states caused by quenched disorder.
First Principles Modeling of Phonon Heat Conduction in Nanoscale Crystalline Structures
Sandip Mazumder; Ju Li
2010-06-30
The inability to remove heat efficiently is currently one of the stumbling blocks toward further miniaturization and advancement of electronic, optoelectronic, and micro-electro-mechanical devices. In order to formulate better heat removal strategies and designs, it is first necessary to understand the fundamental mechanisms of heat transport in semiconductor thin films. Modeling techniques, based on first principles, can play the crucial role of filling gaps in our understanding by revealing information that experiments are incapable of. Heat conduction in crystalline semiconductor films occurs by lattice vibrations that result in the propagation of quanta of energy called phonons. If the mean free path of the traveling phonons is larger than the film thickness, thermodynamic equilibrium ceases to exist, and thus, the Fourier law of heat conduction is invalid. In this scenario, bulk thermal conductivity values, which are experimentally determined by inversion of the Fourier law itself, cannot be used for analysis. The Boltzmann Transport Equation (BTE) is a powerful tool to treat non-equilibrium heat transport in thin films. The BTE describes the evolution of the number density (or energy) distribution for phonons as a result of transport (or drift) and inter-phonon collisions. Drift causes the phonon energy distribution to deviate from equilibrium, while collisions tend to restore equilibrium. Prior to solution of the BTE, it is necessary to compute the lifetimes (or scattering rates) for phonons of all wave-vector and polarization. The lifetime of a phonon is the net result of its collisions with other phonons, which in turn is governed by the conservation of energy and momentum during the underlying collision processes. This research project contributed to the state-of-the-art in two ways: (1) by developing and demonstrating a calibration-free simple methodology to compute intrinsic phonon scattering (Normal and Umklapp processes) time scales with the inclusion of optical phonons, and (2) by developing a suite of numerical algorithms for solution of the BTE for phonons. The suite of numerical algorithms includes Monte Carlo techniques and deterministic techniques based on the Discrete Ordinates Method and the Ballistic-Diffusive approximation of the BTE. These methods were applied to calculation of thermal conductivity of silicon thin films, and to simulate heat conduction in multi-dimensional structures. In addition, thermal transport in silicon nanowires was investigated using two different first principles methods. One was to apply the Green-Kubo formulation to an equilibrium system. The other was to use Non-Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics (NEMD). Results of MD simulations showed that the nanowire cross-sectional shape and size significantly affects the thermal conductivity, as has been found experimentally. In summary, the project clarified the role of various phonon modes - in particular, optical phonon - in non-equilibrium transport in silicon. It laid the foundation for the solution of the BTE in complex three-dimensional structures using deterministic techniques, paving the way for the development of robust numerical tools that could be coupled to existing device simulation tools to enable coupled electro-thermal modeling of practical electronic/optoelectronic devices. Finally, it shed light on why the thermal conductivity of silicon nanowires is so sensitive to its cross-sectional shape.
Ogata, R.; Liu, H. Q.; Ishiguro, M.; Ikeda, T.; Hanada, K.; Zushi, H.; Nakamura, K.; Fujisawa, A.; Idei, H.; Hasegawa, M.; Kawasaki, S.; Nakashima, H.; Higashijima, A.; Nishino, N.; Collaboration: QUEST Group
2011-09-15
A study of radial propagation and electric fields induced by charge separation in blob-like structures has been performed in a non-confined cylindrical electron cyclotron resonance heating plasma on Q-shu University Experiment with a Steady-State Spherical Tokamak using a fast-speed camera and a Langmuir probe. The radial propagation of the blob-like structures is found to be driven by E x B drift. Moreover, these blob-like structures were found to have been accelerated, and the property of the measured radial velocities agrees with the previously proposed model [C. Theiler et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 065001 (2009)]. Although the dependence of the radial velocity on the connection length of the magnetic field appeared to be different, a plausible explanation based on enhanced short-circuiting of the current path can be proposed.
Perano, Kristen M; Usack, Joseph G; Angenent, Largus T; Gebremedhin, Kifle G
2015-08-01
The objective of this research was to test the effectiveness of conductive cooling in alleviating heat stress of lactating dairy cows. A conductive cooling system was built with waterbeds (Dual Chamber Cow Waterbeds, Advanced Comfort Technology Inc., Reedsburg, WI) modified to circulate chilled water. The experiment lasted 7 wk. Eight first-lactation Holstein cows producing 34.4±3.7kg/d of milk at 166±28 d in milk were used in the study. Milk yield, dry matter intake (DMI), and rectal temperature were recorded twice daily, and respiration rate was recorded 5 times per day. During wk 1, the cows were not exposed to experimental heat stress or conductive cooling. For the remaining 6 wk, the cows were exposed to heat stress from 0900 to 1700h each day. During these 6 wk, 4 of the 8 cows were cooled with conductive cooling (experimental cows), and the other 4 were not cooled (control cows). The study consisted of 2 thermal environment exposures (temperature-humidity index mean ± standard deviation of 80.7±0.9 and 79.0±1.0) and 2 cooling water temperatures (circulating water through the water mattresses at temperatures of 4.5°C and 10°C). Thus, a total of 4 conductive cooling treatments were tested, with each treatment lasting 1 wk. During wk 6, the experimental and control cows were switched and the temperature-humidity index of 79.0±1.0 with 4.5°C cooling water treatment was repeated. During wk 7, waterbeds were placed directly on concrete stalls without actively cooling the water. Least squares means and P-values for the different treatments were calculated with multivariate mixed models. Conductively cooling the cows with 4.5°C water decreased rectal temperature by 1.0°C, decreased respiration rate by 18 breaths/min, increased milk yield by 5%, and increased DMI by 14% compared with the controls. When the results from the 2 cooling water temperatures (4.5°C and 10°C circulating water) were compared, we found that the rectal temperature from 4.5°C cooling water was 0.3°C lower than the rectal temperature with 10°C cooling water, but the other measurements (respiration rate, milk production, and DMI) did not show a statistically significant difference between the cooling water temperatures. Placing waterbeds on concrete stalls without additional cooling did not have a measurable effect in alleviating the heat stress of the cows. PMID:26074243
Technique for measuring high-temperature thermal conductivity of solids by the use of a heat pipe.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Forman, R.
1971-01-01
A suggested technique for accurately measuring thermal conductivity of solids in the temperature range 800-1500 C is presented. The procedure employs the sample to be tested in series combination with a high-temperature heat pipe and a heat-transfer device, which has a variable thermal conductance. By changing the thermal conductance of the heat-transfer unit and measuring the change in heat-pipe power input to maintain a constant heat-pipe temperature, one can accurately measure the heat flux through the sample in conjunction with the temperature drop across it. This steady-state technique has some inherent advantages over methods currently employed to measure thermal conductivity at elevated temperatures.
One-Particle Representation of Heat Conduction Described within the Scope of the Second Law.
Jesudason, Christopher Gunaseelan
2016-01-01
The Carnot cycle and its deduction of maximum conversion efficiency of heat inputted and outputted isothermally at different temperatures necessitated the construction of isothermal and adiabatic pathways within the cycle that were mechanically "reversible", leading eventually to the Kelvin-Clausius development of the entropy function [Formula: see text] with differential [Formula: see text] such that [Formula: see text] where the heat absorption occurs at the isothermal paths of the elementary Carnot cycle. Another required condition is that the heat transfer processes take place infinitely slowly and "reversibly", implying that rates of transfer are not explicitly featured in the theory. The definition of 'heat' as that form of energy that is transferred as a result of a temperature difference suggests that the local mode of transfer of "heat" in the isothermal segments of the pathway implies a Fourier-like heat conduction mechanism which is apparently irreversible, leading to an increase in entropy of the combined reservoirs at either end of the conducting material, and which is deemed reversible mechanically. These paradoxes are circumvented here by first clarifying the terms used before modeling heat transfer as a thermodynamically reversible but mechanically irreversible process and applied to a one dimensional atomic lattice chain of interacting particles subjected to a temperature difference exemplifying Fourier heat conduction. The basis of a "recoverable trajectory" i.e. that which follows a zero entropy trajectory is identified. The Second Law is strictly maintained in this development. A corollary to this zero entropy trajectory is the generalization of the Zeroth law for steady state non-equilibrium systems with varying temperature, and thus to a statement about "equilibrium" in steady state non-thermostatic conditions. An energy transfer rate term is explicitly identified for each particle and agrees quantitatively (and independently) with the rate of heat absorbed at the reservoirs held at different temperatures and located at the two ends of the lattice chain in MD simulations, where all energy terms in the simulation refer to a single particle interacting with its neighbors. These results validate the theoretical model and provides the necessary boundary conditions (for instance with regard to temperature differentials and force fields) that thermodynamical variables must comply with to satisfy the conditions for a recoverable trajectory, and thus determines the solution of the differential and integral equations that are used to model these processes. These developments and results, if fully pursued would imply that not only can the Carnot cycle be viewed as describing a local process of energy-work conversion by a single interacting particle which feature rates of energy transfer and conversion not possible in the classical Carnot development, but that even irreversible local processes might be brought within the scope of this cycle, implying a unified treatment of thermodynamically (i) irreversible (ii) reversible (iii) isothermal and (iv) adiabatic processes by conflating the classically distinct concept of work and heat energy into a single particle interactional process. A resolution to the fundamental and long-standing conjecture of Benofy and Quay concerning the Fourier principle is one consequence of the analysis. PMID:26760507
Heat conduction in one-dimensional chains and nonequilibrium Lyapunov spectrum
Posch, H.A.; Hoover, W.G.
1998-10-01
We define and study the heat conductivity {kappa} and the Lyapunov spectrum for a modified {open_quotes}ding-a-ling{close_quotes} chain undergoing steady heat flow. Free and bound particles alternate along a chain. In the present work, we use a linear gravitational potential to bind all the even-numbered particles to their lattice sites. The chain is bounded by two stochastic heat reservoirs, one hot and one cold. The Fourier conductivity of the chain decreases smoothly to a finite large-system limit. Special treatment of satellite collisions with the stochastic boundaries is required to obtain Lyapunov spectra. The summed spectra are negative, and correspond to a relatively small contraction in phase space, with the formation of a multifractal strange attractor. The largest of the Lyapunov exponents for the ding-a-ling chain appears to converge to a limiting value with increasing chain length, so that the large-system Lyapunov spectrum has a finite limit. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}
Volman, Vladimir; Zhu, Yu; Raji, Abdul-Rahman O; Genorio, Bostjan; Lu, Wei; Xiang, Changsheng; Kittrell, Carter; Tour, James M
2014-01-01
Deicing heating layers are frequently used in covers of large radio-frequency (RF) equipment, such as radar, to remove ice that could damage the structures or make them unstable. Typically, the deicers are made using a metal framework and inorganic insulator; commercial resistive heating materials are often nontransparent to RF waves. The preparation of a sub-skin-depth thin film, whose thickness is very small relative to the RF skin (or penetration) depth, is the key to minimizing the RF absorption. The skin depth of typical metals is on the order of a micrometer at the gigahertz frequency range. As a result, it is very difficult for conventional conductive materials (such as metals) to form large-area sub-skin-depth films. In this report, we disclose a new deicing heating layer composite made using graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). We demonstrate that the GNR film is thin enough to permit RF transmission. This metal-free, ultralight, robust, and scalable graphene-based RF-transparent conductive coating could significantly reduce the size and cost of deicing coatings for RF equipment covers. This is important in many aviation and marine applications. This is a demonstration of the efficacy and applicability of GNRs to afford performances unattainable by conventional materials. PMID:24328320
Tuan, P.C.; Ju, M.C.
2000-03-01
A novel adaptive and robust input estimation inverse methodology of estimating the time-varying unknown heat flux, named as the input, on the two active boundaries of a 2-D inverse heat conduction problem is presented. The algorithm includes using the Kalman filter to propose a regression model between the residual innovation and the two thermal unknown boundaries flux through given 2-D heat conduction state-space models and noisy measurement sequence. Based on this regression equation, a recursive least-square estimator (RLSE) weighted by the forgetting factor is proposed to on-line estimate these unknowns. The adaptive and robust weighting technique is essential since unknowns input are time-varied and have unpredictable changing status. In this article, the authors provide the bandwidth analysis together with bias and variance tests to construct an efficient and robust forgetting factor as the ratio between the standard deviation of measurement and observable bias innovation at each time step. Herein, the unknowns are robustly and adaptively estimated under the system involving measurement noise, process error, and unpredictable change status of time-varying unknowns. The capabilities of the proposed algorithm are demonstrated through the comparison with the conventional input estimation algorithm and validated by two benchmark performance tests in 2-D cases. Results show that the proposed algorithm not only exhibits superior robust capability but also enhances the estimation performance and highly facilitates practical implementation.
Electrical conductivity enhancement in inkjet-printed narrow lines through gradual heating
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Changjae; Nogi, Masaya; Suganuma, Katsuaki
2012-03-01
Conductive silver lines of various widths (0.04-40 mm) were fabricated with dilute silver-nanoparticle ink on polyimide films using an inkjet printer. The electrical properties of the lines were found to vary in width. In particular, wider lines (>0.4 mm) exhibited low resistivity (3.6-5.4 ?cm), approaching that of bulk silver (1.6 ?cm). On the other hand, narrower lines (<0.3 mm) exhibited much higher resistivity (14.6-16.5 ?cm), presumably because of the so-called coffee-ring effect. This effect, known to strongly influence nanoparticle deposition, is caused by convection flow, during which nanoparticles segregate at the line edge. However, when the narrower lines were heated slowly from 20 C to 200 C at a heating rate of 3 C min-1 to reduce convection flow, the nanoparticles redistributed uniformly, after which the lines exhibited low resistivity (3.9-4.2 ?cm). Therefore, gradual heating appears to be an excellent method for enabling inkjet printing technology to yield narrow highly conductive lines.
Waite, W.F.; Stern, L.A.; Kirby, S.H.; Winters, W.J.; Mason, D.H.
2007-01-01
Thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat of sI methane hydrate were measured as functions of temperature and pressure using a needle probe technique. The temperature dependence was measured between ?20C and 17C at 31.5 MPa. The pressure dependence was measured between 31.5 and 102 MPa at 14.4C. Only weak temperature and pressure dependencies were observed. Methane hydrate thermal conductivity differs from that of water by less than 10 per cent, too little to provide a sensitive measure of hydrate content in water-saturated systems. Thermal diffusivity of methane hydrate is more than twice that of water, however, and its specific heat is about half that of water. Thus, when drilling into or through hydrate-rich sediment, heat from the borehole can raise the formation temperature more than 20 per cent faster than if the formation's pore space contains only water. Thermal properties of methane hydrate should be considered in safety and economic assessments of hydrate-bearing sediment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Waite, W. F.; Stern, L. A.; Kirby, S. H.; Winters, W. J.; Mason, D. H.
2007-05-01
Thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat of sI methane hydrate were measured as functions of temperature and pressure using a needle probe technique. The temperature dependence was measured between -20°C and 17°C at 31.5 MPa. The pressure dependence was measured between 31.5 and 102 MPa at 14.4°C. Only weak temperature and pressure dependencies were observed. Methane hydrate thermal conductivity differs from that of water by less than 10 per cent, too little to provide a sensitive measure of hydrate content in water-saturated systems. Thermal diffusivity of methane hydrate is more than twice that of water, however, and its specific heat is about half that of water. Thus, when drilling into or through hydrate-rich sediment, heat from the borehole can raise the formation temperature more than 20 per cent faster than if the formation's pore space contains only water. Thermal properties of methane hydrate should be considered in safety and economic assessments of hydrate-bearing sediment.
Heat conductivity in graphene and related materials: A time-domain modal analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gill-Comeau, Maxime; Lewis, Laurent J.
2015-11-01
We use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study heat conductivity in single-layer graphene and graphite. We analyze the MD trajectories through a time-domain modal analysis and show that this is essential for obtaining a reliable representation of the heat flow in graphene and graphite as it permits the proper treatment of collective vibrational excitations, in contrast to a frequency-domain formulation. Our temperature-dependent results are in very good agreement with experiment and, for temperatures in the range 300-1200 K, we find that the ZA branch allows more heat flow than all other branches combined while the contributions of the TA, LA, and ZO branches are comparable at all temperatures. Conductivity mappings reveal strong collective excitations associated with low-frequency ZA modes. We demonstrate that these collective effects are a consequence of the quadratic nature of the ZA branch as they also show up in graphite but are reduced in strained graphene, where the dispersion becomes linear, and are absent in diamond, where acoustic branches are linear. In general, neglecting collective excitations yields errors similar to those from the single-mode relaxation-time approximation.
GRABER: The Duct Tape of Space and JIMO Heat Conducting Foam
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gamble, Eleanor A.
2004-01-01
Crack formation in the space shuttle's heat shield during flight poses a major safety concern to everyone on board. Cracking weakens the structure of the shield and lessens the protection it offers against the high temperatures and forces encountered during re-entry. Astronauts need a way to mend these cracks while in space. This is GRABER s function; it can be spackled into the cracks by an astronaut. The material then hardens, or cures, due to being in a vacuum and the heat encountered when it faces the sun. A great deal of work and testing is necessary to create a material that will be workable in a vacuum over a wide range of temperatures, will cure without cracking, will adhere to the sides of the crack, and that can withstand the extreme temperatures of re-entry. A Brookfield PVS Rheometer is being used to characterize GRABER's viscosity at various temperatures and stirring rates. Various compositions of GRABER are being heat treated in a vacuum to determine probably curing times in space. The microstructures of cured samples of each composition are being examined using both optical and electron microscopy. Jupiter s Icy Moon Orbiter (JIMO) will be lifting off sometime around 2013. JIMO will have more power than its predecessor, Galileo, allowing it to change orbits to circle three of Jupiter s moons. Both of the engine types being considered require large heat dissipation systems. These systems will be comprised of heat conductive tubing and plates with a liquid flowing through them. In order to maximize the speed of heat transfer between the tubes and the panels, the in-between areas will be filled with heat conductive silicon carbide foam. Two different foam systems are being considered for this foam. Currently, experimentation is underway with adding Sic, carbon, and carbon fibers to a two part fuel retardant foam. The foam is them pyrolized and its mass and dimensional changes are measured. The structure of the foam will be examined using optical and electron microscopy as well. Work is also planned with a foam system developed by an Italian team.
Wang, Jian; Olsen, Robert G; Tang, Juming; Tang, Zhongwei
2008-01-01
Experiments and computer simulations were conducted to systematically investigate the influence of mashed potato dielectric properties and circulating water electric conductivity on electromagnetic field distribution, heating rate, and heating pattern in packaged food during radio frequency (RF) heating processes in a 6 kW, 27 MHz laboratory scale RF heating system. Both experimental and simulation results indicated that for the selected food (mashed potato) in this study, the heating rate decreased with an increase of electric conductivity of circulating water and food salt content. Simplified analytical calculations were carried out to verify the simulation results, which further indicated that the electric field distribution in the mashed potato samples was also influenced by their dielectric properties and the electric conductivity of the surrounding circulating water. Knowing the influence of water electric conductivity and mashed potato dielectric properties on the heating rate and heating pattern is helpful in optimizing the radio frequency heating process by properly adjusting these factors. The results demonstrate that computer simulation has the ability to demonstrate influence on RF heat pattern caused by the variation of material physical properties and the potential to aid the improvement on construction and modification of RF heating systems. PMID:19227075
Expansion of a radial jet from a guillotine tube breach in a shell-and-tube heat exchanger
Velasco, F.J.S.; del Pra, C. Lopez; Herranz, Luis E.
