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1

Radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system  

DOEpatents

In a modular liquid-metal pool breeder reactor, a radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system is disclosed for removing the residual heat resulting from the shutdown of a reactor by a completely passive heat transfer system. A shell surrounds the reactor and containment vessel, separated from the containment vessel by an air passage. Natural circulation of air is provided by air vents at the lower and upper ends of the shell. Longitudinal, radial and inwardly extending fins extend from the shell into the air passage. The fins are heated by radiation from the containment vessel and convect the heat to the circulating air. Residual heat from the primary reactor vessel is transmitted from the reactor vessel through an inert gas plenum to a guard or containment vessel designed to contain any leaking coolant. The containment vessel is conventional and is surrounded by the shell.

Germer, John H. (San Jose, CA)

1987-01-01

2

DOAS, Radiant Cooling Revisited  

SciTech Connect

The article discusses dedicated outdoor air systems (DOAS) and radiant cooling technologies. Both of these topics were covered in previous ASHRAE Journal columns. This article reviews the technologies and their increasing acceptance. The two steps that ASHRAE is taking to disseminate DOAS information to the design community, available energy savings and the market potential of radiant cooling systems are addressed as well.

Hastbacka, Mildred; Dieckmann, John; Bouza, Antonio

2012-12-01

3

Performance evaluation of a radiant floor cooling system integrated with dehumidified ventilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radiant floor cooling system can be used as an alternative to all-air cooling systems, using the existing Ondol system (a radiant floor heating system) in Korea to save energy and maintain indoor thermal comfort. Unfortunately, a radiant floor cooling system may cause condensation on the floor surface under hot and humid conditions during the cooling season. In addition, the

Doosam Song; Taeyeon Kim; Suwon Song; Suckho Hwang; Seung-Bok Leigh

2008-01-01

4

The Suitability and Feasibility of Floor Radiant Cooling System in Northern  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the application of radiant floor heating, system design, and laying status, this paper advances a design idea of using natural cooling source such as ground water or evaporation cooling water for `free cooling'. Based on the above, a mathematic model of low-temperature radiant floor heating\\/cooling is constructed. This paper studies the matching of radiant floor's cooling capacity and

Shousong Liu; Yanqiang Di; Tao Meng; Li Liu; Fei Ma

2009-01-01

5

Evaluation of thermal comfort conditions in a classroom equipped with radiant cooling systems and subjected to uniform convective environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work is to evaluate numerically the human thermal response that 24 students and 1 teacher feel in a classroom equipped with radiant cooling systems and subjected to uniform convective environments, in lightly warm conditions. The evolution of thermal comfort conditions, using the PMV index, is made by the multi-nodal human thermal comfort model.In this numerical model,

Eusébio Z. E. Conceição; M Lúcio

2011-01-01

6

Hydronic radiant cooling: Overview and preliminary performance assessment  

SciTech Connect

A significant amount of electrical energy used to cool non-residential buildings is drawn by the fans used to transport the cool air through the thermal distribution system. Hydronic systems reduce the amount of air transported through the building by separating ventilation and thermal conditioning. Due to the physical properties of water, hydronic distribution systems can transport a given amount of thermal energy using less than 5% of the otherwise necessary fan energy. This savings alone significantly reduces the energy consumption and especially the peak power requirement This survey clearly shows advantages for radiant cooling in combination with hydronic thermal distribution systems in comparison with the All-Air Systems commonly used in California. The report describes a literature survey on the system's development, thermal comfort issues, and cooling performance. The cooling power potential and the cooling power requirement are investigated for several California climates. Peak-power requirement is compared for hydronic radiant cooling and conventional All-Air-Systems.

Feustel, H.E.

1993-05-01

7

Kori chikunetsushiki hosha reibo system no kaihatsu. 1. Onnetsu kaitekisei ni oyobosu hosha oyobi shitsudo no eikyo hyoka. (Development of ice storage radiant cooling system. Part 1. Influence of radiation and humidity on thermal comfort).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper reveals the environment design conditions of indoor ice storage radiant cooling system for obtaining the highest thermal comfort through the subjective evaluation test on thermal and comfort sensations. This test was conducted in the room with ...

T. Miyanaga T. Onuma Y. Nakano N. Matsuki T. Oka

1996-01-01

8

Hydronic radiant cooling: Overview and preliminary performance assessment  

SciTech Connect

A significant amount of electrical energy used to cool non-residential buildings is drawn by the fans used to transport the cool air through the thermal distribution system. Hydronic systems reduce the amount of air transported through the building by separating ventilation and thermal conditioning. Due to the physical properties of water, hydronic distribution systems can transport a given amount of thermal energy using less than 5% of the otherwise necessary fan energy. This savings alone significantly reduces the energy consumption and especially the peak power requirement This survey clearly shows advantages for radiant cooling in combination with hydronic thermal distribution systems in comparison with the All-Air Systems commonly used in California. The report describes a literature survey on the system`s development, thermal comfort issues, and cooling performance. The cooling power potential and the cooling power requirement are investigated for several California climates. Peak-power requirement is compared for hydronic radiant cooling and conventional All-Air-Systems.

Feustel, H.E.

1993-05-01

9

Flightweight radiantly and actively cooled panel: Thermal and structural performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 2- by 4-ft flightweight panel was subjected to thermal/structural tests representative of design flight conditions for a Mach 6.7 transport and to off-design conditions simulating flight maneuvers and cooling system failures. The panel utilized Rene 41 heat shields backed by a thin layer of insulation to radiate away most of the 12 Btu/ft2-sec incident heating. A solution of ethylene glycol in water circulating through tubes in an aluminum-honeycomb-sandwich panel absorbed the remainder of the incident heating (0.8 Btu/sq ft-sec). The panel successfully withstood (1) 46.7 hr of radiant heating which included 53 thermal cycles and 5000 cycles of uniaxial inplane loading of + or - 1200 lfb/in; (2) simulated 2g-maneuver heating conditions and simulated cooling system failures without excessive temperatures on the structural panel; and (3) the extensive thermal/structural tests and the aerothermal tests reported in NASA TP-1595 without significant damage to the structural panel, coolant leaks, or hot-gas ingress to the structural panel.

Shore, C. P.; Nowak, R. J.; Kelly, H. N.

1982-01-01

10

Aerodynamic thermal simulation system. Part 1: Radiant array (instruction manual)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An aerodynamic thermal simulation system (ATSS) is presented. The construction of the system, the maintenance, set up, and operations are reported. System description of the radiant array is given along with the array subsystems modular heating unit, adjustable stanchion frame, cooling water system, and the gaseous nitrogen cooling system. The array configuration procedure outlines the set up and the start up. Maintenance procedures involve both lamp maintenance and reflector maintenance along with weather protection. Drawing codes are included. Descriptions of the 36 zone ATSS controls are also given. Each zone is an independent closed loop temperature control circuit. Procedures are presented for starting and stopping the system. The DATA-TRAK programmer and its operation, instruction manuals for the temperature controller and the power regulator and discriptions of peripheral equipment are discussed.

Kitchar, A. F.; Steuffen, R. L.

1973-01-01

11

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument is one of five instruments that will be flown aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) observatory. Data from the CERES instrument will be used to study the energy exchanged between the Sun and the Earth's atmosphere, surface and clouds, and space. This webpage describes the TRMM mission, the CERES insrument, and how Earth's daily weather and climate are controlled by the balance between the amount of solar energy received by the Earth (both by its surface and its atmosphere and clouds) and the amount of energy emitted by Earth into space. School children worldwide will be involved in the CERES program, enabling them to be part of a scientific project. As a CERES instrument passes over, students will make local observations to determine the types of clouds over their school, the clouds' altitudes and how much of the sky they cover. Via the Internet, the students will then place their data in the NASA Langley Distributed Active Archive Center where the data will be stored for further analysis by the CERES science team.

12

Variability of heating and cooling rates during radiant heating in a scincid lizard, Egernia cunninghami.  

PubMed

Heating rates were significantly greater than cooling rates in Egernia cunninghami. Male lizards had significantly slower cooling rates than females, while heating rates of both sexes were similar. Faster heating and cooling rates were recorded in the earlier months of the 32-week experiment than during the winter season. The effect of infra-red heat intensity on heating and cooling rates was apparent only in the winter months. Painting the animals black retarded the radiant heating rates, rather than enhancing them. PMID:2858305

Fraser, S P

1985-01-01

13

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES): algorithm overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS), CERES objectives include the following. (1) For climate change analysis, provide a continuation of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) record of radiative fluxes at the top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA), analyzed using the same techniques as the existing ERBE data. (2) Double the accuracy of

Bruce A. Wielicki; Bruce R. Barkstrom; Bryan A. Baum; Thomas P. Charlock; Richard N. Green; David P. Kratz; Robert B. Lee; Patrick Minnis; G. Louis Smith; Takmeng Wong; David F. Young; Robert D. Cess; James A. Coakley; Dominique A. H. Crommelynck; Leo Donner; Robert Kandel; Michael D. King; Alvin J. Miller; Veerabhadran Ramanathan; David A. Randall; Larry L. Stowe; Ronald M. Welch

1998-01-01

14

CERES: Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brochure gives a brief description of the science research that is being done with data from the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument flying onboard NASA's Terra satellite. It also contains information about some of the data products and technical specifications.

1999-04-01

15

Advanced radiant combustion system. Final report, September 1989--September 1996  

SciTech Connect

Results of the Advanced Radiant Combustion System (ARCS) project are presented in this report. This work was performed by Alzeta Corporation as prime contractor under a contract to the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technologies as part of a larger DOE program entitled Research Program for Advanced Combustion Systems. The goals of the Alzeta ARCS project were to (a) Improve the high temperature performance characteristics of porous surface ceramic fiber burners, (b) Develop an Advanced Radiant Combustion System (ARCS) that combines combustion controls with an advanced radiant burner, and (c) Demonstrate the advanced burner and controls in an industrial application. Prior to the start of this project, Alzeta had developed and commercialized a porous surface radiant burner, the Pyrocore{trademark} burner. The product had been commercially available for approximately 5 years and had achieved commercial success in a number of applications ranging from small burners for commercial cooking equipment to large burners for low temperature industrial fluid heating applications. The burner was not recommended for use in applications with process temperatures above 1000{degrees}F, which prevented the burner from being used in intermediate to high temperature processes in the chemical and petroleum refining industries. The interest in increasing the maximum use temperature of the burner was motivated in part by a desire to expand the number of applications that could use the Pyrocore product, but also because many of the fluid sensitive heating applications of interest would benefit from the distributed flux characteristic of porous surface burners. Background information on porous surface radiant burners, and a discussion of advantages that would be provided by an improved product, are presented in Section 2.

Sullivan, J.D.; Carswell, M.G.; Long, F.S.

1996-09-01

16

Numerical Analysis of a Radiant Heat Flux Calibration System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A radiant heat flux gage calibration system exists in the Flight Loads Laboratory at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. This calibration system must be well understood if the heat flux gages calibrated in it are to provide useful data during radiant heating ground tests or flight tests of high speed aerospace vehicles. A part of the calibration system characterization process is to develop a numerical model of the flat plate heater element and heat flux gage, which will help identify errors due to convection, heater element erosion, and other factors. A 2-dimensional mathematical model of the gage-plate system has been developed to simulate the combined problem involving convection, radiation and mass loss by chemical reaction. A fourth order finite difference scheme is used to solve the steady state governing equations and determine the temperature distribution in the gage and plate, incident heat flux on the gage face, and flat plate erosion. Initial gage heat flux predictions from the model are found to be within 17% of experimental results.

Jiang, Shanjuan; Horn, Thomas J.; Dhir, V. K.

1998-01-01

17

Radiant heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared with previous designs, this radiant heater is simpler to construct, operates better in dusty atmospheres, and has a cooler frame that allows it to be placed closer to the materials being heated. Ideal for textile or paper drying, the heater has a conduit for noncombustible gas that extends around the panel, discharging the cool gas to keep the combustion

1981-01-01

18

A thermal system model for a radiant-tube continuous reheating furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermal system mathematical model developed for a gas-fired radiant-tube continuous reheating furnace is discussed. The\\u000a mathematical model of the furnace integrates submodels for combustion and heat transfer within the radiant tube with models\\u000a for the furnace enclosure. The transport processes occurring in the radiant tube are treated using a one-dimensional scheme,\\u000a and the radiation exchange between the load, the

H. Ramamurthy; S. Ramadhyani; R. Viskanta

1995-01-01

19

The Radiant Structure of the Leonid Meteor Storm in 2001; Observations with a Telephoto Lens System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured the radiant of the Leonid meteor storm in 2001 November by using new observational and analysis techniques. The radiant was measured as the intersections of lines which were detected and extrapolated from images obtained at a single observing site (Akeno Observatory, Japan). The images were obtained by two sets of telephoto lenses equipped with cooled CCD cameras. The measured radiant, (R.A., Dec.) = (154.°35 ± 0.°15, 21.°55 ± 0.°15) (J2000), was found to be in reasonable agreement with theoretical prediction by McNaught and Asher (2001, WGN, 29, 156), which supports their dust trail theory.

Torii, Ken'ichi; Kohama, Mitsuhiro; Yanagisawa, Toshifumi; Ohnishi, Kouji

2003-06-01

20

Thermal model of attic systems with radiant barriers  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the first phase of a project to model the thermal performance of radiant barriers. The objective of this phase of the project was to develop a refined model for the thermal performance of residential house attics, with and without radiant barriers, and to verify the model by comparing its predictions against selected existing experimental thermal performance data. Models for the thermal performance of attics with and without radiant barriers have been developed and implemented on an IBM PC/AT computer. The validity of the models has been tested by comparing their predictions with ceiling heat fluxes measured in a number of laboratory and field experiments on attics with and without radiant barriers. Cumulative heat flows predicted by the models were usually within about 5 to 10 percent of measured values. In future phases of the project, the models for attic/radiant barrier performance will be coupled with a whole-house model and further comparisons with experimental data will be made. Following this, the models will be utilized to provide an initial assessment of the energy savings potential of radiant barriers in various configurations and under various climatic conditions. 38 refs., 14 figs., 22 tabs.

Wilkes, K.E.

1991-07-01

21

Radiant{trademark} Liquid Radioisotope Intravascular Radiation Therapy System  

SciTech Connect

RADIANT{trademark} is manufactured by United States Surgical Corporation, Vascular Therapies Division, (formerly Progressive Angioplasty Systems). The system comprises a liquid {beta}-radiation source, a shielded isolation/transfer device (ISAT), modified over-the-wire or rapid exchange delivery balloons, and accessory kits. The liquid {beta}-source is Rhenium-188 in the form of sodium perrhenate (NaReO{sub 4}), Rhenium-188 is primarily a {beta}-emitter with a physical half-life of 17.0 hours. The maximum energy of the {beta}-particles is 2.1 MeV. The source is produced daily in the nuclear pharmacy hot lab by eluting a Tungsten-188/Rhenium-188 generator manufactured by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Using anion exchange columns and Millipore filters the effluent is concentrated to approximately 100 mCi/ml, calibrated, and loaded into the (ISAT) which is subsequently transported to the cardiac catheterization laboratory. The delivery catheters are modified Champion{trademark} over-the-wire, and TNT{trademark} rapid exchange stent delivery balloons. These balloons have thickened polyethylene walls to augment puncture resistance; dual radio-opaque markers and specially configured connectors.

Eigler, N.; Whiting, J.; Chernomorsky, A.; Jackson, J.; Knapp, F.F., Jr.; Litvack, F.

1998-01-16

22

Improved thermal performance of a hydronic radiant panel heating system by the optimization of tube shapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal performance enhancement of the hydronic radiant floor heating system by tube shape refinements is investigated\\u000a in this paper. Both analytical and detailed numerical modelings are carried out to predict the performance of the radiant\\u000a system. While the simple analytical model briefly investigates the possibility of the effect of the tube shape improvement\\u000a with the parametric analysis, the commercial

Young T. Chae; Kwang Ho Lee; Jae Sung Park

2011-01-01

23

An investigation of a residential solar system coupled to a radiant panel ceiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study of a solar-radiant heating system was performed at Iowa State University's Energy Research House (ERH). The ERH was constructed with copper tubes embedded in the plaster ceilings, thus providing a unique radiant heating system. In addition, 24 water-glycol, flat-plate solar collectors were mounted on the south side of the residence. The present study uses the solar collectors

Z. Zhang; M. Pate; R. Nelson

1988-01-01

24

A thermal system model for a radiant-tube continuous reheating furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thermal system mathematical model developed for a gas-fired radiant-tube continuous reheating furnace is discussed. The mathematical model of the furnace integrates submodels for combustion and heat transfer within the radiant tube with models for the furnace enclosure. The transport processes occurring in the radiant tube are treated using a one-dimensional scheme, and the radiation exchange between the load, the radiant-tube surfaces, and the furnace refractories are analyzed using the radiosity method. The continuous furnace operation is simulated under steady-state conditions. Model simulations of load surface temperature variation compare well with measurements in an industrial galvannealing furnace. The scope and flexibility of the model are assessed by performing extensive parametric studies using furnace geometry, material properties, and operating conditions as input parameters in the model and predicting the thermal performance of the furnace. The various parameters studied include the effects of load and refractory emissivities, load velocities, properties of the stock material, and variations in the radiant-tube designs.

Ramamurthy, H.; Ramadhyani, S.; Viskanta, R.

1995-10-01

25

Radiants of the Leonids 1999 and 2001 Obtained by Lltv Systems Using Automatic Software Tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both amateur and professional meteor groups are more frequently using Low-Light level TV (LLTV) systems to record meteors. Double-station observations can yield orbit data. However, data analysis normally is still done by hand and thus time consuming. This paper addresses the question of whether available automated tools can be used to determine reasonably accurate orbits with minimum human intervention. The European Space Agency performed several observing campaigns to observe the Leonid meteor stream. In November 1999, the ESA meteor group was stationed at two locations in Southern Spain, in November 2001 at two stations close to Broome in North-Western Australia. Double-station observations with LLTV systems were conducted. The data was recorded on S-VHS video tapes. The tapes were processed using automatic detection software from which meteor heights, velocities and radiants were computed. This paper shows the results for the two maximum nights. The radiants determined in 1999 show a very large scatter due to unfortunate observing geometry and inaccurate position determination since one of the cameras was moving because of the wind. The 2001 data is excellent and the radiant was determined to be at RA = 153.96°±0.3° and Dec = 21.09°±0.2°. The error bars for individual meteor radiants are about 0.2° to 0.4°. This demonstrates that is indeed possible to determine good radiant positions using totally automated tools. Orbits, on the other hand, are not well defined due to the fact that the velocity of individual meteors shows large errors. Reasons for this are described.

Koschny, Detlef; del Rio, Jorge Diaz; Piberne, Rodrigue; Szumlas, Marek; Zender, Joe; Knöfel, André

2004-12-01

26

Study of thermosiphon and radiant panel passive heating systems for metal buildings  

SciTech Connect

A study of passive-heating systems appropriate for use on metal buildings is being conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme, California. The systems selected for study were chosen on the basis of their appropriateness for retrofit applications, although they are also suitable for new construction: simple radiant panels that communicate directly with the building interior and a backflow thermosiphon that provides heat indirectly.

Biehl, F.A.; Schnurr, N.M.; Wray, W.O.

1983-01-01

27

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Elevation Bearing Assembly Life Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) elevation scan bearings lubricated with Pennzane SHF X2000 and 2% lead naphthenate (PbNp) were life tested for a seven-year equivalent Low Earth Orbit (LEO) operation. The bearing life assembly was tested continuously at an accelerated and normal rate using the scanning patterns developed for the CERES Earth Observing System AM-1 mission. A post-life-test analysis was performed on the collected data, bearing wear, and lubricant behavior.

Brown, Phillip L.; Miller, James B.; Jones, William R., Jr.; Rasmussen, Kent; Wheeler, Donald R.; Rana, Mauro; Peri, Frank

1999-01-01

28

Cooling water distribution system  

DOEpatents

A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

Orr, Richard (Pittsburgh, PA)

1994-01-01

29

Radiant energy absorption enhancement in optical imaging systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reimaging system efficiently uses incident light and overcomes previous imaging detector problems. Optical system collects reflected and focal plane transmitted light and redirects it so it again impinges on focal plane in register with original image. Reimaging unabsorbed light increases light absorption and detector use probability.

Brown, R. M.; Gunter, W. D., Jr.

1971-01-01

30

Cooling Water Systems Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for the Advancement of Process Technology presents this free sample module on cooling water systems in the process industry. The material includes 21 slides and will help learners understand related terms, the purpose of the basic equipment involved in cooling water systems and the safety, health and environmental concerns involved with these systems.

2013-01-04

31

The cooling capacity of the Thermo Active Building System combined with acoustic ceiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: This paper describes measurements in a test facility of the cooling capacity of the thermo active building system (TABS) combined with acoustic ceiling. Generally it has been expected that in order to maintain sufficient cooling capacity from the mainly radiant heat transfer, the concrete ceiling must be exposed directly to the room. This in practice would therefore impede the

Emanuele Pittarello

32

Passive containment cooling system  

DOEpatents

A containment cooling system utilizes a naturally induced air flow and a gravity flow of water over the containment shell which encloses a reactor core to cool reactor core decay heat in two stages. When core decay heat is greatest, the water and air flow combine to provide adequate evaporative cooling as heat from within the containment is transferred to the water flowing over the same. The water is heated by heat transfer and then evaporated and removed by the air flow. After an initial period of about three to four days when core decay heat is greatest, air flow alone is sufficient to cool the containment.

Conway, Lawrence E. (Robinson Township, Allegheny County, PA); Stewart, William A. (Penn Hills Township, Allegheny County, PA)

1991-01-01

33

Gas turbine cooling system  

DOEpatents

A gas turbine engine (10) having a closed-loop cooling circuit (39) for transferring heat from the hot turbine section (16) to the compressed air (24) produced by the compressor section (12). The closed-loop cooling system (39) includes a heat exchanger (40) disposed in the flow path of the compressed air (24) between the outlet of the compressor section (12) and the inlet of the combustor (14). A cooling fluid (50) may be driven by a pump (52) located outside of the engine casing (53) or a pump (54) mounted on the rotor shaft (17). The cooling circuit (39) may include an orifice (60) for causing the cooling fluid (50) to change from a liquid state to a gaseous state, thereby increasing the heat transfer capacity of the cooling circuit (39).

Bancalari, Eduardo E. (Orlando, FL)

2001-01-01

34

Surface cooling system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This patent discloses a cooling system for providing a layer of relatively cool gas adjacent the surface of a duct carrying a flow of relatively hot gas. It includes an elongated louver nozzle, an elongated plenum and one or more crosswise dividers for separating the plenum and nozzle into a plurality of individual segments having sized supply orifices disposed therein.

Zimmerman, Anthony M.

1989-01-01

35

Cloud Effects on Meridional Atmospheric Energy Budget Estimated from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The zonal mean atmospheric cloud radiative effect, defined as the difference of the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) and surface cloud radiative effects, is estimated from three years of Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data. The zonal mean shortwave effect is small, though it tends to be positive (warming). This indicates that clouds increase shortwave absorption in the atmosphere, especially in midlatitudes. The zonal mean atmospheric cloud radiative effect is, however, dominated by the longwave effect. The zonal mean longwave effect is positive in the tropics and decreases with latitude to negative values (cooling) in polar regions. The meridional gradient of cloud effect between midlatitude and polar regions exists even when uncertainties in the cloud effect on the surface enthalpy flux and in the modeled irradiances are taken into account. This indicates that clouds increase the rate of generation of mean zonal available potential energy. Because the atmospheric cooling effect in polar regions is predominately caused by low level clouds, which tend to be stationary, we postulate that the meridional and vertical gradients of cloud effect increase the rate of meridional energy transport by dynamics in the atmosphere from midlatitude to polar region, especially in fall and winter. Clouds then warm the surface in polar regions except in the Arctic in summer. Clouds, therefore, contribute in increasing the rate of meridional energy transport from midlatitude to polar regions through the atmosphere.

