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1

Radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system  

DOEpatents

In a modular liquid-metal pool breeder reactor, a radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system is disclosed for removing the residual heat resulting from the shutdown of a reactor by a completely passive heat transfer system. A shell surrounds the reactor and containment vessel, separated from the containment vessel by an air passage. Natural circulation of air is provided by air vents at the lower and upper ends of the shell. Longitudinal, radial and inwardly extending fins extend from the shell into the air passage. The fins are heated by radiation from the containment vessel and convect the heat to the circulating air. Residual heat from the primary reactor vessel is transmitted from the reactor vessel through an inert gas plenum to a guard or containment vessel designed to contain any leaking coolant. The containment vessel is conventional and is surrounded by the shell.

Germer, John H. (San Jose, CA)

1987-01-01

2

Radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improved radiant vessel passive cooling system for liquid-metal poor-type modular nuclear reactors having a reactor vessel and a surrounding containment vessel spaced apart from the reactor vessel to form a first interstitial region containing an inert gas, the improvement comprising: a shell spaced apart from and surrounding the containment vessel to form a second interstitial region comprising a circulatory air passage. The circulatory air passage has an air inlet at a first position and an air outlet at a second position which is vertically higher than the first position. The second interstitial region lies between the shell and the containment vessel; and surface area extension means in the shell is longitudinally disposed from the shell into the second interstitial region towards the containment vessel to receive thermal radiation from the containment vessel. The surface area extension means is spaced apart from the external surface of the containment vessel where heat radiated form the containment vessel is received at the surface extension means for convection, conduction and radiation to air in the circulatory passage.

Germer, J.H.

1987-07-07

3

Design and Control of Hydronic Radiant Cooling Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improving energy efficiency in the Heating Ventilation and Air conditioning (HVAC) systems in buildings is critical to achieve the energy reduction in the building sector, which consumes 41% of all primary energy produced in the United States, and was responsible for nearly half of U.S. CO2 emissions. Based on a report by the New Building Institute (NBI), when HVAC systems are used, about half of the zero net energy (ZNE) buildings report using a radiant cooling/heating system, often in conjunction with ground source heat pumps. Radiant systems differ from air systems in the main heat transfer mechanism used to remove heat from a space, and in their control characteristics when responding to changes in control signals and room thermal conditions. This dissertation investigates three related design and control topics: cooling load calculations, cooling capacity estimation, and control for the heavyweight radiant systems. These three issues are fundamental to the development of accurate design/modeling tools, relevant performance testing methods, and ultimately the realization of the potential energy benefits of radiant systems. Cooling load calculations are a crucial step in designing any HVAC system. In the current standards, cooling load is defined and calculated independent of HVAC system type. In this dissertation, I present research evidence that sensible zone cooling loads for radiant systems are different from cooling loads for traditional air systems. Energy simulations, in EnergyPlus, and laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the heat transfer dynamics in spaces conditioned by radiant and air systems. The results show that the magnitude of the cooling load difference between the two systems ranges from 7-85%, and radiant systems remove heat faster than air systems. For the experimental tested conditions, 75-82% of total heat gain was removed by radiant system during the period when the heater (simulating the heat gain) was on, while for air system, 61-63% were removed. From a heat transfer perspective, the differences are mainly because the chilled surfaces directly remove part of the radiant heat gains from a zone, thereby bypassing the time-delay effect caused by the interaction of radiant heat gain with non-active thermal mass in air systems. The major conclusions based on these findings are: 1) there are important limitations in the definition of cooling load for a mixing air system described in Chapter 18 of ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals when applied to radiant systems; 2) due to the obvious mismatch between how radiant heat transfer is handled in traditional cooling load calculation methods compared to its central role in radiant cooling systems, this dissertation provides improvements for the current cooling load calculation method based on the Heat Balance procedure. The Radiant Time Series method is not appropriate for radiant system applications. The findings also directly apply to the selection of space heat transfer modeling algorithms that are part of all energy modeling software. Cooling capacity estimation is another critical step in a design project. The above mentioned findings and a review of the existing methods indicates that current radiant system cooling capacity estimation methods fail to take into account incident shortwave radiation generated by solar and lighting in the calculation process. This causes a significant underestimation (up to 150% for some instances) of floor cooling capacity when solar load is dominant. Building performance simulations were conducted to verify this hypothesis and quantify the impacts of solar for different design scenarios. A new simplified method was proposed to improve the predictability of the method described in ISO 11855 when solar radiation is present. The dissertation also compares the energy and comfort benefits of the model-based predictive control (MPC) method with a fine-tuned heuristic control method when applied to a heavyweight embedded surface system. A first order dynamic model of a radiant slab system was developed for impl

Feng, Jingjuan

4

DOAS, Radiant Cooling Revisited  

SciTech Connect

The article discusses dedicated outdoor air systems (DOAS) and radiant cooling technologies. Both of these topics were covered in previous ASHRAE Journal columns. This article reviews the technologies and their increasing acceptance. The two steps that ASHRAE is taking to disseminate DOAS information to the design community, available energy savings and the market potential of radiant cooling systems are addressed as well.

Hastbacka, Mildred; Dieckmann, John; Bouza, Antonio

2012-12-01

5

Performance evaluation of a radiant floor cooling system integrated with dehumidified ventilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radiant floor cooling system can be used as an alternative to all-air cooling systems, using the existing Ondol system (a radiant floor heating system) in Korea to save energy and maintain indoor thermal comfort. Unfortunately, a radiant floor cooling system may cause condensation on the floor surface under hot and humid conditions during the cooling season. In addition, the

Doosam Song; Taeyeon Kim; Suwon Song; Suckho Hwang; Seung-Bok Leigh

2008-01-01

6

Application of the control methods for radiant floor cooling system in residential buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In applying radiant floor cooling, its control system must prevent the floor surface condensation in hot and humid weather conditions. With no additional dehumidification system, only the radiant floor cooling system prevents floor condensation. In this case, the effects of the control of the cooling system on the indoor conditions can be changed because of the thermal inertia of the

Jae-Han Lima; Jae-Hun Jo; Yong-Yee Kim; Myoung-Souk Yeo; Kwang-Woo Kim

2006-01-01

7

Effect of a Radiant Panel Cooling System on Indoor Air Quality of a Conditioned Space  

E-print Network

This paper discusses the effect of a radiant cooling panel system on an indoor air quality (IAQ) of a conditioned space. In this study, ceiling radiant cooling panel, mechanical ventilation with fan coil unit (FCU) and 100% fresh air are used...

Mohamed, E.; Abdalla, K. N.

2010-01-01

8

CFD Simulation and Analysis of the Combined Evaporative Cooling and Radiant Ceiling Air-conditioning System  

E-print Network

, and the ceiling cooling system deals with the other part of sensible loads in the air-conditioned zone, so that the condensation on radiant panels and the insufficiency of cooling capacity can be avoided. The cooling water at 18? used in the cooling coils...

Xiang, H.; Yinming, L.; Junmei, W.

2006-01-01

9

Experimental Study of the Floor Radiant Cooling System Combined with Displacement Ventilation  

E-print Network

ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China HVAC Technologies for Energy Efficiency, Vol. IV-11-4 Experimental Study of the Floor Radiant Cooling System Combined with Displacement Ventilation Yanli Ren1, Deying Li2, Yufeng Zhang1 1...

Ren, Y.; Li, D.; Zhang, Y.

2006-01-01

10

Very low temperature radiant heating/cooling indoor end system for efficient use of renewable energies  

SciTech Connect

Solar or solar-assisted space heating systems are becoming more and more popular. The solar energy utilization efficiency is high when the collector is coupled with indoor radiant heating suppliers, since in principle, lower supply temperature means lower demand temperature and then the system heat loss is less. A new type radiant end system is put forward for even lower supply temperature compared to the conventional radiant floor heating systems. A three dimensional model was established to investigate its energy supply capacities. Simulation results show that 50 W per meter length tube can be achieved with the medium temperature of 30 C for heating and 15 C for cooling. The predicted results agree well with the actual data from a demonstration building. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that a supply temperature of 22 C in winter and of 17 C in summer already met the indoor requirements. The new end system has good prospects for effective use of local renewable resources. (author)

Ren, Jianbo; Wang, Yiping; Wang, Congrong; Xiong, Weicheng [School of Chem. Eng. and Tech., Tianjin Univ., Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhu, Li [School of Architecture, Tianjin Univ., Tianjin 300072 (China)

2010-06-15

11

Indoor Humidity Analysis of an Integrated Radiant Cooling and Desiccant Ventilation System  

E-print Network

in a leaky office operated with the required ventilation rate. Slightly pressurizing the space is recommended for radiant cooling. The energy consumption simulation shows that a passive desiccant wheel can recover about 50% of the ventilation load....

Gong, X.; Claridge, D. E.

2006-01-01

12

Radiant ceiling panel heating–cooling systems: experimental and simulated study of the performances, thermal comfort and energy consumptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Well known in the North of Europe, the water ceiling panel systems are mainly used to provide cooling. However, as well as for a radiant floor, this system can be used for heating in winter and cooling in summer. In order to get a better knowledge of the energy performances of such devices, the Gaz de France Research Centre funded

J Miriel; L Serres; A Trombe

2002-01-01

13

Infiltration Investigation of a Radiantly Heated an d Cooled Office  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air infiltration has a significant impact on the heating and cooling loads of small office and residential buildings. In a radiantly heated and cooled office, air infiltration normally determines whether this type of system can operate without condensation on the radiant cooling surface in summer, because infiltration may bring considerable moisture into the space. The office studied experiences infiltration that

Xiangyang Gong; David E. Claridge; P. E David; H. Archer; Texas A

14

Hydronic radiant cooling: Overview and preliminary performance assessment  

SciTech Connect

A significant amount of electrical energy used to cool non-residential buildings is drawn by the fans used to transport the cool air through the thermal distribution system. Hydronic systems reduce the amount of air transported through the building by separating ventilation and thermal conditioning. Due to the physical properties of water, hydronic distribution systems can transport a given amount of thermal energy using less than 5% of the otherwise necessary fan energy. This savings alone significantly reduces the energy consumption and especially the peak power requirement This survey clearly shows advantages for radiant cooling in combination with hydronic thermal distribution systems in comparison with the All-Air Systems commonly used in California. The report describes a literature survey on the system's development, thermal comfort issues, and cooling performance. The cooling power potential and the cooling power requirement are investigated for several California climates. Peak-power requirement is compared for hydronic radiant cooling and conventional All-Air-Systems.

Feustel, H.E.

1993-05-01

15

Design of energy efficient building with radiant slab cooling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air-conditioning comprises a substantial fraction of commercial building energy use because of compressor-driven refrigeration and fan-driven air circulation. Core regions of large buildings require year-round cooling due to heat gains from people, lights and equipment. Negative environmental impacts include CO2 emissions from electric generation and leakage of ozone-depleting refrigerants. Some argue that radiant cooling simultaneously improves building efficiency and occupant thermal comfort, and that current thermal comfort models fail to reflect occupant experience with radiant thermal control systems. There is little field evidence to test these claims. The University of Calgary's Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Building, is a pioneering radiant slab cooling installation in North America. Thermal comfort and energy performance were evaluated. Measurements included: (1) heating and cooling energy use, (2) electrical energy use for lighting and equipment, and (3) indoor temperatures. Accuracy of a whole building energy simulation model was evaluated with these data. Simulation was then used to compare the radiant slab design with a conventional (variable air volume) system. The radiant system energy performance was found to be poorer mainly due to: (1) simultaneous cooling by the slab and heating by other systems, (2) omission of low-exergy (e.g., groundwater) cooling possible with the high cooling water temperatures possible with radiant slabs and (3) excessive solar gain and conductive heat loss due to the wall and fenestration design. Occupant thermal comfort was evaluated through questionnaires and concurrent measurement of workstation comfort parameters. Analysis of 116 sets of data from 82 occupants showed that occupant assessment was consistent with estimates based on current thermal comfort models. The main thermal comfort improvements were reductions in (1) local discomfort from draft and (2) vertical air temperature stratification. The analysis showed that integrated architectural and mechanical design is required to achieve the potential benefits of radiant slab cooling, including: (1) reduction of peak solar gain via windows through (a) avoiding large window-to-wall ratios and/or (b) exterior shading of windows, (2) use of low-quality cooling sources such as cooling towers and ground water, especially in cold, dry climates, and (3) coordination of system control to avoid simultaneous heating and cooling.

Tian, Zhen

2007-12-01

16

Simulation of radiant cooling performance with evaporative cooling sources  

E-print Network

source of cooling water in the ApacheHVAC module of Virtualin IES Virtual Environment (Gough 2007). Hot water heatingVirtual Environment allowed for simulation of radiant exchange between surfaces, direct coupling of thermal mass to the cooling supply water

Moore, Timothy

2008-01-01

17

Hydronic radiant cooling: Overview and preliminary performance assessment  

SciTech Connect

A significant amount of electrical energy used to cool non-residential buildings is drawn by the fans used to transport the cool air through the thermal distribution system. Hydronic systems reduce the amount of air transported through the building by separating ventilation and thermal conditioning. Due to the physical properties of water, hydronic distribution systems can transport a given amount of thermal energy using less than 5% of the otherwise necessary fan energy. This savings alone significantly reduces the energy consumption and especially the peak power requirement This survey clearly shows advantages for radiant cooling in combination with hydronic thermal distribution systems in comparison with the All-Air Systems commonly used in California. The report describes a literature survey on the system`s development, thermal comfort issues, and cooling performance. The cooling power potential and the cooling power requirement are investigated for several California climates. Peak-power requirement is compared for hydronic radiant cooling and conventional All-Air-Systems.

Feustel, H.E.

1993-05-01

18

Cooling Energy Measurements of Houses with Attics Containing Radiant Barriers  

E-print Network

with two reflective aluminum surfaces on a kraft paper base. The radiant barrier has the potential to reduce the radiant heat transfer component impinging on the fiberglass attic insulation. Working as a system in conjunction with an air space, the radiant...

Levins, W. P.; Karnitz, M. A.; Knight, D. K.

1986-01-01

19

Investigation of a radiantly heated and cooled office with an integrated desiccant ventilation unit  

E-print Network

Radiant heating and cooling has a reputation of increasing the comfort level and reducing the energy consumption of buildings. The main advantages of radiant heating and cooling are low operational noise and reduced fan power cost. Radiant heating...

Gong, Xiangyang

2009-05-15

20

Radiant cooling in US office buildings: Towards eliminating the perception of climate-imposed barriers  

SciTech Connect

Much attention is being given to improving the efficiency of air-conditioning systems through the promotion of more efficient cooling technologies. One such alternative, radiant cooling, is the subject of this thesis. Performance information from Western European buildings equipped with radiant cooling systems indicates that these systems not only reduce the building energy consumption but also provide additional economic and comfort-related benefits. Their potential in other markets such as the US has been largely overlooked due to lack of practical demonstration, and to the absence of simulation tools capable of predicting system performance in different climates. This thesis describes the development of RADCOOL, a simulation tool that models thermal and moisture-related effects in spaces equipped with radiant cooling systems. The thesis then conducts the first in-depth investigation of the climate-related aspects of the performance of radiant cooling systems in office buildings. The results of the investigation show that a building equipped with a radiant cooling system can be operated in any US climate with small risk of condensation. For the office space examined in the thesis, employing a radiant cooling system instead of a traditional all-air system can save on average 30% of the energy consumption and 27% of the peak power demand due to space conditioning. The savings potential is climate-dependent, and is larger in retrofitted buildings than in new construction. This thesis demonstrates the high performance potential of radiant cooling systems across a broad range of US climates. It further discusses the economics governing the US air-conditioning market and identifies the type of policy interventions and other measures that could encourage the adoption of radiant cooling in this market.

Stetiu, C.

1998-01-01

21

Flightweight radiantly and actively cooled panel: Thermal and structural performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 2- by 4-ft flightweight panel was subjected to thermal/structural tests representative of design flight conditions for a Mach 6.7 transport and to off-design conditions simulating flight maneuvers and cooling system failures. The panel utilized Rene 41 heat shields backed by a thin layer of insulation to radiate away most of the 12 Btu/ft2-sec incident heating. A solution of ethylene glycol in water circulating through tubes in an aluminum-honeycomb-sandwich panel absorbed the remainder of the incident heating (0.8 Btu/sq ft-sec). The panel successfully withstood (1) 46.7 hr of radiant heating which included 53 thermal cycles and 5000 cycles of uniaxial inplane loading of + or - 1200 lfb/in; (2) simulated 2g-maneuver heating conditions and simulated cooling system failures without excessive temperatures on the structural panel; and (3) the extensive thermal/structural tests and the aerothermal tests reported in NASA TP-1595 without significant damage to the structural panel, coolant leaks, or hot-gas ingress to the structural panel.

Shore, C. P.; Nowak, R. J.; Kelly, H. N.

1982-01-01

22

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Data Management System  

E-print Network

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Data Management System DRAFT ES-8 Collection The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Data Management System supports the data processing needs of the CERES Science Team research to increase understanding of the Earth's climate and radiant

23

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Data Management System  

E-print Network

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Data Management System Single Satellite 2/1/2006 iii Preface The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Data Management System of the Earth's climate and radiant environment. The CERES Data Management Team works with the CERES Science

24

Three Great Technologies Working Together: DOAS, Radiant Heating and Cooling, and Envelope Tightness  

SciTech Connect

Synergistic systems are: (1) Dedicated Outdoor Air System (DOAS) - Efficient ventilation and dehumidification, Works well with energy recovery, Potential to cascade chilled water to radiant system; (2) Radiant heating and cooling - Comfort heating and cooling, Efficient delivery of energy, Improved zoning capabilities; and (3) Tighter envelope - Reduce uncontrolled loads, Humidity and Cold air. Whole building energy analysis of retrofit energy conservation measures. Conclusions are that: (1) These are preliminary results - further analysis for actual projects should completed; Savings depends on the starting point; Higher savings in the barracks because of 24 hour occupation vs. half-time occupation in the office; and May be difficult to justify retrofit just for energy savings; however, the premium cost over a standard retrofit can be cost effective.

Deru, M.; Benne, K.

2010-01-22

25

Study of the Applications of the Radiant Cooling Panel in Museum Showcases  

E-print Network

ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Building Commissioning for Energy Efficiency and Comfort, Vol.VI-8-3 Study of the Applications of a Radiant Cooling Panel in Museum Showcases Likui Yu Huabo Hou Xiongfeng Wan Huanxin Chen Associate Professor...

Yu, L.; Hou, H.; Wan, X.; Chen, H.

2006-01-01

26

Aerodynamic thermal simulation system. Part 1: Radiant array (instruction manual)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An aerodynamic thermal simulation system (ATSS) is presented. The construction of the system, the maintenance, set up, and operations are reported. System description of the radiant array is given along with the array subsystems modular heating unit, adjustable stanchion frame, cooling water system, and the gaseous nitrogen cooling system. The array configuration procedure outlines the set up and the start up. Maintenance procedures involve both lamp maintenance and reflector maintenance along with weather protection. Drawing codes are included. Descriptions of the 36 zone ATSS controls are also given. Each zone is an independent closed loop temperature control circuit. Procedures are presented for starting and stopping the system. The DATA-TRAK programmer and its operation, instruction manuals for the temperature controller and the power regulator and discriptions of peripheral equipment are discussed.

Kitchar, A. F.; Steuffen, R. L.

1973-01-01

27

Mean Radiant Cooling in a Hot-Humid Climate  

E-print Network

Shaded interior mass walls in a hot-humid climate can be thermally grounded to an earth heat sink under an insulated structure. The mean radiant temperature (MRT) of the shaded and thermally grounded interior mass walls will be cooler in summer than...

Garrison, M.

1996-01-01

28

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is a key component of the Earth Observing System (EOS) program. The CERES instrument provides radiometric measurements of the Earth's atmosphere from three broadband channels. The CERES missions are a follow-on to the successful Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) mission. The first CERES instrument (PFM) was launched on November 27, 1997, as part of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Two CERES instruments (FM1 and FM2) were launched into polar orbit on board the EOS flagship Terra on December 18, 1999, and two additional CERES instruments (FM3 and FM4) were launched on board EOS Aqua on May 4,2002. [Mission Objectives] The scientific justification for the CERES measurements can be summarized by three assertions: (1) changes in the radiative energy balance of the Earth-atmosphere system can cause long-term climate changes (e.g., carbon dioxide inducing global warming); (2) besides the systematic diurnal and seasonal cycles of incoming solar energy, changes in cloud properties (amount, height, optical thickness) cause the largest changes of the Earth's radiative energy balance; and (3) cloud physics is one of the weakest components of current climate models used to predict potential global climate change. CERES has four main objectives: 1) For climate change analysis, provide a continuation of the ERBE record of radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA), analyzed using the same algorithms that produced the ERBE data. 2) Double the accuracy of estimates of radiative fluxes at TOA and the Earth's surface. 3) Provide the first long-term global estimates of the radiative fluxes within the Earth's atmosphere. 4) Provide cloud property estimates that are consistent with the radiative fluxes from surface to TOA. [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180].

Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator); Barkstrom, Bruce R. (Principal Investigator)

29

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES): algorithm overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS), CERES objectives include the following. (1) For climate change analysis, provide a continuation of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) record of radiative fluxes at the top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA), analyzed using the same techniques as the existing ERBE data. (2) Double the accuracy of

Bruce A. Wielicki; Bruce R. Barkstrom; Bryan A. Baum; Thomas P. Charlock; Richard N. Green; David P. Kratz; Robert B. Lee; Patrick Minnis; G. Louis Smith; Takmeng Wong; David F. Young; Robert D. Cess; James A. Coakley; Dominique A. H. Crommelynck; Leo Donner; Robert Kandel; Michael D. King; Alvin J. Miller; Veerabhadran Ramanathan; David A. Randall; Larry L. Stowe; Ronald M. Welch

1998-01-01

30

Strategies for flow rate balancing in radiant floor heating systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flow rate balancing makes it possible to provide each zone with a design flow rate and to meet the heating load in a radiant floor heating system. Even though the control device of the heating system works well, insufficient water flow rates can degrade control performance and thermal comfort. The water flow rate should be adjusted appropriately to cope with

Seong-Ryong Ryu; Kyu-Nam Rhee; Myoung-Souk Yeo; Kwang-Woo Kim

2008-01-01

31

Clouds and Earth radiant energy system: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Clouds and Earth radiant energy system (CERES) instrument was first flown aboard the TRMM spacecraft whose 35° inclination orbit allowed for the collection of radiation budget data over all local times, i.e. all solar zenith angles for the latitude range. Moreover, this instrument has gathered the only bidirectional radiance data covering all local times. An additional quartet of CERES

G. Louis Smith; Bruce A. Wielicki; Bruce R. Barkstrom; Robert B. Lee; Kory J. Priestley; Thomas P. Charlock; Patrick Minnis; David P. Kratz; Norman Loeb; David F. Young

2004-01-01

32

CERES: Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brochure gives a brief description of the science research that is being done with data from the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument flying onboard NASA's Terra satellite. It also contains information about some of the data products and technical specifications.

1999-04-01

33

Design and Experiments of a Solar Low-temperature Hot Water Floor Radiant Heating System  

E-print Network

The solar low-temperature hot water floor radiant heating system combines solar energy heating with floor radiant heating. This kind of environmental heating way not only saves fossil resources and reduces pollution, but also makes people feel more...

Wu, Z.; Li, D.

2006-01-01

34

HYDRONIC RADIANT FLOOR FOR HEATING AND COOLING COUPLED WITH AN UNDERGROUND HEAT EXCHANGER: MODELING APPROACH AND RESULTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the simulation of the thermal performance of a radiant floor for heating and cooling that is connected with an underground heat exchanger installed under the concrete floor of a house. In the heating season, an electric boiler is used to maintain the operative temperature at the set point value by varying the supply water temperature to the

Radu Zmeureanu; Jean Brau

35

Numerical Analysis of a Radiant Heat Flux Calibration System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A radiant heat flux gage calibration system exists in the Flight Loads Laboratory at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. This calibration system must be well understood if the heat flux gages calibrated in it are to provide useful data during radiant heating ground tests or flight tests of high speed aerospace vehicles. A part of the calibration system characterization process is to develop a numerical model of the flat plate heater element and heat flux gage, which will help identify errors due to convection, heater element erosion, and other factors. A 2-dimensional mathematical model of the gage-plate system has been developed to simulate the combined problem involving convection, radiation and mass loss by chemical reaction. A fourth order finite difference scheme is used to solve the steady state governing equations and determine the temperature distribution in the gage and plate, incident heat flux on the gage face, and flat plate erosion. Initial gage heat flux predictions from the model are found to be within 17% of experimental results.

Jiang, Shanjuan; Horn, Thomas J.; Dhir, V. K.

1998-01-01

36

RADIANT Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

R24 and Development in Advanced Network Technology (RADIANT) is a computer research division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The first Web site offers many publications from the five research focus groups within RADIANT: High-Performance Networking, Monitoring and Measurement, Cyber Security, Network Architecture, and Robust Systems and Networks. This material is mostly beneficial to professionals and research students specializing in these areas. The site also has links to information about job opportunities available at RADIANT, as well as the Advanced Summer Curriculum for Emerging Network Technologies (ASCENT). ASCENT is a summer internship program that accepts both undergraduate and graduate students interested in networking research.

37

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) experiment will play a major role in NASA's planned multi-instrument multi-satellite Earth Observing System (EOS) program to observe and study the total Earth System on a global scale. The CERES experiment will provide EOS with a consistent data base of accurately known fields of radiation and of clouds; and will investigate the important question of the impact of clouds upon the radiative energy flow through the earth-atmosphere system. The CERES instruments will be an improved version of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) broadband scanning radiometer instruments flown by NASA in the 1980s. This paper describes the CERES experiment approach and the current CERES instrument design status.

Cooper, John E.; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Kopia, Leonard P.

1992-01-01

38

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System) experiment will play a major role in NASA's multi-platform Earth Observing System (EOS) program to observe and study the global climate. The CERES instruments will provide EOS scientists with a consistent data base of accurately known fields of radiation and of clouds. CERES will investigate the important question of cloud forcing and its influence on the radiative energy flow through the Earth's atmosphere. The CERES instrument is an improved version of the ERBE (Earth Radiation Budget Experiment) broadband scanning radiometer flown by NASA from 1984 through 1989. This paper describes the science of CERES, presents an overview of the instrument preliminary design, and outlines the issues related to spacecraft pointing and attitude control.

Carman, Stephen L.; Cooper, John E.; Miller, James; Harrison, Edwin F.; Barkstrom, Bruce R.

1992-01-01

39

Event-based Green Scheduling of Radiant Systems in Buildings Truong X. Nghiem, George J. Pappas and Rahul Mangharam  

E-print Network

, the building's thermal mass can be utilized to flatten out peaks in energy demand. Nowadays, radiant systems predictive control was shown to improve the comfort and energy consumption of radiant systems in [4Event-based Green Scheduling of Radiant Systems in Buildings Truong X. Nghiem, George J. Pappas

Pappas, George J.

40

Energy, cost, and CO 2 emission comparison between radiant wall panel systems and radiator systems  

E-print Network

The main goal of this paper is to evaluate the possibility of application or replacement of radiators with low-temperature radiant panels. This paper shows the comparison results of operations of 4 space heating systems: the low-temperature radiant panel system without any additional thermal insulation of external walls (PH-WOI), the low-temperature radiant panel system with additional thermal insulation of external walls (PH-WI), the radiator system without any additional thermal insulation of external walls (the classical heating system) (RH-WOI), and the radiator system with additional thermal insulation of external walls (RH-WI). The operation of each system is simulated by software EnergyPlus. The investigation shows that the PH-WI gives the best results. The RH-WOI has the largest energy consumption, and the largest pollutant emission. However, the PH-WI requires the highest investment.

Milorad Boji?; Dragan Cvetkovi?; Marko Mileti?; Jovan Maleševi?; Harry Boyer

2012-12-18

41

Energy, cost, and CO 2 emission comparison between radiant wall panel systems and radiator systems  

E-print Network

The main goal of this paper is to evaluate the possibility of application or replacement of radiators with low-temperature radiant panels. This paper shows the comparison results of operations of 4 space heating systems: the low-temperature radiant panel system without any additional thermal insulation of external walls (PH-WOI), the low-temperature radiant panel system with additional thermal insulation of external walls (PH-WI), the radiator system without any additional thermal insulation of external walls (the classical heating system) (RH-WOI), and the radiator system with additional thermal insulation of external walls (RH-WI). The operation of each system is simulated by software EnergyPlus. The investigation shows that the PH-WI gives the best results. The RH-WOI has the largest energy consumption, and the largest pollutant emission. However, the PH-WI requires the highest investment.

Boji?, Milorad; Mileti?, Marko; Maleševi?, Jovan; Boyer, Harry

2012-01-01

42

Thermal model of attic systems with radiant barriers  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the first phase of a project to model the thermal performance of radiant barriers. The objective of this phase of the project was to develop a refined model for the thermal performance of residential house attics, with and without radiant barriers, and to verify the model by comparing its predictions against selected existing experimental thermal performance data. Models for the thermal performance of attics with and without radiant barriers have been developed and implemented on an IBM PC/AT computer. The validity of the models has been tested by comparing their predictions with ceiling heat fluxes measured in a number of laboratory and field experiments on attics with and without radiant barriers. Cumulative heat flows predicted by the models were usually within about 5 to 10 percent of measured values. In future phases of the project, the models for attic/radiant barrier performance will be coupled with a whole-house model and further comparisons with experimental data will be made. Following this, the models will be utilized to provide an initial assessment of the energy savings potential of radiant barriers in various configurations and under various climatic conditions. 38 refs., 14 figs., 22 tabs.

Wilkes, K.E.

1991-07-01

43

Improved thermal performance of a hydronic radiant panel heating system by the optimization of tube shapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal performance enhancement of the hydronic radiant floor heating system by tube shape refinements is investigated\\u000a in this paper. Both analytical and detailed numerical modelings are carried out to predict the performance of the radiant\\u000a system. While the simple analytical model briefly investigates the possibility of the effect of the tube shape improvement\\u000a with the parametric analysis, the commercial

Young T. Chae; Kwang Ho Lee; Jae Sung Park

2011-01-01

44

Experiment System Analysis of an Indirect Expansion Solar Assisted Water Source Heat Pump Radiant Floor Heating System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar assisted water source heat pump for Radiant Floor Heating (SWHP-RFH) experimental system with heat pipe vacuum tube solar collector as heating source and radiant floor as terminal device is proposed in the paper. The Mathematics Model of dynamic coefficient of performance (COP) for SWHP-RFH is presented after analyzing the operation principle in different conditions. The influence of the

Qu Shilin; Ma Fei; Liu Li; Yue Jie

2009-01-01

45

The influence of local effects on thermal sensation under non-uniform environmental conditions--gender differences in thermophysiology, thermal comfort and productivity during convective and radiant cooling.  

PubMed

Applying high temperature cooling concepts, i.e. high temperature cooling (T(supply) is 16-20°C) HVAC systems, in the built environment allows the reduction in the use of (high quality) energy. However, application of high temperature cooling systems can result in whole body and local discomfort of the occupants. Non-uniform thermal conditions, which may occur due to application of high temperature cooling systems, can be responsible for discomfort. Contradictions in literature exist regarding the validity of the often used predicted mean vote (PMV) index for both genders, and the index is not intended for evaluating the discomfort due to non-uniform environmental conditions. In some cases, however, combinations of local and general discomfort factors, for example draught under warm conditions, may not be uncomfortable. The objective of this study was to investigate gender differences in thermophysiology, thermal comfort and productivity in response to thermal non-uniform environmental conditions. Twenty healthy subjects (10 males and 10 females, age 20-29 years) were exposed to two different experimental conditions: a convective cooling situation (CC) and a radiant cooling situation (RC). During the experiments physiological responses, thermal comfort and productivity were measured. The results show that under both experimental conditions the actual mean thermal sensation votes significantly differ from the PMV-index; the subjects are feeling colder than predicted. Furthermore, the females are more uncomfortable and dissatisfied compared to the males. For females, the local sensations and skin temperatures of the extremities have a significant influence on whole body thermal sensation and are therefore important to consider under non-uniform environmental conditions. PMID:22877870

Schellen, L; Loomans, M G L C; de Wit, M H; Olesen, B W; van Marken Lichtenbelt, W D

2012-09-10

46

Venus rack cooling system  

SciTech Connect

A rack cooling system for the VENUS detector has been developed. It uses forced-air cooling and has enough cooling power for crates with as much as 1500 watts of power consumption. The design and the cooling performance for FASTBUS crates are reported.

Tanaka, R.; Arai, Y.; Ishihara, N.

1986-02-01

47

Thermal Performance Evaluation of Attic Radiant Barrier Systems Using the Large Scale Climate Simulator (LSCS)  

SciTech Connect

Application of radiant barriers and low-emittance surface coatings in residential building attics can significantly reduce conditioning loads from heat flow through attic floors. The roofing industry has been developing and using various radiant barrier systems and low-emittance surface coatings to increase energy efficiency in buildings; however, minimal data are available that quantifies the effectiveness of these technologies. This study evaluates performance of various attic radiant barrier systems under simulated summer daytime conditions and nighttime or low solar gain daytime winter conditions using the large scale climate simulator (LSCS). The four attic configurations that were evaluated are 1) no radiant barrier (control), 2) perforated low-e foil laminated oriented strand board (OSB) deck, 3) low-e foil stapled on rafters, and 4) liquid applied low-emittance coating on roof deck and rafters. All test attics used nominal RUS 13 h-ft2- F/Btu (RSI 2.29 m2-K/W) fiberglass batt insulation on attic floor. Results indicate that the three systems with radiant barriers had heat flows through the attic floor during summer daytime condition that were 33%, 50%, and 19% lower than the control, respectively.

Shrestha, Som S [ORNL] [ORNL; Miller, William A [ORNL] [ORNL; Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01

48

Temporal Interpolation Methods for the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is a NASA multisatellite measurement program for monitoring the radiation environment of the earth-atmosphere system. The CERES instrument was flown on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite in late 1997, and will be flown on the Earth Observing System morning satellite in 1998 and afternoon satellite in 2000. To minimize temporal

D. F. Young; P. Minnis; D. R. Doelling; G. G. Gibson; T. Wong

1998-01-01

49

Effects of Radiant Barrier Systems on Ventilated Attics in a Hot and Humid Climate  

E-print Network

Effects of Radiant Barrier Systems on VenLilated Allies in a Hot and Humid Climate Mario A. Medina, Dennis L. O'Neal Ph.D., and W. Dan Turner Ph.D. Energy Systems Laboratory Texas Engineering Experiment Station Texas A&M University System...

Medina, M. A.; O'Neal, D. L.; Turner, W. D.

50

Atmospheric radiative flux divergence from Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A major objective of the Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) is the computation of vertical profiles through the atmosphere of the divergence of radiation flux, with global coverage. This paper discusses the need for radiation divergence and presents some options for its inference from CERES measurements and other data from the Earth Observating System.

Smith, Louis G.; Charlock, Thomas P.; Crommelynk, D.; Rutan, David; Gupta, Shashi

1990-01-01

51

Cooling Water System Optimization  

E-print Network

During summer months, many manufacturing plants have to cut back in rates because the cooling water system is not providing sufficient cooling to support higher production rates. There are many low/no-cost techniques available to improve tower...

Aegerter, R.

2005-01-01

52

Top-of-Atmosphere Direct Radiative Effect of Aerosols over the Tropical Oceans from the Clouds and the Earth?s Radiant Energy System (CERES) Satellite Instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine months of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES)\\/Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) broadband fluxes combined with the TRMM visible infrared scanner (VIRS) high-resolution imager measurements are used to estimate the daily average direct radiative effect of aerosols for clear-sky conditions over the tropical oceans. On average, aerosols have a cooling effect over the Tropics of 4.6

Norman G. Loeb; Seiji Kato

2002-01-01

53

Study on the Application of Ceiling Radiant Heating System of Capillary Tube  

Microsoft Academic Search

At first, the article presented particularly the experimental system of floor radiant heating of capillary tube, the arrangement form of capillary tube mat. And then, the experimental method was employed to study heating capacity of capillary tube mat, the characteristic of temperature change on the layer of capillary tube mat, the ceiling surface and indoor air. At same the time,

Yunzhun Fu; Jing Li; Yeyu Wang

2009-01-01

54

Study of thermosiphon and radiant panel passive heating systems for metal buildings  

SciTech Connect

A study of passive-heating systems appropriate for use on metal buildings is being conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme, California. The systems selected for study were chosen on the basis of their appropriateness for retrofit applications, although they are also suitable for new construction: simple radiant panels that communicate directly with the building interior and a backflow thermosiphon that provides heat indirectly.

Biehl, F.A.; Schnurr, N.M.; Wray, W.O.

1983-01-01

55

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Elevation Bearing Assembly Life Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) elevation scan bearings lubricated with Pennzane SHF X2000 and 2% lead naphthenate (PbNp) were life tested for a seven-year equivalent Low Earth Orbit (LEO) operation. The bearing life assembly was tested continuously at an accelerated and normal rate using the scanning patterns developed for the CERES Earth Observing System AM-1 mission. A post-life-test analysis was performed on the collected data, bearing wear, and lubricant behavior.

Brown, Phillip L.; Miller, James B.; Jones, William R., Jr.; Rasmussen, Kent; Wheeler, Donald R.; Rana, Mauro; Peri, Frank

1999-01-01

56

Passive containment cooling system  

DOEpatents

A containment cooling system utilizes a naturally induced air flow and a gravity flow of water over the containment shell which encloses a reactor core to cool reactor core decay heat in two stages. When core decay heat is greatest, the water and air flow combine to provide adequate evaporative cooling as heat from within the containment is transferred to the water flowing over the same. The water is heated by heat transfer and then evaporated and removed by the air flow. After an initial period of about three to four days when core decay heat is greatest, air flow alone is sufficient to cool the containment.

Conway, Lawrence E. (Robinson Township, Allegheny County, PA); Stewart, William A. (Penn Hills Township, Allegheny County, PA)

1991-01-01

57

Gas turbine cooling system  

DOEpatents

A gas turbine engine (10) having a closed-loop cooling circuit (39) for transferring heat from the hot turbine section (16) to the compressed air (24) produced by the compressor section (12). The closed-loop cooling system (39) includes a heat exchanger (40) disposed in the flow path of the compressed air (24) between the outlet of the compressor section (12) and the inlet of the combustor (14). A cooling fluid (50) may be driven by a pump (52) located outside of the engine casing (53) or a pump (54) mounted on the rotor shaft (17). The cooling circuit (39) may include an orifice (60) for causing the cooling fluid (50) to change from a liquid state to a gaseous state, thereby increasing the heat transfer capacity of the cooling circuit (39).

Bancalari, Eduardo E. (Orlando, FL)

2001-01-01

58

Study of the Heating Load of a Manufactured Space with a Gas-fired Radiant Heating System  

E-print Network

ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Heating technologies for energy efficiency Vol.III-1-4 ) Study of the Heating Load of a Manufactured Space with a Gas-fired Radiant Heating System Xuejing Zheng Zongcheng Dong Doctoral Candidate Professor...

Zheng, X.; Dong, Z.

2006-01-01

59

Determination of Unfiltered Radiances from the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System Instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT A new method for determining unfiltered shortwave (SW), longwave (LW), and window radiances from filtered radiances measured,by the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) satellite instrument is presented. The method,uses theoretically derived regression coefficients between filtered and unfiltered radiances that are a function of viewing geometry, geotype, and whether cloud is present. Relative errors in instantaneous unfiltered

Norman G. Loeb; Kory J. Priestley; David P. Kratz; Erika B. Geier; Richard N. Green; Bruce A. Wielicki; Patricia O’Rawe Hinton; Sandra K. Nolan

2001-01-01

60

An experimental study of multiple parameter switching control for radiant floor heating systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental facility consisting of two identical 3×4.4×3.8 m3 rooms has been built. Each room has a gas-fired boiler supplying hot water to the radiant-floor heating system. An electrically heated storage tank installed in the circuit ensures that hot water to the floor slab is supplied directly from the storage tank. The facility serves for instantaneous comparisons of two different

S.-H Cho; M Zaheer-uddin

1999-01-01

61

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) - An Earth Observing System experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is presented of the CERES experiment that is designed not only to monitor changes in the earth's radiant energy system and cloud systems but to provide these data with enough accuracy and simultaneity to examine the critical climate/cloud feedback mechanisms which may play a major role in determining future changes in the climate system. CERES will estimate not only the flow of radiation at the top of the atmosphere, but also more complete cloud properties that will permit determination of radiative fluxes within the atmosphere and at the surface. The CERES radiation budget data is also planned for utilization in a wide range of other Earth Observing System interdisciplinary science investigations, including studies of land, biological, ocean and atmospheric processes.

Wielicki, Bruce A.; Barkstrom, Bruce R.

1991-01-01

62

Personal Cooling System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cool Head, a personal cooling system for use in heat stress occupations, is a spinoff of a channeled cooling garment for space wear. It is portable and includes a heat exchanger, control display unit, liquid reservoir and temperature control unit. The user can eliminate 40 to 60 percent of his body's heat storage and lower heart rate by 50 to 80 beats a minute. The system is used by the Army, Navy, crop dusting pilots, heavy equipment operators and auto racing drivers and is marketed by Life Enhancement Technologies, LLC. Further applications are under consideration.

1986-01-01

63

Energy, cost, and CO2 emission comparison between radiant wall panel1 systems and radiator systems2  

E-print Network

additional thermal11 insulation of external walls (PH-WOI), the low-temperature radiant panel system with additional12 thermal insulation of external walls (PH-WI), the radiator system without any additional thermal14 additional thermal insulation of external walls (RH-WI). The operation of each system is simulated

Boyer, Edmond

64

Superconductor rotor cooling system  

DOEpatents

A system for cooling a superconductor device includes a cryocooler located in a stationary reference frame and a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with a rotating reference frame in which the superconductor device is located. A method of cooling a superconductor device includes locating a cryocooler in a stationary reference frame, and transferring heat from a superconductor device located in a rotating reference frame to the cryocooler through a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with the rotating reference frame.

Gamble, Bruce B. (Wellesley, MA); Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed (Framingham, MA); Schwall, Robert E. (Northborough, MA); Driscoll, David I. (South Euclid, OH); Shoykhet, Boris A. (Beachwood, OH)

2002-01-01

65

Radiant energy absorption enhancement in optical imaging systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reimaging system efficiently uses incident light and overcomes previous imaging detector problems. Optical system collects reflected and focal plane transmitted light and redirects it so it again impinges on focal plane in register with original image. Reimaging unabsorbed light increases light absorption and detector use probability.

Brown, R. M.; Gunter, W. D., Jr.