2008-02-15
Aerodynamics of a particle-laden gas jet entering the secondary side of a shell-and-tube heat exchanger from a tube guillotine breach, determines to a large extent radioactive retention in the break stage of the steam generator (SG) during hypothetical SGTR accident sequences in pressurized nuclear water reactors (PWRs). These scenarios were shown to be risk-dominant in PWRs. The major insights gained from a set of experiments into such aerodynamics are summarized in this paper. A scaled-down mock-up with representative dimensions of a real SG was built. Two-dimensional (2D) PIV technique was used to characterize the flow field in the space between the breach and the neighbor tubes in the gas flow range investigated (Re{sub D} = 0.8-2.7 x 10{sup 5}). Pitot tube measurements and CFD simulations were used to discuss and complement PIV data. The results, reported mainly in terms of velocity and turbulent intensity profiles, show that jet penetration and gas entrainment are considerably enhanced when increasing Re{sub D}. The presence of tubes was observed to distort the jet shape and to foster gas entrainment with respect to a jet expansion free of tubes. Turbulence intensity level close to the breach increases linearly with Re{sub D}. Account of this information into aerosol modeling will enhance predictive capability of inertial impaction and turbulent deposition equations. (author)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saito, Keiji; Tasaki, Hal
2011-12-01
Recently, in their attempt to construct steady state thermodynamics (SST), Komatsu, Nakagawa, Sasa, and Tasaki found an extension of the Clausius relation to nonequilibrium steady states in classical stochastic processes. Here we derive a quantum mechanical version of the extended Clausius relation. We consider a small system of interest attached to large systems which play the role of heat baths. By only using the genuine quantum dynamics, we realize a heat conducting nonequilibrium steady state in the small system. We study the response of the steady state when the parameters of the system are changed abruptly, and show that the extended Clausius relation, in which "heat" is replaced by the "excess heat", is valid when the temperature difference is small. Moreover we show that the entropy that appears in the relation is similar to von Neumann entropy but has an extra symmetrization with respect to time-reversal. We believe that the present work opens a new possibility in the study of nonequilibrium phenomena in quantum systems, and also confirms the robustness of the approach by Komatsu et al.
An implicit-iterative solution of the heat conduction equation with a radiation boundary condition
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, S. D.; Curry, D. M.
1977-01-01
For the problem of predicting one-dimensional heat transfer between conducting and radiating mediums by an implicit finite difference method, four different formulations were used to approximate the surface radiation boundary condition while retaining an implicit formulation for the interior temperature nodes. These formulations are an explicit boundary condition, a linearized boundary condition, an iterative boundary condition, and a semi-iterative boundary method. The results of these methods in predicting surface temperature on the space shuttle orbiter thermal protection system model under a variety of heating rates were compared. The iterative technique caused the surface temperature to be bounded at each step. While the linearized and explicit methods were generally more efficient, the iterative and semi-iterative techniques provided a realistic surface temperature response without requiring step size control techniques.
The improved element-free Galerkin method for three-dimensional transient heat conduction problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Zan; Wang, JianFei; Cheng, YuMin; Liew, Kim Meow
2013-08-01
With the improved moving least-squares (IMLS) approximation, an orthogonal function system with a weight function is used as the basis function. The combination of the element-free Galerkin (EFG) method and the IMLS approximation leads to the development of the improved element-free Galerkin (IEFG) method. In this paper, the IEFG method is applied to study the partial differential equations that control the heat flow in three-dimensional space. With the IEFG technique, the Galerkin weak form is employed to develop the discretized system equations, and the penalty method is applied to impose the essential boundary conditions. The traditional difference method for two-point boundary value problems is selected for the time discretization. As the transient heat conduction equations and the boundary and initial conditions are time dependent, the scaling parameter, number of nodes and time step length are considered in a convergence study.
The gravitational heat conduction and the hierarchical structure in solar interior
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yahui, Zheng; Jiulin, Du
2014-03-01
With the assumption of local Tsallis equilibrium, the newly defined gravitational temperature is calculated in the solar interior, whose distribution curve can be divided into three parts: the solar core region, the radiation region and the convection region, in excellent agreement with the solar hierarchical structure. By generalizing Fourier's law, one new mechanism of heat conduction, based on the gradient of the gravitational temperature, is introduced into the astrophysical system. This mechanism is related to the self-gravity of such self-gravitating system whose characteristic scale is large enough. It perhaps plays an important role in the astrophysical system which, in the solar interior, leads to the heat accumulation at the bottom of the convection layer and then motivates the convection motion.
Layered thermal metamaterials for the directing and harvesting of conductive heat
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bandaru, P. R.; Vemuri, K. P.; Canbazoglu, F. M.; Kapadia, R. S.
2015-05-01
The utility of a metamaterial, assembled from two layers of nominally isotropic materials, for thermal energy re-orientation and harvesting is examined. A study of the underlying phenomena related to heat flux manipulation, exploiting the anisotropy of the thermal conductivity tensor, is a focus. The notion of the assembled metamaterial as an effective thermal medium forms the basis for many of these investigations and will be probed. An overarching aim is to implement in such thermal metamaterials, functionalities well known from light optics, such as reflection and refraction, which in turn may yield insights on efficient thermal lensing. Consequently, the harness and dissipation of heat, which are for example, of much importance in energy conservation and improving electrical device performance, may be accomplished. The possibilities of energy harvesting, through exploiting anisotropic thermopower in the metamaterials is also examined. The review concludes with a brief survey of the outstanding issues and insights needed for further progress.
Thermally conductive cementitious grouts for geothermal heat pumps. Progress report FY 1998
Allan, M.L.; Philippacopoulos, A.J.
1998-11-01
Research commenced in FY 97 to determine the suitability of superplasticized cement-sand grouts for backfilling vertical boreholes used with geothermal heat pump (GHP) systems. The overall objectives were to develop, evaluate and demonstrate cementitious grouts that could reduce the required bore length and improve the performance of GHPs. This report summarizes the accomplishments in FY 98. The developed thermally conductive grout consists of cement, water, a particular grade of silica sand, superplasticizer and a small amount of bentonite. While the primary function of the grout is to facilitate heat transfer between the U-loop and surrounding formation, it is also essential that the grout act as an effective borehole sealant. Two types of permeability (hydraulic conductivity) tests was conducted to evaluate the sealing performance of the cement-sand grout. Additional properties of the proposed grout that were investigated include bleeding, shrinkage, bond strength, freeze-thaw durability, compressive, flexural and tensile strengths, elastic modulus, Poisson`s ratio and ultrasonic pulse velocity.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ngo, Quoc; Cruden, Brett A.; Cassell, Alan M.; Sims, Gerard; Li, Jun; Meyyappa, M.; Yang, Cary Y.
2005-01-01
Efforts in integrated circuit (IC) packaging technologies have recently been focused on management of increasing heat density associated with high frequency and high density circuit designs. While current flip-chip package designs can accommodate relatively high amounts of heat density, new materials need to be developed to manage thermal effects of next-generation integrated circuits. Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNT) have been shown to significantly enhance thermal conduction in the axial direction and thus can be considered to be a candidate for future thermal interface materials by facilitating efficient thermal transport. This work focuses on fabrication and characterization of a robust MWNT-copper composite material as an element in IC package designs. We show that using vertically aligned MWNT arrays reduces interfacial thermal resistance by increasing conduction surface area, and furthermore, the embedded copper acts as a lateral heat spreader to efficiently disperse heat, a necessary function for packaging materials. In addition, we demonstrate reusability of the material, and the absence of residue on the contacting material, both novel features of the MWNT-copper composite that are not found in most state-of-the-art thermal interface materials. Electrochemical methods such as metal deposition and etch are discussed for the creation of the MWNT-Cu composite, detailing issues and observations with using such methods. We show that precise engineering of the composite surface affects the ability of this material to act as an efficient thermal interface material. A thermal contact resistance measurement has been designed to obtain a value of thermal contact resistance for a variety of different thermal contact materials.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Fan; He, Wen; He, Longbiao; Rong, Zuochao
2015-12-01
The wide concern on absolute pressure calibration of acoustic transducers at low frequencies prompts the development of the pistonphone method. At low frequencies, the acoustic properties of pistonphones are governed by the pressure leakage and the heat conduction effects. However, the traditional theory for these two effects applies a linear superposition of two independent correction models, which differs somewhat from their coupled effect at low frequencies. In this paper, acoustic properties of pistonphones at low frequencies in full consideration of the pressure leakage and heat conduction effects have been quantitatively studied, and the explicit expression for the generated sound pressure has been derived. With more practical significance, a coupled correction expression for these two effects of pistonphones has been derived. In allusion to two typical pistonphones, the NPL pistonphone and our developed infrasonic pistonphone, comparisons were done for the coupled correction expression and the traditional one, whose results reveal that the traditional one produces maximum insufficient errors of about 0.1 dB above the lower limiting frequencies of two pistonphones, while at lower frequencies, excessive correction errors with an explicit limit of about 3 dB are produced by the traditional expression. The coupled correction expression should be adopted in the absolute pressure calibration of acoustic transducers at low frequencies. Furthermore, it is found that the heat conduction effect takes a limiting deviation of about 3 dB for the pressure amplitude and a small phase difference as frequency decreases, while the pressure leakage effect remarkably drives the pressure amplitude to attenuate and the phase difference tends to be 90 as the frequency decreases. The pressure leakage effect plays a more important role on the low frequency property of pistonphones.
Laser heating of an absorbing and conducting media applied to laser flash property measurements
Gritzo, L.A.; Anderson, E.E.
1993-12-31
The laser flash technique is widely used for determining the thermal diffusivity of a sample. In this work, the temperature distribution throughout the sample is investigated, identifying localized, highly-heated regions near the front surface of the sample as a function of: (1) pulse duration, (2) incident beam uniformity, and (3) sample opacity. These high-temperature regions result in an increase in the uncertainty due to temperature-dependent properties, an increase in the heat loss from the sample, and an increased risk of sample damage. The temperature within a semi-transparent media is also investigated in order to establish a regime for which the media can reasonably be considered as opaque. This analysis illustrates that, for same total energy deposition, treatment of the incident energy as a continuous heat source, as opposed to an infinitesimal pulse of energy, results in a factor of 2 increase in the front surface temperature during heating. Also, for the same total energy deposition and approximate beam size, use of a Gaussian intensity distribution increases the front surface temperature during heating by more than a factor of 2 as compared to the use of a uniform temperature distribution. By analyzing the front surface temperature of an absorbing and conducting semi-transparent sample subjected to a Gaussian intensity distribution, it is concluded that the media can be treated as opaque, (i.e. the energy can be applied as a boundary condition) for {var_epsilon} = kd > 50, where k is the extinction coefficient and d is the beam diameter. For materials with a sufficiently small absorption coefficient and thermal diffusivity, a closed-form solution suitable for design use is presented for the front-surface temperature at a location coincident with the beam centerline.
Method of extension of boundaries for problems of heat conduction in bodies of mobile shape
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chernyshov, A. D.
2010-11-01
The first boundary-value problem of heat conduction was solved by the method of extension of boundaries with the simplest example of a variable-length segment. An analytical solution of the problem was obtained for arbitrary initial conditions and the law of motion of a boundary with the aid of the Fourier rapidly convergent series. An example of the solution of the problem for the case where the left end of the segment is fixed and the right one moves with a constant velocity is given.
Direct and indirect boundary element methods for solving the heat conduction problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Athanasiadis, G.
1985-05-01
The boundary element method is used to solve the stationary heat conduction problem as a Dirichlet, a Neumann or as a mixed boundary value problem. Using singularities which are interpreted physically, a number of Fredholm integral equations of the first or second kind is derived by the indirect method. With the aid of Green's third identity and Kupradze's functional equation further direct integral equations are obtained for the given problem. Finally a numerical method is described for solving the integral equations using Hermitian polynomials for the boundary elements and constant, linear, quadratic or cubic polynomials for the unknown functions.
Multiply scaled constrained nonlinear equation solvers. [for nonlinear heat conduction problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Padovan, Joe; Krishna, Lala
1986-01-01
To improve the numerical stability of nonlinear equation solvers, a partitioned multiply scaled constraint scheme is developed. This scheme enables hierarchical levels of control for nonlinear equation solvers. To complement the procedure, partitioned convergence checks are established along with self-adaptive partitioning schemes. Overall, such procedures greatly enhance the numerical stability of the original solvers. To demonstrate and motivate the development of the scheme, the problem of nonlinear heat conduction is considered. In this context the main emphasis is given to successive substitution-type schemes. To verify the improved numerical characteristics associated with partitioned multiply scaled solvers, results are presented for several benchmark examples.
Analytical evaluation of thermal conductance and heat capacities of one-dimensional material systems
Saygi, Salih
2014-02-15
We theoretically predict some thermal properties versus temperature dependence of one dimensional (1D) material nanowire systems. A known method is used to provide an efficient and reliable analytical procedure for wide temperature range. Predicted formulas are expressed in terms of Bloch-Grneisen functions and Debye functions. Computing results has proved that the expressions are in excellent agreement with the results reported in the literature even if it is in very low dimension limits of nanowire systems. Therefore the calculation method is a fully predictive approach to calculate thermal conductivity and heat capacities of nanowire material systems.
Mathematical equations for heat conduction in the fins of air-cooled engines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harper, R R; Brown, W B
1923-01-01
The problem considered in this report is that of reducing actual geometrical area of fin-cooling surface, which is, of course, not uniform in temperature, to equivalent cooling area at one definite temperature, namely, that prevailing on the cylinder wall at the point of attachment of the fin. This makes it possible to treat all the cooling surface as if it were part of the cylinder wall and 100 per cent effective. The quantities involved in the equations are the geometrical dimensions of the fin, thermal conductivity of the material composing it, and the coefficient of surface heat dissipation between the fin and the air streams.
Subsurface Temperature, Moisture, Thermal Conductivity and Heat Flux, Barrow, Area A, B, C, D
Cable, William; Romanovsky, Vladimir
2014-03-31
Subsurface temperature data are being collected along a transect from the center of the polygon through the trough (and to the center of the adjacent polygon for Area D). Each transect has five 1.5m vertical array thermistor probes with 16 thermistors each. This dataset also includes soil pits that have been instrumented for temperature, water content, thermal conductivity, and heat flux at the permafrost table. Area C has a shallow borehole of 2.5 meters depth is instrumented in the center of the polygon.
One-Particle Representation of Heat Conduction Described within the Scope of the Second Law
Jesudason, Christopher Gunaseelan
2016-01-01
The Carnot cycle and its deduction of maximum conversion efficiency of heat inputted and outputted isothermally at different temperatures necessitated the construction of isothermal and adiabatic pathways within the cycle that were mechanically “reversible”, leading eventually to the Kelvin-Clausius development of the entropy function S with differential dS=dq/T such that ∮CdS=0 where the heat absorption occurs at the isothermal paths of the elementary Carnot cycle. Another required condition is that the heat transfer processes take place infinitely slowly and “reversibly”, implying that rates of transfer are not explicitly featured in the theory. The definition of ‘heat’ as that form of energy that is transferred as a result of a temperature difference suggests that the local mode of transfer of “heat” in the isothermal segments of the pathway implies a Fourier-like heat conduction mechanism which is apparently irreversible, leading to an increase in entropy of the combined reservoirs at either end of the conducting material, and which is deemed reversible mechanically. These paradoxes are circumvented here by first clarifying the terms used before modeling heat transfer as a thermodynamically reversible but mechanically irreversible process and applied to a one dimensional atomic lattice chain of interacting particles subjected to a temperature difference exemplifying Fourier heat conduction. The basis of a “recoverable trajectory” i.e. that which follows a zero entropy trajectory is identified. The Second Law is strictly maintained in this development. A corollary to this zero entropy trajectory is the generalization of the Zeroth law for steady state non-equilibrium systems with varying temperature, and thus to a statement about “equilibrium” in steady state non-thermostatic conditions. An energy transfer rate term is explicitly identified for each particle and agrees quantitatively (and independently) with the rate of heat absorbed at the reservoirs held at different temperatures and located at the two ends of the lattice chain in MD simulations, where all energy terms in the simulation refer to a single particle interacting with its neighbors. These results validate the theoretical model and provides the necessary boundary conditions (for instance with regard to temperature differentials and force fields) that thermodynamical variables must comply with to satisfy the conditions for a recoverable trajectory, and thus determines the solution of the differential and integral equations that are used to model these processes. These developments and results, if fully pursued would imply that not only can the Carnot cycle be viewed as describing a local process of energy-work conversion by a single interacting particle which feature rates of energy transfer and conversion not possible in the classical Carnot development, but that even irreversible local processes might be brought within the scope of this cycle, implying a unified treatment of thermodynamically (i) irreversible (ii) reversible (iii) isothermal and (iv) adiabatic processes by conflating the classically distinct concept of work and heat energy into a single particle interactional process. A resolution to the fundamental and long-standing conjecture of Benofy and Quay concerning the Fourier principle is one consequence of the analysis. PMID:26760507
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Machrafi, H.; Lebon, G.
2016-01-01
A modelling of the thermal conductivity of nanofluids based on extended irreversible thermodynamics is proposed with emphasis on the role of several coupled heat transfer mechanisms: liquid interfacial layering between nanoparticles and base fluid, particles agglomeration and Brownian motion. The relative importance of each specific mechanism on the enhancement of the effective thermal conductivity is examined. It is shown that the size of the nanoparticles and the liquid boundary layer around the particles play a determining role. For nanoparticles close to molecular range, the Brownian effect is important. At nanoparticles of the order of 1-100 nm, both agglomeration and liquid layering are influent. Agglomeration becomes the most important mechanism at nanoparticle sizes of the order of 100 nm and higher. The theoretical considerations are illustrated by three case studies: suspensions of alumina rigid spherical nanoparticles in water, ethylene glycol and a 50/50w% water/ethylene glycol mixture, respectively, good agreement with experimental data is observed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tamma, Kumar K.; Railkar, Sudhir B.
1988-01-01
This paper describes new and recent advances in the development of a hybrid transfinite element computational methodology for applicability to conduction/convection/radiation heat transfer problems. The transfinite element methodology, while retaining the modeling versatility of contemporary finite element formulations, is based on application of transform techniques in conjunction with classical Galerkin schemes and is a hybrid approach. The purpose of this paper is to provide a viable hybrid computational methodology for applicability to general transient thermal analysis. Highlights and features of the methodology are described and developed via generalized formulations and applications to several test problems. The proposed transfinite element methodology successfully provides a viable computational approach and numerical test problems validate the proposed developments for conduction/convection/radiation thermal analysis.
Effects of preheating and highly heat-conductive brick on coke quality
Fukuda, K.; Arima, T.
1995-12-31
In replacing the coke ovens available currently, the introduction of a combined technique of a preheated coal charging method (preheating temperature:175 C) and the use of highly heat-conductive brick is under examination for raising the productivity of coke ovens. With such background, a study of the effects of this combined technique on the coke quality, especially the coke size was conducted. The experimental results revealed that the primary size of coke produced by the combined technique is noticeably larger than that of the coke made from wet coal and after five revolutions of drum (equivalent to mechanical impact given at a time of dropping from coke oven chamber to wharf), the coke size reduces even compared with an ordinary coke. This may be due to the fact that the coke produced by the combined technique includes a lot of fissures inside the coke lump.
AC-Conductivity Measure from Heat Production of Free Fermions in Disordered Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bru, J.-B.; de Siqueira Pedra, W.; Hertling, C.
2015-10-01
We extend (Bru et al. in J Math Phys 56:051901-1-51, 2015) in order to study the linear response of free fermions on the lattice within a (independently and identically distributed) random potential to a macroscopic electric field that is time- and space-dependent. We obtain the notion of a macroscopic AC-conductivity measure which only results from the second principle of thermodynamics. The latter corresponds here to the positivity of the heat production for cyclic processes on equilibrium states. Its Fourier transform is a continuous bounded function which is naturally called (macroscopic) conductivity. We additionally derive Green-Kubo relations involving time-correlations of bosonic fields coming from current fluctuations in the system. This is reminiscent of non-commutative central limit theorems.
Numerical model of heat conduction in active volcanoes induced by magmatic activity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Atmojo, Antono Arif; Rosandi, Yudi
2015-09-01
We study the heat transfer mechanism of active volcanoes using the numerical thermal conduction model. A 2D model of volcano with its conduit filled by magma is considered, and acts as a constant thermal source. The temperature of the magma activity diffuses through the rock layers of the mountain to the surface. The conduction equation is solved using finite-difference method, with some adaptations to allow temperature to flow through different materials. Our model allows to simulate volcanoes having dikes, branch-pipes, and sills by constructing the domain appropriately, as well as layers with different thermal properties. Our research will show the possibility to monitor magma activity underneath a volcano by probing its surface temperature. The result of our work will be very useful for further study of volcanoes, eruption prediction, and volcanic disaster mitigation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eldrup, M.; Singh, B. N.
1998-10-01
The electrical conductivity of three different types of copper alloys, viz. CuNiBe, CuCrZr and Cu-Al 2O 3 as well as of pure copper are reported. The alloys have undergone different pre-irradiation heat treatments and have been fission-neutron irradiated up to 0.3 dpa. In some cases post-irradiation annealing has been carried out. The results are discussed with reference to equivalent Transmission Electron Microscopy results on the microstructure of the materials. The CuNiBe has the lowest conductivity (?55% of that of pure Cu), and Cu-Al 2O 3 the highest (75-90% of pure Cu).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Perkins, R. A.; Cieszkiewicz, M. T.