Kato, Seiji; Rose, Fred G.; Rutan, David A.; Charlock, Thomas P.

2008-01-01

36

Hydronic rooftop cooling systems  

DOEpatents

A roof top cooling unit has an evaporative cooling section that includes at least one evaporative module that pre-cools ventilation air and water; a condenser; a water reservoir and pump that captures and re-circulates water within the evaporative modules; a fan that exhausts air from the building and the evaporative modules and systems that refill and drain the water reservoir. The cooling unit also has a refrigerant section that includes a compressor, an expansion device, evaporator and condenser heat exchangers, and connecting refrigerant piping. Supply air components include a blower, an air filter, a cooling and/or heating coil to condition air for supply to the building, and optional dampers that, in designs that supply less than 100% outdoor air to the building, control the mixture of return and ventilation air.

Bourne, Richard C. (Davis, CA) [Davis, CA; Lee, Brian Eric (Monterey, CA) [Monterey, CA; Berman, Mark J. (Davis, CA) [Davis, CA

2008-01-29

37

Superconductor rotor cooling system  

DOEpatents

A system for cooling a superconductor device includes a cryocooler located in a stationary reference frame and a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with a rotating reference frame in which the superconductor device is located. A method of cooling a superconductor device includes locating a cryocooler in a stationary reference frame, and transferring heat from a superconductor device located in a rotating reference frame to the cryocooler through a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with the rotating reference frame.

Gamble, Bruce B. (Wellesley, MA); Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed (Framingham, MA); Schwall, Robert E. (Northborough, MA); Driscoll, David I. (South Euclid, OH); Shoykhet, Boris A. (Beachwood, OH)

2002-01-01

38

Radiant heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new gas-fired radiant heater incorporates a conduit for discharging a noncombustible gas along the margin of the porous refractory panel, thus keeping the combustion mixture from passing through the panel edges where burning can damage the panel. Two or more of the panels can be arranged at their margins to form a continuous radiating surface of relatively large size.

1981-01-01

39

Waveguide cooling system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved system is described for cooling high power waveguides by the use of cooling ducts extending along the waveguide, which minimizes hot spots at the flanges where waveguide sections are connected together. The cooling duct extends along substantially the full length of the waveguide section, and each flange at the end of the section has a through hole with an inner end connected to the duct and an opposite end that can be aligned with a flange hole in another waveguide section. Earth flange is formed with a drainage groove in its face, between the through hole and the waveguide conduit to prevent leakage of cooling fluid into the waveguide. The ducts have narrowed sections immediately adjacent to the flanges to provide room for the installation of fasteners closely around the waveguide channel.

Chen, B. C. J.; Hartop, R. W. (inventors)

1981-01-01

40

Passive containment cooling system  

DOEpatents

A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA. 1 figure.

Billig, P.F.; Cooke, F.E.; Fitch, J.R.

1994-01-25

41

Passive containment cooling system  

DOEpatents

A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA.

Billig, Paul F. (San Jose, CA); Cooke, Franklin E. (San Jose, CA); Fitch, James R. (San Jose, CA)

1994-01-01

42

Evaporative roof cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaporative roof cooling system is described for placement upon a roof surface exposed to relatively high levels of solar radiation causing high under roof temperatures and comprising: (a) water distribution mist\\/spray nozzles positioned on the roof surface for supplying substantially uniform mist\\/sprays of water to lay down a substantially uniform thin film of water on the roof surface; (b)

Viner

1988-01-01

43

Greater than 20% radiant heat conversion efficiency of a thermophotovoltaic radiator\\/module system using reflective spectral control  

Microsoft Academic Search

An InGaAs monolithic interconnected module (MIM) using reflective spectral control has been fabricated and measured in a thermophotovoltaic radiator\\/module system (radiator, optical cavity, and thermophotovoltaic module). Results showed that at a radiator and module temperature of 1039°C and 25°C, respectively, 23.6% thermophotovoltaic radiator\\/module system radiant heat conversion efficiency and 0.79W\\/cm2 maximum thermophotovoltaic radiator\\/module system power density were obtained. The use

Bernard Wernsman; Richard R. Siergiej; Samuel D. Link; Robert G. Mahorter; Marc N. Palmisiano; Rebecca J. Wehrer; Robert W. Schultz; Gregory P. Schmuck; Rowan L. Messham; Susan Murray; Christopher S. Murray; Fred Newman; Daniel Taylor; David M. DePoy; Thomas Rahmlow

2004-01-01

44

Numerical and experimental analyses of the radiant heat flux produced by quartz heating systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is developed for predicting the radiant heat flux distribution produced by tungsten filament, tubular fused-quartz envelope heating systems with reflectors. The method is an application of Monte Carlo simulation, which takes the form of a random walk or ray tracing scheme. The method is applied to four systems of increasing complexity, including a single lamp without a reflector, a single lamp with a Hat reflector, a single lamp with a parabolic reflector, and up to six lamps in a six-lamp contoured-reflector heating unit. The application of the Monte Carlo method to the simulation of the thermal radiation generated by these systems is discussed. The procedures for numerical implementation are also presented. Experiments were conducted to study these quartz heating systems and to acquire measurements of the corresponding empirical heat flux distributions for correlation with analysis. The experiments were conducted such that several complicating factors could be isolated and studied sequentially. Comparisons of the experimental results with analysis are presented and discussed. Good agreement between the experimental and simulated results was obtained in all cases. This study shows that this method can be used to analyze very complicated quartz heating systems and can account for factors such as spectral properties, specular reflection from curved surfaces, source enhancement due to reflectors and/or adjacent sources, and interaction with a participating medium in a straightforward manner.

Turner, Travis L.; Ash, Robert L.

1994-01-01

45

Numerical and experimental analyses of the radiant heat flux produced by quartz heating systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method is developed for predicting the radiant heat flux distribution produced by tungsten filament, tubular fused-quartz envelope heating systems with reflectors. The method is an application of Monte Carlo simulation, which takes the form of a random walk or ray tracing scheme. The method is applied to four systems of increasing complexity, including a single lamp without a reflector, a single lamp with a Hat reflector, a single lamp with a parabolic reflector, and up to six lamps in a six-lamp contoured-reflector heating unit. The application of the Monte Carlo method to the simulation of the thermal radiation generated by these systems is discussed. The procedures for numerical implementation are also presented. Experiments were conducted to study these quartz heating systems and to acquire measurements of the corresponding empirical heat flux distributions for correlation with analysis. The experiments were conducted such that several complicating factors could be isolated and studied sequentially. Comparisons of the experimental results with analysis are presented and discussed. Good agreement between the experimental and simulated results was obtained in all cases. This study shows that this method can be used to analyze very complicated quartz heating systems and can account for factors such as spectral properties, specular reflection from curved surfaces, source enhancement due to reflectors and/or adjacent sources, and interaction with a participating medium in a straightforward manner.

Turner, Travis L.; Ash, Robert L.

1994-03-01

46

Rotary engine cooling system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A rotary engine has a substantially trochoidal-shaped housing cavity in which a rotor planetates. A cooling system for the engine directs coolant along a single series path consisting of series connected groups of passages. Coolant enters near the intake port, passes downwardly and axially through the cooler regions of the engine, then passes upwardly and axially through the hotter regions. By first flowing through the coolest regions, coolant pressure is reduced, thus reducing the saturation temperature of the coolant and thereby enhancing the nucleate boiling heat transfer mechanism which predominates in the high heat flux region of the engine during high power level operation.

Jones, Charles (Inventor); Gigon, Richard M. (Inventor); Blum, Edward J. (Inventor)

1985-01-01

47

Point response function of the Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System scanning radiometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of work related to the point response function (PRF) of the Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) scanning radiometer is presented. The aspects of the CERES design that affect the PRF are described, and then the design of the PRF is explained. The PRF was designed by shaping the field of view so as to minimize the blur plus alias errors of the radiance field reconstructed from the CERES measurements. The design is conducted in the Fourier domain. The PRF can then be computed by transforming the resulting transfer function to the physical domain. Alternatively, the PRF can be computed in the physical plane. The PRF of each model of the CERES instrument has been tested in the Radiation Calibration Facility by use of a PRF source and compared well with prediction. CERES instruments are aboard the Terra, Aqua, and Suomi-NPP spacecraft. In orbit, lunar observations are used to validate the PRF. These results showed nominal performance except for the longwave window channel of flight model 2, for which a region of anomalously high sensitivity was found.

Louis Smith, G.; Daniels, Janet L.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan

2014-01-01

48

Emergency core cooling system  

DOEpatents

A liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor provided with an emergency core cooling system includes a reactor vessel which contains a reactor core comprising an array of fuel assemblies and a plurality of blanket assemblies. The reactor core is immersed in a pool of liquid metal coolant. The reactor also includes a primary coolant system comprising a pump and conduits for circulating liquid metal coolant to the reactor core and through the fuel and blanket assemblies of the core. A converging-diverging venturi nozzle with an intermediate throat section is provided in between the assemblies and the pump. The intermediate throat section of the nozzle is provided with at least one opening which is in fluid communication with the pool of liquid sodium. In normal operation, coolant flows from the pump through the nozzle to the assemblies with very little fluid flowing through the opening in the throat. However, when the pump is not running, residual heat in the core causes fluid from the pool to flow through the opening in the throat of the nozzle and outwardly through the nozzle to the assemblies, thus providing a means of removing decay heat.

Schenewerk, William E. (Sherman Oaks, CA); Glasgow, Lyle E. (Westlake Village, CA)

1983-01-01

49

Evaporative roof cooling system  

SciTech Connect

An evaporative roof cooling system is described for placement upon a roof surface exposed to relatively high levels of solar radiation causing high under roof temperatures and comprising: (a) water distribution mist/spray nozzles positioned on the roof surface for supplying substantially uniform mist/sprays of water to lay down a substantially uniform thin film of water on the roof surface; (b) conduit means on the one roof surface for supplying the nozzles with water; (c) solenoid-controlled valve means in water flow communication with the conduit means to supply controlled quantities of water to the nozzles through the conduit means over periods during which the temperature of the roof surface is measured to be within a predetermined temperature range; (d) temperature measurement means comprised of a thermistor encapsulated in an epoxy block in direct contact with the roof surface for monitoring and measuring the actual temperature of the surface substantially by thermal conductivity and developing an electrical resistance value in direct relationship with the temperature of the surface; and (e) cooling system control means in electric communication with the temperature measurement means for comparing the electric resistance value developed by the temperature measurement means and a range of current values related to the predetermined temperature range.

Viner, S.G.

1988-08-09

50

Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors with passive cooling system  

DOEpatents

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of cooling medium flow circuits which cooperate to remove and carry heat away from the fuel core upon loss of the normal cooling flow circuit to areas external thereto.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Fanning, Alan W. (San Jose, CA)

1991-01-01

51

Beverage dispenser cooling system  

SciTech Connect

In a beverage dispensing system of the type having a supply container of the beverage located at a storage site, valve means at a dispensing site remote from the storage site for dispensing the beverage, pressure means for supplying the beverage under pressure from the supply container to the valve means through a beverage conduit, refrigeration means at the storage site for cooling a liquid into a chilled liquid, pump means at the storage site for circulating the chilled liquid from the storage site to the dispensing site through a transmit chilled line and from the dispensing sites back to the storage site through a return chilled line, the chilled lines running in parallel with the beverage conduit within an insulated jacket conduit extending between the storage and dispensing site, the improvement is described comprising in combination: an insulated concentric section located at the dispensing site, having an inner conduit concentrically located within an outer conduit; and manifold means for connecting the transmit and return chilled lines to opposite ends of one of the concentric conduits, and for connecting the beverage conduit and valve means to opposite ends of the other concentric conduit, to further cool the beverage by heat transfer from the chilled liquid in the concentric section.

Stanfill, T.M.

1988-03-15

52

Designing modern furnace cooling systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An integrated multidisciplinary approach to furnace design that considers the interdependence between furnace cooling elements and other furnace systems, such as binding, cooling water, and instrumentation, is necessary to achieve maximum furnace production and a long refractory life. The retrofit of the BHP Hartley electric furnace and the Kidd Creek copper converting furnace are successful examples of an integrated approach to furnace cooling design.

Merry, J.; Sarvinis, J.; Voermann, N.

2000-02-01

53

Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES), A Review: Past, Present and Future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Clouds and earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) project's objectives are to measure the reflected solar radiance (shortwave) and Earth-emitted (longwave) radiances and from these measurements to compute the shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes at the top of the atmo-sphere (TOA) and the surface and radiation divergence within the atmosphere. The fluxes at TOA are to be retrieved to an accuracy of 2The data products from CERES include, in addition to the reflected solar radiation and Earth emitted radiation fluxes at TOA, the upward and downward surface shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes, the radiation fluxes 500 mb and 250 mb altitude. Also at the surface the photosynthetically active radiation and ultraviolet radiation (total, UVA and UVB) are computed. Another application of the CERES scanning radiometers is special operations in which the azimuth of the scan plane of a CERES instrument is programmed in order to line up with ground stations or other spacecraft instruments. This capability has been used to compare radiances with those of other spacecraft instruments and with ground stations. One use of this ability has been to rotate a CERES instrument so as to scan in the same plane as a second instrument, as was done with a CERES instrument on both the Terra and Aqua spacecraft in order to compare radiance measurements. These compar-isons are needed in order to assure that any changes in the radiation budget record due to the change of instruments is understood and quantified and not attributed to a climate shift. The CEREinstrumentsaboardtheT erraandAquaspacecraf thaveservedwellpasstheirdesignlif etimes.ACERE onmissions.

Smith, G. Louis

54

Nonimaging radiant energy device  

DOEpatents

A nonimaging radiant energy device may include a hyperbolically shaped reflective element with a radiant energy inlet and a radiant energy outlet. A convex lens is provided at the radiant energy inlet and a concave lens is provided at the radiant energy outlet. Due to the provision of the lenses and the shape of the walls of the reflective element, the radiant energy incident at the radiant energy inlet within a predetermined angle of acceptance is emitted from the radiant energy outlet exclusively within an acute exit angle. In another embodiment, the radiant energy device may include two interconnected hyperbolically shaped reflective elements with a respective convex lens being provided at each aperture of the device.

Winston, Roland (Chicago, IL); Ning, Xiaohui (North Providence, RI)

1993-01-01

55

Nonimaging radiant energy device  

DOEpatents

A nonimaging radiant energy device may include a hyperbolically shaped reflective element with a radiant energy inlet and a radiant energy outlet. A convex lens is provided at the radiant energy inlet and a concave lens is provided at the radiant energy outlet. Due to the provision of the lenses and the shape of the walls of the reflective element, the radiant energy incident at the radiant energy inlet within a predetermined angle of acceptance is emitted from the radiant energy outlet exclusively within an acute exit angle. In another embodiment, the radiant energy device may include two interconnected hyperbolically shaped reflective elements with a respective convex lens being provided at each aperture of the device.

Winston, Roland (Chicago, IL); Ning, Xiaohui (North Providence, RI)

1996-01-01

56

Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES), a review: Past, present and future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) project's objectives are to measure the reflected solar radiance (shortwave) and Earth-emitted (longwave) radiances and from these measurements to compute the shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and the surface and radiation divergence within the atmosphere. The fluxes at TOA are to be retrieved to an accuracy of 2%. Improved bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) have been developed to compute the fluxes at TOA from the measured radiances with errors reduced from ERBE by a factor of two or more. Instruments aboard the Terra and Aqua spacecraft provide sampling at four local times. In order to further reduce temporal sampling errors, data are used from the geostationary meteorological satellites to account for changes of scenes between observations by the CERES radiometers. A validation protocol including in-flight calibrations and comparisons of measurements has reduced the instrument errors to less than 1%. The data are processed through three editions. The first edition provides a timely flow of data to investigators and the third edition provides data products as accurate as possible with resources available. A suite of cloud properties retrieved from the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) by the CERES team is used to identify the cloud properties for each pixel in order to select the BRDF for each pixel so as to compute radiation fluxes from radiances. Also, the cloud information is used to compute radiation at the surface and through the atmosphere and to facilitate study of the relationship between clouds and the radiation budget. The data products from CERES include, in addition to the reflected solar radiation and Earth emitted radiation fluxes at TOA, the upward and downward shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes at the surface and at various levels in the atmosphere. Also at the surface the photosynthetically active radiation and ultraviolet radiation (total, UVA and UVB) are computed. The CERES instruments aboard the Terra and Aqua spacecraft have served well past their design life times. A CERES instrument has been integrated onto the NPP platform and is ready for launch in 2011. Another CERES instrument is being built for launch in 2014, and plans are being made for a series of follow-on missions.

Smith, G. L.; Priestley, K. J.; Loeb, N. G.; Wielicki, B. A.; Charlock, T. P.; Minnis, P.; Doelling, D. R.; Rutan, D. A.

2011-07-01

57

Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES), a Review: Past, Present and Future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) project s objectives are to measure the reflected solar radiance (shortwave) and Earth-emitted (longwave) radiances and from these measurements to compute the shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and the surface and radiation divergence within the atmosphere. The fluxes at TOA are to be retrieved to an accuracy of 2%. Improved bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) have been developed to compute the fluxes at TOA from the measured radiances with errors reduced from ERBE by a factor of two or more. Instruments aboard the Terra and Aqua spacecraft provide sampling at four local times. In order to further reduce temporal sampling errors, data are used from the geostationary meteorological satellites to account for changes of scenes between observations by the CERES radiometers. A validation protocol including in-flight calibrations and comparisons of measurements has reduced the instrument errors to less than 1%. The data are processed through three editions. The first edition provides a timely flow of data to investigators and the third edition provides data products as accurate as possible with resources available. A suite of cloud properties retrieved from the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) by the CERES team is used to identify the cloud properties for each pixel in order to select the BRDF for each pixel so as to compute radiation fluxes from radiances. Also, the cloud information is used to compute radiation at the surface and through the atmosphere and to facilitate study of the relationship between clouds and the radiation budget. The data products from CERES include, in addition to the reflected solar radiation and Earth emitted radiation fluxes at TOA, the upward and downward shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes at the surface and at various levels in the atmosphere. Also at the surface the photosynthetically active radiation and ultraviolet radiation (total, UVA and UVB) are computed. The CERES instruments aboard the Terra and Aqua spacecraft have served well past their design life times. A CERES instrument has been integrated onto the NPP platform and is ready for launch in 2011. Another CERES instrument is being built for launch in 2014, and plans are being made for a series of follow-on missions.

Smith, G. L.; Priestley, K. J.; Loeb, N. G.; Wielicki, B. A.; Charlock, T. P.; Minnis, P.; Doelling, D. R.; Rutan, D. A.

2011-01-01

58

Combustor liner cooling system  

DOEpatents

A combustor liner is disclosed. The combustor liner includes an upstream portion, a downstream end portion extending from the upstream portion along a generally longitudinal axis, and a cover layer associated with an inner surface of the downstream end portion. The downstream end portion includes the inner surface and an outer surface, the inner surface defining a plurality of microchannels. The downstream end portion further defines a plurality of passages extending between the inner surface and the outer surface. The plurality of microchannels are fluidly connected to the plurality of passages, and are configured to flow a cooling medium therethrough, cooling the combustor liner.

Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Berkman, Mert Enis

2013-08-06

59

Climate Model Evaluation using New Datasets from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are some in the science community who believe that the response of the climate system to anthropogenic radiative forcing is unpredictable and we should therefore call off the quest . The key limitation in climate predictability is associated with cloud feedback. Narrowing the uncertainty in cloud feedback (and therefore climate sensitivity) requires optimal use of the best available observations to evaluate and improve climate model processes and constrain climate model simulations over longer time scales. The Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES) is a satellite-based program that provides global cloud, aerosol and radiative flux observations for improving our understanding of cloud-aerosol-radiation feedbacks in the Earth s climate system. CERES is the successor to the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), which has widely been used to evaluate climate models both at short time scales (e.g., process studies) and at decadal time scales. A CERES instrument flew on the TRMM satellite and captured the dramatic 1998 El Nino, and four other CERES instruments are currently flying aboard the Terra and Aqua platforms. Plans are underway to fly the remaining copy of CERES on the upcoming NPP spacecraft (mid-2010 launch date). Every aspect of CERES represents a significant improvement over ERBE. While both CERES and ERBE measure broadband radiation, CERES calibration is a factor of 2 better than ERBE. In order to improve the characterization of clouds and aerosols within a CERES footprint, we use coincident higher-resolution imager observations (VIRS, MODIS or VIIRS) to provide a consistent cloud-aerosol-radiation dataset at climate accuracy. Improved radiative fluxes are obtained by using new CERES-derived Angular Distribution Models (ADMs) for converting measured radiances to fluxes. CERES radiative fluxes are a factor of 2 more accurate than ERBE overall, but the improvement by cloud type and at high latitudes can be as high as a factor of 5. Diurnal cycles are explicitly resolved by merging geostationary satellite observations with CERES and MODIS. Atmospheric state data are provided from a frozen version of the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office- Data Assimilation System at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. In addition to improving the accuracy of top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes, CERES also produces radiative fluxes at the surface and at several levels in the atmosphere using radiative transfer modeling, constrained at the TOA by CERES (ERBE was limited to the TOA). In all, CERES uses 11 instruments on 7 spacecraft all integrated to obtain climate accuracy in TOA to surface fluxes. This presentation will provide an overview of several new CERES datasets of interest to the climate community (including a new adjusted TOA flux dataset constrained by estimates of heat storage in the Earth system), show direct comparisons between CERES ad ERBE, and provide a detailed error analysis of CERES fluxes at various time and space scales. We discuss how observations can be used to reduce uncertainties in cloud feedback and climate sensitivity and strongly argue why we should NOT "call off the quest".

Loeb, Norman G.; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Doelling, David R.

2008-01-01

60

Evaluation of Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Scanner Pointing Accuracy using a Coastline Detection System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) investigation to examine the role of clouds in the radiative energy flow through the Earth-atmosphere system. The first CERES scanning radiometer was launched on November 27, 1997 into a 35 inclination, 350 km altitude orbit, on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft. The CERES instrument consists of a three channel scanning broadband radiometer. The spectral bands measure shortwave (0.3 - 5 microns), window (8 - 12 microns), and total (0.3 - 100 microns) radiation reflected or emitted from the Earth-atmosphere system. Each Earth viewing measurement is geolocated to the Earth fixed coordinate system using satellite ephemeris, Earth rotation and geoid, and instrument pointing data. The interactive CERES coastline detection system is used to assess the accuracy of the CERES geolocation process. By analyzing radiative flux gradients at the boundaries of ocean and land masses, the accuracy of the scanner measurement locations may be derived for the CERES/TRMM instrument/satellite system. The resulting CERES measurement location errors are within 10% of the nadir footprint size. Precise pointing knowledge of the Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) is required for convolution of cloud properties onto the CERES footprint; initial VIRS coastline results are included.

Currey, Chris; Smith, Lou; Neely, Bob

1998-01-01

61

Meteor radiant mapping with MU radar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The radiant point mapping of meteor showers with the MU radar by using a modified mapping method originally proposed by Morton and Jones (1982) was carried out. The modification is that each meteor echo was weighted by using the beam pattern of the radar system. A preliminary result of the radiant point mapping of the Geminids meteor shower in 1989 is presented.