1971-01-01

66

Passive containment cooling system  

DOEpatents

A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA.

Billig, Paul F. (San Jose, CA); Cooke, Franklin E. (San Jose, CA); Fitch, James R. (San Jose, CA)

1994-01-01

67

Passive containment cooling system  

DOEpatents

A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA. 1 figure.

Billig, P.F.; Cooke, F.E.; Fitch, J.R.

1994-01-25

68

Cloud Effects on Meridional Atmospheric Energy Budget Estimated from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The zonal mean atmospheric cloud radiative effect, defined as the difference of the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) and surface cloud radiative effects, is estimated from three years of Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data. The zonal mean shortwave effect is small, though it tends to be positive (warming). This indicates that clouds increase shortwave absorption in the atmosphere, especially in midlatitudes. The zonal mean atmospheric cloud radiative effect is, however, dominated by the longwave effect. The zonal mean longwave effect is positive in the tropics and decreases with latitude to negative values (cooling) in polar regions. The meridional gradient of cloud effect between midlatitude and polar regions exists even when uncertainties in the cloud effect on the surface enthalpy flux and in the modeled irradiances are taken into account. This indicates that clouds increase the rate of generation of mean zonal available potential energy. Because the atmospheric cooling effect in polar regions is predominately caused by low level clouds, which tend to be stationary, we postulate that the meridional and vertical gradients of cloud effect increase the rate of meridional energy transport by dynamics in the atmosphere from midlatitude to polar region, especially in fall and winter. Clouds then warm the surface in polar regions except in the Arctic in summer. Clouds, therefore, contribute in increasing the rate of meridional energy transport from midlatitude to polar regions through the atmosphere.

Kato, Seiji; Rose, Fred G.; Rutan, David A.; Charlock, Thomas P.

2008-01-01

69

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Visualization Single Satellite Footprint (SSF) Plot Generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument will be launched in 1997 to collect data on the Earth's radiation budget. The data retrieved from the satellite will be processed through twelve subsystems. The Single Satellite Footprint (SSF) plot generator software was written to assist scientists in the early stages of CERES data analysis, producing two-dimensional plots of the footprint radiation and cloud data generated by one of the subsystems. Until the satellite is launched, however, software developers need verification tools to check their code. This plot generator will aid programmers by geolocating algorithm result on a global map.

Barsi, Julia A.

1995-01-01

70

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES): An Earth Observing System Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is an investigation to examine the role of cloud/radiation feedback in the Earth's climate system. The CERES broadband scanning radiometers are an improved version of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) radiometers. The CERES instruments will fly on several National Aeronautics and Space Administration Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites starting in 1998 and extending over at least 15 years. The CERES science investigations will provide data to extend the ERBE climate record of top-of-atmosphere shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiative fluxes CERES will also combine simultaneous cloud property data derived using EOS narrowband imagers to provide a consistent set of cloud/radiation data, including SW and LW radiative fluxes at the surface and at several selected levels within the atmosphere. CERES data are expected to provide top-of-atmosphere radiative fluxes with a factor of 2 to 3 less error than the ERBE data Estimates of radiative fluxes at the surface and especially within the atmosphere will be a much greater challenge but should also show significant improvements over current capabilities.

Wielicki, Bruce A.; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Harrison, Edwin F.; Lee, Robert B., III; Smith, G. Louis; Cooper, John E.

1996-01-01

71

Bi-radiant oven: a low-energy oven system. Volume I. Development and assessment  

SciTech Connect

The Bi-Radiant Oven system has three important features which provide improved performance. First, the cavity walls are highly reflective rather than absorptive thereby allowing these surfaces to operate at cooler temperatures. Second, the heating elements, similar in construction to those in a conventional oven, but operating at much lower temperatures, provide a prescribed, balanced radiant flux to the top and bottom surfaces of the food product. And third, the baking and roasting utensil has a highly absorptive finish. Instrumentation and methods of measurements have been developed for obtaining the important oven and food parameters during baking: wall, oven air, food and element temperatures; food mass loss rate; irradiance distribution; and convection heat flux. Observations on an experimental oven are presented and discussed. Thermal models relating the irradiance distribution to oven parameters have been compared with measurements using a new heat flux gage developed for the project. Using the DOE recommended test procedures, oven efficiencies of 20 to 23% have been measured. The heating requirements have been determined for seven food types: biscuits, meat loaf, baked foods, apple crisp, cornbread, macaroni and cheese casserole, and cheese souffle. Comparison of energy use with a conventional electric oven shows that energy savings greater than 50% can be realized. Detailed energy balances have been performed on two foods - beef roasts and yellow cake. Consideration of consumer acceptability of this new oven concept have been addressed.

DeWitt, D.P.; Peart, M.V.

1980-04-01

72

Terminology Radiant Energy (J)  

E-print Network

Terminology Radiant Energy (J) Add time Radiant Flux (J/s) add area Hemispherical Directional add direction Radiant Flux Density (W/m²) Radiant Intensity (W/sr) Irradiance (incident) Radiant Exitance (emitted) Radiance (W/m²/sr) Radiant Spectral Flux Density (W/m²/m) Spectral Radiance (W/m²/sr/m) add

Herrick, Robert R.

73

Numerical Simulation of Thermal Performance of Floor Radiant Heating System with Enclosed Phase Change Material  

E-print Network

In the present paper, a kind of enclosed phase change material (PCM) used in solar and low-temperature hot water radiant floor heating is investigated. On the basis of obtaining the best performance of PCM properties, a new radiant heating structure...

Qiu, L.; Wu, X.

2006-01-01

74

Rotary engine cooling system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A rotary engine has a substantially trochoidal-shaped housing cavity in which a rotor planetates. A cooling system for the engine directs coolant along a single series path consisting of series connected groups of passages. Coolant enters near the intake port, passes downwardly and axially through the cooler regions of the engine, then passes upwardly and axially through the hotter regions. By first flowing through the coolest regions, coolant pressure is reduced, thus reducing the saturation temperature of the coolant and thereby enhancing the nucleate boiling heat transfer mechanism which predominates in the high heat flux region of the engine during high power level operation.

Jones, Charles (Inventor); Gigon, Richard M. (Inventor); Blum, Edward J. (Inventor)

1985-01-01

75

Determination of Unfiltered Radiances from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new method for determining unfiltered shortwave (SW), longwave (LW) and window (W) radiances from filtered radiances measured by the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) satellite instrument is presented. The method uses theoretically derived regression coefficients between filtered and unfiltered radiances that are a function of viewing geometry, geotype and whether or not cloud is present. Relative errors in insta.ntaneous unfiltered radiances from this method are generally well below 1% for SW radiances (approx. 0.4% 1(sigma) or approx.l W/sq m equivalent flux), < 0.2% for LW radiances (approx. 0.1% 1(sigma) or approx.0.3 W/sq m equivalent flux) and < 0.2% (approx. 0.1% 1(sigma) for window channel radiances.

Loeb, N. G.; Priestley, K. J.; Kratz, D. P.; Geier, E. B.; Green, R. N.; Wielicki, B. A.; Hinton, P. OR.; Nolan, S. K.

2001-01-01

76

Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors with passive cooling system  

DOEpatents

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of cooling medium flow circuits which cooperate to remove and carry heat away from the fuel core upon loss of the normal cooling flow circuit to areas external thereto.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Fanning, Alan W. (San Jose, CA)

1991-01-01

77

Numerical and experimental analyses of the radiant heat flux produced by quartz heating systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is developed for predicting the radiant heat flux distribution produced by tungsten filament, tubular fused-quartz envelope heating systems with reflectors. The method is an application of Monte Carlo simulation, which takes the form of a random walk or ray tracing scheme. The method is applied to four systems of increasing complexity, including a single lamp without a reflector, a single lamp with a Hat reflector, a single lamp with a parabolic reflector, and up to six lamps in a six-lamp contoured-reflector heating unit. The application of the Monte Carlo method to the simulation of the thermal radiation generated by these systems is discussed. The procedures for numerical implementation are also presented. Experiments were conducted to study these quartz heating systems and to acquire measurements of the corresponding empirical heat flux distributions for correlation with analysis. The experiments were conducted such that several complicating factors could be isolated and studied sequentially. Comparisons of the experimental results with analysis are presented and discussed. Good agreement between the experimental and simulated results was obtained in all cases. This study shows that this method can be used to analyze very complicated quartz heating systems and can account for factors such as spectral properties, specular reflection from curved surfaces, source enhancement due to reflectors and/or adjacent sources, and interaction with a participating medium in a straightforward manner.

Turner, Travis L.; Ash, Robert L.

1994-01-01

78

Automotive Cooling and Lubricating Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide new mechanics with a source of study materials to assist them in becoming more proficient in their jobs. The course contains four study units covering automotive cooling system maintenance, cooling system repair, lubricating systems, and lubrication…

Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

79

Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) reprocessing using Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) angular distribution models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanning broadband radiometers flew on board the NOAA 9 (Feb 1985 to Jan 1987) and NOAA 10 (Jan 1987 to May 1989) and measured broadband shortwave (˜0.2 ?m to 5 ?m), longwave (5 ?m to 50 ?m) and total radiances. While the observations provided solid evidence of the cooling effect on the Earth system by clouds, the uncertainty of cloud radiative effects by region or by cloud type is large compared to those derived more recently from NASA's Clouds and the Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) observations. In ERBE, top-of-atmosphere (TOA) irradiances were derived by applying 12 scene-type dependent angular distribution models (ADMs). Scene type viewed by ERBE scanners was estimated from broadband radiances using a maximum likelihood estimate method [1]. In this study, we use data taken by Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on board the NOAA-9 satellite to derive cloud properties similar to those produced by the CERES cloud algorithm that utilizes Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) data collocated with CERES footprints. This allows direct application of newer CERES ADMs to ERBE scanner radiances, which in turn reduces the uncertainty in the TOA irradiances. We describe the process of applying CERES ADMs and a comparison of the reprocessed data with original ERBE data. The reprocessing of 4 months of NOAA-9 measurements indicated increase in the global monthly mean shortwave TOA irradiance by ˜4%, while longwave TOA irradiance decreased by ˜0.5%, compared to irradiances derived from ERBE ADMs. These differences are largely caused by the pixel sizes of AVHRR and MODIS that yield different cloud type probability distributions.

Shrestha, A. K.; Kato, S.; Bedka, K. M.; Miller, W. F.; Wong, T.; Rutan, D. A.; Smith, G. L.; Fernandez, J. R.; Loeb, N.; Minnis, P.; Doelling, D. R.

2013-05-01

80

Active nocturnal space cooling system  

SciTech Connect

A nocturnal evaporative cooling system appropriate for retrofitting to an active solar heated house was designed and installed at the Sonoma State University Solar/Energy Center. The system was operated during the summer and early fall of 1980, and tests were conducted to evaluate its performance. Two simple variations in the system design were compared: an indirect evaporative cooling configuration and a direct evaporative cooling configuration. The first used an evaporative air cooler, a heat exchanger and a pump to remove heat from water in a storage tank; the second used a fan blowing across the surface of the water in the storage tank to evaporatively cool the water. Test results suggested that the direct evaporative cooling configuration operated at a higher coefficient of performance (COP) at relatively high operating temperature differentials and that the indirect configuration operated at a higher COP at relatively low operating temperature differentials. A computer simulation indicated that the nocturnal evaporative cooling system in the indirect cooling configuration offered good potential for use in the hot central valleys of California. An economic analysis compared the cooling system in the indirect configuration to a refrigeration air conditioner of similar capacity. Rate structure implications as well as life cycle costs were examined. Calculations based on current electric rates showed that the nocturnal cooling system, slightly modified from the prototype design, was less costly.

Livingston, J.; Ablett, K.; Cinciarelli, K.; Dennis, A.; Leker, B.; Livingston, P.; McBride, T.; Treppa, D.; Norwick, S.A.

1981-04-30

81

Spatial sampling considerations of the CERES (Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System) instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CERES (Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System) instrument is a scanning radiometer with three channels for measuring Earth radiation budget. At present CERES models are operating aboard the Terra, Aqua and Suomi/NPP spacecraft and flights of CERES instruments are planned for the JPSS-1 spacecraft and its successors. CERES scans from one limb of the Earth to the other and back. The footprint size grows with distance from nadir simply due to geometry so that the size of the smallest features which can be resolved from the data increases and spatial sampling errors increase with nadir angle. This paper presents an analysis of the effect of nadir angle on spatial sampling errors of the CERES instrument. The analysis performed in the Fourier domain. Spatial sampling errors are created by smoothing of features which are the size of the footprint and smaller, or blurring, and inadequate sampling, that causes aliasing errors. These spatial sampling errors are computed in terms of the system transfer function, which is the Fourier transform of the point response function, the spacing of data points and the spatial spectrum of the radiance field.

Smith, G. L.; Manalo-Smith, Natividdad; Priestley, Kory

2014-10-01

82

Controlling the transmission of radiant energy through windows: a novel ventilated reversible glazing system  

Microsoft Academic Search

State-of-the-art glazing systems can provide very good solutions for cold climate conditions, and fairly effective ones for warm climates. However, there is still no window system on the market that can offer the flexibility required to provide a comfortable visual environment and an efficient energy response in climates where heating is required in winter, and cooling is required in summer.

Yair Etzion; Evyatar Erell

2000-01-01

83

Automated Job Controller for Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Production Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is one of NASA's highest priority Earth Observing System (EOS) scientific instruments. The CERES science team will integrate data from the CERES Flight Model 5 (FM5) on the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) in addition to the four CERES scanning instrument on Terra and Aqua. The CERES production system consists of over 75 Product Generation Executives (PGEs) maintained by twelve subsystem groups. The processing chain fuses CERES instrument observations with data from 19 other unique sources. The addition of FM5 to over 22 instrument years of data to be reprocessed from flight models 1-4 creates a need for an optimized production processing approach. This poster discusses a new approach, using JBoss and Perl to manage job scheduling and interdependencies between PGEs and external data sources. The new optimized approach uses JBoss to serve handler servlets which regulate PGE-level job interdependencies and job completion notifications. Additional servlets are used to regulate all job submissions from the handlers and to interact with the operator. Perl submission scripts are used to build Process Control Files and to interact directly with the operating system and cluster scheduler. The result is a reduced burden on the operator by algorithmically enforcing a set of rules that determine the optimal time to produce data products with the highest integrity. These rules are designed on a per PGE basis and periodically change. This design provides the means to dynamically update PGE rules at run time and increases the processing throughput by using an event driven controller. The immediate notification of a PGE's completion (an event) allows successor PGEs to launch at the proper time with minimal start up latency, thereby increasing computer system utilization.

Gleason, J. L.; Hillyer, T. N.

2011-12-01

84

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Sensors and Preflight Calibration Plans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) spacecraft sensors are designed to measure broadband earth-reflected solar shortwave (0.3-5 microns) and earth-emitted longwave (5- > 100 microns) radiances at the top of the atmosphere as part of the Mission to Planet Earth program. The scanning thermistor bolometer sensors respond to radiances in the broadband shortwave (0.3-5 microns) and total-wave (0.3- > 100 microns) spectral regions, as well as to radiances in the narrowband water vapor window (8-12 microns) region. 'ne sensors are designed to operate for a minimum of 5 years aboard the NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission and Earth Observing System AM-1 spacecraft platforms that are scheduled for launches in 1997 and 1998, respectively. The flight sensors and the in-flight calibration systems will be calibrated in a vacuum ground facility using reference radiance sources, tied to the international temperature scale of 1990. The calibrations will be used to derive sensor gains, offsets, spectral responses, and point spread functions within and outside of the field of view. The shortwave, total-wave, and window ground calibration accuracy requirements (1 sigma) are +/-0.8, +/-0.6, and +/-0.3 W /sq m/sr, respectively, while the corresponding measurement precisions are +/-O.5% and +/-1.0% for the broadband longwave and shortwave radiances, respectively. The CERES sensors, in-flight calibration systems, and ground calibration instrumentation are described along with outlines of the preflight and in-flight calibration approaches.

Lee, Robert B., III; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Smith, G. Louis; Cooper, John E.; Kopia, Leonard P.; Lawrence, R. Wes; Thomas, Susan; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Crommelynck, Dominique A. H.

1996-01-01

85

Temperature initiated passive cooling system  

DOEpatents

A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature. 1 fig.

Forsberg, C.W.

1994-11-01

86

Temperature initiated passive cooling system  

DOEpatents

A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature.

Forsberg, Charles W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01

87

S'COOL Brochure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brochure describes and promotes the S'COOL program. S'COOL, the Students' Cloud Observations On Line, is a component of NASA's Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project. Participants make ground truth measurements for the CERES experiment to compare with satellite data for the purpose of improving the satellite results.

2009-04-01

88

Combustor liner cooling system  

DOEpatents

A combustor liner is disclosed. The combustor liner includes an upstream portion, a downstream end portion extending from the upstream portion along a generally longitudinal axis, and a cover layer associated with an inner surface of the downstream end portion. The downstream end portion includes the inner surface and an outer surface, the inner surface defining a plurality of microchannels. The downstream end portion further defines a plurality of passages extending between the inner surface and the outer surface. The plurality of microchannels are fluidly connected to the plurality of passages, and are configured to flow a cooling medium therethrough, cooling the combustor liner.

Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Berkman, Mert Enis

2013-08-06

89

Terminology Radiant Energy (J)  

E-print Network

Terminology Radiant Energy (J) Add time Radiant Flux (J/s) add area Hemispherical Directional add, temperature, wavelength, look angle. The temperature of the black body which radiates the same radiant energy]2)=1.389 kW/m2 #12;#12;The amount of radiant energy onto, off of, or through a surface per unit time

Herrick, Robert R.

90

Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES), A Review: Past, Present and Future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Clouds and earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) project's objectives are to measure the reflected solar radiance (shortwave) and Earth-emitted (longwave) radiances and from these measurements to compute the shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes at the top of the atmo-sphere (TOA) and the surface and radiation divergence within the atmosphere. The fluxes at TOA are to be retrieved to an accuracy of 2The data products from CERES include, in addition to the reflected solar radiation and Earth emitted radiation fluxes at TOA, the upward and downward surface shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes, the radiation fluxes 500 mb and 250 mb altitude. Also at the surface the photosynthetically active radiation and ultraviolet radiation (total, UVA and UVB) are computed. Another application of the CERES scanning radiometers is special operations in which the azimuth of the scan plane of a CERES instrument is programmed in order to line up with ground stations or other spacecraft instruments. This capability has been used to compare radiances with those of other spacecraft instruments and with ground stations. One use of this ability has been to rotate a CERES instrument so as to scan in the same plane as a second instrument, as was done with a CERES instrument on both the Terra and Aqua spacecraft in order to compare radiance measurements. These compar-isons are needed in order to assure that any changes in the radiation budget record due to the change of instruments is understood and quantified and not attributed to a climate shift. The CEREinstrumentsaboardtheT erraandAquaspacecraf thaveservedwellpasstheirdesignlif etimes.ACERE onmissions.

Smith, G. Louis

91

Nonimaging radiant energy device  

DOEpatents

A nonimaging radiant energy device may include a hyperbolically shaped reflective element with a radiant energy inlet and a radiant energy outlet. A convex lens is provided at the radiant energy inlet and a concave lens is provided at the radiant energy outlet. Due to the provision of the lenses and the shape of the walls of the reflective element, the radiant energy incident at the radiant energy inlet within a predetermined angle of acceptance is emitted from the radiant energy outlet exclusively within an acute exit angle. In another embodiment, the radiant energy device may include two interconnected hyperbolically shaped reflective elements with a respective convex lens being provided at each aperture of the device.

Winston, Roland (Chicago, IL); Ning, Xiaohui (North Providence, RI)

1993-01-01

92

Nonimaging radiant energy device  

DOEpatents

A nonimaging radiant energy device may include a hyperbolically shaped reflective element with a radiant energy inlet and a radiant energy outlet. A convex lens is provided at the radiant energy inlet and a concave lens is provided at the radiant energy outlet. Due to the provision of the lenses and the shape of the walls of the reflective element, the radiant energy incident at the radiant energy inlet within a predetermined angle of acceptance is emitted from the radiant energy outlet exclusively within an acute exit angle. In another embodiment, the radiant energy device may include two interconnected hyperbolically shaped reflective elements with a respective convex lens being provided at each aperture of the device.

Winston, Roland (Chicago, IL); Ning, Xiaohui (North Providence, RI)

1996-01-01

93

Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES), a review: Past, present and future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) project's objectives are to measure the reflected solar radiance (shortwave) and Earth-emitted (longwave) radiances and from these measurements to compute the shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and the surface and radiation divergence within the atmosphere. The fluxes at TOA are to be retrieved to an accuracy of 2%. Improved bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) have been developed to compute the fluxes at TOA from the measured radiances with errors reduced from ERBE by a factor of two or more. Instruments aboard the Terra and Aqua spacecraft provide sampling at four local times. In order to further reduce temporal sampling errors, data are used from the geostationary meteorological satellites to account for changes of scenes between observations by the CERES radiometers. A validation protocol including in-flight calibrations and comparisons of measurements has reduced the instrument errors to less than 1%. The data are processed through three editions. The first edition provides a timely flow of data to investigators and the third edition provides data products as accurate as possible with resources available. A suite of cloud properties retrieved from the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) by the CERES team is used to identify the cloud properties for each pixel in order to select the BRDF for each pixel so as to compute radiation fluxes from radiances. Also, the cloud information is used to compute radiation at the surface and through the atmosphere and to facilitate study of the relationship between clouds and the radiation budget. The data products from CERES include, in addition to the reflected solar radiation and Earth emitted radiation fluxes at TOA, the upward and downward shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes at the surface and at various levels in the atmosphere. Also at the surface the photosynthetically active radiation and ultraviolet radiation (total, UVA and UVB) are computed. The CERES instruments aboard the Terra and Aqua spacecraft have served well past their design life times. A CERES instrument has been integrated onto the NPP platform and is ready for launch in 2011. Another CERES instrument is being built for launch in 2014, and plans are being made for a series of follow-on missions.

Smith, G. L.; Priestley, K. J.; Loeb, N. G.; Wielicki, B. A.; Charlock, T. P.; Minnis, P.; Doelling, D. R.; Rutan, D. A.

2011-07-01

94

Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES), a Review: Past, Present and Future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) project s objectives are to measure the reflected solar radiance (shortwave) and Earth-emitted (longwave) radiances and from these measurements to compute the shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and the surface and radiation divergence within the atmosphere. The fluxes at TOA are to be retrieved to an accuracy of 2%. Improved bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) have been developed to compute the fluxes at TOA from the measured radiances with errors reduced from ERBE by a factor of two or more. Instruments aboard the Terra and Aqua spacecraft provide sampling at four local times. In order to further reduce temporal sampling errors, data are used from the geostationary meteorological satellites to account for changes of scenes between observations by the CERES radiometers. A validation protocol including in-flight calibrations and comparisons of measurements has reduced the instrument errors to less than 1%. The data are processed through three editions. The first edition provides a timely flow of data to investigators and the third edition provides data products as accurate as possible with resources available. A suite of cloud properties retrieved from the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) by the CERES team is used to identify the cloud properties for each pixel in order to select the BRDF for each pixel so as to compute radiation fluxes from radiances. Also, the cloud information is used to compute radiation at the surface and through the atmosphere and to facilitate study of the relationship between clouds and the radiation budget. The data products from CERES include, in addition to the reflected solar radiation and Earth emitted radiation fluxes at TOA, the upward and downward shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes at the surface and at various levels in the atmosphere. Also at the surface the photosynthetically active radiation and ultraviolet radiation (total, UVA and UVB) are computed. The CERES instruments aboard the Terra and Aqua spacecraft have served well past their design life times. A CERES instrument has been integrated onto the NPP platform and is ready for launch in 2011. Another CERES instrument is being built for launch in 2014, and plans are being made for a series of follow-on missions.

Smith, G. L.; Priestley, K. J.; Loeb, N. G.; Wielicki, B. A.; Charlock, T. P.; Minnis, P.; Doelling, D. R.; Rutan, D. A.

2011-01-01

95

Compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system  

DOEpatents

A compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids from a compressor to a turbine airfoil cooling system to supply cooling fluids to one or more airfoils of a rotor assembly is disclosed. The compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system may enable cooling fluids to be exhausted from a compressor exhaust plenum through a downstream compressor bleed collection chamber and into the turbine airfoil cooling system. As such, the suction created in the compressor exhaust plenum mitigates boundary layer growth along the inner surface while providing flow of cooling fluids to the turbine airfoils.

Donahoo, Eric E; Ross, Christopher W

2014-11-25

96

Porous radiant burners having increased radiant output  

DOEpatents

Means and methods for enhancing the output of radiant energy from a porous radiant burner by minimizing the scattering and increasing the adsorption, and thus emission of such energy by the use of randomly dispersed ceramic fibers of sub-micron diameter in the fabrication of ceramic fiber matrix burners and for use therein.

Tong, Timothy W. (Tempe, AZ); Sathe, Sanjeev B. (Tempe, AZ); Peck, Robert E. (Tempe, AZ)

1990-01-01

97

Evaluation of the clouds and the Earth's radiant energy system (CERES) scanner pointing accuracy using a coastline detection system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is a NASA investigation to examine the role of clouds in the radiative energy flow through the Earth-atmosphere system. The first CERES scanning radiometer was launched on November 27, 1997 into a 35 degree inclination, 350 km altitude orbit, on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft. The CERES instrument consists of a three channel scanning broadband radiometer. The spectral bands measure shortwave, window and total radiation reflected or emitted from the Earth-atmosphere system. Each Earth viewing measurement is geolocated to the Earth fixed coordinate system using satellite ephemeris, Earth rotation and geoid, and instrument pointing data. The interactive CERES coastline detection system is used to assess the accuracy of the CERES geolocation process. By analyzing radiative flux gradients at the boundaries of ocean and land masses, the accuracy of the scanner measurement locations may be derived for the CERES/TRMM instrument/satellite system. The resulting CERES measurement location errors are within 10 percent of the nadir footprint size. Precise pointing knowledge of the Visible and IR scanner is required for convolution of cloud properties onto the CERES footprint; initial VIRS coastline results are included.

Currey, Jon C.; Smith, G. Louis; Neely, Bob

1998-10-01

98

Evaluation of Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Scanner Pointing Accuracy using a Coastline Detection System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) investigation to examine the role of clouds in the radiative energy flow through the Earth-atmosphere system. The first CERES scanning radiometer was launched on November 27, 1997 into a 35 inclination, 350 km altitude orbit, on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft. The CERES instrument consists of a three channel scanning broadband radiometer. The spectral bands measure shortwave (0.3 - 5 microns), window (8 - 12 microns), and total (0.3 - 100 microns) radiation reflected or emitted from the Earth-atmosphere system. Each Earth viewing measurement is geolocated to the Earth fixed coordinate system using satellite ephemeris, Earth rotation and geoid, and instrument pointing data. The interactive CERES coastline detection system is used to assess the accuracy of the CERES geolocation process. By analyzing radiative flux gradients at the boundaries of ocean and land masses, the accuracy of the scanner measurement locations may be derived for the CERES/TRMM instrument/satellite system. The resulting CERES measurement location errors are within 10% of the nadir footprint size. Precise pointing knowledge of the Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) is required for convolution of cloud properties onto the CERES footprint; initial VIRS coastline results are included.

Currey, Chris; Smith, Lou; Neely, Bob

1998-01-01

99

Indirect passive cooling system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors  

DOEpatents

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel. The passive cooling system includes a closed primary fluid circuit through the partitions surrounding the reactor vessel and a partially adjoining secondary open fluid circuit for carrying transferred heat out into the atmosphere.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

1990-01-01

100

Passive cooling safety system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors  

DOEpatents

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel. The passive cooling system includes a closed primary fluid circuit through the partitions surrounding the reactor vessel and a partially adjoining secondary open fluid circuit for carrying transferred heat out into the atmosphere.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA); Hui, Marvin M. (Sunnyvale, CA); Berglund, Robert C. (Saratoga, CA)

1991-01-01

101

Overview of the Radiant Time Series Method  

E-print Network

are published in ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals #12;RTSM Algorithm Conduction Gains Split all heat gains COOLING LOAD Solar Gains Internal Gains #12;RTSM Solution Technique Takes Advantage of Steady Periodic Nature of the Cooling Load Calculation Based on: Radiant Time Series: Steady Periodic Zone Response

102

Lamination cooling system formation method  

SciTech Connect

An electric motor, transformer or inductor having a cooling system. A stack of laminations have apertures at least partially coincident with apertures of adjacent laminations. The apertures define straight or angled cooling-fluid passageways through the lamination stack. Gaps between the adjacent laminations are sealed by injecting a heat-cured sealant into the passageways, expelling excess sealant, and heat-curing the lamination stack. Manifold members adjoin opposite ends of the lamination stack, and each is configured with one or more cavities to act as a manifold to adjacent passageway ends. Complex manifold arrangements can create bidirectional flow in a variety of patterns.

Rippel, Wally E. (Altadena, CA); Kobayashi, Daryl M. (Monrovia, CA)

2012-06-19

103

Lamination cooling system formation method  

DOEpatents

An electric motor, transformer or inductor having a cooling system. A stack of laminations have apertures at least partially coincident with apertures of adjacent laminations. The apertures define straight or angled cooling-fluid passageways through the lamination stack. Gaps between the adjacent laminations are sealed by injecting a heat-cured sealant into the passageways, expelling excess sealant, and heat-curing the lamination stack. Manifold members adjoin opposite ends of the lamination stack, and each is configured with one or more cavities to act as a manifold to adjacent passageway ends. Complex manifold arrangements can create bidirectional flow in a variety of patterns.

Rippel, Wally E [Altadena, CA; Kobayashi, Daryl M [Monrovia, CA

2009-05-12

104

Radiant cooling research scoping study  

E-print Network

energy with fans (FT Energy EDR Design Brief). 1 When alsoon duct layout and design) tend to far outweigh fan energyfans or similar means of introducing air movement might effectively augment such designs.

Moore, Timothy; Bauman, Fred; Huizenga, Charlie

2006-01-01

105

46 CFR 153.432 - Cooling systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.432 Cooling systems. (a) Each cargo cooling system must have an equivalent standby...

2014-10-01

106

Conversion of radiant light energy in photobioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conversion of radiant light energy into chemical affinity by microorganisms in photobioreactors is examined. The kinetics of entropy production in the system is theoretically established from entropy and energy balances for the material and photonic phases in the reactor. A negative chemical affinity term compensated for by a radiant energy term at a higher level of energy characterizes photosynthetic

J. F. Cornet; C. G. Dussap; J. B. Gros

1994-01-01

107

Meteor radiant mapping with MU radar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The radiant point mapping of meteor showers with the MU radar by using a modified mapping method originally proposed by Morton and Jones (1982) was carried out. The modification is that each meteor echo was weighted by using the beam pattern of the radar system. A preliminary result of the radiant point mapping of the Geminids meteor shower in 1989 is presented.

Watanabe, Jun-Ichi; Nakamura, Tsuko; Tsuda, T.; Tsutsumi, M.; Miyashita, A.; Yoshikawa, M.

1992-01-01

108

Effect of radiant barriers and attic ventilation on residential attics and attic duct systems: New tools for measuring and modeling  

SciTech Connect

A simple duct system was installed in an attic test module for a large scale climate simulator at a US national laboratory. The goal of the tests and subsequent modeling was to develop an accurate method of assessing duct system performance in the laboratory, enabling limiting conditions to be imposed at will and results to be applied to residential attics with attic duct systems. Steady-state tests were done at a severe summer and a mild winter condition. In all tests the roof surface was heated above ambient air temperatures by infrared lights. The attic test module first included then did not include the duct system. Attic ventilation from eave vents to a ridge vent was varied from none to values achievable by a high level of power ventilation. A radiant barrier was attached to the underside of the roof deck, both with and without the duct system in place. Tests were also done without the radiant barrier, both with and without the duct system. When installed, the insulated ducts ran along the floor of the attic, just above the attic insulation and along the edge of the attic near the eaves and one gable. These tests in a climate simulator achieved careful control and reproducibility of conditions. This elucidated dependencies that would otherwise be hidden by variations in uncontrolled variables. Based on the comparisons with the results of the tests at the mild winter condition and the severe summer condition, model predictions for attic air and insulation temperatures should be accurate within {+-} 10 F ({+-} 6 C). This is judged adequate for design purposes and could be better when exploring the effect of changes in attic and duct parameters at fixed climatic conditions.

Petrie, T.W.; Childs, P.W.; Christian, J.E.; Wilkes, K.E.

1998-07-01

109

Cooling systems for satellite remote sensing instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The characteristics of a cryogenic cooling system for the Pollution Monitoring Satellite (PMS) are discussed. Studies were conducted to make the following determinations: (1) the characteristics and use of proven and state-of-the-art cryogenic cooling systems for six specified ranges of performance, (2) the system most applicable for each of the six cooling categories, and (3) conceptual designs for candidate system for each of the six representative cooling categories. The six cooling categories of electrical loads are defined. The desired mission life for the cooling system is two years with both continuous and intermittent operating conditions.

Copeland, R. J.; Oren, J. A.

1974-01-01

110

Cryo Utilities Room Cooling System  

SciTech Connect

Many of the mechanical equipment failures at the Laboratory are due to the loss of cooling water. In order to insure the proper operating temperatures and to increase the reliability of the mechanical equipment in the D0 Cryo Utilities Room it is necessary to provide an independent liquid cooling system. To this end, an enclosed glycoVwater cooling system which transfers heat from two vane-type vacuum pumps and an air compressor to the outside air has been installed in the Cryo Utilities Room. From the appended list it can be seen that only the Thermal Precision PFC-121-D and Ingersoll-Rand WAC 16 deserve closer investigation based on price. The disadvantages of the WAC 16 are that: it runs a little warmer, it requires more valving to properly install a backup pump, inlet and outlet piping are not included, and temperature and pressure indicators are not included. Its only advantage is that it is $818 cheaper than the PFC-121-D. The advantages of the PFC-121-D are that: it has automatic pump switching during shutdown, it has a temperature regulator on one fan control, it has a switch which indicates proper operation, has a sight glass on the expansion tank, and comes with an ASME approved expansion tank and relief valve. For these reasons the Thermal Precision PFC-121-D was chosen. In the past, we have always found the pond water to be muddy and to sometimes contain rocks of greater than 1/2 inch diameter. Thus a system completely dependent on the pond water from the accelerator was deemed unacceptable. A closed system was selected based on its ability to greatly improve reliability, while remaining economical. It is charged with a 50/50 glycol/water mixture capable of withstanding outside temperatures down to -33 F. The fluid will be circulated by a totally enclosed air cooled Thermal Precision PFC-121-D pump. The system will be on emergency power and an automatically controlled backup pump, identical to the primary, is available should the main pump fail. The fan unit is used as a primary cooler and the trim cooler cools the fluid further on extremely hot days. The trim cooler has also been sized to cool the system in the event of a total shutdown provided that the pond water supply has adequate pressure. Due to a broken filter, we found it necessary to install a strainer in the pond water supply line. The expansion tank separates air bubbles, ensures a net positive suction head, protects against surges and over pressurization of the system, and allows for the filling of the system without shutting it off. All piping has been installed, flushed, charged with the glycol/water mix, and hydrostatically tested to 55 psi. The condition of all pumps and flow conditions will be recorded at the PLC. It has been decided not to include the regulator valve in the pond water return line. This valve was designated by the manufacturer to reduce the amount of water flowing through the trim cooler. This is not necessary in our application. There is some concern that the cooling fluid may cool the mechanical eqUipment too much when they are not operating or during very cold days. This issue will be addressed and the conclusion appended to this engineering note.

Ball, G.S.; /Fermilab

1989-01-26

111

Information technology equipment cooling system  

SciTech Connect

According to one embodiment, a system for removing heat from a rack of information technology equipment may include a sidecar indoor air to liquid heat exchanger that cools warm air generated by the rack of information technology equipment. The system may also include a liquid to liquid heat exchanger and an outdoor heat exchanger. The system may further include configurable pathways to connect and control fluid flow through the sidecar heat exchanger, the liquid to liquid heat exchanger, the rack of information technology equipment, and the outdoor heat exchanger based upon ambient temperature and/or ambient humidity to remove heat from the rack of information technology equipment.

Schultz, Mark D.

2014-06-10

112

Cooling system for superconducting magnet  

DOEpatents

A cooling system is configured to control the flow of a refrigerant by controlling the rate at which the refrigerant is heated, thereby providing an efficient and reliable approach to cooling a load (e.g., magnets, rotors). The cooling system includes a conduit circuit connected to the load and within which a refrigerant circulates; a heat exchanger, connected within the conduit circuit and disposed remotely from the load; a first and a second reservoir, each connected within the conduit, each holding at least a portion of the refrigerant; a heater configured to independently heat the first and second reservoirs. In a first mode, the heater heats the first reservoir, thereby causing the refrigerant to flow from the first reservoir through the load and heat exchanger, via the conduit circuit and into the second reservoir. In a second mode, the heater heats the second reservoir to cause the refrigerant to flow from the second reservoir through the load and heat exchanger via the conduit circuit and into the first reservoir.

Gamble, Bruce B. (Wellesley, MA); Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed (Framingham, MA)

1998-01-01

113

End-to-end spectral response characterization of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System sensors from 0.3 to 200 microns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments each contain three spectrally broadband scanning sensors operating in the bands from 0.3 to 5 ?m, 8 to 12 ?m and 0.3 to >150 ?m. The broad spectral response of the third band is limited only by the reflectance of two protected silver coated mirrors and the response of a

Peter Jarecke; Mark Frink; Mark Folkman; Steve Carman; Shankar Baliga; Lee Avis; Bruce Barkstrom; Jack Cooper; Leonard Kopia; Wes Lawrence; Robert Lee; Lou Smith

1994-01-01

114

Estimate of top-of-atmosphere albedo for a molecular atmosphere over ocean using Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shortwave broadband albedo at the top of a molecular atmosphere over ocean between 40°N and 40°S is estimated using radiance measurements from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument and the Visible Infrared Scanner (VIRS) aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite. The albedo monotonically increases from 0.059 at a solar zenith angle of 10° to

Seiji Kato; Norman G. Loeb; C. Ken Rutledge

2002-01-01

115

On-orbit solar calibrations using the Aqua Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) in-flight calibration system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) spacecraft scanning thermistor bolometers were used to measure earth-reflected solar and earth-emitted longwave radiances, at satellite altitude. The bolometers measured the earth radiances in the broadband shortwave solar (0.3 - 5.0 micrometers) and total (0.3->100 micrometers) spectral bands as well as in the (8 - 12 micrometers) water vapor window spectral band over geographical footprints as small as 10 kilometers at nadir. In May 2002, the fourth and fifth sets of CERES bolometers were launched aboard the Aqua spacecraft. Ground vacuum calibrations defined the initial count conversion coefficients that were used to convert the bolometer output voltages into filtered earth radiances. The mirror attenuator mosaic (MAM), a solar diffuser plate, was built into the CERES instrument package calibration system in order to define in-orbit shifts or drifts in the sensor responses. The shortwave and total sensors are calibrated using the solar radiances reflected from the MAM's. Each MAM consists of baffle-solar diffuser plate systems, which guide incoming solar radiances into the instrument fields-of-view of the shortwave and total sensor units. The MAM diffuser reflecting type surface consists of an array of spherical aluminum mirror segments, which are separated by a Merck Black A absorbing surface, overcoated with silicon dioxide. Temperature sensors are located in each MAM plate and baffle. The CERES MAM is designed to yield calibration precisions approaching .5 percent for the total and shortwave detectors. In this paper, the MAM solar calibration procedures are presented along with on-orbit results. Comparisons are also made between the Aqua, Terra and the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) CERES MAM solar calibrations.

Wilson, Robert S.; Lee, Robert B., III; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Al-Hajjah, Aiman

2003-11-01

116

On-orbit solar calibrations using the Aqua Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) in-flight calibration system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) spacecraft scanning thermistor bolometers were used to measure earth-reflected solar and earth-emitted longwave radiances, at satellite altitude. The bolometers measured the earth radiances in the broadband shortwave solar (0.3 - 5.0 micrometers) and total (0.3->100 micrometers) spectral bands as well as in the (8 - 12 micrometers) water vapor window spectral band over geographical footprints as small as 10 kilometers at nadir. In May 2002, the fourth and fifth sets of CERES bolometers were launched aboard the Aqua spacecraft. Ground vacuum calibrations defined the initial count conversion coefficients that were used to convert the bolometer output voltages into filtered earth radiances. The mirror attenuator mosaic (MAM), a solar diffuser plate, was built into the CERES instrument package calibration system in order to define in-orbit shifts or drifts in the sensor responses. The shortwave and total sensors are calibrated using the solar radiances reflected from the MAM's. Each MAM consists of baffle-solar diffuser plate systems, which guide incoming solar radiances into the instrument fields-of-view of the shortwave and total wave sensor units. The MAM diffuser reflecting type surface consists of an array of spherical aluminum mirror segments, which are separated by a Merck Black A absorbing surface, overcoated with silicon dioxide. Temperature sensors are located in each MAM plate and baffle. The CERES MAM wass designed to yield calibration precisions approaching .5 percent for the total and shortwave detectors. In this paper, the MAM solar calibration procedures are presented along with on-orbit results. Comparisons are also made between the Aqua,Terra and the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) CERES MAM solar calibrations.

Wilson, Robert S.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Hess, Phillip

2009-08-01

117

Mining Gold from your Cooling Water System  

E-print Network

Mining Gold from your Cooling Water System Tino Mendez Director Energy Engineering The Benham Companies, LLC Oklahoma City, Oklahoma ABSTRACT You may be missing on a fabulous opportunity to save on operating costs in your cooling water...

Mendez, T.

118

Heat exchanger with auxiliary cooling system  

DOEpatents

A heat exchanger with an auxiliary cooling system capable of cooling a nuclear reactor should the normal cooling mechanism become inoperable. A cooling coil is disposed around vertical heat transfer tubes that carry secondary coolant therethrough and is located in a downward flow of primary coolant that passes in heat transfer relationship with both the cooling coil and the vertical heat transfer tubes. A third coolant is pumped through the cooling coil which absorbs heat from the primary coolant which increases the downward flow of the primary coolant thereby increasing the natural circulation of the primary coolant through the nuclear reactor.

Coleman, John H. (Salem Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

1980-01-01

119

Evaporative cooling enhanced cold storage system  

DOEpatents

The invention provides an evaporatively enhanced cold storage system wherein a warm air stream is cooled and the cooled air stream is thereafter passed into contact with a cold storage unit. Moisture is added to the cooled air stream prior to or during contact of the cooled air stream with the cold storage unit to effect enhanced cooling of the cold storage unit due to evaporation of all or a portion of the added moisture. Preferably at least a portion of the added moisture comprises water condensed during the cooling of the warm air stream.