1991-01-01
Experimental measurements of thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity obtained with a transient hot-wire apparatus are reported for three mixtures of nitrogen, oxygen, and argon. Values of the specific heat, Cp, are calculated from these measured values and the density calculated with an equation of state. The measurements were made at temperatures between 65 and 303 K with pressures between 0.1 and 70 MPa. The data cover the vapor, liquid, and supercritical gas phases for the three mixtures. The total reported points are 1066 for the air mixture (78.11 percent nitrogen, 20.97 percent oxygen, and 0.92 percent argon), 1058 for the 50 percent nitrogen, 50 percent oxygen mixture, and 864 for the 25 percent nitrogen, 75 oxygen mixture. Empirical thermal conductivity correlations are provided for the three mixtures.
Modification of the conductivity in the magnetospheric flux tube by the HF heating facility
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mogilevsky, M. M.; Bosinger, T.; Rauch, J. L.; Parrot, M.; Sauvaud, J. A.; Petrov, V.; Styajkin, V.; Rietveld, M.; Romantsova, T.
Modifications of magnetospheric plasma dynamics and related electromagnetic emission produced by artificial heating of ionosphere have been studied in the frame of INTERBALL project and Finnish EISCAT campaign. Two series of experiments were realized in October/November of 1996 and March of 2000 years. In 1996, the Tromso heating facility emitted HF signal (effective radiated power = 150 MW, carried frequency = 4.04 MHz) that was amplitude modulated at the frequency of 1733 Hz. The amplitude modulation in the year 2000 was in sequence 1 s - 500 Hz, 1 s - 1000 Hz and 1 s - no radiation. Electromagnetic emissions in the frequency range ULF/ELF/VLF as well as DC magnetic field and energetic particles flux in the energy range 10 eV - 20 keV were measured onboard INTERBALL-2 and MAGION-5 satellites at the altitude 2-3 Earth radii over the heater. Ground based magnetic field measurements have accompanied satellite observation during the heating experiment (IMAGE magnetometer network). The most prominent effects were encountered by INTERBALL-2 satellite on 27.10.96 in the interval 21.31-21.38 UT. In the nearby zone of the heated magnetic flux tube were detected: i) strong variations of DC electric and magnetic fields, ii) electromagnetic turbulence in the frequency range up to 10 Hz, iii) burst of 0.1-6 keV electron flux. The electromagnetic emission saucer type was detected few second after the start of heating. The most likely scenario is that the artificial disturbances of ionospheric plasma produce heated electrons that can be injected from ionosphere to the magnetosphere. These additional electrons arrive freely to the altitude of few Earth radii and increase significantly the conductivity in the selected flux tube (up to 40%). In the case of sufficient energy storage in the magnetospheric tail substorm manifestations will begin with an advance of a few minutes and their intensity will be considerably greater than in the neighbourhood of the heated flux tube. M.M.M. and T.V.R. thank RFBR for support (grant 02 -02-17553a).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.
1999-01-01
Laser high heat flux test approaches have been established to obtain critical properties of ceramic thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) under near-realistic temperature and thermal gradients that may he encountered in advanced engine systems. Thermal conductivity change kinetics of a thin ceramic coating were continuously monitored in real time at various test temperatures. A significant thermal conductivity increase was observed during the laser simulated engine heat flux tests. For a 0.25 mm thick ZrO2-8%Y2O3 coating system, the overall thermal conductivity increased from the initial value of 1.0 W/m-K to 1. 15 W/m-K, 1. 19 W/m-K and 1.5 W/m-K after 30 hour testing at surface temperatures of 990C, 1100C, and 1320C. respectively. Hardness and modulus gradients across a 1.5 mm thick TBC system were also determined as a function of laser testing time using the laser sintering/creep and micro-indentation techniques. The coating Knoop hardness values increased from the initial hardness value of 4 GPa to 5 GPa near the ceramic/bond coat interface, and to 7.5 GPa at the ceramic coating surface after 120 hour testing. The ceramic surface modulus increased from an initial value of about 70 GPa to a final value of 125 GPa. The increase in thermal conductivity and the evolution of significant hardness and modulus gradients in the TBC systems are attributed to sintering-induced micro-porosity gradients under the laser-imposed high thermal gradient conditions. The test techniques provide a viable means for obtaining coating data for use in design, development, stress modeling, and life prediction for various thermal barrier coating applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Held, M.; Wiesenberger, M.; Stegmeir, A.
2016-02-01
We present and discuss three discontinuous Galerkin (dG) discretizations for the anisotropic heat conduction equation on non-aligned cylindrical grids. Our non-aligned scheme relies on a self-adjoint local dG (LDG) discretization of the elliptic operator. It conserves the energy exactly and converges with arbitrary order. The pollution by numerical perpendicular heat fluxes decreases with superconvergence rates. We compare this scheme with aligned schemes that are based on the flux-coordinate independent approach for the discretization of parallel derivatives. Here, the dG method provides the necessary interpolation. The first aligned discretization can be used in an explicit time-integrator. However, the scheme violates conservation of energy and shows up stagnating convergence rates for very high resolutions. We overcome this partly by using the adjoint of the parallel derivative operator to construct a second self-adjoint aligned scheme. This scheme preserves energy, but reveals unphysical oscillations in the numerical tests, which result in a decreased order of convergence. Both aligned schemes exhibit low numerical heat fluxes into the perpendicular direction and are superior for flute-modes with finite parallel gradients. We build our argumentation on various numerical experiments on all three schemes for a general axisymmetric magnetic field, which is closed by a comparison to the aligned finite difference (FD) schemes of Stegmeir et al. (2014) and Stegmeir et al. (submitted for publication).
Lewis, Gladius; Daniels, A U
2003-08-15
Isothermal heat-conduction microcalorimetry (IHCMC) allows measurement of extremely small rates of heat flow-on the order of 0.1 microwatt. This provides, for example, the ability to directly observe-and quantitate in a few days-rates of degradation as low as 1% per year at body temperature, in solid material samples of a few grams. Also, one method of IHCMC data analysis allows direct determination of the reaction-rate constant at the temperature of interest, thereby avoiding possible errors due to rate mechanism changes with temperature, an issue that needs to be considered when the Arrhenius method is used. IHCMC can also be used to measure transient phenomena, such as heat of adsorption, and initial metabolic responses of cellular entities to biomaterials. The purposes of this review article are to (a) explain the basic principles, attractive features, limitations, and methods of IHCMC; (b) describe biomaterials applications to date--including studies of the stability of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene and implant-grade calcium sulfate, setting reactions of dental adhesives, and macrophage response to biomaterial particles; (c) provide a discussion of issues and concerns that should be addressed in order to maximize the utility of IHCMC in biomaterials studies; and (d) suggest a number of possible future biomaterials applications for this technique. PMID:12861599
The specific heat capacity and thermal conductivity of normal liquid /sup 3/He
Mitchell, R.; Eastop, A.D.; Faraj, E.; Hook, J.R.
1986-07-01
By observing the diffusion of a heat pulse along a 10-cm column of normal liquid /sup 3/He with the aid of two vibrating wire thermometers, it has been possible to measure the heat capacity C and thermal conductivity K of the liquid in the temperature range from T /sub c/ to 10 mK and at pressures of 0.21, 4.39, 9.97, 20.01, and 29.32 bar. By using a Pt NMR thermometer, an LCMN thermometer, and a /sup 3/He melting curve thermometer calibrated using the melting curve given by Greywall in 1983, a temperature scale has been established and (1) it has been shown that this melting curve is consistent in the temperature range 5-22 mK with the Korringa law for the Pt thermometer with a Korringa constant of 29.8 +/- 0.2 sec mK, (2) departures have been observed from the Curie-Weiss law for LCMN at low temperatures, and (3) values of the superfluid transition temperature have been obtained that are about 4% lower than the Helsinki values. The measured heat capacities agree well with those of Greywall, but values of KT are higher than those of Greywall and show more temperature dependence below 10mK. The implications for the present results of the very different melting curve given by Greywall in 1985 are discussed in an Appendix.
Efficient solution of a three-dimensional inverse heat conduction problem in pool boiling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Egger, Herbert; Heng, Yi; Marquardt, Wolfgang; Mhamdi, Adel
2009-09-01
In this paper, we consider a three-dimensional transient inverse heat conduction problem arising in pool boiling experiments, i.e., the reconstruction of the surface heat flux from pointwise temperature observations inside a heater. We show that the inverse problem is ill-posed and utilize Tikhonov regularization and conjugate gradient methods together with a discrepancy stopping rule for a stable solution. We investigate the proper choice of regularization terms, which not only affects stability of the reconstructions but also greatly influences the quality of reconstructions in the case of limited observations. For the numerical solution of the governing partial differential equation, a space-time finite element method is used. This allows us to compute exact gradients for the discretized Tikhonov functional, and enables the use of conjugate gradient methods for the solution of the regularized inverse problem. We discuss further aspects of an efficient implementation, including a multilevel optimization strategy, together with an implementable stopping criterion. Finally, the proposed algorithms are applied to the reconstruction of local boiling heat fluxes from experimental data.
Advanced development of the boundary element method for steady-state heat conduction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dargush, G. F.; Banerjee, Prasanta K.
1989-01-01
Considerable progress has been made in recent years toward advancing the state-of-the-art in solid mechanics boundary element technology. In the present work, much of this new technology is applied in the development of a general-purpose boundary element method (BEM) for steady-state heat conduction. In particular, the BEM implementation involves the use of higher-order conforming elements, self-adaptive integration and multi-region capability. Two- and three-dimensional, as well as axisymmetric analysis, are incorporated within a unified framework. In addition, techniques are introduced for the calculation of boundary flux, and for the inclusion of thermal resistance across interfaces. As a final extension, an efficient formulation is developed for the analysis of solid three-dimensional bodies with embedded holes. For this last class of problems, the new BEM formulation is particularly attractive, since use of the alternatives (i.e. finite element or finite difference methods) is not practical. A number of detailed examples illustrate the suitability and robustness of the present approach for steady-state heat conduction.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lang, Christapher G.; Bey, Kim S. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
This research investigates residual-based a posteriori error estimates for finite element approximations of heat conduction in single-layer and multi-layered materials. The finite element approximation, based upon hierarchical modelling combined with p-version finite elements, is described with specific application to a two-dimensional, steady state, heat-conduction problem. Element error indicators are determined by solving an element equation for the error with the element residual as a source, and a global error estimate in the energy norm is computed by collecting the element contributions. Numerical results of the performance of the error estimate are presented by comparisons to the actual error. Two methods are discussed and compared for approximating the element boundary flux. The equilibrated flux method provides more accurate results for estimating the error than the average flux method. The error estimation is applied to multi-layered materials with a modification to the equilibrated flux method to approximate the discontinuous flux along a boundary at the material interfaces. A directional error indicator is developed which distinguishes between the hierarchical modeling error and the finite element error. Numerical results are presented for single-layered materials which show that the directional indicators accurately determine which contribution to the total error dominates.
Heat conduction in plates and shells with emphasis on a conical shell
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rubin, M. B.
This paper is concerned with analyzing heat conduction in rigid shell-like bodies. The thermal equations of the theory of a Cosserat surface are used to calculate the average (through-the-thickness) temperature and temperature gradient directly, without resorting to integration of three-dimensional results. Specific attention is focused on a conical shell. The conical shell is particularly interesting because it has a converging geometry, so that the shell near its tip is 'thick' even though the shell near its base may be 'thin'. Generalized constitutive equations are developed here in a consistent manner which include certain geometrical features of shells. These equations are tested by considering a number of problems of plates, circular cylindrical shells and spherical shells, and comparing the results with exact solutions. In all cases, satisfactory results are predicted even in the thick-shell limit. Finally, a problem of transient heat conduction in a conical shell is solved. It is shown that the thermal bending moment produced by the average temperature gradient is quite severe near the tip, and it attains its maximum value in a relatively short time.
Mechanistic transition of heat conduction in two-dimensional solids: A study of silica bilayers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yanlei; Song, Zhigong; Xu, Zhiping
2015-12-01
Thermal transport in solids changes its nature from phonon propagation that suffers from perturbative scattering to thermally activated hops between localized vibrational modes as the level of disorder increases. Models have been proposed to understand these two distinct extremes that predict opposite temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity but not for the transition or the intermediate regime. Here we explore thermal transport in two-dimensional silica with varying levels of disorder α by performing atomistic simulations, as well as analysis based on the kinetic and Allen-Feldman theories. We demonstrate a crossover between the crystalline and amorphous regimes at α ˜0.3 , which is characterized by a turnover of the temperature dependence in thermal conductivity and explained by the dominance of thermal hopping processes. This critical disorder level is also identified in the analysis of the participation ratio of localized vibrational modes and the spatial localization of heat flux. These factors serve as key indicators in quantitatively characterizing the mechanism of heat transport in the transitional regime.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nath, G.; Vishwakarma, J. P.
2014-05-01
The propagation of a spherical (or cylindrical) shock wave in a non-ideal gas with heat conduction and radiation heat-flux, in the presence of a spacially decreasing azimuthal magnetic field, driven out by a moving piston is investigated. The heat conduction is expressed in terms of Fourier's law and the radiation is considered to be of the diffusion type for an optically thick grey gas model. The thermal conductivity K and the absorption coefficient αR are assumed to vary with temperature and density. The gas is assumed to have infinite electrical conductivity and to obey a simplified van der Waals equation of state. The shock wave moves with variable velocity and the total energy of the wave is non-constant. Similarity solutions are obtained for the flow-field behind the shock and the effects of variation of the heat transfer parameters, the parameter of the non-idealness of the gas, both, decreases the compressibility of the gas and hence there is a decrease in the shock strength. Further, it is investigated that with an increase in the parameters of radiative and conductive heat transfer the tendency of formation of maxima in the distributions of heat flux, density and isothermal speed of sound decreases. The pressure and density vanish at the inner surface (piston) and hence a vacuum is form at the center of symmetry. The shock waves in conducting non-ideal gas with conductive and radiative heat fluxes can be important for description of shocks in supernova explosions, in the study of central part of star burst galaxies, nuclear explosion, chemical detonation, rupture of a pressurized vessels, in the analysis of data from exploding wire experiments, and cylindrically symmetric hypersonic flow problems associated with meteors or reentry vehicles, etc. The findings of the present works provided a clear picture of whether and how the non-idealness parameter, conductive and radiative heat transfer parameters and the magnetic field affect the flow behind the shock front.
Kihm, Kenneth D; Chon, Chan Hee; Lee, Joon Sik; Choi, Stephen Us
2011-01-01
An alternative insight is presented concerning heat propagation velocity scales in predicting the effective thermal conductivities of nanofluids. The widely applied Brownian particle velocities in published literature are often found too slow to describe the relatively higher nanofluid conductivities. In contrast, the present model proposes a faster heat transfer velocity at the same order as the speed of sound, rooted in a modified kinetic principle. In addition, this model accounts for both nanoparticle heat dissipation as well as coagulation effects. This novel model of effective thermal conductivities of nanofluids agrees well with an extended range of experimental data. PMID:21711892
Sarman, Sten; Laaksonen, Aatto
2013-03-14
The lack of a centre of inversion in a cholesteric liquid crystal allows linear cross couplings between thermodynamic forces and fluxes that are polar vectors and pseudovectors, respectively. This makes it possible for a temperature gradient parallel to the cholesteric axis to induce a torque that rotates the director, a phenomenon known as the Lehmann effect or thermomechanical coupling. The converse is also possible: a torque applied parallel to the cholesteric axis rotates the director and drives a heat flow. In order to study this phenomenon, nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulation algorithms and Green-Kubo relations evaluated by equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation have been used to calculate the Leslie coefficient, i.e. the cross coupling coefficient between the temperature gradient and the director angular velocity, for a model system composed of soft prolate ellipsoids of revolution interacting via the Gay-Berne potential augmented by a chiral interaction potential causing the formation of a cholesteric phase. It is found that the Leslie coefficient is two orders of magnitudes smaller than other transport coefficients such as the heat conductivity and the twist viscosity, so that very long simulations are required to evaluate it. The Leslie coefficient decreases with the pitch but it has not been possible to determine the exact functional dependence of this coefficient on the pitch. Since very long simulations have been performed to evaluate the Leslie coefficient, very accurate values have been obtained for the twist viscosity and the heat conductivity as a by-product and it is found that they are very similar to the values of the corresponding quantities in the achiral nematic phase that arises when the pitch goes to infinity. PMID:23223192
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vishwakarma, V.; Jain, A.
2014-12-01
The separator is a critical, multi-functional component of a Li-ion cell that plays a key role in performance and safety during energy conversion and storage processes. Heat flow through the separator is important for minimizing cell temperature and avoiding thermal runaway. Despite the critical nature of thermal conduction through the separator, very little research has been reported on understanding and measuring the thermal conductivity and heat capacity of the separator. This paper presents first-ever measurements of thermal conductivity and heat capacity of the separator material. These measurements are based on thermal response to an imposed DC heating within a time period during which an assumption of a thermally semi-infinite domain is valid. Experimental data are in excellent agreement with the analytical model. Comparison between the two results in measurement of the in-plane thermal conductivity and heat capacity of the separator. Results indicate very low thermal conductivity of the separator. Measurements at an elevated temperature indicate that thermal conductivity and heat capacity do not change much with increasing temperature. Experimental measurements of previously unavailable thermal properties reported here may facilitate a better fundamental understanding of thermal transport in a Li-ion cell, and enhanced safety due to more accurate thermal prediction.
Schramm, Wolfgang; Yang, Deshan; Wood, Bradford J; Rattay, Frank; Haemmerich, Dieter
2007-01-01
Both radiofrequency (RF) and microwave (MW) ablation devices are clinically used for tumor ablation. Several studies report less dependence on vascular mediated cooling of MW compared to RF ablation. We created computer models of a cooled RF needle electrode, and a dipole MW antenna to determine differences in tissue heat transfer. We created Finite Element computer models of a RF electrode (Cooled needle, 17 gauge), and a MW antenna (Dipole, 13 gauge). We simulated RF ablation for 12 min with power controlled to keep maximum tissue temperature at 100 ºC, and MW ablation for 6 min with 75 W of power applied. For both models we considered change in electric and thermal tissue properties as well as perfusion depending on tissue temperature. We determined tissue temperature profile at the end of the ablation procedure and calculated effect of perfusion on both RF and MW ablation. Maximum tissue temperature was 100 ºC for RF ablation, and 177 ºC for MW ablation. Lesion shape was ellipsoid for RF, and tear-drop shaped for MW ablation. MW ablation is less affected by tissue perfusion mainly due to the shorter ablation time and higher tissue temperature, but not due to MW providing deeper heating than RF. Both MW and RF applicators only produce significant direct heating within mm of the applicator, with most of the ablation zone created by thermal conduction. Both RF and MW applicators only directly heat tissue in close proximity of the applicators. MW ablation allows for higher tissue temperatures than RF since MW propagation is not limited by tissue desiccation and charring. Higher temperatures coupled with lower treatment times result in reduced effects of perfusion on MW ablation. PMID:19662127
Schramm, Wolfgang; Yang, Deshan; Wood, Bradford J; Rattay, Frank; Haemmerich, Dieter
2007-01-01
Both radiofrequency (RF) and microwave (MW) ablation devices are clinically used for tumor ablation. Several studies report less dependence on vascular mediated cooling of MW compared to RF ablation. We created computer models of a cooled RF needle electrode, and a dipole MW antenna to determine differences in tissue heat transfer.We created Finite Element computer models of a RF electrode (Cooled needle, 17 gauge), and a MW antenna (Dipole, 13 gauge). We simulated RF ablation for 12 min with power controlled to keep maximum tissue temperature at 100 masculineC, and MW ablation for 6 min with 75 W of power applied. For both models we considered change in electric and thermal tissue properties as well as perfusion depending on tissue temperature. We determined tissue temperature profile at the end of the ablation procedure and calculated effect of perfusion on both RF and MW ablation.Maximum tissue temperature was 100 masculineC for RF ablation, and 177 masculineC for MW ablation. Lesion shape was ellipsoid for RF, and tear-drop shaped for MW ablation. MW ablation is less affected by tissue perfusion mainly due to the shorter ablation time and higher tissue temperature, but not due to MW providing deeper heating than RF. Both MW and RF applicators only produce significant direct heating within mm of the applicator, with most of the ablation zone created by thermal conduction.Both RF and MW applicators only directly heat tissue in close proximity of the applicators. MW ablation allows for higher tissue temperatures than RF since MW propagation is not limited by tissue desiccation and charring. Higher temperatures coupled with lower treatment times result in reduced effects of perfusion on MW ablation. PMID:19662127
Analysis of heat conduction in a drum brake system of the wheeled armored personnel carriers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Puncioiu, A. M.; Truta, M.; Vedinas, I.; Marinescu, M.; Vinturis, V.