Watanabe, Jun-Ichi; Nakamura, Tsuko; Tsuda, T.; Tsutsumi, M.; Miyashita, A.; Yoshikawa, M.

1992-01-01

62

Non-intrusive cooling system  

DOEpatents

A readily replaceable heat exchange cooling jacket for applying fluid to a system conduit pipe. The cooling jacket comprises at least two members, separable into upper and lower portions. A chamber is formed between the conduit pipe and cooling jacket once the members are positioned about the pipe. The upper portion includes a fluid spray means positioned above the pipe and the bottom portion includes a fluid removal means. The heat exchange cooling jacket is adaptable with a drain tank, a heat exchanger, a pump and other standard equipment to provide a system for removing heat from a pipe. A method to remove heat from a pipe, includes the steps of enclosing a portion of the pipe with a jacket to form a chamber between an outside surface of the pipe and the cooling jacket; spraying cooling fluid at low pressure from an upper portion of the cooling jacket, allowing the fluid to flow downwardly by gravity along the surface of the pipe toward a bottom portion of the chamber; and removing the fluid at the bottom portion of the chamber.

Morrison, Edward F. (Burnt Hills, NY); Bergman, John W. (Barrington, NH)

2001-05-22

63

Effect of radiant barriers and attic ventilation on residential attics and attic duct systems: New tools for measuring and modeling  

SciTech Connect

A simple duct system was installed in an attic test module for a large scale climate simulator at a US national laboratory. The goal of the tests and subsequent modeling was to develop an accurate method of assessing duct system performance in the laboratory, enabling limiting conditions to be imposed at will and results to be applied to residential attics with attic duct systems. Steady-state tests were done at a severe summer and a mild winter condition. In all tests the roof surface was heated above ambient air temperatures by infrared lights. The attic test module first included then did not include the duct system. Attic ventilation from eave vents to a ridge vent was varied from none to values achievable by a high level of power ventilation. A radiant barrier was attached to the underside of the roof deck, both with and without the duct system in place. Tests were also done without the radiant barrier, both with and without the duct system. When installed, the insulated ducts ran along the floor of the attic, just above the attic insulation and along the edge of the attic near the eaves and one gable. These tests in a climate simulator achieved careful control and reproducibility of conditions. This elucidated dependencies that would otherwise be hidden by variations in uncontrolled variables. Based on the comparisons with the results of the tests at the mild winter condition and the severe summer condition, model predictions for attic air and insulation temperatures should be accurate within {+-} 10 F ({+-} 6 C). This is judged adequate for design purposes and could be better when exploring the effect of changes in attic and duct parameters at fixed climatic conditions.

Petrie, T.W.; Childs, P.W.; Christian, J.E.; Wilkes, K.E.

1998-07-01

64

Solar-powered cooling system  

DOEpatents

A solar-powered adsorption-desorption refrigeration and air conditioning system uses nanostructural materials made of high specific surface area adsorption aerogel as the adsorptive media. Refrigerant molecules are adsorbed on the high surface area of the nanostructural material. A circulation system circulates refrigerant from the nanostructural material to a cooling unit.

Farmer, Joseph C

2013-12-24

65

Gas hydrate cool storage system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention presented relates to the development of a process utilizing a gas hydrate as a cool storage medium for alleviating electric load demands during peak usage periods. Several objectives of the invention are mentioned concerning the formation of the gas hydrate as storage material in a thermal energy storage system within a heat pump cycle system. The gas hydrate

M. P. Ternes; R. J. Kedl

1984-01-01

66

On-orbit solar calibrations using the Aqua Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) in-flight calibration system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) spacecraft scanning thermistor bolometers were used to measure earth-reflected solar and earth-emitted longwave radiances, at satellite altitude. The bolometers measured the earth radiances in the broadband shortwave solar (0.3 - 5.0 micrometers) and total (0.3->100 micrometers) spectral bands as well as in the (8 - 12 micrometers) water vapor window spectral band over geographical footprints as small as 10 kilometers at nadir. In May 2002, the fourth and fifth sets of CERES bolometers were launched aboard the Aqua spacecraft. Ground vacuum calibrations defined the initial count conversion coefficients that were used to convert the bolometer output voltages into filtered earth radiances. The mirror attenuator mosaic (MAM), a solar diffuser plate, was built into the CERES instrument package calibration system in order to define in-orbit shifts or drifts in the sensor responses. The shortwave and total sensors are calibrated using the solar radiances reflected from the MAM's. Each MAM consists of baffle-solar diffuser plate systems, which guide incoming solar radiances into the instrument fields-of-view of the shortwave and total sensor units. The MAM diffuser reflecting type surface consists of an array of spherical aluminum mirror segments, which are separated by a Merck Black A absorbing surface, overcoated with silicon dioxide. Temperature sensors are located in each MAM plate and baffle. The CERES MAM is designed to yield calibration precisions approaching .5 percent for the total and shortwave detectors. In this paper, the MAM solar calibration procedures are presented along with on-orbit results. Comparisons are also made between the Aqua, Terra and the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) CERES MAM solar calibrations.

Wilson, Robert S.; Lee, Robert B., III; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Al-Hajjah, Aiman

2003-11-01

67

On-orbit solar calibrations using the Aqua Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) in-flight calibration system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) spacecraft scanning thermistor bolometers were used to measure earth-reflected solar and earth-emitted longwave radiances, at satellite altitude. The bolometers measured the earth radiances in the broadband shortwave solar (0.3 - 5.0 micrometers) and total (0.3->100 micrometers) spectral bands as well as in the (8 - 12 micrometers) water vapor window spectral band over geographical footprints as small as 10 kilometers at nadir. In May 2002, the fourth and fifth sets of CERES bolometers were launched aboard the Aqua spacecraft. Ground vacuum calibrations defined the initial count conversion coefficients that were used to convert the bolometer output voltages into filtered earth radiances. The mirror attenuator mosaic (MAM), a solar diffuser plate, was built into the CERES instrument package calibration system in order to define in-orbit shifts or drifts in the sensor responses. The shortwave and total sensors are calibrated using the solar radiances reflected from the MAM's. Each MAM consists of baffle-solar diffuser plate systems, which guide incoming solar radiances into the instrument fields-of-view of the shortwave and total wave sensor units. The MAM diffuser reflecting type surface consists of an array of spherical aluminum mirror segments, which are separated by a Merck Black A absorbing surface, overcoated with silicon dioxide. Temperature sensors are located in each MAM plate and baffle. The CERES MAM wass designed to yield calibration precisions approaching .5 percent for the total and shortwave detectors. In this paper, the MAM solar calibration procedures are presented along with on-orbit results. Comparisons are also made between the Aqua,Terra and the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) CERES MAM solar calibrations.

Wilson, Robert S.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Hess, Phillip

2009-08-01

68

Infrared radiant heating  

SciTech Connect

Retrofitting convective forced air heating systems with infrared (IR) systems can save as much as 50 percent of the total heating bill. Infrared heating is more efficient for two reasons: it can be directed to heat only occupied space; and it does not heat the air in a space, it only heats people and objects. Infrared heating works best where convective heaters are not practical. Large open bay buildings, such as hangars, workshops, and warehouses, with large volumes of air to be heated and plenty of unoccupied space are good candidates for retrofit. This TechData Sheet will help activity personnel understand infrared radiant heating, and identify opportunities for energy-conserving retrofit projects.

Cannon, S.; Rocha, M.

1996-05-01

69

Solar heating\\/cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar heating and cooling system comprising a multi-tiered collector and heat exchanger is described that is mounted on a roof or installed in a vertical wall. Each tier of the exchanger includes a plurality of longitudinal channels with upper and lower manifolds communicating with all of the channels. A duct extends from each manifold into the premises being heated

Worthington

1977-01-01

70

Lamination cooling system formation method  

DOEpatents

An electric motor, transformer or inductor having a cooling system. A stack of laminations have apertures at least partially coincident with apertures of adjacent laminations. The apertures define straight or angled cooling-fluid passageways through the lamination stack. Gaps between the adjacent laminations are sealed by injecting a heat-cured sealant into the passageways, expelling excess sealant, and heat-curing the lamination stack. Manifold members adjoin opposite ends of the lamination stack, and each is configured with one or more cavities to act as a manifold to adjacent passageway ends. Complex manifold arrangements can create bidirectional flow in a variety of patterns.

Rippel, Wally E. (Altadena, CA); Kobayashi, Daryl M. (Monrovia, CA)

2012-06-19

71

Lamination cooling system formation method  

DOEpatents

An electric motor, transformer or inductor having a cooling system. A stack of laminations have apertures at least partially coincident with apertures of adjacent laminations. The apertures define straight or angled cooling-fluid passageways through the lamination stack. Gaps between the adjacent laminations are sealed by injecting a heat-cured sealant into the passageways, expelling excess sealant, and heat-curing the lamination stack. Manifold members adjoin opposite ends of the lamination stack, and each is configured with one or more cavities to act as a manifold to adjacent passageway ends. Complex manifold arrangements can create bidirectional flow in a variety of patterns.

Rippel, Wally E [Altadena, CA; Kobayashi, Daryl M [Monrovia, CA

2009-05-12

72

Power plant cooling systems: policy alternatives.  

PubMed

Policies and pressures emanating from the 1972 Amendments to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act favor the installation of cooling towers, or closedcycle cooling systems, in power plants. An assessment of the relative risks of alternative cooling system designs indicates that, in general, adverse environmental effects associated with cooling towers are more certain, are of larger scale, and are more likely to be irreversible than impacts associated with once-through cooling systems and cooling reservoirs. Adverse environmental effects associated with once-through cooling and cooling reservoirs are largely amenable to mitigation in the context of resource management principles. These factors, together with the greater costs associated with cooling towers, indicate that wherever the feasibility is demonstrated and there is minimal risk to aquatic ecosystems, once-through cooling systems or cooling reservoirs should be preferred. PMID:17833533

Reynolds, J Z

1980-01-25

73

Power plant cooling systems: policy alternatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Policies and pressures emanating from the 1972 Amendments to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act favor the installation of cooling towers, or closed-cycle cooling systems, in power plants. An assessment of the relative risks of alternative cooling system designs indicates that, in general, adverse environmental effects associated with cooling towers are more certain, are of larger scale, and are more

J. Z. Reynolds

1980-01-01

74

Power Plant Cooling Systems: Policy Alternatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Policies and pressures emanating from the 1972 Amendments to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act favor the installation of cooling towers, or closed-cycle cooling systems, in power plants. An assessment of the relative risks of alternative cooling system designs indicates that, in general, adverse environmental effects associated with cooling towers are more certain, are of larger scale, and are more

John Z. Reynolds

1980-01-01

75

Gas hydrate cool storage system  

DOEpatents

The invention presented relates to the development of a process utilizing a gas hydrate as a cool storage medium for alleviating electric load demands during peak usage periods. Several objectives of the invention are mentioned concerning the formation of the gas hydrate as storage material in a thermal energy storage system within a heat pump cycle system. The gas hydrate was formed using a refrigerant in water and an example with R-12 refrigerant is included. (BCS)

Ternes, M.P.; Kedl, R.J.

1984-09-12

76

On-orbit solar calibration methods using the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) in-flight calibration system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) scanning thermistor bolometers measure earth-reflected solar and earth-emitted longwaveradiances, at the top- of-the-atmosphere. The bolometers measure the earthradiances in the broadband shortwave solar (0.3-5.0 microns) and total (0.3-<100 microns) spectral bands as well as in the 8-<12 microns water vapor window spectral band over geographical footprints as small as 10 kilometers at nadir. December 1999, the second and third set of CERES bolometers was launchedon the Earth Observing Mission Terra Spacecraft. May 2003, the fourth and fifth set of bolometers was launched on the Earth Observing Mission Aqua Spacecraft. Recently, (October 2011) the sixth instrument was launched on the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System Preparatory Project (Suomi NPP) Spacecraft. Ground vacuum calibrations define the initial count conversion coefficients that are used to convert the bolometer output voltages into filtered earth radiances. The mirror attenuator mosaic (MAM), a solar diffuser plate, was built into the CERES instrument package calibration system in order to define in-orbit shifts or drifts in the sensor responses. The shortwave and shortwave part of the total sensors are calibrated using the solar radiances reflected from the MAM's. Each MAM consists of baffle-solar diffuser plate systems, which guide incoming solar radiances into the instrument fields of view of the shortwave and total wave sensor units. The MAM diffuser reflecting type surface consists of an array of spherical aluminum mirror segments, which are separated by a Merck Black A absorbing surface, overcoated with SIOx (SIO2 for PFM). Thermistors are located in each MAM plate and the total channel baffle. The CERES MAM is designed to yield calibration precisions approaching .5 percent for the total and shortwave detectors. In this presentation, the MAM solar calibration contrasting procedures will be presented along with on-orbit measurements for the eleven years the CERES instruments have been on-orbit. A switch to an azimuth rotation raster scan of the Sun rather than a fixed azimuth rotating elevation scan will be discussed. Comparisons are also made between the Terra, Aqua, and Suomi NPP CERES instruments during their MAM solar calibrations and total solar irradiance experimental results to determine how precise the CERES solar calibration facilities are at tracking the sun's irradiance.

Wilson, Robert S.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Hess, Phillip

2012-09-01

77

A System for Vapor Cooling Electronic Equipment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application pertains generally to heat transfer systems and more particularly to a closed system for cooling electronic equipment. A vapor cooling system comprises a liquid boiled by heat from a magnetron and collected and forced upward by the ...

H. Boehm

1976-01-01

78

Commercial Thermoelectric Cooling Systems for Military Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research examines current thermoelectric cooling (TEC) systems for possible microclimate cooling applications. TEC systems offer simplicity, but have some drawbacks. Although TEC systems have few moving parts, the power required for operation and the...

M. W. Wolfson, R. Masadi

1993-01-01

79

On-orbit Solar Calibrations Using the Terra Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) In-flight Calibrations System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) spacecraft scanning thermistor bolometers measure earth-reflected solar and earth-emitted longwave radiances, at the top- of-the-atmosphere. The bolometers measure the earth radiances in the broadband shortwave solar (0.3 -5.0 microns) and total (0.3 ->100 microns) spectral bands as well as in the 8 - 12 microns water vapor window spectral band over geographical footprints as small as 10 kilometers at nadir. December 1999, the second and third sets of CERES bolometers were launched on the Earth Observing Mission Terra Spacecraft. Ground vacuum calibrations define the initial count conversion coefficients that are used to convert the bolometer output voltages into filtered earth radiances. The mirror attenuator mosaic (MAM), a solar diffuser plate, was built into the CERES instrument package calibration system in order to define on-orbit shifts or drifts in the sensor responses. The shortwave and total sensors are calibrated using the solar radiances reflected from the MAM's. Each MAM consists of baffle-solar diffuser plate systems, which guide incoming solar radiances into the instrument fields of view of the shortwave and total wave sensor units. The MAM diffuser reflecting type surface consists of an array of spherical aluminium mirror segments, which are separated by a Merck Black A absorbing surface, overcoated with silicon dioxide. Thermistors are located in each MAM plate and baffle. The CERES MAM is designed to yield calibration precisions approaching 1 percent for the total and shortwave detectors. However, in their first year of operation the Terra FM1 and FM2 shortwave and the FM1 and FM2 total MAMs showed shifts in their solar calibrations of 1.5, 2.5, 1.5 and 6 percent respectively. In the subsequent year of operation all instruments begin to stabilize within the .5 percent precision range. Correspondingly, the FM1, FM2 shortwave and the FM1 and FM2 total MAMs showed shifts in their internal blackbody calibrations of 0.2, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 percent respectively over the 2 year period. This suggests that the reason for the solar calibration's larger shifts is due to changes in the MAM itself and not to instrument changes. In this paper, the MAM solar calibration procedures are presented along with on-orbit measurements for the 2000-2002 period of operation. Comparisons are also made between the Terra CERES instruments and the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) instrument during their MAM solar calibrations.

Wilson, R. S.; Lee, R. B.; Al-Hajjah, A. Y.; Paden, J.; Pandey, D. K.; Priestley, K. J.; Thomas, S.

2002-05-01

80

Evaluation of existing cooling systems for reducing cooling power consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work was designed to estimate the cooling load power consumption during the summer in the hot and humid areas of Iran. The actual electrical energy consumption for cooling systems of some typical buildings with various applications (3 residential home buildings, 2 industrial plant buildings, a trade center with 38 shops, 3 public sectors and a city hospital) in a

M. S. Hatamipour; H. Mahiyar; M. Taheri

2007-01-01

81

Cooling systems for satellite remote sensing instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The characteristics of a cryogenic cooling system for the Pollution Monitoring Satellite (PMS) are discussed. Studies were conducted to make the following determinations: (1) the characteristics and use of proven and state-of-the-art cryogenic cooling systems for six specified ranges of performance, (2) the system most applicable for each of the six cooling categories, and (3) conceptual designs for candidate system for each of the six representative cooling categories. The six cooling categories of electrical loads are defined. The desired mission life for the cooling system is two years with both continuous and intermittent operating conditions.

Copeland, R. J.; Oren, J. A.

1974-01-01

82

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) algorithm theoretical basis document. Volume 1; Overviews (subsystem 0)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The theoretical bases for the Release 1 algorithms that will be used to process satellite data for investigation of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) are described. The architecture for software implementation of the methodologies is outlined. Volume 1 provides both summarized and detailed overviews of the CERES Release 1 data analysis system. CERES will produce global top-of-the-atmosphere shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere, at the surface, and within the atmosphere by using the combination of a large variety of measurements and models. The CERES processing system includes radiance observations from CERES scanning radiometers, cloud properties derived from coincident satellite imaging radiometers, temperature and humidity fields from meteorological analysis models, and high-temporal-resolution geostationary satellite radiances to account for unobserved times. CERES will provide a continuation of the ERBE record and the lowest error climatology of consistent cloud properties and radiation fields. CERES will also substantially improve our knowledge of the Earth's surface radiation budget.

Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator); Barkstrom, Bruce R. (Principal Investigator); Baum, Bryan A.; Cess, Robert D.; Charlock, Thomas P.; Coakley, James A.; Green, Richard N.; Lee, Robert B., III; Minnis, Patrick; Smith, G. Louis

1995-01-01

83

46 CFR 153.432 - Cooling systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cooling systems. 153.432 Section 153.432 Shipping...Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.432 Cooling systems. (a) Each cargo cooling system must have an equivalent standby...

2013-10-01

84

Techniques for computing regional radiant emittances of the earth-atmosphere system from observations by wide-angle satellite radiometers, phase 3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiometers on earth orbiting satellites measure the exchange of radiant energy between the earth-atmosphere (E-A) system and space at observation points in space external to the E-A system. Observations by wideangle, spherical and flat radiometers are analyzed and interpreted with regard to the general problem of the earth energy budget (EEB) and to the problem of determining the energy budget of regions smaller than the field of view (FOV) of these radiometers.

Pina, J. F.; House, F. B.

1975-01-01

85

Relationship Between the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Measurements and Surface Temperatures of Selected Ocean Regions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Clear sky longwave radiances and fluxes are compared with the sea surface temperatures for three oceanic regions: Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific. The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) measurements were obtained by the three thermistor bolometers: total channel which measures the radiation arising from the earth-atmosphere system between 0.3 - greater than 100 micrometers; the window channel which measures the radiation from 8-12 micrometers; and the shortwave channel which measures the reflected energy from 0.3 - less than 5.0 micrometers. These instruments have demonstrated measurement precisions of approximately 0.3% on the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) between ground and on-orbit sensor calibrations. In this work we have used eight months of clear sky earth-nadir-view radiance data starting from January 1998 through August 1998. We have found a very strong correlation of 0.97 between the CERES window channel's weekly averaged unfiltered spectral radiance values at satellite altitude (350 km) and the corresponding weekly averaged sea surface temperature (SST) data covering all the oceanic regions. Such correlation can be used in predicting the sea surface temperatures using the present CERES Terra's window channel radiances at satellite altitude very easily.

Pandey, Dhirendra, K.; Lee, Robert B., III; Brown, Shannon B.; Paden, Jack; Spence, Peter L.; Thomas, Susan; Wilson, Robert S.; Al-Hajjah, Aiman

2001-01-01

86

Cooling system for superconducting magnet  

DOEpatents

A cooling system is configured to control the flow of a refrigerant by controlling the rate at which the refrigerant is heated, thereby providing an efficient and reliable approach to cooling a load (e.g., magnets, rotors). The cooling system includes a conduit circuit connected to the load and within which a refrigerant circulates; a heat exchanger, connected within the conduit circuit and disposed remotely from the load; a first and a second reservoir, each connected within the conduit, each holding at least a portion of the refrigerant; a heater configured to independently heat the first and second reservoirs. In a first mode, the heater heats the first reservoir, thereby causing the refrigerant to flow from the first reservoir through the load and heat exchanger, via the conduit circuit and into the second reservoir. In a second mode, the heater heats the second reservoir to cause the refrigerant to flow from the second reservoir through the load and heat exchanger via the conduit circuit and into the first reservoir.

Gamble, Bruce B. (Wellesley, MA); Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed (Framingham, MA)

1998-01-01

87

Global, Multi-Year Analysis of Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System Terra Observations and Radiative Transfer Calculations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An extended record of the Terra Surface and Atmosphere Radiation Budget (SARB) computed by CERES (Clouds and Earth s Radiant Energy System) is produced in gridded form, facilitating an investigation of global scale direct aerosol forcing. The new gridded version (dubbed FSW) has a spacing of 1 at the Equator. A companion document (Rutan et al. 2005) focuses on advances to (and validation of) the ungridded, footprint scale calculations (dubbed CRS), primarily in clear-sky conditions. While mainly intended to provide observations of fluxes at the top of atmosphere (TOA), CERES (Wielicki et al. 1996) includes a program to also compute the fluxes at TOA, within the atmosphere and at the surface, and also to validate the results with independent ground based measurements (Charlock and Alberta 1996). ARM surface data has been a focus for this component of CERES. To permit the user to infer cloud forcing and direct aerosol forcing with the computed SARB, CERES includes surface and TOA fluxes that have been computed for cloud-free (clear) and aerosol free (pristine) footprints; this accounts for aerosol effects (SW scattering and absorption, and LW scattering, absorption and emission) to both clear and cloudy skies.

Charlock, T. P.; Rose, F. G.; Rutan, D. A.; Coleman, L. H.; Caldwell, T.; Zentz, S.

2005-01-01

88

Conversion of radiant light energy in photobioreactors  

SciTech Connect

The conversion of radiant light energy into chemical affinity by microorganisms in photobioreactors is examined. The kinetics of entropy production in the system is theoretically established from entropy and energy balances for the material and photonic phases in the reactor. A negative chemical affinity term compensated for by a radiant energy term at a higher level of energy characterizes photosynthetic organisms. The local volumetric rate of radiant light energy absorbed, which appears in the dissipation function as an irreversible term, is calculated for monodimensional approximations providing analytical solutions and for general tridimensional equations requiring the solution of a new numerical algorithm. Solutions for the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis cultivated in photoreactors with different geometries and light energy inputs are compared. Thermodynamic efficiency of the photosynthesis is calculated. The highest value of 15% found for low radiant energy absorption rates corresponds to a maximum quantum yield in the reactor.