Carr, Peter (Cary, NC)

1991-01-01

120

Evaporative cooling enhanced cold storage system  

DOEpatents

The invention provides an evaporatively enhanced cold storage system wherein a warm air stream is cooled and the cooled air stream is thereafter passed into contact with a cold storage unit. Moisture is added to the cooled air stream prior to or during contact of the cooled air stream with the cold storage unit to effect enhanced cooling of the cold storage unit due to evaporation of all or a portion of the added moisture. Preferably at least a portion of the added moisture comprises water condensed during the cooling of the warm air stream. 3 figures.

Carr, P.

1991-10-15

121

On-orbit solar calibration methods using the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) in-flight calibration system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) scanning thermistor bolometers measure earth-reflected solar and earth-emitted longwaveradiances, at the top- of-the-atmosphere. The bolometers measure the earthradiances in the broadband shortwave solar (0.3-5.0 microns) and total (0.3-<100 microns) spectral bands as well as in the 8-<12 microns water vapor window spectral band over geographical footprints as small as 10 kilometers at nadir. December 1999, the second and third set of CERES bolometers was launchedon the Earth Observing Mission Terra Spacecraft. May 2003, the fourth and fifth set of bolometers was launched on the Earth Observing Mission Aqua Spacecraft. Recently, (October 2011) the sixth instrument was launched on the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System Preparatory Project (Suomi NPP) Spacecraft. Ground vacuum calibrations define the initial count conversion coefficients that are used to convert the bolometer output voltages into filtered earth radiances. The mirror attenuator mosaic (MAM), a solar diffuser plate, was built into the CERES instrument package calibration system in order to define in-orbit shifts or drifts in the sensor responses. The shortwave and shortwave part of the total sensors are calibrated using the solar radiances reflected from the MAM's. Each MAM consists of baffle-solar diffuser plate systems, which guide incoming solar radiances into the instrument fields of view of the shortwave and total wave sensor units. The MAM diffuser reflecting type surface consists of an array of spherical aluminum mirror segments, which are separated by a Merck Black A absorbing surface, overcoated with SIOx (SIO2 for PFM). Thermistors are located in each MAM plate and the total channel baffle. The CERES MAM is designed to yield calibration precisions approaching .5 percent for the total and shortwave detectors. In this presentation, the MAM solar calibration contrasting procedures will be presented along with on-orbit measurements for the eleven years the CERES instruments have been on-orbit. A switch to an azimuth rotation raster scan of the Sun rather than a fixed azimuth rotating elevation scan will be discussed. Comparisons are also made between the Terra, Aqua, and Suomi NPP CERES instruments during their MAM solar calibrations and total solar irradiance experimental results to determine how precise the CERES solar calibration facilities are at tracking the sun's irradiance.

Wilson, Robert S.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Hess, Phillip

2012-09-01

122

On-orbit Solar Calibrations Using the Terra Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) In-flight Calibrations System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) spacecraft scanning thermistor bolometers measure earth-reflected solar and earth-emitted longwave radiances, at the top- of-the-atmosphere. The bolometers measure the earth radiances in the broadband shortwave solar (0.3 -5.0 microns) and total (0.3 ->100 microns) spectral bands as well as in the 8 - 12 microns water vapor window spectral band over geographical footprints as small as 10 kilometers at nadir. December 1999, the second and third sets of CERES bolometers were launched on the Earth Observing Mission Terra Spacecraft. Ground vacuum calibrations define the initial count conversion coefficients that are used to convert the bolometer output voltages into filtered earth radiances. The mirror attenuator mosaic (MAM), a solar diffuser plate, was built into the CERES instrument package calibration system in order to define on-orbit shifts or drifts in the sensor responses. The shortwave and total sensors are calibrated using the solar radiances reflected from the MAM's. Each MAM consists of baffle-solar diffuser plate systems, which guide incoming solar radiances into the instrument fields of view of the shortwave and total wave sensor units. The MAM diffuser reflecting type surface consists of an array of spherical aluminium mirror segments, which are separated by a Merck Black A absorbing surface, overcoated with silicon dioxide. Thermistors are located in each MAM plate and baffle. The CERES MAM is designed to yield calibration precisions approaching 1 percent for the total and shortwave detectors. However, in their first year of operation the Terra FM1 and FM2 shortwave and the FM1 and FM2 total MAMs showed shifts in their solar calibrations of 1.5, 2.5, 1.5 and 6 percent respectively. In the subsequent year of operation all instruments begin to stabilize within the .5 percent precision range. Correspondingly, the FM1, FM2 shortwave and the FM1 and FM2 total MAMs showed shifts in their internal blackbody calibrations of 0.2, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 percent respectively over the 2 year period. This suggests that the reason for the solar calibration's larger shifts is due to changes in the MAM itself and not to instrument changes. In this paper, the MAM solar calibration procedures are presented along with on-orbit measurements for the 2000-2002 period of operation. Comparisons are also made between the Terra CERES instruments and the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) instrument during their MAM solar calibrations.

Wilson, R. S.; Lee, R. B.; Al-Hajjah, A. Y.; Paden, J.; Pandey, D. K.; Priestley, K. J.; Thomas, S.

2002-05-01

123

Cloud radiative forcing at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility: 2. Vertical redistribution of radiant energy by clouds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Documentation of the effects of clouds on the radiant energy balance of the surface and atmosphere represents a shortcoming in the set of observations that are needed to ascertain the validity of climate model simulations. While clouds are known to cool the climate system from top of atmosphere (TOA) radiation budget studies, the redistribution of energy between the surface and

Gerald G. Mace; Sally Benson; Seiji Kato

2006-01-01

124

Impact of the Position of a Radiator to Energy Consumption and Thermal Comfort in a Mixed Radiant and Convective Heating System  

E-print Network

. Claridge Ph.D., P.E Graduate Student Professor Energy Systems Laboratory Department of Mechanical Engineering Texas A&M University ABSTRACT This paper studies... requires careful consideration of the energy balance on each room surface and the comfort level in the space. A radiant heating system heats the room surfaces first; then the warm surfaces heat room air. The higher surface temperatures will increase...

Gong, X.; Claridge, D. E.

2005-01-01

125

Techniques for computing regional radiant emittances of the earth-atmosphere system from observations by wide-angle satellite radiometers, phase 3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiometers on earth orbiting satellites measure the exchange of radiant energy between the earth-atmosphere (E-A) system and space at observation points in space external to the E-A system. Observations by wideangle, spherical and flat radiometers are analyzed and interpreted with regard to the general problem of the earth energy budget (EEB) and to the problem of determining the energy budget of regions smaller than the field of view (FOV) of these radiometers.

Pina, J. F.; House, F. B.

1975-01-01

126

Reactor core isolation cooling system  

DOEpatents

A reactor core isolation cooling system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core, a drywell vessel, a containment vessel, and an isolation pool containing an isolation condenser. A turbine is operatively joined to the pressure vessel outlet steamline and powers a pump operatively joined to the pressure vessel feedwater line. In operation, steam from the pressure vessel powers the turbine which in turn powers the pump to pump makeup water from a pool to the feedwater line into the pressure vessel for maintaining water level over the reactor core. Steam discharged from the turbine is channeled to the isolation condenser and is condensed therein. The resulting heat is discharged into the isolation pool and vented to the atmosphere outside the containment vessel for removing heat therefrom.

Cooke, Franklin E. (San Jose, CA)

1992-01-01

127

Reactor core isolation cooling system  

DOEpatents

A reactor core isolation cooling system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core, a drywell vessel, a containment vessel, and an isolation pool containing an isolation condenser. A turbine is operatively joined to the pressure vessel outlet steamline and powers a pump operatively joined to the pressure vessel feedwater line. In operation, steam from the pressure vessel powers the turbine which in turn powers the pump to pump makeup water from a pool to the feedwater line into the pressure vessel for maintaining water level over the reactor core. Steam discharged from the turbine is channeled to the isolation condenser and is condensed therein. The resulting heat is discharged into the isolation pool and vented to the atmosphere outside the containment vessel for removing heat therefrom. 1 figure.

Cooke, F.E.

1992-12-08

128

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) algorithm theoretical basis document. Volume 1; Overviews (subsystem 0)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The theoretical bases for the Release 1 algorithms that will be used to process satellite data for investigation of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) are described. The architecture for software implementation of the methodologies is outlined. Volume 1 provides both summarized and detailed overviews of the CERES Release 1 data analysis system. CERES will produce global top-of-the-atmosphere shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere, at the surface, and within the atmosphere by using the combination of a large variety of measurements and models. The CERES processing system includes radiance observations from CERES scanning radiometers, cloud properties derived from coincident satellite imaging radiometers, temperature and humidity fields from meteorological analysis models, and high-temporal-resolution geostationary satellite radiances to account for unobserved times. CERES will provide a continuation of the ERBE record and the lowest error climatology of consistent cloud properties and radiation fields. CERES will also substantially improve our knowledge of the Earth's surface radiation budget.

Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator); Barkstrom, Bruce R. (Principal Investigator); Baum, Bryan A.; Cess, Robert D.; Charlock, Thomas P.; Coakley, James A.; Green, Richard N.; Lee, Robert B., III; Minnis, Patrick; Smith, G. Louis

1995-01-01

129

Emergency cooling system and method  

DOEpatents

An improved emergency cooling system and method are disclosed that may be adapted for incorporation into or use with a nuclear BWR wherein a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) containing a nuclear core and a heat transfer fluid for circulation in a heat transfer relationship with the core is housed within an annular sealed drywell and is fluid communicable therewith for passage thereto in an emergency situation the heat transfer fluid in a gaseous phase and any noncondensibles present in the RPV, an annular sealed wetwell houses the drywell, and a pressure suppression pool of liquid is disposed in the wetwell and is connected to the drywell by submerged vents. The improved emergency cooling system and method has a containment condenser for receiving condensible heat transfer fluid in a gaseous phase and noncondensibles for condensing at least a portion of the heat transfer fluid. The containment condenser has an inlet in fluid communication with the drywell for receiving heat transfer fluid and noncondensibles, a first outlet in fluid communication with the RPV for the return to the RPV of the condensed portion of the heat transfer fluid and a second outlet in fluid communication with the drywell for passage of the noncondensed balance of the heat transfer fluid and the noncondensibles. The noncondensed balance of the heat transfer fluid and the noncondensibles passed to the drywell from the containment condenser are mixed with the heat transfer fluid and the noncondensibles from the RPV for passage into the containment condenser. A water pool is provided in heat transfer relationship with the containment condenser and is thermally communicable in an emergency situation with an environment outside of the drywell and the wetwell for conducting heat transferred from the containment condenser away from the wetwell and the drywell. 5 figs.

Oosterkamp, W.J.; Cheung, Y.K.

1994-01-04

130

Relationship Between the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Measurements and Surface Temperatures of Selected Ocean Regions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Clear sky longwave radiances and fluxes are compared with the sea surface temperatures for three oceanic regions: Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific. The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) measurements were obtained by the three thermistor bolometers: total channel which measures the radiation arising from the earth-atmosphere system between 0.3 - greater than 100 micrometers; the window channel which measures the radiation from 8-12 micrometers; and the shortwave channel which measures the reflected energy from 0.3 - less than 5.0 micrometers. These instruments have demonstrated measurement precisions of approximately 0.3% on the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) between ground and on-orbit sensor calibrations. In this work we have used eight months of clear sky earth-nadir-view radiance data starting from January 1998 through August 1998. We have found a very strong correlation of 0.97 between the CERES window channel's weekly averaged unfiltered spectral radiance values at satellite altitude (350 km) and the corresponding weekly averaged sea surface temperature (SST) data covering all the oceanic regions. Such correlation can be used in predicting the sea surface temperatures using the present CERES Terra's window channel radiances at satellite altitude very easily.

Pandey, Dhirendra, K.; Lee, Robert B., III; Brown, Shannon B.; Paden, Jack; Spence, Peter L.; Thomas, Susan; Wilson, Robert S.; Al-Hajjah, Aiman

2001-01-01

131

Top-of-Atmosphere Direct Radiative Effect of Aerosols over the Tropical Oceans from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Satellite Instrument.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nine months of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES)/Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) broadband fluxes combined with the TRMM visible infrared scanner (VIRS) high-resolution imager measurements are used to estimate the daily average direct radiative effect of aerosols for clear-sky conditions over the tropical oceans. On average, aerosols have a cooling effect over the Tropics of 4.6 ± 1 W m-2. The magnitude is 2 W m-2 smaller over the southern tropical oceans than it is over northern tropical oceans. The direct effect derived from CERES is highly correlated with coincident aerosol optical depth () retrievals inferred from 0.63-m VIRS radiances (correlation coefficient of 0.96). The slope of the regression line is 32 W m-2 -1 over the equatorial Pacific Ocean, but changes both regionally and seasonally, depending on the aerosol characteristics. Near sources of biomass burning and desert dust, the aerosol direct effect reaches 25 to 30 W m-2. The direct effect from CERES also shows a dependence on wind speed. The reason for this dependence is unclear-it may be due to increased aerosol (e.g., sea-salt or aerosol transport) or increased surface reflection (e.g., due to whitecaps). The uncertainty in the tropical average direct effect from CERES is 1 W m-2 (20%) due mainly to cloud contamination, the radiance-to-flux conversion, and instrument calibration. By comparison, uncertainties in the direct effect from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) and CERES `ERBE-like' products are a factor of 3-5 times larger.

Loeb, Norman G.; Kato, Seiji

2002-06-01

132

Radiant coolers - Theory, flight histories, design comparisons and future applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiant coolers have been developed for application to the cooling of infrared detectors aboard NASA earth observation systems and as part of the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program. The prime design constraints for these coolers are the location of the cooler aboard the satellite and the satellite orbit. Flight data from several coolers indicates that, in general, design temperatures are achieved. However, potential problems relative to the contamination of cold surfaces are also revealed by the data. A comparison among the various cooler designs and flight performances indicates design improvements that can minimize the contamination problem in the future.

Donohoe, M. J.; Sherman, A.; Hickman, D. E.

1975-01-01

133

Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor plant system  

DOEpatents

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting for fuel decay during reactor shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. The reactor system is enhanced with sealing means for excluding external air from contact with the liquid metal coolant leaking from the reactor vessel during an accident. The invention also includes a silo structure which resists attack by leaking liquid metal coolant, and an added unique cooling means.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

1993-01-01

134

Postlaunch Radiometric Validation of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Proto-Flight Model on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Spacecraft through 1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument contains three scanning thermistor bolometer radiometric channels. These channels measure broadband radiances in the shortwave (0.3-5.0 m), total (0.3->100 m), and water vapor window regions (8-12 m). Ground-based radiometric calibrations of the CERES flight models were conducted by TRW Inc.'s Space and Electronics Group of Redondo Beach, California. On-orbit calibration

Kory J. Priestley; Bruce R. Barkstrom; Robert B. Lee III; Richard N. Green; Susan Thomas; Robert S. Wilson; Peter L. Spence; Jack Paden; D. K. Pandey; Aiman Al-Hajjah

2000-01-01

135

Advances in Solar Heating and Cooling Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on technological advancements in the fields of solar collectors, thermal storage systems, and solar heating and cooling systems. Diagrams aid in the understanding of the thermodynamics of the systems. (CP)

Ward, Dan S.

1976-01-01

136

Ground Calibrations of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Spacecraft Thermistor Bolometers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) spacecraft scanning thermistor bolometers will measure earth-reflected solar and earth-emmitted,longwave radiances, at the top-of-the-atmosphere. The measurements are performed in the broadband shortwave (0.3-5.0 micron) and longwave (5.0 - >100 micron) spectral regions as well as in the 8 -12 micron water vapor window over geographical footprints as small as 10 kilometers at the nadir. The CERES measurements are designed to improve our knowledge of the earth's natural climate processes, in particular those related to clouds, and man's impact upon climate as indicated by atmospheric temperature. November 1997, the first set of CERES bolometers is scheduled for launch on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Spacecraft. The CERES bolometers were calibrated radiometrically in a vacuum ground facility using absolute reference sources, tied to the International Temperature Scale of 1990. Accurate bolometer calibrations are dependent upon the derivations of the radiances from the spectral properties [reflectance, transmittance, emittance, etc.] of both the sources and bolometers. In this paper, the overall calibration approaches are discussed for the longwave and shortwave calibrations. The spectral responses for the TRMM bolometer units are presented and applied to the bolometer ground calibrations in order to determine pre-launch calibration gains.

Lee, Robert B., III; Smith, G. Lou; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Direndra K.; Thornhill, K. Lee; Bolden, William C.; Wilson, Robert S.

1997-01-01

137

Global, Multi-Year Analysis of Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System Terra Observations and Radiative Transfer Calculations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An extended record of the Terra Surface and Atmosphere Radiation Budget (SARB) computed by CERES (Clouds and Earth s Radiant Energy System) is produced in gridded form, facilitating an investigation of global scale direct aerosol forcing. The new gridded version (dubbed FSW) has a spacing of 1 at the Equator. A companion document (Rutan et al. 2005) focuses on advances to (and validation of) the ungridded, footprint scale calculations (dubbed CRS), primarily in clear-sky conditions. While mainly intended to provide observations of fluxes at the top of atmosphere (TOA), CERES (Wielicki et al. 1996) includes a program to also compute the fluxes at TOA, within the atmosphere and at the surface, and also to validate the results with independent ground based measurements (Charlock and Alberta 1996). ARM surface data has been a focus for this component of CERES. To permit the user to infer cloud forcing and direct aerosol forcing with the computed SARB, CERES includes surface and TOA fluxes that have been computed for cloud-free (clear) and aerosol free (pristine) footprints; this accounts for aerosol effects (SW scattering and absorption, and LW scattering, absorption and emission) to both clear and cloudy skies.

Charlock, T. P.; Rose, F. G.; Rutan, D. A.; Coleman, L. H.; Caldwell, T.; Zentz, S.

2005-01-01

138

On-orbit solar calibrations using the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) in-flight calibration system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) scanning thermistor bolometers measure earth-reflected solar and earth-emitted longwaveradiances, at the top- of-the-atmosphere. The bolometers measure the earthradiances in the broadband shortwave solar (0.3-5.0 microns) and total (0.3->100 microns) spectral bands as well as in the 8->12 microns water vapor window spectral band over geographical footprints as small as 10 kilometers at nadir. December 1999, the second and third set of CERES bolometers was launchedon the Earth Observing Mission Terra Spacecraft. May 2003, the fourth and fifth set of bolometers was launched on the Earth Observing Mission Aqua Spacecraft. Ground vacuum calibrations define the initial count conversion coefficients that are used to convert the bolometer output voltages into filtered earth radiances. The mirror attenuator mosaic (MAM), a solar diffuser plate, was built into the CERES instrument package calibration system in order to define in-orbit shifts or drifts in the sensor responses. The shortwave and shortwave part of total sensors are calibrated using the solar radiances reflected from the MAM's. Each MAM consists of baffle-solar diffuser plate systems, which guide incoming solar radiances into the instrument fields of view of the shortwave and total wave sensor units. The MAM diffuser reflecting type surface consists of an array of spherical aluminum mirror segments, which are separated by a Merck Black A absorbing surface, overcoated with SIOx. Thermistors are located in each MAM plate and the total channel baffle. The CERES MAM is designed to yield calibration precisions approaching .5 percent for the total and shortwave detectors. However, in their first year of operation the Terra and Aqua MAMs showed shifts in their calibrations larger than expected. Shifts of this nature have been seen in other Solar viewing instruments in the past. A possible explanation has attributed the changes to pre-orbit or on-orbit contamination combined with solar ultraviolet/atomic oxygen induced chemical changes to the contaminant during solar exposure. In the subsequent year of operation all instruments begin to stabilize within the .5 percent precision range. In this presentation, the MAM solar calibration procedures will be presented along with on-orbit measurements for the nine years the CERES instruments have been on-orbit. A switch to an azimuth rotation raster scan of the Sun rather than an elevation scan will be discussed. The implementation of a thermal correction to the shortwave channel will also be discussed. Comparisons are also made between the Terra CERES instruments and the Aqua instruments during their MAM solar calibrations and total solar irradiance experimental results to determine how precise the CERES solar calibration facilities are at tracking the sun's irradiance.

Wilson, Robert S.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Hess, Phillip

2010-09-01

139

Hot gas path component cooling system  

DOEpatents

A cooling system for a hot gas path component is disclosed. The cooling system may include a component layer and a cover layer. The component layer may include a first inner surface and a second outer surface. The second outer surface may define a plurality of channels. The component layer may further define a plurality of passages extending generally between the first inner surface and the second outer surface. Each of the plurality of channels may be fluidly connected to at least one of the plurality of passages. The cover layer may be situated adjacent the second outer surface of the component layer. The plurality of passages may be configured to flow a cooling medium to the plurality of channels and provide impingement cooling to the cover layer. The plurality of channels may be configured to flow cooling medium therethrough, cooling the cover layer.

Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Bunker, Ronald Scott; Itzel, Gary Michael

2014-02-18

140

Engine cooling fan coupling system controlled in concert with a cooling system thermostat  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cooling fan coupling system is described for an engine for an automotive vehicle, the engine comprising a rotating member and a coolant circulation system comprising a coolant radiator, a cooling fan for propelling air past the radiator to cool the coolant radiator, and a thermostatic valve for controlling flow of coolant through the coolant radiator. The thermostatic valve is

S. Suzaki; T. Shira; H. Adachi; M. Hayashi; K. Hattori; Y. Takakura

1987-01-01

141

A System for Determining Parameters of a Particle by Radiant Energy Scattering Techniques, Patent Application.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The system for determining parameters of a particle described in this document is a government-owned invention that is available for licensing. The background of the invention is outlined, and drawings of the system together with a detailed description of its function are provided. A collector contains a hole and annular apertures for transmitting…

National Bureau of Standards (DOC), Washington, DC.

142

Spectral Characterizations of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Thermistor Bolometers using Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) Techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) techniques are being used to characterize the relative spectral response, or sensitivity, of scanning thermistor bolometers in the infrared (IR) region (2 - >= 100-micrometers). The bolometers are being used in the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) program. The CERES measurements are designed to provide precise, long term monitoring of the Earth's atmospheric radiation energy budget. The CERES instrument houses three bolometric radiometers, a total wavelength (0.3- >= 150-micrometers) sensor, a shortwave (0.3-5-micrometers) sensor, and an atmospheric window (8-12-micrometers) sensor. Accurate spectral characterization is necessary for determining filtered radiances for longwave radiometric calibrations. The CERES bolometers spectral response's are measured in the TRW FTS Vacuum Chamber Facility (FTS - VCF), which uses a FTS as the source and a cavity pyroelectric trap detector as the reference. The CERES bolometers and the cavity detector are contained in a vacuum chamber, while the FTS source is housed in a GN2 purged chamber. Due to the thermal time constant of the CERES bolometers, the FTS must be operated in a step mode. Data are acquired in 6 IR spectral bands covering the entire longwave IR region. In this paper, the TRW spectral calibration facility design and data measurement techniques are described. Two approaches are presented which convert the total channel FTS data into the final CERES spectral characterizations, producing the same calibration coefficients (within 0.1 percent). The resulting spectral response curves are shown, along with error sources in the two procedures. Finally, the impact of each spectral response curve on CERES data validation will be examined through analysis of filtered radiance values from various typical scene types.

Thornhill, K. Lee; Bitting, Herbert; Lee, Robert B., III; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Wilson, Robert S.

1998-01-01

143

Assessment of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Flight Model 5 (FM5) instrument performance and stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) scanning radiometer is designed to measure the solar radiation reflected by the Earth and thermal radiation emitted by the Earth. Four CERES instruments are supporting the EOS missions; two aboard the Terra spacecraft, launched in 1999 and two aboard the Aqua spacecraft, launched in 2002. A fifth instrument, Flight Model 5 (FM5), launched in October 2011 aboard the S-NPP satellite, began taking radiance measurements on January 27th, 2012. The CERES FM5 instrument uses three scanning thermistor bolometers to make broadband radiance measurements in the shortwave (0.3 - 5.0 micrometers), total (0.3 - <100 micrometers) and water vapor window (8 - 12 micrometer) regions. An internal calibration module (ICM) used for in-flight calibration is built into the CERES instrument package consisting of an anodized aluminum blackbody source for calibrating the total and window sensors, and a shortwave internal calibration source (SWICS) for the shortwave sensor. The ICM sources, along with a solar diffusor called the Mirror Attenuator Mosaic (MAM), are used to define shifts or drifts in the sensor response over the life of the mission. In addition, validation studies are conducted to assess the pointing accuracy of the instrument and understand any spectral changes that may occur with the sensors allowing for corrections to be made to the radiance calculations in later CERES data products. This paper summarizes the on-orbit behavior of the CERES FM5 instrument by outlining trends in the internal calibration data and discussing the various validation studies used to assess the performance and stability of the instrument.

Smith, Nathaniel P.; Thomas, Susan; Shankar, Mohan; Szewczyk, Z. P.; Wilson, Robert S.; Walikainen, Dale R.; Daniels, Janet L.; Hess, Phillip C.; Priestley, Kory J.

2014-09-01

144

Cooling system for a nuclear reactor  

DOEpatents

A cooling system for a gas-cooled nuclear reactor is disclosed which includes at least one primary cooling loop adapted to pass coolant gas from the reactor core and an associated steam generator through a duct system having a main circulator therein, and at least one auxiliary cooling loop having communication with the reactor core and adapted to selectively pass coolant gas through an auxiliary heat exchanger and circulator. The main and auxiliary circulators are installed in a common vertical cavity in the reactor vessel, and a common return duct communicates with the reactor core and intersects the common cavity at a junction at which is located a flow diverter valve operative to effect coolant flow through either the primary or auxiliary cooling loops.

Amtmann, Hans H. (Rancho Santa Fe, CA)

1982-01-01

145

Closed Loop Cooling Systems for HTS Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stirling Cryogenics & Refrigeration BV has developed a complete range of closed loop cooling systems for High Temperature Superconducting applications. Several solutions are available depending on the requirements of the application to be cooled. Using liquid nitrogen as a working medium, a temperature as low as 65K can be used. The cooling power at 65K can be in the range of several hundred watts to several kilowatts. The distribution of the cooling power can be done by using the latent heat of evaporation or by using the heat capacity of sub-cooled liquid. The latter requires a fully automated pumping cryostat, containing all the components required for a controlled cool down of the application, sub cooling of the working fluid, transport of the liquid through the application and precise temperature regulation. For low temperature applications, two-stage cryocoolers provide cooling power at 20K and 80K temperature regions. Distribution of cooling capacity can eg. be done by forced flow of gaseous helium or by reliquefaction of neon.

Willems, D.; Dioguardi, F.; Den Heijer, R.

2006-04-01

146

The radiant of the Leonids meteor storm in 2001  

E-print Network

We have measured the radiant of the Leonids meteor storm in November 2001 by using new observational and analysis techniques. The radiant was measured as the intersections of lines which were detected and extrapolated from images obtained at a single observing site (Akeno Observatory, Japan). The images were obtained by two sets of telephoto lenses equipped with cooled CCD cameras. The measured radiant, (R.A., Dec.)=(154$^\\circ$.35, 21$^\\circ$.55) (J2000), is found to be in reasonable agreement with the theoretical prediction by McNaught and Asher (2001), which verifies their dust trail theory.

Ken'ichi Torii; Mitsuhiro Kohama; Toshifumi Yanagisawa; Kouji Ohnishi

2002-10-29

147

Biomedical Application of Aerospace Personal Cooling Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Personal thermoregulatory systems which are used by astronauts to alleviate thermal stress during extravehicular activity have been applied to the therapeutic management of multiple sclerosis. However, little information is available regarding the physiologic and circulatory changes produced by routine operation of these systems. The objectives of this study were to compare the effectiveness of two passive and two active cooling vests and to measure the body temperature and circulatory changes produced by each cooling vest configuration. The MicroClimate Systems and the Life Enhancement Tech(LET) lightweight liquid cooling vests, the Steele Vest and LET's Zipper Front Garment were used to cool the chest region of 10 male and female subjects (25 to 55 yr.) in this study. Calf, forearm and finger blood flows were measured using a tetrapolar impedance rheograph. The subjects, seated in an upright position at normal room temperature (approx.22C), were tested for 60 min. with the cooling system operated at its maximum cooling capacity. Blood flows were recorded continuously using a computer data acquisition system with a sampling frequency of 250 Hz. Oral, right and left ear temperatures and cooling system parameters were logged manually every 5 min. Arm, leg, chest and rectal temperatures; heart rate; respiration; and an activity index were recorded continuously on a U.F.I., Inc. Biolog ambulatory monitor. In general, the male and female subjects' oral and ear temperature responses to cooling were similar for all vest configurations tested. Oral temperatures during the recovery period were significantly (P<0.05) lower than during the control period, approx. 0.2 - 0.5C, for both men and women wearing any of the four different garments. The corresponding ear temperatures were significantly (P<0.05) decreased approx.0.2 - 0.4C by the end of the recovery period. Compared to the control period, no significant differences were found in rectal temperatures during cooling and recovery periods.

Ku, Yu-Tsuan E.; Lee, Hank C.; Montgomery, Leslie D.; Webbon, Bruce W.; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

1997-01-01

148

Optical cooling in multi-level systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theoretical model for optical cooling is developed, which yields the overall efficiency of a single endpumped cooling system. This model includes the effects of background absorption and pump saturation, while in multi-level systems, the model accounts for the important energy transfer processes. Two-level efficiency is evaluated for the case of Yb:YAG and compared with a hypothetical three-level material with identical spectral properties. This model is readily modified to include more levels and different materials.

Bowman, Steven R.; Ganem, Joseph; Brown, Christopher G.

2014-02-01

149

Compensation for spectral darkening of short wave optics occurring on the cloud's and the Earth's radiant energy system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cloud's and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is an investigation into the role of clouds and radiation in the Earth's climate system. Four CERES scanning thermistor bolometer instruments are currently in orbit. Flight model 1 (FM1) and 2 (FM2) are aboard the Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra satellite and FM3 and FM4 are aboard the EOS Aqua satellite. Each CERES instrument measures in three broadband radiometric regions: the shortwave (SW 0.3-5?m), total (0.3- > 100?m), and window (8-12?m). It has been found that both CERES instruments on the Terra platform imply that the SW flux scattered from the Earth had dropped by up to 2% from 2000 to 2004. No climatological explanation for this drop could be found, suggesting the cause was a drift in both the Terra instruments. However, the onboard calibration lamps for the SW channels do not show a change in gain of this magnitude. Experience from other satellite missions has shown that optics in the orbital environment can become contaminated, severely reducing their transmission of ultra-violet (UV) radiation. Since the calibration lamps emit little radiance in the UV spectral region it was suggested that contaminates could be responsible for an undetectable 'spectral darkening' of the CERES SW channel optics and hence the apparent drop in SW flux. Further evidence for this was found by looking at the comparison between simultaneous measurements made by FM1 and FM2. The proposed mechanisms for contaminant build up would not apply to a CERES instrument operating in the normal cross track scan mode. Indeed it was found from the comparison between CERES instruments on Terra that the response of the instrument operating in rotating azimuth plane (RAPS) mode consistently dropped relative to the other cross track instrument. Since at all times one of the instruments operates in cross track mode, where it is not subject to spectral darkening, it allowed that unit to be used as a calibration standard from which the darkening of the other RAPS instrument can be measured. A table of adjustment coefficients to compensate for this spectral darkening are therefore derived in this paper. These figures are designed to be multiplied by SW fluxes or radiances produced in the climate community using Edition 2 CERES data. SW CERES measurements that have been revised using these coeffcients are therefore to be referred to as ERBE-like Edition2_Rev1 or SSF Edition2B_Rev1 data in future literature. Current work to fully characterize the effect of spectral darkening on the instrument spectral response before the release of Edition 3 data is also described.

Matthews, Grant; Priestley, Kory; Spence, Peter; Cooper, Denise; Walikainen, Dale

2005-08-01

150

Passive cooling system for top entry liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors  

DOEpatents

A liquid metal cooled nuclear fission reactor plant having a top entry loop joined satellite assembly with a passive auxiliary safety cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. This satellite type reactor plant is enhanced by a backup or secondary passive safety cooling system which augments the primary passive auxiliary cooling system when in operation, and replaces the primary cooling system when rendered inoperative.

Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA); Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Hui, Marvin M. (Cupertino, CA)

1992-01-01

151

Emittance and absorptance of NASA ceramic thermal barrier coating system. [for turbine cooling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectral emittance measurements were made on a two-layer ceramic thermal barrier coating system consisting of a metal substrate, a NiCrAly bond coating and a yttria-stabilized zirconia ceramic coating. Spectral emittance data were obtained for the coating system at temperatures of 300 to 1590 K, ceramic thickness of zero to 0.076 centimeter, and wavelengths of 0.4 to 14.6 micrometers. The data were transformed into total hemispherical emittance values and correlated with respect to ceramic coating thickness and temperature using multiple regression curve fitting techniques. The results show that the ceramic thermal barrier coating system is highly reflective and significantly reduces radiation heat loads on cooled gas turbine engine components. Calculation of the radiant heat transfer within the nonisothermal, translucent ceramic coating material shows that the gas-side ceramic coating surface temperature can be used in heat transfer analysis of radiation heat loads on the coating system.

Liebert, C. H.

1978-01-01

152

Understanding aging in containment cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

A study has been performed to assess the effects of aging in nuclear power plant containment cooling systems. Failure records from national databases, as well as plant specific data were reviewed and analyzed to identify aging characteristics for this system. The predominant aging mechanisms were determined, along with the most frequently failed components and their associated failure modes. This paper discusses the aging mechanisms present in the containment spray system and the containment fan cooler system, which are two systems used to provide the containment cooling function. The failure modes, along with the relative frequency of each is also discussed.

Lofaro, R.J.

1993-12-01

153

40 CFR 90.307 - Engine cooling system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Equipment Provisions § 90.307 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient...the engine manufacturer. Auxiliary fan(s) may be used to maintain sufficient engine cooling during engine dynamometer...

2011-07-01

154

40 CFR 90.307 - Engine cooling system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Equipment Provisions § 90.307 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient...the engine manufacturer. Auxiliary fan(s) may be used to maintain sufficient engine cooling during engine dynamometer...

2014-07-01

155

40 CFR 90.307 - Engine cooling system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Equipment Provisions § 90.307 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient...the engine manufacturer. Auxiliary fan(s) may be used to maintain sufficient engine cooling during engine dynamometer...

2012-07-01

156

40 CFR 90.307 - Engine cooling system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Equipment Provisions § 90.307 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient...the engine manufacturer. Auxiliary fan(s) may be used to maintain sufficient engine cooling during engine dynamometer...

2013-07-01

157

Cool and Save: Cooling Aware Dynamic Workload Scheduling in Multi-socket CPU Systems  

E-print Network

Cool and Save: Cooling Aware Dynamic Workload Scheduling in Multi-socket CPU Systems Raid Ayoub and fan control in multi-socket systems have been designed sep- arately leading to less efficient solutions. In this paper we present Cool and Save, a cooling aware dynamic workload management strategy

Simunic, Tajana

158

Prototype solar heating and cooling systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A collection of monthly status reports on the development of eight prototype solar heating and cooling systems is presented. The effort calls for the development, manufacture, test, system installation, maintenance, problem resolution, and performance evaluation. The systems are 3, 25, and 75 ton size units.

1978-01-01

159

Prototype solar heating and cooling systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A collection of monthly status reports are given on the development of eight prototype solar heating and cooling systems. This effort calls for the development, manufacturing, test, system installation, maintenance, problem resolution, and performance evaluation. The systems are 3-, 25-, and 75-ton size units.

1978-01-01

160

Cooling system for continuous metal casting machines  

DOEpatents

A continuous metal caster cooling system is provided in which water is supplied in jets from a large number of small nozzles 19 against the inner surface of rim 13 at a temperature and with sufficient pressure that the velocity of the jets is sufficiently high that the mode of heat transfer is substantially by forced convection, the liquid being returned from the cooling chambers 30 through return pipes 25 distributed interstitially among the nozzles.

Draper, Robert (Churchill Boro, PA); Sumpman, Wayne C. (North Huntingdon, PA); Baker, Robert J. (Wilkins Township, Allegheny County, PA); Williams, Robert S. (Plum Borough, PA)

1988-01-01

161

Preoperational test report, recirculation condenser cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

This represents a preoperational test report for Recirculation Condenser Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The four system provide condenser cooling water for vapor space cooling of tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102. Each system consists of a valved piping loop, a pair of redundant recirculation pumps, a closed-loop evaporative cooling tower, and supporting instrumentation; equipment is located outside the farm on concrete slabs. Piping is routed to the each ventilation condenser inside the farm via below-grade concrete trenches. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

Clifton, F.T.

1997-11-04

162

Radiant Barrier Performance during the Heating Season  

E-print Network

Radiant Barrier Perfonnance during the Heating Season Mario A. Medina, Dennis L. O'Neal Ph.D., and W. Dan Turner Ph.D. Energy Systems Laboratory Texas Engineering Experiment Station Texas A&M University System College Station, Texas...

Medina, M. A.; O'Neal, D. L.; Turner, W. D.

163

Modulated infrared radiant source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A modulated, infrared radiant energy source was developed to calibrate an airborne nadir-viewing pressure modulated radiometer to be used to detect from Earth orbit trace gases in the troposphere. The technique used an 8 cm long, 0.005 cm diameter platinum-iridium wire as an isothermal, thin line radiant energy source maintained at 1200 K. A + or - 20 K signal, oscillating at controllable frequencies from dc to 20 Hz, was superimposed on it. This periodic variation of the line source energy was used to verify the pressure modulated radiometer's capability to distinguish between the signal variations caused by the Earth's background surface and the signal from the atmospheric gases of interest.

Stewart, W. F.; Edwards, S. F.; Vann, D. S.; Mccormick, R. F.

1981-01-01

164

Application of refrigeration system in electronics cooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation of the transient response of the vapor compression refrigeration (VCR) system to rapid change in evaporator (simulated electronics) heat load is presented. In this study, the VCR system is designed and constructed specifically for applications to cool high heat flux electronics and high-end computers. Temperature and pressure data were measured at pre-selected locations to study the behavior

A. G. Agwu Nnanna

2006-01-01

165

Passive Cooling System for a Vehicle  

DOEpatents

A passive cooling system for a vehicle (114) transfers heat from an overheated internal component, for example, an instrument panel (100), to an external portion (116) of the vehicle (114), for example, a side body panel (126). The passive cooling system includes one or more heat pipes (112) having an evaporator section (118) embedded in the overheated internal component and a condenser section (120) at the external portion (116) of the vehicle (114). The evaporator (118) and condenser (120) sections are in fluid communication. The passive cooling system may also include a thermally conductive film (140) for thermally connecting the evaporator sections (118) of the heat pipes (112) to each other and to the instrument panel (100).

Hendricks, T. J.; Thoensen, T.

2005-11-15

166

Forward-scatter radiant mapping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Forward-scatter systems have been much neglected for the study of meteors and meteor streams. A great deal of this neglect stems from the complicated geometry which has made the interpretation of results difficult in the past. This no longer presents a problem because of the computer power now available. There are practical advantages in using forward-scatter in that low-power transmitters are much easier to handle than the high-power ones used in pulsed back-scatter radars. The data reduction of the CW signals is also significantly simpler. Because the forward-scatter reflection geometry increases the duration of the echoes relative to the back-scatter case, the problem of the underdense ceiling is partially alleviated. We have built a 'short hop' forward-scatter system between Ottawa and London (Ont) for which the transmitter and receiver are separated by about 500 km. With it, we are able to measure unambiguously the directions of arrival of the echoes using a 5-antenna interferometer. Morton and Jones (1982, MN, 198, 737) have shown how the echo direction distribution can be deconvolved to yield the meteor radiant distribution for back-scatter data. We have extended the technique to the forward-scatter case and present some preliminary meteor radiant distribution maps.

Jones, James; Webster, A. R.

1992-01-01

167

COOL ROOF COATINGS INCORPORATING GLASS HOLLOW MICROSPHERES  

EPA Science Inventory

Solar Gain is in part responsible for up to 56% of energy consumed by cooling systems in residential buildings. By reflecting and scattering radiant energy from the sun, the surface temperature of exterior walls and roofs can be greatly reduced. Previous studies have indicated...

168

Rating floor heating and cooling panels using a thermograph robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy, exergy, environment, and comfort advantages of panel heating and cooling systems in green buildings are especially important for hybrid HVAC (Heating Ventilating and Air-conditioning) systems, which co-locate radiant floor panels with forcedair convection systems. In spite of their advantages, implementation of hybrid HVAC systems is difficult, because there are no empirical data concerning their rating and design. This situation

Birol I. Kilkis

2005-01-01

169

Passive cooling system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors with backup coolant flow path  

DOEpatents

A liquid metal cooled nuclear fission reactor plant having a passive auxiliary safety cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. This reactor plant is enhanced by a backup or secondary passive safety cooling system which augments the primary passive auxiliary cooling system when in operation, and replaces the primary system when rendered inoperable.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

1993-01-01

170

Process Cooling Pumping Systems Analysis  

E-print Network

rejection while operating three pumps each. 2. Check Valve induced Pump Failure – While attempting to take readings, both systems exhibited check valve failure to hold. This failure causes significant short-circuiting of water to the cold well, causing...

Sherman, C.

2008-01-01

171

PCM Passive Cooling System Containing Active Subsystems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multistage system has been proposed for cooling a circulating fluid that is subject to intermittent intense heating. The system would be both flexible and redundant in that it could operate in a basic passive mode, either sequentially or simultaneously with operation of a first, active cooling subsystem, and either sequentially or simultaneously with a second cooling subsystem that could be active, passive, or a combination of both. This flexibility and redundancy, in combination with the passive nature of at least one of the modes of operation, would make the system more reliable, relative to a conventional cooling system. The system would include a tube-in-shell heat exchanger, within which the space between the tubes would be filled with a phase-change material (PCM). The circulating hot fluid would flow along the tubes in the heat exchanger. In the basic passive mode of operation, heat would be conducted from the hot fluid into the PCM, wherein the heat would be stored temporarily by virtue of the phase change.

Blanding, David E.; Bass, David I.