2015-11-01
This paper is an integrated study performed over the Braking System of the Wheeled Armored Personnel Carriers. It mainly aims to analyze the heat transfer process which is present in almost any industrial and natural process. The vehicle drum brake systems can generate extremely high temperatures under high but short duration braking loads or under relatively light but continuous braking. For the proper conduct of the special vehicles mission in rough terrain, we are talking about, on one hand, the importance of the possibility of immobilization and retaining position and, on the other hand, during the braking process, the importance movement stability and reversibility or reversibility, to an encounter with an obstacle. Heat transfer processes influence the performance of the braking system. In the braking phase, kinetic energy transforms into thermal energy resulting in intense heating and high temperature states of analyzed vehicle wheels. In the present work a finite element model for the temperature distribution in a brake drum is developed, by employing commercial finite element software, ANSYS. These structural and thermal FEA models will simulate entire braking event. The heat generated during braking causes distortion which modifies thermoelastic contact pressure distribution drum-shoe interface. In order to capture the effect of heat, a transient thermal analysis is performed in order to predict the temperature distribution transitional brake components. Drum brakes are checked both mechanical and thermal. These tests aim to establish their sustainability in terms of wear and the variation coefficient of friction between the friction surfaces with increasing temperature. Modeling using simulation programs led eventually to the establishment of actual thermal load of the mechanism of brake components. It was drawn the efficiency characteristic by plotting the coefficient of effectiveness relative to the coefficient of friction shoe-drum. Thus induced thermal loads determine thermo mechanical behavior of the structure of wheels. Study the transfer of heat generated during braking is useful because results can improve and validate existing theory or may lead to the development of a mathematical model to simulate the behavior of the brake system for various tactical and operational situations. Conclusions of this paper are relevant because theoretical data analysis results are validated by experimental research.
Heat Conduction to Photoresist on Top of Wafer during Post Exposure Bake Process: II. Application
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oh, Hye-Keun; Kim, Do Wan; Lee, Ji-Eun
2008-11-01
Chemically amplified resists are used for 248 nm, 193 nm, immersion and extreme ultraviolet (UV) lithography. Among many process steps, post exposure bake (PEB) is the key process to make the desired small line width and critical dimension control. During PEB, the de-protection reaction and acid diffusion are determined by bake temperature and time. One of the key factors that determines the de-protection and acid diffusion is the initial temperature rising of the hot plate. The unpredictable temperature rising to the pre-set temperature is the main cause of line width variation. In order to predict the accurate PEB temperature and time dependency to the line width, the heat transfer from the hot plate to the resist on top of the silicon wafer is studied. Numerical approach is used to solve the heat conduction problem. Only the boundary temperature values are needed to solve this conduction, the information inside each layer is not required. We calculated the temperature rising characteristics of the photoresist on top of the several layers of the mask. The air conductivity, air gap, number of layers underneath the resist, thickness of the wafer, thickness of the layer including the resist, and different kind of layers are varied to see the characteristics of the bake temperature rising. We showed that there was small temperature difference at photoresist among the layer stack and thickness variation, even though it was very small. There is a strong possibility that this small PEB temperature difference would cause serious critical dimension (CD) control problem.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Diffusive heat flux at the soil surface is commonly determined as a mean value over a time period using heat flux plates buried at some depth (e.g., 5 to 8 cm) below the surface with a correction to surface flux based on the change in heat storage during the corresponding time period in the soil lay...
Moon, W.; Busch-Vishniac, I.J.
1997-03-01
A new bond graph model for conduction heat transfer is developed, and applied to thermal energy balance in the piezoelectric thickness vibrator. In formulation of the heat conduction model, the mechanical and electrical effects are included. Hence, it can be directly applied to the temperature-dependent thickness vibrator. For the purpose of evaluation of the new method, one-dimensional heat conduction excluding other variable effects is compared with the results of the analytic solutions in simple cases. The simulation illustrates the validity and the accuracy of the model. Although the model is applied to the one-dimensional case only, the method can be easily used for general heat conduction problems. {copyright} {ital 1997 Acoustical Society of America.}
LDEF (Flight), AO076 : Cascade Variable-Conductance Heat Pipe, Tray F09
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1990-01-01
LDEF (Flight), AO076 : Cascade Variable-Conductance Heat Pipe, Tray F09 EL-1994-00020 LDEF (Flight), AO076 : Cascade Variable-Conductance Heat Pipe, Tray F09 The flight photograph of the Cascade Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Experiment (CVCHPE) was taken while the LDEF was attached to the Orbiter's RMS arm prior to berthing in the Orbiter's cargo bay. The white paint dots on the center clamp blocks of the experiment trays right flange and lower flange appear to be slightly discolored. The LDEF structure, top intercostal, has a dark brown discoloration adjacent to the black thermal panel. Aluminum particles from the degraded CVCHPE thermal blanket are also visible in this area. The Cascade Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Experiment (CVCHPE) occupies a 6 inch deep LDEF peripheral experiment tray and consist of two series connected variable conductance heatpipes, a black chrome solar collector panel and a silvered TEFLON radiator panel, a power source to support six thermistor-type temperature monitoring sensors and actuations of two valves. Fiberglass standoffs and internal insulation blankets thermally isolated the experiment from the experiment tray and the LDEF interior. The outside of the CVCHPE, except the collector and radiator panels, was covered with an aluminumized Kapton multilayer insulation (MLI) blanket with an outer layer of 0.076 mm thick Kapton. The two patches of thin film materials, part of an atomic oxygen experiment (see S1001) by NASA GSFC, were attached to the cover of the external thermal blanket with Kapton tape. The experiment was assembled and mounted in the experiment tray with non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners. The external CVCHPE materials have changed significantly. The Kapton on the thermal blanket aluminized Kapton cover appears to be completely eroded, except under Kel-F buttons used to secure the blanket, leaving only the very thin vapor deposited aluminum coating as a cover. Parts of the aluminum coating residue has moved to cover a portion of the black solar absorber panel and also areas of the trays upper and lower flanges. The shadow on the tray lower flange would indicate that the aluminum extends several inches out of the tray envelope. One of the two thin film atomic oxygen experiment patches is gone and the other does not appear to be securely attached. The layer of Kapton tape over the thin film strips appears to be eroded with only the adhesive remaining. The remaining atomic oxygen experiment materials have changed colors and most appear to be severely degraded. The silvered TEFLON coating of the radiator panel appears diffuse with a light brown discoloration over most of the surface. The white, evenly spaced, discolorations along the vertical centerline and across the top of the panel appear to be above counter sunk flat head screws used to assemble the experiment. The black spots on the radiator panel appear to be impact craters where the impact penetrated the TEFLON material and exposed the silver beneath to the atomic oxygen flux. Particles of the degraded thermal blanket material appear to be adhered to the surface of the radiator panel.
LDEF (Flight), AO076 : Cascade Variable-Conductance Heat Pipe, Tray F09
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1990-01-01
LDEF (Flight), AO076 : Cascade Variable-Conductance Heat Pipe, Tray F09 EL-1994-00020 LDEF (Flight), AO076 : Cascade Variable-Conductance Heat Pipe, Tray F09 The flight photograph of the Cascade Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Experiment (CVCHPE) was taken while the LDEF was attached to the Orbiter's RMS arm prior to berthing in the Orbiter's cargo bay. The white paint dots on the center clamp blocks of the experiment trays right flange and lower flange appear to be slightly discolored. The LDEF structure, top intercostal, has a dark brown discoloration adjacent to the black thermal panel. Aluminum particles from the degraded CVCHPE thermal blanket are also visible in this area. The Cascade Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Experiment (CVCHPE) occupies a 6 inch deep LDEF peripheral experiment tray and consist of two series connected variable conductance heatpipes, a black chrome solar collector panel and a silvered TEFLON® radiator panel, a power source to support six thermistor-type temperature monitoring sensors and actuations of two valves. Fiberglass standoffs and internal insulation blankets thermally isolated the experiment from the experiment tray and the LDEF interior. The outside of the CVCHPE, except the collector and radiator panels, was covered with an aluminumized Kapton multilayer insulation (MLI) blanket with an outer layer of 0.076 mm thick Kapton. The two patches of thin film materials, part of an atomic oxygen experiment (see S1001) by NASA GSFC, were attached to the cover of the external thermal blanket with Kapton tape. The experiment was assembled and mounted in the experiment tray with non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners. The external CVCHPE materials have changed significantly. The Kapton on the thermal blanket aluminized Kapton cover appears to be completely eroded, except under Kel-F buttons used to secure the blanket, leaving only the very thin vapor deposited aluminum coating as a cover. Parts of the aluminum coating residue has moved to cover a portion of the black solar absorber panel and also areas of the trays upper and lower flanges. The shadow on the tray lower flange would indicate that the aluminum extends several inches out of the tray envelope. One of the two thin film atomic oxygen experiment patches is gone and the other does not appear to be securely attached. The layer of Kapton tape over the thin film strips appears to be eroded with only the adhesive remaining. The remaining atomic oxygen experiment materials have changed colors and most appear to be severely degraded. The silvered TEFLON® coating of the radiator panel appears diffuse with a light brown discoloration over most of the surface. The white, evenly spaced, discolorations along the vertical centerline and across the top of the panel appear to be above counter sunk flat head screws used to assemble the experiment. The black spots on the radiator panel appear to be impact craters where the impact penetrated the TEFLON® material and exposed the silver beneath to the atomic oxygen flux. Particles of the degraded thermal blanket material appear to be adhered to the surface of the radiator panel.
Sapelkin, V.A.; Sergeev, Yu.V.
1988-03-01
The conjugate problem of nonsteady heat transfer between a laminar boundary layer with a pressure gradient and a wall with stepwise change in its thermophysical properties (heat conduction and volume specific heat) in the longitudinal direction is solved by the finite-difference method for an incompressible liquid and a wall whose internal surface is heat insulated. The results of the calculations show that the reaction of the thermal boundary layer to discontinuity in the thermophysical properties of the wall is nonunique and multi-parametric. Since these parameters determine the thickness of the thermal boundary layer it may be concluded that thin thermal boundary layers react more strongly than thick layers.
Nathenson, Menuel; Tilling, Robert I.
1993-01-01
A steady-state solution for heat transfer from an isothermal, spherical magma chamber, with an imposed regional geothermal gradient far from the chamber, is developed. The extensive published heat-flow data set for Mount Hood, Oregon, is dominated by conductive heat transfer in the deeper parts of most drill holes and provides an ideal application of such a model. Magma-chamber volumes or depths needed to match the distribution of heat-flow data are larger or shallower than those inferred from geologic evidence.
Zhijie Xu
2014-07-01
We present a new stochastic analysis for steady and transient one-dimensional heat conduction problem based on the homogenization approach. Thermal conductivity is assumed to be a random field K consisting of random variables of a total number N. Both steady and transient solutions T are expressed in terms of the homogenized solution (symbol) and its spatial derivatives (equation), where homogenized solution (symbol) is obtained by solving the homogenized equation with effective thermal conductivity. Both mean and variance of stochastic solutions can be obtained analytically for K field consisting of independent identically distributed (i.i.d) random variables. The mean and variance of T are shown to be dependent only on the mean and variance of these i.i.d variables, not the particular form of probability distribution function of i.i.d variables. Variance of temperature field T can be separated into two contributions: the ensemble contribution (through the homogenized temperature (symbol)); and the configurational contribution (through the random variable Ln(x)Ln(x)). The configurational contribution is shown to be proportional to the local gradient of (symbol). Large uncertainty of T field was found at locations with large gradient of (symbol) due to the significant configurational contributions at these locations. Numerical simulations were implemented based on a direct Monte Carlo method and good agreement is obtained between numerical Monte Carlo results and the proposed stochastic analysis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, K. K.; Nath, B.
2014-07-01
A self-similar solution for the propagation of a shock wave driven by a cylindrical piston moving according to exponential temporal law in a nonideal rotating gas with heat conduction and radiation heat fluxes is investigated. The density and angular velocity of the ambient medium are assumed to be constant. Heat conduction is expressed in terms of the Fourier law, and radiation is considered to be of diffusion type for an optically thick gray gas model. The thermal conductivity and absorption coefficient are assumed to vary with temperature and density. Similarity solutions are obtained, and the effects of variations in the heat transfer parameters and gas nonidealness on the flow variables in the region behind the shock are investigated.
Radial-radial single rotor turbine
Platts, David A.
2006-05-16
A rotor for use in turbine applications has a radial compressor/pump having radially disposed spaced apart fins forming passages and a radial turbine having hollow turbine blades interleaved with the fins and through which fluid from the radial compressor/pump flows. The rotor can, in some applications, be used to produce electrical power.
Surana, K.S.; Ahmadi, A.R.
1996-10-01
This paper presents a comparison of p-version Galerkin and sp-version least squares finite element methods for non-linear heat conduction in laminated composites. Steady state heat conduction with temperature dependent thermal conductivities, internal heat generation, film coefficients and radiation parameters considered here is described by a non-linear elliptic equation. Galerkin method possesses the best approximation property for such problems. On the other hand, the least squares finite element method is ideally suited for non-linear problems regardless of the nature of equations and the nature of the nonlinearities. In this paper the authors investigate the competitiveness of the p-version least square finite element formulation (LSFEF) and p-version Galerkin method for non-linear heat conduction described by the non-linear elliptic equation. Two dimensional axisymmetric heat conduction in laminated composites is used as a sample problem. The discretized non-linear equations of equilibrium resulting from Galerkin method and the non-linear conditions resulting from the least squares method are solved and satisfied using Newton`s method and Newton`s method with line search. Numerical examples are presented for steady state heat conduction in laminated composites to compare the two methods for accuracy, efficiency, and convergence rates.
Passive amplification of the pyroelectric current in thin films on a heat-conducting substrate
Yablonskii, S. V.; Soto-Bustamante, E. A.
2010-11-15
We show both theoretically and experimentally that passive amplification of the pyroelectric current takes place when modulated radiation is recorded by a pyroelectric detector in some range of modulation frequencies. The amplification effect manifests itself in the fact that the current generated by a thin pyroelectric film lying on a massive heat-conducting substrate exceeds that in a freely suspended film. We use a ferroelectric 70:30 P(VDF-TrFE) copolymer, a crystalline guanidine pyroelectric, and a 70:30 composition of an achiral liquid-crystal polymer and its monomer PM6R14n-M6R14n to illustrate the frequency dependence of the pyroelectric current.
Deformation mechanisms, defects, heat treatment, and thermal conductivity in large grain niobium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bieler, Thomas R.; Kang, Di; Baars, Derek C.; Chandrasekaran, Saravan; Mapar, Aboozar; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Wright, Neil T.; Pourboghrat, Farhang; Murphy, James E.; Compton, Chris C.; Myneni, Ganapati Rao
2015-12-01
The physical and mechanical metallurgy underlying fabrication of large grain cavities for superconducting radio frequency accelerators is summarized, based on research of 1) grain orientations in ingots, 2) a metallurgical assessment of processing a large grain single cell cavity and a tube, 3) assessment of slip behavior of single crystal tensile samples extracted from a high purity ingot slice before and after annealing at 800 °C / 2 h, 4) development of crystal plasticity models based upon the single crystal experiments, and 5) assessment of how thermal conductivity is affected by strain, heat treatment, and exposure to hydrogen. Because of the large grains, the plastic anisotropy of deformation is exaggerated, and heterogeneous strains and localized defects are present to a much greater degree than expected in polycrystalline material, making it highly desirable to computationally anticipate potential forming problems before manufacturing cavities.
Heat Conductivity of the Heisenberg Spin-1 /2 Ladder: From Weak to Strong Breaking of Integrability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steinigeweg, Robin; Herbrych, Jacek; Zotos, Xenophon; Brenig, Wolfram
2016-01-01
We investigate the heat conductivity ? of the Heisenberg spin-1 /2 ladder at finite temperature covering the entire range of interchain coupling J?, by using several numerical methods and perturbation theory within the framework of linear response. We unveil that a perturbative prediction ? ?J?-2 , based on simple golden-rule arguments and valid in the strict limit J??0 , applies to a remarkably wide range of J?, qualitatively and quantitatively. In the large J? limit, we show power-law scaling of opposite nature, namely, ? ?J?2. Moreover, we demonstrate the weak and strong coupling regimes to be connected by a broad minimum, slightly below the isotropic point at J?=J?. Reducing temperature T , starting from T =? , this minimum scales as ? ?T-2 down to T on the order of the exchange coupling constant. These results provide for a comprehensive picture of ? (J?,T ) of spin ladders.
Radiative, conductive and convective heat-transfers in a single Monte Carlo algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fournier, Richard; Blanco, Stéphane; Eymet, Vincent; El Hafi, Mouna; Spiesser, Christophe
2016-01-01
It was recently shown that null-collision algorithms could lead to grid-free radiative- transfer Monte Carlo algorithms that immediately benefit of computer-graphics tools for an efficient handling of complex geometries [1, 2]. We here explore the idea of extending the approach to heat transfer problems combining radiation, conduction and convection. This is possible as soon as the model can be given the form of a second-kind Fredholm equation. In the following pages, we show that this is quite straightforward at the stationnary limit in the linear case. The oral presentation will provide corresponding simulation examples. Perspectives will then be drawn concerning the extension to non-stationnary cases and non-linear coupling.
Response-coefficient method for heat-conduction transients with time-dependent inputs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ceylan, Tamer
1993-01-01
A theoretical overview of the response coefficient method for heat conduction transients with time-dependent input forcing functions is presented with a number of illustrative applications. The method may be the most convenient and economical if the same problem is to be solved many times with different input-time histories or if the solution time is relatively long. The method is applicable to a wide variety of problems, including irregular geometries, position-dependent boundary conditions, position-dependent physical properties, and nonperiodic irregular input histories. Nonuniform internal energy generation rates within the structure can also be handled by the method. The area of interest is long-time solutions, in which initial condition is unimportant, and not the early transient period. The method can be applied to one dimensional problems in cartesian, cylindrical, and spherical coordinates as well as to two dimensional problems in cartesian and cylindrical coordinates.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheremet, Mikhail A.; Miroshnichenko, Igor V.
2015-11-01
Three-dimensional transient natural convection in a cubic enclosure having finite thickness solid walls subject to opposing and horizontal temperature gradient has been investigated by a finite volume method. The turbulent flow considered into the volume is described mathematically by the 3D Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations using the standard k-? model with wall functions, including the energy equation. The velocity and temperature distributions were calculated at fixed Prandtl number, Pr = 0.7 and different values of the Rayleigh number, thermal conductivity ratio and dimensionless time. Three-dimensional velocity and temperature fields, temperature profiles at middle cross-sections and average Nusselt numbers have been presented. It has been found that an insertion of the third coordinate for the conjugate problem leads to a decrease in the average Nusselt number by 5.8 % in conditions of a stationary heat transfer mode.
High Conductivity Carbon-Carbon Heat Pipes for Light Weight Space Power System Radiators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Juhasz, Albert J.
2008-01-01
Based on prior successful fabrication and demonstration testing of a carbon-carbon heat pipe radiator element with integral fins this paper examines the hypothetical extension of the technology via substitution of high thermal conductivity composites which would permit increasing fin length while still maintaining high fin effectiveness. As a result the specific radiator mass could approach an ultimate asymptotic minimum value near 1.0 kg/m2, which is less than one fourth the value of present day satellite radiators. The implied mass savings would be even greater for high capacity space and planetary surface power systems, which may require radiator areas ranging from hundreds to thousands of square meters, depending on system power level.