Cornet, J.F.; Dussap, C.G.; Gros, J.B. (Univ. Blase Pascal, Aubiere (France). Lab. de Genie Chimique Biologique)

1994-06-01

89

Development of actively cooled panels for advanced propulsion systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of actively cooled flowpath panels for the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) propulsion system was a critical task in the development plan of the air vehicle system. This task encompassed development of design requirements and loads, and component design and testing. In the early 90's the effort focused on six cooled panel designs based in five different materials (NARloy-Z, Haynes 188, MoRe, IN909, C/C and C/SiC), each satisfying requirements in a different area of the propulsion flowpath. Eventually, three of these designs were fabricated and tested. For these tests, two primary facilities were used. The first was a radiant heating facility at Wright Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), and the second, a vitiated air heater at General Applied Science Laboratories (GASL) Inc. In these facilities, tests were run to validate thermal and mechanical models and to demonstrate coating durability and effectiveness. Additional tests to assess the damage tolerance of these designs were planned but never run. These tests ultimately exposed strengths and weaknesses in the designs and the analysis methods.

Hauber, Brett K.

1998-01-01

90

On-orbit solar calibrations using the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) in-flight calibration system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) scanning thermistor bolometers measure earth-reflected solar and earth-emitted longwaveradiances, at the top- of-the-atmosphere. The bolometers measure the earthradiances in the broadband shortwave solar (0.3-5.0 microns) and total (0.3->100 microns) spectral bands as well as in the 8->12 microns water vapor window spectral band over geographical footprints as small as 10 kilometers at nadir. December 1999, the second and third set of CERES bolometers was launchedon the Earth Observing Mission Terra Spacecraft. May 2003, the fourth and fifth set of bolometers was launched on the Earth Observing Mission Aqua Spacecraft. Ground vacuum calibrations define the initial count conversion coefficients that are used to convert the bolometer output voltages into filtered earth radiances. The mirror attenuator mosaic (MAM), a solar diffuser plate, was built into the CERES instrument package calibration system in order to define in-orbit shifts or drifts in the sensor responses. The shortwave and shortwave part of total sensors are calibrated using the solar radiances reflected from the MAM's. Each MAM consists of baffle-solar diffuser plate systems, which guide incoming solar radiances into the instrument fields of view of the shortwave and total wave sensor units. The MAM diffuser reflecting type surface consists of an array of spherical aluminum mirror segments, which are separated by a Merck Black A absorbing surface, overcoated with SIOx. Thermistors are located in each MAM plate and the total channel baffle. The CERES MAM is designed to yield calibration precisions approaching .5 percent for the total and shortwave detectors. However, in their first year of operation the Terra and Aqua MAMs showed shifts in their calibrations larger than expected. Shifts of this nature have been seen in other Solar viewing instruments in the past. A possible explanation has attributed the changes to pre-orbit or on-orbit contamination combined with solar ultraviolet/atomic oxygen induced chemical changes to the contaminant during solar exposure. In the subsequent year of operation all instruments begin to stabilize within the .5 percent precision range. In this presentation, the MAM solar calibration procedures will be presented along with on-orbit measurements for the nine years the CERES instruments have been on-orbit. A switch to an azimuth rotation raster scan of the Sun rather than an elevation scan will be discussed. The implementation of a thermal correction to the shortwave channel will also be discussed. Comparisons are also made between the Terra CERES instruments and the Aqua instruments during their MAM solar calibrations and total solar irradiance experimental results to determine how precise the CERES solar calibration facilities are at tracking the sun's irradiance.

Wilson, Robert S.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Hess, Phillip

2010-08-01

91

Novel Active Transient Cooling Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Under this grant, researcher has conducted detailed studies of magnetocaloric nanomaterials for solid state cooling applications. Such materials are of great current interest in solid state cooling. Present work on synthesis, characterization and property...

E. V. Sampathkumaran, G. Ramanath, P. Keblinski, R. V. Ramanujan

2010-01-01

92

Technical evaluation of a solar heating system having conventional hydronic solar collectors and a radiant panel slab. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A simple innovative solar heating design (Solar Option One) using conventional hydronic solar collectors and a radiant panel slab was constructed. An objective of hybrid solar design is to combine the relative advantages of active and passive design approaches while minimizing their respective disadvantages. A test house using the Solar Option One heating system was experimentally monitored to determine its energy based performance during the 1982-83 heating season. The test residence is located in Lyndonville, Vermont, an area which has a characteristically cold and cloudy climate. The two story residence has a floor area of about 1400 square feet and is constructed on a 720 square foot 5.5 inch thick floor slab. A 24 inch packed gravel bed is located beneath the slab and the slab-gravel bed is insulated by two inches of polystyrene insulation. The test building is of frame construction and uses insulation levels which have become commonplace throughout the country. The structure would not fall into the superinsulated category but was tightly constructed so as to have a low infiltration level. The building is sun-tempered in that windows were concentrated somewhat on the South side and all but avoided on the North. A solar greenhouse on the South side of the building was closed off from the structure permanently throughout the testing so as to better observe the solar heating invention without confounding variables. The monitoring equipment generated an internal gain of about 17,000 BTUs per day, roughly the equivalent of occupancy by two persons. A full description of the experimental testing program is given. System efficiency and performance are reported.

Starr, R.J.

1984-04-01

93

Evaporative cooling enhanced cold storage system  

DOEpatents

The invention provides an evaporatively enhanced cold storage system wherein a warm air stream is cooled and the cooled air stream is thereafter passed into contact with a cold storage unit. Moisture is added to the cooled air stream prior to or during contact of the cooled air stream with the cold storage unit to effect enhanced cooling of the cold storage unit due to evaporation of all or a portion of the added moisture. Preferably at least a portion of the added moisture comprises water condensed during the cooling of the warm air stream. 3 figures.

Carr, P.

1991-10-15

94

Evaporative cooling enhanced cold storage system  

DOEpatents

The invention provides an evaporatively enhanced cold storage system wherein a warm air stream is cooled and the cooled air stream is thereafter passed into contact with a cold storage unit. Moisture is added to the cooled air stream prior to or during contact of the cooled air stream with the cold storage unit to effect enhanced cooling of the cold storage unit due to evaporation of all or a portion of the added moisture. Preferably at least a portion of the added moisture comprises water condensed during the cooling of the warm air stream.

Carr, Peter (Cary, NC)

1991-01-01

95

A System for Determining Parameters of a Particle by Radiant Energy Scattering Techniques, Patent Application.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The system for determining parameters of a particle described in this document is a government-owned invention that is available for licensing. The background of the invention is outlined, and drawings of the system together with a detailed description of its function are provided. A collector contains a hole and annular apertures for transmitting…

National Bureau of Standards (DOC), Washington, DC.

96

Boiling liquid engine cooling system  

SciTech Connect

A boiling liquid cooling system is described for an engine, comprising: means defining in the engine a coolant jacket into which coolant is introduced in liquid state and from which coolant is discharged in gaseous state; a radiator into which gaseous coolant from the coolant jacket is introduced to be liquified; an electric pump for pumping the coolant thus liquified by the radiator into the coolant jacket; an electric fan positioned adjacent the radiator for, upon energization, producing a radiator cooling air flow to promote a condensation function of the radiator; and control means for energizing the electric fan when the temperature of the coolant in the coolant jacket is higher than a predetermined temperature, for controlling the rotation speed of the electric fan by gradually increasing the rotation speed from a low level at the beginning of the fan rotation to a normal level as time proceeds and for deenergizing the electric fan when the temperature of the coolant in the coolant jacket is lower than the predetermined temperature.

Miura, N.; Hayashi, Y.

1987-04-21

97

Optimizing cooling policy for power plant system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dynamic programing model was developed to minimize the cooling costs of a series of power plants along a tributary discharging into an estuary. Heat production and dissipation equations are utilized. The cooling method studied is a once-through, no recycle system utilizing cooling ponds. Minimal cost policy is subject to several constraints, including stream and estuary standards, land availability, budget

L. Lum; L. W. Mays

1979-01-01

98

Reactor core isolation cooling system  

DOEpatents

A reactor core isolation cooling system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core, a drywell vessel, a containment vessel, and an isolation pool containing an isolation condenser. A turbine is operatively joined to the pressure vessel outlet steamline and powers a pump operatively joined to the pressure vessel feedwater line. In operation, steam from the pressure vessel powers the turbine which in turn powers the pump to pump makeup water from a pool to the feedwater line into the pressure vessel for maintaining water level over the reactor core. Steam discharged from the turbine is channeled to the isolation condenser and is condensed therein. The resulting heat is discharged into the isolation pool and vented to the atmosphere outside the containment vessel for removing heat therefrom. 1 figure.

Cooke, F.E.

1992-12-08

99

Reactor core isolation cooling system  

DOEpatents

A reactor core isolation cooling system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core, a drywell vessel, a containment vessel, and an isolation pool containing an isolation condenser. A turbine is operatively joined to the pressure vessel outlet steamline and powers a pump operatively joined to the pressure vessel feedwater line. In operation, steam from the pressure vessel powers the turbine which in turn powers the pump to pump makeup water from a pool to the feedwater line into the pressure vessel for maintaining water level over the reactor core. Steam discharged from the turbine is channeled to the isolation condenser and is condensed therein. The resulting heat is discharged into the isolation pool and vented to the atmosphere outside the containment vessel for removing heat therefrom.

Cooke, Franklin E. (San Jose, CA)

1992-01-01

100

Suggested Nomenclature of Radiant Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

HAVING recently had occasion to develop the first principles of the theory of inter-stellar radiation, I soon felt the want of some short and convenient word to express that form of ethereal wave-effect known as ``radiant energy,'' ``radiant heat,'' ``light,'' ``rays of the spectrum,'' &c. Radiant energy is doubtless the most accurate of these expressions, but it is subject to

Simon Newcomb

1893-01-01

101

Rankine-cycle heating and cooling systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design for domestic or commercial solar heating and cooling system based on rankine heat pump cycle includes detailed drawings, performance data, equipment specifications, and other pertinent information.

1979-01-01

102

Recent Patents in Absorption Cooling Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Absorption cooling offers the possibility of using heat to provide cooling. For this purpose heat from a conventional boiler can be used or waste heat and solar energy. When the latter systems are used absorption systems minimize also the adverse effects of burning fossil fuels and thus protect the environment. Absorption systems fall into two major categories, depending on the

Soteris Kalogirou

2008-01-01

103

Performance assessment of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments aboard Terra and Aqua spacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments were designed to measure the reflected shortwave and emitted longwave radiances of the Earth's radiation budget and to investigate the cloud interactions with global radiances for the long-term monitoring of Earth's climate. The three scanning thermistor bolometer sensors on CERES measure broadband radiances in the shortwave (0.3 to 5.0 micrometer), total (0.3 to <100 micrometer) and in 8 - 12 micrometer water vapor window regions. Of the five CERES instruments that are currently in operation, four of the CERES instruments (Flight Models1 through 4) fly aboard Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua platforms with two instruments aboard each spacecraft, in 705 KM sun-synchronous orbits of 10:30 AM and 1:30 PM equatorial crossing time. A rigorous and comprehensive radiometric calibration and validation protocol comprising of various studies was developed to evaluate the calibration accuracy of the CERES instruments. The in-flight calibration of CERES sensors are carried out using the internal calibration module (ICM) comprising of blackbody sources and quartzhalogen tungsten lamp, and a solar diffuser plate known as the Mirror Attenuator Mosaic (MAM). The ICM calibration results are instrumental in determining the changes in CERES sensors' gains after launch from the prelaunch determined values and the on-orbit gain variations. In addition to the broadband response changes derived from the on-board blackbody and the tungsten lamp, the shortwave and the total sensors show a spectrally dependent drop in responsivity in the shorter wavelegth region below one micron that were brought to light through validation studies. The spectrally dependent changes were attributed to the instrument operational modes and the corrections were derived using the sensor radiance comparisons. This paper covers the on-orbit behavior of CERES sensors aboard the Terra and Aqua spacecraft and the determination of the sensor response changes utilising the in-flight calibration and the radiance measurement comparisons viewing various targets. The corrections for the sensor response changes were incorporated in the radiance calculations of CERES Edition3 data products.

Thomas, Susan; Priestley, K. J.; Shankar, M.; Smith, N. M.; Loeb, N. G.; Walikainen, D. R.; Hess, P. C.; Wilson, R. S.; Smith, N. P.

2013-09-01

104

Development of Cooling System for Gyrotron Collector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the development of cooling system for 42 GHz, 200 kW gyrotron collector is presented. The design of the cooling duct has been finalized after different analyses such as, the fluid analysis, the thermal analysis, the structural analysis, etc. All analyses have been carried out by ANSYS software and the development of the cooling system based on the final design is performed.

Goswami, Uttam Kumar; Singh, Udaybir; Kumar, Nitin; Sahu, Naveen Kumar; Kumar, Anil; Yadav, Vivek; Kumar, Manoj; Khatun, Hasina; Dua, Rajeshwar Lal; Sinha, A. K.

2013-08-01

105

Advances in Solar Heating and Cooling Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on technological advancements in the fields of solar collectors, thermal storage systems, and solar heating and cooling systems. Diagrams aid in the understanding of the thermodynamics of the systems. (CP)

Ward, Dan S.

1976-01-01

106

Servo type cooling system control  

SciTech Connect

A cooling system for an internal combustion engine using a liquid coolant within an engine coolant jacket where it receives heat from the engine to be subsequently transferred to the atmosphere is described, comprising: a radiator fluidly connected to the coolant jacket for receiving coolant therefrom; pump means having a pressurized inlet and a higher pressurized outlet for passing coolant from the coolant jacket to the radiator and subsequently back into the coolant jacket; fluid valve means between the coolant jacket and the radiator for regulating the flow of coolant therebetween. The valve means have an inlet opening in spaced relation to a portion of the servo powered valve, whereas relative movement of the portion of the servo powered valve regulate coolant flow through the valve means. The housing enclosure defines a servo valve control chamber formed about an end of the servo powered valve. A servo control passage extends between the servo control chamber and the lower pressure inlet of the pump means.

Miller, P.D.

1988-05-17

107

Prefeasibility Study on Cool Storage Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

From the overview undertaken it was realized that cool storage systems have already been commercialized in the USA and in few countries in Europe. In the USA they were, however, mainly applied to air conditioning systems. Cool was stored in the form of bo...

Y. ElMahgary V. Kekkonen A. Laitinen H. Pihala

1988-01-01

108

Steam powered heating\\/cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cooling system is described having a boiler, a heat source for the boiler including a burner, an absorption machine having a generator section and an absorber section, a steam trap for the generator section of the absorption machine, a condensate tank with a vent line to atmosphere and work to be heated. The cooling system consists of a steam

1987-01-01

109

Feasibility of cool storage systems in refrigeration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present report, the economic viability and technical feasibility of selected cool storage systems are considered. Cool storage has clear potential for several applications: in connection with air-conditioning systems, domestic refrigerating and freezing systems; commercially e.g., in the dairy and vegetable industries; and in deep freezing, as in the meat industry. Air-conditioning has limited significance in Finland. For this reason it was not investigated in this study. In domestic refrigeration and freezing two systems were investigated; a controlled cooling/heating system and a simple built-in system in individual refrigerators and freezers. The central cooling/heating system in houses was found to be economically unattractive. It also has several technical drawbacks. The simple built-in system appeared to be promising. The amount of savings is rationally a function of the difference between day and night tariffs and the costs of installing an automatic switch and storage media. In the vegetable and dairy industries cool storage also has considerable potential. Several systems were investigated in this respect and compared to the conventional system. The cool storage system using Cristopia balls, one of the most common commercial systems available in Europe, was not economical at a tariff difference of 10 p/k Wh or more. Cool storage for freezing in meat plants was also investigated.

Elmahgary, Yehia; Kekkonen, Veikko; Laitinen, Ari; Pihala, Hannu

1989-05-01

110

Gas Hydrate Cool Storage System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention presented relates to the development of a process utilizing a gas hydrate as a cool storage medium for alleviating electric load demands during peak usage periods. Several objectives of the invention are mentioned concerning the formation of...

M. P. Ternes R. J. Kedl

1984-01-01

111

Solar Assisted Adsorptive Desiccant Cooling System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Desiccant cooling processes can supply dry air by using lower temperature heat energy such as waste heat or solar heat. Especially, solar heat is useful heat source for the desiccant cooling since solar heat in summer tends to be surplus. This paper discusses the hourly cooling performance of the solar assisted desiccant cooling system, which consists of a desiccant wheel, a thermal wheel, two evaporative coolers, a cooling coil and flat plate solar water heater, assuming that the cooling system is applied to an office room of 250m3 in volume. The estimation indicated that the surface area needed to satisfy the dehumidifying performance in a sunny day was at least 30m2. Furthermore, surface area of 40m2 or larger provided a surplus dehumidifying performance causing a sensible cooling effect in evaporative cooler. Surface area of 30 m2 did not satisfy the dehumidifying performance required for high humidity condition, over 18.0g/kg(DA). The cooling demand of the cooling coil increased in such humidity condition due to the decrease in the sensible cooling effect of evaporative cooler. Auxiliary heater was required in a cloudy day since the temperature of water supplied from solar water heater of 40m2 did not reach sufficient level.

Ohkura, Masashi; Kodama, Akio

112

Comparative Report: Performance of Active Solar Space Cooling Systems, 1982 Cooling Season.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides a detailed analysis of solar absorption cooling and solar Rankine cooling processes as represented by the National Solar Data Network (NSDN) systems. Five solar cooling systems were monitored in 1982; four of these have absorption chi...

P. Kendall T. Logee

1982-01-01

113

Forward-scatter radiant mapping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Forward-scatter systems have been much neglected for the study of meteors and meteor streams. A great deal of this neglect stems from the complicated geometry which has made the interpretation of results difficult in the past. This no longer presents a problem because of the computer power now available. There are practical advantages in using forward-scatter in that low-power transmitters are much easier to handle than the high-power ones used in pulsed back-scatter radars. The data reduction of the CW signals is also significantly simpler. Because the forward-scatter reflection geometry increases the duration of the echoes relative to the back-scatter case, the problem of the underdense ceiling is partially alleviated. We have built a 'short hop' forward-scatter system between Ottawa and London (Ont) for which the transmitter and receiver are separated by about 500 km. With it, we are able to measure unambiguously the directions of arrival of the echoes using a 5-antenna interferometer. Morton and Jones (1982, MN, 198, 737) have shown how the echo direction distribution can be deconvolved to yield the meteor radiant distribution for back-scatter data. We have extended the technique to the forward-scatter case and present some preliminary meteor radiant distribution maps.

Jones, James; Webster, A. R.

1992-01-01

114

HiPER laser cooling system elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HiPER laser will need several large cooling systems. We will start from a thermal budget. We will consider different solutions (Liquefaction vs Refrigeration cycles). We will set some key elements such as thermodynamic optimization and economic approach As for the tritium item, the cooling budget will be a major contributor for a material point of view as for a financial aspect.

Guillaume, Didier

2011-05-01

115

Gas hydrate cool storage system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention is a process for formation of a gas hydrate to be used as a cool storage medium using a refrigerant in water. Mixing of the immiscible refrigerant and water is effected by addition of a surfactant and agitation. The difficult problem of subcooling during the process is overcome by using the surfactant and agitation and performance of the

Mark P. Ternes; Robert J. Kedl

1985-01-01

116

Gas hydrate cool storage system  

SciTech Connect

This invention is a process for formation of a gas hydrate to be used as a cool storage medium using a refrigerant in water. Mixing of the immiscible refrigerant and water is effected by addition of a surfactant and agitation. The difficult problem of subcooling during the process is overcome by using the surfactant and agitation and performance of the process significantly improves and approaches ideal.

Ternes, M.P.; Kedl, R.J.

1985-09-10

117

Emittance and absorptance of NASA ceramic thermal barrier coating system. [for turbine cooling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectral emittance measurements were made on a two-layer ceramic thermal barrier coating system consisting of a metal substrate, a NiCrAly bond coating and a yttria-stabilized zirconia ceramic coating. Spectral emittance data were obtained for the coating system at temperatures of 300 to 1590 K, ceramic thickness of zero to 0.076 centimeter, and wavelengths of 0.4 to 14.6 micrometers. The data were transformed into total hemispherical emittance values and correlated with respect to ceramic coating thickness and temperature using multiple regression curve fitting techniques. The results show that the ceramic thermal barrier coating system is highly reflective and significantly reduces radiation heat loads on cooled gas turbine engine components. Calculation of the radiant heat transfer within the nonisothermal, translucent ceramic coating material shows that the gas-side ceramic coating surface temperature can be used in heat transfer analysis of radiation heat loads on the coating system.

Liebert, C. H.

1978-01-01

118

Understanding aging in containment cooling systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study has been performed to assess the effects of aging in nuclear power plant containment cooling systems. Failure records from national databases, as well as plant specific data were reviewed and analyzed to identify aging characteristics for this sys...

R. J. Lofaro

1993-01-01

119

Electromechanically-cooled germanium radiation detector system.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have successfully developed and fielded an electromechanically cooled germanium radiation detector (EMC-HPGe) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This detector system was designed to provide optimum energy resolution, long lifetime, and e...

A. Lavietes

1998-01-01

120

Modeling of High Capacity Passive Cooling System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High capacity passive cooling system studied in this project utilizes the thermoloop heat transfer concept (THTC). This device is an assemblage of Evaporator, Condenser, Non-return valves and Reservoir charged with a liquid for removing heat from any sour...

A. Islam

2009-01-01

121

40 CFR 90.307 - Engine cooling system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine cooling system. 90.307 Section 90.307 Protection...Test Equipment Provisions § 90.307 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient...

2013-07-01

122

40 CFR 91.307 - Engine cooling system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine cooling system. 91.307 Section 91.307 Protection...Test Equipment Provisions § 91.307 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient...

2013-07-01

123

40 CFR 89.329 - Engine cooling system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine cooling system. 89.329 Section 89.329 Protection...Test Equipment Provisions § 89.329 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient capacity...

2013-07-01

124

Radiant barriers in houses: Energy, comfort, and moisture considerations in a northern climate  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine the conditions under which radiant barrier utilization in attics is appropriate technology in building construction for a northern climate in Utah. A sample of 12 appropriate houses with radiant barriers were selected using predetermined criteria. Another 12 houses without radiant barriers were selected as a control sample and paired with the first 12 houses using predetermined criteria. The research involved three different types of data and analyses. First, a questionnaire survey was completed by the occupants of the 12 sample houses, with radiant barriers. The survey included such factors as: (1) comfort, (2) energy, and (3) potential increased moisture content as perceived by the occupants. Second, a t-test was used to calculate the statistical comparison of utility usage between the 12 sample houses with radiant barriers and the 12 control houses without radiant barriers. Third, the moisture content of the wood framing above and below the radiant barriers was measured over a three month period during the winter months. Data analysis indicated: (1) occupants did perceive that more comfort resulted from the installation of radiant barriers, (2) occupants did not observe additional moisture artifacts after the installation of radiant barriers, (3) occupants did perceive cost savings from utility benefits resulting from the use of radiant barriers, especially in cooling the houses in summer, (4) there was no significant difference between utility usage of houses with radiant barriers and houses without radiant barriers, (5) the moisture content in the ceiling joists of all 24 houses, except one, had a moisture content measurement less than eight percent, and (6) houses with radiant barriers have higher humidity levels within the living space than houses without radiant barrier installation.

Mendenhall, R.L.

1990-01-01

125

Passive cooling system for top entry liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors  

DOEpatents

A liquid metal cooled nuclear fission reactor plant having a top entry loop joined satellite assembly with a passive auxiliary safety cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. This satellite type reactor plant is enhanced by a backup or secondary passive safety cooling system which augments the primary passive auxiliary cooling system when in operation, and replaces the primary cooling system when rendered inoperative.

Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA); Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Hui, Marvin M. (Cupertino, CA)

1992-01-01

126

Furnace with radiant burndown tube  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of burning combustible gas atmosphere in a furnace having at least one radiant burndown tube is described. The furnace has a furnace wall, a sealed furnace chamber, a conduit through the furnace wall, and the radiant burndown tube having a tube portion within the furnace chamber, the tube portion having a burner end and an exhast end, and

J. Conybear; K. Hemsath; A. Thekdi; F. Vereecke; S. Verhoff

1980-01-01

127

Rust Inhibitor And Fungicide For Cooling Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mixture of benzotriazole, benzoic acid, and fungicide prevents growth of rust and fungus. Water-based cooling mixture made from readily available materials prevents formation of metallic oxides and growth of fungi in metallic pipes. Coolant remains clear and does not develop thick sludge tending to collect in low points in cooling systems with many commercial rust inhibitors. Coolant compatible with iron, copper, aluminum, and stainless steel. Cannot be used with cadmium or cadmium-plated pipes.

Adams, James F.; Greer, D. Clay

1988-01-01

128

Uncertainty analysis of emergency cooling system flows  

SciTech Connect

The Emergency Cooling System (ECS) for SRP reactors is designed to provide core cooling for postulated incidents. Recently, tests were completed in L Reactor to better define pipeline and fitting loss coefficients that are needed to predict ECS flows. Because the existing flow data are primarily based on experimental data, an experimental uncertainty exists in those flows and respective loss coefficients. The uncertainty analysis and resulting uncertainties of the data are discussed in this report.

Mcallister, Jr, J E

1988-01-01

129

Cooling system for continuous metal casting machines  

DOEpatents

A continuous metal caster cooling system is provided in which water is supplied in jets from a large number of small nozzles against the inner surface of rim at a temperature and with sufficient pressure that the velocity of the jets is sufficiently high that the mode of heat transfer is substantially by forced convection, the liquid being returned from the cooling chambers through return pipes distributed interstitially among the nozzles. 9 figs.

Draper, R.; Sumpman, W.C.; Baker, R.J.; Williams, R.S.

1988-06-07

130

Cooling system for continuous metal casting machines  

DOEpatents

A continuous metal caster cooling system is provided in which water is supplied in jets from a large number of small nozzles 19 against the inner surface of rim 13 at a temperature and with sufficient pressure that the velocity of the jets is sufficiently high that the mode of heat transfer is substantially by forced convection, the liquid being returned from the cooling chambers 30 through return pipes 25 distributed interstitially among the nozzles.

Draper, Robert (Churchill Boro, PA); Sumpman, Wayne C. (North Huntingdon, PA); Baker, Robert J. (Wilkins Township, Allegheny County, PA); Williams, Robert S. (Plum Borough, PA)

1988-01-01

131

Prototype solar heating and cooling systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A collection of monthly status reports on the development of eight prototype solar heating and cooling systems is presented. The effort calls for the development, manufacture, test, system installation, maintenance, problem resolution, and performance evaluation. The systems are 3, 25, and 75 ton size units.

1978-01-01

132

Cooling systems research at Argonne National Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of the thermal plumes resulting from discharges from once-through cooling systems of electric generating stations are reviewed. The collection of large amounts of water temperature data for definition of the three-dimensional structure of a thermal plume, of current data, and related ambient data for model evaluation purposes required the development of an integrated data collection system. The Argonne system

Spigarelli

1977-01-01

133

Radiant zone heated particulate filter  

DOEpatents

A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter including an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A radiant zoned heater includes N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones includes M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones, restricts exhaust gas flow in a portion of the PM filter that corresponds to the selected one of the N zones, and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

2011-12-27

134

Preoperational test report, recirculation condenser cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

This represents a preoperational test report for Recirculation Condenser Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The four system provide condenser cooling water for vapor space cooling of tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102. Each system consists of a valved piping loop, a pair of redundant recirculation pumps, a closed-loop evaporative cooling tower, and supporting instrumentation; equipment is located outside the farm on concrete slabs. Piping is routed to the each ventilation condenser inside the farm via below-grade concrete trenches. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

Clifton, F.T.

1997-11-04

135

Radiant energy collector  

DOEpatents

A cylindrical radiant energy collector is provided which includes a reflector spaced apart from an energy absorber. The reflector is of a particular shape which ideally eliminates gap losses. The reflector includes a plurality of adjacent facets of V shaped segments sloped so as to reflect all energy entering between said absorber and said reflector onto said absorber. The outer arms of each facet are sloped to reflect one type of extremal ray in a line substantially tangent to the lowermost extremity of the energy absorber. The inner arms of the facets are sloped to reflect onto the absorber all rays either falling directly thereon or as a result of reflection from an outer arm.

McIntire, William R. (Downers Grove, IL)

1983-01-01

136

Understanding aging in containment cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study has been performed to assess the effects of aging in nuclear power plant containment cooling systems. Failure records from national databases as well as plant-specific data were reviewed and analyzed to identify aging characteristics for this system. The predominant aging mechanisms were determined, along with the most frequently failed components and their associated failure modes. This paper discusses

Robert J. Lofaro

1996-01-01

137

Understanding aging in containment cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study has been performed to assess the effects of aging in nuclear power plant containment cooling systems. Failure records from national databases, as well as plant specific data were reviewed and analyzed to identify aging characteristics for this system. The predominant aging mechanisms were determined, along with the most frequently failed components and their associated failure modes. This paper

Lofaro

1993-01-01

138

Design of a tunnel cooling system  

SciTech Connect

Based on a thermal analysis of the SSC main tunnel and requirements for space conditions in the underground electronics niches, thermal cooling systems will be required to reject the heat dissipated underground. Many system were considered and compared to decide the optimum solution. Construction documents are being prepared and contract administration will proceed as technical and non-technical objectives are pursued.

Cheng, A. [D`Escoto Associates, Dallas, TX (United States); Dawson, R. [Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States); Zhao, R. [PB/MK Team, Dallas, TX (United States)

1993-05-01

139

Ozone Treatment in Cooling Water Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ozone treatment for preventing the biofouling in cooling water systems is investigated.In the fresh water system, the separating effect of the ozonated water on the microorganisms such as the sphaerotilus and the zoogloea which adhere to the piping and form the slime is recognized. When the ozonated water is supplied intermittently to the piping without stopping the flow of the

N. Kaiga; T. Seki; K. Iyasu

1989-01-01

140

The measurement of radiant temperature in neonatal thermal environments.  

PubMed

Heat exchange through radiation is recognized as the dominant mode of heat transfer for an infant nursed in an incubator or warmer. A radiometer was constructed to measure the planar radiant temperature experienced by the infant. Two heat-flow sensors of different emissivities were mounted onto a heat sink such that one measured principally convective heat exchange while the other measured convective and radiant heat exchange. The radiant heat exchange was obtained from the difference between these values, from which the planar radiant temperature could be calculated. The spatial variation in planar radiant temperatures within an incubator and warmer was determined by orienting the instrument towards the five orthogonal hemispheres sensed by the infant abdomen, sides, head, and feet. In the incubator, the spatial variation in radiant temperatures exceeded 2 degrees C, or four times the spatial variation in air temperatures (0.5 degrees C). The radiant warmer had a spatial variation of 18 degrees C in radiant temperature at three-fourths of maximum power, corresponding to a variation in heat flux over the infant's surface of 100 W/m2. This thermal asymmetry would be expected to influence the variation in surface skin temperature, and thus the thermal stimuli to the infant thermoregulatory system. Further research is needed to understand the clinical significance of this asymmetry. Furthermore, the precise control over air temperature in modern incubators provides a false sense of thermal control and stability. Radiant temperature needs to be measured in addition to air temperature if the thermal performances of incubators and warmers are to be fully understood. PMID:1393209

Sinclair, A

1992-01-01

141

Test of system for circulating water supply with cooling pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of spray cooling devices and cooling ponds for cooling thermal power plants are discussed. Spray cooling devices have attracted increased attention in connection with the requirements for protection of natural bodies of water from the harmful effects of thermal effluents from these power plants. The efficient and economical operation of this type of cooling system is discussed.

Kikish

1982-01-01

142

PCM Passive Cooling System Containing Active Subsystems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multistage system has been proposed for cooling a circulating fluid that is subject to intermittent intense heating. The system would be both flexible and redundant in that it could operate in a basic passive mode, either sequentially or simultaneously with operation of a first, active cooling subsystem, and either sequentially or simultaneously with a second cooling subsystem that could be active, passive, or a combination of both. This flexibility and redundancy, in combination with the passive nature of at least one of the modes of operation, would make the system more reliable, relative to a conventional cooling system. The system would include a tube-in-shell heat exchanger, within which the space between the tubes would be filled with a phase-change material (PCM). The circulating hot fluid would flow along the tubes in the heat exchanger. In the basic passive mode of operation, heat would be conducted from the hot fluid into the PCM, wherein the heat would be stored temporarily by virtue of the phase change.

Blanding, David E.; Bass, David I.

2005-01-01

143

Economics of solar heating and cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar heating and cooling for a private residence are discussed in terms of amortization time for a house with a 30 year mortgage at 8.5%. Different collector systems (tubular, flat, concentrating) and sizes are compared, with reference to their initial and life cycle costs. National energy savings are calculated for widespread use of solar power, which could reach the Quad

W. L. Corcoran

1978-01-01

144

High-temperature solar-cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

The favorable aspects and the constraints on increasing the design point energy input temperature of solar cooling systems are identified. The study is primarily concerned with heat engines used to drive vapor compression chillers. Using existing technology, a 500/sup 0/C solar Rankine chiller could be expected to have a design point COP about 1.3 to 1.4 times as large as the design point COP of 150/sup 0/C chillers. In order to maximize the COP, water cooling is preferable to air cooling. Concentrating collectors are required to obtain acceptable efficiency at high output temperatures, and solar tracking is required. The value of heat storage in water, organic or inorganic fluids or phase change materials is discussed. Building codes and standards are considered that may limit operating temperatures and pressures, selection for working fluids, or require stationary engineers. Intermediate and large capacity mature high-temperature solar cooling systems may be expected to have somewhat lower first cost than lower temperature systems. The space heating function could best be provided in a high-temperature system by arranging the vapor compressor component as a heat pump. (LEW)

Curran, H.M.

1981-03-01

145

Auxiliary Power System for Activity Cooled Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method is described for extracting heat energy from an active cooling system in an aircraft as a source of auxiliary power. A secondary coolant such as a water-glycol mixture removes heat from near the outer surfaces of the vehicle and circulates throug...

R. A. Jones

1976-01-01

146

Auxiliary power system for activity cooled aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for extracting heat energy from an active cooling system in an aircraft as a source of auxiliary power. A secondary coolant such as a water-glycol mixture removes heat from near the outer surfaces of the vehicle and circulates through a heat exchanger. Cryogenic fuel such as liquid hydrogen is first pressurized and passed through the heat

1976-01-01

147

Servo type cooling system valve  

SciTech Connect

In a liquid coolant type engine temperature control system particularly for use in an automobile having coolant filled engine passages, a control valve assembly responsive to a pressure force balance generated from a selectively regulated coolant pressure and the coolant pressure in the engine passages for regulating the discharge of heated coolant from the engine passages, is described comprising: first hollow enclosure means defining a first interior space and having an inlet adapted to receive coolant from the engine passages and an outlet; second hollow enclosure means within the first interior and defining a second interior space; and a movable piston valve member reciprocally supported in the cylinder with an end portion thereof covering the opening of the cylinder to the first interior.

Miller, P.D.

1988-05-17

148

Cooling system for a gas turbine  

DOEpatents

A plurality of arcuate circumferentially spaced supply and return manifold segments are arranged on the rim of a rotor for respectively receiving and distributing cooling steam through exit ports for distribution to first and second-stage buckets and receiving spent cooling steam from the first and second-stage buckets through inlet ports for transmission to axially extending return passages. Each of the supply and return manifold segments has a retention system for precluding substantial axial, radial and circumferential displacement relative to the rotor. The segments also include guide vanes for minimizing pressure losses in the supply and return of the cooling steam. The segments lie substantially equal distances from the centerline of the rotor and crossover tubes extend through each of the segments for communicating steam between the axially adjacent buckets of the first and second stages, respectively.

Wilson, Ian David (Mauldin, SC); Salamah, Samir Armando (Niskayuna, NY); Bylina, Noel Jacob (Niskayuna, NY)

2003-01-01

149

Closed cryogenic cooling system without moving parts  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a closed system with no moving parts for providing cryogenic cooling to a load heat exchanger, comprising: an electrochemical pump for pressurizing an ionizable cryogenic gas; a high-pressure flow path adapted to direct pressurized gas from the electrochemical pump to the load heat exchanger. The path includes a first heat exchanger for cooling the gas to below its inversion temperature and a Joule-Thomson flow restrictor to further cool the gas to a cryogenic temperature for delivery to the load heat exchanger; and, a low-pressure flow path adapted to receive the gas from the load heat exchanger and to return the gas to the electrochemical pump. The low-pressure flow path includes a second heat exchanger for warming the gas to a predetermined temperature.

Gross, S.

1987-06-09

150

Infrared radiant heater  

SciTech Connect

An infrared radiant heating apparatus is described for use in heating articles rapidly and efficiently by infrared radiation absorption. The apparatus comprises a support frame, a heat absorbing and radiating heater mounted on the support frame, the heater including an inner heat cone and an outer heat cone spaced apart from each other and joined together along their outer peripheries to define a combustion chamber. The outer heat cone has an exposed convex conical surface and forms a heat absorbing and radiating material. The heater further includes a fuel pipe extending to a nozzle which extends through the inner heat cone and opens into the combustion chamber, a shroud surrounding the fuel pipe, a cylindrical jacket surrounding and spaced apart from the shroud and joined at one end to the inner heat cone, a helical exhaust pipe disposed within the jacket and surrounding the shroud, the inner cone having exhaust ports along its outer periphery, with each of the exhaust ports connected to the helical exhaust pipe by a tubular pipe. Means for channeling combustion and exhaust gases from the combustion chamber lies along the inner surface of the outer cone and to the exhaust ports. Burner means including means for supplying fuel to the fuel pipe and means supply air through the space between the jacket and the shroud and to the nozzle. Hot gases pass through the tubular pipes and through the helical exhaust pipe and the incoming combustion air passes over the helical exhaust pipe and is preheated from the transfer of heat.

Schmidt, G.

1987-07-28

151

S'COOL Student Bookmark  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This bookmark provides basic information about the importance of ground truth measurements for investigative science and the formation of clouds. It also provides information about an opportunity for students to participate in a real-time collaborative scientific experiment with NASA scientists: the Student Cloud Observations On Line (S'COOL) project. SâCOOL is a component of NASA's Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project. S'COOL project participants make ground truth measurements for the CERES experiment. Ground truth measurements are land-based observations to compare with satellite data for the purpose of improving the satellite results.

2005-05-01

152

Thermostatically controlled solar heating and cooling system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a solar heating and cooling system for simultaneously heating or cooling an ambient air system within a building, heating a hot water supply for domestic use within the building and heating or cooling a swimming pool adjacent the building comprising a building. This comprises a swimming pool as a primary water source, a solar connector connected to the swimming pool, a heat pump for controlling ambient air temperature within the building, an energy conservation unit connected to the heat pump and to the hot water supply for utilizing hot gases from the heat pump to heat water in the hot water supply and an air heat exchanger connected to the air system and to the heat pump for selectively heating or cooling air in the building. Also a water heat exchanger is connected to a water source for selectively transferring heat between the heat pump and the water source, a well as a secondary water source connected to the water heat exchanger.

Yovanofski, T.

1986-12-16

153

Narcissus analysis for cooled staring IR system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Narcissus can have a deleterious effect on image quality for cooled infrared imaging systems. Therefore, analysis of narcissus is important for designing both scanning and staring optics. Narcissus is generally assumed to be negligible in staring IR optical designs because the shading effects can be removed by calibration of the detector array data. However, the calibration usually decreases sensitiveness of the system and Narcissus variation may be noticeable for sensors when the conditions changes as follows: 1. warming and cooling the optical housing, 2. zooming optical elements, 3. movement of lenses for focus. In that case, it will result in shading and other image defects even after calibration. To minimize these effects, narcissus should be assessed and controlled during the design of staring array IR system. We provided a direct and fast method for analyzing the narcissus variation in the presence of software such as LightTools, TracePro and ASAP, and proposed the principles in optical design of staring IR systems to reduce narcissus. A cooled staring IR system with serious narcissus was estimated and reoptimized. Narcissus analysis of this IR system confirmed the efficiency of the analysis method.

He, Feng-Yun; Cui, Ji-Cheng; Feng, Shu-Long; Zhang, Xin

2007-12-01

154

Solar Assisted Adsorptive Desiccant Cooling System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar assisted desiccant coo1ing process is an effective means to reduce a latent heat load of the ventilation air. This paper describes the influences of ambient humidity and sensible heat factor (SHF) of the indoor room on the performance and scale of the desiccant cooling system. Two process configurations termed “ambient air mode” and “mixed air mode” were assumed. At “ambient air mode”, only ambient air is dehumidified and cooled in the desiccant process. The dehumidified air stream is mixed with return air and further cooled in the cooling coil. At “mixed air mode”, ambient air is mixed with return air and this mixed air stream is dehumidified in the desiccant process and cooled at the cooling coil. At “ambient air mode”, ambient air humidity had a significant impact on required amount of dehumidification since humid ambient air entered the desiccant process directly. In this case, higher temperature level and quantity, which is impossible to be supplied from commonly commercialized flat panel solar collectors, was required. At “mixed air mode”, the influence of increase of ambient humidity was not significant since humidity of the air entering the desiccant process became low by mixing with return air. At this mode, it was expected that 70°C of the circulating water and 37m2 of surface area of solar collector could produce a sufficient dehumidifying performance even in high latent heat condition. The contributing ratio of the desiccant wheel was also estimated. The ratio increased in higher latent heat condition due to increase of required amount of dehumidification. The contributing ratio of the thermal wheel became lower due to increase of saturated air temperature in the evaporative cooler.

Ohkura, Masashi; Kodama, Akio

155

Cooling apparatus for a gas transmission system  

SciTech Connect

An improved cooling apparatus is described for a gas transmission system, including: input means for receiving a medium to be cooled; output means for transmitting the medium after it is cooled; and, cooling means intercoupling the input means and the output means including radiator means having an input end and an output end, the input end connected to the input means and the output end connected to the output means; the cooling means including, in addition, fan means positioned to cooperate with the radiator means for producing a flow of cooling air across the radiator means; the fan means including a rotatable fan having a desired direction of rotation, a drive-motor for driving the fan in the desired direction and belt means intercoupling the drive-motor and the rotatable fan for rotation of the fan; the belt means includes a belt having, alternatively, a taut state and a slack state. Adjustable belt-tensioning means including a frame and being mechanically coupled to the belt for tensioning the belt between the taut state and the slack state, the adjustable belt-tensioning means including a sheave in rotating contact with the belt. A shaft having first and second ends, carrying the sheave at the first end and positioned in the frame substantially parallel to the plane of the belt and spaced from the belt an adjustable distance corresponding to the condition desired for the belt between the taut state and the slack state; a sprag-clutch having a first race fixedly connected to the frame and a unidirectionally rotatable second race coupled to the second end of the shaft. The second race having a direction of rotation relative to the first race which corresponds to the desired direction of rotation of the fan.

Leonard, P.A.

1987-07-21

156

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document. Volume 3; Cloud Analyses and Determination of Improved Top of Atmosphere Fluxes (Subsystem 4)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The theoretical bases for the Release 1 algorithms that will be used to process satellite data for investigation of the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) are described. The architecture for software implementation of the methodologies is outlined. Volume 3 details the advanced CERES methods for performing scene identification and inverting each CERES scanner radiance to a top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) flux. CERES determines cloud fraction, height, phase, effective particle size, layering, and thickness from high-resolution, multispectral imager data. CERES derives cloud properties for each pixel of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) visible and infrared scanner and the Earth Observing System (EOS) moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer. Cloud properties for each imager pixel are convolved with the CERES footprint point spread function to produce average cloud properties for each CERES scanner radiance. The mean cloud properties are used to determine an angular distribution model (ADM) to convert each CERES radiance to a TOA flux. The TOA fluxes are used in simple parameterization to derive surface radiative fluxes. This state-of-the-art cloud-radiation product will be used to substantially improve our understanding of the complex relationship between clouds and the radiation budget of the Earth-atmosphere system.

1995-01-01

157

Angular Distribution Models for Top-of-Atmosphere Radiative Flux Estimation from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Instrument on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Satellite. Part I: Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) investigates the critical role that clouds and aerosols play in modulating the radiative energy flow within the Earth-atmosphere system. CERES builds upon the foundation laid by previous missions, such as the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment, to provide highly accurate top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes together with coincident cloud and aerosol properties inferred from

Norman G. Loeb; Natividad Manalo-Smith; Seiji Kato; Walter F. Miller; Shashi K. Gupta; Patrick Minnis; Bruce A. Wielicki

2003-01-01

158

Personal cooling systems: Possibilities and limitations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Personal thermal control by means of gas- or liquid-conditioned garments was developed during the 1960s and has been applied in a variety of aerospace and industrial settings. Both USAF fighter pilots and astronauts are required to wear heavy protective clothing which insulates them from the environment and thus creates stress through storage of metabolic heat. The problem is particularly severe in astronauts who perform heavy physical work during extra-vehicular activity (EVA); without artificial cooling they could reach incapacitating hyperthermia in a matter of minutes. This paper reviews the factors which influence the design of personal cooling systems. An important early step is determination of acceptable heat stress level, taking into account possible interactions of heat stress with other physiological problems such as motion sickness, diminished plasma volume, decompression sickness and acceleration tolerance. Other factors which require consideration include the work schedule, the area to be covered by the cooling garment, and the practicalities of a fixed or body-mounted heat sink and its power source. Nearly every imaginable heat sink has been proposed or tried over the past 30 years, including direct gas systems, phase-change systems with open or closed loops and thermoelectric heat sinks. The latter are now the system of choice for aircraft.

Nunneley, Sarah A.

1994-01-01

159

Angular Distribution Models for Top-of-Atmosphere Radiative Flux Estimation from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Instrument on the Terra Satellite. Part 1; Methodology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) provides coincident global cloud and aerosol properties together with reflected solar, emitted terrestrial longwave and infrared window radiative fluxes. These data are needed to improve our understanding and modeling of the interaction between clouds, aerosols and radiation at the top of the atmosphere, surface, and within the atmosphere. This paper describes the approach used to estimate top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes from instantaneous CERES radiance measurements on the Terra satellite. A key component involves the development of empirical angular distribution models (ADMs) that account for the angular dependence of Earth's radiation field at the TOA. The CERES Terra ADMs are developed using 24 months of CERES radiances, coincident cloud and aerosol retrievals from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and meteorological parameters from the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMA0) s Goddard Earth Observing System DAS (GEOS-DAS V4.0.3) product. Scene information for the ADMs is from MODIS retrievals and GEOS-DAS V4.0.3 properties over ocean, land, desert and snow, for both clear and cloudy conditions. Because the CERES Terra ADMs are global, and far more CERES data is available on Terra than was available from CERES on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), the methodology used to define CERES Terra ADMs is different in many respects from that used to develop CERES TRMM ADMs, particularly over snow/sea-ice, under cloudy conditions, and for clear scenes over land and desert.

Loeb, N. G.; Kato, S.; Loukachine, K.; Smith, N. M.