2005-01-01

172

Radiant energy transport in porous media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of gray body radiant energy transport in porous media is analyzed using the volume averaging method. For a rigid solid-stagnant gas system the analysis yields an energy transport equation. The vector is entirely associated with the anisotropic structure of the porous medium, and arguments are presented which suggest that the vector is proportional to the gradient of the

Stephen Whitaker

1980-01-01

173

Electromechanically cooled germanium radiation detector system  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have successfully developed and fielded an electromechanically cooled germanium radiation detector (EMC-HPGe) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This detector system was designed to provide optimum energy resolution, long lifetime, and extremely reliable operation for unattended and portable applications. For most analytical applications, high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors are the standard detectors of choice, providing an unsurpassed combination of

A. D. Lavietes; G. Joseph Mauger; E. H. Anderson

1999-01-01

174

Developing composite furnace module cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composite furnace module cooling system is designed to provide an essentially uniform hot-face temperature that is low enough to promote the formation of a protective accretion layer for furnace containment. A minimal amount of copper is used to ensure that the installation of the modules will not significantly alter the process heat balance during normal operation. The modules have

A. K. Kyllo; N. B. Gray; D. Papazoglou; B. J. Elliot

2000-01-01

175

Cooling system for a gas turbine  

DOEpatents

A plurality of arcuate circumferentially spaced supply and return manifold segments are arranged on the rim of a rotor for respectively receiving and distributing cooling steam through exit ports for distribution to first and second-stage buckets and receiving spent cooling steam from the first and second-stage buckets through inlet ports for transmission to axially extending return passages. Each of the supply and return manifold segments has a retention system for precluding substantial axial, radial and circumferential displacement relative to the rotor. The segments also include guide vanes for minimizing pressure losses in the supply and return of the cooling steam. The segments lie substantially equal distances from the centerline of the rotor and crossover tubes extend through each of the segments for communicating steam between the axially adjacent buckets of the first and second stages, respectively.

Wilson, Ian David (Mauldin, SC); Salamah, Samir Armando (Niskayuna, NY); Bylina, Noel Jacob (Niskayuna, NY)

2003-01-01

176

Method of fabricating a cooled electronic system  

DOEpatents

A method of fabricating a liquid-cooled electronic system is provided which includes an electronic assembly having an electronics card and a socket with a latch at one end. The latch facilitates securing of the card within the socket. The method includes providing a liquid-cooled cold rail at the one end of the socket, and a thermal spreader to couple the electronics card to the cold rail. The thermal spreader includes first and second thermal transfer plates coupled to first and second surfaces on opposite sides of the card, and thermally conductive extensions extending from end edges of the plates, which couple the respective transfer plates to the liquid-cooled cold rail. The extensions are disposed to the sides of the latch, and the card is securable within or removable from the socket using the latch without removing the cold rail or the thermal spreader.

Chainer, Timothy J; Gaynes, Michael A; Graybill, David P; Iyengar, Madhusudan K; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J; Schmidt, Roger R; Schultz, Mark D; Simco, Daniel P; Steinke, Mark E

2014-02-11

177

Method for passive cooling liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors, and system thereof  

DOEpatents

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Busboom, Herbert J. (San Jose, CA)

1991-01-01

178

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 36, NO. 4, JULY 1998 1127 Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy  

E-print Network

and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES): Algorithm Overview Bruce A. Wielicki, Bruce R. Barkstrom, Bryan A. Randall, Larry L. Stowe, and Ronald M. Welch Abstract-- The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System

Randall, David A.

179

Preliminary Study of a Vented Attic Radiant Barrier System in Hot, Humid Climates Using Side-by-Side, Full-Scale Test Houses  

E-print Network

.E. Barr~p.~Calibration of Large Area Heat Flow Meters and Small Area Heat Flow Meters for Full-scale Testing of a Radiant Barrier Systemn, SEECL. University of Florida. 1986. KEY: STD-Standard Venting FULL-Full Venting RBUP-Radiant Barrier Up RBDN...

Lear, W. E.; Barrup, T. E.; Davis, K. E.

1987-01-01

180

S'COOL Student Bookmark  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This bookmark provides basic information about the importance of ground truth measurements for investigative science and the formation of clouds. It also provides information about an opportunity for students to participate in a real-time collaborative scientific experiment with NASA scientists: the Student Cloud Observations On Line (S'COOL) project. SâCOOL is a component of NASA's Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project. S'COOL project participants make ground truth measurements for the CERES experiment. Ground truth measurements are land-based observations to compare with satellite data for the purpose of improving the satellite results.

2005-05-01

181

Angular Distribution Models for Top-of-Atmosphere Radiative Flux Estimation from the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System Instrument on the Terra Satellite. Part I: Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The Clouds and Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) provides coincident global cloud and aerosol properties together with reflected solar, emitted terrestrial longwave, and infrared window radiative fluxes. These data are needed to improve the understanding and modeling of the interaction between clouds, aerosols, and radiation at the top of the atmosphere, surface, and within the atmosphere. This paper describes,the

Norman G. Loeb; Seiji Kato; Konstantin Loukachine; Natividad Manalo-Smith

2005-01-01

182

Quality control of radiant heaters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on infrared thermography, a non-destructive testing and evaluation (NDT&E) procedure is proposed for defects assessment on radiant heaters. Under a short electrical excitation, an infrared camera captures the cooling process of the heaters. Breaking the thermographic images down not only makes easiest the location of defects but it also allows their classification. Several kinds of defects have been taken into account: lack of supporting brackets; defects originated by a deficiency in the heating material; those from an excess of heating material; and those parts of the heating elements which are in wrong contact (non-contact or semi-buried) with the substrate. Each kind of analyzed defect has a different thermal history after the electrical excitation because of its nature. By means of computer vision techniques, the defects can be spatially located. The "chain code" was employed to follow the pattern of the heating element and so concentrate the analysis in points belonging to the pattern. A good agreement with analysis made under human's criteria is achieved. However, using infrared cameras and processing the data with computer vision algorithms allows controlling in-site the quality of the product without any subjectivity. So, the heaters manufacturing industry could come along with the implementation of this automatic detection procedure. Experimental results that validate the proposed method will be presented and discussed in this paper.

González, Daniel A.; Madruga, Francisco J.; Quintela, María Á.; López-Higuera, José M.

2005-09-01

183

Radiant zone heated particulate filter  

DOEpatents

A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter including an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A radiant zoned heater includes N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones includes M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones, restricts exhaust gas flow in a portion of the PM filter that corresponds to the selected one of the N zones, and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

2011-12-27

184

Personal cooling systems: Possibilities and limitations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Personal thermal control by means of gas- or liquid-conditioned garments was developed during the 1960s and has been applied in a variety of aerospace and industrial settings. Both USAF fighter pilots and astronauts are required to wear heavy protective clothing which insulates them from the environment and thus creates stress through storage of metabolic heat. The problem is particularly severe in astronauts who perform heavy physical work during extra-vehicular activity (EVA); without artificial cooling they could reach incapacitating hyperthermia in a matter of minutes. This paper reviews the factors which influence the design of personal cooling systems. An important early step is determination of acceptable heat stress level, taking into account possible interactions of heat stress with other physiological problems such as motion sickness, diminished plasma volume, decompression sickness and acceleration tolerance. Other factors which require consideration include the work schedule, the area to be covered by the cooling garment, and the practicalities of a fixed or body-mounted heat sink and its power source. Nearly every imaginable heat sink has been proposed or tried over the past 30 years, including direct gas systems, phase-change systems with open or closed loops and thermoelectric heat sinks. The latter are now the system of choice for aircraft.

Nunneley, Sarah A.

1994-01-01

185

Vented Cavity Radiant Barrier Assembly And Method  

DOEpatents

A vented cavity radiant barrier assembly (2) includes a barrier (12), typically a PV module, having inner and outer surfaces (18, 22). A support assembly (14) is secured to the barrier and extends inwardly from the inner surface of the barrier to a building surface (14) creating a vented cavity (24) between the building surface and the barrier inner surface. A low emissivity element (20) is mounted at or between the building surface and the barrier inner surface. At least part of the cavity exit (30) is higher than the cavity entrance (28) to promote cooling air flow through the cavity.

Dinwoodie, Thomas L. (Piedmont, CA); Jackaway, Adam D. (Berkeley, CA)

2000-05-16

186

Cooling system for high speed aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The system eliminates the necessity of shielding an aircraft airframe constructed of material such as aluminum. Cooling is accomplished by passing a coolant through the aircraft airframe, the coolant acting as a carrier to remove heat from the airframe. The coolant is circulated through a heat pump and a heat exchanger which together extract essentially all of the added heat from the coolant. The heat is transferred to the aircraft fuel system via the heat exchanger and the heat pump. The heat extracted from the coolant is utilized to power the heat pump. The heat pump has associated therewith power turbine mechanism which is also driven by the extracted heat. The power turbines are utilized to drive various aircraft subsystems, the compressor of the heat pump, and provide engine cooling.

Lawing, P. L.; Pagel, L. L. (inventors)

1981-01-01

187

Hybrid optomechanical cooling by atomic ? systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate a hybrid quantum system consisting of a cavity optomechanical device optically coupled to an ultracold quantum gas. We show that the dispersive properties of the ultracold gas can be used to dramatically modify the optomechanical response of the mechanical resonator. We examine hybrid schemes wherein the mechanical resonator is coupled either to the motional or the spin degrees of freedom of the ultracold gas. In either case, we find an enhancement of more than two orders of magnitude in optomechanical cooling due to this hybrid interaction. Significantly, based on demonstrated parameters for the cavity optomechanical device, we identify regimes that enable the ground-state cooling of the resonator from room temperature. In addition, the hybrid system considered here represents a powerful interface for the use of an ultracold quantum gas for state preparation, sensing, and quantum manipulation of a mesoscopic mechanical resonator.

Bariani, F.; Singh, S.; Buchmann, L. F.; Vengalattore, M.; Meystre, P.

2014-09-01

188

Low pressure cooling seal system for a gas turbine engine  

SciTech Connect

A low pressure cooling system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids at low pressure, such as at ambient pressure, through at least one cooling fluid supply channel and into a cooling fluid mixing chamber positioned immediately downstream from a row of turbine blades extending radially outward from a rotor assembly to prevent ingestion of hot gases into internal aspects of the rotor assembly. The low pressure cooling system may also include at least one bleed channel that may extend through the rotor assembly and exhaust cooling fluids into the cooling fluid mixing chamber to seal a gap between rotational turbine blades and a downstream, stationary turbine component. Use of ambient pressure cooling fluids by the low pressure cooling system results in tremendous efficiencies by eliminating the need for pressurized cooling fluids for sealing this gap.

Marra, John J

2014-04-01

189

Developing composite furnace module cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composite furnace module cooling system is designed to provide an essentially uniform hot-face temperature that is low\\u000a enough to promote the formation of a protective accretion layer for furnace containment. A minimal amount of copper is used\\u000a to ensure that the installation of the modules will not significantly alter the process heat balance during normal operation.\\u000a The modules have

A. K. Kyllo; N. B. Gray; D. Papazoglou; B. J. Elliot

2000-01-01

190

Prelaunch calibrations of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission and Earth Observing System morning (EOS-AM1) spacecraft thermistor bolometer sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) spacecraft scanning thermistor bolometer sensors measure Earth radiances in the broadband shortwave solar (0.3-5.0 ?m) and total (0.3->100 ?m) spectral bands as well as in the 8-12-?m water vapor window spectral band. On November 27, 1997, the launch of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft placed the first set of

Robert B. Lee; Bruce R. Barkstrom; Herbert C. Bitting; Dominique A. H. Crommelynck; Jack Paden; Dhirendra K. Pandey; Kory J. Priestley; G. Louis Smith; Susan Thomas; K. Lee Thornhill; Robert S. Wilson

1998-01-01

191

Direct conversion of infrared radiant energy for space power applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A proposed technology to convert the earth radiant energy (infrared albedo) for spacecraft power is presented. The resultant system would eliminate energy storage requirements and simplify the spacecraft design. The design and performance of a infrared rectenna is discussed.

Finke, R. C.

1982-01-01

192

21 CFR 880.5130 - Infant radiant warmer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...infant to maintain the infant's body temperature by means of radiant heat. The device may also contain a temperature monitoring sensor, a heat output control mechanism, and an alarm system (infant temperature, manual mode if present, and...

2010-04-01

193

Evaporative cooling system of internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an evaporative cooling system of an internal combustion engine, comprising: means defining in the engine a coolant jacket into which coolant is introduced in liquid state through an inlet port formed in the engine and from which the coolant is discharged in gaseous state through an outlet port formed in the engine; a condenser into which the gaseous coolant from the coolant jacket of the engine is introduced to be liquefied; a lower tank connected to the condenser to collect therein the coolant which has been liquefied by the condenser, the lower tank having a bottom which is submerged in the liquefied coolant; an electric pump by which the liquid coolant in the lower tank near the bottom of the same is pumped into the coolant jacket through the inlet port of the engine; conduit means connecting the outlet port, the condenser, the lower tank, the electric pump and the inlet port thereby to form a coolant circulation circuit; and a capacity variable tank fluidly connected through a conduit to the lower tank to temporarily capture therein air remaining in the coolant circulation circuit during operation of the cooling system, the conduit being connected to an upper portion of the tank. The upper portion is empty of the liquid coolant under normal operation of the cooling system.

Hayashi, Y.

1987-03-10

194

40 CFR 91.307 - Engine cooling system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine cooling system. 91.307 Section...CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 91.307 Engine cooling system. An engine...

2012-07-01

195

40 CFR 91.307 - Engine cooling system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine cooling system. 91.307 Section...CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 91.307 Engine cooling system. An engine...

2011-07-01

196

40 CFR 91.307 - Engine cooling system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine cooling system. 91.307 Section...CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 91.307 Engine cooling system. An engine...

2014-07-01

197

40 CFR 91.307 - Engine cooling system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine cooling system. 91.307 Section...CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 91.307 Engine cooling system. An engine...

2013-07-01

198

40 CFR 91.307 - Engine cooling system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine cooling system. 91.307 Section...CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 91.307 Engine cooling system. An engine...

2010-07-01

199

OPTIMIZATION OF DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS FOR LARGE DRY COOLING SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report presents a methodology for optimizing design specifications of large, mechanical-draft, dry cooling systems. A multivariate, nonlinear, constrained optimization technique searches for the combination of design variables to determine the cooling system with the lowest a...

200

Evaluation of a Direct Evaporative Roof-Spray Cooling System  

E-print Network

Roof-Spray cooling systems are being extensively used to reduce the air-conditioning usage in industrial and commercial buildings. In buildings without air-conditioning, evaporative roof spray cooling systems help to reduce the interior temperatures...

Carrasco, A.; Pittard, R.; Kondepudi, S. N.; Somasundaram, S.

1987-01-01

201

Determination of the cooling capacity for body ventilation system.  

PubMed

Body ventilation systems (BVS) are effective in reducing heat strain, but the amount of heat that a BVS removes from a human body is unclear. The purpose of this study was to propose a method for quantifying BVS cooling capacity using manikin evaluation and modeling. Cooling capacity was calculated as the product of maximum cooling potential and cooling efficiency. The maximum cooling potential is calculated as the difference in enthalpy between the air entering and exiting the BVS where the outlet air temperature is equal to skin temperature with a relative humidity of 100%. The cooling efficiency, defined as a ratio of the cooling capacity to the maximum cooling potential, can be determined through measurements on sweating thermal manikins. A BVS system was evaluated on a manikin with the ventilation fan ON (flow rate 4.7 L/s) or OFF under eleven ambient conditions. The measured cooling efficiencies were 0.31 ± 0.02 and almost constant. Using this cooling efficiency, the BVS cooling capacities at various skin temperature and ambient conditions were estimated. This two-step approach can be used to quantify BVS cooling effectiveness during physiology studies. First, the cooling efficiency is determined on sweating thermal manikins. Second, the cooling capacity is calculated from the skin temperature, ambient temperature and relative humidity. However, various factors may reduce the actual cooling provided by the BVS, and the calculated cooling capacity should be considered the upper limit for cooling. PMID:21455613

Xu, Xiaojiang; Gonzalez, Julio

2011-12-01

202

Study on a mean radiant temperature measure tool based on an almost spherical array of radiometric sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mean radiant temperature has significant influence on indoor thermal comfort conditions. It has gained greater importance with the wider application of heating and cooling systems based on the use of large surfaces with a temperature slightly higher or lower than the indoor temperature (hot/cold floors or ceilings), because these systems operate through the radiant temperature control. The most used tool to measure radiant temperature, the globe thermometer, still has large margins of error, most of all due to the uncertainty in the evaluation of the convection heat exchanges between the globe surface and the indoor air. The feasibility of a device to measure mean radiant temperature in indoor condition, alternative to the globe-thermometer (obtained placing radiometric sensors (thermopiles) on the sides of different geometric regular solids), is proposed. The behavior has been investigated for different regular solids, such as the residual error and its dependence on walls average temperature, non-uniformity magnitude, orientation and position of the solid in the enclosure, room shape, non-uniformity temperature distribution. Icosahedron shape shows an excellent behavior, with errors lower than 0.1 K in all the examined conditions.

Fontana, L.

2012-11-01

203

A fuselage/tank structure study for actively cooled hypersonic cruise vehicles: Active cooling system analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of fuselage cross section and structural arrangement on the performance of actively cooled hypersonic cruise vehicles are investigated. An active cooling system which maintains the aircraft's entire surface area at temperatures below 394 K at Mach 6 is developed along with a hydrogen fuel tankage thermal protection system. Thermodynamic characteristics of the actively cooled thermal protection systems established are summarized. Design heat loads and coolant flowrate requirements are defined for each major structural section and for the total system. Cooling system weights are summarized at the major component level. Conclusions and recommendations are included.

Stone, J. E.

1975-01-01

204

Topic 14. Retrofit and optimal operation of the building energy systems Performances of Low Temperature Radiant Heating Systems  

E-print Network

complex because they involve different mechanisms of heat transfer: heat conduction through the walls and the surrounding areas, and the heat conduction between the floor and the ground. The main essence of the low of studies is devoted to laboratory tests of panel systems in terms of heat transfer research and development

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

205

Directional control of radiant heat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surface with grooves having flat bases gives directional emissivities and absorptivities that can be made to approximate a perfect directional surface. Radiant energy can then be transferred in desired directions.

Howell, J. R.; Perlmutter, M.

1970-01-01

206

CCHP System with Interconnecting Cooling and Heating Network  

E-print Network

The consistency between building heating load, cooling load and power load are analyzed in this paper. The problem of energy waste and low equipment usage in a traditional CCHP (combined cooling, heating and power) system with generated electricity...

Fu, L.; Geng, K.; Zheng, Z.; Jiang, Y.

2006-01-01

207

Improving the Water Efficiency of Cooling Production System  

E-print Network

For most of the time, cooling towers (CTs) of cooling systems operate under partial load conditions and by regulating the air circulation with a variable frequency drive (VFD), significant reduction in the fan power can be achieved. In Kuwait...

Maheshwari, G.; Al-Hadban, Y.; Al-Taqi, H. H.; Alasseri, R.

2010-01-01

208

Corrosion in HVDC valve cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

Stainless steel couplings in the main cooling water pipes of HVDC thyristor valves have been in use since 1983, with an overall satisfactory behavior. However, some water leakage due to corrosion below the sealing O-rings of the couplings was observed during 1992. An extensive investigation and follow-up worldwide showed a direct correlation between water quality and the corrosion rate of the stainless steel couplings. Recommendations are given about actions to be taken in order to maintain a long lifetime for the fine water systems.

Jackson, P.O.; Abrahamsson, B.; Gustavsson, D.; Igetoft, L.

1997-04-01

209

Polk power station syngas cooling system  

SciTech Connect

Tampa Electric Company (TEC) is in the site development and construction phase of the new Polk Power Station Unit No. 1. This will be the first unit at a new site and will use Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Technology. The unit will utilize Texaco`s oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasification, along with combined cycle power generation, to produce nominal 260MW. Integral to the gasification process is the syngas cooling system. The design, integration, fabrication, transportation, and erection of this equipment have provided and continue to provide major challenges for this project.

Jenkins, S.D.

1995-01-01

210

Integrated exhaust gas recirculation and charge cooling system  

DOEpatents

An intake system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger configured to deliver compressed intake charge, comprising exhaust gas from the exhaust system and ambient air, through an intake charge conduit and to cylinders of the internal combustion engine. An intake charge cooler is in fluid communication with the intake charge conduit. A cooling system, independent of the cooling system for the internal combustion engine, is in fluid communication with the intake charge cooler through a cooling system conduit. A coolant pump delivers a low temperature cooling medium from the cooling system to and through the intake charge cooler for the transfer of heat from the compressed intake charge thereto. A low temperature cooler receives the heated cooling medium through the cooling system conduit for the transfer or heat therefrom.

Wu, Ko-Jen

2013-12-10

211

Angular Distribution Models for Top-of-Atmosphere Radiative Flux Estimation from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Instrument on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Satellite. Part I: Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) investigates the critical role that clouds and aerosols play in modulating the radiative energy flow within the Earth-atmosphere system. CERES builds upon the foundation laid by previous missions, such as the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment, to provide highly accurate top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes together with coincident cloud and aerosol properties inferred from

Norman G. Loeb; Natividad Manalo-Smith; Seiji Kato; Walter F. Miller; Shashi K. Gupta; Patrick Minnis; Bruce A. Wielicki

2003-01-01

212

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document. Volume 3; Cloud Analyses and Determination of Improved Top of Atmosphere Fluxes (Subsystem 4)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The theoretical bases for the Release 1 algorithms that will be used to process satellite data for investigation of the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) are described. The architecture for software implementation of the methodologies is outlined. Volume 3 details the advanced CERES methods for performing scene identification and inverting each CERES scanner radiance to a top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) flux. CERES determines cloud fraction, height, phase, effective particle size, layering, and thickness from high-resolution, multispectral imager data. CERES derives cloud properties for each pixel of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) visible and infrared scanner and the Earth Observing System (EOS) moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer. Cloud properties for each imager pixel are convolved with the CERES footprint point spread function to produce average cloud properties for each CERES scanner radiance. The mean cloud properties are used to determine an angular distribution model (ADM) to convert each CERES radiance to a TOA flux. The TOA fluxes are used in simple parameterization to derive surface radiative fluxes. This state-of-the-art cloud-radiation product will be used to substantially improve our understanding of the complex relationship between clouds and the radiation budget of the Earth-atmosphere system.

1995-01-01

213

Optimized cooling systems for semiconductor devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The straightforward air cooling of semiconductor devices has gradually been replaced by methods using liquid coolants, especially water cooling. In the work described, more efficient cooling devices than those already existing for hockey-puck and module type semiconductors are suggested. An existing heat sink made of aluminium nitride for the water-cooling of hockey-puck type semiconductors has been used as a basis

H. Baumann; P. Heinemeyer; W. Staiger; M. Topfer; K. Unger; D. Muller

1998-01-01

214

Phasing of Debuncher Stochastic Cooling Transverse Systems  

SciTech Connect

With the higher frequency of the cooling systems in the Debuncher, a modified method of making transfer functions has been developed for transverse systems. (Measuring of the momentum systems is unchanged.) Speed in making the measurements is critical, as the beam tends to decelerate due to vacuum lifetime. In the 4-8 GHz band, the harmonics in the Debuncher are 6,700 to 13,400 times the revolution frequency. Every Hertz change in revolution frequency is multiplied by this harmonic number and becomes a frequency measurement error, which is an appreciable percent of the momentum width of the beam. It was originally thought that a momentum cooling system would be phased first so that the beam could be kept from drifting in revolution frequency. As it turned out, the momentum cooling was so effective (even with the gain turned down) that the momentum width normalized to fo became less than one Hertz on the Schottky pickup. A beam this narrow requires very precise measurement of tune and revolution frequency. It was difficult to get repeatable results. For initial measuring of the transverse arrays, relative phase and delay is all that is required, so the measurement settings outlined below will suffice. Once all input and output arrays are phased, a more precise measurement of all pickups to all kickers can be done with more points and both upper and lower side bands, as in figure 1. Settings on the network analyzer were adjusted for maximum measurement speed. Data is not analyzed until a complete set of measurements is taken. Start and stop frequencies should be chosen to be just slightly wider than the band being measured. For transverse systems, select betatron USB for the measurement type. This will make the measurement two times faster. Select 101 for the number of points, sweep time of 5 seconds, IF bandwidth 30 Hz, averages = 1. It is important during the phasing to continually measure the revolution frequency and beam width of the beam for transverse systems. Beam width is defined as the 3 dB bandwidth of the momentum Schottky divided by 127 (the harmonic of the Schottky pickup in the Debuncher.) Every three to five minutes, the beam drifts enough to make a significant change in the data. Knowing the revolution frequency and beam width to 0.5 Hz is important. If the beam width exceeds 10 Hz, the quality of the measurement will be impaired. Large beam widths can be caused by excessive forward proton beam current. There are also signs that the front-end amplifiers saturate with beam currents above several hundred microamps. The cooling systems were designed to be very sensitive, (that's why the front end is at liquid helium temperature) so a hundred microamps will go a long way. It should be possible to phase the systems with Pbars as a signal to noise ratio of 30 dB was observed with 100 microamps of beam current.

Pasquinelli, Ralph; /Fermilab

2000-03-09

215

Coloration Determination of Spectral Darkening Occurring on a Broadband Earth Observing Radiometer: Application to Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is estimated that in order to best detect real changes in the Earth s climate system, space based instrumentation measuring the Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) must remain calibrated with a stability of 0.3% per decade. Such stability is beyond the specified accuracy of existing ERB programs such as the Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES, using three broadband radiometric scanning channels: the shortwave 0.3 - 5microns, total 0.3. > 100microns, and window 8 - 12microns). It has been shown that when in low earth orbit, optical response to blue/UV radiance can be reduced significantly due to UV hardened contaminants deposited on the surface of the optics. Since typical onboard calibration lamps do not emit sufficient energy in the blue/UV region, this darkening is not directly measurable using standard internal calibration techniques. This paper describes a study using a model of contaminant deposition and darkening, in conjunction with in-flight vicarious calibration techniques, to derive the spectral shape of darkening to which a broadband instrument is subjected. Ultimately the model uses the reflectivity of Deep Convective Clouds as a stability metric. The results of the model when applied to the CERES instruments on board the EOS Terra satellite are shown. Given comprehensive validation of the model, these results will allow the CERES spectral responses to be updated accordingly prior to any forthcoming data release in an attempt to reach the optimum stability target that the climate community requires.

Matthews, Grant; Priestley, Kory; Loeb, Norman G.; Loukachine, Konstantin; Thomas, Susan; Walikainen, Dale; Wielicki, Bruce A.

2006-01-01

216

Passive cooling system for nuclear reactor containment structure  

DOEpatents

A passive cooling system for the contaminant structure of a nuclear reactor plant providing protection against overpressure within the containment attributable to inadvertent leakage or rupture of the system components. The cooling system utilizes natural convection for transferring heat imbalances and enables the discharge of irradiation free thermal energy to the atmosphere for heat disposal from the system.

Gou, Perng-Fei (Saratoga, CA); Wade, Gentry E. (Saratoga, CA)

1989-01-01

217

Natural circulating passive cooling system for nuclear reactor containment structure  

DOEpatents

A passive cooling system for the contaminant structure of a nuclear reactor plant providing protection against overpressure within the containment attributable to inadvertent leakage or rupture of the system components. The cooling system utilizes natural convection for transferring heat imbalances and enables the discharge of irradiation free thermal energy to the atmosphere for heat disposal from the system.

Gou, Perng-Fei (Saratoga, CA); Wade, Gentry E. (Saratoga, CA)

1990-01-01

218

Angular Distribution Models for Top-of-Atmosphere Radiative Flux Estimation from the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System Instrument on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Satellite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes from ,the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) are estimated by applying empirical Angular Distribution Models (ADMs) that convert instantaneous radiance measurements to TOA fluxes. This paper evaluates the accuracy of CERES TOA fluxes from ,a new ,set of ADMs ,developed ,for the CERES instrument on board ,the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM).

Norman G. Loeb; Konstantin Loukachine; Natividad Manalo-smith; Bruce A. Wielicki; David F. Young

219

An objective method for screening and selecting personal cooling systems based on cooling properties.  

PubMed

A method is proposed for evaluation and selection of a personal cooling system (PCS) incorporating PCS, subject, and equipment weights; PCS run time; user task time; PCS cooling power; and average metabolic rate. The cooling effectiveness method presented is derived from first principles and allows those who select PCSs for specific applications to compare systems based on their projected use. This can lower testing costs by screening for the most applicable system. Methods to predict cooling power of PCSs are presented and are compared to data taken through standard manikin testing. The cooling effectiveness ranking is presented and validated against human subject test data. The proposed method provides significant insight into the application of PCS on humans. However, the interaction a humans with a PCS is complex, especially considering the range of clothing ensembles, physiological issues, and end use scenarios, and requires additional analysis. PMID:25683529

Elson, John; Eckels, Steve

2015-05-01

220

Estimate of Top-of-Atmosphere Albedo for a Molecular Atmosphere over Ocean using Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The shortwave broadband albedo at the top of a molecular atmosphere over ocean between 40deg N and 40deg S is estimated using radiance measurements from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument and the Visible Infrared Scanner (VIRS) aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. The albedo monotonically increases from 0.059 at a solar zenith angle of 10deg to 0.107 at a solar zenith angle of 60deg. The estimated uncertainty in the albedo is 3.5 x 10(exp -3) caused by the uncertainty in CERES-derived irradiances, uncertainty in VIRS-derived aerosol optical thicknesses, variations in ozone and water vapor, and variations in surface wind speed. The estimated uncertainty is similar in magnitude to the standard deviation of 0.003 that is derived from 72 areas divided by 20deg latitude by 20deg longitude grid boxes. The empirically estimated albedo is compared with the modeled albedo using a radiative transfer model combined with an ocean surface bidirectional reflectivity model. The modeled albedo with standard tropical atmosphere is 0.061 and 0.111 at the solar zenith angles of 10deg and 60deg, respectively. This empirically estimated albedo can be used to estimate the direct radiative effect of aerosols at the top of the atmosphere over oceans.

Kato, S.; Loeb, N. G.; Rutledge, C. K.

2002-01-01

221

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) algorithm theoretical basis document. volume 2; Geolocation, calibration, and ERBE-like analyses (subsystems 1-3)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The theoretical bases for the Release 1 algorithms that will be used to process satellite data for investigation of the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) are described. The architecture for software implementation of the methodologies is outlined. Volume 2 details the techniques used to geolocate and calibrate the CERES scanning radiometer measurements of shortwave and longwave radiance to invert the radiances to top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) and surface fluxes following the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) approach, and to average the fluxes over various time and spatial scales to produce an ERBE-like product. Spacecraft ephemeris and sensor telemetry are used with calibration coefficients to produce a chronologically ordered data product called bidirectional scan (BDS) radiances. A spatially organized instrument Earth scan product is developed for the cloud-processing subsystem. The ERBE-like inversion subsystem converts BDS radiances to unfiltered instantaneous TOA and surface fluxes. The TOA fluxes are determined by using established ERBE techniques. Hourly TOA fluxes are computed from the instantaneous values by using ERBE methods. Hourly surface fluxes are estimated from TOA fluxes by using simple parameterizations based on recent research. The averaging process produces daily, monthly-hourly, and monthly means of TOA and surface fluxes at various scales. This product provides a continuation of the ERBE record.

Wielicki, B. A. (Principal Investigator); Barkstrom, B. R. (Principal Investigator); Charlock, T. P.; Baum, B. A.; Green, R. N.; Minnis, P.; Smith, G. L.; Coakley, J. A.; Randall, D. R.; Lee, R. B., III

1995-01-01

222

Design guidelines for spot cooling systems: Part 2. Cooling jet-model and design procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

In part one of this paper, it was pointed out that a knowledge of the cooling jet performance is required to allow the designer of the spot cooling system to integrate the jet properties at its outlet (D \\/SUB o\\/ , V \\/SUB o\\/ , T \\/SUB o\\/ and P \\/SUB o\\/ or rh \\/SUB o\\/ ) with the air

Azer

1982-01-01

223

On-orbit solar calibration methods using the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) in-flight calibration system: lessons learned  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) scanning thermistor bolometers measure earth-reflected solar and earth-emitted long-wave radiances, at the top- of-the-atmosphere. The bolometers measure the earth radiances in the broadband shortwave solar (0.3-5.0 microns) and total (0.3->100 microns) spectral bands as well as in the 8->12 microns water vapor window spectral band over geographical footprints as small as 10 kilometers at nadir. December 1999, the second and third set of CERES bolometers was launched on the Earth Observing Mission Terra Spacecraft. May 2003, the fourth and fifth set of bolometers was launched on the Earth Observing Mission Aqua Spacecraft. Recently, (October 2011) the sixth instrument was launched on the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System Preparatory Project (Suomi NPP) Spacecraft. Ground vacuum calibrations define the initial count conversion coefficients that are used to convert the bolometer output voltages into filtered earth radiances. The mirror attenuator mosaic (MAM), a solar diffuser plate, was built into the CERES instrument package calibration system in order to define on-orbit shifts or drifts in the sensor responses. It followed a similar design as the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanners with improvements from lessons learned. The shortwave and shortwave part of the total-wave sensors are calibrated using the solar radiances reflected from the MAM's. Each MAM consists of baffle-solar diffuser plate systems, which guide incoming solar radiances into the instrument fields of view of the shortwave and total wave sensor units. The MAM diffuser reflecting type surface consists of an array of spherical aluminum mirror segments, which are separated by a Merck Black A absorbing surface, over-coated with SIOx (SIO2 for PFM). Thermistors are located within each MAM plate and the total channel baffle. The CERES MAM is designed to yield calibration precisions approaching .5 percent for the total and shortwave detectors. The Terra FM1 and FM2 shortwave channels and the FM1 and FM2 total channels MAM calibration systems showed shifts in their solar calibrations of 1.5, 2.5, 1.5 and 6 percent, respectively within the first year. The Aqua FM3, and FM4 shortwave channels and the FM3 and FM4 total channels MAM calibration systems showed shifts in their solar calibrations of 1.0, 1.2, 2.1 and .8 percent, respectively within the first year. A possible explanation has attributed the MAM reflectance change to on-orbit solar ultraviolet/atomic oxygen/out-gassing induced chemical changes to the SIOx coated MAM assembly during ram and solar exposure. There is also changes to the sensor telescope shortwave filters as well as the Total channel mirrors and/or sensors. The Soumi NPP FM5 is still after 2.5 years displaying a stability of less than .5 percent. In this presentation, lessons learned from the ERBE MAM and application of knowledge of how the space environment affected the CERES FM1-4 solar calibrations will be presented along with on-orbit measurements for the thirteen years the CERES instruments have been on-orbit.

Wilson, Robert S.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Hess, Phillip; Shankar, Mohan; Smith, Nathaniel; Szewczyk, Peter

2013-09-01

224

Potential of solar cooling systems for peak demand reduction  

SciTech Connect

We investigated the technical feasibility of solar cooling for peak demand reduction using a building energy simulation program (DOE2.1D). The system studied was an absorption cooling system with a thermal coefficient of performance of 0.8 driven by a solar collector system with an efficiency of 50% with no thermal storage. The analysis for three different climates showed that, on the day with peak cooling load, about 17% of the peak load could be met satisfactorily with the solar-assisted cooling system without any thermal storage. A performance availability analysis indicated that the solar cooling system should be designed for lower amounts of available solar resources that coincide with the hours during which peak demand reduction is required. The analysis indicated that in dry climates, direct-normal concentrating collectors work well for solar cooling; however, in humid climates, collectors that absorb diffuse radiation work better.

Pesaran, A.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Neymark, J. [Neymark (Joel), Golden, CO (United States)] [Neymark (Joel), Golden, CO (United States)

1994-11-01

225

Prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eight prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems are being developed. The effort includes development, manufacture, test, installation, maintenance, problem resolution, and performance evaluation.

1977-01-01

226

Prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eight prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems are considered. This effort includes development, manufacture, test, installation, maintenance, problem resolution, and performance evaluation.

1976-01-01

227

S'COOL Tutorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial provides detailed information about the importance of ground truth measurements for investigative science and various cloud properties. CERES measurements contribute to our understanding of the interaction between clouds and solar energy, the most significant factor controlling our climate. Studentsâ Cloud Observations On-Line (S'COOL) is a K-12 educational outreach effort of Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), a NASA instrument that observes Earth from space. S'COOL involves students in making ground truth observations of clouds for comparison with satellite data. S'COOL involves four basic steps, which are explained in the tutorial: determining satellite overpass time, observing cloud properties, transmitting results to NASA, and comparing results with satellite-retrieved properties.

2003-01-01

228

Solar space heating and cooling by selective use of the components of a desiccant cooling system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The economic advantages of by-passing various components of a desiccant cooling system under conditions not requiring their use are estimated by evaluating the annual costs of heating and cooling a commercial building in three representative U.S. cities. Life-cycle costs of systems employing solar heat for space heating and desiccant regeneration are compared with those using electric heat. The costs of purchasing and operating heating and desiccant cooling systems, with and without solar heat supply, are compared with those employing conventional heating and vapor compression cooling. The conditions under which commercial buildings can be cooled with desiccant systems at costs competitive with conventional systems are identified. A commercially available vapor compression air conditioner is used as a standard of comparison for energy consumption and room comfort. Heating and cooling requirements of the building are determined by use of the BLAST computer model in a simulation of long term system operation. Performance of the desiccant cooling system and life cycle savings obtained by its use are determined by simulation employing the TRNSYS computer model. TRNSYS compatible subroutines are developed to simulate operation of the desiccant equipment, the building, and the controllers that operate and monitor the system components. The results are presented in tabular and graphical form. This study shows that in the widely different climates represented in Los Angeles, New York, and Miami, by-passing various components in the desiccant cooling system when they are not needed is economically advantageous. Operation cost of the complete system decreased by 47.3% in Los Angeles, by 30.9% in New York City, and by 23.9% in Miami by not operating the desiccant wheel and other elements. The ventilation desiccant cooling system has major economic advantage over conventional systems under conditions of moderate humidity, as in Los Angeles and New York City. In Miami, however, the thermal energy needed for desiccant cooling is three to four times greater than that for Los Angeles and New York, so the desiccant system is not a competitive option in hot, humid climates. Life cycle savings in the three locations show that operation of the desiccant cooling and heating system with solar energy is more costly than with conventional energy at 1996 prices. Solar energy would become competitive, however, if annual electric energy inflation rates exceed 10 percent.

Abbud, Ihsan Aladdin

229

Optimized Design of a Furnace Cooling System  

E-print Network

This paper presents a case study of manufacturing furnace optimized re-design. The bottleneck in the production process is the cooling of heat treatment furnaces. These ovens are on an approximate 24-hour cycle, heating for 12 hours and cooling...

Morelli, F.; Bretschneider, R.; Dauzat, J.; Guymon, M.; Studebaker, J.; Rasmussen, B. P.

2013-01-01

230

Modified blanket cooling manifold system for ITER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modular ITER shielding blanket is the innermost part of the reactor directly exposed to the plasma. Its high thermal and nuclear loaded blanket modules (BMs) are water-cooled components. The cooling water is supplied to the BMs by a set of stiff inlet and outlet manifolds mechanically attached to the inner wall of vacuum vessel (VV). The ITER reference design

A. Furmanek; P. Lorenzetto; C. Damiani

2009-01-01

231

Debris trap in a turbine cooling system  

DOEpatents

In a turbine having a rotor and a plurality of stages, each stage comprising a row of buckets mounted on the rotor for rotation therewith; and wherein the buckets of at least one of the stages are cooled by steam, the improvement comprising at least one axially extending cooling steam supply conduit communicating with an at least partially annular steam supply manifold; one or more axially extending cooling steam feed tubes connected to the manifold at a location radially outwardly of the cooling steam supply conduit, the feed tubes arranged to supply cooling steam to the buckets of at least one of the plurality of stages; the manifold extending radially beyond the feed tubes to thereby create a debris trap region for collecting debris under centrifugal loading caused by rotation of the rotor.

Wilson, Ian David (Clifton Park, NY)

2002-01-01

232

Preliminary design activities for solar heating and cooling systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information on the development of solar heating and cooling systems is presented. The major emphasis is placed on program organization, system size definition, site identification, system approaches, heat pump and equipment design, collector procurement, and other preliminary design activities.

1978-01-01

233

Analyses of On-orbit Determinations of the Clouds and the Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) Thermistor Bolometer Sensor Zero-radiance Effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) missions were designed to measure broadband earth-reflected shortwave solar (0.3 micrometers to less than 5.0 micrometers) and earth-emitted longwave (5.0 micrometers to greater than 100 micrometers) radiances as well as earth-emitted narrow-band radiances in the water vapor window region between 8 micrometers and 12 micrometers. However, the CERES scanning thermistor bolometer sensor zero-radiance offsets were found to vary as much as 1.0 Wm (exp -2) sr (exp -1) with the scan angle measurement geometry due to gravitational forces and systematic electronic noise. To minimize the gravitational effects, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Spacecraft CERES sensors' offsets were derived on-orbit as functions of scan elevation and azimuth angles from the January 7-8, 1998 radiometric observations of deep cold space, representative of a 3 K blackbody. In this paper, the TRMM/CERES six orbit data base of on-orbit derived offsets is presented and analyzed to define the sampling requirements for the CERES sensors located on the Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) Terra Spacecraft and on the Earth Observing System (EOS) Afternoon (PM-1) Spacecraft, scheduled for launches in 1999 and 2000, respectively. Analyses of the TRMM/CERES shortwave sensor earth radiance measurements indicate that offsets can be determined on-orbit at the plus or minus 0.02 Wm (exp -2) sr (exp -1) precision level. Offset measuring techniques and sampling requirements are discussed for the TRMM and ESE missions. Ground, pre-launch Terra CERES cross-track scan offsets are presented and described which were measured as a function of scan angle.

Lee, Robert B., III; Thomas, Susan; Priestley, Kory J.; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Smith, G. Louis; Al-hajjah, Aiman; Wilson, Robert S.

1999-01-01

234

On-orbit stability and performance of the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument sensors onboard the Aqua and Terra Spacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments onboard the Terra and Aqua spacecraft are part of the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) constellation to make long-term observations of the earth. CERES measures the earth-reflected shortwave energy as well as the earth-emitted thermal energy, which are two components of the earth's radiation energy budget. These measurements are made by five instruments- Flight Models (FM) 1 and 2 onboard Terra, FMs 3 and 4 onboard Aqua and FM5 onboard Suomi NPP. Each instrument comprises three sensors that measure the radiances in different wavelength bands- a shortwave sensor that measures in the 0.3 to 5 micron band, a total sensor that measures all the incident energy (0.3-200 microns) and a window sensor that measures the water-vapor window region of 8 to 12 microns. The stability of the sensors is monitored through on-orbit calibration and validation activities. On-orbit calibration is carried out using the Internal Calibration Module (ICM) that consists of a tungsten lamp, blackbodies, and a solar diffuser known as the Mirror Attenuator Mosaic (MAM). The ICM calibration provides information about the stability of the sensors' broadband radiometric gains on-orbit. Several validation studies are conducted in order to monitor the behavior of the instruments in various spectral bands. The CERES Edition-4 data products for FM1-FM4 incorporate the latest corrections to the sensor responses using the calibration techniques. In this paper, we present the on-orbit performance stability as well as some validation studies used in deriving the CERES Edition-4 data products from all four instruments.