Effect of the time window on the heat-conduction information filtering model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Qiang; Song, Wen-Jun; Hou, Lei; Zhang, Yi-Lu; Liu, Jian-Guo
2014-05-01
Recommendation systems have been proposed to filter out the potential tastes and preferences of the normal users online, however, the physics of the time window effect on the performance is missing, which is critical for saving the memory and decreasing the computation complexity. In this paper, by gradually expanding the time window, we investigate the impact of the time window on the heat-conduction information filtering model with ten similarity measures. The experimental results on the benchmark dataset Netflix indicate that by only using approximately 11.11% recent rating records, the accuracy could be improved by an average of 33.16% and the diversity could be improved by 30.62%. In addition, the recommendation performance on the dataset MovieLens could be preserved by only considering approximately 10.91% recent records. Under the circumstance of improving the recommendation performance, our discoveries possess significant practical value by largely reducing the computational time and shortening the data storage space.
Glass, Micheal W.; Hogan, Roy E., Jr.; Gartling, David K.
2010-03-01
The need for the engineering analysis of systems in which the transport of thermal energy occurs primarily through a conduction process is a common situation. For all but the simplest geometries and boundary conditions, analytic solutions to heat conduction problems are unavailable, thus forcing the analyst to call upon some type of approximate numerical procedure. A wide variety of numerical packages currently exist for such applications, ranging in sophistication from the large, general purpose, commercial codes, such as COMSOL, COSMOSWorks, ABAQUS and TSS to codes written by individuals for specific problem applications. The original purpose for developing the finite element code described here, COYOTE, was to bridge the gap between the complex commercial codes and the more simplistic, individual application programs. COYOTE was designed to treat most of the standard conduction problems of interest with a user-oriented input structure and format that was easily learned and remembered. Because of its architecture, the code has also proved useful for research in numerical algorithms and development of thermal analysis capabilities. This general philosophy has been retained in the current version of the program, COYOTE, Version 5.0, though the capabilities of the code have been significantly expanded. A major change in the code is its availability on parallel computer architectures and the increase in problem complexity and size that this implies. The present document describes the theoretical and numerical background for the COYOTE program. This volume is intended as a background document for the user's manual. Potential users of COYOTE are encouraged to become familiar with the present report and the simple example analyses reported in before using the program. The theoretical and numerical background for the finite element computer program, COYOTE, is presented in detail. COYOTE is designed for the multi-dimensional analysis of nonlinear heat conduction problems. A general description of the boundary value problems treated by the program is presented. The finite element formulation and the associated numerical methods used in COYOTE are also outlined. Instructions for use of the code are documented in SAND2010-0714.
Fu, X.; Chung, D.D.L.
1997-12-01
Due to their poor conductivity, latex (20--30% by weight of cement), methylcellulose (0.4--0.8% by weight of cement), and silica fume (15% by weight of cement) decreased the thermal conductivity of cement paste by up to 46%. In addition, these admixtures increased the specific heat of cement paste by up to 10%. The thermal conductivity decreased and the specific heat increased with increasing latex or methylcellulose content. Short carbon fibers (0.5--1.0% by weight of cement) either did not change or decreased the thermal conductivity of cement paste, such that the thermal conductivity decreased with increasing fiber content due to the increase in air void content. The fibers increased the specific heat due to the contribution of the fiber-matrix interface to vibration.
Space marching difference schemes in the nonlinear inverse heat conduction problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carasso, A. S.
1990-11-01
The Lax-Richtmyer theory is used to study the error amplification properties of 18 space marching finite difference schemes, for the 1-D nonlinear inverse heat conduction problem. A non-dimensional parameter Omega, involving the time step Delta t, the effective thermal diffusivity alpha, and the distance l from the sensor to the active surface, provides a measure of the numerical difficulty of the inverse calculation. All 18 schemes are unstable and blow-up like 10(sup lambda Omega), where the constant lambda depends on the particular numerical method. However, there are substantial differences in the lambda's, and some newly constructed algorithms, employing forward time differences at nonadjacent mesh points, are shown to produce relatively low values of lambda. Using synthetic noisy data, a nonlinear reconstruction problem is considered for which Omega = 25. This problem simulates heat transfer in gun barrels when a shell is fired. It is shown that while most of the 18 schemes cannot recover the thermal pulses at the gun tube wall, two of the new methods provide reasonable accurate results. A tendency to underestimate peak values in fast, narrow thermal pulses, is also noted.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Wen; Pang, Guofei
2016-03-01
This paper proposes a new implicit definition of the fractional Laplacian. Compared with the existing explicit definitions in literature, this novel definition has clear physical significance and is mathematically simple and numerically easy to calculate for multidimensional problems. In stark contrast to a quick increasing and extensive applications of time-fractional derivative to diverse scientific and engineering problems, little has been reported on space-fractional derivative modeling. This is largely because the existing definitions are only feasible for one-dimensional case and become mathematically too complicated and computationally very expensive when applied to higher dimensional cases. In this study, we apply the newly-defined fractional Laplacian for modeling the power law behaviors of three-dimensional nonlocal heat conduction. The singular boundary method (SBM), a recent boundary-only collocation discretization method, is employed to numerically solve the proposed fractional Laplacian heat equation. And the computational costs are observed moderate owing to the proposed new definition of fractional Laplacian and the boundary-only discretization, meshfree, and integration-free natures of the SBM technique. Numerical experiments show the validity of the proposed definition of fractional Laplacian.
Steady-state heat conduction in multilayered composite plates and shells
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Noor, A. K.; Burton, W. S.
1991-01-01
A study is made of a predictor-corrector procedure for the accurate determination of the temperature and heat flux distributions in thick multilayered composite plates and shells. A linear through-the-thickness temperature distribution is used in the predictor phase. The functional dependence of temperature on the thickness coordinate is then calculated a posteriori and used in the corrector phase. Extensive numerical results are presented for linear steady-state heat conduction problems, showing the effects of variation in the geometric and lamination parameters on the accuracy of the thermal response predictions of the predictor-corrector approach. Both antisymmetrically laminated anisotropic plates and multilayered orthotropic cylinders are considered. The solutions are assumed to be periodic in the surface coordinates. For each problem the standard of comparison is taken to be the analytic three-dimensional solution based on treating each layer as a homogeneous anisotropic medium. The potential of the predictor-corrector approach for predicting the thermal response of multilayered plates and shells with complicated geometry is discussed.
Woodbury, K.A.; Boohaker, C.G.
1996-12-31
Determination of thermal properties by inverse methods often involves limited thermal excitation of a relatively small sample. If these thermal properties are to be found as functions of temperature, then this procedure must be replicated at several artificially elevated temperatures. For some types of materials (for example, those bearing moisture) this approach is impractical. In this paper, a procedure is developed for determining thermal properties (conductivity k and volumetric heat capacity C {equivalent_to} {rho}c{sub p}) as functions of temperature from a single experiment. This procedure is targeted for determination of k(T) and C(T) for sand molds used in castings. An inverse method based on a Gauss linearization is used to estimate these functions. The experiment used to determine these properties consists of heating a one-dimensional specimen of the material from one end. The variation of thermal properties with temperature is assumed to be a piecewise linear function, with values of properties to be determined at prescribed temperatures. A numerical experiment is used to demonstrate the technique.
Thermal conductivity and heat transport properties of nitrogen-doped graphene.
Goharshadi, Elaheh K; Mahdizadeh, Sayyed Jalil
2015-11-01
In the present study, the thermal conductivity (TC) and heat transport properties of nitrogen doped graphene (N-graphene) were investigated as a function of temperature (107-400K) and N-doped concentration (0.0-7.0%) using equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation based on Green-Kubo method. According to the results, a drastic decline in TC of graphene observed at very low N-doped concentration (0.5 and 1.0%). Substitution of just 1.0% of carbon atoms with nitrogens causes a 77.2, 65.4, 59.2, and 53.7% reduction in TC at 107, 200, 300, and 400K, respectively. The values of TC of N-graphene at different temperatures approach to each other as N-doped concentration increases. The results also indicate that TC of N-graphene is much less sensitive to temperature compared with pristine graphene and the sensitivity decreases as N-doped concentration increases. The phonon-phonon scattering relaxation times and the phonon mean free path of phonons were also calculated. The contribution of high frequency optical phonons for pristine graphene and N-graphene with 7.0% N-doped concentration is 0-2% and 4-8%, respectively. These findings imply that it is potentially feasible to control heat transfer on the nanoscale when designing N-graphene based thermal devices. PMID:26386455
Hosseini Koupaie, E; Eskicioglu, C
2015-01-01
This research provides a comprehensive comparison between microwave (MW) and conductive heating (CH) sludge pretreatments under identical heating/cooling profiles at below and above boiling point temperatures. Previous comparison studies were constrained to an uncontrolled or a single heating rate due to lack of a CH equipment simulating MW under identical thermal profiles. In this research, a novel custom-built pressure-sealed vessel which could simulate MW pretreatment under identical heating/cooling profiles was used for CH pretreatment. No statistically significant difference was proven between MW and CH pretreatments in terms of sludge solubilization, anaerobic biogas yield and organics biodegradation rate (p-value>0.05), while statistically significant effects of temperature and heating rate were observed (p-value<0.05). These results explain the contradictory results of previous studies in which only the final temperature (not heating/cooling rates) was controlled. PMID:25863200
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Muraki, T.; Masubuchi, K.
1974-01-01
Reduced gravity does not significantly affect the thermal histories in the M551 specimen, even if molten metal flow pattern is different from that in terrestrial conditions. Thermal histories corresponding to terrestrial experimental conditions were calculated by use of the computer programs. Heat conduction through brazing alloy (M552 experiment) is improved in the Skylab conditions, because of the increased extent, rate and uniformity of braze spreading in space. Effects of reduced gravity on heat flow in the M553 specimen are insignificant, because convection effects appear instantaneously and conduction is a governing factor on the heat flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Do Wan; Lee, Ji-Eun; Oh, Hye-Keun
2008-11-01
The post exposure bake (PEB) of a chemically amplified resist is one of the key processes for fabricating very small features of semiconductor devices. The use of photogenerated acid enables the de-protection of protected polymers, and this de-protection highly depends on PEB temperature and time. The diffusion length of acid is also strongly dependent on PEB temperature and time. As the line width of a device decreases, a smaller diffusion length is required to reduce the roughness of the line edge and width, and an acid diffusion length less than 20 nm is needed. One of the key factors for determining de-protection and acid diffusion is the initial temperature rise of the resist. The unpredictable temperature rise to the preset temperature mainly causes a variation in line width. In addition, in order to accurately predict the PEB temperature and time dependencies of line width, heat transfer from the hot plate to the resist on the top of a silicon wafer has to be calculated since reaction and diffusion occur inside the resist, not on the top of the bare silicon wafer. Heat transfer includes multiscale conductivity and thickness, so that we need an accurate and reliable approach. For this purpose, a novel numerical approach incorporated with analytic method is proposed to solve the heat conduction problem. Since this approach is incorporated with an analytic method, the number of unknowns can be markedly reduced. Indeed, only the interface temperatures are unknowns in this method and we can derive a system of Volterra-type integral equations for the same number of unknowns. Accordingly, this method has many advantages over other methods. Since it is not a difference method but an integral method, it is stable and robust in time step. The unknowns for temperature are located only at the interfaces between layers, so that this approach is fast and effective. The discretization in time variable is flexible enough to readily achieve the accuracy of the numerical solutions over time, i.e., in both ranges of short and long times. In this paper, we calculated the time consumed for the resist to attain the prescribed PEB temperature. Additionally, the effects of the different layer stacks and thicknesses are also investigated through our numerical approach.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jackson, H. W.; Watkins, J. L.; Chung, S.; Wagner, P.
1996-01-01
An electrically conductive spherical sample located in an electromagnetic field excited by rf (radio frequency) current in a system of coaxial coils is treated theoretically. Maxwell's equations are solved exactly and all integrals in the formulas for the fields are evaluated analytically for the case where the sphere is on the axis and the coil system is modeled by a stack of filamentary circular loops. Formulas are also derived for electromagnetic force exerted on the sphere, excess impedance in the coil system due to the presence of the sphere, and power absorbed by the sphere. All integrals in those formulas have been evaluated analytically. Force measurements are presented and they are in excellent agreement with the new theory. A low-power electromagnetic levitator that is accurately described by the theory has been demonstrated and is discussed. Experimental measurements of excess impedance are presented and compared with theory, and those results are used to demonstrate an accurate noncontact method for determining electrical conductivity. Theoretical formulas for power absorption are evaluated numerically and their usefulness in both rf heating and in making noncontact measurements of a number of thermophysical properties of materials is discussed.
Influence of heat conductivity on the performance of RTV SIR coatings with different fillers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siderakis, K.; Agoris, D.; Gubanski, S.
2005-10-01
Room temperature vulcanized silicone rubber (RTV SIR) coatings are employed in order to improve the pollution performance of high voltage ceramic insulators by imparting surface hydrophobicity. In this paper, the performance of three RTV SIR coatings containing different fillers is investigated in a salt-fog test. Alumina trihydrate (ATH) and silica are the fillers included in the formulation, aiming to increase the material endurance to the energy supplied by the surface electrical activity during periods of hydrophobicity loss. The primary action of these fillers is to increase the material heat conductivity, i.e. the amount of energy conducted to the substrate. In addition, in the case of ATH relief is also achieved due to particle decomposition. The results indicate that for the compositions commercially available, where low amounts of fillers are used, and under the conditions of the test, ATH filled coatings performed better than the silica filled ones. This is attributed to ATH decomposition which further relieves the material structure and therefore decelerates material aging.
Nanoparticle synergies in modifying thermal conductivity for heat exchanger in condensing boilers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Kai; He, Shan; Butcher, Thomas; Trojanowski, Rebecca; Sun, Ning; Gersappe, Dilip; Rafailovich, Miriam
2013-03-01
The heat exchanger we are using for condensing boilers is mainly made from aluminum alloys and stainless steel. However, the metal is relatively expensive and corrosion together with maintenance is also a big problem. Therefore, we have developed a new design and material which contain carbon black, carbon nanotube, aluminum oxide and graphene as additives in polypropylene. When multiple types of particles can be melt blended simultaneously and synergies can be achieved, imparting particles to the nanocomposite, achieved much higher thermal conductivity rather than single additive. Here we show the flame retardant nanocomposite which can pass the UL-94-V0 vertical burning test, perform nice in Cone Calorimetry Test and has relatively good mechanical properties. SEM images of the blend show that the Carbon nanobute and other additives well dispersed within the polymer matrix which match our computational calculation for getting the percolation to achieve thermal conductivity around 1.5W/m .K rather than 0.23W/m .K as pure polypropylene. Haydale/Cheap Tubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Labibzadeh, Mojtaba
2016-01-01
A new technique is used in Discrete Least Square Meshfree(DLSM) method to remove the common existing deficiencies of meshfree methods in handling of the problems containing cracks or concave boundaries. An enhanced Discrete Least Squares Meshless method named as VDLSM(Voronoi based Discrete Least Squares Meshless) is developed in order to solve the steady-state heat conduction problem in irregular solid domains including concave boundaries or cracks. Existing meshless methods cannot estimate precisely the required unknowns in the vicinity of the above mentioned boundaries. Conducted researches are limited to domains with regular convex boundaries. To this end, the advantages of the Voronoi tessellation algorithm are implemented. The support domains of the sampling points are determined using a Voronoi tessellation algorithm. For the weight functions, a cubic spline polynomial is used based on a normalized distance variable which can provide a high degree of smoothness near those mentioned above discontinuities. Finally, Moving Least Squares(MLS) shape functions are constructed using a varitional method. This straight-forward scheme can properly estimate the unknowns(in this particular study, the temperatures at the nodal points) near and on the crack faces, crack tip or concave boundaries without need to extra backward corrective procedures, i.e. the iterative calculations for modifying the shape functions of the nodes located near or on these types of the complex boundaries. The accuracy and efficiency of the presented method are investigated by analyzing four particular examples. Obtained results from VDLSM are compared with the available analytical results or with the results of the well-known Finite Elements Method(FEM) when an analytical solution is not available. By comparisons, it is revealed that the proposed technique gives high accuracy for the solution of the steady-state heat conduction problems within cracked domains or domains with concave boundaries and at the same time possesses a high convergence rate which its accuracy is not sensitive to the arrangement of the nodal points. The novelty of this paper is the use of Voronoi concept in determining the weight functions used in the formulation of the MLS type shape functions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Litovskii, E. Ya.; Kaplan, F. S.; Klimovich, A. V.
1981-08-01
Approximate expressions are obtained for mass flux and thermal conductivity component in a temperature gradient field in a plane slit. A number of examples are used to demonstrate the significant contribution of heat-mass transfer in the transitional regime to thermal conductivity of refractory materials.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhu, Dong-Ming; Miller, Robert A.
2004-01-01
The development of low conductivity and high temperature capable thermal barrier coatings requires advanced testing techniques that can accurately and effectively evaluate coating thermal conductivity under future high-performance and low-emission engine heat-flux conditions. In this paper, a unique steady-state CO2 laser (wavelength 10.6 microns) heat-flux approach is described for determining the thermal conductivity and conductivity deduced cyclic durability of ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coating systems at very high temperatures (up to 1700 C) under large thermal gradients. The thermal conductivity behavior of advanced thermal and environmental barrier coatings for metallic and Si-based ceramic matrix composite (CMC) component applications has also been investigated using the laser conductivity approach. The relationships between the lattice and radiation conductivities as a function of heat flux and thermal gradient at high temperatures have been examined for the ceramic coating systems. The steady-state laser heat-flux conductivity approach has been demonstrated as a viable means for the development and life prediction of advanced thermal barrier coatings for future turbine engine applications.
LDEF (Postflight), AO076 : Cascade Variable-Conductance Heat Pipe, Tray F09
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1990-01-01
LDEF (Postflight), AO076 : Cascade Variable-Conductance Heat Pipe, Tray F09 EL-1994-00354 LDEF (Postflight), AO076 : Cascade Variable-Conductance Heat Pipe, Tray F09 The postflight photograph was taken in the SAEF II at KSC prior to removal of the experiment from the LDEF. The color of the white paint dots on the exper- iment tray clamp blocks appear to be unchanged. The LDEF structure, the intercostal on the right, has a dark brown discoloration adjacent to the black Earth end thermal panel. Aluminum pieces of the degraded CVCHPE thermal cover that were shown lodged in the vent area between the intercostal and the black thermal panel in the flight photograph are gone. The Cascade Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Experiment (CVCHPE) occupies a 6 inch deep LDEF peripheral experiment tray and consist of two series connected variable conductance heatpipes, a black chrome solar collector panel and a silvered TEFLON radiator panel, a power source to support six thermistor-type temperature monitoring sensors and actuations of two valves. Fiberglass standoffs and internal insulation blankets thermally isolated the experiment from the experiment tray and the LDEF interior. The outside of the CVCHPE, except the collector and radiator panels, was covered with an aluminized Kapton multilayer insulation (MLI) blanket with an outer layer of 0.076 mm thick Kapton. The two patches of thin film materials, part of Experiment S1001 by NASA GSFC, were attached to the cover of the external thermal blanket with Kapton tape. The experiment was assembled and mounted in the experiment tray with non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners. The external surface of the CVCHPE has changed from that observed in the flight photograph. The thin vapor deposited aluminum coating, left after the Kapton eroded, is essentially gone with only fragments left near the edges of the thermal blanket. Pieces of a layer of Dacron mesh (bridle vail) material, used to separate the thermal cover from the thermal blanket and between thermal blanket sheets of aluminized Kapton, are visible along the edges of the blanket and near Kel-F buttons used to secure the blanket. A large fragment of the material is folded over the left side of the radiator panel. The large area of discoloration on the right side of the black solar absorber panel appears to be approximately the same shape as the aluminum coating that covered the area in the flight photograph. The orientation of the remaining thin film atomic oxygen experiment patch would indicate that the patch is attached to the Dacron mesh and that the attachment is very fragile. The layer of Kapton tape that covered the ends of the thin film strips appears to be eroded with only the adhesive remaining. The remaining strips of the atomic oxygen experiment materials have changed colors and most appear to be severely degraded. The silvered TEFLON coating of the radiator panel appears diffuse with a light brown discoloration over most of the surface. The white, evenly spaced, discolorations along the horizontal centerline and along the edges of the panel appear to be above counter sunk flat head screws used to assemble the experiment. The black spots on the radiator panel appear to be impact craters that penetrated the TEFLON material and exposed the silver beneath to the atomic oxygen flux. Particles of the degraded thermal blanket material that appeared to adhere to the surface of the radiator panel in the flight photograph are gone.