2004-01-01

160

Preliminary design package for solar heating and cooling systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Summarized preliminary design information on activities associated with the development, delivery and support of solar heating and cooling systems is given. These systems are for single family dwellings and commercial applications. The heating/cooling system use a reversible vapor compression heat pump that is driven in the cooling mode by a Rankine power loop, and in the heating mode by a variable speed electric motor. The heating/cooling systems differ from the heating-only systems in the arrangement of the heat pump subsystem and the addition of a cooling tower to provide the heat sink for cooling mode operation.

1978-01-01

161

Semen quality in welders exposed to radiant heat.  

PubMed Central

Several studies suggest that welding is detrimental to the male reproductive system. Welding fume and radiant heat are of interest as possible causal factors. This study investigates semen quality and sex hormone concentrations among 17 manual metal arc alloyed steel welders with a moderate exposure to radiant heat (globe temperature ranging from 31.1 degrees to 44.8 degrees C), but without substantial exposure to welding fume toxicants. During exposure to heat the skin temperature in the groin increased on average by 1.4 degrees C (SE +/- 0.72 degrees C). Sperm count and motile sperm count were non-significantly reduced among welders in comparison with two different reference groups. Within the group of welders the proportion of sperm with normal shape declined significantly after six weeks of exposure to heat and increased after a break in exposure. Sperm count and sperm concentration had the same pattern of intraindividual change in relation to exposure to radiant heat, but the changes were not statistically significant. No consistent changes in concentrations of sex hormones were found. The welders investigated were more exposed to radiant heat than welders in general. The results suggest that the study group of welders experienced a reversible decrease in semen quality, most likely caused by a moderate exposure to radiant heat (about five hours a day through several weeks). It remains to be established if even lower levels of exposure to radiant heat in the general population of welders has any impact on semen quality and fertility. Images

Bonde, J P

1992-01-01

162

Cooling and heating system utilizing solar heat  

SciTech Connect

A cooling and heating system utilizing solar heat comprises a heat collector for heating a circulating heat medium with solar heat, an absorption refrigerator operable with the heat medium heated by the heat collector and serving as a generating heat source to provide a chilled medium, and an air-conditioning unit for circulating the chilled medium or the heated medium alternatively therethrough to cool or heat the space to be airconditioned. The system further comprises a bypass line provided with an auxiliary refrigerator of the dual-effect type and connected to an intermediate portion of a line extending from the absorption refrigerator to the air-conditioning unit for supplying chilled medium or the heated medium to the unit. Change -over means is provided for passing the chilled medium or the heated medium through the bypass line.

Katayama, K.; Yukimachi, K.

1981-05-26

163

Numerical study of a novel dew point evaporative cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dew point evaporative cooling system is an alternative to vapor compression air conditioning system for sensible cooling of ventilation air. This paper presents the theoretical performance of a novel dew point evaporative cooling system operating under various inlet air conditions (covering dry, moderate and humid climate) and influence of major operating parameters (namely, velocity, system dimension and the ratio of

B. Riangvilaikul; S. Kumar

2010-01-01

164

OPTIMIZATION OF DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS FOR LARGE DRY COOLING SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report presents a methodology for optimizing design specifications of large, mechanical-draft, dry cooling systems. A multivariate, nonlinear, constrained optimization technique searches for the combination of design variables to determine the cooling system with the lowest a...

165

Estimate of Top-of-Atmosphere Albedo for a Molecular Atmosphere over Ocean using Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The shortwave broadband albedo at the top of a molecular atmosphere over ocean between 40deg N and 40deg S is estimated using radiance measurements from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument and the Visible Infrared Scanner (VIRS) aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. The albedo monotonically increases from 0.059 at a solar zenith angle of 10deg to 0.107 at a solar zenith angle of 60deg. The estimated uncertainty in the albedo is 3.5 x 10(exp -3) caused by the uncertainty in CERES-derived irradiances, uncertainty in VIRS-derived aerosol optical thicknesses, variations in ozone and water vapor, and variations in surface wind speed. The estimated uncertainty is similar in magnitude to the standard deviation of 0.003 that is derived from 72 areas divided by 20deg latitude by 20deg longitude grid boxes. The empirically estimated albedo is compared with the modeled albedo using a radiative transfer model combined with an ocean surface bidirectional reflectivity model. The modeled albedo with standard tropical atmosphere is 0.061 and 0.111 at the solar zenith angles of 10deg and 60deg, respectively. This empirically estimated albedo can be used to estimate the direct radiative effect of aerosols at the top of the atmosphere over oceans.

Kato, S.; Loeb, N. G.; Rutledge, C. K.

2002-01-01

166

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) algorithm theoretical basis document. volume 2; Geolocation, calibration, and ERBE-like analyses (subsystems 1-3)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The theoretical bases for the Release 1 algorithms that will be used to process satellite data for investigation of the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) are described. The architecture for software implementation of the methodologies is outlined. Volume 2 details the techniques used to geolocate and calibrate the CERES scanning radiometer measurements of shortwave and longwave radiance to invert the radiances to top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) and surface fluxes following the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) approach, and to average the fluxes over various time and spatial scales to produce an ERBE-like product. Spacecraft ephemeris and sensor telemetry are used with calibration coefficients to produce a chronologically ordered data product called bidirectional scan (BDS) radiances. A spatially organized instrument Earth scan product is developed for the cloud-processing subsystem. The ERBE-like inversion subsystem converts BDS radiances to unfiltered instantaneous TOA and surface fluxes. The TOA fluxes are determined by using established ERBE techniques. Hourly TOA fluxes are computed from the instantaneous values by using ERBE methods. Hourly surface fluxes are estimated from TOA fluxes by using simple parameterizations based on recent research. The averaging process produces daily, monthly-hourly, and monthly means of TOA and surface fluxes at various scales. This product provides a continuation of the ERBE record.

Wielicki, B. A. (Principal Investigator); Barkstrom, B. R. (Principal Investigator); Charlock, T. P.; Baum, B. A.; Green, R. N.; Minnis, P.; Smith, G. L.; Coakley, J. A.; Randall, D. R.; Lee, R. B., III

1995-01-01

167

Survey and Alignment of the Fermilab Electron Cooling System  

SciTech Connect

The goal of achieving the Tevatron luminosity of 3 x 10{sup 32} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} requires Electron Cooling in the Recycler Ring to provide an increased flux of antiprotons. The Fermilab Electron Cooling system has been designed to assist accumulation of antiprotons for the Tevatron collider operations. The installation along with the survey and alignment of the Electron Cooling system in the Recycler Ring were completed in November 2004. The Electron Cooling system was fully commissioned in May 2005 and the first cooling of antiprotons was achieved in July 2005. This paper discusses the alignment methodology employed to survey and align the Electron Cooling system.

Oshinowo, Babatunde O'Sheg; Leibfritz, Jerry

2006-09-01

168

4.5 K Cooling System for a Cryogenically Cooled Probe for a 920 MHz NMR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of closed-cycle 4.5 K cooling has been demonstrated for a cryogenically cooled probe for the world highest magnetic-field 920 MHz Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) operated at the National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), by means of the following model experiments. The cooling system with a cooling capacity of 4.55 W comprises a Gifford-McMahon (GM) cryocooler and two-stage expansion

H. Yokota; T. Okamura; Y. Ohtani; T. Kuriyama; M. Takahashi; T. Horiuchi; J. Kikuchi; S. Yokoyama; H. Maeda

2004-01-01

169

Radiant energy power source structure  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a radiant energy power source structure for providing electrical power to a vehicle utilizing radiant energy from a jet engine, the jet engine of the type having a radiant energy emitting combustion chamber formed from spaced apart inner and outer concentric elongated cylindrical liners, the combustion chamber outer liner concentrically surrounded by an elongated annular outer combustion casing. It comprises: a modified elongated annular combustion casing; a plurality of pairs of circumferentially spaced apart ribs operably attached to the elongated annular base; at least one photovoltaic cell operably situated between each pair of longitudinal ribs; a set of opposed, longitudinally extending grooves formed in the pair of ribs at a location radially spaced from the at least one photovoltaic cell; and a protective plate removable carried in the grooves.

Doellner, O.L.

1992-07-14

170

Efficient use of gas by the employment of assembly-type radiant roofs in industrial furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared with conventional flame burner heating systems, special burners such as radiant burners allow a more efficient utilization of gas in industrial furnaces in many cases of application. Practice has shown that the integration of radiant burners into assembly-type roof elements and the additional application of radiation-active ceramic protective layers permit an efficient design and employment of radiant roofs. Self-supporting

F. Borrmann; K. Hafner

1988-01-01

171

A fuselage/tank structure study for actively cooled hypersonic cruise vehicles: Active cooling system analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of fuselage cross section and structural arrangement on the performance of actively cooled hypersonic cruise vehicles are investigated. An active cooling system which maintains the aircraft's entire surface area at temperatures below 394 K at Mach 6 is developed along with a hydrogen fuel tankage thermal protection system. Thermodynamic characteristics of the actively cooled thermal protection systems established are summarized. Design heat loads and coolant flowrate requirements are defined for each major structural section and for the total system. Cooling system weights are summarized at the major component level. Conclusions and recommendations are included.

Stone, J. E.

1975-01-01

172

On-orbit solar calibration methods using the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) in-flight calibration system: lessons learned  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) scanning thermistor bolometers measure earth-reflected solar and earth-emitted long-wave radiances, at the top- of-the-atmosphere. The bolometers measure the earth radiances in the broadband shortwave solar (0.3-5.0 microns) and total (0.3->100 microns) spectral bands as well as in the 8->12 microns water vapor window spectral band over geographical footprints as small as 10 kilometers at nadir. December 1999, the second and third set of CERES bolometers was launched on the Earth Observing Mission Terra Spacecraft. May 2003, the fourth and fifth set of bolometers was launched on the Earth Observing Mission Aqua Spacecraft. Recently, (October 2011) the sixth instrument was launched on the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System Preparatory Project (Suomi NPP) Spacecraft. Ground vacuum calibrations define the initial count conversion coefficients that are used to convert the bolometer output voltages into filtered earth radiances. The mirror attenuator mosaic (MAM), a solar diffuser plate, was built into the CERES instrument package calibration system in order to define on-orbit shifts or drifts in the sensor responses. It followed a similar design as the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanners with improvements from lessons learned. The shortwave and shortwave part of the total-wave sensors are calibrated using the solar radiances reflected from the MAM's. Each MAM consists of baffle-solar diffuser plate systems, which guide incoming solar radiances into the instrument fields of view of the shortwave and total wave sensor units. The MAM diffuser reflecting type surface consists of an array of spherical aluminum mirror segments, which are separated by a Merck Black A absorbing surface, over-coated with SIOx (SIO2 for PFM). Thermistors are located within each MAM plate and the total channel baffle. The CERES MAM is designed to yield calibration precisions approaching .5 percent for the total and shortwave detectors. The Terra FM1 and FM2 shortwave channels and the FM1 and FM2 total channels MAM calibration systems showed shifts in their solar calibrations of 1.5, 2.5, 1.5 and 6 percent, respectively within the first year. The Aqua FM3, and FM4 shortwave channels and the FM3 and FM4 total channels MAM calibration systems showed shifts in their solar calibrations of 1.0, 1.2, 2.1 and .8 percent, respectively within the first year. A possible explanation has attributed the MAM reflectance change to on-orbit solar ultraviolet/atomic oxygen/out-gassing induced chemical changes to the SIOx coated MAM assembly during ram and solar exposure. There is also changes to the sensor telescope shortwave filters as well as the Total channel mirrors and/or sensors. The Soumi NPP FM5 is still after 2.5 years displaying a stability of less than .5 percent. In this presentation, lessons learned from the ERBE MAM and application of knowledge of how the space environment affected the CERES FM1-4 solar calibrations will be presented along with on-orbit measurements for the thirteen years the CERES instruments have been on-orbit.

Wilson, Robert S.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Hess, Phillip; Shankar, Mohan; Smith, Nathaniel; Szewczyk, Peter

2013-09-01

173

Magnetohydrodynamic research program of the MHD Energy center at Mississippi State University and structural features of MHD radiant boilers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetohydrodynamic is conducted largerly through use of test stand which simulates conditions in the MHD gas stream. Continual modification of the test stand to reflect experimental results produced a test stand capable of test runs of 100 hours; runs of more than 500 hours are planned. The test stand is described, and experimental results are discussed. The design and construction of MHD radiant boiler are described. The radiant furnance serves several functions in a heat recovery and seed recovery system; it cools flue gases to a temperature suitable for entrance to the secondary superheater; it generates steam; it provides for the removal of molten ash at high temperatures; and it provides access for intrusive and nonintrusive instrumentation to the gas-side environment.

Shepard, W. S.

174

Electromechanically-cooled germanium radiation detector system  

SciTech Connect

We have successfully developed and fielded an electromechanically cooled germanium radiation detector (EMC-HPGe) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This detector system was designed to provide optimum energy resolution, long lifetime, and extremely reliable operation for unattended and portable applications. For most analytical applications, high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors are the standard detectors of choice, providing an unsurpassed combination of high energy resolution performance and exceptional detection efficiency. Logistical difficulties associated with providing the required liquid nitrogen (LN) for cooling is the primary reason that these systems are found mainly in laboratories. The EMC-HPGe detector system described in this paper successfully provides HPGe detector performance in a portable instrument that allows for isotopic analysis in the field. It incorporates a unique active vibration control system that allows the use of a Sunpower Stirling cycle cryocooler unit without significant spectral degradation from microphonics. All standard isotopic analysis codes, including MGA and MGA++[1], GAMANL[2], GRPANL[3] and MGAU[4], typically used with HPGe detectors can be used with this system with excellent results. Several national and international Safeguards organizations including the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have expressed interest in this system. The detector was combined with custom software and demonstrated as a rapid Field Radiometric Identification System (FRIS) for the U.S. Customs Service[5]. The European Communities' Safeguards Directorate (EURATOM) is field-testing the first Safeguards prototype in their applications. The EMC-HPGe detector system design, recent applications, and results will be highlighted.

Lavietes, A. D., LLNL.

1998-05-01

175

Electromechanically cooled germanium radiation detector system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have successfully developed and fielded an electromechanically cooled germanium radiation detector (EMC-HPGe) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This detector system was designed to provide optimum energy resolution, long lifetime, and extremely reliable operation for unattended and portable applications. For most analytical applications, high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors are the standard detectors of choice, providing an unsurpassed combination of high energy resolution performance and exceptional detection efficiency. Logistical difficulties associated with providing the required liquid nitrogen (LN) for cooling is the primary reason that these systems are found mainly in laboratories. The EMC-HPGe detector system described in this paper successfully provides HPGe detector performance in a portable instrument that allows for isotopic analysis in the field. It incorporates a unique active vibration control system that allows the use of a Sunpower Stirling cycle cryocooler unit without significant spectral degradation from microphonics. All standard isotopic analysis codes, including MGA and MGA++ [1], GAMANL [2], GRPANL [3]and MGAU [4], typically used with HPGe detectors can be used with this system with excellent results. Several national and international Safeguards organisations including the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have expressed interest in this system. The detector was combined with custom software and demonstrated as a rapid Field Radiometric Identification System (FRIS) for the U.S. Customs Service [5]. The European Communities' Safeguards Directorate (EURATOM) is field-testing the first Safeguards prototype in their applications. The EMC-HPGe detector system design, recent applications, and results will be highlighted.

Lavietes, Anthony D.; Joseph Mauger, G.; Anderson, Eric H.

1999-02-01

176

Solar heating and cooling system design and development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of eight prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems is reported. Manufacture, test, installation, maintenance, problem resolution, and monitoring the operation of prototype systems is included. Heating and cooling equipment for single family residential and commercial applications and eight operational test sites (four heating and four heating and cooling) is described.

1978-01-01

177

Radiative effects of African dust and smoke observed from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cloud and aerosol effects have a significant impact on the atmospheric radiation budget in the tropical Atlantic because of the spatial and temporal extent of desert dust and smoke from biomass burning in the atmosphere. The influences of African dust and smoke aerosols on cloud radiative properties over the tropical Atlantic Ocean were analyzed for the month of July for 3 years (2006-2008) using colocated data collected by the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments on the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) and Aqua satellites. Aerosol layer height and type can be accurately determined using CALIOP data through directly measured parameters such as optical depth, volume depolarization ratio, attenuated backscatter, and color ratio. On average, clouds below 5 km had a daytime instantaneous shortwave (SW) radiative flux of 270.2 ± 16.9 W/m2 and thin cirrus clouds had a SW radiative flux of 208.0 ± 12.7 W/m2. When dust aerosols interacted with clouds below 5 km, as determined from CALIPSO, the SW radiative flux decreased to 205.4 ± 13.0 W/m2. Similarly, smoke aerosols decreased the SW radiative flux of low clouds to a value of 240.0 ± 16.6 W/m2. These decreases in SW radiative flux were likely attributed to the aerosol layer height and changes in cloud microphysics. CALIOP lidar observations, which more accurately identify aerosol layer height than passive instruments, appear essential for better understanding of cloud-aerosol interactions, a major uncertainty in predicting the climate system.

Yorks, John E.; McGill, Matt; Rodier, Sharon; Vaughan, Mark; Hu, Yongxiang; Hlavka, Dennis

2009-09-01

178

Electron Beam Size Measurements in the Fermilab Electron Cooling System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Fermilab Electron Cooling Project requires a straight trajectory and constant beam size to provide maximum cooling of the antiprotons in the Recycler. A measurement system was developed using movable apertures and steering bumps to measure the beam si...

T. K. Kroc A. V. Burov T. B. Bolshakov A. Shemyakin S. M. Seletskiy

2006-01-01

179

Integrated exhaust gas recirculation and charge cooling system  

DOEpatents

An intake system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger configured to deliver compressed intake charge, comprising exhaust gas from the exhaust system and ambient air, through an intake charge conduit and to cylinders of the internal combustion engine. An intake charge cooler is in fluid communication with the intake charge conduit. A cooling system, independent of the cooling system for the internal combustion engine, is in fluid communication with the intake charge cooler through a cooling system conduit. A coolant pump delivers a low temperature cooling medium from the cooling system to and through the intake charge cooler for the transfer of heat from the compressed intake charge thereto. A low temperature cooler receives the heated cooling medium through the cooling system conduit for the transfer or heat therefrom.

Wu, Ko-Jen

2013-12-10

180

Improvement in Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System/Surface and Atmosphere Radiation Budget Dust Aerosol Properties, Effects on Surface Validation of Clouds and Radiative Swath  

SciTech Connect

Within the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) science team (Wielicki et al. 1996), the Surface and Atmospheric Radiation Budget (SARB) group is tasked with calculating vertical profiles of heating rates, globally, and continuously, beneath CERES footprint observations of Top of Atmosphere (TOA) fluxes. This is accomplished using a fast radiative transfer code originally developed by Qiang Fu and Kuo-Nan Liou (Fu and Liou 1993) and subsequently highly modified by the SARB team. Details on the code and its inputs can be found in Kato et al. (2005) and Rose and Charlock (2002). Among the many required inputs is characterization of the vertical column profile of aerosols beneath each footprint. To do this SARB combines aerosol optical depth information from the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument along with aerosol constituents specified by the Model for Atmosphere and Chemical Transport (MATCH) of Collins et al. (2001), and aerosol properties (e.g. single scatter albedo and asymmetry parameter) from Tegen and Lacis (1996) and OPAC (Hess et al. 1998). The publicly available files that include these flux profiles, called the Clouds and Radiative Swath (CRS) data product, available from the Langley Atmospheric Sciences Data Center (http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/). As various versions of the code are completed, publishable results are named ''Editions.'' After CRS Edition 2A was finalized it was found that dust aerosols were too absorptive. Dust aerosols have subsequently been modified using a new set of properties developed by Andy Lacis and results have been released in CRS Edition 2B. This paper discusses the effects of changing desert dust aerosol properties, which can be significant for the radiation budget in mid ocean, a few thousand kilometers from the source regions. Resulting changes are validated via comparison of surface observed fluxes from the Saudi Solar Village surface site (Myers et al. 1999), and the E13 site at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM), Southern Great Plains (SGP) central facility.

Rutan, D.; Rose, F.; Charlock, T.P.

2005-03-18

181

Status and Operations at the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Ocean Validation Experiment (COVE) - Also a Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

25 km off the coast of Virginia, a lighthouse structure has been used for scientific measurements for over a decade. The CERES Ocean Validation Experiment (COVE) at Chesapeake Light is involved in several projects and networks. This report focuses on measurements and analysis made over the last 5 years at COVE. Being part of the BSRN network, most of the instruments at COVE are radiometers that measure both downwelling and upwelling flux at visible and infrared wavelengths. Basic meteorological parameters are also monitored. A table will show all the instrumentation and measurements being collected at COVE for the BSRN network as well as other data collections for aerosol, black carbon, total column water vapor and more. The initial motivation for COVE was to serve as a surface validation site for satellites. We compare modeled and actual downwelling shortwave and longwave measurements into 3 different sky scenarios (clear, partly cloudy and cloudy) over a number of years. Results show the best agreement for the clear sky model in both shortwave and longwave, with downwelling longwave correlating and having less mean bias than downwelling shortwave. COVE provides a wide range of measurements over an ocean environment with other examinations including aerosol studies, black carbon analysis and determination of spectral albedos from Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometers (MFRSRs). One example displays how we can use these studies and analysis to trace smoke over the COVE site and how it affects our measurements.Chesapeake Light. Home of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Ocean Validation Experiment (COVE) ` Location of Chesapeake Light. Home of COVE. 25 kilometers East of Virginia. Coordinates: 36.90 North, 75.71 West

Fabbri, B. E.; Schuster, G. L.; Denn, F. M.; Rutan, D. A.; Madigan, J. J.; Arduini, R. F.

2012-12-01

182

New Directions for Evaporative Cooling Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New energy saving technology can be applied to older cooling towers; in addition, evaporative chilling, a process that links a cooling tower to the chilling equipment, can reduce energy use by 80 percent. (Author/MLF)

Robison, Rita

1981-01-01

183

Open cycle lithium chloride cooling system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A lithium chloride open cycle absorption chiller has been designed, built and tested. Solution reconcentration takes place in a small counter current packed column supplied with solar heated air. Removal of noncondensable gases that enter the chiller dissolved in the strong solution and the make-up refrigerant streams is accomplished by a liquid-jet ejector and a small vacuum pump. Cooling capacities approaching 1.4 tons and COP levels of 0.58 have been achieved at non-optimum operating conditions. Test results from preliminary system operation suggest that mass transfer processes in both the packed column reconcentrator and the absorber are controlled by concentration gradients in the lithium chloride solution. Liquid phase controlled mass transfer dictates an operating strategy different from the previously assumed gas phase controlled process to obtain maximum rates of evaporation in the packed column. Determination of optimal operating conditions leading to decreased electrical power consumption and improved cooling capacity and coefficient of performance will require further analysis and testing.

Lenz, T. G.; Loef, G. O. G.; Iyer, R.; Wenger, J.

1983-05-01

184

NPP Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Predicted Sensor Performance Calibration and Preliminary Data Product Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuation of the Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) Climate Data Record (CDR) has been identified as critical in the 2007 NRC Decadal Survey, the Global Climate Observing System WCRP report, and in an assessment titled `Impacts of NPOESS Nunn-McCurdy Certification on Joint NASA-NOAA Climate Goals'. In response, the final existing CERES Flight Model (FM-5) will fly on the NPP spacecraft for

Kory J. Priestley; G. Louis Smith; Susan Thomas; Denise L. Cooper; Robert B. Lee; Dale R. Walikainen; Phillip C. Hess; Z. Peter Szewczyk; Robert S. Wilson

2009-01-01

185

POWER PLANT COOLING SYSTEM WATER CONSUMPTION AND NONWATER IMPACT REPORTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This study dealt with water evaporation and consumption of power plant cooling systems and evaluated six simple generic evaporation prediction models, one for cooling towers and five for cooling ponds/lakes using field data provided by twelve utilities. Also evaluated in the stud...