Shankar, Mohan; Priestley, Kory; Smith, Nitchie; Thomas, Susan; Walikainen, Dale

2014-09-01

235

Performance Testing of Radiant Barriers  

E-print Network

TVA has conducted a study to determine the effects of radiant barriers (RBI (i.e., material with a low emissivity surface facing an air space), when used with fiberglass, on attic heat transfer during summer and winter. This study employed five...

Hall, J. A.

1986-01-01

236

Results from a scaled reactor cavity cooling system with water at steady state  

SciTech Connect

We present a summary of steady-state experiments performed with a scaled, water-cooled Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) at the Univ. of Wisconsin - Madison. The RCCS concept is used for passive decay heat removal in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) design and was based on open literature of the GA-MHTGR, HTR-10 and AVR reactor. The RCCS is a 1/4 scale model of the full scale prototype system, with a 7.6 m structure housing, a 5 m tall test section, and 1,200 liter water storage tank. Radiant heaters impose a heat flux onto a three riser tube test section, representing a 5 deg. radial sector of the actual 360 deg. RCCS design. The maximum heat flux and power levels are 25 kW/m{sup 2} and 42.5 kW, and can be configured for variable, axial, or radial power profiles to simulate prototypic conditions. Experimental results yielded measurements of local surface temperatures, internal water temperatures, volumetric flow rates, and pressure drop along the test section and into the water storage tank. The majority of the tests achieved a steady state condition while remaining single-phase. A selected number of experiments were allowed to reach saturation and subsequently two-phase flow. RELAP5 simulations with the experimental data have been refined during test facility development and separate effects validation of the experimental facility. This test series represents the completion of our steady-state testing, with future experiments investigating normal and off-normal accident scenarios with two-phase flow effects. The ultimate goal of the project is to combine experimental data from UW - Madison, UI, ANL, and Texas A and M, with system model simulations to ascertain the feasibility of the RCCS as a successful long-term heat removal system during accident scenarios for the NGNP. (authors)

Lisowski, D. D. [Univ. of Wisconsin - Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Albiston, S. M.; Tokuhiro, A. [Univ. of Idaho - Moscow, Moscow, ID 83843 (United States); Anderson, M. H.; Corradini, M. L. [Univ. of Wisconsin - Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

2012-07-01

237

THERMAL ANALYSIS OF A COOLING SYSTEM USING FORCED CONVECTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is the thermal analysis of a cooling system for a High Power Traveling Wave Tube Amplifier by using forced convection. This cooling system is an integrated part of an Electronic Warfare (EW) suite in The Royal Norwegian Air Force's EW training aircraft. The analysis uses MSC\\/PATRAN for modeling and MSC\\/NASTRAN for the thermal analysis. Later

Jan Rune Nilssen

238

Solar heating and cooling systems design and development. [prototype development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of twelve prototype solar heating/cooling systems, six heating and six heating and cooling systems, two each for single family, multi-family, and commercial applications, is reported. Schedules and technical discussions, along with illustrations on the progress made from April 1, 1977 through June 30, 1977 are detailed.

1977-01-01

239

COOLING FAN AND SYSTEM PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upcoming emissions regulations (Tiers 3, 4a and 4b) are imposing significantly higher heat loads on the cooling system than lesser regulated machines. This work was a suite of tasks aimed at reducing the parasitic losses of the cooling system, or improving the design process through six distinct tasks: 1. Develop an axial fan that will provide more airflow, with less

Ronald Dupree

2005-01-01

240

The MANX Muon Cooling Experiment Detection System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MANX experiment is being proposed to demonstrate the reduction of 6D muon phase space emittance, using a continuous liquid absorber to provide ionization cooling in a helical solenoid magnetic channel. The experiment involves the construction of a two-period-long helical cooling channel (HCC) to reduce the muon invariant emittance by a factor of two. The HCC would replace the current cooling section of the MICE experiment now being set up at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. The MANX experiment would use the existing MICE spectrometers and muon beam line. We discuss the placement of detection planes to optimize the muon track resolution.

Kahn, S. A.; Abrams, R. J.; Ankenbrandt, C.; Cummings, M. A. C.; Johnson, R. P.; Robertsa, T. J.; Yoneharab, K.

2010-03-01

241

Cooling System Using Natural Circulation for Air Conditioning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, Cooling systems with natural circulation loop of refrigerants are reviewed. The cooling system can largely reduce energy consumption of a cooling system for the telecommunication base site. The cooling system consists of two refrigeration units; vapor compression refrigeration unit and sub-cooling unit with a natural-circulation loop. The experiments and calculations were carried out to evaluate the cycle performance of natural circulation loop with HFCs and CO2. The experimental results showed that the cooling capacity of R410A is approximately 30% larger than that of R407C at the temperature difference of 20K and the cooling capacity of CO2 was approximately 4-13% larger than that of R410A under the two-phase condition. On the other hand, the cooling capacity of CO2 was approximately 11% smaller than that of R410A under the supercritical condition. The cooling capacity took a maximum value at an amount of refrigerant and lineally increased as the temperature difference increases and the slightly increased as the height difference. The air intake temperature profile in the inlet of the heat exchangers makes the reverse circulation under the supercritical state and the driving head difference for the reverse circulation depends on the density change to temperature under the supercritical state. Also, a new fan control method to convert the reverse circulation into the normal circulation was reviewed.

Okazaki, Takashi; Seshimo, Yu

242

Improvement in Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System/Surface and Atmosphere Radiation Budget Dust Aerosol Properties, Effects on Surface Validation of Clouds and Radiative Swath  

SciTech Connect

Within the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) science team (Wielicki et al. 1996), the Surface and Atmospheric Radiation Budget (SARB) group is tasked with calculating vertical profiles of heating rates, globally, and continuously, beneath CERES footprint observations of Top of Atmosphere (TOA) fluxes. This is accomplished using a fast radiative transfer code originally developed by Qiang Fu and Kuo-Nan Liou (Fu and Liou 1993) and subsequently highly modified by the SARB team. Details on the code and its inputs can be found in Kato et al. (2005) and Rose and Charlock (2002). Among the many required inputs is characterization of the vertical column profile of aerosols beneath each footprint. To do this SARB combines aerosol optical depth information from the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument along with aerosol constituents specified by the Model for Atmosphere and Chemical Transport (MATCH) of Collins et al. (2001), and aerosol properties (e.g. single scatter albedo and asymmetry parameter) from Tegen and Lacis (1996) and OPAC (Hess et al. 1998). The publicly available files that include these flux profiles, called the Clouds and Radiative Swath (CRS) data product, available from the Langley Atmospheric Sciences Data Center (http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/). As various versions of the code are completed, publishable results are named ''Editions.'' After CRS Edition 2A was finalized it was found that dust aerosols were too absorptive. Dust aerosols have subsequently been modified using a new set of properties developed by Andy Lacis and results have been released in CRS Edition 2B. This paper discusses the effects of changing desert dust aerosol properties, which can be significant for the radiation budget in mid ocean, a few thousand kilometers from the source regions. Resulting changes are validated via comparison of surface observed fluxes from the Saudi Solar Village surface site (Myers et al. 1999), and the E13 site at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM), Southern Great Plains (SGP) central facility.

Rutan, D.; Rose, F.; Charlock, T.P.

2005-03-18

243

Status and Operations at the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Ocean Validation Experiment (COVE) - Also a Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

25 km off the coast of Virginia, a lighthouse structure has been used for scientific measurements for over a decade. The CERES Ocean Validation Experiment (COVE) at Chesapeake Light is involved in several projects and networks. This report focuses on measurements and analysis made over the last 5 years at COVE. Being part of the BSRN network, most of the instruments at COVE are radiometers that measure both downwelling and upwelling flux at visible and infrared wavelengths. Basic meteorological parameters are also monitored. A table will show all the instrumentation and measurements being collected at COVE for the BSRN network as well as other data collections for aerosol, black carbon, total column water vapor and more. The initial motivation for COVE was to serve as a surface validation site for satellites. We compare modeled and actual downwelling shortwave and longwave measurements into 3 different sky scenarios (clear, partly cloudy and cloudy) over a number of years. Results show the best agreement for the clear sky model in both shortwave and longwave, with downwelling longwave correlating and having less mean bias than downwelling shortwave. COVE provides a wide range of measurements over an ocean environment with other examinations including aerosol studies, black carbon analysis and determination of spectral albedos from Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometers (MFRSRs). One example displays how we can use these studies and analysis to trace smoke over the COVE site and how it affects our measurements.Chesapeake Light. Home of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Ocean Validation Experiment (COVE) ` Location of Chesapeake Light. Home of COVE. 25 kilometers East of Virginia. Coordinates: 36.90 North, 75.71 West

Fabbri, B. E.; Schuster, G. L.; Denn, F. M.; Rutan, D. A.; Madigan, J. J.; Arduini, R. F.

2012-12-01

244

Biofilm formation in water cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofilm formation on stainless steel samples immersed in cooling water has been evaluated by exposing metal samples to cooling seawater for 30 days. Anaerobic bacteria were then at 1.6 × 106\\/cm2, with sulphate-reducing species predominating. Aerobic bacteria and fungi were 2600 and 140\\/cm2, respectively. After 60 days, numbers of aerobic microorganisms remained constant whereas the count of anaerobic microorganisms had

M. T. S. Lutterbach; F. P. França

1996-01-01

245

A hemolysis study of an intravascular blood cooling system for localized organ tissue cooling.  

PubMed

Therapeutic hypothermia can reduce both ischemic and reperfusion injury arising after strokes and heart attacks. New localized organ cooling systems offer a way to reduce tissue damage more effectively with fewer side effects. To assess initial blood safety of our new organ cooling system, the CoolGuide Cooling System (CCS), we investigated safe operating conditions and configurations from a hemolysis perspective. The CCS consists of a peristaltic pump, a custom-built external heat exchanger, a chiller, biocompatible polyvinyl cellulose (PVC) tubing, and a control console. The CCS cools and circulates autologous blood externally and re-delivers cooled blood to the patient through a conventional catheter inserted directly into the organ at risk. Catheter configurations used included: a 7F guide catheter only, a 7F guide with a 0.038" wire inserted through the center and advanced 2 cm distal to the catheter distal tip, a 6F guide catheter only and a 6F guide with a 0.014" guidewire similarly inserted through the center. Using porcine blood, an in vitro test rig was used to measure the degree of hemolysis generation, defined as the percentage change in free hemoglobin, adjusted for total hemoglobin and hematocrit, between exiting and entering blood. The highest degree of hemolysis generation was 0.11±0.04%, based on the average behavior with a 6F catheter and a 0.014" guidewire configuration at a blood flow rate of approximately 130 mL/min. In terms of average percentage free hemoglobin exiting the system, based on total hemoglobin, the highest value measured was 0.17%±0.03%, using this 6F and 0.014" guidewire configuration. This result is significantly below the most stringent European guideline of 0.8% used for blood storage and transfusion. This study provides initial evidence showing hemolysis generation arising from the CoolGuide Cooling System is likely to be clinically insignificant. PMID:23047283

Merrill, T L; Mingin, T; Merrill, D R; Botbyl, J; Akers, J E

2013-01-01

246

Heat pump system with selective space cooling  

DOEpatents

A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve.

Pendergrass, Joseph C. (Gainesville, GA)

1997-01-01

247

Heat pump system with selective space cooling  

DOEpatents

A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve. 4 figs.

Pendergrass, J.C.

1997-05-13

248

Cooling systems for ultra-high temperature turbines.  

PubMed

This paper describes an introduction of research and development activities on steam cooling in gas turbines at elevated temperature of 1500 C and 1700 C level, partially including those on water cooling. Descriptions of a new cooling system that employs heat pipes are also made. From the view point of heat transfer, its promising applicability is shown with experimental data and engine performance numerical evaluation. PMID:11460628

Yoshida, T

2001-05-01

249

A portable personal cooling system for mine rescue operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design of a portable personal cooling system to reduce physiological stress in high-temperature, high-humidity conditions is discussed. The system, based on technology used in the thermal controls of space suits, employs a combination of head and thoracic insulation and cooling through a heat sink unit. Average metabolic rates, heart rates, rectal temperature increase and sweat loss were monitored for test subjects wearing various configurations of the cooling system, as well as for a control group. The various arrangements of the cooling garment were found to provide significant physiological benefits; however, increases in heat transfer rate of the cooling unit and more effective insulation are suggested to improve the system's function.

Webbon, B.; Williams, B.; Kirk, P.; Elkins, W.; Stein, R.

1977-01-01

250

Cooling system early-stage design tool for naval applications  

E-print Network

This thesis utilizes concepts taken from the NAVSEA Design Practices and Criteria Manualfor Surface Ship Freshwater Systems and other references to create a Cooling System Design Tool (CSDT). With the development of new ...

Fiedel, Ethan R

2011-01-01

251

Solar heating and cooling systems design and development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress in the development of prototype solar heating/cooling systems is reported. Results obtained from refinement/improvement of the single family, multifamily, and commercial systems configurations and generalized studies on several of the subsystems are presented.

1977-01-01

252

Solar heating and cooling technical data and systems analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research activities described herein were concentrated on the areas of economics, heating and cooling systems, architectural design, materials characteristics, climatic conditions, educational information packages, and evaluation of solar energy systems and components.

Christensen, D. L.

1977-01-01

253

Unsteady thermal performance analysis of a room with serial and parallel duct radiant floor heating system using hot airflow  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the unsteady thermal performance of a test room heated by circulating hot airflow under the floor was analyzed with a developed mathematical model based on heat transfer equilibrium among the air flow, the floor and the indoor air. The time variations in the indoor air temperature for the serial duct floor heating system were investigated theoretically and

O?uz Bozk?r; Suat Canbazo?lu

2004-01-01

254

Solar residential heating and cooling system development test program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar heating and cooling system is described, which was installed in a simulated home at Marshall Space Flight Center. Performance data are provided for the checkout and initial operational phase for key subsystems and for the total system. Valuable information was obtained with regard to operation of a solar cooling system during the first summer of operation. Areas where improvements and modifications are required to optimize such a system are discussed.

Humphries, W. R.; Melton, D. E.

1974-01-01

255

Improvement of Cooling Performance of a Compact Thermoelectric Air Conditioner Using a Direct Evaporative Cooling System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of tests carried out to investigate the potential application of a direct evaporative cooling (DEC) system for improving the performance of a compact thermoelectric (TE) air conditioner. The compact TE air conditioner is composed of three TE modules. The cold and hot sides of the TE modules were fixed to rectangular fin heat sinks. The DEC system produced cooling air that was used to assist the release of heat from the heat sinks at the hot side of the TE modules. The results showed that the cooling air dry bulb temperature from the DEC system achieved drops of about 5.9°C in parallel with about a 33.4% rise in relative humidity. The cooling efficiency of the DEC system varies between 72.1% and 81.5%. It increases the cooling capacity of the compact TE air conditioner from 53.0 W to 74.5 W. The 21.5 W (40.6%) increase represents the difference between the compact air conditioner operating with ambient air flowing through the TE module's heat sinks, and the compact air conditioner operating with the cooler air from the DEC system flowing through the TE module's heat sinks. In both scenarios, electric current of 4.5 A was supplied to the TE modules. It also has been experimentally proven that the coefficient of performance (COP) of the compact TE air conditioner can be improved by up to 20.9% by incorporating the DEC system.

Tipsaenporm, W.; Lertsatitthanakorn, C.; Bubphachot, B.; Rungsiyopas, M.; Soponronnarit, S.

2012-06-01

256

Closed loop air cooling system for combustion turbines  

DOEpatents

Convective cooling of turbine hot parts using a closed loop system is disclosed. Preferably, the present invention is applied to cooling the hot parts of combustion turbine power plants, and the cooling provided permits an increase in the inlet temperature and the concomitant benefits of increased efficiency and output. In preferred embodiments, methods and apparatus are disclosed wherein air is removed from the combustion turbine compressor and delivered to passages internal to one or more of a combustor and turbine hot parts. The air cools the combustor and turbine hot parts via convection and heat is transferred through the surfaces of the combustor and turbine hot parts. 1 fig.

Huber, D.J.; Briesch, M.S.

1998-07-21

257

Closed loop air cooling system for combustion turbines  

DOEpatents

Convective cooling of turbine hot parts using a closed loop system is disclosed. Preferably, the present invention is applied to cooling the hot parts of combustion turbine power plants, and the cooling provided permits an increase in the inlet temperature and the concomitant benefits of increased efficiency and output. In preferred embodiments, methods and apparatus are disclosed wherein air is removed from the combustion turbine compressor and delivered to passages internal to one or more of a combustor and turbine hot parts. The air cools the combustor and turbine hot parts via convection and heat is transferred through the surfaces of the combustor and turbine hot parts.

Huber, David John (North Canton, OH); Briesch, Michael Scot (Orlando, FL)

1998-01-01

258

Compact Solid State Cooling Systems: Compact MEMS Electrocaloric Module  

SciTech Connect

BEETIT Project: UCLA is developing a novel solid-state cooling technology to translate a recent scientific discovery of the so-called giant electrocaloric effect into commercially viable compact cooling systems. Traditional air conditioners use noisy, vapor compression systems that include a polluting liquid refrigerant to circulate within the air conditioner, absorb heat, and pump the heat out into the environment. Electrocaloric materials achieve the same result by heating up when placed within an electric field and cooling down when removed—effectively pumping heat out from a cooler to warmer environment. This electrocaloric-based solid state cooling system is quiet and does not use liquid refrigerants. The innovation includes developing nano-structured materials and reliable interfaces for heat exchange. With these innovations and advances in micro/nano-scale manufacturing technologies pioneered by semiconductor companies, UCLA is aiming to extend the performance/reliability of the cooling module.

None

2010-10-01

259

OPERATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF CLOSED CYCLE COOLING SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of a study of operational and environmental impacts of closed cooling systems, used for about a quarter of the nation's steam-electric generating capacity. Conclusions relating to operational impacts include: (1) closed cycle cooling leads to increased pow...

260

NPP Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Predicted Sensor Performance Calibration and Preliminary Data Product Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Continuation of the Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) Climate Data Record (CDR) has been identified as critical in the 2007 NRC Decadal Survey, the Global Climate Observing System WCRP report, and in an assessment titled Impacts of NPOESS Nunn-McCurdy Certification on Joint NASA-NOAA Climate Goals. In response, NASA, NOAA and NPOESS agreed in early 2008 to fly the final existing CERES Flight Model (FM-5) on the NPP spacecraft for launch in 2010. Future opportunities for ERB CDR continuity consist of procuring an additional CERES Sensor with modest performance upgrades for flight on the NPOESS C1 spacecraft in 2013, followed by a new CERES follow-on sensor for flight in 2018 on the NPOESS C3 spacecraft. While science goals remain unchanged for the long-term ERB Climate Data Record, it is now understood that the task of achieving these goals is more difficult for two reasons. The first is an increased understanding of the dynamics of the Earth/atmosphere system which demonstrates that rigorous separation of natural variability from anthropogenic change on decadal time scales requires higher accuracy and stability than originally envisioned. Secondly, future implementation scenarios involve less redundancy in flight hardware (1 vs. 2 orbits and operational sensors) resulting in higher risk of loss of continuity and reduced number of independent observations to characterize performance of individual sensors. Although EOS CERES CDR's realize a factor of 2 to 4 improvement in accuracy and stability over previous ERBE CDR's, future sensors will require an additional factor of 2 improvement to answer rigorously the science questions moving forward. Modest investments, defined through the CERES Science Team s 30-year operational history of the EOS CERES sensors, in onboard calibration hardware and pre-flight calibration and test program will ensure meeting these goals while reducing costs in re-processing scientific datasets. The CERES FM-5 pre-flight radiometric characterization program benefited from the 30-year operational experience of the CERES EOS sensors, as well as a stronger emphasis of radiometric characterization in the Statement of Work with the sensor provider. Improvements to the pre-flight program included increased spectral, spatial, and temporal sampling under vacuum conditions as well as additional tests to characterize the primary and transfer standards in the calibration facility. Future work will include collaboration with NIST to further enhance the understanding of the radiometric performance of this equipment prior to flight. The current effort summarizes these improvements to the CERES FM-5 pre-flight sensor characterization program, as well as modifications to inflight calibration procedures and operational tasking. In addition, an estimate of the impacts to the system level accuracy and traceability is presented.

Priestly, Kory; Smith, George L.; Thomas, Susan; Maddock, Suzanne L.

2009-01-01

261

Radiant-interchange Configuration Factors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study is presented of the geometric configuration factors required for computing radiant heat transfer between opaque surfaces separated by a nonabsorbing medium and various methods of determining the configuration factors are discussed. Configuration-factor solutions available in the literature have been checked and the more complicated equations are presented as families of curves. Cases for point, line, and finite-area sources are worked out over a wide range of geometric proportions. These cases include several new configurations involving rectangles, triangles, and cylinders of finite length which are integrated and tabulated. An analysis is presented, in which configuration factors are employed of the radiant heat transfer to the rotor blades of a typical gas turbine under different conditions of temperature and pressure. (author)

Hamilton, D C :; Morgan, W R

1952-01-01

262

Prototype solar heating and cooling systems, including potable hot water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress made in the development, delivery, and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water is reported. The system consists of the following subsystems: collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition. A comparison of the proposed Solaron Heat Pump and Solar Desiccant Heating and Cooling Systems, installation drawings, data on the Akron House at Akron, Ohio, and other program activities are included.

Bloomquist, D.; Oonk, R. L.

1977-01-01

263

Modelling an actively-cooled CPV system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have constructed a 7-node, 1-dimensional model of the heat flow in a water-cooled CPV receiver. The model is validated against data from a module exposed to solar irradiance at various concentrations up to 1,000X at the PETAL solar dish facility at Sede Boqer.

Buonomano, A.; Mittelman, G.; Faiman, D.; Biryukov, S.; Melnichak, V.; Bukobza, D.; Kabalo, S.

2012-10-01

264

Radiant Power Measuring Instrument (RPMI)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are no author-identified significant results in this report. The radiant power measuring instrument is a rugged, hand-carried instrument which provides an ERTS investigator with a capability of obtaining radiometric measurements needed to determine solar and atmospheric parameters that affect the ERTS radiance measurements. With these parameters, ERTS data can be transformed into absolute target reflectance signatures, making accurate unambiguous interpretations possible.

Rogers, R. H. (principal investigator)

1973-01-01

265

New Angular Distribution Models for Shortwave and Longwave Top-of-Atmosphere Radiative Flux Estimation From the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) provides highly accurate top-of-atmosphere (TOA) shortwave (SW), longwave (LW) and window (WN) radiance measurements and radiative flux estimates together with coincident cloud and aerosol properties inferred from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS). These data are needed to investigate the critical role that clouds and aerosols play in modulating the radiative energy flow within the Earth-atmosphere system. To estimate TOA fluxes from measured CERES radiances, one must account for the angular dependence in the radiance field, which is a strong function of the physical and optical characteristics of the scene (e.g. surface type, cloud fraction, cloud/aerosol optical depth, cloud phase), as well as the illumination angle. Because the CERES instrument can rotate in azimuth as it scans in elevation, it is acquires data over a wide range of angles. Consequently, one can construct angular distribution models (ADMs) for radiance-to-flux conversion from the CERES measurements. Furthermore, since CERES and MODIS are on the same spacecraft, the ADMs can be derived as a function of MODIS-based scene type parameters that have a strong influence on radiance anisotropy. This presentation provides a brief overview of the methodology and validation results for a new set of global CERES ADMs developed from two years of CERES measurements on the Terra spacecraft. The uncertainty in regional monthly mean SW and LW TOA fluxes from the new ADMs is less than 0.5 W m-2 based on comparisons with TOA fluxes evaluated by direct integration of the measured radiances. From multiangle CERES radiance measurements, instantaneous TOA flux errors are estimated to be < 10 W m-2 in the SW and < 3.5 W m-2 in the LW. Uncertainties in TOA fluxes from the new CERES ADMs are a factor of 2-5 smaller than those based on ADMs developed during the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The improved accuracy in the Terra radiative fluxes is essential in studies that examine radiative forcing by cloud type and studies that combine TOA fluxes with surface measurements from specific locations.

Loeb, N. G.; Kato, S.; Loukachine, K.; Manalo-Smith, N.

2003-12-01

266

Flight performance of radiant coolers onboard FengYun-2 satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The IR detectors of optical instruments onboard FengYun-2 (FY-2) meteorological satellites are cooled by passive radiant coolers (RC). The operation principles, characteristics and flight performance of the radiant coolers installed on four FengYun-2 satellites (FY-2C/D/E/F) are presented. The orbiting data from the four satellites (FY-2C/D/E/F) are tabulated and compared. It is concluded that the radiant coolers (FY-2E/F) can operate stably at 93 K in the sunshine and have a long service lifetime. The major technologies of FY-2 radiant coolers are mainly discussed in terms of thin-walled structure design and optical coating of the sun shield. The problem of contamination control in orbit is solved.

Zhang, Yulin; Zhou, Xiyan

2014-11-01

267

Technical grade paraffin waxes as phase change materials for cool thermal storage and cool storage systems capital cost estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper is confined to the discussion of technical grade paraffin waxes as phase change material (PCM) for cool storage and the cool storage systems capital cost investment. The objective of this study is to determine the potential for using cool storage systems. The thermal properties of technical grade paraffin waxes as PCM are investigated, and static and dynamic

Bo He; Fredrik Setterwall

2002-01-01

268

4.5 K Cooling System for a Cryogenically Cooled Probe for a 920 MHz NMR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The feasibility of closed-cycle 4.5 K cooling has been demonstrated for a cryogenically cooled probe for the world highest magnetic-field 920 MHz Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) operated at the National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), by means of the following model experiments. The cooling system with a cooling capacity of 4.55 W comprises a Gifford-McMahon (GM) cryocooler and two-stage expansion Joule-Thomson (J-T) circuit. Supercritical helium is produced by the 1st J-T valve, which is then liquefied by the 2nd J-T valve. Helium mist cools a cooling stage for the radio frequency (RF) coils. The NMR sensitivity improvement in terms of the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio of the 4.5 K probe is expected to be double of the conventionally used 20 K cryogenic probe, due to the reduction of the thermal noise of the RF coils.

Yokota, H.; Okamura, T.; Ohtani, Y.; Kuriyama, T.; Takahashi, M.; Horiuchi, T.; Kikuchi, J.; Yokoyama, S.; Maeda, H.

2004-06-01

269

76 FR 6551 - Medical Devices; General and Plastic Surgery Devices; Classification of Contact Cooling System...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Plastic Surgery Devices; Classification of Contact Cooling System for Aesthetic Use AGENCY...Administration (FDA) is classifying the contact cooling system for aesthetic use into...II Special Controls Guidance Document: Contact Cooling System for Aesthetic...

2011-02-07

270

30 CFR 36.47 - Tests of exhaust-gas cooling system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...performance of the system, the cooling water consumption, high-water level when the system sprays excess water, and low-water level when the cooling system fails. (c) The final exhaust-gas temperature at discharge from the cooling...

2010-07-01

271

A model for radionuclide transport in the Cooling Water System  

SciTech Connect

A radionuclide transport model developed to assess radiological levels in the K-reactor Cooling Water System (CWS) in the event of an inadvertent process water (PW) leakage to the cooling water (CW) in the heat exchangers (HX) is described. During and following a process water leak, the radionuclide transport model determines the time-dependent release rates of radionuclide from the cooling water system to the environment via evaporation to the atmosphere and blow-down to the Savannah River. The developed model allows for delay times associated with the transport of the cooling water radioactivity through cooling water system components. Additionally, this model simulates the time-dependent behavior of radionuclides levels in various CWS components. The developed model is incorporated into the K-reactor Cooling Tower Activity (KCTA) code. KCTA allows the accident (heat exchanger leak rate) and the cooling tower blow-down and evaporation rates to be described as time-dependent functions. Thus, the postulated leak and the consequence of the assumed leak can be modelled realistically. This model is the first of three models to be ultimately assembled to form a comprehensive Liquid Pathway Activity System (LPAS). LPAS will offer integrated formation, transport, deposition, and release estimates for radionuclides formed in a SRS facility. Process water and river water modules are forthcoming as input and downstream components, respectively, for KCTA.

Kahook, S.D.

1992-08-01

272

CONTAINMENT SYSTEM, SPRAY CHAMBER, LOOKING NORTH WITH MIST COOLING MOLTEN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CONTAINMENT SYSTEM, SPRAY CHAMBER, LOOKING NORTH WITH MIST COOLING MOLTEN STEEL SLABS AS THEY PROGRESS THROUGH THIS CHAMBER. - U.S. Steel, Fairfield Works, Continuous Caster, Fairfield, Jefferson County, AL

273

A Semi-Passive Containment Cooling System Conceptual Design  

E-print Network

The objective of this project was to investigate a passive containment cooling system (PCCS) for the double concrete containment of the Korean Next Generation Reactor (KNGR). Two conceptual PCCS designs: the thermosyphon ...

Liu, H.

274

2. VIEW SOUTH OF WIND TUNNEL 138 AND COOLING SYSTEM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW SOUTH OF WIND TUNNEL 138 AND COOLING SYSTEM 140, NORTH ELEVATION - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Subsonic Wind Tunnel Building, Bounded by Clara Barton Parkway & McArthur Boulevard, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

275

Cooling system for three hook ring segment  

DOEpatents

A triple hook ring segment including forward, midsection and aft mounting hooks for engagement with respective hangers formed on a ring segment carrier for supporting a ring segment panel, and defining a forward high pressure chamber and an aft low pressure chamber on opposing sides of the midsection mounting hook. An isolation plate is provided on the aft side of the midsection mounting hook to form an isolation chamber between the aft low pressure chamber and the ring segment panel. High pressure air is supplied to the forward chamber and flows to the isolation chamber through crossover passages in the midsection hook. The isolation chamber provides convection cooling air to an aft portion of the ring segment panel and enables a reduction of air pressure in the aft low pressure chamber to reduce leakage flow of cooling air from the ring segment.

Campbell, Christian X.; Eng, Darryl; Lee, Ching-Pang; Patat, Harry

2014-08-26

276

Cavity Cooling of an Ensemble Spin System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe how sideband cooling techniques may be applied to large spin ensembles in magnetic resonance. Using the Tavis-Cummings model in the presence of a Rabi drive, we solve a Markovian master equation describing the joint spin-cavity dynamics to derive cooling rates as a function of ensemble size. Our calculations indicate that the coupled angular momentum subspaces of a spin ensemble containing roughly 1011 electron spins may be polarized in a time many orders of magnitude shorter than the typical thermal relaxation time. The described techniques should permit efficient removal of entropy for spin-based quantum information processors and fast polarization of spin samples. The proposed application of a standard technique in quantum optics to magnetic resonance also serves to reinforce the connection between the two fields, which has recently begun to be explored in further detail due to the development of hybrid designs for manufacturing noise-resilient quantum devices.

Wood, Christopher J.; Borneman, Troy W.; Cory, David G.

2014-02-01

277

Cavity cooling of an ensemble spin system  

E-print Network

We describe how sideband cooling techniques may be applied to large spin ensembles in magnetic resonance. Using the Tavis-Cummings model in the presence of a Rabi drive, we solve a Markovian master equation describing the joint spin-cavity dynamics to derive cooling rates as a function of ensemble size. Our calculations indicate that the coupled angular momentum subspaces of a spin ensemble containing roughly $10^{11}$ electron spins may be polarized in a time many orders of magnitude shorter than the typical thermal relaxation time. The described techniques should permit efficient removal of entropy for spin-based quantum information processors and fast polarization of spin samples. The proposed application of a standard technique in quantum optics to magnetic resonance also serves to reinforce the connection between the two fields, which has recently begun to be explored in further detail due to the development of hybrid designs for manufacturing noise-resilient quantum devices.

Christopher J. Wood; Troy W. Borneman; David G. Cory

2014-02-24

278

Preliminary design package for prototype solar heating and cooling systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary is given of the preliminary analysis and design activity on solar heating and cooling systems. The analysis was made without site specific data other than weather; therefore, the results indicate performance expected under these special conditions. Major items include a market analysis, design approaches, trade studies and other special data required to evaluate the preliminary analysis and design. The program calls for the development and delivery of eight prototype solar heating and cooling systems for installation and operational test. Two heating and six heating and cooling units will be delivered for Single Family Residences, Multiple-family Residences and commercial applications.

1978-01-01

279

Performance of ejector cooling systems using low ecological impact refrigerants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theoretical behaviour of an ejector cooling system, using as working fluids propane, butane, isobutane, R152a and R134a, is obtained. The ejector works as a thermo-compressor that is simulated with a validated one-dimensional mathematical model, whose errors are lower than 6%. For a system unitary cooling capacity, a parametric study is carried out varying the generation, condensation and evaporation temperatures.

Raul Roman; Jorge I. Hernandez

2011-01-01

280

Diagnostic system for cryogenically cooled 10 Hz Yb:YAG laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ELI Beamlines facility will house repetition rate high-power lasers with pulse durations down to 15 fs and over petawatt peak powers. Our research group participates in the construction of a cryogenically cooled Yb:YAG multi-slab amplifier; part of the L2 beamline. The system shall provide square, super-Gaussian beam with nearly 2 ns pulses with rectangular temporal profile and energy of up to 10 J at 10 Hz. The laser will provide pump beams for broadband OPCPA stages. The diagnostic system of the pump laser is critical for the correct performance analysis, stabilization feedback and mostly for the machine interlock system as damages of the expensive optical components can develop very fast with the 10 Hz repetition rate. The diagnostic system provides key laser parameters and characteristics in temporal, spectral and spatial domain. The paper describes testing of the setup for measurements of the final 10 J output. Its design is based on a combination of optical wedges and diffractive sampler to facilitate multiple diagnostics on a relatively small footprint. The laser diagnostics package covers measurements in spatial domain such as near-field, far-field, or wavefront analysis, further optical spectrum, pulse energy and temporal shape. In order to detect possible damage dark-field analysis was implemented as well. The final setup was modeled in optical design software (Radiant Zemax) to understand its behavior and later tested together with real-time LabVIEW code developed by our group as being part of the machine interlock system. The first results of the tests as well as detailed description of the diagnostics package design are presented.

Koubíková, Lucia; Thoma, Ji?í; Naylon, Jack A.; Indra, Lukáš; Fibrich, Martin; Kramer, Daniel; Rus, Bedrich

2015-01-01

281

Developing, testing, evaluating, and optimizing solar heating and cooling systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective is to develop and test various integrated solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water systems, and to evaluate their performance. Systems composed of new, as well as previously tested, components are carefully integrated so that effects of new components on system performance can be clearly delineated. The SEAL-DOE program includes six tasks which have received funding for the 1991 to 92 fifteen-month period. These include: (1) a project employing isothermal operation of air and liquid solar space heating systems; (2) a project to build and test several generic solar water heaters; (3) a project that will evaluate advanced solar domestic hot water components and concepts and integrate them into solar domestic hot water systems; (4) a liquid desiccant cooling system development project; (5) a project that will perform system modeling and analysis work on solid desiccant cooling systems research; and (6) a management task. The objectives and progress in each task are described in this report.

1992-01-01

282

Simulation of a Combined Microwave and Radiant Freeze Dryer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model was developed to aid the development of a combined microwave and radiant freeze dryer. By considering the limitations of the condensation capacity and the vacuum system in the boundary conditions, a more realistic simulation was developed. The phenomenon of solid entrainment during sublimation and its effects on the drying process were also examined.

H. B. Arsem; Y. H. Ma

1990-01-01

283

Active noise canceling system for mechanically cooled germanium radiation detectors  

DOEpatents

A microphonics noise cancellation system and method for improving the energy resolution for mechanically cooled high-purity Germanium (HPGe) detector systems. A classical adaptive noise canceling digital processing system using an adaptive predictor is used in an MCA to attenuate the microphonics noise source making the system more deployable.

Nelson, Karl Einar; Burks, Morgan T

2014-04-22

284

Solar heating and cooling system design and development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and development of marketable solar heating and cooling systems for single family and commercial applications is described. The delivery, installation, and monitoring of the prototype systems are discussed. Seven operational test sites are discussed in terms of system performance. Problems encountered with equipment and installation were usually due to lack of skills required for solar system installation.

1979-01-01

285

Liquid cooling system for the vibro-tactile threshold device.  

PubMed

Vibrotactile threshold testing has been used to investigate activation of human somatosensory pathways. A portable vibrotactile threshold testing device called the Vibrotactile Threshold Evaluator for the Workplace (VTEW) was designed for screening of carpal tunnel syndrome in the workplace, and initially contained a small fan for cooling. During subject testing, the device is operated intermittently, which causes the linear actuator to warm the tactile probe. The probe causes discomfort for some subjects. During testing, the probe heated to 42 °C within 90 seconds of continuous operation. A liquid cooling system was implemented to dissipate heat from the probe. The liquid cooling system maintains a steady state temperature of 36 °C for continuous actuation of the probe. The liquid cooling system is capable of maintaining a safe operating temperature, without adding erroneous vibrations to the device. However, the cooling system deters the portability of the device. Further research will investigate how to make the liquid cooling system portable and implements vibrotactile threshold testing in the workplace to quickly evaluate whether or not a person has early symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome. PMID:22255903

Parsons, Erin M; Redd, Christian; Gandhi, Minu S; Tuckett, Robert P; Bamberg, Stacy J Morris

2011-01-01

286

NONWATER QUALITY IMPACTS OF CLOSED-CYCLE COOLING SYSTEMS AND THE INTERACTION OF STACK GAS AND COOLING TOWER PLUMES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a literature survey of the nonwater quality impacts of closed-cycle cooling systems. Following discussions of cooling tower and stack gas plumes, interactions of these plumes are considered. For cooling tower plumes, plume types, behavior, salt drift g...

287

Evaluation of two cooling systems under a firefighter coverall.  

PubMed

Firemen often suffer from heat strain. This study investigated two chest cooling systems for use under a firefighting suit. In nine male subjects, a vest with water soaked cooling pads and a vest with water perfused tubes were compared to a control condition. Subjects performed 30 min walking and 10 min recovery in hot conditions, while physiological and perceptual parameters were measured. No differences were observed in heart rate and rectal temperature, but scapular skin temperature and fluid loss were lower using the perfused vest. Thermal sensation was cooler for the perfused vest than for the other conditions, while the cool pad vest felt initially cooler than control. However, comfort and RPE scores were similar. We conclude that the cooling effect of both tested systems, mainly providing a (temporally) cooler thermal sensation, was limited and did not meet the expectations. PMID:24798511

Teunissen, Lennart P J; Wang, Li-Chu; Chou, Shih-Nung; Huang, Chin-Hsien; Jou, Gwo-Tsuen; Daanen, Hein A M

2014-11-01

288

Inhibitor analysis for a solar heating and cooling system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study of potential corrosion inhibitors for the NASA solar heating and cooling system which uses aluminum solar panels is provided. Research consisted of testing using a dynamic corrosion system, along with an economic analysis of proposed corrosion inhibitors. Very good progress was made in finding a suitable inhibitor for the system.

Tabony, J. H.

1977-01-01

289

Closed-loop electroosmotic microchannel cooling system for VLSI circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing heat generation rates in VLSI circuits motivate research on compact cooling technologies with low thermal resistance. This paper develops a closed-loop two-phase microchannel cooling system using electroosmotic pumping for the working fluid. The design, fabrication, and open-loop performance of the heat exchanger and pump are summarized. The silicon heat exchanger, which attaches to the test chip (1 cm2),

Linan Jiang; James Mikkelsen; Jae-Mo Koo; David Huber; Shuhuai Yao; Lian Zhang; Peng Zhou; James G. Maveety; Ravi Prasher; Juan G. Santiago; Thomas W. Kenny; Kenneth E. Goodson

2002-01-01

290

Designing a 'Near Optimum' Cooling-Water System  

E-print Network

outlet temperature is the "Achilles heel" of this study and the reason why only a "near optimum," rather than a truly optimized, cooling system is attained. T, Exchanger Pip; ng Tower design ----design--- design Typical systam demonstrates thr..., April 26-29, 1981 This example shows why the cooling-tower outlet temperature is the "Achilles heel" of this study. To be rigorous, the fifth heat exchanger should be resized, using the optimum coolant outlet tempera ture calculated...

Crozier, R. A., Jr.

1981-01-01

291

Closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine  

DOEpatents

Method and apparatus are disclosed for providing a closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine. The method and apparatus provide for bleeding pressurized air from a gas turbine engine compressor for use in cooling the turbine components. The compressed air is cascaded through the various stages of the turbine. At each stage a portion of the compressed air is returned to the compressor where useful work is recovered.

North, William Edward (Winter Springs, FL)

2000-01-01

292

Modeling of Rankine cycle\\/vapor compression cycle cooling systems for solar energy applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar cooling system computer simulations were utilized in the determination of daily and seasonal cooling performance and in determining design values such as cooling capacity, collector area, storage size, and sizes of pumps and piping. RC\\/VCC solar cooling systems converted collected solar heat into a cooling effect. This was accomplished at the site of the installation by using the Rankine

A. N. Egrican

1977-01-01

293

Fundamental Aspects of Ozone Chemistry in Recirculating Cooling Water Systems — Data Evaluation Needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proposed uses of ozone for stand-alone cooling water treatment raise critical questions as to what happens chemically. These questions are of more significance to industrial cooling water systems, which typically have higher temperatures and cooling ranges than do comfort cooling systems. When applying ozone to cooling waters, it is very important for the user to understand many fundamental aspects of

Rip G. Rice; J. Fred Wilkes

1992-01-01

294

Gas-cooled reactor power systems for space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characteristics of six designs for power levels of 2, 10, and 20 MWe for operating time of 1 and 7 years are described. The operating conditions for these arbitrary designs were chosen to minimize system specific mass. The designs are based on recent work which benefits from earlier analyses of nuclear space power systems conducted at LLNL. Both gas and liquid cooled reactors had been considered. Pitts and Walter reported on the results of a detailed study of a 10 MWe lithium cooled reactor in a potassium Rankine system. Unpublished results of a computer analysis provide details of an argon cooled reactor in an argon Brayton system. The gas cooled reactor design was based on extensive development work on the 500 MWth reactor for the nuclear ramjet (Pluto) as described by Walter. The designs discussed here draw heavily on the Pluto project experience, which culminated in a successful full power ground test as reported by Reynolds. At higher power levels gas cooled reactors coupled with Brayton systems with advanced radiator designs becomes attractive.