LDEF (Postflight), AO076 : Cascade Variable-Conductance Heat Pipe, Tray F09
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1990-01-01
LDEF (Postflight), AO076 : Cascade Variable-Conductance Heat Pipe, Tray F09 EL-1994-00354 LDEF (Postflight), AO076 : Cascade Variable-Conductance Heat Pipe, Tray F09 The postflight photograph was taken in the SAEF II at KSC prior to removal of the experiment from the LDEF. The color of the white paint dots on the exper- iment tray clamp blocks appear to be unchanged. The LDEF structure, the intercostal on the right, has a dark brown discoloration adjacent to the black Earth end thermal panel. Aluminum pieces of the degraded CVCHPE thermal cover that were shown lodged in the vent area between the intercostal and the black thermal panel in the flight photograph are gone. The Cascade Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Experiment (CVCHPE) occupies a 6 inch deep LDEF peripheral experiment tray and consist of two series connected variable conductance heatpipes, a black chrome solar collector panel and a silvered TEFLON® radiator panel, a power source to support six thermistor-type temperature monitoring sensors and actuations of two valves. Fiberglass standoffs and internal insulation blankets thermally isolated the experiment from the experiment tray and the LDEF interior. The outside of the CVCHPE, except the collector and radiator panels, was covered with an aluminized Kapton multilayer insulation (MLI) blanket with an outer layer of 0.076 mm thick Kapton. The two patches of thin film materials, part of Experiment S1001 by NASA GSFC, were attached to the cover of the external thermal blanket with Kapton tape. The experiment was assembled and mounted in the experiment tray with non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners. The external surface of the CVCHPE has changed from that observed in the flight photograph. The thin vapor deposited aluminum coating, left after the Kapton eroded, is essentially gone with only fragments left near the edges of the thermal blanket. Pieces of a layer of Dacron mesh (bridle vail) material, used to separate the thermal cover from the thermal blanket and between thermal blanket sheets of aluminized Kapton, are visible along the edges of the blanket and near Kel-F buttons used to secure the blanket. A large fragment of the material is folded over the left side of the radiator panel. The large area of discoloration on the right side of the black solar absorber panel appears to be approximately the same shape as the aluminum coating that covered the area in the flight photograph. The orientation of the remaining thin film atomic oxygen experiment patch would indicate that the patch is attached to the Dacron mesh and that the attachment is very fragile. The layer of Kapton tape that covered the ends of the thin film strips appears to be eroded with only the adhesive remaining. The remaining strips of the atomic oxygen experiment materials have changed colors and most appear to be severely degraded. The silvered TEFLON® coating of the radiator panel appears diffuse with a light brown discoloration over most of the surface. The white, evenly spaced, discolorations along the horizontal centerline and along the edges of the panel appear to be above counter sunk flat head screws used to assemble the experiment. The black spots on the radiator panel appear to be impact craters that penetrated the TEFLON® material and exposed the silver beneath to the atomic oxygen flux. Particles of the degraded thermal blanket material that appeared to adhere to the surface of the radiator panel in the flight photograph are gone.
Radiative thermal conductivity in obsidian and estimates of heat transfer in magma bodies
Stein, J.; Shankland, T.J.; Nitsan, U.
1981-05-10
The optical transmission spectra of four ryholitic obsidian samples were measured in order to determine the importance of radiative heat transfer in granite magmas. The spectra, obtained in the temperature range 20-800/sup 0/C, show that the radiative spectral window in these samples is limited by a charge transfer band in the UV (400 nm) and Si-O stretching overtone in the IR (4500 nm). Within this window the main obstacles to radiative transfer, in order of decreasing importance, are background scattering, a water band centered at 2800 nm, and an Fe/sup 2 +/ crystal field band at 1100 nm. Unlike crystalline silicates the absorption bands in obsidian do not broaden significantly as temperature increases. As a result, the temperature dependence of the calculated radiative thermal conductivity K/sub R/ is dominated by the T/sup ..beta../ term. Actual values of K/sub R/ increase from 9 x 10/sup -5/ to 1 x 1/sup -3/ cal cm/sup -1/ s/sup -1/ deg/sup -1/ between 300/sup 0/ and 800/sup 0/C, the high-temperature value being comparable to the lattice thermal conductivity in obsidian and a lower limit for K/sub R/ in granitic melts. As the scattering coefficient in melts is probably significantly lower than in obsidian, the radiative conductivity in active plutons is likely to be much higher. As an example, if scattering and the water band are removed from the observed spectra of the obsidian samples, calculated values of K/sub R/ could increase by a factor of 5, to about 5 x 10/sup -3/ cal cm/sup -1/ s/sup -1/ deg/sup -1/ at 1000/sup 0/C.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leung, Siu N.; Khan, Omer M.; Chan, Ellen; Naguib, Hani E.; Dawson, Francis; Adinkrah, Vincent; Lakatos-Hayward, Laszlo
2011-04-01
Today's smaller, more powerful electronic devices, communications equipment, and lighting apparatus required optimum heat dissipation solutions. Traditionally, metals are widely known for their superior thermal conductivity; however, their good electrical conductivity has limited their applications in heat management components for microelectronic applications. This prompts the requirement to develop novel plastic composites that satisfy multifunctional requirements thermally, electrically, and mechanically. Furthermore, the moldability of polymer composites would make them ideal for manufacturing three-dimensional, net-shape enclosures and/or heat management assembly. Using polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) as the matrix, heat transfer networks were developed and structured by embedding hexagonal boron nitride (BN) alone, blending BN fillers of different shapes and sizes, as well as hybridizing BN fillers with carbonaceous nano- and micro-fillers. Parametric studies were conducted to elucidate the effects of types, shapes, sizes, and hybridization of fillers on the composite's thermal and electrical properties. The use of hybrid fillers, with optimized material formulations, was found to effectively promote a composite's thermal conductivity. This was achieved by optimizing the development of an interconnected thermal conductive network through structuring hybrid fillers with appropriate shapes and sizes. The thermal conductive composite affords unique opportunities to injection mold three-dimensional, net-shape microelectronic enclosures with superior heat dissipation performance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Hsin; Porter, Wallace D.; Bttner, Harald; Knig, Jan; Chen, Lidong; Bai, Shengqiang; Tritt, Terry M.; Mayolet, Alex; Senawiratne, Jayantha; Smith, Charlene; Harris, Fred; Gilbert, Patricia; Sharp, Jeff; Lo, Jason; Kleinke, Holger; Kiss, Laszlo
2013-06-01
For bulk thermoelectrics, improvement of the figure of merit ZT to above 2 from the current values of 1.0 to 1.5 would enhance their competitiveness with alternative technologies. In recent years, the most significant improvements in ZT have mainly been due to successful reduction of thermal conductivity. However, thermal conductivity is difficult to measure directly at high temperatures. Combined measurements of thermal diffusivity, specific heat, and mass density are a widely used alternative to direct measurement of thermal conductivity. In this work, thermal conductivity is shown to be the factor in the calculation of ZT with the greatest measurement uncertainty. The International Energy Agency (IEA) group, under the implementing agreement for Advanced Materials for Transportation (AMT), has conducted two international round-robins since 2009. This paper, part II of our report on the international round-robin testing of transport properties of bulk bismuth telluride, focuses on thermal diffusivity, specific heat, and thermal conductivity measurements.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.; Nagaraj, Ben A.; Bruce, Robert W.
2000-01-01
The thermal conductivity of electron beam-physical vapor deposited (EB-PVD) Zr02-8wt%Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings was determined by a steady-state heat flux laser technique. Thermal conductivity change kinetics of the EB-PVD ceramic coatings were also obtained in real time, at high temperatures, under the laser high heat flux, long term test conditions. The thermal conductivity increase due to micro-pore sintering and the decrease due to coating micro-delaminations in the EB-PVD coatings were evaluated for grooved and non-grooved EB-PVD coating systems under isothermal and thermal cycling conditions. The coating failure modes under the high heat flux test conditions were also investigated. The test technique provides a viable means for obtaining coating thermal conductivity data for use in design, development, and life prediction for engine applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kargel, J. S.; Furfaro, R.
2013-12-01
Thermal gradients within conductive layers of icy satellite and asteroids depend partly on heat flow, which is related to the secular decay of radioactive isotopes, to heat released by chemical phase changes, by conversion of gravitational potential energy to heat during differentiation, tidal energy dissipation, and to release of heat stored from prior periods. Thermal gradients are also dependent on the thermal conductivity of materials, which in turn depends on their composition, crystallinity, porosity, crystal fabric anisotropy, and details of their mixture with other materials. Small impurities can produce lattice defects and changes in polymerization, and thereby have a huge influence on thermal conductivity, as can cage-inclusion (clathrate) compounds. Heat flow and thermal gradients can be affected by fluid phase advection of mass and heat (in oceans or sublimating upper crusts), by refraction related to heterogeneities of thermal conductivity due to lateral variations and composition or porosity. Thermal profiles depend also on the surface temperature controlled by albedo and climate, surface relief, and latitude, orbital obliquity and surface insolation, solid state greenhouses, and endogenic heating of the surface. The thermal state of icy moon interiors and thermal gradients can be limited at depth by fluid phase advection of heat (e.g., percolating meteoric methane or gas emission), by the latent heat of phase transitions (melting, solid-state transitions, and sublimation), by solid-state convective or diapiric heat transfer, and by foundering. Rapid burial of thick volatile deposits can also affect thermal gradients. For geologically inactive or simple icy objects, most of these controls on heat flow and thermal gradients are irrelevant, but for many other icy objects they can be important, in some cases causing large lateral and depth variations in thermal gradients, large variations in heat flow, and dynamically evolving thermal states. Many of these processes result in transient thermal states and hence rapid evolution of icy body interiors. Interesting heat-flow phenomena (approximated as steady-state thermal states) have been modeled in volatile-rich main belt asteroids, Io, Europa, Enceladus, Titan, Pluto, and Makemake (2005 FY9). Thermal conditions can activate geologic processes, but the occurrence of geologic activity can fundamentally alter the thermal conductivity and elasticity of icy objects, which then further affects the distribution and type of subsequent geologic activity. For example, cryoclastic volcanism on Enceladus can increase solid-state greenhouse heating of the upper crust, reduce thermal conductivity, and increase retention of heat and spur further cryovolcanism. Sulfur extrusion on Io can produce low-thermal-conductivity flows, high thermal gradients, basal melting of the flows, and lateral extrusion and spreading of the flows or formation of solid-crusted lava lakes. Impact formation of regoliths and fine-grained dust deposits on large asteroids may generate local variations in thermal gradients. Interior heating and geologic activity can either (1) emplace low-conductivity materials on the surface and cause further interior heating, or (2) drive metamorphism, sintering, and volatile loss, and increase thermal conductivity and cool the object. Thus, the type and distribution of present-day geologic activity on icy worlds is dependent on geologic history. Geology begets geology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stranne, Christian; O'Regan, Matt
2015-10-01
A basic premise in marine heat flow studies is that the temperature gradient varies with depth as a function of the bulk thermal conductivity of the sediments. As sediments become more deeply buried, compaction reduces the porosity and causes an increase in the bulk thermal conductivity. Therefore, while the heat flow may remain constant with depth, the thermal gradient is not necessarily linear. However, it has been argued that measurements showing increased sediment thermal conductivity with burial depth may be caused by a horizontal measurement bias generated by increasing anisotropy in sediments during consolidation. This study reanalyses a synthesis of Ocean Drilling Program data from 186 boreholes, and investigates the occurrence of nonlinear geothermal gradients in marine sediments. The aim is to identify whether observed downhole changes in thermal conductivity influence the measured temperature gradient, and to investigate potential errors in the prediction of in-situ temperatures derived from the extrapolation of near-surface thermal gradients. The results indicate that the measured thermal conductivity does influence the geothermal gradient. Furthermore, comparisons between shallow measurements (<10 m) from surface heat flow surveys and the deeply constrained temperature data from 98 ODP boreholes indicate that the shallow gradients are consistently higher by on average 19 C km-1. This is consistent with higher porosity and generally lower thermal conductivity in near-seafloor sediments, and highlights the need to develop robust porosity-thermal conductivity models to accurately predict temperatures at depth from shallow heat flow surveys.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stranne, Christian; O'Regan, Matt
2016-02-01
A basic premise in marine heat flow studies is that the temperature gradient varies with depth as a function of the bulk thermal conductivity of the sediments. As sediments become more deeply buried, compaction reduces the porosity and causes an increase in the bulk thermal conductivity. Therefore, while the heat flow may remain constant with depth, the thermal gradient is not necessarily linear. However, it has been argued that measurements showing increased sediment thermal conductivity with burial depth may be caused by a horizontal measurement bias generated by increasing anisotropy in sediments during consolidation. This study reanalyses a synthesis of Ocean Drilling Program data from 186 boreholes, and investigates the occurrence of nonlinear geothermal gradients in marine sediments. The aim is to identify whether observed downhole changes in thermal conductivity influence the measured temperature gradient, and to investigate potential errors in the prediction of in-situ temperatures derived from the extrapolation of near-surface thermal gradients. The results indicate that the measured thermal conductivity does influence the geothermal gradient. Furthermore, comparisons between shallow measurements (<10 m) from surface heat flow surveys and the deeply constrained temperature data from 98 ODP boreholes indicate that the shallow gradients are consistently higher by on average 19 °C km-1. This is consistent with higher porosity and generally lower thermal conductivity in near-seafloor sediments, and highlights the need to develop robust porosity-thermal conductivity models to accurately predict temperatures at depth from shallow heat flow surveys.
Stacey, W. M.
2014-04-15
A moments equation formalism for the interpretation of the experimental ion thermal diffusivity from experimental data is used to determine the radial ion thermal conduction flux that must be used to interpret the measured data. It is shown that the total ion energy flux must be corrected for thermal and rotational energy convection, for the work done by the flowing plasma against the pressure and viscosity, and for ion orbit loss of particles and energy, and expressions are presented for these corrections. Each of these factors is shown to have a significant effect on the interpreted ion thermal diffusivity in a representative DIII-D [J. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)] discharge.
Aamir, Muhammad; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun; Aqeel-ur-Rehman; Wang, Hong; Zubair, Muhammad
2014-01-01
An experimental study was carried out to investigate the effects of inlet pressure, sample thickness, initial sample temperature, and temperature sensor location on the surface heat flux, surface temperature, and surface ultrafast cooling rate using stainless steel samples of diameter 27 mm and thickness (mm) 8.5, 13, 17.5, and 22, respectively. Inlet pressure was varied from 0.2 MPa to 1.8 MPa, while sample initial temperature varied from 600C to 900C. Beck's sequential function specification method was utilized to estimate surface heat flux and surface temperature. Inlet pressure has a positive effect on surface heat flux (SHF) within a critical value of pressure. Thickness of the sample affects the maximum achieved SHF negatively. Surface heat flux as high as 0.4024 MW/m(2) was estimated for a thickness of 8.5 mm. Insulation effects of vapor film become apparent in the sample initial temperature range of 900C causing reduction in surface heat flux and cooling rate of the sample. A sensor location near to quenched surface is found to be a better choice to visualize the effects of spray parameters on surface heat flux and surface temperature. Cooling rate showed a profound increase for an inlet pressure of 0.8 MPa. PMID:24977219
Aamir, Muhammad; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun; Aqeel-ur-Rehman; Wang, Hong
2014-01-01
An experimental study was carried out to investigate the effects of inlet pressure, sample thickness, initial sample temperature, and temperature sensor location on the surface heat flux, surface temperature, and surface ultrafast cooling rate using stainless steel samples of diameter 27?mm and thickness (mm) 8.5, 13, 17.5, and 22, respectively. Inlet pressure was varied from 0.2?MPa to 1.8?MPa, while sample initial temperature varied from 600C to 900C. Beck's sequential function specification method was utilized to estimate surface heat flux and surface temperature. Inlet pressure has a positive effect on surface heat flux (SHF) within a critical value of pressure. Thickness of the sample affects the maximum achieved SHF negatively. Surface heat flux as high as 0.4024?MW/m2 was estimated for a thickness of 8.5?mm. Insulation effects of vapor film become apparent in the sample initial temperature range of 900C causing reduction in surface heat flux and cooling rate of the sample. A sensor location near to quenched surface is found to be a better choice to visualize the effects of spray parameters on surface heat flux and surface temperature. Cooling rate showed a profound increase for an inlet pressure of 0.8?MPa. PMID:24977219
Zheng, Jingming; Martnez-Cabrera, Hugo I.
2013-01-01
Background and Aims In recent years considerable effort has focused on linking wood anatomy and key ecological traits. Studies analysing large databases have described how these ecological traits vary as a function of wood anatomical traits related to conduction and support, but have not considered how these functions interact with cells involved in storage of water and carbohydrates (i.e. parenchyma cells). Methods We analyzed, in a phylogenetic context, the functional relationship between cell types performing each of the three xylem functions (conduction, support and storage) and wood density and theoretical conductivity using a sample of approx. 800 tree species from China. Key Results Axial parenchyma and rays had distinct evolutionary correlation patterns. An evolutionary link was found between high conduction capacity and larger amounts of axial parenchyma that is probably related to water storage capacity and embolism repair, while larger amounts of ray tissue have evolved with increased mechanical support and reduced hydraulic capacity. In a phylogenetic principal component analysis this association of axial parenchyma with increased conduction capacity and rays with wood density represented orthogonal axes of variation. In multivariate space, however, the proportion of rays might be positively associated with conductance and negatively with wood density, indicating flexibility in these axes in species with wide rays. Conclusions The findings suggest that parenchyma types may differ in function. The functional axes represented by different cell types were conserved across lineages, suggesting a significant role in the ecological strategies of the angiosperms. PMID:23904446
Steady-State and Transient Boundary Element Methods for Coupled Heat Conduction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kontinos, Dean A.
1997-01-01
Boundary element algorithms for the solution of steady-state and transient heat conduction are presented. The algorithms are designed for efficient coupling with computational fluid dynamic discretizations and feature piecewise linear elements with offset nodal points. The steady-state algorithm employs the fundamental solution approach; the integration kernels are computed analytically based on linear shape functions, linear elements, and variably offset nodal points. The analytic expressions for both singular and nonsingular integrands are presented. The transient algorithm employs the transient fundamental solution; the temporal integration is performed analytically and the nonsingular spatial integration is performed numerically using Gaussian quadrature. A series solution to the integration is derived for the instance of a singular integrand. The boundary-only character of the algorithm is maintained by integrating the influence coefficients from initial time. Numerical results are compared to analytical solutions to verify the current boundary element algorithms. The steady-state and transient algorithms are numerically shown to be second-order accurate in space and time, respectively.
First Order Corrections to the Plasma Conductivity Tensor for Wave Heating Simulations with AORSA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaeger, E. F.; Berry, L. A.; Green, D. L.; Smithe, D. N.
2010-11-01
Spectral wave solvers such as AORSA [1] have been used extensively to model electromagnetic wave heating in two dimensional (2D) tokamak plasmas. Spectral methods allow wave solutions to all orders in the ratio of ion Larmor radius to wavelength (ρ/λ). However 2D simulations with AORSA have so far assumed a plasma conductivity that is zero order in the ratio of ion Larmor radius to equilibrium scale length (ρ/L). Here we extend these calculations to include first-order corrections proportional to gradients in equilibrium quantities such as density, temperature and magnetic field [2]. These are equivalent to odd-order derivative terms used in finite difference schemes and are necessary for conservation of energy when mode-converted electrostatic waves propagate in regions of strong gradients.[4pt] [1] E.F. Jaeger, L.A. Berry, E.F. D'Azevedo, et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 1573 (2001). [0pt] [2] D. N. Smithe, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 31, 1105 (1989).
Verification of combined thermal-hydraulic and heat conduction analysis code FLOWNET/TRUMP
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maruyama, Soh; Fujimoto, Nozomu; Kiso, Yoshihiro; Murakami, Tomoyuki; Sudo, Yukio
1988-09-01
This report presents the verification results of the combined thermal-hydraulic and heat conduction analysis code, FLOWNET/TRUMP which has been utilized for the core thermal hydraulic design, especially for the analysis of flow distribution among fuel block coolant channels, the determination of thermal boundary conditions for fuel block stress analysis and the estimation of fuel temperature in the case of fuel block coolant channel blockage accident in the design of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor(HTTR), which the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has been planning to construct in order to establish basic technologies for future advanced very high temperature gas-cooled reactors and to be served as an irradiation test reactor for promotion of innovative high temperature new frontier technologies. The verification of the code was done through the comparison between the analytical results and experimental results of the Helium Engineering Demonstration Loop Multi-channel Test Section(HENDEL T(sub 1-M)) with simulated fuel rods and fuel blocks.