186

Cooling and shielding systems for infrared detectors - requirements and limits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents three main cooling systems used for infrared detectors. At first thermoelectric devices are discussed. They allow cooling down the detector with low efficiency and not to the very low temperature. They do not generate any vibrations and therefore are suitable for thermal detectors, where the microphone effect can decrease their performance. Photon detectors need to be cooled

B. Wiecek

2005-01-01

187

Performance of the ALICE SPD cooling system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new generation of silicon detectors for particle physics requires very reduced mass and high resistance to radiations with very limited access to the detector for maintenance. The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) is one of the 18 detectors of the ALICE (A Large Io Collider Experiment) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. It constitute the two innermost layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) and it is the closest detector to th interaction point. An evaporative cooling system, based on C4F10 evaporation at 1.9 bar, was chosen to extrac the 1.35 kW power dissipated by the on-detector electronics. The whole system wa extensively tested and commissioned before its installation inside the ALICE experimenta area. Since then we had to deal with a decrease of the flow in some lines of the system tha imposed severe restrictions on the detector operation. Recently, a test bench has been built in order to carry out a series of tests to reproduce the misbehaviour of the system and investigat proper actions to cure the problem. The performance of the systems and the most interesting results of the above mentioned test will be presented.

Francescon, A.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Altini, V.; Battistin, M.; Berry, S.; Bianchin, C.; Bortolin, C.; Botelho Direito, J.; Cavicchioli, C.; Di Giglio, C.; Janda, M.; Lesenechal, Y.; Manzari, V.; Martini, S.; Mastroserio, A.; Morel, M.; Santoro, R.; Terrevoli, C.; Turrisi, R.; Vacek, V.

2012-11-01

188

NPP Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Predicted Sensor Performance Calibration and Preliminary Data Product Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Continuation of the Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) Climate Data Record (CDR) has been identified as critical in the 2007 NRC Decadal Survey, the Global Climate Observing System WCRP report, and in an assessment titled Impacts of NPOESS Nunn-McCurdy Certification on Joint NASA-NOAA Climate Goals. In response, NASA, NOAA and NPOESS agreed in early 2008 to fly the final existing CERES Flight Model (FM-5) on the NPP spacecraft for launch in 2010. Future opportunities for ERB CDR continuity consist of procuring an additional CERES Sensor with modest performance upgrades for flight on the NPOESS C1 spacecraft in 2013, followed by a new CERES follow-on sensor for flight in 2018 on the NPOESS C3 spacecraft. While science goals remain unchanged for the long-term ERB Climate Data Record, it is now understood that the task of achieving these goals is more difficult for two reasons. The first is an increased understanding of the dynamics of the Earth/atmosphere system which demonstrates that rigorous separation of natural variability from anthropogenic change on decadal time scales requires higher accuracy and stability than originally envisioned. Secondly, future implementation scenarios involve less redundancy in flight hardware (1 vs. 2 orbits and operational sensors) resulting in higher risk of loss of continuity and reduced number of independent observations to characterize performance of individual sensors. Although EOS CERES CDR's realize a factor of 2 to 4 improvement in accuracy and stability over previous ERBE CDR's, future sensors will require an additional factor of 2 improvement to answer rigorously the science questions moving forward. Modest investments, defined through the CERES Science Team s 30-year operational history of the EOS CERES sensors, in onboard calibration hardware and pre-flight calibration and test program will ensure meeting these goals while reducing costs in re-processing scientific datasets. The CERES FM-5 pre-flight radiometric characterization program benefited from the 30-year operational experience of the CERES EOS sensors, as well as a stronger emphasis of radiometric characterization in the Statement of Work with the sensor provider. Improvements to the pre-flight program included increased spectral, spatial, and temporal sampling under vacuum conditions as well as additional tests to characterize the primary and transfer standards in the calibration facility. Future work will include collaboration with NIST to further enhance the understanding of the radiometric performance of this equipment prior to flight. The current effort summarizes these improvements to the CERES FM-5 pre-flight sensor characterization program, as well as modifications to inflight calibration procedures and operational tasking. In addition, an estimate of the impacts to the system level accuracy and traceability is presented.

Priestly, Kory; Smith, George L.; Thomas, Susan; Maddock, Suzanne L.

2009-01-01

189

S'COOL Tutorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial provides detailed information about the importance of ground truth measurements for investigative science and various cloud properties. CERES measurements contribute to our understanding of the interaction between clouds and solar energy, the most significant factor controlling our climate. Studentsâ Cloud Observations On-Line (S'COOL) is a K-12 educational outreach effort of Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), a NASA instrument that observes Earth from space. S'COOL involves students in making ground truth observations of clouds for comparison with satellite data. S'COOL involves four basic steps, which are explained in the tutorial: determining satellite overpass time, observing cloud properties, transmitting results to NASA, and comparing results with satellite-retrieved properties.

2003-01-01

190

Natural circulating passive cooling system for nuclear reactor containment structure  

DOEpatents

A passive cooling system for the contaminant structure of a nuclear reactor plant providing protection against overpressure within the containment attributable to inadvertent leakage or rupture of the system components. The cooling system utilizes natural convection for transferring heat imbalances and enables the discharge of irradiation free thermal energy to the atmosphere for heat disposal from the system.

Gou, Perng-Fei (Saratoga, CA); Wade, Gentry E. (Saratoga, CA)

1990-01-01

191

Passive cooling system for nuclear reactor containment structure  

DOEpatents

A passive cooling system for the contaminant structure of a nuclear reactor plant providing protection against overpressure within the containment attributable to inadvertent leakage or rupture of the system components. The cooling system utilizes natural convection for transferring heat imbalances and enables the discharge of irradiation free thermal energy to the atmosphere for heat disposal from the system.

Gou, Perng-Fei (Saratoga, CA); Wade, Gentry E. (Saratoga, CA)

1989-01-01

192

Infrared Radiant Heating.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Retrofitting convective forced air heating systems with infrared (IR) systems can save as much as 50 percent of the total heating bill. Infrared heating is more efficient for two reasons: it can be directed to heat only occupied space; and it does not hea...

S. Cannon M. Rocha

1996-01-01

193

Infrared radiant heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retrofitting convective forced air heating systems with infrared (IR) systems can save as much as 50 percent of the total heating bill. Infrared heating is more efficient for two reasons: it can be directed to heat only occupied space; and it does not heat the air in a space, it only heats people and objects. Infrared heating works best where

S. Cannon; M. Rocha

1996-01-01

194

Comparative report: performance of active solar space cooling systems, 1982 cooling season  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a detailed analysis of solar absorption cooling and solar Rankine cooling processes as represented by the National Solar Data Network (NSDN) systems. Five solar cooling systems were monitored in 1982; four of these have absorption chillers and one has a Rankine engine. Of the four absorption chillers, two are directly solar fired and two are boiler fired using solar energy as the preheat to the boiler. The composite data for the five sites covers the period from September 1981 through December 1982. There are 36 site months of data covered in the report. These are all commercial systems with buildings ranging in size from 5000 to 84,000 square feet. There are three evacuated-tube, one flat-plate, and one linear concentrating collector systems. Analyses performed for which comparative data is provided include: Energy savings and operating costs in terms of Btu; Overall solar cooling efficiency and coefficient of performance; Hourly building cooling loads; Actual and long-term weather conditions; Collector performance; Chiller performance; Normalized building cooling loads per cooling degree-day and building area; and Cooling solar fractions, design and measured. Conclusions and lessons learned from the comparative analysis are presented.

Logee, T.; Kendall, P.

1982-01-01

195

Application of phased cooling to a once-through cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of an application of a heat dissipation technique called phased-cooling to the cooling of once-through river water used in an electric power plant. A thermodynamic model for the situation is developed and the equations applying to the model are given. The performance of the system is analyzed for a summer day in the Southeastern United States.

J. A. MacFarlane; G. Maples; D. F. Dyer

1976-01-01

196

Prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eight prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems are being developed. The effort includes development, manufacture, test, installation, maintenance, problem resolution, and performance evaluation.

1977-01-01

197

Development of a solar-powered passive ejector cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of an ejector refrigeration system that is powered by solar thermal energy. The cooling system contains no active parts and is therefore deemed passive. Water is used as the refrigerant though other natural refrigerants could be used for lower temperature operation. A prototype system was built with a nominal cooling capacity of 7 kW. This

V. M Nguyen; S. B Riffat; P. S Doherty

2001-01-01

198

Solar space heating and cooling by selective use of the components of a desiccant cooling system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The economic advantages of by-passing various components of a desiccant cooling system under conditions not requiring their use are estimated by evaluating the annual costs of heating and cooling a commercial building in three representative U.S. cities. Life-cycle costs of systems employing solar heat for space heating and desiccant regeneration are compared with those using electric heat. The costs of purchasing and operating heating and desiccant cooling systems, with and without solar heat supply, are compared with those employing conventional heating and vapor compression cooling. The conditions under which commercial buildings can be cooled with desiccant systems at costs competitive with conventional systems are identified. A commercially available vapor compression air conditioner is used as a standard of comparison for energy consumption and room comfort. Heating and cooling requirements of the building are determined by use of the BLAST computer model in a simulation of long term system operation. Performance of the desiccant cooling system and life cycle savings obtained by its use are determined by simulation employing the TRNSYS computer model. TRNSYS compatible subroutines are developed to simulate operation of the desiccant equipment, the building, and the controllers that operate and monitor the system components. The results are presented in tabular and graphical form. This study shows that in the widely different climates represented in Los Angeles, New York, and Miami, by-passing various components in the desiccant cooling system when they are not needed is economically advantageous. Operation cost of the complete system decreased by 47.3% in Los Angeles, by 30.9% in New York City, and by 23.9% in Miami by not operating the desiccant wheel and other elements. The ventilation desiccant cooling system has major economic advantage over conventional systems under conditions of moderate humidity, as in Los Angeles and New York City. In Miami, however, the thermal energy needed for desiccant cooling is three to four times greater than that for Los Angeles and New York, so the desiccant system is not a competitive option in hot, humid climates. Life cycle savings in the three locations show that operation of the desiccant cooling and heating system with solar energy is more costly than with conventional energy at 1996 prices. Solar energy would become competitive, however, if annual electric energy inflation rates exceed 10 percent.

Abbud, Ihsan Aladdin

199

Application of radiant heating saves energy  

SciTech Connect

Application of radiant principles is one of the best kept secrets of the 20th century. The purpose of this application can reduce energy requirements. The theory of energy release from a high temperature surface was first proposed as a commercial product in the early 1900s. This article provides an understanding of how transfer or radiant energy works, identifies the factors that contribute to its economical performance and demonstrates how applications of radiant heating can provide comfort with lower energy costs.

Buckley, N.A. (Buckley Assoc., Eden, NY (US))

1989-09-01

200

Debris trap in a turbine cooling system  

DOEpatents

In a turbine having a rotor and a plurality of stages, each stage comprising a row of buckets mounted on the rotor for rotation therewith; and wherein the buckets of at least one of the stages are cooled by steam, the improvement comprising at least one axially extending cooling steam supply conduit communicating with an at least partially annular steam supply manifold; one or more axially extending cooling steam feed tubes connected to the manifold at a location radially outwardly of the cooling steam supply conduit, the feed tubes arranged to supply cooling steam to the buckets of at least one of the plurality of stages; the manifold extending radially beyond the feed tubes to thereby create a debris trap region for collecting debris under centrifugal loading caused by rotation of the rotor.

Wilson, Ian David (Clifton Park, NY)

2002-01-01

201

Hybrid refrigeration/sorption solar-cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

The hybrid refrigeration/sorption concept is a technically feasible approach to solar cooling which has not yet been systematically evaluated. Various system configurations are possible, each with advantages and disadvantages relative to the others, and with respect to solar cooling systems based on the individual absorption, Rankine, and desiccant technologies. Conventional cooling and dehumidification, sorption dehumidification, and the effects on the refrigeration unit of adding a dehumidifier are discussed.

Curran, H.M.

1981-08-01

202

Adsorption cooling system for cold storage using methanol\\/silicagel  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the cold storage of agricultural products at temperatures of 2–4°C in India, a solar-hybrid cooling system has been developed, using solar energy from flat plate collectors and the waste heat of a genset, operated with producer gas. A commercially available low temperature (80–90°C) adsorption cooling system for air-conditioning application had to be modified for operation at cooling temperatures below

K. Oertel; M. Fischer

1998-01-01

203

Preliminary design activities for solar heating and cooling systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information on the development of solar heating and cooling systems is presented. The major emphasis is placed on program organization, system size definition, site identification, system approaches, heat pump and equipment design, collector procurement, and other preliminary design activities.

1978-01-01

204

Utilization of Fiber Optics for Radiant Energy Transfer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report considers the utilization of fiber optics to collect and transfer the radiant energy emitted by a pulsed flashlamp or laser. Such a system could be used for a variety of illumination and optical pumping applications including the optical initi...

J. P. Hohimer

1976-01-01

205

The MANX Muon Cooling Experiment Detection System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MANX experiment is being proposed to demonstrate the reduction of 6D muon phase space emittance, using a continuous liquid absorber to provide ionization cooling in a helical solenoid magnetic channel. The experiment involves the construction of a two-period-long helical cooling channel (HCC) to reduce the muon invariant emittance by a factor of two. The HCC would replace the current cooling section of the MICE experiment now being set up at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. The MANX experiment would use the existing MICE spectrometers and muon beam line. We discuss the placement of detection planes to optimize the muon track resolution.

Kahn, S. A.; Abrams, R. J.; Ankenbrandt, C.; Cummings, M. A. C.; Johnson, R. P.; Robertsa, T. J.; Yoneharab, K.

2010-03-01

206

Solar Heating and Cooling Systems Design and Development (Quarterly Report).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Progress is reported on the development of twelve prototype solar heating/cooling systems. Six of these are to be heating and six are to be heating/cooling systems, two each for single family, multi-family, and commercial applications. Schedules and techn...

1976-01-01

207

Emergency core cooling system for a nuclear reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

An emergency core cooling system for a nuclear reactor which preferably is supplemental to the main emergency core cooling system incorporated in the reactor at the time of construction is described. Under circumstances of a rupture in the reactor primary coolant piping and consequent drop in reactor coolant pressure, emergency supplemental coolant is supplied from tanks or accumulators through check

W. E. Desmarchais; L. R. Katz; B. L. Silverblatt

1977-01-01

208

Red Storm\\/XT Supercomputers Cooling System Design and Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing the optimal design for a supercomputer system is a complex and time consuming process. This paper describes a sequential optimization approach that can lead to the most effective computer cooling system design in the shortest time possible. Ways of seeking effective Pareto designs are shown. Cost driven quality engineering was applied to develop cooling solutions for chips, printed circuit

Alexander I. Yatskov

2007-01-01

209

Compact he II Cooling System for Superconducting Cavities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a compact He II cooling system for superconducting cavities. The cooling system mainly comprises a vacuum vessel, an 80 K liquid nitrogen bath, a 4 K He I bath, a He II bath, an evacuation pump, a single-stage GM cryocooler for the 80 K bath, and a 4 K GM cryocooler for the 4 K He I

M. Takahashi; T. Yazawa; T. Tosaka; T. Kuriyama; N. Kakutani; T. Ota; K. Nakayama; K. Saito

2008-01-01

210

Modelling and simulation of a solar absorption cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed numerical simulation model is developed for a commercially available solar absorption chiller. The model incorporates the performance data of a Yazaki-manufactured water-cooled system. We take into consideration the variation of the COP and cooling water temperature. Using a summer season's meteorological data for an arid location in the Sahara desert, the system performance is computed for different collector

T. Muneer; A. H. Uppal

1985-01-01

211

COOLING FAN AND SYSTEM PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upcoming emissions regulations (Tiers 3, 4a and 4b) are imposing significantly higher heat loads on the cooling system than lesser regulated machines. This work was a suite of tasks aimed at reducing the parasitic losses of the cooling system, or improving the design process through six distinct tasks: 1. Develop an axial fan that will provide more airflow, with less

Ronald Dupree

2005-01-01

212

Venus Surface Power and Cooling System Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A radioisotope power and cooling system is designed to provide electrical power for the a probe operating on the surface of Venus. Most foreseeable electronics devices and sensors simply cannot operate at the 450 C ambient surface temperature of Venus. Because the mission duration is substantially long and the use of thermal mass to maintain an operable temperature range is likely impractical, some type of active refrigeration may be required to keep certain components at a temperature below ambient. The fundamental cooling requirements are comprised of the cold sink temperature, the hot sink temperature, and the amount of heat to be removed. In this instance, it is anticipated that electronics would have a nominal operating temperature of 300 C. Due to the highly thermal convective nature of the high-density atmosphere, the hot sink temperature was assumed to be 50 C, which provided a 500 C temperature of the cooler's heat rejecter to the ambient atmosphere. The majority of the heat load on the cooler is from the high temperature ambient surface environment on Venus. Assuming 5 cm radial thickness of ceramic blanket insulation, the ambient heat load was estimated at approximately 77 watts. With an estimated quantity of 10 watts of heat generation from electronics and sensors, and to accommodate some level of uncertainty, the total heat load requirement was rounded up to an even 100 watts. For the radioisotope Stirling power converter configuration designed, the Sage model predicts a thermodynamic power output capacity of 478.1 watts, which slightly exceeds the required 469.1 watts. The hot sink temperature is 1200 C, and the cold sink temperature is 500 C. The required heat input is 1740 watts. This gives a thermodynamic efficiency of 27.48 %. The maximum theoretically obtainable efficiency is 47.52 %. It is estimated that the mechanical efficiency of the power converter design is on the order of 85 %, based on experimental measurements taken from 500 watt power class, laboratory-tested Stirling engines at GRC. The overall efficiency is calculated to be 23.36 %. The mass of the power converter is estimated at approximately 21.6 kg.

Landis, Geoffrey A.; Mellott, Kenneth D.

2004-01-01

213

Rankine-cycle solar-cooling systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report reviews progress made by three contractors to Marshall Space Flight Center and Department of Energy in developing Rankine-cycle machines for solar cooling and testing of commercially available equipment involved.

Weathers, H. M.

1979-01-01

214

Biofilm formation in water cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofilm formation on stainless steel samples immersed in cooling water has been evaluated by exposing metal samples to cooling seawater for 30 days. Anaerobic bacteria were then at 1.6 × 106\\/cm2, with sulphate-reducing species predominating. Aerobic bacteria and fungi were 2600 and 140\\/cm2, respectively. After 60 days, numbers of aerobic microorganisms remained constant whereas the count of anaerobic microorganisms had

M. T. S. Lutterbach; F. P. França

1996-01-01

215

Cooling System Using Natural Circulation for Air Conditioning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, Cooling systems with natural circulation loop of refrigerants are reviewed. The cooling system can largely reduce energy consumption of a cooling system for the telecommunication base site. The cooling system consists of two refrigeration units; vapor compression refrigeration unit and sub-cooling unit with a natural-circulation loop. The experiments and calculations were carried out to evaluate the cycle performance of natural circulation loop with HFCs and CO2. The experimental results showed that the cooling capacity of R410A is approximately 30% larger than that of R407C at the temperature difference of 20K and the cooling capacity of CO2 was approximately 4-13% larger than that of R410A under the two-phase condition. On the other hand, the cooling capacity of CO2 was approximately 11% smaller than that of R410A under the supercritical condition. The cooling capacity took a maximum value at an amount of refrigerant and lineally increased as the temperature difference increases and the slightly increased as the height difference. The air intake temperature profile in the inlet of the heat exchangers makes the reverse circulation under the supercritical state and the driving head difference for the reverse circulation depends on the density change to temperature under the supercritical state. Also, a new fan control method to convert the reverse circulation into the normal circulation was reviewed.

Okazaki, Takashi; Seshimo, Yu

216

A hemolysis study of an intravascular blood cooling system for localized organ tissue cooling.  

PubMed

Therapeutic hypothermia can reduce both ischemic and reperfusion injury arising after strokes and heart attacks. New localized organ cooling systems offer a way to reduce tissue damage more effectively with fewer side effects. To assess initial blood safety of our new organ cooling system, the CoolGuide Cooling System (CCS), we investigated safe operating conditions and configurations from a hemolysis perspective. The CCS consists of a peristaltic pump, a custom-built external heat exchanger, a chiller, biocompatible polyvinyl cellulose (PVC) tubing, and a control console. The CCS cools and circulates autologous blood externally and re-delivers cooled blood to the patient through a conventional catheter inserted directly into the organ at risk. Catheter configurations used included: a 7F guide catheter only, a 7F guide with a 0.038" wire inserted through the center and advanced 2 cm distal to the catheter distal tip, a 6F guide catheter only and a 6F guide with a 0.014" guidewire similarly inserted through the center. Using porcine blood, an in vitro test rig was used to measure the degree of hemolysis generation, defined as the percentage change in free hemoglobin, adjusted for total hemoglobin and hematocrit, between exiting and entering blood. The highest degree of hemolysis generation was 0.11±0.04%, based on the average behavior with a 6F catheter and a 0.014" guidewire configuration at a blood flow rate of approximately 130 mL/min. In terms of average percentage free hemoglobin exiting the system, based on total hemoglobin, the highest value measured was 0.17%±0.03%, using this 6F and 0.014" guidewire configuration. This result is significantly below the most stringent European guideline of 0.8% used for blood storage and transfusion. This study provides initial evidence showing hemolysis generation arising from the CoolGuide Cooling System is likely to be clinically insignificant. PMID:23047283

Merrill, T L; Mingin, T; Merrill, D R; Botbyl, J; Akers, J E

2013-01-01

217

Ceramic Single Ended Recuperative Radiant Tube (Phase 1). Final Report, November 1986-December 1989.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A silicon carbide single-ended recuperative radiant tube (SER) combustion system was developed to compete against electric heating elements which can operate at higher heat fluxes and furnace temperatures than metallic gas-fired systems. The silicon carbi...

L. M. Gorski S. N. Singh

1990-01-01

218

Cooling systems for ultra-high temperature turbines.  

PubMed

This paper describes an introduction of research and development activities on steam cooling in gas turbines at elevated temperature of 1500 C and 1700 C level, partially including those on water cooling. Descriptions of a new cooling system that employs heat pipes are also made. From the view point of heat transfer, its promising applicability is shown with experimental data and engine performance numerical evaluation. PMID:11460628

Yoshida, T

2001-05-01

219

Design Studies of Magnet Systems for Muon Helical Cooling Channels  

SciTech Connect

Helical cooling channels with superimposed solenoid and helical dipole and quadrupole coils, and a pressurized gas absorber in the aperture offer high efficiency of 6D muon beam cooling. In this paper, we continue design studies and comparison of two basic concepts of magnet system proposed for a helical cooling channel focusing on the high field sections. The results of magnetic analysis and Lorentz force calculations as well as the superconductor choice are presented and discussed.

Kashikhin, V.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Lamm, M.J.; Lopes, M.L.; Zlobin, A.V.; /Fermilab; Alsharo'a, M.; Johnson, R.P.; Kahn, Stephen A.; /MUONS Inc., Batavia

2008-06-25

220

A portable personal cooling system for mine rescue operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design of a portable personal cooling system to reduce physiological stress in high-temperature, high-humidity conditions is discussed. The system, based on technology used in the thermal controls of space suits, employs a combination of head and thoracic insulation and cooling through a heat sink unit. Average metabolic rates, heart rates, rectal temperature increase and sweat loss were monitored for test subjects wearing various configurations of the cooling system, as well as for a control group. The various arrangements of the cooling garment were found to provide significant physiological benefits; however, increases in heat transfer rate of the cooling unit and more effective insulation are suggested to improve the system's function.