Walter, C. E.

295

Gas-cooled reactor power systems for space  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the characteristics of six designs for power levels of 2, 10, and 20 MWe for operating times of 1 and 7 y are described. The operating conditions for these arbitrary designs were chosen to minimize system specific mass. The designs are based on recent work which benefits from earlier analyses of nuclear space power systems conducted at our Laboratory. Both gas- and liquid-cooled reactors had been considered. Pitts and Walter (1970) reported on the results of a detailed study of a 10-MWe lithium-cooled reactor in a potassium Rankine system. Unpublished results (1966) of a computer analysis provide details of an argon-cooled reactor in an argon Brayton system. The gas-cooled reactor design was based on extensive development work on the 500-MWth reactor for the nuclear ramjet (Pluto) as described by Walter (1964). The designs discussed here draw heavily on the Pluto project experience, which culminated in a successful full-power ground test as reported by Reynolds (1964). At higher power levels gas-cooled reactors coupled with Brayton systems with advanced radiator designs become attractive.

Walter, C.E.

1987-01-01

296

Integrating externally developed systems for SNS Linac cooling and vacuum.  

SciTech Connect

External contractors are developing the local cooling and vacuum control systems for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) linac. Soon these systems will be integrated into the facility-wide controls system. Allen-Bradley Logix5000 series programmable controllers, populated with appropriate input/output modules, were selected as the local controllers. These controllers will be interfaced to the facility-wide control system via VME systems with PowerPC processors running the Wind River VxWorks operating system and Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) front-end controller software. This paper describes the interface and integration issues driven by project, cooling system and vacuum system requirements and hardware selections.

Marroquin, P. S. (Pilar S.)

2001-01-01

297

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT IV, MAINTAINING THE COOLING SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE PURPOSE OF THE COOLING SYSTEM, CARE MAINTENANCE OF THE COOLING SYSTEM, COOLING SYSTEM COMPONENTS, AND TROUBLESHOOTING TIPS. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING…

Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

298

Thermal Storage with Conventional Cooling Systems  

E-print Network

"Thermal Storage" is a term that describes a mechanical systems ability to sustain normal HVAC operations through a thermal retention source. This system allows for the curtailment of operating major refrigeration equipment during periods of high kw...

McGee, E. E.

1990-01-01

299

Cooling system optimization analysis for hot forming processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hot forming technology was developed to produce automotive panels having ultra-high tensile stress over 1500MPa. The elevated temperature corresponds with decreased flow stress and increased ductility. Furthermore, hot forming products have almost zero springback amounts. This advanced forming technology accelerates the needs for numerical simulations coupling with thermal-mechanical formulations. In the present study, 3-dimensional finite element analyses for hot forming processes are conducted using JSTAMP/NV and LS-DYNA considering cooling system. Special attention is paid to the optimization of cooling system using thermo-mechanical finite element analysis through the influence of various cooling parameters. The presented work shows an adequate cooling system functions and microstructural phase transformation material model together with a proper set of numerical parameters can give both efficient and accurate design insight in hot forming manufacturing process. JSTAMP/NV and LS-DYNA can become a robust combination set for complex hot forming analysis which needs thermo-mechanical and microstructural material modeling and various process modeling. The use of the new JSTAMP/NV function for multishot manufacturing process is shown good capabilities in cooling system evaluation. And the use of the advanced LS-DYNA microstructural phase transformation model is shown good evaluation results in martensite amount and Vickers hardness after quenching.

Ghoo, Bonyoung; Umezu, Yasuyoshi; Watanabe, Yuko

2013-12-01

300

Risk-informed design changes for a passive cooling system  

E-print Network

The failure probability of a passive decay heat removal system after a LOCA is evaluated as part of a risk-informed design process for a helium-cooled fast reactor. The system was modeled using RELAP5-3D. The epistemic ...

Patalano, Giovanbattista

2007-01-01

301

The evaporative cooling system for the ATLAS inner detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the evaporative system used to cool the silicon detector structures of the inner detector sub-detectors of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The motivation for an evaporative system, its design and construction are discussed. In detail the particular requirements of the ATLAS inner detector, technical choices and the qualification and manufacture of final components

D. Attree; B. Anderson; E. C. Anderssen; V. Akhnazarov; R. J. Apsimon; P. Barclay; L. E. Batchelor; R. L. Bates; M. Battistin; J. Bendotti; S. Berry; A. Bitadze; J. P. Bizzel; P. Bonneau; M. Bosteels; J. M. Butterworth; S. Butterworth; A. A. Carter; J. R. Carter; A. Catinaccio; F. Corbaz; H. O. Danielsson; E. Danilevich; N. Dixon; S. D. Dixon; F. Doherty; O. Dorholt; M. Doubrava; K. Egorov; K. Einsweiler; A. C. Falou; P. Feraudet; P. Ferrari; K. Fowler; J. T. Fraser; R. S. French; M. Galuska; F. Gannaway; G. Gariano; M. D. Gibson; M. Gilchriese; D. Giugni; J. Godlewski; I. Gousakov; B. Gorski; G. D. Hallewell; N. Hartman; R. J. Hawkings; S. J. Haywood; N. P. Hessey; I. Ilyashenko; S. Infante; J. N. Jackson; T. J. Jones; J. Kaplon; S. Katunin; S. Lindsay; L. Luisa; N. Massol; F. Mc Ewan; S. J. Mc Mahon; C. Menot; J. Mistry; J. Morris; D. M. Muskett; K. Nagai; A. Nichols; R. Nicholson; R. B. Nickerson; S. L. Nielsen; P. E. Nordahl; M. Olcese; M. Parodi; F. Perez-Gomez; H. Pernegger; E. Perrin; L. P. Rossi; A. Rovani; E. Ruscino; H. Sandaker; A. Smith; V. Sopko; S. Stapnes; M. Stodulski; J. Tarrant; J. Thadome; D. Tovey; M. Turala; M. Tyndel; V. Vacek; E. van der Kraaij; G. H. A. Viehhauser; E. Vigeolas; P. S. Wells; S. Wenig; P. Werneke

2008-01-01

302

A System for Cooling inside a Glove Box  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An easy, efficient, reliable, and low-cost method of constructing a cooling system using a simple circulating pump is described. The system is employed in conjunction with an inert atmosphere glove box to achieve the synthesis of air- and moisture-sensitive compounds inside the glove box at controlled, low temperatures without contaminating the…

Sanz, Martial

2010-01-01

303

Preliminary design study of astronomical detector cooling system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The preliminary design of an astronomical detector cooling system for possible use in the NASA C-141 Airborne Infrared Observatory is presented. The system consists of the following elements: supercritical helium tank, Joule-Thomson supply gas conditioner, Joule-Thomson expander (JTX), optical cavity dewar, optical cavity temperature controller, adjustable J-T discharge gas pressure controller, and vacuum pump.

Norman, R. H.

1976-01-01

304

Modeling a grid-connected, passively-cooled CPV system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 4-parameter formula is proposed for describing the hourly AC performance of a grid-connected, passively-cooled CPV system. The formula is validated against data from a pair of Soitec systems in the northern and southern hemispheres and found to be accurate to at least ± 10% at all times of the year.

Strobach, E.; Faiman, D.; Melnichak, V.; Bukobza, D.; Kabalo, S.; Gombert, A.; Gerstmaier, T.; Roettger, M.

2012-10-01

305

Prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress is reviewed in the development, delivery, and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water. The system consisted of the following subsystems: collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition.

1978-01-01

306

Solar cooling with concentrating photovoltaic\\/thermal (CPVT) systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simultaneous production of electrical and high grade thermal energy is proposed with a concentrating photovoltaic\\/thermal (CPVT) system operating at elevated temperature. CPVT collectors may operate at temperatures above 100°C, and the thermal energy can drive processes such as refrigeration, desalination and steam production. The performance and cost of a CPVT system with single effect absorption cooling are investigated in detail.

Gur Mittelman; Abraham Kribus; Abraham Dayan

2007-01-01

307

POOL WATER TREATMENT AND COOLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System is located in the Waste Handling Building (WHB), and is comprised of various process subsystems designed to support waste handling operations. This system maintains the pool water temperature within an acceptable range, maintains water quality standards that support remote underwater operations and prevent corrosion, detects leakage from the pool liner, provides the capability

V. King

2000-01-01

308

Miniature Vapor Compressor Refrigeration System for Electronic Cooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper experimentally investigated the thermal performance of a miniature vapor compressor refrigeration system using a thermal resistance model for electronic cooling. The evaporator, compressor, expansion valve, and condenser are the four main devices forming the refrigeration system with R-134a as a working fluid. The experimental parameters considered were the openings of the expansion valve and input heating power. The

Chih-Chung Chang; Nai-Wen Liang; Sih-Li Chen

2010-01-01

309

A COOLING SYSTEM FOR BUIDINGS USING WIND ENERGY  

E-print Network

A COOLING SYSTEM FOR BUIDINGS USING WIND ENERGY Hamid Daiyan Islamic Azad University - Semnan in dray land, and only uses wind energy for conditioning. It technologies date back over 1000 years. Wind system, Wind energy, Temperature Fig.1 Wind tower of Doulat-Abad garden of Yazd with it's altitude is 33

310

Laser system for secondary cooling of {sup 87}Sr atoms  

SciTech Connect

A laser system with a narrow generation line for secondary laser cooling of {sup 87}Sr atoms has been developed and investigated. It is planned to use ultracold {sup 87}Sr atoms loaded in an optical lattice in an optical frequency standard. To this end, a 689-nm semiconductor laser has been stabilised using an external reference ultrastable cavity with vibrational and temperature compensation near the critical point. The lasing spectral width was 80 Hz (averaging time 40 ms), and the frequency drift was at a level of 0.3 Hz s{sup -1}. Comparison of two independent laser systems yielded a minimum Allan deviation: 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -14} for 300-s averaging. It is shown that this system satisfies all requirements necessary for secondary cooling of 87Sr atoms using the spectrally narrow {sup 1}S{sub 0} - {sup 3}P{sub 1} transition ({lambda} = 689 nm). (cooling of atoms)

Khabarova, K Yu; Slyusarev, S N; Strelkin, S A; Belotelov, G S; Kostin, A S; Pal'chikov, Vitaly G; Kolachevsky, Nikolai N

2012-11-30

311

Research on the Compatibility of the Cooling Unit in an Automotive Exhaust-based Thermoelectric Generator and Engine Cooling System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temperature difference between the hot and cold sides of thermoelectric modules is a key factor affecting the conversion efficiency of an automotive exhaust-based thermoelectric generator (TEG). In the work discussed in this paper the compatibility of TEG cooling unit and engine cooling system was studied on the basis of the heat transfer characteristics of the TEG. A new engine-cooling system in which a TEG cooling unit was inserted was simulated at high power and high vehicle speed, and at high power and low vehicle speed, to obtain temperatures and flow rates of critical inlets and outlets. The results show that coolant temperature exceeds its boiling point at high power and low vehicle speed, so the new system cannot meet cooling requirements under these conditions. Measures for improvement to optimize the cooling system are proposed, and provide a basis for future research.

Deng, Y. D.; Liu, X.; Chen, S.; Xing, H. B.; Su, C. Q.

2014-06-01

312

The development of a solar residential heating and cooling system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The MSFC solar heating and cooling facility was assembled to demonstrate the engineering feasibility of utilizing solar energy for heating and cooling buildings, to provide an engineering evaluation of the total system and the key subsystems, and to investigate areas of possible improvement in design and efficiency. The basic solar heating and cooling system utilizes a flat plate solar energy collector, a large water tank for thermal energy storage, heat exchangers for space heating, and an absorption cycle air conditioner for space cooling. A complete description of all systems is given. Development activities for this test system included assembly, checkout, operation, modification, and data analysis, all of which are discussed. Selected data analyses for the first 15 weeks of testing are included, findings associated with energy storage and the energy storage system are outlined, and conclusions resulting from test findings are provided. An evaluation of the data for summer operation indicates that the current system is capable of supplying an average of 50 percent of the thermal energy required to drive the air conditioner. Preliminary evaluation of data collected for operation in the heating mode during the winter indicates that nearly 100 percent of the thermal energy required for heating can be supplied by the system.

1975-01-01

313

Thermotunneling Based Cooling Systems for High Efficiency Buildings  

SciTech Connect

GE Global Research's overall objective was to develop a novel thermotunneling-cooling device. The end use for these devices is the replacement of vapor cycle compression (VCC) units in residential and commercial cooling and refrigeration systems. Thermotunneling devices offer many advantages over vapor cycle compression cooling units. These include quiet, reliable, non-moving parts operation without refrigerant gases. Additionally theoretical calculations suggest that the efficiency of thermotunneling devices can be 1.5-2x that of VCC units. Given these attributes it can be seen that thermotunneling devices have the potential for dramatic energy savings and are environmentally friendly. A thermotunneling device consists of two low work function electrodes separated by a sub 10 nanometer-sized gap. Cooling by thermotunneling refers to the transport of hot electrons across the gap, from the object to be cooled (cathode) to the heat rejection electrode (anode), by an applied potential. GE Global Research's goal was to model, design, fabricate devices and demonstrate cooling base on the thermotunneling technology.

Aimi, Marco; Arik, Mehmet; Bray, James; Gorczyca, Thomas; Michael, Darryl; Weaver, Stan

2007-09-30

314

30 CFR 36.47 - Tests of exhaust-gas cooling system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...compartments designed to hold cooling water shall be filled with the quantity...performance of the system, the cooling water consumption, high-water level...temperature is lower. (d) Water consumed in cooling the exhaust gas under the...

2014-07-01

315

30 CFR 36.47 - Tests of exhaust-gas cooling system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...compartments designed to hold cooling water shall be filled with the quantity...performance of the system, the cooling water consumption, high-water level...temperature is lower. (d) Water consumed in cooling the exhaust gas under the...

2013-07-01

316

30 CFR 36.47 - Tests of exhaust-gas cooling system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...compartments designed to hold cooling water shall be filled with the quantity...performance of the system, the cooling water consumption, high-water level...temperature is lower. (d) Water consumed in cooling the exhaust gas under the...

2011-07-01

317

30 CFR 36.47 - Tests of exhaust-gas cooling system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...compartments designed to hold cooling water shall be filled with the quantity...performance of the system, the cooling water consumption, high-water level...temperature is lower. (d) Water consumed in cooling the exhaust gas under the...

2012-07-01

318

EVA space suit Evaporative Cooling/Heating Glove System (ECHGS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new astronaut glove, the Evaporative Cooling/Heating Glove System (ECHGS), was designed and developed to allow the handling of objects between -200 F and +200 F. Active heating elements, positioned at each finger pad, provide additional heat to the finger pads from the rest of the finger. A water evaporative cooling system provides cooling by the injection of water to the finger areas and the subsequent direct evaporation to space. Thin, flexible insulation has been developed for the finger areas to limit thermal conductivity. Component and full glove tests have shown that the glove meets and exceeds the requirements to hold a 11/2 inch diameter bar at + or - 200 F for three minutes within comfort limits. The ECHGS is flexible, lightweight and comfortable. Tactility is reasonable and small objects can be identified especially by the fingertips beyond the one half width active elements.

Coss, F. A.

1976-01-01

319

Wind turbine generators having wind assisted cooling systems and cooling methods  

DOEpatents

A wind generator includes: a nacelle; a hub carried by the nacelle and including at least a pair of wind turbine blades; and an electricity producing generator including a stator and a rotor carried by the nacelle. The rotor is connected to the hub and rotatable in response to wind acting on the blades to rotate the rotor relative to the stator to generate electricity. A cooling system is carried by the nacelle and includes at least one ambient air inlet port opening through a surface of the nacelle downstream of the hub and blades, and a duct for flowing air from the inlet port in a generally upstream direction toward the hub and in cooling relation to the stator.

Bagepalli, Bharat (Niskayuna, NY); Barnes, Gary R. (Delanson, NY); Gadre, Aniruddha D. (Rexford, NY); Jansen, Patrick L. (Scotia, NY); Bouchard, Jr., Charles G. (Schenectady, NY); Jarczynski, Emil D. (Scotia, NY); Garg, Jivtesh (Cambridge, MA)

2008-09-23

320

System design package for a solar heating and cooling system installed at Akron, Ohio  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information used to evaluate the design of a solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system is given. A conventional heat pump provides summer cooling items as the design data brochure, system performance specification, system hazard analysis, spare parts list, and detailed design drawings. A solar system is installed in a single-family dwelling at Akron, Ohio, and at Duffield, Virginia.

1979-01-01

321

BETTER DUCT SYSTEMS FOR HOME HEATING AND COOLING.  

SciTech Connect

This is a series of six guides intended to provide a working knowledge of residential heating and cooling duct systems, an understanding of the major issues concerning efficiency, comfort, health, and safety, and practical tips on installation and repair of duct systems. These guides are intended for use by contractors, system designers, advanced technicians, and other HVAC professionals. The first two guides are also intended to be accessible to the general reader.

ANDREWS,J.

2001-01-01

322

Prototype solar heating and cooling systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A combination of monthly progress reports are presented. It contains a summary of activities and progress made from November 1, 1978, to February 28, 1979. The effort calls for the development, manufacture, test, system installation, maintenance, problem resolution, and performance evaluation.

1979-01-01

323

Evaporation-cooled transmission line system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system is described that has one or more tubular conductors disposed within a shield containing a dielectric surrounding the conductors that is used to transmit electrical power. Liquid coolant is directed along a supply line from a source and into the conductors. Each conductor has a plurality of tubular insulators at spaced locations along its length to remove coolant

M. Rabinowitz; J. J. Pachot

1978-01-01

324

Cooling for high heat flux VLSI systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent projections have suggested that heat fluxes may possibly reach 100 W\\/cm2 in future integrated circuit chips. The authors first discuss these projections and outline some of the problems associated with getting these power levels into high density packages for integrated systems. The authors then address the problem of getting the resulting heat back out of the package and look

R. C. Jaeger; J. S. Goodling

1991-01-01

325

Radiant Heat Transfer in Reusable Surface Insulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During radiant testing of mullite panels, temperatures in the insulation and support structure exceeded those predicted on the basis of guarded hot plate thermal conductivity tests. Similar results were obtained during arc tunnel tests of mullite specimens. The differences between effective conductivity and guarded hot plate values suggested that radiant transfer through the mullite was occurring. To study the radiant transport, measurements were made of the infrared transmission through various insulating materials and fibers of interest to the shuttle program, using black body sources over the range of 780 to 2000 K. Experimental data were analyzed and scattering coefficients were derived for a variety of materials, fiber diameters, and source temperature.

Hughes, T. A.; Linford, R. M. F.; Chmitt, R. J.; Christensen, H. E.

1973-01-01

326

Air conditioning system with supplemental ice storing and cooling capacity  

DOEpatents

The present air conditioning system with ice storing and cooling capacity can generate and store ice in its pipe assembly or in an ice storage tank particularly equipped for the system, depending on the type of the air conditioning system. The system is characterized in particular in that ice can be produced and stored in the air conditioning system whereby the time of supplying cooled air can be effectively extended with the merit that the operation cycle of the on and off of the compressor can be prolonged, extending the operation lifespan of the compressor in one aspect. In another aspect, ice production and storage in great amount can be performed in an off-peak period of the electrical power consumption and the stored ice can be utilized in the peak period of the power consumption so as to provide supplemental cooling capacity for the compressor of the air conditioning system whereby the shift of peak and off-peak power consumption can be effected with ease. The present air conditioning system can lower the installation expense for an ice-storing air conditioning system and can also be applied to an old conventional air conditioning system.

Weng, Kuo-Lianq (Taichung, TW); Weng, Kuo-Liang (Taichung, TW)

1998-01-01

327

Portable self-contained power and cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A portable power and cooling system is described comprising: a drive unit including a combustion section, a scroll-type expander section, a scroll-type air compressor section, and a power output drive shaft, the expander and air compressor sections connected together for synchronousmovement via said power output drive shaft; said combustion section including a combustion air inlet and a combustion gas outlet,

1993-01-01

328

March 1, 2013. Campus Wide District Heating & Cooling System  

E-print Network

effective energy sources. Reduce our emissions of Green House Gases. Target 2016 as the year we can____________________________ March 1, 2013. Campus Wide District Heating & Cooling System;8 Central Plant GREEN LAWN IN JANUARY! Yesterday Inefficient Distribution Steam traps Steam vents Purges

329

Second-law assessment of solar heating and cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Service hot water and residential heating and cooling are the first significant applications of solar energy in the latter part of the twentieth century. The technology is well developed, the systems are known to be viable, and the costs of solar heating are competitive with conventional fuels in many parts of the country. This paper presents a thermodynamic analysis of

J. E. Lay

1978-01-01

330

Gas cooled fuel cell systems technology development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first phase of a planned multiphase program to develop a Phosphoric is addressed. This report describes the efforts performed that culminated in the: (1) Establishment of the preliminary design requirements and system conceptual design for the nominally rated 375 kW PAFC module and is interfacing power plant systems; (2) Establishment of PAFC component and stack performance, endurance, and design parameter data needed for design verification for power plant application; (3) Improvement of the existing PAFC materials data base and establishment of materials specifications and process procedes for the cell components; and (4) Testing of 122 subscale cell atmospheric test for 110,000 cumulative test hours, 12 subscale cell pressurized tests for 15,000 cumulative test hours, and 12 pressurized stack test for 10,000 cumulative test hours.

Feret, J. M.

1983-01-01

331

Improvement of Cooling Performance of a Thermoelectric Air Cooling System Using a Vapor Chamber Heat Sink  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since vapor chambers exhibit excellent thermal performance, they are suited to use as the basis of a heat sink. This work presents the results of tests carried out to investigate the potential application of a vapor chamber heat sink for improving the cooling performance of a thermoelectric (TE) air cooling system. To this end, two sets of TE air coolers were constructed. The cold side of the TE module of both sets was fixed to a conventional plate-fin heat sink. The hot side of one set was fixed to a vapor chamber heat sink, whereas the other set was fixed to a conventional plate-fin heat sink. The effects of air flow rate and electric current supplied to the TE module on the cooling performance were considered. Experimental data were compared with corresponding data for a conventional plate-fin heat sink. It also has been experimentally proven that the use of a vapor chamber heat sink increases the coefficient of performance (COP) by up to 34.2%.

Lertsatitthanakorn, C.; Tipsaenprom, W.; Rungsiyopas, M.

2014-06-01

332

Turbine airfoil with an internal cooling system having vortex forming turbulators  

DOEpatents

A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and having at least one cooling system is disclosed. At least a portion of the cooling system may include one or more cooling channels having a plurality of turbulators protruding from an inner surface and positioned generally nonorthogonal and nonparallel to a longitudinal axis of the airfoil cooling channel. The configuration of turbulators may create a higher internal convective cooling potential for the blade cooling passage, thereby generating a high rate of internal convective heat transfer and attendant improvement in overall cooling performance. This translates into a reduction in cooling fluid demand and better turbine performance.

Lee, Ching-Pang

2014-12-30

333

Application of system engineering processes to analyze and predict engine cooling fan system noise for off-highway machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

System Engineering processes were applied to create a Cooling Fan System Noise Analysis Tool for a back-hoe loader machine. The Cooling Fan System Noise Analysis Tool combined elements of aeroacoustic theory, Fan Law, sound power measurements and particle image velocimetry into a single computer analysis tool. The cooling fan system consisted of a cooling fan, multiple radiators in front of

Christopher P. Masini; J. Adin Mann

2005-01-01

334

GentleCool: Cooling Aware Proactive Workload Scheduling in Multi-Machine Systems  

E-print Network

, workload scheduling and server fan speed operate independently leading to cooling inefficiencies. In this work we propose GentleCool, a proactive multi-tier approach for significantly lowering the fan cooling average cooling energy savings of 72% and improves the mean time between failures (MTBF) of the fans by 2

Simunic, Tajana

335

He-3 cooling systems for space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a space-compatible He(3) refrigerator would provide a significant improvement in several areas of research in the 0.3 to 1 K temperature range. There are several methods of achieving these temperatures on Earth: He(3) refrigeration, dilution refrigeration, and adiabatic demagnetization refrigeration. The progress of adapting He(3) refrigeration for use in space is described. Various cycles and possible embodiments of He(3) refrigerators are described. Also included is an analysis of the liquid confinement and liquid-vapor phase-separation system. A possible configuration is then analyzed. Finally, the results of ground-based experiments will be discussed.

Kittel, P.

1984-01-01

336

Current cost and performance requirements for residential cool storage systems  

SciTech Connect

This study defines the current cost and performance requirements for residential cool storage technologies based on the characteristics of conventional air conditioning equipment and residential time-of-day (TOD) rate structures existing during the 1986--1987 time frame. Currently, rate structures are changing rapidly. Given the volatility of rate structures, the establishment of cost goal is challenging. The goals presented in this study are based on the utility rate structure as of 1986. This study serves to define residential cool storage cost and performance requirements in the current economic environment as well as the many issues affecting the requirements for residential cool storage systems both now and in the future. The same methodology can be employed to establish long-run goals once future rate structures are adequately defined. 12 refs., 6 figs., 18 tabs.

Brown, D.R.; Spanner, G.E.

1988-08-01

337

Solar heating and cooling system installed at Leavenworth, Kansas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar heating and cooling is described which is designed to furnish 90 percent of the overall heating load, 70 percent of the cooling load and 100 percent of the domestic hot water load. The building has two floors with a total of 12,000 square feet gross area. The system has 120 flat-plate liquid solar panels with a net area of 2,200 square feet. Five 3 ton Arkla solar assisted absorption units provide the cooling, in conjunction with a 3,000 gallon chilled water storage tank. Two 3,000 gallon storage tanks are provided with one designated for summer use, whereas both tanks are utilized during winter.

1980-01-01

338

Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Cavity Cooling System  

SciTech Connect

The design of passive heat removal systems is one of the main concerns for the modular very high temperature gas-cooled reactors (VHTR) vessel cavity. The reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) is a key heat removal system during normal and off-normal conditions. The design and validation of the RCCS is necessary to demonstrate that VHTRs can survive to the postulated accidents. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) STAR-CCM+/V3.06.006 code was used for three-dimensional system modeling and analysis of the RCCS. A CFD model was developed to analyze heat exchange in the RCCS. The model incorporates a 180-deg section resembling the VHTR RCCS experimentally reproduced in a laboratory-scale test facility at Texas A&M University. All the key features of the experimental facility were taken into account during the numerical simulations. The objective of the present work was to benchmark CFD tools against experimental data addressing the behavior of the RCCS following accident conditions. Two cooling fluids (i.e., water and air) were considered to test the capability of maintaining the RCCS concrete walls' temperature below design limits. Different temperature profiles at the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) wall obtained from the experimental facility were used as boundary conditions in the numerical analyses to simulate VHTR transient evolution during accident scenarios. Mesh convergence was achieved with an intensive parametric study of the two different cooling configurations and selected boundary conditions. To test the effect of turbulence modeling on the RCCS heat exchange, predictions using several different turbulence models and near-wall treatments were evaluated and compared. The comparison among the different turbulence models analyzed showed satisfactory agreement for the temperature distribution inside the RCCS cavity medium and at the standpipes walls. For such a complicated geometry and flow conditions, the tested turbulence models demonstrated that the realizable k-epsilon model with two-layer all y+ wall treatment performs better than the other k-epsilon and k-omega turbulence models when compared to the experimental results and the Reynolds stress transport turbulence model results. A scaling analysis was developed to address the distortions introduced by the CFD model in simulating the physical phenomena inside the RCCS system with respect to the full plant configuration. The scaling analysis demonstrated that both the experimental facility and the CFD model achieve a satisfactory resemblance of the main flow characteristics inside the RCCS cavity region, and convection and radiation heat exchange phenomena are properly scaled from the actual plant.

Angelo Frisani; Yassin A. Hassan; Victor M. Ugaz

2010-11-02

339

Hydraulic tests of emergency cooling system: L-Area  

SciTech Connect

The delay in L-Area startup provided an opportunity to obtain valuable data on the Emergency Cooling System (ECS) which will permit reactor operation at the highest safe power level. ECS flow is a major input to the FLOOD code which calculates reactor ECS power limits. The FLOOD code assesses the effectiveness of the ECS cooling capacity by modeling the core and plenum hydraulics under accident conditions. Presently, reactor power is not limited by the ECS cooling capacity (power limit). However, the manual calculations of ECS flows had been recently updated to include piping changes (debris strainer, valve changes, pressure release systems) and update fitting losses. Both updates resulted in reduced calculated ECS flows. Upon completion of the current program to update, validate, and document, reactor power may be limited under certain situations by ECS cooling capacity for some present reactor charge designs. A series of special hydraulic tests (Reference 1, 3) were conducted in L-Area using all sources of emergency coolant including the ECS pumps (Reference 2). The tests provided empirical hydraulic data on the ECS piping. These data will be used in computer models of the system as well as manual calculations of ECS flows. The improved modeling and accuracy of the flow calculations will permit reactor operation at the highest safe power level with respect to an ECS power limit.

Hinton, J H

1988-01-01

340

Design of an individually controlled system for an optimal thermal microenvironment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individually controlled microenvironment has potential to satisfy more occupants in a space compared to a total volume uniform environment typically used at present. The performance of an individually controlled system comprising a convection-heated chair, an under-desk radiant heating panel, a floor radiant heating panel, an under-desk air terminal device supplying cool air, and a desk-mounted personalized ventilation as used and

Shinichi Watanabe; Arsen K. Melikov; Gitte L. Knudsen

2010-01-01

341

Next-Generation Evaporative Cooling Systems for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit Portable Life Support System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) is currently underway at NASA Johnson Space Center. The AEMU PLSS features two new evaporative cooling systems, the Reduced Volume Prototype Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (RVP SWME), and the Auxiliary Cooling Loop (ACL). The RVP SWME is the third generation of hollow fiber SWME hardware, and like its predecessors, RVP SWME provides nominal crewmember and electronics cooling by flowing water through porous hollow fibers. Water vapor escapes through the hollow fiber pores, thereby cooling the liquid water that remains inside of the fibers. This cooled water is then recirculated to remove heat from the crewmember and PLSS electronics. Major design improvements, including a 36% reduction in volume, reduced weight, and more flight like back-pressure valve, facilitate the packaging of RVP SWME in the AEMU PLSS envelope. In addition to the RVP SWME, the Auxiliary Cooling Loop (ACL), was developed for contingency crewmember cooling. The ACL is a completely redundant, independent cooling system that consists of a small evaporative cooler--the Mini Membrane Evaporator (Mini-ME), independent pump, independent feed-water assembly and independent Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG). The Mini-ME utilizes the same hollow fiber technology featured in the RVP SWME, but is only 25% of the size of RVP SWME, providing only the necessary crewmember cooling in a contingency situation. The ACL provides a number of benefits when compared with the current EMU PLSS contingency cooling technology; contingency crewmember cooling can be provided for a longer period of time, more contingency situations can be accounted for, no reliance on a Secondary Oxygen Vessel (SOV) for contingency cooling--thereby allowing a SOV reduction in size and pressure, and the ACL can be recharged-allowing the AEMU PLSS to be reused, even after a contingency event. The development of these evaporative cooling systems will contribute to a more robust and comprehensive AEMU PLSS.

Makinen, Janice V.; Anchondo, Ian; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Colunga, Aaron

2012-01-01

342

Method and system for powering and cooling semiconductor lasers  

DOEpatents

A semiconductor laser system includes a diode laser tile. The diode laser tile includes a mounting fixture having a first side and a second side opposing the first side and an array of semiconductor laser pumps coupled to the first side of the mounting fixture. The semiconductor laser system also includes an electrical pulse generator thermally coupled to the diode bar and a cooling member thermally coupled to the diode bar and the electrical pulse generator.

Telford, Steven J; Ladran, Anthony S

2014-02-25

343

Correcting Aberrations in Complex Magnet Systems for Muon Cooling Channels  

SciTech Connect

Designing and simulating complex magnet systems needed for cooling channels in both neutrino factories and muon colliders requires innovative techniques to correct for both chromatic and spherical aberrations. Optimizing complex systems, such as helical magnets for example, is also difficult but essential. By using COSY INFINITY, a differential algebra based code, the transfer and aberration maps can be examined to discover what critical terms have the greatest influence on these aberrations.

J.A. Maloney, B. Erdelyi, A. Afanaciev, R.P. Johnson, Y.S. Derbenev, V.S. Morozov

2011-03-01

344

Heat pipe cooling system with sensible heat sink  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A heat pipe cooling system which employs a sensible heat sink is discussed. With this type of system, incident aerodynamic heat is transported via a heat pipe from the stagnation region to the heat sink and absorbed by raising the temperature of the heat sink material. The use of a sensible heat sink can be advantageous for situations where the total mission heat load is limited, as it is during re-entry, and a suitable radiation sink is not available.

Silverstein, Calvin C.

1988-01-01

345

Alkali Metal Backup Cooling for Stirling Systems - Experimental Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a Stirling Radioisotope Power System (RPS), heat must be continuously removed from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules to maintain the modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. The Stirling convertor normally provides this cooling. If the Stirling convertor stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS at the cost of an early termination of the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) can be used to passively allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling convertor. In a previous NASA SBIR Program, Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) developed a series of sodium VCHPs as backup cooling systems for Stirling RPS. The operation of these VCHPs was demonstrated using Stirling heater head simulators and GPHS simulators. In the most recent effort, a sodium VCHP with a stainless steel envelope was designed, fabricated and tested at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) with a Stirling convertor for two concepts; one for the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) back up cooling system and one for the Long-lived Venus Lander thermal management system. The VCHP is designed to activate and remove heat from the stopped convertor at a 19 C temperature increase from the nominal vapor temperature. The 19 C temperature increase from nominal is low enough to avoid risking standard ASRG operation and spoiling of the Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI). In addition, the same backup cooling system can be applied to the Stirling convertor used for the refrigeration system of the Long-lived Venus Lander. The VCHP will allow the refrigeration system to: 1) rest during transit at a lower temperature than nominal; 2) pre-cool the modules to an even lower temperature before the entry in Venus atmosphere; 3) work at nominal temperature on Venus surface; 4) briefly stop multiple times on the Venus surface to allow scientific measurements. This paper presents the experimental results from integrating the VCHP with an operating Stirling convertor and describes the methodology used to achieve their successful combined operation.

Schwendeman, Carl; Tarau, Calin; Anderson, William G.; Cornell, Peggy A.

2013-01-01

346

Alkali Metal Backup Cooling for Stirling Systems - Experimental Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a Stirling Radioisotope Power System (RPS), heat must be continuously removed from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules to maintain the modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. The Stirling convertor normally provides this cooling. If the Stirling convertor stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS at the cost of an early termination of the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) can be used to passively allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling convertor. In a previous NASA SBIR Program, Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) developed a series of sodium VCHPs as backup cooling systems for Stirling RPS. The operation of these VCHPs was demonstrated using Stirling heater head simulators and GPHS simulators. In the most recent effort, a sodium VCHP with a stainless steel envelope was designed, fabricated and tested at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) with a Stirling convertor for two concepts; one for the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) back up cooling system and one for the Long-lived Venus Lander thermal management system. The VCHP is designed to activate and remove heat from the stopped convertor at a 19 degC temperature increase from the nominal vapor temperature. The 19 degC temperature increase from nominal is low enough to avoid risking standard ASRG operation and spoiling of the Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI). In addition, the same backup cooling system can be applied to the Stirling convertor used for the refrigeration system of the Long-lived Venus Lander. The VCHP will allow the refrigeration system to: 1) rest during transit at a lower temperature than nominal; 2) pre-cool the modules to an even lower temperature before the entry in Venus atmosphere; 3) work at nominal temperature on Venus surface; 4) briefly stop multiple times on the Venus surface to allow scientific measurements. This paper presents the experimental results from integrating the VCHP with an operating Stirling convertor and describes the methodology used to achieve their successful combined operation.

Schwendeman, Carl; Tarau, Calin; Anderson, William G.; Cornell, Peggy A.

2013-01-01

347

CFD Model Development and validation for High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) Applications  

SciTech Connect

The Reactor Cavity Cooling Systems (RCCS) is a passive safety system that will be incorporated in the VTHR design. The system was designed to remove the heat from the reactor cavity and maintain the temperature of structures and concrete walls under desired limits during normal operation (steady-state) and accident scenarios. A small scale (1:23) water-cooled experimental facility was scaled, designed, and constructed in order to study the complex thermohydraulic phenomena taking place in the RCCS during stead-state and transient conditions. The facility represents a portion of the reactor vessel with nine stainless steel coolant risers and utilizes water as coolant. The facility was equipped with instrumentation to measure temperatures and flow rates and a general verification was completed during the shakedown. A model of the experimental facility was prepared using RELAP5-3D and simulations were performed to validate the scaling procedure. The experimental data produced during the stead-state run were compared with the simulation results obtained using RELAP5-3D. The overall behavior of the facility met the expectations. The facility capabilities were confirmed to be very promising in performing additional experimental tests, including flow visualization, and produce data for code validation.

Hassan, Yassin; Corradini, Michael; Tokuhiro, Akira; Wei, Thomas Y.C.

2014-07-14

348

CARMENES ultra-stable cooling system: very promising results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CARMENES is a high resolution spectrograph to detect planets through the variation of radial velocity, destined for the Calar Alto Observatory in Almeria, Spain. The optical bench has a working temperature of 140K with a 24 hours stability of ±0,1K; goal ±0,01K. It is enclosed with a radiation shield actively cooled with thermalized nitrogen gas that flows through strategically positioned heat exchangers to remove its radiative load. The cooling system has an external preparation unit (N2GPU), which provides the nitrogen gas through actively vaporizing liquid nitrogen with heating resistances and a three stage circuit flow, each one controlled by an independent PID. Since CARMENES is still in the construction phase, a dedicated test facility has been built in order to simulate the instrument and correctly establish the N2GPU parameters. Furthermore, the test facility allows a wide range of configurations set-ups, which enables a full characterization of the N2GPU and the cooling system. The N2GPU has been designed to offer a wide temperature range of thermally stabilized nitrogen gas flow, which apart from CARMENES could also be used to provide ultra-high thermal stability in other cryogenic instruments. The present paper shows the testing of the cooling performance, the hardware used and the very promising results obtained.

Mirabet, E.; Carvas, P.; Lizon, J.-L.; Becerril, S.; Rodríguez, E.; Abril, M.; Cárdenas, M. C.; Morales, R.; Pérez, D.; Sánchez Carrasco, M. A.; Amado, P. J.; Seifert, W.; Quirrenbach, A.; Caballero, J. A.; Ribas, I.; Reiners, A.; Dreizler, S.

2014-07-01

349

Gas-cooled reactor power systems for space  

SciTech Connect

Efficiency and mass characteristics for four gas-cooled reactor power system configurations in the 2- to 20-MWe power range are modeled. The configurations use direct and indirect Brayton cycles with and without regeneration in the power conversion loop. The prismatic ceramic core of the reactor consists of several thousand pencil-shaped tubes made from a homogeneous mixture of moderator and fuel. The heat rejection system is found to be the major contributor to system mass, particularly at high power levels. A direct, regenerated Brayton cycle with helium working fluid permits high efficiency and low specific mass for a 10-MWe system.

Walter, C.E.

1987-01-01

350

Base load fuel comsumption with radiant boiler simulation  

SciTech Connect

The operating point of an oil fired radiant boiler, 580 Megawatt capacity, is critical in maximizing the availability, performance, reliability, and maintainability of a power producing system. Operating the unit above the design operating point causes outages to occur sooner than scheduled. When the boiler is operated below the design operating point, fuel is wasted because the quantity of fuel required to operate a radiant boiler is the same, whether the design setpoint is maintained or not. This paper demonstrates by means of simulation software that the boiler design setpoints is critical to fuel consumption and optimum output megawatts. A boiler with this capacity is used to provide a portion of the base load of an electric utility in order to sustain revenues and maintain reliable generation.

Shwehdi, M.H. (Pennsylvania State Univ., Wilkes-Barre, Lehman, PA (United States)); Hughes, C.M. (Naval Aviation Depot, NAS Jacksonville, Jacksonville, FL (United States)); Quasem, M.A. (Howard Univ. School of Business, Washington, DC (United States))

1992-12-01

351

Oil cooling system for a gas turbine engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gas turbine engine fuel delivery and control system is provided with means to recirculate all fuel in excess of fuel control requirements back to aircraft fuel tank, thereby increasing the fuel pump heat sink and decreasing the pump temperature rise without the addition of valving other than that normally employed. A fuel/oil heat exchanger and associated circuitry is provided to maintain the hot engine oil in heat exchange relationship with the cool engine fuel. Where anti-icing of the fuel filter is required, means are provided to maintain the fuel temperature entering the filter at or above a minimum level to prevent freezing thereof. Fluid circuitry is provided to route hot engine oil through a plurality of heat exchangers disposed within the system to provide for selective cooling of the oil.

Coffinberry, G. A.; Kast, H. B. (inventors)

1977-01-01

352

Residential-scale ice-storage system for space cooling  

SciTech Connect

Energy load management is fast becoming a necessity to electrical utilities. Thermal cool storage offers the utility a means of load management. The ice bank approach to thermal energy cool storage offers the most potential for development. Seasonal performance of both full and partial storage systems will be studied using a Carrier simulation program. These results will form the basis for selection of a system to be developed under this contract. Project work was started on Phase I during April 1981. The objectives of Phase I are the establishment of a conceptual design and completion of a marketing and economic study. Seasonal performance of the proposed equipment for several locations will be determined by computer simulation.

Hopkinson, H.H.

1981-01-01

353

Prelaunch Calibrations of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission and Earth Observing System Morning (EOS-AM1) Spacecraft Thermistor Bolometer Sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) spacecraft scanning thermistor bolometer sensors measure earth radiances in the broadband shortwave solar (O.3 - 5.0 micron and total (0.3 to 100 microns) spectral bands as well as in the 8-12 microns water vapor window spectral band. On November 27, 1997, the launch of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft placed the first set of CERES sensors into orbit, and 30 days later, the sensors initiated operational measurements of the earth radiance fields. In 1998, the Earth Observing System morning (EOS-AM1) spacecraft will place the second and third sensor sets into orbit. The prelaunch CERES sensors' count conversion coefficients (gains and zero-radiance offsets) were determined in vacuum ground facilities. The gains were tied radiometrically to the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90). The gain determinations included the spectral properties (reflectance, transmittance, emittance, etc.) of both the sources and sensors as well as the in-field-of-view (FOV) and out-of-FOV sensor responses. The resulting prelaunch coefficients for the TRMM and EOS-AM1 sensors are presented. Inflight calibration systems and on-orbit calibration approaches are described, which are being used to determine the temporal stabilities of the sensors' gains and offsets from prelaunch calibrations through on-orbit measurements. Analyses of the TRMM prelaunch and on-orbit calibration results indicate that the sensors have retained their ties to ITS-90 at accuracy levels better than /- 0.3% between the 1995 prelaunch and 1997 on-orbit calibrations.