Rana, Sohel; Kanesan, Jeevan; Reza, Ahmed Wasif; Ramiah, Harikrishnan
2014-01-01
Non-Fourier heat conduction model with dual phase lag wave-diffusion model was analyzed by using well-conditioned asymptotic wave evaluation (WCAWE) and finite element method (FEM). The non-Fourier heat conduction has been investigated where the maximum likelihood (ML) and Tikhonov regularization technique were used successfully to predict the accurate and stable temperature responses without the loss of initial nonlinear/high frequency response. To reduce the increased computational time by Tikhonov WCAWE using ML (TWCAWE-ML), another well-conditioned scheme, called mass effect (ME) T-WCAWE, is introduced. TWCAWE with ME (TWCAWE-ME) showed more stable and accurate temperature spectrum in comparison to asymptotic wave evaluation (AWE) and also partial Pade AWE without sacrificing the computational time. However, the TWCAWE-ML remains as the most stable and hence accurate model to analyze the fast transient thermal analysis of non-Fourier heat conduction model. PMID:25019096
Conductive heat flux in VC-1 and the thermal regime of Valles caldera, Jemez Mountains, New Mexico
Sass, J.H.; Morgan, P.
1988-06-10
Over 5% of heat in the western United States is lost through Quaternary silicic volcanic centers, including the Valles caldera in north central New Mexico. These centers are the sites of major hydrothermal activity and upper crystal metamorphism, metasomatism, and mineralization, producing associated geothermal resources. We present new heat flow data from Valles caldera core hole 1 (VC-1), drilled in the southwestern margin of the Valles caldera. Thermal conductivities were measured on 55 segments of core from VC-1, waxed and wrapped to preserve fluids. These values were combined with temperature gradient data to calculate heat flow. Above 335 m, which is probably unsaturated, heat flow is 247 +- 16 mW m/sup -2/. The only deep temperature information available is from an uncalibrated commercial log made 19 months after drilling. Gradients, derived from uncalibrated temperature logs, and conductivities are inversely correlated between 335 and 737 m, indicating a conductive thermal regime, and component heat fluxes over three depth intervals (335--539 m, 549--628 m, and 628--737 m) are in excellent agreement with each other with an average of 504 +- 15 mW m/sup -2/. Temperature logs to 518 m depth with well-calibrated temperature sensors result in a revised heat flow of 463 +- 15 mW m. We use shallow thermal gradient data from 75 other sites in and around the caldera to interpret the thermal regime at the VC-1 site. A critical review of published thermal conductivity data from the Valles caldera yields an average thermal conductivity of greater than or equal to1 W m/sup -1/ K/sup -1/ for the near-surface tuffaceous material, and we assume that shallow gradient values (/sup 0/C km/sup -1/) are approximately numerically equal to heat flow (mW m/sup -2/).
Wound healing of 6.45-microm free electron laser skin incisions with heat-conducting templates.
Robbins, Jason B; Reinisch, Lou; Ellis, Darrel L
2003-10-01
We have previously shown a reduction in lateral thermal damage with acute studies of skin incisions made in vitro using heat-conducting templates. Here we examined the wound-healing response to laser incisions with heat-conducting templates and explored the use of an optically transparent template with the free electron laser (FEL) at 6.45 microm. First we evaluated the effects of a sapphire heat-conducting template on the lateral thermal damage of FEL incisions using in vitro human skin samples. Next we compared wound tensile strength and histological scoring of the healing of incisions created on the dorsal pelts of live rats with the FEL utilizing metal and sapphire heat-conducting templates and scalpel incisions. The animals were euthanized and the wounds were analyzed at postoperative days 7, 14, and 21. The depth and lateral thermal damage of FEL incisions on in vitro human skin were significantly reduced with the sapphire heat-conducting template. Nonstatistically significant differences in wound tensile strengths and histological scoring of wound healing were noted at days 7 and 14. By day 21, all of the incisions appeared similar. When the data from days 7 and 14 were combined, statistically significant differences were found for each of the templates (except the histological evaluation with the aluminum template) and the scalpel compared with laser incisions made without using a template. The use of metal or sapphire heat-conducting templates reduced the wound-healing delay of laser incisions seen at postoperative days 7 and 14. PMID:14563196
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Honqing; Tang, Jinlan
The coupling calculation method of ablation and the temperature field of the silica-phenolics lining in the divergent portion of solid rocket nozzles is discussed. The unsteady liquid layer ablative model of this lining, in which liquid, charred and pyrolitic layers are formed under high temperature, is used. The transient heat conductive model in cylindrical coordinate system is used for calculation of the temperature field, and the problem of moving boundaries caused by ablation is treated by the method of coordinate transformation. Utilizing the energy equation on the ablative boundary, the equations of ablation and heat conduction are coupled and solved so that more precise predicted calculation results are obtained.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.
1990-01-01
The development of low conductivity, robust thermal and environmental barrier coatings requires advanced testing techniques that can accurately and effectively evaluate coating thermal conductivity and cyclic resistance at very high surface temperatures (up to 17OOOC) under large thermal gradients. In this study, a laser high-heat-flux test approach is established for evaluating advanced low conductivity, ultra-high temperature ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings under the NASA Ultra Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) program. The test approach emphasizes the real-time monitoring and assessment of the coating thermal conductivity: the initial conductivity rise under a steady-state high temperature thermal gradient test due to coating sintering, and the later coating conductivity reduction under a subsequent cyclic thermal gradient test due to coating cracking/delamination. The coating system is then evaluated based on the damage accumulations and failure after the combined steady-state and cyclic thermal gradient tests. The lattice and radiation thermal conductivity of advanced ceramic coatings can also be evaluated using laser heat-flux techniques. The coating external radiation resistance is assessed based on the measured specimen temperature response under a laser heated intense radiation flux source. The coating internal radiation contribution is investigated based on the measured apparent coating conductivity increases with the coating surface test temperature under large thermal gradient test conditions. Since an increased radiation contribution is observed at these very high surface test temperatures, by varying the laser heat-flux and coating average test temperature, the complex relation between the lattice and radiation conductivity as a function of surface and interface test temperature is derived.
T. Hadgu; S. Webb; M. Itamura
2004-02-12
Yucca Mountain, Nevada has been designated as the nation's high-level radioactive waste repository and the U.S. Department of Energy has been approved to apply to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission for a license to construct a repository. Heat transfer in the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) drift enclosures is an important aspect of repository waste emplacement. Canisters containing radioactive waste are to be emplaced in tunnels drilled 500 m below the ground surface. After repository closure, decaying heat is transferred from waste packages to the host rock by a combination of thermal radiation, natural convection and conduction heat transfer mechanism?. Current YMP mountain-scale and drift-scale numerical models often use a simplified porous medium code to model fluid and heat flow in the drift openings. To account for natural convection heat transfer, the thermal conductivity of the air was increased in the porous medium model. The equivalent thermal conductivity, defined as the ratio of total heat flow to conductive heat flow, used in the porous media models was based on horizontal concentric cylinders. Such modeling does not effectively capture turbulent natural convection in the open spaces as discussed by Webb et al. (2003) yet the approach is still widely used on the YMP project. In order to mechanistically model natural convection conditions in YMP drifts, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code FLUENT (Fluent, Incorporated, 2001) has been used to model natural convection heat transfer in the YMP emplacement drifts. A two-dimensional (2D) model representative of YMP geometry (e.g., includes waste package, drip shield, invert and drift wall) has been developed and numerical simulations made (Francis et al., 2003). Using CFD simulation results for both natural convection and conduction-only heat transfer in a single phase, single component fluid, equivalent thermal conductivities have been calculated for different Rayleigh numbers. Correlation equations for equivalent thermal conductivity as a function of Rayleigh number were developed for the Yucca Mountain geometry and comparisons were made to experimental data and correlations found in the literature on natural convection in horizontal concentric cylinders, a geometry similar to YMP. The objective of this work is to compare the results of CFD natural convection simulations and conduction-only calculations that used the equivalent thermal conductivity to represent heat transfer by turbulent natural convection. The FLUENT code was used for both simulations with heat generation boundary condition at the waste package and constant temperature boundary condition 5 meters into the host rock formation. Comparisons are made of temperature contours in the drift air and temperature profiles at surfaces of the different engineered components using the two approaches. The results show that for the two-dimensional YMP geometry considered, the average surface temperatures of the CFD natural convection and conduction-only using the equivalent thermal conductivity are similar and the maximum local temperature differences for the different surfaces were within two 2 C. The differences in temperature profiles reflect the use of a constant equivalent thermal conductivity. The effect of the differences is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christensen, W.; Kamai, T.; Fogg, G. E.
2012-12-01
The presence of metal piezometers (thermal conductivity 16.0 W m-1 K-1) in peat (thermal conductivity 0.5 W m-1 K-1) can significantly influence temperatures recorded in the subsurface. Radially symmetrical 2D numerical models of heat conduction and convection that use a transient specified temperature boundary condition (Dirichlet) and explicitly account for the difference in thermal properties differ from the commonly used 1D analytical solution by as much as 2C at 0.15m below ground surface. Field data from temperature loggers located inside and outside piezometers show similar differences, supporting the use of the more complex numerical model. In order to better simulate field data, an energy balance approach is used to calculate the temperature along the upper boundary using hourly radiation and air temperature data, along with daily average wind velocity and cloud cover data. Normally distributed random noise is added to recorded field data to address potential natural variation between conditions at the instrument site and the field site (piezometer). Five influential parameters are considered: albedo, crop coefficient, hydraulic conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and surface water depth. Ten sets of these five parameters are generated from a uniform random distribution and constrained by values reported in the literature or measured in the field. The ten parameter sets and noise are used to generate synthetic subsurface data in the numerical model. The synthetic temperature data is offset by a constant value determined from a uniform random distribution to represent potential offset in instrument accuracy (+/- 0.1 C). The original parameter values are satisfactorily recovered by indirect inversion of the noise-free model using UCODE. Comparison of the parameter estimates from the homogeneous numerical model (equivalent to the analytical model) and the numerical model that explicitly models the metal piezometer are compared. The same inversion scheme is used to estimate parameters from subsurface temperature records from Grass Lake, a large montane peatland located on Luther Pass, California.
ELECTRON HEAT CONDUCTION IN THE SOLAR WIND: TRANSITION FROM SPITZER-HAeRM TO THE COLLISIONLESS LIMIT
Bale, S. D.; Quataert, E.; Pulupa, M.; Salem, C.; Chen, C. H. K.
2013-06-01
We use a statistically significant set of measurements to show that the field-aligned electron heat flux q{sub Parallel-To} in the solar wind at 1 AU is consistent with the Spitzer-Haerm collisional heat flux q{sub sh} for temperature gradient scales larger than a few mean free paths L{sub T} {approx}> 3.5{lambda}{sub fp}. This represents about 65% of the measured data and corresponds primarily to high {beta}, weakly collisional plasma ({sup s}low solar wind{sup )}. In the more collisionless regime {lambda}{sub fp}/L{sub T} {approx}> 0.28, the electron heat flux is limited to q{sub Parallel-To }/q{sub 0} {approx} 0.3, independent of mean free path, where q{sub 0} is the ''free-streaming'' value; the measured q{sub Parallel-To} does not achieve the full q{sub 0}. This constraint q{sub Parallel-To }/q{sub 0} {approx} 0.3 might be attributed to wave-particle interactions, effects of an interplanetary electric potential, or inherent flux limitation. We also show a {beta}{sub e} dependence to these results that is consistent with a local radial electron temperature profile T{sub e} {approx} r {sup -{alpha}} that is a function of the thermal electron beta {alpha} = {alpha}({beta}{sub e}) and that the {beta} dependence of the collisionless regulation constraint is not obviously consistent with a whistler heat flux instability. It may be that the observed saturation of the measured heat flux is a simply a feature of collisional transport. We discuss the results in a broader astrophysical context.
Design of a polymer thermoelectric generator using radial architecture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Menon, Akanksha K.; Yee, Shannon K.
2016-02-01
Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) are solid-state heat engines consisting of p-type and n-type semiconductors that convert heat into electricity via the Seebeck effect. Conducting polymers are a viable alternative with intrinsic advantages over their inorganic counterparts, since they are abundant, flexible as thick-films, and have reduced manufacturing costs due to solution processing. Furthermore, polymers have an inherently low thermal conductivity, thus affording them the option of forgoing some heat exchanger costs. Current examples of polymer TE devices have been limited to traditional flat-plate geometries with power densities on the μW/cm2 scale, where their potential is not fully realized. Herein, we report a novel radial device architecture and model the improved performance of polymer-based TEG based on this architecture. Our radial architecture accommodates a fluid as the heat source and can operate under natural convection alone due to heat spreading. Analytical heat transfer and electrical models are presented that optimize the device for maximum power density, and for the first time we obtain the geometry matching condition that maximizes the efficiency. We predict high power densities of ˜1 mW/cm2 using state-of-the-art polymer TEs subjected to a temperature difference of 100 K, which is nearly 1000× higher than polymer flat-plate architectures reported in literature.
Dinwiddie, R.B.; Burchell, T.D. ); Baker, C.F. )
1991-01-01
The material used in this study was a carbon-carbon fiber composite manufactured from precursor yarn and petroleum based pitch through a process of repetitive densification of a woven preform. The resultant high temperature-high strength material exhibits relatively high thermal conductivity and is thus of interest to the fusion energy, plasma materials interactions (PMI) and plasma facing components (PFC) communities. Carbon-carbon fiber composite manufacture involves two distinct processes, preform weaving and component densification. In this study three samples were subjected to an additional heat treatment of 2550, 2750 or 3000{degree}C at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) subsequent to their fourth graphitization at 2400{degree}C. It should be noted that no effort was made to optimize the composite for thermal conductivity, but rather only to provide a material with which to evaluate the effect of the final heat treatment temperature on the thermal conductivity. The fiber is the primary source of heat conduction in the composite. Consequently, increasing the fiber volume fraction, and/or the fiber thermal conductivity is expected to increase the composite thermal conductivity. 3 refs., 1 fig.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kozdoba, L. A.; Krivoshei, F. A.
1985-01-01
The solution of the inverse problem of nonsteady heat conduction is discussed, based on finding the coefficient of the heat conduction and the coefficient of specific volumetric heat capacity. These findings are included in the equation used for the electrical model of this phenomenon.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Management of water content and nutrient status during space flight is a critical necessity in plant production systems. Our objectives were to determine if dual-probe heat pulse sensors could improve water content determination accuracy over single-probe heat-pulse sensors, and to test a design usi...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Clough, Elizabeth Engel; Driver, Rosalind
1985-01-01
Describes main features of students' thinking about heat and temperature (developed before formal science teaching) and results of a study that shows that many notions about heat/temperature used by younger children are still apparent in the thinking of older students. The study involved interviews with 84 students in three age groups. (JN)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Conel, J. E.
1975-01-01
A computer program (Program SPHERE) solving the inhomogeneous equation of heat conduction with radiation boundary condition on a thermally homogeneous sphere is described. The source terms are taken to be exponential functions of the time. Thermal properties are independent of temperature. The solutions are appropriate to studying certain classes of planetary thermal history. Special application to the moon is discussed.
Tsokur, A.K.; Tsokur, A.Ya.; Gavrilov, V.G.
1995-10-01
Based on the heat conduction equation, mathematical models (one- and two-dimensional) have been developed to describe a nonstationary temperature field in an abrasive tool. The physicochemical transformations occurring in it and of the mobility of its peripheral surface are taken into account.
Design and testing of a passive, feedback-controlled, variable conductance heat pipe
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schlitt, K. R.
1973-01-01
A passive feedback system, which stabilizes the heat source temperature (T sub s) of a gas loaded heat pipe, was designed and tested. The control of T sub s is accomplished by an auxiliary liquid that senses the heat source and actuates a metal bellows system due to the liquid's thermal expansion. The movement of the bellows varies the gas reservoir volume and leads to a corresponding change of the condensation area of the heat pipe. With methanol as the heat pipe working fluid and perfluoro-n-pentane as the auxiliary liquid, the control capability was found to be T sub s = 31.5 + or - 1.5 C in a power range from 3 to 30 W, compared to T sub s = 33 + or - 3 C with methanol as auxiliary liquid. The change in T sub s was 35 + or - 5.5 C with the bellows held in the closed position.
Construction and testing of a gas-loaded, passive-control, variable-conductance heat pipe
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Depew, C. A.; Sauerbrey, W. J.; Benson, B. A.
1973-01-01
A methanol heat pipe using nitrogen gas for temperature control has been constructed and tested. The system was run over a power ratio of 15 (2 to 30 watts) with the heat source near ambient temperature and with the heat sink at a nominal value of 32 F. Control was obtained with a metal bellows gas reservoir which was actuated by an internal liquid-filled bellows. The liquid bellows was pressurized by expanding liquid methanol which was contained in an auxiliary reservoir in the evaporator heater block. It was demonstrated that the temperature variation of the heat source was reduced from 36 F for the heat pipe with no control to 7 F with the actuated bellows control.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malik, M. Y.; Bibi, M.; Khan, Farzana; Salahuddin, T.
2016-03-01
In this article, Williamson fluid flow and heat transfer over a stretching cylinder is discussed. The thermal conductivity is assumed to be vary linearly with temperature. Heat generation/absorption effects are also taken into account. Modeled partial differential equations are converted into ordinary differential form by using appropriate transformations. Shooting method in conjunction with Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method is used to find the solution of the problem. Moreover, the effects of different flow parameters γ, λ, ɛ, β and Pr on velocity and temperature profiles are shown graphically. Local Nusselt number and skin friction coefficient are shown in tabular and graphical form.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gedeon, L.
1979-01-01
A variable-conductance heat-pipe system (VCHPS) with methanol as the working fluid and a nitrogen and helium mixture as the control gas was used for the thermal control of a 200 W RF traveling wave tube of the Communication Technology Satellite. Three stainless steel heat pipes (one redundant) and an aluminum radiator were designed to transfer 196 watts for an evaporator temperature of 50 C. The system has operated for three years with no noticeable change in performance. On four occasions the heat pipes apparently deprimed. A short time after reducing the tube power, the heat pipes reprimed and the system continued to operate normally. The description, qualification testing, and orbit data of the VCHPS are presented.
Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA); Bernhart, John Charles (Fleetwood, PA)
2012-08-21
Method for processing an article comprising mixed conducting metal oxide material. The method comprises contacting the article with an oxygen-containing gas and either reducing the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas during a cooling period or increasing the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas during a heating period; during the cooling period, reducing the oxygen activity in the oxygen-containing gas during at least a portion of the cooling period and increasing the rate at which the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas is reduced during at least a portion of the cooling period; and during the heating period, increasing the oxygen activity in the oxygen-containing gas during at least a portion of the heating period and decreasing the rate at which the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas is increased during at least a portion of the heating period.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sandin, C.; Steffen, M.; Schönberner, D.; Rühling, U.
2016-02-01
Heat conduction has been found a plausible solution to explain discrepancies between expected and measured temperatures in hot bubbles of planetary nebulae (PNe). While the heat conduction process depends on the chemical composition, to date it has been exclusively studied for pure hydrogen plasmas in PNe. A smaller population of PNe show hydrogen-deficient and helium- and carbon-enriched surfaces surrounded by bubbles of the same composition; considerable differences are expected in physical properties of these objects in comparison to the pure hydrogen case. The aim of this study is to explore how a chemistry-dependent formulation of the heat conduction affects physical properties and how it affects the X-ray emission from PN bubbles of hydrogen-deficient stars. We extend the description of heat conduction in our radiation hydrodynamics code to work with any chemical composition. We then compare the bubble-formation process with a representative PN model using both the new and the old descriptions. We also compare differences in the resulting X-ray temperature and luminosity observables of the two descriptions. The improved equations show that the heat conduction in our representative model of a hydrogen-deficient PN is nearly as efficient with the chemistry-dependent description; a lower value on the diffusion coefficient is compensated by a slightly steeper temperature gradient. The bubble becomes somewhat hotter with the improved equations, but differences are otherwise minute. The observable properties of the bubble in terms of the X-ray temperature and luminosity are seemingly unaffected.
Sayer, Robert A; Piekos, Edward S; Phinney, Leslie M
2012-12-01
Accurate knowledge of thermophysical properties is needed to predict and optimize the thermal performance of microsystems. Thermal conductivity is experimentally determined by measuring quantities such as voltage or temperature and then inferring a thermal conductivity from a thermal model. Thermal models used for data analysis contain inherent assumptions, and the resultant thermal conductivity value is sensitive to how well the actual experimental conditions match the model assumptions. In this paper, a modified data analysis procedure for the steady state Joule heating technique is presented that accounts for bond pad effects including thermal resistance, electrical resistance, and Joule heating. This new data analysis method is used to determine the thermal conductivity of polycrystalline silicon (polysilicon) microbridges fabricated using the Sandia National Laboratories SUMMiT V micromachining process over the temperature range of 77-350 K, with the value at 300 K being 71.7 1.5 W/(m K). It is shown that making measurements on beams of multiple lengths is useful, if not essential, for inferring the correct thermal conductivity from steady state Joule heating measurements. PMID:23278015
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sidnyaev, N. I.
2005-07-01
Interaction of a high-temperature gas with a heat-reflecting coating is accompanied by many interrelated processes. The need for thermal protection arises when an unprotected structure is bound to inevitably fail under the action of heat fluxes. It seems that heat fluxes on the order of 2.5 10 5 W/m2, which corresponds to equilibrium surface temperatures exceeding 1500 K, set the upper operating temperature limit for unprotected refractory metals. However, this limit is to some extent conditional, since mechanical and corrosion effects may often aggravate the thermal action, causing the structure to fail at much lower temperatures.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, J.; Bae, S. W.; Whitten, M. W.; Mullen, J. D.; Quine, R. W.; Kalkur, T. S.
1999-01-01
Two systems have been developed to study boiling heat transfer on the microscale. The first system utilizes a 32 x 32 array of diodes to measure the local temperature fluctuations during boiling on a silicon wafer heated from below. The second system utilizes an array of 96 microscale heaters each maintained at constant surface temperature using electronic feedback loops. The power required to keep each heater at constant temperature is measured, enabling the local heat transfer coefficient to be determined. Both of these systems as well as some preliminary results are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arima, Tatsumi; Yamasaki, Sho; Idemitsu, Kazuya; Inagaki, Yaohiro
2008-05-01
The thermal conductivity of nuclear fuels such as UO2+x and (U,Pu)O2-x has been calculated by the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation in terms of oxygen stoichiometric parameter x, temperature and Pu content. In the present study, the MD calculations were carried out in both equilibrium (EMD) and nonequilibrium (NEMD) systems. In the EMD simulation, the thermal conductivity was defined as the time-integral of the correlation function of heat fluxes according to the Green-Kubo relationship. Meanwhile, in the homogeneous NEMD, it was given by the ratio of the time-averaged heat flux to the perturbed external force subjected to each particle in the simulated cell. NEMD, as compared with EMD, gave somewhat precise results efficiently. Furthermore, both MD calculations showed that the thermal conductivity of these oxide fuels decreased with increase of temperature and defects, i.e. excess oxygen or vacancy, and was rather insensitive to Pu content for the stoichiometric fuel.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Weiren; Fulton, Patrick M.; Harris, Robert N.; Tadai, Osamu; Matsubayashi, Osamu; Tanikawa, Wataru; Kinoshita, Masataka
2014-12-01
We report thermal conductivities, thermal diffusivities, and volumetric heat capacities determined by a transient plane heat source method for four whole-round core samples obtained by the Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project/Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 343. These thermal properties are necessary for the interpretation of a temperature anomaly detected in the vicinity of the plate boundary fault that ruptured during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake and other thermal processes observed within the Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project temperature observatory. Results of measured thermal conductivities are consistent with those independently measured using a transient line source method and a divided bar technique. Our measurements indicate no significant anisotropy in either thermal conductivity or thermal diffusivity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, D.; Tanaka, S.; Miyazaki, K.; Takashiri, M.
2015-06-01
To investigate the effect of strain on specific heat, sound velocity and lattice thermal conductivity of nanocrystalline bismuth antimony telluride thin films, we performed both experimental study and modeling. The nanocrystalline thin films had mostly preferred crystal orientation along c-axis, and strains in the both directions of c-axis and a- b-axis. It was found that the thermal conductivity of nanocrystalline thin films decreased greatly as compared with that of bulk alloys. To gain insight into the thermal transport in the strained nanocrystalline thin films, we estimated the lattice thermal conductivity based on the phonon transport model of full distribution of mean free paths accounting for the effects of grain size and strain which was influenced to both the sound velocity and the specific heat. As a result, the lattice thermal conductivity was increased when the strain was shifted from compressive to tensile direction. We also confirmed that the strain was influenced by the lattice thermal conductivity but the reduction of the lattice thermal conductivity of thin films can be mainly attributed to the nano-size effect rather than the strain effect. Finally, it was found that the measured lattice thermal conductivities were in good agreement with modeling.
Some aspects of the computer simulation of conduction heat transfer and phase change processes
Solomon, A. D.
1982-04-01
Various aspects of phase change processes in materials are discussd including computer modeling, validation of results and sensitivity. In addition, the possible incorporation of cognitive activities in computational heat transfer is examined.
Flight data analysis and further development of variable-conductance heat pipes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eninger, J. E.; Edwards, D. K.; Luedke, E. E.
1976-01-01
The work focuses on the mathematical modeling of three critical mechanisms of heat-pipe operation: (1) the effect that excess liquid has on heat-pipe performance; (2) the calculation of the dryout limit of circumferential grooves; (3) an efficient mathematical model for the calculation of the viscous-inertial interaction in the vapor flow. These mathematical models are incorporated in the computer program GRADE II, which is described.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nagihara, S.; Zacny, K.; Hedlund, M.; Taylor, P. T.
2012-01-01
Geothermal heat flow is obtained as a product of the geothermal gradient and the thermal conductivity of the vertical soil/rock/regolith interval penetrated by the instrument. Heat flow measurements are a high priority for the geophysical network missions to the Moon recommended by the latest Decadal Survey and previously the International Lunar Network. One of the difficulties associated with lunar heat flow measurement on a robotic mission is that it requires excavation of a relatively deep (approx 3 m) hole in order to avoid the long-term temporal changes in lunar surface thermal environment affecting the subsurface temperature measurements. Such changes may be due to the 18.6-year-cylcle lunar precession, or may be initiated by presence of the lander itself. Therefore, a key science requirement for heat flow instruments for future lunar missions is to penetrate 3 m into the regolith and to measure both thermal gradient and thermal conductivity. Engineering requirements are that the instrument itself has minimal impact on the subsurface thermal regime and that it must be a low-mass and low-power system like any other science instrumentation on planetary landers. It would be very difficult to meet the engineering requirements, if the instrument utilizes a long (> 3 m) probe driven into the ground by a rotary or percussive drill. Here we report progress in our efforts to develop a new, compact lunar heat flow instrumentation that meets all of these science and engineering requirements.
Spacelab experiments on convection in a rotating spherical shell with radial gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toomre, J.; Hart, J. E.; Glatzmaier, G. A.
Experiments on thermal convection in a rotating, differentially-heated hemispherical shell of fluid with a radial gravity field were carried out in the microgravity environment of Spacelab 3 which was flown on the space shuttle Challenger in May 1985. Schlieren visualizations of these laboratory flows are compared briefly to three-dimensional nonlinear simulations that can be conducted at the more modest heating rates.
Delaney, P.T.
1988-01-01
Temperature histories obtained from transient heat-conduction theory are applicable to most dikes despite potential complicating effects related to magma flow during emplacement, groundwater circulation, and metamorphic reaction during cooling. Here. machine-independent FORTRAN 77 programs are presented to calculate temperatures in and around dikes as they cool conductively. Analytical solutions can treat thermal-property contrasts between the dike and host rocks, but cannot address the release of magmatic heat of crystallization after the early stages of cooling or the appreciable temperature dependence of thermal conductivity and diffusivity displayed by most rock types. Numerical solutions can incorporate these additional factors. The heat of crystallization can raise the initial temperature at the dike contact, ??c1, about 100??C above that which would be estimated if it were neglected, and can decrease the rate at which the front of solidified magma moves to the dike center by a factor of as much as three. Thermal conductivity and diffusivity of rocks increase with decreasing temperature and, at low temperatures, these properties increase more if the rocks are saturated with water. Models that treat these temperature dependencies yield estimates of ??c1 that are as much as 75??C beneath those which would be predicted if they were neglected. ?? 1988.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eninger, J. E.; Fleischman, G. L.; Luedke, E. E.
1975-01-01
The design and testing of a heat pipe for spacecraft application is presented. The application in mind calls for heat loads up to 20 watts, a set-point temperature of 294K, and a sink that varies from -220K to nearly as high as the set-point. The overall heat pipe length is 137 cm. Two basically different mechanisms of achieving variable conductance in the pipe by vapor-flow throttling were studied. In one, the thermal resistance between the heat source and sink is due to a saturation-temperature drop corresponding to the vapor-pressure drop developed across the valve. In the other, the pressure difference across the valve induces capillary groove and wick dry out in an evaporation region, and thus results in an increased thermal resistance. This mechanism was selected for fabrication and testing. The pipe is a stainless-steel/methanol two-heat-pipe system. Results are presented and discussed. Engineering drawings and specifications of the pipe are shown.
Sass, J.H.; Morgan, P.
1988-01-01
Over 5% of heat in the western USA is lost through Quaternary silicic volcanic centers, including the Valles caldera in N central New Mexico. These centers are the sites of major hydrothermal activity and upper crustal metamorphism, metasomatism, and mineralization, producing associated geothermal resources. Presents new heat flow data from Valles caldera core hole 1 (VC-1), drilled in the SW margin of the Valles caldera. Thermal conductivities were measured on 55 segments of core from VC-1, waxed and wrapped to preserve fluids. These values were combined with temperature gradient data to calculate heat flow. Above 335 m, which is probably unsaturated, heat flow is 247 + or - 16 mW m-2. Inteprets the shallow thermal gradient data and the thermal regime at VC-1 to indicate a long-lived hydrothermal (and magmatic) system in the southwestern Valles caldera that has been maintained through the generation of shallow magma bodies during the long postcollapse history of the caldera. High heat flow at the VC-1 site is interpreted to result from hot water circulating below the base of the core hole, and we attribute the lower heat flow in the unsaturated zone is attributed to hydrologic recharge. -from Authors
Constantz, Jim; Su, Grace; Hatch, Christine
2004-08-01
Both the measurement of temperature and the simulation of heat and water transport have benefited from significant recent advances in data acquisition and computer resources. This has afforded the opportunity for routine use of heat as a tracer in a variety of hydrological regimes. Heat is particularly well suited for investigations of stream/groundwater exchanges. Dynamic temperature patterns between the stream and underlying sediments are typical, due to large stream surface area to volume ratios relative to other surface water bodies. Heat is a naturally occurring tracer, free from (real or perceived) issues of contamination associated with use of chemical tracers in stream environments. The use of heat as a tracer relies on the measurement of temperature gradients, and temperature is an extremely robust parameter to monitor. Temperature data is immediately available as opposed to chemical tracers, which often require significant laboratory analysis. In this work, we report on the progress in the use of heat as a tracer to determine the hydraulic conductance of the streambed along the middle reaches of the Russian River, located west of Santa Rosa, CA. The general hydrological setting is described and the unique matter in which the water resources are managed in an environment of increasing population, a rapid shift to agricultural crops requiring more irrigation, and a series of fishery related mandates.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hansen, C. Frederick; Early, Richard A.; Alzofon, Frederick E.; Witteborn, Fred C.
1959-01-01
Solutions are presented for the conduction of beat through a semi-infinite gas medium having a uniform initial temperature and a constant boundary temperature. The coefficients of thermal conductivity and diffusivity are treated as variables, and the solutions are extended to the case of air at temperatures where oxygen dissociation occurs. These solutions are used together with shock-tube measurements to evaluate the integral of thermal conductivity for air as a function of temperature.
Heat conduction in metal-filled polymers - The role of particle size, shape, and orientation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hansen, D.; Tomkiewicz, R.
1975-01-01
This paper presents a new type of analysis for predicting the thermal conductivity of disperse composites from the properties of the component phases and elementary characterizations of particle shapes and orientation. This analysis successfully predicted the sensitivity to particle shape which was confirmed by experiments also reported in this paper. These results suggest that highly elongated particles may be used to achieve dramatic modifications of thermal conductivity and the analysis presented here may be a useful tool in the design or development of disperse composites of specific thermal conductivity. The analysis may also apply to other properties such as electrical conductivity or magnetic permeability.
Radiative heat transfer of a meteoroid in the approximation of radiative thermal conductivity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piliugin, N. N.; Chernova, T. A.
1986-01-01
The radiative heat transfer coefficient of large meteoroids moving with hyperbolic velocity in an planetary atmosphere is calculated. The solution of this problem makes it possible to study mass loss from the meteoroid under aerodynamic heating and to determine the initial conditions for the analysis of the fragmentation of large bodies and their subsequent motion and ablation. Attention is given to hypersonic flow past an axisymmetric blunt body with allowance for radiative transfer in the thick-thin approximation. The method of matched asymptotic expansions, employing the hypersonic approximation and local self-similarity, is used to solve the gasdynamic problem of the flow of an optically thick gas past a large meteoroid.
Yamasaka, Shuto; Watanabe, Kentaro; Sakane, Shunya; Takeuchi, Shotaro; Sakai, Akira; Sawano, Kentarou; Nakamura, Yoshiaki
2016-01-01
The high electrical and drastically-low thermal conductivities, a vital goal for high performance thermoelectric (TE) materials, are achieved in Si-based nanoarchitecture composed of Si channel layers and epitaxial Ge nanodots (NDs) with ultrahigh areal density (~1012 cm−2). In this nanoarchitecture, the ultrasmall NDs and Si channel layers play roles of phonon scattering sources and electrical conduction channels, respectively. Electron conductivity in n-type nanoacrhitecture shows high values comparable to those of epitaxial Si films despite the existence of epitaxial NDs. This is because Ge NDs mainly scattered not electrons but phonons selectively, which could be attributed to the small conduction band offset at the epitaxially-grown Si/Ge interface and high transmission probability through stacking faults. These results demonstrate an independent control of thermal and electrical conduction for phonon-glass electron-crystal TE materials by nanostructure designing and the energetic and structural interface control. PMID:26973092
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bakan, Gokhan; Adnane, Lhacene; Gokirmak, Ali; Silva, Helena
2012-09-01
Temperature-dependent electrical resistivity, ρ(T), and thermal conductivity, k(T), of nanocrystalline silicon microwires self-heated to melt are extracted by matching simulated current-voltage (I-V) characteristics to experimental I-V characteristics. Electrical resistivity is extracted from highly doped p-type wires on silicon dioxide in which the heat losses are predominantly to the substrate and the self-heating depends mainly on ρ(T) of the wires. The extracted ρ(T) decreases from 11.8 mΩ cm at room-temperature to 5.2 mΩ cm at 1690 K, in reasonable agreement with the values measured up to ˜650 K. Electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity are extracted from suspended highly doped n-type silicon wires in which the heat losses are predominantly through the wires. In this case, measured ρ(T) (decreasing from 20.5 mΩ cm at room temperature to 12 mΩ cm at 620 K) is used to extract ρ(T) at higher temperatures (decreasing to 1 mΩ cm at 1690 K) and k(T) (decreasing from 30 W m-1 K-1 at room temperature to 20 W m-1 K-1 at 1690 K). The method is tested by using the extracted parameters to model wires with different dimensions. The experimental and simulated I-V curves for these wires show good agreement up to high voltage and temperature levels. This technique allows extraction of the electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity up to very high temperatures from self-heated microstructures.
THERMALLY CONDUCTIVE CEMENTITIOUS GROUTS FOR GEOTHERMAL HEAT PUMPS. PROGRESS REPORT BY 1998
ALLAN,M.L.; PHILIPPACOPOULOS,A.J.
1998-11-01
Research commenced in FY 97 to determine the suitability of superplasticized cement-sand grouts for backfilling vertical boreholes used with geothermal heat pump (GHP) systems. The overall objectives were to develop, evaluate and demonstrate cementitious grouts that could reduce the required bore length and improve the performance of GHPs. This report summarizes the accomplishments in FY 98.
Students' Design of Experiments: An Inquiry Module on the Conduction of Heat
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hatzikraniotis, E.; Kallery, M.; Molohidis, A.; Psillos, D.
2010-01-01
This article examines secondary students' design of experiments after engagement in an innovative and inquiry-oriented module on heat transfer. The module consists of an integration of hands-on experiments, simulated experiments and microscopic model simulations, includes a structured series of guided investigative tasks and was implemented for a
Students' Design of Experiments: An Inquiry Module on the Conduction of Heat
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hatzikraniotis, E.; Kallery, M.; Molohidis, A.; Psillos, D.
2010-01-01
This article examines secondary students' design of experiments after engagement in an innovative and inquiry-oriented module on heat transfer. The module consists of an integration of hands-on experiments, simulated experiments and microscopic model simulations, includes a structured series of guided investigative tasks and was implemented for a…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soini, Martin; Zardo, Ilaria; Uccelli, Emanuele; Funk, Stefan; Koblmüller, Gregor; Fontcuberta i Morral, Anna; Abstreiter, Gerhard
2010-12-01
The thermal properties of freely suspended GaAs nanowires are investigated by applying a method which relies on laser heating and the determination of the local temperature by Raman spectroscopy. In order to determine the values for the thermal conductivity κ, the fraction of the laser power absorbed inside the GaAs nanowire is estimated by numerical simulations. The thermal conductivity of nanowires with homogeneous diameter is found to lie in the range of 8-36 W m-1 K-1. The change of the temperature profile in the presence of a tapering was investigated. Furthermore, we discuss the influence of laser heating in ambient conditions on the value of κ.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muraoka, M.; Ohtake, M.; Susuki, N.; Yamamoto, Y.; Suzuki, K.; Tsuji, T.
2014-12-01
This study presents the results of the measurements of the thermal constants of natural methane-hydrate-bearing sediments samples recovered from the Tokai-oki test wells (Nankai-Trough, Japan) in 2004. The thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and specific heat of the samples were simultaneously determined using the hot-disk transient method. The thermal conductivity of natural hydrate-bearing sediments decreases slightly with increasing porosity. In addition, the thermal diffusivity of hydrate-bearing sediment decrease as porosity increases. We also used simple models to calculate the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity. The results of the distribution model (geometric-mean model) are relatively consistent with the measurement results. In addition, the measurement results are consistent with the thermal diffusivity, which is estimated by dividing the thermal conductivity obtained from the distribution model by the specific heat obtained from the arithmetic mean. In addition, we discuss the relation between the thermal conductivity and mineral composition of core samples in conference. Acknowledgments. This work was financially supported by MH21 Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resources in Japan on the National Methane Hydrate Exploitation Program planned by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cox, D. P.; Edgar, R. J.
1982-01-01
Accurate approximations are presented for the self-similar structures of nonradiating blast waves with adiabatic ions, isothermal electrons, and equation ion and electron temperatures at the shock. The cases considered evolve in cavities with power law ambient densities (including the uniform density case) and have negligible external pressure. The results provide the early time asymptote for systems with shock heating of electrons and strong thermal conduction. In addition, they provide analytical results against which two fluid numerical hydrodynamic codes can be checked.
Kolesnichenko, Ya I; Yakovenko, Yu V; Weller, A; Werner, A; Geiger, J; Lutsenko, V V; Zegenhagen, S
2005-04-29
Enhanced plasma heat conductivity in the presence of kinetic Alfvn waves (KAW) is predicted theoretically. The enhancement is shown to be strongest when the electron collision frequency exceeds the particle transit frequency in the wave field. Alfvn waves (both KAW and ideal MHD Alfvn eigenmodes generating the KAW) are studied in a shot of the Wendelstein 7-AS stellarator. On the basis of these results, strong thermal crashes observed during bursting Alfvnic activity in the mentioned shot are explained. PMID:15904237
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sleptsov, S. D.; Grishin, M. A.; Sharypov, O. V.
2015-05-01
Radiative-conductive heat exchange with the melting of a flat layer of gray semitransparent isotropically scattering medium has been analyzed by methods of mathematical simulation. A nonlinear initial boundary problem with a moving free phase-transition boundary is considered within a single-phase statement of the Stefan problem with allowance for the thermal radiation. The temperature distributions are obtained, and the influence of bulk and surface optical characteristics of the material on the layer melting is analyzed.