Lee, Robert B., III; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Bitting, Herbert C.; Crommelynck, Dominique A. H.; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Priestley, Kory J.; Smith, G. Louis; Thomas, Susan; Thornhill, K. Lee; Wilson, Robert S.

1998-01-01

354

Floating Loop System For Cooling Integrated Motors And Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant  

DOEpatents

A floating loop vehicle component cooling and air-conditioning system having at least one compressor for compressing cool vapor refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one condenser for condensing the hot vapor refrigerant into hot liquid refrigerant by exchanging heat with outdoor air; at least one floating loop component cooling device for evaporating the hot liquid refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one expansion device for expanding the hot liquid refrigerant into cool liquid refrigerant; at least one air conditioning evaporator for evaporating the cool liquid refrigerant into cool vapor refrigerant by exchanging heat with indoor air; and piping for interconnecting components of the cooling and air conditioning system.

Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W [Kingston, TN; Coomer, Chester [Knoxville, TN; Marlino, Laura D [Oak Ridge, TN

2006-02-07

355

Review and Projections of Integrated Cooling Systems for Three-Dimensional  

E-print Network

and integrated cooling systems. For heat fluxes of 50­100 W/cm2 on each side of a chip in a 3D IC package, the current single-phase cooling technology is projected to pro- vide adequate cooling, albeit with high , significant changes need to be made in both electrical and cooling technologies through a new level

Kandlikar, Satish

356

Solar heating and cooling technical data and systems analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The acquisition and processing of selected parametric data for inclusion in a computerized Data Base using the Marshall Information Retrieval and Data System (MIRADS) developed by NASA-MSFC is discussed. This data base provides extensive technical and socioeconomic information related to solar energy heating and cooling on a national scale. A broadly based research approach was used to assist in the support of program management and the application of a cost-effective program for solar energy development and demonstration.

Christensen, D. L.

1976-01-01

357

Performance assessment of hybrid desiccant cooling system at various climates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our work, operation of hybrid desiccant cooling system (HDCS) has been investigated based on experimental studies. Different\\u000a climates have been created by changing the temperature and humidity of HDCS inlet air, using an electrical heater and a centrifuge\\u000a humidifier. Input energies, temperature of various points, and their relative humidity have been measured at the created climates.\\u000a Coefficient of performance

Mohsen Ali Mandegari; Hassan Pahlavanzadeh

2010-01-01

358

POOL WATER TREATMENT AND COOLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

SciTech Connect

The Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System is located in the Waste Handling Building (WHB), and is comprised of various process subsystems designed to support waste handling operations. This system maintains the pool water temperature within an acceptable range, maintains water quality standards that support remote underwater operations and prevent corrosion, detects leakage from the pool liner, provides the capability to remove debris from the pool, controls the pool water level, and helps limit radiological exposure to personnel. The pool structure and liner, pool lighting, and the fuel staging racks in the pool are not within the scope of the Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System. Pool water temperature control is accomplished by circulating the pool water through heat exchangers. Adequate circulation and mixing of the pool water is provided to prevent localized thermal hotspots in the pool. Treatment of the pool water is accomplished by a water treatment system that circulates the pool water through filters, and ion exchange units. These water treatment units remove radioactive and non-radioactive particulate and dissolved solids from the water, thereby providing the water clarity needed to conduct waste handling operations. The system also controls pool water chemistry to prevent advanced corrosion of the pool liner, pool components, and fuel assemblies. Removal of radioactivity from the pool water contributes to the project ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) goals. A leak detection system is provided to detect and alarm leaks through the pool liner. The pool level control system monitors the water level to ensure that the minimum water level required for adequate radiological shielding is maintained. Through interface with a demineralized water system, adequate makeup is provided to compensate for loss of water inventory through evaporation and waste handling operations. Interface with the Site Radiological Monitoring System provides continuous radiological monitoring of the pool water. The Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System, Site-Generated Radiological Waste Handling System, Site Radiological Monitoring System, Waste Handling Building Electrical System, Site Water System, and the Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System.

V. King

2000-06-19

359

A Simple and Intuitive Graphical Approach to the Design of Thermoelectric Cooling Systems  

E-print Network

systems (heatsink and fan) are not powerful enough to cope with the task of cooling a variety of modern, possibly with a fan, with thermal resistance k, (K/W). The active cooling system (Fig. 1b) uses an energyA Simple and Intuitive Graphical Approach to the Design of Thermoelectric Cooling Systems Simon

360

A fast spectrum heat pipe cooled thermionic power system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper summarizes the design and performance characteristics of a heat pipe cooled thermionic (HPTI) power system being developed by a team headed by Rockwell International and General Atomics (GA). The design utilizes multicell, in-core thermionic fuel elements (TFEs) in a fast spectrum reactor core that is passively cooled by in-core heat pipes. The fast spectrum promotes competitive mass scalability over the power range of interest for future military application of 10 to 100 kWe without changing basic components or technologies. The number of TFEs and companion uranium nitride fuel elements are merely varied to achieve the critical mass requirements for each power level. The redundant in-core heat pipes in conjunction with an internally redundant heat pipe radiator help assure meeting key design goals for no single point failures and high survivability to both natural and hostile threats. These attractive attributes are achieved using already developed or under development technology.

Mills, Joseph C.; Determan, William R.; Van Hagan, Thomas H.; Wuchte, Thomas, Captain

1992-01-01

361

D0 Silicon Upgrad: D0 Silicon Cooling System  

SciTech Connect

The cooling system design is not complete. This paper lays out the general design and some of the design calculations that have been performed up to this date. Further refinement will be performed. This is especially true in the piping layout, piping insulation and detector manifold areas. The silicon detector is cooled by means of a coolant in the beryllium channels that also act as the primary supporting device for the silicon ladders and wedges. The coolant is water with ethylene glycol added as a freezing point depressant. The glycol concentration in the coolant is 30% by weight resulting in a freezing point of approximately -15 C. If the water/glycol is not sufficient for maintaining the desired detector temperature the concentration of the water/glycol may be changed or an alternative coolant may be used.

Squires, B.; /Fermilab

1998-07-14

362

CFD Based Design for Automotive Engine Cooling Fan Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cutting down fan system development costs, improving quality, and\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009increasing fan efficiency is a challenge that is now being addressed\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009by the engine cooling engineers. In order to attain such a compelling\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009goal, a Virtual Prototyping approach has been adopted, mainly based\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)[ 7 ].\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009For the development of the fans used in the engine cooling

Éric Coggiola; Bruno Dessale; Stéphane Moreau; Robert Broberg; Farid Bakir

1998-01-01

363

Project S'COOL  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Students Clouds Observations On-Line or S'COOL project was piloted in 1997. It was created with the idea of using students to serve as one component of the validation for the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument which was launched with the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) in November, 1997. As part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise CERES is interested in the role clouds play in regulating our climate. Over thirty schools became involved in the initial thrust of the project. The CERES instrument detects the location of clouds and identifies their physical properties. S'COOL students coordinate their ground truth observations with the exact overpass of the satellite at their location. Their findings regarding cloud type, height, fraction and opacity as well as surface conditions are then reported to the NASA Langley Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data is then accessible to both the CERES team for validation and to schools for educational application via the Internet. By March of 1998 ninety-three schools, in nine countries had enrolled in the S'COOL project. Joining the United States participants were from schools in Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland. The project is gradually becoming the global project envisioned by the project s creators. As students obtain the requested data useful for the scientists, it was hoped that students with guidance from their instructors would have opportunity and motivation to learn more about clouds and atmospheric science as well.

Green, Carolyn J.; Chambers, Lin H.

1998-01-01

364

Active cooling for downhole instrumentation: Preliminary analysis and system selection  

SciTech Connect

A feasibility study and a series of preliminary designs and analyses were done to identify candidate processes or cycles for use in active cooling systems for downhole electronic instruments. A matrix of energy types and their possible combinations was developed and the energy conversion process for each pari was identified. The feasibility study revealed conventional as well as unconventional processes and possible refrigerants and identified parameters needing further clarifications. A conceptual design or series od oesigns for each system was formulated and a preliminary analysis of each design was completed. The resulting coefficient of performance for each system was compared with the Carnot COP and all systems were ranked by decreasing COP. The system showing the best combination of COP, exchangeability to other operating conditions, failure mode, and system serviceability is chosen for use as a downhole refrigerator. 85 refs., 48 figs., 33 tabs.

Bennett, G.A.

1988-03-01

365

System Study: Reactor Core Isolation Cooling 1998–2012  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) system at 31 U.S. commercial boiling water reactors. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2012 for selected components were obtained from the Equipment Performance and Information Exchange (EPIX). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing trend was identified in the HPCI results. Statistically significant decreasing trends were identified for RCIC start-only and 8-hour trends.

T. E. Wierman

2013-10-01

366

System and method for cooling a super-conducting device  

DOEpatents

A system and method for cooling a superconductive rotor coil. The system comprises a rotatable shaft coupled to the superconductive rotor coil. The rotatable shaft may comprise an axial passageway extending through the rotatable shaft and a first passageway extending through a wall of the rotatable shaft to the axial passageway. The axial passageway and the first passageway are operable to convey a cryogenic fluid to the superconductive rotor coil through the wall of the rotatable shaft. A cryogenic transfer coupling may be provided to supply cryogenic fluid to the first passageway.

Bray, James William (Niskayuna, NY); Steinbach, Albert Eugene (Schenectady, NY); Dawson, Richard Nils (Voorheesville, NY); Laskaris, Evangelos Trifon (Schenectady, NY); Huang, Xianrul (Clifton Park, NY)

2008-01-08

367

Modular cogeneration in district heating and cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

The use of prepackaged cogeneration systems of modular size (100 kWe - 10 MWe) in conjunction with district heating and cooling is proposed as a way to enhance the energy conservation potential of both cogeneration and district energy systems. This report examines the technical and institutional aspects of this marriage of technologies, and develops a research agenda whose goal is to define this potential use of cogeneration more accurately and to develop the generic technology base needed to bring it to actuality. 11 refs.

Andrews, J.W.; Aalto, P.; Gleason, T.C.J.; Skalafuris, A.J.

1987-12-01

368

Passive-solar directional-radiating cooling system  

DOEpatents

A radiative cooling system for use with an ice-making system having a radiating surface aimed at the sky for radiating energy at one or more wavelength bands for which the atmosphere is transparent and a cover thermally isolated from the radiating surface and transparent at least to the selected wavelength or wavelengths, the thermal isolation reducing the formation of condensation on the radiating surface and/or cover and permitting the radiation to continue when the radiating surface is below the dewpoint of the atmosphere, and a housing supporting the radiating surface, cover and heat transfer means to an ice storage reservoir.

Hull, J.R.; Schertz, W.W.

1985-06-27

369

Passive-solar directional-radiating cooling system  

DOEpatents

A radiative cooling system for use with an ice-making system having a radiating surface aimed at the sky for radiating energy at one or more wavelength bands for which the atmosphere is transparent and a cover thermally isolated from the radiating surface and transparent at least to the selected wavelength or wavelengths, the thermal isolation reducing the formation of condensation on the radiating surface and/or cover and permitting the radiation to continue when the radiating surface is below the dewpoint of the atmosphere, and a housing supporting the radiating surface, cover and heat transfer means to an ice storage reservoir.

Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Schertz, William W. (Batavia, IL)

1986-01-01

370

A gas-cooled reactor surface power system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A human outpost on Mars requires plentiful power to assure survival of the astronauts. Anywhere from 50 to 500 kW of electric power (kWe) will be needed, depending on the number of astronauts, level of scientific activity, and life-cycle closure desired. This paper describes a 250-kWe power system based on a gas-cooled nuclear reactor with a recuperated closed Brayton cycle conversion system. The design draws upon the extensive data and engineering experience developed under the various high-temperature gas cooled reactor programs and under the SP-100 program. The reactor core is similar in power and size to the research reactors found on numerous university campuses. The fuel is uranium nitride clad in Nb1%Zr, which has been extensively tested under the SP-100 program. The fuel rods are arranged in a hexagonal array within a BeO block. The BeO softens the spectrum, allowing better use of the fuel and stabilizing the geometry against deformation during impact or other loadings. The system has a negative temperature feedback coefficient so that the power level will automatically follow a variable load without the need for continuous adjustment of control elements. Waste heat is removed by an air-cooled heat exchanger using cold Martian air. The amount of radioactivity in the reactor at launch is very small (less than a Curie, and about equal to a truckload of uranium ore). The system will need to be engineered so that criticality can not occur for any launch accident. This system is also adaptable for electric propulsion or life-support during transit to and from Mars.

Lipinski, Ronald J.; Wright, Steven A.; Lenard, Roger X.; Harms, Gary A.

1999-01-01

371

A Gas-Cooled Reactor Surface Power System  

SciTech Connect

A human outpost on Mars requires plentiful power to assure survival of the astronauts. Anywhere from 50 to 500 kW of electric power (kWe) will be needed, depending on the number of astronauts, level of scientific activity, and life- cycle closure desired. This paper describes a 250-kWe power system based on a gas-cooled nuclear reactor with a recuperated closed Brayton cycle conversion system. The design draws upon the extensive data and engineering experience developed under the various high-temperature gas cooled reactor programs and under the SP-100 program. The reactor core is similar in power and size to the research reactors found on numerous university campuses. The fuel is uranium nitide clad in Nb 1 %Zr, which has been extensively tested under the SP-I 00 program The fiel rods are arranged in a hexagonal array within a BeO block. The BeO softens the spectrum, allowing better use of the fbel and stabilizing the geometty against deformation during impact or other loadings. The system has a negative temperature feedback coefficient so that the power level will automatically follow a variable load without the need for continuous adjustment of control elements. Waste heat is removed by an air-cooled heat exchanger using cold Martian air. The amount of radioactivity in the reactor at launch is very small (less than a Curie, and about equal to a truckload of uranium ore). The system will need to be engineered so that criticality cannot occur for any launch accident. This system is also adaptable for electric propulsion or life-support during transit to and from Mars.

Harms, G.A.; Lenard, R.X.; Lipinski, R.J.; Wright, S.A.

1998-11-09

372

System design package for the solar heating and cooling central data processing system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The central data processing system provides the resources required to assess the performance of solar heating and cooling systems installed at remote sites. These sites consist of residential, commercial, government, and educational types of buildings, and the solar heating and cooling systems can be hot-water, space heating, cooling, and combinations of these. The instrumentation data associated with these systems will vary according to the application and must be collected, processed, and presented in a form which supports continuity of performance evaluation across all applications. Overall software system requirements were established for use in the central integration facility which transforms raw data collected at remote sites into performance evaluation information for assessing the performance of solar heating and cooling systems.

1978-01-01

373

Radiant energy to electric energy converter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiant energy is converted into electric energy by irradiating a capacitor including an ionic dielectric. The dielectric is a sintered crystal superionic conductor, e.g., lanthanum trifluoride, lanthanum trichloride, or silver bromide, so that a multiplicity of crystallites exist between electrodes of the capacitor. The radiant energy cyclically irradiates the dielectric so that the dielectric exhibits a cyclic photocapacitive like effect. Adjacent crystallites have abutting surfaces that enable the crystallites to effectively form a multiplicity of series capacitor elements between the electrodes. Each of the capacitor elements has a dipole layer only on or near its surface. The capacitor is initially charged to a voltage just below the dielectric breakdown voltage by connecting it across a DC source causing a current to flow through a charging resistor to the dielectric. The device can be utilized as a radiant energy detector or as a solar energy cell.

Sher, Arden (Inventor)

1980-01-01

374

Laminated turbine vane design and fabrication. [utilizing film cooling as a cooling system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A turbine vane and associated endwalls designed for advanced gas turbine engine conditions are described. The vane design combines the methods of convection cooling and selective areas of full coverage film cooling. The film cooling technique is utilized on the leading edge, pressure side, and endwall regions. The turbine vane involves the fabrication of airfoils from a stack of laminates with cooling passages photoetched on the surface. Cold flow calibration tests, a thermal analysis, and a stress analysis were performed on the turbine vanes.

Hess, W. G.

1979-01-01

375

Heat transfer in minichannels and microchannels CPU cooling systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A CPU functioning is extremely complex and it was experimentally revealed that a direct dependence between working speed and cooling degree exists. When the contact between two surfaces is imperfect, the specific thermal resistance of interface layer suddenly increases, so it became of frequent use to apply diverse materials between the CPU and radiator. These materials should both fill the gaps occurred due to surfaces roughness, material's fatigue, loading pressure etc. and transfer as much heat as possible during a short period of time. In order to ensure an appropriate cooling, other complementary methods are used, such as coolers, water or other liquids cooling, Peltier effect and even freon micro-refrigerating systems. In either situation, there are micro or nano channels through which fluids flow and thermal exchange takes place. The present paper aims to analyze the heat transfer under the mentioned conditions, considering the micro or nano scale dimensions of the channels. The thermal calculus can differ with respect to Kn number and for this case for thermal modelling diverse mathematical models can be realized. The model used is validated by comparing the results to numerical results obtained by authors from literature.

Mihai, Ioan C.

2009-01-01

376

Modification of the Core Cooling System of TRIGA 2000 Reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To accomplish safety requirements, a set of actions has to be performed following the recommendations of the IAEA safety series 35 applied to research reactor. Such actions are considered in modernization of the old system, improving the core cooling system and safety evaluations. Due to the complexity of the process and the difficulty in putting the apparatus in the reactor core, analytical and experimental study on the determination of flow and temperature distribution in the whole coolant channel are difficult to be done. In the present work, a numerical study of flow and temperature distribution in the coolant channel of TRIGA 2000 has been carried out using CFD package. For this study, simulations were carried out on 3-D tested model. The model consists of the reactor tank, thermal and thermalizing column, reflector, rotary specimen rack, chimney, fuel element, primary pipe, diffuser, beam tube and a part of the core are constructed by 1.50 million unstructured tetrahedral cell elements. The results show that for the initial condition (116 fuel elements in the core) and for the inlet temperature of 24°C and the primary velocity of 5.6 m/s, there no boiling phenomena occur in the coolant channel. Due to this result, it is now possible to improve the core cooling system of TRIGA 2000 reactor. Meanwhile, forced flow from the diffuser system only affected the flow pattern in the outside of chimney and put on a small effect to the fluid flow's velocity in the inside of chimney.

Umar, Efrizon; Fiantini, Rosalina

2010-06-01

377

Definition of the Active Cooling System for the Space Instrument CIVA\\/Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

CIVA\\/Mars is a space miniaturized spectral imaging microscope. It is designed to in-situ analyze samples on Mars surface. It requires the use of a double cooling system : a passive cooling for the global instrument which will be maintained at a temperature higher than 160 K and an active cooling system for the IR MCT detector matrix which must be

Sujit Lamartinie; Jean-Pierre Bibring; Alain Soufflot

2003-01-01

378

40 CFR 749.68 - Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems...CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT WATER TREATMENT CHEMICALS Air Conditioning...749.68 Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling...

2013-07-01

379

40 CFR 749.68 - Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems...CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT WATER TREATMENT CHEMICALS Air Conditioning...749.68 Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling...

2011-07-01

380

40 CFR 749.68 - Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems...CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT WATER TREATMENT CHEMICALS Air Conditioning...749.68 Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling...

2014-07-01

381

40 CFR 749.68 - Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems...CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT WATER TREATMENT CHEMICALS Air Conditioning...749.68 Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling...

2012-07-01

382

Options for thermal energy storage in solar-cooling systems. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The current effort concentrates on design requirements of thermal storage subsystems for active solar cooling systems. The use of thermal storage with respect to absorption, Rankine, and desiccant cooling technologies is examined.

Curran, H.M.; DeVries, J.

1981-05-01

383

40 CFR 749.68 - Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems...CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT WATER TREATMENT CHEMICALS Air Conditioning...749.68 Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling...

2010-07-01

384

System and method for cooling a superconducting rotary machine  

DOEpatents

A system for cooling a superconducting rotary machine includes a plurality of sealed siphon tubes disposed in balanced locations around a rotor adjacent to a superconducting coil. Each of the sealed siphon tubes includes a tubular body and a heat transfer medium disposed in the tubular body that undergoes a phase change during operation of the machine to extract heat from the superconducting coil. A siphon heat exchanger is thermally coupled to the siphon tubes for extracting heat from the siphon tubes during operation of the machine.

Ackermann, Robert Adolf (Schenectady, NY); Laskaris, Evangelos Trifon (Schenectady, NY); Huang, Xianrui (Clifton Park, NY); Bray, James William (Niskayuna, NY)

2011-08-09

385

A Cooling System for the EAPU Shuttle Upgrade  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Shuttle orbiter currently uses hydrazine-powered APU's for powering its hydraulic system pumps. To enhance vehicle safety and reliability, NASA is pursuing an APU upgrade where the hydrazine powered turbine is replaced by an electric motor pump and battery power supply. This EAPU (Electric APU) upgrade presents several thermal control challenges most notably the new requirement for moderate temperature control of high-power electron ics at 132 of (55.6 C). This paper describes how the existing Water Spray Boiler (WSB), which currently cools the hydraulic fluid and APU lubrication oil, is being modified to provide EAPU thermal management.

Tongue, Stephen; Guyette, Greg; Irbeck, Bradley

2001-01-01

386

What is Success? Evaluating S'COOL, an Educational Outreach Project Focused on NASA's CERES Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Students' Cloud Observations On-Line (S'COOL) Project involved students in K-16 as ground truth observers for a NASA Earth-Observing satellite instrument. The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument allows scientists to study the Earth's energy budget and how clouds affect it. Student reports of cloud conditions help scientists verify their algorithms and allow students to be involved in obtaining and analyzing real scientific data. The presentation contains 23 slides.

Chambers, Lin H.; Costulis, P. Kay; Young, David F.; Green, Carolyn J.; Stoddard, Douglas B.; Haberer, Susan J.

2000-01-01

387

Radiant energy receiver having improved coolant flow control means  

DOEpatents

An improved coolant flow control for use in radiant energy receivers of the type having parallel flow paths is disclosed. A coolant performs as a temperature dependent valve means, increasing flow in the warmer flow paths of the receiver, and impeding flow in the cooler paths of the receiver. The coolant has a negative temperature coefficient of viscosity which is high enough such that only an insignificant flow through the receiver is experienced at the minimum operating temperature of the receiver, and such that a maximum flow is experienced at the maximum operating temperature of the receiver. The valving is accomplished by changes in viscosity of the coolant in response to the coolant being heated and cooled. No remotely operated valves, comparators or the like are needed.

Hinterberger, H.

1980-10-29

388

Efficacy of different antifouling treatments for seawater cooling systems.  

PubMed

In an industrial seawater cooling system, the effects of three different antifouling treatments, viz. sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), aliphatic amines (Mexel®432) and UV radiation, on the characteristics of the fouling formed were evaluated. For this study a portable pilot plant, as a side-stream monitoring system and seawater cooling system, was employed. The pilot plant simulated a power plant steam condenser, having four titanium tubes under different treatment patterns, where fouling progression could be monitored. The nature of the fouling obtained was chiefly inorganic, showing a clear dependence on the antifouling treatment employed. After 72 days the tubes under treatment showed a reduction in the heat transfer resistance (R) of around 70% for NaClO, 48% for aliphatic amines and 55% for UV, with respect to the untreated tube. The use of a logistic model was very useful for predicting the fouling progression and the maximum asymptotic value of the increment in the heat transfer resistance (?R(max)). The apparent thermal conductivity (?) of the fouling layer showed a direct relationship with the percentage of organic matter in the collected fouling. The characteristics and mode of action of the different treatments used led to fouling with diverse physicochemical properties. PMID:21038152

López-Galindo, Cristina; Casanueva, José F; Nebot, Enrique

2010-11-01

389

A water-cooled mirror system for synchrotron radiation  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the design and performance of a directly-cooled soft x-ray mirror system which has been developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for synchrotron radiation beam lines in which mirror thermal distortion must be minimized for acceptable optical performance. Two similar mirror systems are being built: the first mirror has been installed and operated at the National Synchrotron Light Source on the X-17T mini-undulator beam line and will be moved to the permanent X-1 beam line when a new, more powerful undulator is installed there. The second system is being built for installation at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory on Beam Line VI, where the total absorbed power on the mirror may be as high as 2400 W with peak absorbed power density of 520 W/cm/sup 2/. Direct cooling by convection is achieved using internal water channels in a brazed, dispersion-strengthened copper and OFHC copper substrate with a polished electroless-nickel surface. A simple kinematic linkage and flexural pivot mounting provide for mirror positioning about two rotational axes that coincide with the optical surface. Surface figure metrology, optical configurations, and tolerancing are also discussed. 11 refs., 8 figs.

DiGennaro, R.; Gee, B.; Guigli, J.; Hogrefe, H.; Howells, M.; Rarback, H.

1987-06-01

390

Fact Sheet Radiant barriers and interior radiation control  

E-print Network

a radiant barrier product · Installation options · Important Non-Energy Considerations More about heat information about radiant barriers and the analysis used to prepare this Fact Sheet · Have energy savings been. If you are a homeowner considering radiant barriers, please read: · How do radiation barriers save energy

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

391

Experimental and CFD Analysis of Advanced Convective Cooling Systems  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to study the fundamental physical phenomena in the reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) of very high-temperature reactors (VHTRs). One of the primary design objectives is to assure that RCCS acts as an ultimate heat sink capable of maintaining thermal integrity of the fuel, vessel, and equipment within the reactor cavity for the entire spectrum of postulated accident scenarios. Since construction of full-scale experimental test facilities to study these phenomena is impractical, it is logical to expect that computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations will play a key role in the RCCS design process. An important question then arises: To what extent are conventional CFD codes able to accurately capture the most important flow phenomena, and how can they be modified to improve their quantitative predictions? Researchers are working to tackle this problem in two ways. First, in the experimental phase, the research team plans to design and construct an innovative platform that will provide a standard test setting for validating CFD codes proposed for the RCCS design. This capability will significantly advance the state of knowledge in both liquid-cooled and gas-cooled (e.g., sodium fast reactor) reactor technology. This work will also extend flow measurements to micro-scale levels not obtainable in large-scale test facilities, thereby revealing previously undetectable phenomena that will complement the existing infrastructure. Second, in the computational phase of this work, numerical simulation of the flow and temperature profiles will be performed using advanced turbulence models to simulate the complex conditions of flows in critical zones of the cavity. These models will be validated and verified so that they can be implemented into commercially available CFD codes. Ultimately, the results of these validation studies can then be used to enable a more accurate design and safety evaluation of systems in actual nuclear power applications (both during normal operation and accident scenarios).

Yassin A. Hassan; Victor M. Ugaz

2012-06-27

392

Shuttle cryogenic supply system optimization study. Volume 4: Cryogenic cooling in environmental control systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of cryogenic fluid cooling in the environmental control system of the space shuttle was conducted. The technique for treating the cryogenic fluid storage and supply tanks and subsystems as integrated systems was developed. It was concluded that a basic incompatibility exists between the heat generated and the cryogen usage rate and cryogens cannot be used to absorb the generated heat. The use of radiators and accumulators to provide additional cooling capability is recommended.

1973-01-01

393

Biofouling studies with methylchloro/methylisothiazolone in model cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

Model systems were developed to evaluate microbial growth on surfaces and to determine the efficacy of biocides. Dynamic systems were used to simulate key operating parameters in industrial cooling towers. Biofouling was measured on wood, stainless steel, and heat transfer surfaces. Biocide testing in these model systems showed that methylchloro-methylisothiazolone was effective in controlling microbial growth in biofilms. The efficacy of the isothiazolone biocide was related to the treatment level and the nutrient content of the recirculating water. Biofilm control was monitored using viable counts of microorganisms as well as measuring specific biomass components (protein and carbohydrate) on surfaces. An on-line fouling monitor (heat exchanger) confirmed that low biofilm growth correlated with low heat transfer resistance.

Williams, T.M.; Holz, J.W. Jr. [Rohm and Haas Co., Spring House, PA (United States)

1998-12-31

394

Superconducting helical solenoid systems for muon cooling experiment at Fermilab  

SciTech Connect

Novel configurations of superconducting magnet system for Muon Beam Cooling Experiment is under design at Fermilab. The magnet system has to generate longitudinal and transverse dipole and quadrupole helical magnetic fields providing a muon beam motion along helical orbit. It was found that such complicated field configuration can be formed by a set of circular coils shifted in transverse directions in such a way that their centers lay on the center of the helical beam orbit. Closed beam orbit configurations were also proposed and investigated. This paper describes the magnetic and mechanical designs and parameters of such magnetic system based on a NbTi Rutherford type cable. The helical solenoid fabrication, assembly and quench protection issues are presented.

Kashikhin, Vladimir S.; Andreev, Nikolai; /Fermilab; Johnson, Rolland P.; /MUONS Inc., Batavia; Kashikhin, Vadim V.; Lamm, Michael J.; Romanov, Gennady; Yonehara, Katsuya; Zlobin, Alexander V.; /Fermilab

2007-08-01

395

THERMAL DESIGN OF THE ITER VACUUM VESSEL COOLING SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

RELAP5-3D models of the ITER Vacuum Vessel (VV) Primary Heat Transfer System (PHTS) have been developed. The design of the cooling system is described in detail, and RELAP5 results are presented. Two parallel pump/heat exchanger trains comprise the design one train is for full-power operation and the other is for emergency operation or operation at decay heat levels. All the components are located inside the Tokamak building (a significant change from the original configurations). The results presented include operation at full power, decay heat operation, and baking operation. The RELAP5-3D results confirm that the design can operate satisfactorily during both normal pulsed power operation and decay heat operation. All the temperatures in the coolant and in the different system components are maintained within acceptable operating limits.

Carbajo, Juan J [ORNL] [ORNL; Yoder Jr, Graydon L [ORNL] [ORNL; Kim, Seokho H [ORNL] [ORNL

2010-01-01

396

Instruments for measuring radiant thermal fluxes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An absolute two-sided radiometer, designed on the principle of replacing absorbed radiant energy with electrical energy, is described. The sensitive element of the detector is a thermoelectric transducer of thermal flux. The fabrication technology, methods of measurement, technical characteristics, and general operation of the instrument are presented.

Gerashenko, O. A.; Sazhina, S. A.

1974-01-01

397

Thermal radiation shields for radiant coolers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal radiation shields in the form of low-emissivity surfaces spaced on low-conductance supports can be used to advantage as a replacement for multilayer insulation in radiant coolers. A view factor between adjacent shields of less than unity increases the insulation factor when the surfaces terminate with an external view. An analytical model that accounts for unequal areas as well as

R. V. Annable

1976-01-01

398

Heat transfer characteristics of porous radiant burners  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a numerical study of the heat transfer characteristics of porous radiant burners, which have significant advantages over conventional burners. The heat transfer characteristics are investigated using a one-dimensional conduction, convection, and radiation model. The combustion phenomenon is modeled as spatially dependent heat generation. Nonlocal thermal equilibrium between the gas and solid phases is accounted for by using

T. W. Tong; S. B. Sathe

1991-01-01

399

Optimized readout system for cooled optically stimulated luminescence  

SciTech Connect

Cooled Optically Stimulated Luminescence (COSL) in CaF{sub 2}:Mn is an ionizing radiation dosimetry method recently developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). In this method CaF{sub 2}:Mn crystals irradiated by gamma radiation at room temperature are cooled to liquid nitrogen temperature (77K), stimulated by ultraviolet laser light at 326 nm, and allowed to warm to room temperature. Light emission proportional to the gamma exposure occurs as the TLD warms from liquid nitrogen temperature to room temperature. The new method is an example of a highly sensitive phototransfer technique which could form the basis for future radiation dosimetry applications. Measurements to date have shown high potential for measuring gamma exposures in the range of 10 {mu}R. The high sensitivity of the COSL technique is due in part to the larger quantum efficiency of radiative recombination at low temperatures and to the complete absence of the incandescent background associated with conventional thermoluminescent readout methods. Along with the potential for a system which is more sensitive than thermoluminescent readers, multiple COSL readouts can be performed with minimal reduction in the COSL intensity. The multiple readout capability can serve as a possible permanent dosimetry record, thus allowing the reanalysis of a questionable reading. In an attempt to optimize the sensitivity of the COSL method, a new readout system is being developed. 8 refs., 7 figs.

Miller, S.D.; Eschbach, P.A.

1990-09-01

400

e-Cooling High Cavity & Cryomodule Systems, Inc.  

E-print Network

. Slide 10 of 24 Helium Vessel Assembly Tuner bellows Helium vessel head weldment, tuner-end Cavity Warm Nb55Ti flange Vacuum vessel flange Warm beam tube Bellows Cooling lines Cooled beam tube Beam tube

401

Design and evaluation of active cooling systems for Mach 6 cruise vehicle wings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Active cooling systems, which included transpiration, film, and convective cooling concepts, are examined. Coolants included hydrogen, helium, air, and water. Heat shields, radiation barriers, and thermal insulation are considered to reduce heat flow to the cooling systems. Wing sweep angles are varied from 0 deg to 75 deg and wing leading edge radii of 0.05 inch and 2.0 inches are examined. Structural temperatures are varied to allow comparison of aluminum alloy, titanium alloy, and superalloy structural materials. Cooled wing concepts are compared among themselves, and with the uncooled concept on the basis of structural weight, cooling system weight, and coolant weight.

Mcconarty, W. A.; Anthony, F. M.

1971-01-01

402

Memory device for two-dimensional radiant energy array computers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A memory device for two dimensional radiant energy array computers was developed, in which the memory device stores digital information in an input array of radiant energy digital signals that are characterized by ordered rows and columns. The memory device contains a radiant energy logic storing device having a pair of input surface locations for receiving a pair of separate radiant energy digital signal arrays and an output surface location adapted to transmit a radiant energy digital signal array. A regenerative feedback device that couples one of the input surface locations to the output surface location in a manner for causing regenerative feedback is also included

Schaefer, D. H.; Strong, J. P., III (inventors)

1977-01-01

403

Infiltration Investigation of a Radiantly Heated or Cooled Office  

E-print Network

models can be classified as single zone models and multizone models. A widely used multizone model is COMIS which was developed by Feustel and Raynor-Hoosen [1], and improved by Feustel [2]. The single zone model LBNL model developed by Sherman... Concentration Method paper provides an overview of previous infiltration studies of the space, analyzes blower door measurement results and evaluates the infiltration by the LBNL model. This paper also compares infiltration measurements in the space...

Archer, D. H.; Gong, X.; Claridge, D. E.

2007-01-01

404

Solar heating and cooling: Technical data and systems analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar energy research is reported including climatic data, architectural data, heating and cooling equipment, thermal loads, and economic data. Lists of data sources presented include: selected data sources for solar energy heating and cooling; bibliography of solar energy, and other energy sources; sources for manufacturing and sales, solar energy collectors; and solar energy heating and cooling projects.

Christensen, D. L.

1975-01-01

405

Optimization of water-cooled chiller system with load-based speed control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the energy performance of chiller and cooling tower systems integrated with variable condenser water flow and optimal speed control for tower fans and condenser water pumps. Thermodynamic-behaviour chiller and cooling tower models were developed to assess how different control methods of cooling towers and condenser water pumps influence the trade-off between the chiller power, pump power, fan

F. W. Yu; K. T. Chan

2008-01-01

406

Hybrid vapor compression refrigeration system with an integrated ejector cooling cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A refrigeration system was developed which combines a basic vapor compression refrigeration cycle with an ejector cooling cycle. The ejector cooling cycle is driven by the waste heat from the condenser in the vapor compression refrigeration cycle. The additional cooling capacity from the ejector cycle is directly input into the evaporator of the vapor compression refrigeration cycle. The governing equations

Yinhai Zhu; Peixue Jiang

407

OPTIMAL CONTROL OF THE COOLING SYSTEM IN HEAVY VEHICLES1 Niklas Petterssona,b  

E-print Network

actuators are electrically driven cooling fan and water pump, and the electrical generator. The problem. An electrically driven cooling fan and an electrically driven water pump, together with predicted externalOPTIMAL CONTROL OF THE COOLING SYSTEM IN HEAVY VEHICLES1 Niklas Petterssona,b , Karl Henrik

Johansson, Karl Henrik

408

Design and Development of Geothermal Cooling System for Composite Climatic Zone in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tropical climate buildings use about 70 % of operating energy for cooling of built environment. In composite climatic zone like Nagpur, Maharashtra, India several electro-mechanical cooling appliances viz., evaporative coolers, air conditioners, etc. are used. Application of geothermal cooling system is a very apt option for saving energy and reducing emission when compared to conventional cooling techniques. In the present work design methodology of geothermal cooling system is broadly elaborated and is applied to a case study of an educational building located in composite climate. The application of conventional and geothermal cooling systems is compared in terms of energy consumption. It is found that geothermal cooling system saves around 90 % of electricity as compared to air conditioner and 100 % of water as compared to evaporative coolers. This approach can further be extended for larger applications that will reduce consumption of energy and water in buildings.

Ralegaonkar, R.; Kamath, M. V.; Dakwale, V. A.

2014-09-01

409

Photometric Study of the Possible Cool Quadruple System PY Virginis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complete CCD photometric light curves in BV(RI)c bands obtained in 2012 for the short-period close binary system PY Virginis are presented. A new photometric analysis with the Wilson—Van Hamme code shows that PY Vir is an A-type marginal contact binary system. The absolute parameters of PY Vir are derived using spectroscopic and photometric solutions. Combining new determined times of minimum light with others published in the literature, the O - C diagram of the binary star is investigated. A periodic variation, with a period of 5.22(±0.05) years and an amplitude of 0.0075(±0.0004) days, was discovered. Since the spectrum of a third component has been detected by Rucinski et al., we consider this cyclic period oscillation to be the result of the light-time effect due to the presence of a third body. This third component may also be a binary itself. Therefore, PY Vir should be a quadruple system composed of two cool-type binary systems. This system is a good astrophysical laboratory to study the formation and evolution of close binaries and multiple systems.

Zhu, L. Y.; Qian, S. B.; Liu, N. P.; Liu, L.; Jiang, L. Q.

2013-02-01

410

Suboptimal on–off switching control strategies for chilled water cooling systems with storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dynamic model of vapour compression refrigeration system is developed. The overall model consists of the following basic components: a compressor, a condenser, an expansion valve, an evaporator, an evaporative cooler and a cool storage. The integrated system is referred to as chilled water cooling system with storage (CWCS). The mathematical modelling of the CWC system undertaken in this study

Wei-Ling Jian; M. Zaheeruddin

1998-01-01

411

Cryogenic cooling with cryocooler on a rotating system.  

PubMed

We developed a system that continuously maintains a cryocooler for long periods on a rotating table. A cryostat that holds the cryocooler is set on the table. A compressor is located on the ground and supplies high-purity (>99.999%) and high-pressure (1.7 MPa) helium gas and electricity to the cryocooler. The operation of the cryocooler and other instruments requires the development of interface components between the ground and rotating table. A combination of access holes at the center of the table and two rotary joints allows simultaneous circulation of electricity and helium gas. The developed system provides two innovative functions under the rotating condition, cooling from room temperature and the maintenance of a cold condition for long periods. We have confirmed these abilities as well as temperature stability under a condition of continuous rotation at 20 rpm. The developed system can be applied in various fields, e.g., in tests of Lorentz invariance, searches for axion, radio astronomy, and cosmology, and application of radar systems. In particular, there is a plan to use this system for a radio telescope observing cosmic microwave background radiation. PMID:23742598

Oguri, S; Choi, J; Kawai, M; Tajima, O

2013-05-01

412

Cryogenic cooling with cryocooler on a rotating system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a system that continuously maintains a cryocooler for long periods on a rotating table. A cryostat that holds the cryocooler is set on the table. A compressor is located on the ground and supplies high-purity (>99.999%) and high-pressure (1.7 MPa) helium gas and electricity to the cryocooler. The operation of the cryocooler and other instruments requires the development of interface components between the ground and rotating table. A combination of access holes at the center of the table and two rotary joints allows simultaneous circulation of electricity and helium gas. The developed system provides two innovative functions under the rotating condition, cooling from room temperature and the maintenance of a cold condition for long periods. We have confirmed these abilities as well as temperature stability under a condition of continuous rotation at 20 rpm. The developed system can be applied in various fields, e.g., in tests of Lorentz invariance, searches for axion, radio astronomy, and cosmology, and application of radar systems. In particular, there is a plan to use this system for a radio telescope observing cosmic microwave background radiation.

Oguri, S.; Choi, J.; Kawai, M.; Tajima, O.

2013-05-01

413

Introduce Freshness Estimate Function into Cooling System of Foods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cooling system controlled by the freshness estimate function to freshly store foods,was examined. To drive the freshness estimate expression,an experiment on storage of tuna was made and the following results were obtained. 1) Ratio of weight to initial weight,yield,was greatly influenced by conditions of humidity and velocity of air. 2) K value was not influenced by conditions of air velocity under 95-75% humidity and 0 -1m/s air velocity. 3) Change of color was influenced by conditions of humidity and velocity of air. So using weight of evaporated water in tuna as a function,relative expression of humidity and velocity of air for saving weight loss of tuna was induced.

Ishikawa, Makiko; Matsuoka, Fumio; Sugimoto, Takeshi

414

Sealed Battery Block Provided With A Cooling System  

SciTech Connect

The present invention relates to a sealed battery block operating at a pressure of at least 1 bar relative, the battery including a container made of a plastics material and made up of a lid and of a case subdivided into wells by at least one partition, said battery being provided with a cooling system including two cheek plates made of a plastics material and co-operating with the outside faces of respective ones of two opposite walls of said case, each cheek plate co-operating with the corresponding wall to define a compartment provided with a plurality of ribs forming baffles for fluid flow purposes, and with an inlet orifice and an outlet orifice for the fluid, said battery being characterized in that each of said ribs extends in a direction that forms an angle relative to the plane of said partition lying in the range 60.degree. to 90.degree..

Verhoog, Roelof (Bordeaux, FR); Barbotin, Jean-Loup (Pompignac, FR)

1999-11-16

415

Thermochemically recuperated and steam cooled gas turbine system  

DOEpatents

A gas turbine system in which the expanded gas from the turbine section is used to generate the steam in a heat recovery steam generator and to heat a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel and the steam in a reformer. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon gas to hydrogen and carbon monoxide for combustion in a combustor. A portion of the steam from the heat recovery steam generator is used to cool components, such as the stationary vanes, in the turbine section, thereby superheating the steam. The superheated steam is mixed into the hydrocarbon gas upstream of the reformer, thereby eliminating the need to raise the temperature of the expanded gas discharged from the turbine section in order to achieve effective conversion of the hydrocarbon gas.

Viscovich, Paul W. (Longwood, FL); Bannister, Ronald L. (Winter Springs, FL)

1995-01-01

416

Thermochemically recuperated and steam cooled gas turbine system  

DOEpatents

A gas turbine system is described in which the expanded gas from the turbine section is used to generate the steam in a heat recovery steam generator and to heat a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel and the steam in a reformer. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon gas to hydrogen and carbon monoxide for combustion in a combustor. A portion of the steam from the heat recovery steam generator is used to cool components, such as the stationary vanes, in the turbine section, thereby superheating the steam. The superheated steam is mixed into the hydrocarbon gas upstream of the reformer, thereby eliminating the need to raise the temperature of the expanded gas discharged from the turbine section in order to achieve effective conversion of the hydrocarbon gas. 4 figs.

Viscovich, P.W.; Bannister, R.L.

1995-07-11

417

Oil cooling system for a gas turbine engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gas turbine engine fuel delivery and control system is provided with means to recirculate all fuel in excess fuel control requirements back to the aircraft fuel tank. This increases the fuel pump heat sink and decreases the pump temperature rise without the addition of valving other than normally employed. A fuel/oil heat exchanger and associated circuitry is provided to maintain the hot engine oil in heat exchange relationship with the cool engine fuel. Where anti-icing of the fuel filter is required, means are provided to maintain the fuel temperature entering the filter at or above a minimum level to prevent freezing thereof. In one embodiment, a divider valve is provided to take all excess fuel from either upstream or downstream of the fuel filter and route it back to the tanks, the ratio of upstream to downstream extraction being a function of fuel pump discharge pressure.

Coffinberry, G. A.; Kast, H. B. (inventors)

1977-01-01

418

Cooling season study and economic analysis of a desiccant cooling system  

E-print Network

) 0. 35 m (1. 15 ft) 0. 35 m (1. 15 ft) 0. 3 mm (0. 01 in) 4 mm (0. 16 in) 1. 0 0. 8 Direct Evaporative Cooler Control capability 0. 75 On/Off Fans lf 0. 50 Energy Conversion Factor Assumption y 0. 34 23 Table 3. 2 Summary of Weather... entering the cooled space. T4 = T~ C QT~ Tnp) (2. 5) ~4 = ~~ - C. ik'll'~ ? '+or) (2. 6) The cooled space for this study is a 140 m' (1, 500 ft') house located in Houston, Texas. The residence houses four people. A full description of the house can...

Lee, James Howard

1992-01-01

419

A Microjet Array Cooling System for Thermal Management of High-Brightness LEDs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a microjet-based cooling system is proposed for the thermal management of high-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Preliminary experimental investigation and numerical simulation on such an active cooling system are conducted. In the experiment investigation, thermocouples are packaged with LED chips to measure the temperature and evaluate the cooling performance of the proposed system. The experimental results demonstrate that

Xiaobing Luo; Sheng Liu

2007-01-01

420

Optimum design of cooling water systems for energy and water conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Re-circulating cooling water systems (RCWSs) are widely used to reject waste process heat to the environment, conserve fresh water and reduce thermal pollution relative to once-through systems. Research on RCWS has mostly focused on individual components, cooling tower and heat-exchanger network. Kim and Smith [Kim, J.K. and Smith, R., 2001, Cooling water system design, Chem Eng Sci, 56(12): 3641–3658] developed

M. H. Panjeshahi; A. Ataei; M. Gharaie; R. Parand

2009-01-01

421

Consideration of sub-cooled LN2 circulation system for HTS power machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a sub-cooled liquid nitrogen (LN) circulation system for HTS power equipment. The planned circulation system consists of a sub-cool heat exchanger (subcooler) and a circulation pump. The sub-cooler will be connected to a neon turbo- Brayton cycle refrigerator with a cooling power of 2 kW at 65 K. Sub-cooled LN will be delivered into the sub-cooler by the pump and cooled within it. Sub-cooled LN is adequate fluid for cooling HTS power equipment, because its dielectric strength is high and it supports a large critical current. However, a possibility of LN solidification in the sub-cooler is a considerable issue. The refrigerator will produce cold neon gas of about 60 K, which is lower than the nitrogen freezing temperature of 63 K. Therefore, we designed two-stage heat exchangers which are based on a plate-fin type and a tube-intube type. Process simulations of those heat exchangers indicate that sub-cooled LN is not frozen in either sub-cooler. The plate-fin type sub-cooler is consequently adopted for its reliability and compactness. Furthermore, we found that a cooling system with a Brayton refrigerator has the same total cooling efficiency as a cooling system with a Stirling refrigerator.

Yoshida, Shigeru; Hirai, Hirokazu; Nara, N.; Nagasaka, T.; Hirokawa, M.; Okamoto, H.; Hayashi, H.; Shiohara, Y.

2012-06-01

422

Improved radiant burner material. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Under DOE/ERIP funds were made available to Superkinetic, Inc. for the development of an improved radiant burner material. Three single crystal ceramic fibers were produced and two fiber materials were made into felt for testing as radiant burner screens. The materials were alpha alumina and alpha silicon nitride. These fibers were bonded with a high temperature ceramic and made into a structurally sound trusswork like screen composed of million psi fiber members. These screens were about 5% solid for 95 porosity as needed to permit the flow of combustable natural gas and air mixture. Combustion test proved that they performed very satisfactory and better than the current state of art screen and showed no visable degrade after testing. It is recommended that more time and money be put into expanding this technology and test these new materials for their maximum temperature and durability for production applications that require better burner material.

Milewski, J.V.; Shoultz, R.A.; Bourque, M.M.; Milewski, E.B. [and others

1998-01-01

423

Cooling system having reduced mass pin fins for components in a gas turbine engine  

DOEpatents

A cooling system having one or more pin fins with reduced mass for a gas turbine engine is disclosed. The cooling system may include one or more first surfaces defining at least a portion of the cooling system. The pin fin may extend from the surface defining the cooling system and may have a noncircular cross-section taken generally parallel to the surface and at least part of an outer surface of the cross-section forms at least a quartercircle. A downstream side of the pin fin may have a cavity to reduce mass, thereby creating a more efficient turbine airfoil.

Lee, Ching-Pang; Jiang, Nan; Marra, John J

2014-03-11

424

The Thermal Hydraulic Test of the MEGAPIE Cooling System and System Code Validation  

SciTech Connect

The MEGAPIE project undertaking in Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) aims at design, building, operating and decommissioning a 1 MW liquid-metal spallation target. The design and manufacturing phases are almost finished. The target and the required ancillary systems were installed on a test facility called MEGAPIE Integral Test Stand (MITS). The cooling system is among the ancillary systems being tested. A series of thermal hydraulic tests were conducted for testing the main functions of the cooling system. These tests were focused on obtaining data about the system's stability, cooling capacity, and the transient responses. The consistency of the data was checked by comparing the heat balance between the input and output power of each heat exchanger (HEX) in the system. The main flow in the target can only be determined by the thermal balance because the built in flow meter did not work properly. The steady state pump speed, flow rates, and overall heat transfer coefficients (OHTC) of the whole cooling system were measured and analyzed for characterization of the system. Those results were used to refine numerical model of the system. A special version of RELAP5/Mod3.2.2 implemented with the fluid properties of LBE was used for the simulation study. Two cases of 'beam trip' transients were simulated and compared with test results. The agreements were good in both cases and the main features of the transients were captured by the RELAP5. This was the first step of validating RELAP5 model. (authors)

Leung, W.H.; Dementjev, S.; Groeschel, F. [Division of Spallation Neutron Source, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH 5232, Villigen (Switzerland); Dierckx, M. [SCK-CEN, B-2400, Mol (Belgium)

2006-07-01

425

Top-of-Atmosphere Direct Radiative Effect of Aerosols from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Satellite Instrument (CERES)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nine months of CERES/TRMM broadband fluxes combined with VIRS high-resolution imager measurements are used to estimate the daily average direct radiative effect of aerosols for clear-sky conditions over the tropical oceans. On average, aerosols have a cooling effect over the tropics of 4.6 +/- 1 W/sq m. The magnitude is approx.2 W/sq m smaller over the southern tropical oceans than it is over northern tropical oceans. The direct effect derived from CERES is highly correlated with coincident aerosol optical depth retrievals inferred from 0.63 microns VIRS radiances (correlation coefficient of 0.96). The slope of the regression line is approx. -32 W/sq m/t over the equatorial Pacific Ocean, but changes both regionally and seasonally, depending on the aerosol characteristics. Near sources of biomass burning and desert dust, the aerosol direct effect reaches -25 W sq m to -30 W/sq m. The direct effect from CERES also shows a dependence on wind speed. The reason for this dependence is unclear-it may be due to increased aerosol (e.g. sea-salt or aerosol transport) or increased surface reflection (e.g. due to whitecaps). The uncertainty in the tropical average direct effect from CERES is approx. 1 W/sq m (approx. 20%) due mainly to cloud contamination, the radiance-to-flux conversion, and instrument calibration. By comparison, uncertainties in the direct effect from the ERBE and CERES "ERBE-Like" products are a factor of 3 to 5 larger.

Loeb, N. G.; Kato, S.

2002-01-01

426

Radiant Barriers Save Energy in Buildings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Langley Research Center needed to coat the Echo 1 satellite with a fine mist of vaporized metal, and collaborated with industry to create "radiant barrier technology." In 2010, Ryan Garrett learned about a new version of the technology resistant to oxidation and founded RadiaSource in Ogden, Utah, to provide the NASA-derived technology for applications in homes, warehouses, gymnasiums, and agricultural settings.

2014-01-01

427

Cool Roof Systems; What is the Condensation Risk?  

SciTech Connect

A white roof, or cool roof, is constructed to decrease thermal loads from solar radiation, therefore saving energy by decreasing the cooling demands. Unfortunately, cool roofs with a mechanically attached membrane have shown a higher risk of intermediate condensation in the materials below the membrane in certain climates (Ennis & Kehrer, 2011) and in comparison with similar constructions with a darker exterior surface (Bludau, Zirkelbach, & Kuenzel, 2009). As a consequence, questions have been raised regarding the sustainability and reliability of using cool roof membranes in northern U.S. climate zones.

Kehrer, Manfred [ORNL; Pallin, Simon B [ORNL

2014-01-01

428

SIMULATION OF A SOLAR ABSORPTION COOLING SYSTEM J.P. Praene*, D. Morau, F. Lucas, F. Garde, H. Boyer  

E-print Network

SIMULATION OF A SOLAR ABSORPTION COOLING SYSTEM J.P. Praene*, D. Morau, F. Lucas, F. Garde, H and optimization of a solar absorption cooling system using evacuated tube collectors. CLIMA 2007, 2007; Steady for a cooling system has led to several studies of available cooling technologies that use solar energy

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

429

Gas-cooled reactor for space power systems  

SciTech Connect

Reactor characteristics based on extensive development work on the 500-MWt reactor for the Pluto nuclear ramjet are described for space power systems useful in the range of 2 to 20 MWe for operating times of 1 y. The modest pressure drop through the prismatic ceramic core is supported at the outlet end by a ceramic dome which also serves as a neutron reflector. Three core materials are considered which are useful at temperatures up to about 2000 K. Most of the calculations are based on a beryllium oxide with uranium dioxide core. Reactor control is accomplished by use of a burnable poison, a variable-leakage reflector, and internal control rods. Reactivity swings of 20% are obtained with a dozen internal boron-10 rods for the size cores studied. Criticality calculations were performed using the ALICE Monte Carlo code. The inherent high-temperature capability of the reactor design removes the reactor as a limiting condition on system performance. The low fuel inventories required, particularly for beryllium oxide reactors, make space power systems based on gas-cooled near-thermal reactors a lesser safeguard risk than those based on fast reactors.

Walter, C.E.; Pearson, J.S.

1987-05-01

430

Adaptive Thermal Management for Portable System Batteries by Forced Convection Cooling  

E-print Network

Adaptive Thermal Management for Portable System Batteries by Forced Convection Cooling Qing Xie is proposed to derive the ATMB policy. Keywords-- battery system; adaptive thermal management; forced thermal management problem for batteries (ATMB) in the portable systems with forced convection cooling

Pedram, Massoud

431

Quality control on radiant heaters manufacture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An inspection process of radiant heaters is presented in this paper. The proposed non destructive testing and evaluation (NDT and E) technique for defect assessment of radiant heaters is based on infrared thermography images properly acquired and processed. The technique can be used in on-line fabrication quality control radiant heaters manufacturing processes. By exciting the heater with a very short electrical pulse, a sequence of thermographic images is captured by an infrared camera and then analyzed. Regardless of the electrical excitation applied to the heating element of the heater, the electrical power supplied will dissipate at the resistor. Provided enough spatial resolution, the heaters could be tested with an infrared camera capturing the radiated heat. The analysis of the heating wire during the heating flank shows differences among pixels corresponding to defective points and pixels belonging to non-defective areas of the wire. The automation is provided by the development of an algorithm that looks for the slope of the heating evolution of each pixel. A Radon Transform based algorithm is here proposed to reduce human intervention providing just one image where an operator could quickly locate possible defects.

González, Daniel A.; Madruga, Francisco J.; Ibarra-Castanedo, Clemente; Conde, Olga; López-Higuera, Jose M.

2006-04-01

432

Radiant heat and thermal comfort in vehicles.  

PubMed

Infrared-reflective (IRR) treatment of automotive glass has been shown to reduce air temperature in vehicle cabins, thereby increasing fuel economy and occupant comfort. Its effect on radiant heat, however, may augment these benefits. In this study, the hypothesis that radiant heat affects subjective comfort ratings in a vehicle was tested. IRR films were systematically applied to the driver-side window of an outdoor stationary vehicle. In Phase 1, cabin air temperature was controlled while participants rated their thermal comfort. In Phase 2, air temperature was adjusted according to participants' responses. Results in Phase 1 showed that the IRR treatment improved thermal comfort on the left forearm, which was exposed to direct solar irradiance, but not whole-body thermal comfort. In Phase 2, participants indicated that they were comfortable at a higher air temperature (mean of 2.5 degrees F [1.4 degrees C]) with the IRR treatment than in the untreated condition. The results indicate that reducing radiant heat via IRR treatment affects subjective assessments of thermal comfort and allows occupants to maintain the same level of comfort in a warmer vehicle cabin. Applications of this research include future implementations of IRR treatment on automotive glass that may lead to greater fuel economy savings and occupant comfort than have previously been estimated. PMID:16553069

Devonshire, Joel M; Sayer, James R

2005-01-01

433

Radiant ephemeris of the Taurid meteor complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radiant ephemeris of the Taurid complex meteor showers derived from IMO video observations from 1995-2004 is presented. Detailed radiant ephemerides of the Northern (NPI) and Southern Piscids (SPI) and the Northern (NTA) and Southern Taurids (STA) are derived. Tentative radiant motions of the Northern and Southern chi-Orionids (ORN and ORS) are presented. The Taurids (NTA and STA) are active from the beginning of September to the end of November; the Southern Taurids disappear earlier around November 20. While the Northern Taurids appear to be slower until about October 20 than in the second part of their activity period, the Southern Taurids do not exhibit sub-components. The Southern Piscids (SPI) are active only in September and their activity is much lower than the activity of the Taurids at that time. The Northern Piscids are a little more prominent than the Southern Piscids and are detectable from the beginning of September to October 18, with a probable maximum period from September 20 to October 2.

Triglav-?ekada, M.; Arlt, R.

2005-04-01

434

Stochastic Cooling  

SciTech Connect

Stochastic Cooling was invented by Simon van der Meer and was demonstrated at the CERN ISR and ICE (Initial Cooling Experiment). Operational systems were developed at Fermilab and CERN. A complete theory of cooling of unbunched beams was developed, and was applied at CERN and Fermilab. Several new and existing rings employ coasting beam cooling. Bunched beam cooling was demonstrated in ICE and has been observed in several rings designed for coasting beam cooling. High energy bunched beams have proven more difficult. Signal suppression was achieved in the Tevatron, though operational cooling was not pursued at Fermilab. Longitudinal cooling was achieved in the RHIC collider. More recently a vertical cooling system in RHIC cooled both transverse dimensions via betatron coupling.

Blaskiewicz, M.

2011-01-01

435

History, status and future applications of spaceborne cryogenic systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cryogenic cooling is employed for an increasing number of space instruments. Cryogenic cooling is needed to provide the required detector response, reduce preamplifier noise, and/or reduce background radiation. Cryogenic cooling is required by instruments employed for applications missions, gamma-ray and X-ray astronomy, cosmic ray measurements, space surveillance, IR astronomy, relativity measurements, superconductivity devices, and basic research experiments. The cooling is provided with the aid of radiant coolers, stored solid cryogen coolers, stored liquid-helium coolers, mechanical coolers, He-3 coolers, adiabatic demagnetization, refrigeration, and higher temperature adsorption and magnetic systems. Radiant coolers will continue to find widespread application for low cooling-load/high-temperature situation. It is pointed out that a long-lifetime closed-cycle, mechanical cooler is one of the most critical space technological needs.

Sherman, A.

1982-01-01

436

Solid Desiccant Cooling System Employed with Ventilation Cycle: A Sensitivity Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For better use of evaporative cooling techniques in humid climate, employment of desiccant cooling system (DCS) can be a suitable option. Desiccant augmented evaporative cooling system may be employed for energy saving in buildings in place of conventional vapour compression based cooling system. This article presents a sensitive analysis of DCS simulated under the humid climate of Mumbai, India. Mathematical computations have been performed using outdoor specific humidity, ambient dry bulb temperature and room supply temperature. A sensitive analysis considering some important forcing parameters was conducted. It was observed that the "effectiveness" of direct evaporative cooler to be predominantly high influencing parameter compared to others, for the performance of DCS.

Parmar, H.; Hindoliya, D. A.

2012-10-01

437

Cooling test of the 200 m superconducting DC transmission power cable system at Chubu University  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A second cooling test of CASER2, the 200 m class superconducting direct current power transmission system at Chubu University, was performed from August to October 2010. During this time, the system was cooled down and the liquid nitrogen which cooled the superconducting power cable was circulated in the cryogenic pipe of CASER2. The heat leak of the cryogenic pipe was measured and the values of about 300 W was obtained. This result will be used further improvements of CASER2.

Watanabe, H.; Sugino, M.; Sun, J.; Ivanov, Y.; Hamabe, M.; Kawahara, T.; Yamaguchi, S.

2011-11-01

438

Optimal control and performance test of solar-assisted cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solar-assisted cooling system (SACH) was developed in the present study. The ejector cooling system (ECS) is driven by solar heat and connected in parallel with an inverter-type air conditioner (A\\/C). The cooling load can be supplied by the ECS when solar energy is available and the input power of the A\\/C can be reduced. In variable weather, the ECS

B. J. Huang; C. W. Yen; J. H. Wu; J. H. Liu; H. Y. Hsu; V. O. Petrenko; J. M. Chang; C. W. Lu

2010-01-01

439

Role of bacterial adhesion in the microbial ecology of biofilms in cooling tower systems  

PubMed Central

The fate of the three heterotrophic biofilm forming bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Flavobacterium sp. in pilot scale cooling towers was evaluated both by observing the persistence of each species in the recirculating water and the formation of biofilms on steel coupons placed in each cooling tower water reservoir. Two different cooling tower experiments were performed: a short-term study (6 days) to observe the initial bacterial colonization of the cooling tower, and a long-term study (3 months) to observe the ecological dynamics with repeated introduction of the test strains. An additional set of batch experiments (6 days) was carried out to evaluate the adhesion of each strain to steel surfaces under similar conditions to those found in the cooling tower experiments. Substantial differences were observed in the microbial communities that developed in the batch systems and cooling towers. P. aeruginosa showed a low degree of adherence to steel surfaces both in batch and in the cooling towers, but grew much faster than K. pneumoniae and Flavobacterium in mixed-species biofilms and ultimately became the dominant organism in the closed batch systems. However, the low degree of adherence caused P. aeruginosa to be rapidly washed out of the open cooling tower systems, and Flavobacterium became the dominant microorganism in the cooling towers in both the short-term and long-term experiments. These results indicate that adhesion, retention and growth on solid surfaces play important roles in the bacterial community that develops in cooling tower systems. PMID:19177226

Liu, Yang; Zhang, Wei; Sileika, Tadas; Warta, Richard; Cianciotto, Nicholas P.; Packman, Aaron

2009-01-01

440

Air cooled turbine component having an internal filtration system  

DOEpatents

A centrifugal particle separator is provided for removing particles such as microscopic dirt or dust particles from the compressed cooling air prior to reaching and cooling the turbine blades or turbine vanes of a turbine engine. The centrifugal particle separator structure has a substantially cylindrical body with an inlet arranged on a periphery of the substantially cylindrical body. Cooling air enters centrifugal particle separator through the separator inlet port having a linear velocity. When the cooling air impinges the substantially cylindrical body, the linear velocity is transformed into a rotational velocity, separating microscopic particles from the cooling air. Microscopic dust particles exit the centrifugal particle separator through a conical outlet and returned to a working medium.

Beeck, Alexander R. (Orlando, FL)

2012-05-15

441

The effects of aging on BWR core isolation cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

A study was performed to assess the effects of aging on the Reactor Core Isolation Cooling (RCIC) system in commercial Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs). This study is part of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The objectives of this program are to provide an understanding of the aging process and how it affects plant safety so that it can be properly managed. This is one of a number of studies performed under the NPAR program which provide a technical basis for the identification and evaluation of degradation caused by age. The failure data from national databases, as well as plant specific data were reviewed and analyzed to understand the effects of aging on the RCIC system. This analysis identified important components that should receive the highest priority in terms of aging management. The aging characterization provided information on the effects of aging on component failure frequency, failure modes, and failures causes. Current inspection, surveillance, and monitoring practices were also reviewed.

Lee, B.S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1994-10-01

442

COOLING FAN AND SYSTEM PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENTS  

SciTech Connect

Upcoming emissions regulations (Tiers 3, 4a and 4b) are imposing significantly higher heat loads on the cooling system than lesser regulated machines. This work was a suite of tasks aimed at reducing the parasitic losses of the cooling system, or improving the design process through six distinct tasks: 1. Develop an axial fan that will provide more airflow, with less input power and less noise. The initial plan was to use Genetic Algorithms to do an automated fan design, incorporating forward sweep for low noise. First and second generation concepts could not meet either performance or sound goals. An experienced turbomachinery designer, using a specialized CFD analysis program has taken over the design and has been able to demonstrate a 5% flow improvement (vs 10% goal) and 10% efficiency improvement (vs 10% goal) using blade twist only. 2. Fan shroud developments, using an 'aeroshroud' concept developed at Michigan State University. Performance testing at Michigan State University showed the design is capable of meeting the goal of a 10% increase in flow, but over a very narrow operating range of fan performance. The goal of 10% increase in fan efficiency was not met. Fan noise was reduced from 0 to 2dB, vs. a goal of 5dB at constant airflow. The narrow range of fan operating conditions affected by the aeroshroud makes this concept unattractive for further development at this time 3. Improved axial fan system modeling is needed to accommodate the numbers of cooling systems to be redesigned to meet lower emissions requirements. A CFD fan system modeling guide has been completed and transferred to design engineers. Current, uncontrolled modeling practices produce flow estimates in some cases within 5% of measured values, and in some cases within 25% of measured values. The techniques in the modeling guide reduced variability to the goal of + 5% for the case under study. 4. Demonstrate the performance and design versatility of a high performance fan. A 'swept blade mixed flow' fan was rapid prototyped from cast aluminum for a performance demonstration on a small construction machine. The fan was mounted directly in place of the conventional fan (relatively close to the engine). The goal was to provide equal airflow at constant fan speed, with 75% of the input power and 5 dB quieter than the conventional fan. The result was a significant loss in flow with the prototype due to its sensitivity to downstream blockage. This sensitivity to downstream blockage affects flow, efficiency, and noise all negatively, and further development was terminated. 5. Develop a high efficiency variable speed fan drive to replace existing slipping clutch style fan drives. The goal for this task was to provide a continuously variable speed fan drive with an efficiency of 95%+ at max speed, and losses no greater than at max speed as the fan speed would vary throughout its entire speed range. The process developed to quantify the fuel savings potential of a variable speed fan drive has produced a simple tool to predict the fuel savings of a variable speed drive, and has sparked significant interest in the use of variable speed fan drive for Tier 3 emissions compliant machines. The proposed dual ratio slipping clutch variable speed fan drive can provide a more efficient system than a conventional single ratio slipping clutch fan drive, but could not meet the established performance goals of this task, so this task was halted in a gate review prior to the start of detailed design. 6. Develop a cooling system air filtration device to allow the use of automotive style high performance heat exchangers currently in off road machines. The goal of this task was to provide a radiator air filtration system that could allow high fin density, louvered radiators to operate in a find dust application with the same resistance to fouling as a current production off-road radiator design. Initial sensitivity testing demonstrated that fan speed has a significant impact on the fouling of radiator cores due to fine dusts, so machines equipped with continuously variabl

Ronald Dupree

2005-07-31

443

GROUNDLOOPEVAPORATIVEFLUIDCOOLERCHILLERTOGROUNDLOOP CHILLERTOGROUNDLOOP&  

E-print Network

GRUPP, WESTERN COOLING EFFICIENCY CENTER | STATE PARTNERSHIP FOR ENERGY EFFICIENT DEMONSTRATIONS RADIANT MAKE GALLAGHER HALL LEED PLATINUM RADIANT HEATING AND COOLING 1. Radiant Floor and Ceiling Panels 2 radiant system. CONVENTIONAL Conventional building systems supply all space conditioning with large

California at Davis, University of

444

Surface radiation budget in the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) effort and in the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The surface radiation budget (SRB) and the atmospheric radiative flux divergence (ARD) are vital components of the weather and climate system. The importance of radiation in a complex international scientific endeavor, the GEWEX of the World Climate Research Programme is explained. The radiative transfer techniques and satellite instrumentation that will be used to retrieve the SRB and ARD later in this decade with the CERES are discussed; CERES is a component of the Earth Observing System satellite program. Examples of consistent SRB and ARD retrievals made with Nimbus-7 and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project data from July 1983 are presented.

Charlock, Thomas P.; Smith, G. L.; Rose, Fred G.

1990-01-01

445

This paper has been downloaded from the Building and Environmental Thermal Systems Research Group at Oklahoma State University (www.hvac.okstate.edu)  

E-print Network

include enhancements to allow more than one radiant surface in each zone, improved control algorithms for radiant systems, and coupling ofaradi- ant system to the condenser loop. In order to use the radiant

446

Finding radiant-energy sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Antenna is scanned in orthogonal directions to pinpoint interfering sources. Satellite system locates ground-based microwave transmitter to accuracy of about 100 miles. When data on misalinement of satellite antenna boresight are used to correct antenna pointing, accuracy is improved to better than 70 miles.

Schaffer, G. J.

1978-01-01

447

Investigation of thermal performance of a passive solar building with floor radiant heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a theoretical study of an integrated radiant floor heating–direct gain passive solar system. Thermal mass is utilized both for storage of auxiliary heating energy and direct solar gains incident on the floor. An explicit finite difference model is developed to accurately model nonlinear effects and auxiliary heating control. The numerical simulation model is employed to study the

Andreas K Athienitis

1997-01-01

448

Construction and initial operation of the combined solar thermal and electric desiccant cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the constructed combined solar thermal and electric desiccant cooling system – its initial operation and operational procedures. The system, as designed, can be operated during nighttime and daytime. The nighttime operation is for thermal energy storage using the auxiliary electric heater, while the daytime operation is for solar energy collection and desiccant cooling. Ongoing experimental evaluation is

Napoleon Enteria; Hiroshi Yoshino; Akashi Mochida; Rie Takaki; Akira Satake; Ryuichiro Yoshie; Teruaki Mitamura; Seizo Baba

2009-01-01

449

Precipitation of calcium carbonate and its impact on heat exchangers of cooling water systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solubility of calcium carbonate decreases with increasing temperature. It can therefore precipitate in cooling water systems, causing a loss of thermal efficiency. In order to be relevant to cooling water systems, the calcium carbonate precipitation was studied in an unseeded batch stirred reactor. Three crystallographic forms of calcium carbonate were observed in the experiments covering a wide range of

C. H. Kuo

1984-01-01

450

ASSESSMENT OF CORROSION PRODUCTS FROM ONCE-THROUGH COOLING SYSTEMS WITH MECHANICAL ANTIFOULING DEVICES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an assessment of corrosion products from steam-electric power plant once-through cooling systems equipped with mechanical antifouling devices. (About 67% of the currently operating plants in the U.S. use once-through cooling systems. Various cleaning m...

451

Aspects of CFD modeling of fan and pad evaporative cooling system in green- houses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology approach in order to simulate numeri- cally (CFD) a greenhouse equipped with fan and pad evaporative cooling system is presented. Using the main aspects of evaporative cooling systems in terms of heat and mass transfer, the flow and boundary conditions of the simulation model are identified integrating both the external and internal climatic conditions. The crop (to- mato)

T. Bartzanas; C. Kittas

2007-01-01

452

Challenges and Innovative Technologies On Fuel Handling Systems for Future Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors  

E-print Network

, AREVA, and EDF have an extensive experience and significant expertise in sodium-cooled fast reactors, and handling reactor core subassemblies, including fuel, blanket, control, and shielding elements. The systemChallenges and Innovative Technologies On Fuel Handling Systems for Future Sodium-Cooled Fast

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

453

Investigation into the cooling of multi-junction concentrator photovoltaic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is relatively little research done on the long-term studies of the cooling of single cell multi-junction concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) systems. It is becoming an increasingly important aspect as system concentration levels continue to increase to a point at which overheating becomes a barrier to improving photovoltaic eciencies. This literature review presents current research available on cooling options for these

Barbora Dej

454

System design and installation for RS600 programmable control system for solar heating and cooling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Procedures for installing, operating, and maintaining a programmable control system which utilizes a F8 microprocessor to perform all timing, control, and calculation functions in order to customize system performance to meet individual requirements for solar heating, combined heating and cooling, and/or hot water systems are described. The manual discusses user configuration and options, displays, theory of operation, trouble-shooting procedures, and warranty and assistance. Wiring lists, parts lists, drawings, and diagrams are included.

1978-01-01

455

Experimental Study on Active Cooling Systems Used for Thermal Management of High-Power Multichip Light-Emitting Diodes  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to develop suitable cooling systems for high-power multichip LEDs. To this end, three different active cooling systems were investigated to control the heat generated by the powering of high-power multichip LEDs in two different configurations (30 and 2 × 15?W). The following cooling systems were used in the study: an integrated multi-fin heat sink design with a fan, a cooling system with a thermoelectric cooler (TEC), and a heat pipe cooling device. According to the results, all three systems were observed to be sufficient for cooling high-power LEDs. Furthermore, it was observed that the integrated multifin heat sink design with a fan was the most efficient cooling system for a 30?W high-power multichip LED. The cooling system with a TEC and 46?W input power was the most efficient cooling system for 2 × 15?W high-power multichip LEDs. PMID:25162058

2014-01-01

456

Experimental study on active cooling systems used for thermal management of high-power multichip light-emitting diodes.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to develop suitable cooling systems for high-power multichip LEDs. To this end, three different active cooling systems were investigated to control the heat generated by the powering of high-power multichip LEDs in two different configurations (30 and 2 × 15 W). The following cooling systems were used in the study: an integrated multi-fin heat sink design with a fan, a cooling system with a thermoelectric cooler (TEC), and a heat pipe cooling device. According to the results, all three systems were observed to be sufficient for cooling high-power LEDs. Furthermore, it was observed that the integrated multifin heat sink design with a fan was the most efficient cooling system for a 30 W high-power multichip LED. The cooling system with a TEC and 46 W input power was the most efficient cooling system for 2 × 15 W high-power multichip LEDs. PMID:25162058

Kaya, Mehmet

2014-01-01

457

Decompression cooling system operation for HTS power cable in the KEPCO power grid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 3-phase 22.9 kV/50 MVA 410 m HTS power cable system was installed at power grid of KEPCO and had been operated for 20 months. In the HTS cable system, an open type cooling system was constructed for cooling LN2 using as coolant for superconducting cable. The cooling capacity of the cooling system was 6 kW at 69 K. Subcooled LN2 flew thorough 410 m HTS cable, maintaining 69 K of operating temperature for HTS cable. The electric load had fluctuated continuously with the load status so that the cooling state was also controlled to keep stable operating condition. The consumed LN2 used for making subcooled state was refilled periodically, and the amount was 3 tons in average. During all the operating period, the HTS cable system supplied electric power stably without any problem.

Yang, H. S.; Sohn, S. H.; Lim, J. H.; Yim, S. W.; Jeon, H. J.; Jung, S. Y.; Han, S. C.; Hwang, S. D.

2014-01-01

458

Performance Assessment of a Desiccant Cooling System in a CHP Application with an IC Engine  

SciTech Connect

Performance of a desiccant cooling system was evaluated in the context of combined heat and power (CHP). The baseline system incorporated a desiccant dehumidifier, a heat exchanger, an indirect evaporative cooler, and a direct evaporative cooler. The desiccant unit was regenerated through heat recovery from a gas-fired reciprocating internal combustion engine. The system offered sufficient sensible and latent cooling capacities for a wide range of climatic conditions, while allowing influx of outside air in excess of what is typically required for commercial buildings. Energy and water efficiencies of the desiccant cooling system were also evaluated and compared with those of a conventional system. The results of parametric assessments revealed the importance of using a heat exchanger for concurrent desiccant post cooling and regeneration air preheating. These functions resulted in enhancement of both the cooling performance and the thermal efficiency, which are essential for fuel utilization improvement. Two approaches for mixing of the return air and outside air were examined, and their impact on the system cooling performance and thermal efficiency was demonstrated. The scope of the parametric analyses also encompassed the impact of improving the indirect evaporative cooling effectiveness on the overall cooling system performance.

Jalalzadeh-Azar, A. A.; Slayzak, S.; Judkoff, R.; Schaffhauser, T.; DeBlasio, R.

2005-04-01

459

Potential of Evaporative Cooling Systems for Buildings in India  

E-print Network

Evaporative cooling potential for building in various climatic zones in India is investigated. Maintainable indoor conditions are obtained from the load - capacity analysis for the prevailing ambient conditions. For the assumed activity level...

Maiya, M. P.; Vijay, S.

2010-01-01

460

Hybrid Cooling Systems for Low-Temperature Geothermal Power Production  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the identification and evaluation of methods by which the net power output of an air-cooled geothermal power plant can be enhanced during hot ambient conditions with a minimal amount of water use.

Ashwood, A.; Bharathan, D.

2011-03-01

461

POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF SOLAR HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report discusses potential environmental consequences of solar energy utilization for heating and cooling buildings. It identifies the areas in which both positive and negative impacts are possible, summarizes the national research and development program directed toward sol...

462

NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Improves Cooling System Performance: Best Management Practice Case Study #10: Cooling Towers (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has a longstanding sustainability program that revolves around energy and water efficiency as well as environmental protection. MSFC identified a problematic cooling loop with six separate compressor heat exchangers and a history of poor efficiency. The facility engineering team at MSFC partnered with Flozone Services, Incorporated to implement a comprehensive water treatment platform to improve the overall efficiency of the system.

Not Available

2011-02-01

463

Electromagnetically-induced-transparency-like ground-state cooling in a double-cavity optomechanical system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose to cool a mechanical resonator close to its ground state via an electromagnetically-induced-transparency (EIT)-like cooling mechanism in a double-cavity optomechanical system, where an additional cavity couples to the original one in the standard optomechanical system. By choosing optimal parameters such that the cooling process of the mechanical resonator corresponds to the maximum value of the optical fluctuation spectrum and the heating process to the minimum one, the mechanical resonator can be cooled with the final mean phonon number less than that at the absence of the additional cavity. And we show the mechanical resonator may be cooled close to its ground state via such an EIT-like cooling mechanism even when the original resolved sideband condition is not fulfilled.

Guo, Yujie; Li, Kai; Nie, Wenjie; Li, Yong

2014-11-01

464

Electromagnetially-induced-transparency-like ground-state cooling in a double-cavity optomechanical system  

E-print Network

We propose to cool a mechanical resonator close to its ground state via an electromagnetically-induced-transparency- (EIT-) like cooling mechanism in a double-cavity optomechanical system, where an additional cavity couples to the original one in the standard optomechanical system. By choosing optimal parameters such that the cooling process of the mechanical resonator corresponds to the maximum value of the optical fluctuation spectrum and the heating process to the minimum one, the mechanical resonator can be cooled with the final mean phonon number less than that at the absence of the additional cavity. And we show the mechanical resonator may be cooled close to its ground state via such an EIT-like cooling mechanism even when the original resolved sideband condition is not fulfilled at the absence of the additional cavity.

Yujie Guo; Kai Li; Wenjie Nie; Yong Li

2014-07-19

465

Prediction of the thermal environment and thermal response of simple panels exposed to radiant heat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of predicting the radiant heat flux distribution produced by a bank of tubular quartz heaters was applied to a radiant system consisting of a single unreflected lamp irradiating a flat metallic incident surface. In this manner, the method was experimentally verified for various radiant system parameter settings and used as a source of input for a finite element thermal analysis. Two finite element thermal analyses were applied to a thermal system consisting of a thin metallic panel exposed to radiant surface heating. A two-dimensional steady-state finite element thermal analysis algorithm, based on Galerkin's Method of Weighted Residuals (GFE), was formulated specifically for this problem and was used in comparison to the thermal analyzers of the Engineering Analysis Language (EAL). Both analyses allow conduction, convection, and radiation boundary conditions. Differences in the respective finite element formulation are discussed in terms of their accuracy and resulting comparison discrepancies. The thermal analyses are shown to perform well for the comparisons presented here with some important precautions about the various boundary condition models. A description of the experiment, corresponding analytical modeling, and resulting comparisons are presented.

Turner, Travis L.; Ash, Robert L.

1989-01-01

466

Portable self-contained power and cooling system  

SciTech Connect

A portable power and cooling system is described comprising: a drive unit including a combustion section, a scroll-type expander section, a scroll-type air compressor section, and a power output drive shaft, the expander and air compressor sections connected together for synchronousmovement via said power output drive shaft; said combustion section including a combustion air inlet and a combustion gas outlet, said scroll-type expander section including at least one pair of meshed axially extending involute spiral wrap members having involute centers and defining at least one expansion chamber between them that moves radially between an expander inlet zone, which is in fluid communicatino with the combustion gas outlet, and an outlet zone when one wrap member is orbited along a circular path about an orbit center relative to the other wrap member, said scroll type air compressor section including at least one pair of meshed axially extending involute spiral wrap members having involute centers and defining at least one compression chamber between them that moves radially between a compressor inlet zone and an outlet zone, which is in fluid communication with the combustion air inlet of the combustoin section, when one wrap member is orbited along a circular path relative to the other wrap member about an orbit radius, said drive connecting unit integrally connecting said one wrap member of each of said scroll-type expander and air compressor sections; means for causing combustion within said combustion chamber such that the products of combustion are expanded by said scroll-type expander section and exhausted out said expander outlet, air is drawn into said air compressor inlet zone, compressed within, expelled through said air compressor outlet zone, and delivered to said combustoin chamber and said power output shaft is rotated; a refrigeration system, a refrigerant condenser, a refrigerant expansion valve and a refrigerant evaporator, and a conduit.

McCullough, J.E.

1993-07-20

467

Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft  

SciTech Connect

This report beings with a historical overview on the origin and early beginnings of Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft. The report reviews the work done in Phase I (Grant DE-FG01-82CE-15144) and then gives a discussion of Phase II (Grant DE-FG01-86CE-15301). Included is a reasonably detailed discussion of photovoltaic cells and the research and development needed in this area. The report closes with a historical perspective and summary related to situations historically encountered on projects of this nature. 15 refs.

Doellner, O.L.

1992-02-01

468

Performance Modeling of a Solar Driven Absorption Cooling System for Carnegie Mellon University's Intelligent Workplace  

E-print Network

system for space heating and cooling. The proposed energy supply system configuration includes integrated compound parabolic concentrator (ICPC), a hot storage tank, a gas fired auxiliary heater, a steam generator, a steam driven absorption chiller...

Masson, S. V.; Qu, M.; Archer, D. H.

2006-01-01

469

IMPACTS OF REFRIGERANTLINE LENGTH ON SYSTEM EFFICIENCY IN RESIDENTIAL HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS USING REFRIGERANT DISTRIBUTION.  

SciTech Connect

The effects on system efficiency of excess refrigerant line length are calculated for an idealized residential heating and cooling system. By excess line length is meant refrigerant tubing in excess of the 25 R provided for in standard equipment efficiency test methods. The purpose of the calculation is to provide input for a proposed method for evaluating refrigerant distribution system efficiency. A refrigerant distribution system uses refrigerant (instead of ducts or pipes) to carry heat and/or cooling effect from the equipment to the spaces in the building in which it is used. Such systems would include so-called mini-splits as well as more conventional split systems that for one reason or another have the indoor and outdoor coils separated by more than 25 ft. This report performs first-order calculations of the effects on system efficiency, in both the heating and cooling modes, of pressure drops within the refrigerant lines and of heat transfer between the refrigerant lines and the space surrounding them.

ANDREWS, J.W.

2001-04-01

470

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENACE 1. UNIT XV, I--MAINTAINING THE COOLING SYSTEM, CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE, I--UNIT INSTALLATION--TRANSMISSION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE FUNCTION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM AND THE PROCEDURES FOR TRANSMISSION INSTALLATION. TOPICS ARE (1) IMPORTANCE OF THE COOLING SYSTEM, (2) COOLING SYSTEM COMPONENTS, (3) EVALUATING COOLING SYSTEM FAILURES, (4) CARING FOR THE COOLING SYSTEM,…

Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

471

Research and Application of Dynamic Control System for Secondary Cooling of Billet Continuous Casting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continuous casting process is used for the solidification of molten steel into semi-finished shapes. The technology of secondary cooling is extremely important for output of the casting machine and quality of the strand. This paper presents a dynamic control system, including solidification model in the secondary cooling, feedforward control based on continuous temperature measurement in tundish and feedback control

Wenhong Liu; Zhi Xie; Zhenping Ji; Biao Wang

2007-01-01

472

Design and application of dynamic control system for secondary cooling of billet continuous casting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continuous casting process is used for the solidification of molten steel into semi-finished shapes. The technology of secondary cooling is extremely important for output of the casting machine and quality of the strand. In the paper, a dynamic control system is presented, including solidification model in the secondary cooling, feedforward control based on continuous temperature measurement in tundish and

Wenhong Liu; Zhi Xie

2010-01-01