Webbon, B.; Williams, B.; Kirk, P.; Elkins, W.; Stein, R.

1977-01-01

221

Solar heating and cooling technical data and systems analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research activities described herein were concentrated on the areas of economics, heating and cooling systems, architectural design, materials characteristics, climatic conditions, educational information packages, and evaluation of solar energy systems and components.

Christensen, D. L.

1977-01-01

222

Solar heating and cooling systems design and development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar heating and heating/cooling systems were designed for single family, multifamily, and commercial applications. Subsystems considered included solar collectors, heat storage systems, auxiliary energy sources, working fluids, and supplementary controls, piping, and pumps.

1976-01-01

223

Evaporative Cooling and Dehumidification Garment for Portable Life Support Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the design and development of an innovative thermal and humidity control system for future space suits. The system comprises an evaporation cooling and dehumidification garment (ECDG) and a lithium chloride absorber radiator (LCAR). T...

G. Bue, M. Izenson, W. Chen

2013-01-01

224

Application of high temperature radiant tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An aluminum melting furnace using ceramic radiant tubes with recuperation enables the aluminum melter to operate at high efficiency and very low oxidized metal loss. The initial radiant tubes were made of industrial silicon carbide, and were six feet long by eight inch inside diameter. Normal operating head temperature is about 2000 deg. F., with the burner using natural gas

Taus

1985-01-01

225

Electromagnetic Pumps for Main Cooling Systems of Commercialized Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electromagnetic pump (EMP) has superior potential to improve the economic performance and ease of maintenance of sodium-cooled fast reactors. This study investigates the adequateness of a modular-type EMP system for large-sized (1,500MWe class) sodium-cooled fast reactors. A flow rate of over 500 m\\/min is required for the main circulating pump of such reactors. There is concern that such a

Kosuke AIZAWA; Yoshitaka CHIKAZAWA; Shoji KOTAKE; Kuniaki ARA; Rie AIZAWA; Hiroyuki OTA

2011-01-01

226

Closed loop air cooling system for combustion turbines  

DOEpatents

Convective cooling of turbine hot parts using a closed loop system is disclosed. Preferably, the present invention is applied to cooling the hot parts of combustion turbine power plants, and the cooling provided permits an increase in the inlet temperature and the concomitant benefits of increased efficiency and output. In preferred embodiments, methods and apparatus are disclosed wherein air is removed from the combustion turbine compressor and delivered to passages internal to one or more of a combustor and turbine hot parts. The air cools the combustor and turbine hot parts via convection and heat is transferred through the surfaces of the combustor and turbine hot parts. 1 fig.

Huber, D.J.; Briesch, M.S.

1998-07-21

227

Evaluation of the cooling potential of a dessicant evaporative cooling system using the SimSPARK environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: Being heat driven, the desiccant cooling cycle can be coupled to solar collectors to produce a cooling system with low environmental impact. In this paper, we present the first solar desiccant cooling system in France. A dessicant wheel model is presented and validated experimentally. Then, using computer simulation, a graphical aided concept is used to evaluate system feasibility and

Chadi Maalouf; Etienne Wurtz; Francis Allard

228

Biofilm formation in water cooling systems.  

PubMed

Biofilm formation on stainless steel samples immersed in cooling water has been evaluated by exposing metal samples to cooling seawater for 30 days. Anaerobic bacteria were then at 1.6 × 10(6)/cm(2), with sulphate-reducing species predominating. Aerobic bacteria and fungi were 2600 and 140/cm(2), respectively. After 60 days, numbers of aerobic microorganisms remained constant whereas the count of anaerobic microorganisms had increased to 1.8×10(9)/cm(2). Scanning electron microscopy showed the presence of morphologically different microorganisms in deposits and as a mucilaginous net. No signs of corrosion were detected on the stainless steel surface. PMID:24415316

Lutterbach, M T; de França, F P

1996-07-01

229

Development of high gradient magnetic filter with evaporative cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prototype of high gradient magnetic filter is designed and fabricated, and the electrical coils, which generate a 1 Tesla background magnetic field, are cooled by evaporative cooling system. The operating magnetic flux density distribution is computed carefully by magnetic circuit method and finite element method, and the operating temperature distribution of electrical coils is computed too by finite element

Fuchuan Song; Jiayi Yuan; Xindong Tian; Guobiao Gu

2008-01-01

230

LASER SYSTEM COMPONENTS: Cooled bimorph adaptive mirrors for laser optics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cooled bimorph adaptive copper and molybdenum mirrors are proposed for the compensation of large-scale optical aberrations in laser systems with an output power up to 15 kW. An investigation is reported of the characteristics of the developed and fabricated cooled bimorph mirrors. The experimental results are compared with those obtained by computer modelling. Promising designs of bimorph adaptive mirrors are

A. V. Ikramov; I. M. Roshchupkin; A. G. Safronov

1994-01-01

231

OPERATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF CLOSED CYCLE COOLING SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of a study of operational and environmental impacts of closed cooling systems, used for about a quarter of the nation's steam-electric generating capacity. Conclusions relating to operational impacts include: (1) closed cycle cooling leads to increased pow...

232

Cryogenic cooling system for the ground test accelerator  

SciTech Connect

A cryogenic cooling system has been designed, built and tested for the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Major components of the GTA require cooling to less than 50 K to reduce rf-heating and to increase thermal stability. The cooling system is capable of cooling (at an acceptable rate for thermal stresses) the cryogenically cooled components and then maintaining them at their operating temperature during accelerator testing for all modes and power levels of operation. The accelerator components are cooled by circulating cold, dense helium gas (about 21 K and 2.1 MPa) through the components. The circulating helium is refrigerated in a heat exchanger that uses boiling liquid hydrogen as a source of refrigeration. The cryogenic cooling system consists of the following major components: a liquid hydrogen (LH[sub 2]) storage Dewar with a transfer line to an LH[sub 2] run tank containing an LH[sub 2]/gaseous helium (GHe) heat exchanger, circulation lines, and a circulation pump. The system, sized to cool a load of approximately 40 kW at temperatures as low as 20 K, is operational, but has not yet been operated in conjunction with the accelerator.

Edeskuty, F.J.; Stewart, W.F.; Moeller, J.; Durham, F. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Spulgis, I. (CVI, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States))

1993-01-01

233

Cryogenic cooling system for the ground test accelerator  

SciTech Connect

A cryogenic cooling system has been designed, built and tested for the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Major components of the GTA require cooling to less than 50 K to reduce rf-heating and to increase thermal stability. The cooling system is capable of cooling (at an acceptable rate for thermal stresses) the cryogenically cooled components and then maintaining them at their operating temperature during accelerator testing for all modes and power levels of operation. The accelerator components are cooled by circulating cold, dense helium gas (about 21 K and 2.1 MPa) through the components. The circulating helium is refrigerated in a heat exchanger that uses boiling liquid hydrogen as a source of refrigeration. The cryogenic cooling system consists of the following major components: a liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) storage Dewar with a transfer line to an LH{sub 2} run tank containing an LH{sub 2}/gaseous helium (GHe) heat exchanger, circulation lines, and a circulation pump. The system, sized to cool a load of approximately 40 kW at temperatures as low as 20 K, is operational, but has not yet been operated in conjunction with the accelerator.

Edeskuty, F.J.; Stewart, W.F.; Moeller, J.; Durham, F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Spulgis, I. [CVI, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States)

1993-06-01

234

Arrangement of boiling liquid cooling system of internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a motor vehicle having an internal combustion engine mounted in an engine room of a vehicle body comprising: a boiling liquid cooling system associated with the engine for cooling the same by using a latent heat of coolant, which comprises: means for defining in the engine proper a coolant jacket which contains therein a liquid coolant leaving

Hayashi

1986-01-01

235

Simplified models for solar-powered absorption cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ideal three-heat-reservoir cycles with constant internal irreversibilities and external heat transfer irrevesibilities are used to obtain the performance limits of solar operated absorption cooling systems. Analytical expressions are obtained for the coefficient of performance (COP) and the cooling capacity of the plant. The results for ideal cycles are compared with those obtained by detailed simulation of the absorption machine. The

N. E. Wijeysundera

1999-01-01

236

Aerodynamic Design Problems of Dry Cooling Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Activities in a program which began in 1976 and concluded in 1979 for collecting and analyzing the effects of wind and inversions on natural draft cooling tower design are reviewed. Publications which resulted from the program are listed. Two complete pap...

F. K. Moore

1980-01-01

237

Ice pond cooling system for power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of melting ice to cool the power plant condenser effluent is considered as an alternative approach for high latitude locations where ice is readily available. The main interest in this technique is the expected reduction in water consumption. The results of a feasibility study of the engineering and economical possibilities of a power plant employing this technique are

Arthur C. Miller; Jorge A. Pena; John Urbsanski; Sonja N. Kerr

1983-01-01

238

Impact of advanced fluids on costs of district cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

Three alternate fluids, ice-water slurry, friction reduction additive and the combination of them, have been compared for use in District Cooling Systems (DCS). The effect of the fluids on cost and cooling capacities were considered for the two cases of new and existing DCS separately. Two criteria were used in comparisons among fluids in each case: constant pumping power which allows for the most benefit, and constant velocity which is more practical consideration. An economic assessment for a 500 ton system shows a potential cost difference in the total pipe cost for a new system of 70% when a 30% ice slurry is used in place of chilled water. The pipe diameter is reduced to 40% using the slurry. These results apply to the constant comparison and are independent of the use of additive. Friction reduction additives serve to reduce pumping power and pressure drop. The ice-water slurry also has a significant impact on existing district cooling systems. It can potentially expand the cooling capacity by 500% without new piping being installed while maintaining the same pumping power, velocity and pressure-drop as the chilled water system. Again, friction reduction additives serve to reduce pumping power and pressure-drop. They do not influence cooling capacity. The cost for expanding the piping to increase the cooling capacity by the same amount by the use of conventional district cooling technology has been shown to be extremely high compared to the ice-water slurry system.

Choi, U.S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); France, D.M.; Knodel, B.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1992-07-01

239

Impact of advanced fluids on costs of district cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

Three alternate fluids, ice-water slurry, friction reduction additive and the combination of them, have been compared for use in District Cooling Systems (DCS). The effect of the fluids on cost and cooling capacities were considered for the two cases of new and existing DCS separately. Two criteria were used in comparisons among fluids in each case: constant pumping power which allows for the most benefit, and constant velocity which is more practical consideration. An economic assessment for a 500 ton system shows a potential cost difference in the total pipe cost for a new system of 70% when a 30% ice slurry is used in place of chilled water. The pipe diameter is reduced to 40% using the slurry. These results apply to the constant comparison and are independent of the use of additive. Friction reduction additives serve to reduce pumping power and pressure drop. The ice-water slurry also has a significant impact on existing district cooling systems. It can potentially expand the cooling capacity by 500% without new piping being installed while maintaining the same pumping power, velocity and pressure-drop as the chilled water system. Again, friction reduction additives serve to reduce pumping power and pressure-drop. They do not influence cooling capacity. The cost for expanding the piping to increase the cooling capacity by the same amount by the use of conventional district cooling technology has been shown to be extremely high compared to the ice-water slurry system.

Choi, U.S. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); France, D.M.; Knodel, B.D. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States) Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

1992-01-01

240

Prototype solar heating and cooling systems, including potable hot water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress made in the development, delivery, and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water is reported. The system consists of the following subsystems: collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition. A comparison of the proposed Solaron Heat Pump and Solar Desiccant Heating and Cooling Systems, installation drawings, data on the Akron House at Akron, Ohio, and other program activities are included.

Bloomquist, D.; Oonk, R. L.

1977-01-01

241

4.5 K Cooling System for a Cryogenically Cooled Probe for a 920 MHz NMR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The feasibility of closed-cycle 4.5 K cooling has been demonstrated for a cryogenically cooled probe for the world highest magnetic-field 920 MHz Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) operated at the National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), by means of the following model experiments. The cooling system with a cooling capacity of 4.55 W comprises a Gifford-McMahon (GM) cryocooler and two-stage expansion Joule-Thomson (J-T) circuit. Supercritical helium is produced by the 1st J-T valve, which is then liquefied by the 2nd J-T valve. Helium mist cools a cooling stage for the radio frequency (RF) coils. The NMR sensitivity improvement in terms of the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio of the 4.5 K probe is expected to be double of the conventionally used 20 K cryogenic probe, due to the reduction of the thermal noise of the RF coils.

Yokota, H.; Okamura, T.; Ohtani, Y.; Kuriyama, T.; Takahashi, M.; Horiuchi, T.; Kikuchi, J.; Yokoyama, S.; Maeda, H.

2004-06-01

242

Investigation on solar hybrid desiccant cooling system for commercial premises with high latent cooling load in subtropical Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study found that the solar hybrid desiccant cooling system (SHDCS) was more effective to handle the premises with high latent cooling load in the hot and humid climate compared to the conventional air-conditioning system. The SHDCS was designed to use the solar-thermal desiccant cooling to tackle the latent load; and the electrical vapour compression refrigeration to cater the sensible

K. F. Fong; C. K. Lee; T. T. Chow; A. M. L. Fong

2011-01-01

243

Modeling and performance of the MHTGR (Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor) reactor cavity cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) of the Modular High- Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) proposed by the U.S. Department of Energy is designed to remove the nuclear afterheat passively in the event that neither the heat transport system nor the shutdown cooling circulator subsystem is available. A computer dynamic simulation for the physical and mathematical modeling of and RCCS is

Conklin

1990-01-01

244

Bacterial community structure in cooling water and biofilm in an industrial recirculating cooling water system.  

PubMed

Microbial fouling is a serious problem in open recirculating cooling water systems. The bacterial communities that cause it have not been fully understood. In this study, we analyzed the community structure of free-living bacteria and particle-attached bacteria in cooling water, and bacteria in biofilm collected from the wall of the water reservoir in an industrial recirculating cooling water system by construction of a 16S rRNA gene clone library. Based on amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis, clones of all three libraries were clustered into 45 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Thirteen OTUs displaying 91-96% sequence similarity to a type strain might be novel bacterial species. Noted differences in community structure were observed among the three libraries. The relative species richness of the free-living bacteria in cooling water was much lower than that of particle-attached bacteria and bacteria in biofilm. The majority of the free-living bacterial community (99.0%) was Betaproteobacteria. The predominant bacteria in the particle-attached bacterial community were Alphaproteobacteria (20.5%), Betaproteobacteria (27.8%) and Planctomycetes (42.0%), while those in the biofilm bacterial community were Alphaproteobacteria (47.9%), Betaproteobacteria (11.7%), Acidobacteria (13.1%) and Gemmatimonadetes (11.3%). To control microbial fouling in industrial recirculating cooling water systems, additional physiological and ecological studies of these species will be essential. PMID:23985528

Wang, Jinmei; Liu, Min; Xiao, Huijie; Wu, Wei; Xie, Meijuan; Sun, Mengjia; Zhu, Chenglin; Li, Pengfu

2013-01-01

245

Integrated cooling, heating, and power systems  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

One exemplary embodiment of this invention provides a single-effect absorption chiller including an absorber operatively connected to a solution heat exchanger and a generator, and a condenser in fluid communication with the absorber, wherein the absorber is sized and configured to receive a feed of water from a source of water and to transfer heat to the feed of water and then to convey the feed of water to the condenser without further heat conditioning of the feed of water prior to its entry into the condenser, and wherein the condenser is sized and configured to receive the feed of water from the absorber and to transfer heat to the feed of water, thereby cooling the condenser without resorting to an external heat exchanger such as a conventional cooling tower.

2014-06-03

246

Cavity cooling of an ensemble spin system.  

PubMed

We describe how sideband cooling techniques may be applied to large spin ensembles in magnetic resonance. Using the Tavis-Cummings model in the presence of a Rabi drive, we solve a Markovian master equation describing the joint spin-cavity dynamics to derive cooling rates as a function of ensemble size. Our calculations indicate that the coupled angular momentum subspaces of a spin ensemble containing roughly 10(11) electron spins may be polarized in a time many orders of magnitude shorter than the typical thermal relaxation time. The described techniques should permit efficient removal of entropy for spin-based quantum information processors and fast polarization of spin samples. The proposed application of a standard technique in quantum optics to magnetic resonance also serves to reinforce the connection between the two fields, which has recently begun to be explored in further detail due to the development of hybrid designs for manufacturing noise-resilient quantum devices. PMID:24580576

Wood, Christopher J; Borneman, Troy W; Cory, David G

2014-02-01

247

Cooling and shielding systems for infrared detectors - requirements and limits.  

PubMed

This paper presents three main cooling systems used for infrared detectors. At first thermoelectric devices are discussed. They allow cooling down the detector with low efficiency and not to the very low temperature. They do not generate any vibrations and therefore are suitable for thermal detectors, where the microphone effect can decrease their performance. Photon detectors need to be cooled down even to 77K or better. The only way to have such deep cooling is to use the cooler based on thermodynamic cycle such as Stirling one. With the high efficiency one can easily obtain cryogenic temperature for a detector. The electromagnetic noise and vibration generation are the main disadvantages of using such devices. Joule-Thomson effect during gas expansion is 3rdcooling system discussed in the paper. It is highly effective process, used for gas liquefaction too. The working gas is being removed during cooling into the atmosphere, so the need of continuous supplying with compressed one, what makes this system very difficult for remote applications. In the paper, simple calculations are presented to illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of the different cooling systems. PMID:17282258

Wiecek, B

2005-01-01

248

2. VIEW SOUTH OF WIND TUNNEL 138 AND COOLING SYSTEM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW SOUTH OF WIND TUNNEL 138 AND COOLING SYSTEM 140, NORTH ELEVATION - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Subsonic Wind Tunnel Building, Bounded by Clara Barton Parkway & McArthur Boulevard, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

249

Detail exterior view looking southwest of gas cooling system. Engine ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail exterior view looking southwest of gas cooling system. Engine house is shown in right background. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

250

Performance comparison of absorption and desiccant solar cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

Cooling systems are required to operate over a wide range of outdoor and load conditions; however, the performance of solar cooling components is often specified and compared at a typical design point such as ARI conditions. A method is presented to directly compare the performance of different desiccant and absorption cooling systems by using psychrometric analysis of air distribution cycles under a range of outdoor conditions that systems encounter over a year. Using analysis of cooling load distributions for a small commercial office building in Miami and Phoenix a seasonal COP is calculated for each system. The heat input can be provided by solar or by an auxiliary heat source, such as natural gas.

Warren, M.L.; Wahlig, M.

1986-01-01

251

Compact he II Cooling System for Superconducting Cavities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a compact He II cooling system for superconducting cavities. The cooling system mainly comprises a vacuum vessel, an 80 K liquid nitrogen bath, a 4 K He I bath, a He II bath, an evacuation pump, a single-stage GM cryocooler for the 80 K bath, and a 4 K GM cryocooler for the 4 K He I bath. Superfluid helium is generated and refilled into the He II bath via a heat exchanger and a JT valve by operating the evacuation pump. The refrigeration capacity attained was more than 10 W at 1.8 K. The cooling system was connected with a single-cell cavity cryostat. A superconducting cavity was immersed in superfluid helium. He II was supplied to the cavity vessel from the cooling system and evaporated helium gas was returned to it. High electric fields were obtained during superconducting cavity operations.

Takahashi, M.; Yazawa, T.; Tosaka, T.; Kuriyama, T.; Kakutani, N.; Ota, T.; Nakayama, K.; Saito, K.

2008-03-01

252

76 FR 6551 - Medical Devices; General and Plastic Surgery Devices; Classification of Contact Cooling System...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plastic Surgery Devices; Classification of Contact Cooling System for Aesthetic Use AGENCY...Administration (FDA) is classifying the contact cooling system for aesthetic use into...II Special Controls Guidance Document: Contact Cooling System for Aesthetic...

2011-02-07

253

Superconducting shield for solenoid of electron cooling system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ensuring the high homogeneity of a magnetic field in the straight solenoid of an electron cooling system is a very important task. In the electron cooling system of the collider in the NICA project, it is planned to use superconducting solenoids for the generation of a longitudinal magnetic field. Using of the superconducting shield is proposed to achieve the required homogeneity of the magnetic field in the cooling section. This article discusses the design of the superconducting shield and presents experimental and numerical studies into the homogeneity of the magnetic field in solenoids with the superconducting shield.

Agapov, N. N.; Donets, D. E.; Drobin, V. M.; Kulikov, E. A.; Malinovski, H.; Pivin, R. V.; Smirnov, A. V.; Prokofichev, Yu. V.; Trubnikov, G. V.; Dorofeev, G. L.

2012-07-01

254

Development of actively cooled panels for advanced propulsion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of actively cooled flowpath panels for the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) propulsion system was a critical task in the development plan of the air vehicle system. This task encompassed development of design requirements and loads, and component design and testing. In the early 90's the effort focused on six cooled panel designs based in five different materials (NARloy-Z, Haynes

Brett K. Hauber

1998-01-01

255

Development of actively cooled panels for advanced propulsion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of actively cooled flowpath panels for the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) propulsion system was a critical task in the development plan of the air vehicle system. This task encompassed development of design requirements and loads, and component design and testing. In the early 90’s the effort focused on six cooled panel designs based in five different materials (NARloy-Z, Haynes

Brett K. Hauber

1998-01-01

256

Wearable monitoring of cardiopulmonary activity through radiant sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

4 e.scilingo@ing.unipi.it Abstract— This paper is concerned with wearable monitoring of cardiopulmonary activity through radiant sensing. Here we propose two systems consisting of a multi-modal broad-band piezoelectric transducer based on PVDF polymer and system-on- a-chip UWB radar both integrated into a textile belt wrapped around the chest and. The multi-modal transducer is innovative in that only one sensitive element is

E. P. Scilingo; D. Zito; D. Pepe; F. Zito; D. De Rossi; E. Piaggio

257

Advanced regenerative-cooling techniques for future space transportation systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of regenerative-cooling techniques applicable to advanced planned engine designs for space booster and orbit transportation systems has developed the status of the key elements of this cooling mode. This work is presented in terms of gas side, coolant side, wall conduction heat transfer, and chamber life fatigue margin considerations. Described are preliminary heat transfer and trade analyses performed using developed techniques combining channel wall construction with advanced, high-strength, high-thermal-conductivity materials (NARloy-Z or Zr-Cu alloys) in high heat flux regions, combined with lightweight steel tubular nozzle wall construction. Advanced cooling techniques such as oxygen cooling and dual-mode hydrocarbon/hydrogen fuel operation and their limitations are indicated for the regenerative cooling approach.

Wagner, W. R.; Shoji, J. M.

1975-01-01

258

Cooling Tests of an Airplane Equipped with an NACA Cowling and a Wing-duct Cooling System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cooling tests were made of a Northrop A-17A attack airplane successively equipped with a conventional.NACA cowling and with a wing-duct cooling system. The method of cooling the engine by admitting air from the propeller slipstream into wing ducts, passing it first through the accessory compartment and then over the engine from rear to front, appeared to offer possibilities for improved engine cooling, increased cooling of the accessories, and better fairing of the power-plant installation. The results showed that ground cooling for the wing duct system without cowl flap was better than for the NACA cowling with flap; ground cooling was appreciably improved by installing a cowl flap. Satisfactory temperatures were maintained in both climb and high-speed flight, but, with the use of conventional baffles, a greater quantity of cooling air appeared to be required for the wing duct system.

Turner, L I , Jr; Bierman, David; Boothy, W B

1941-01-01

259

S'COOL: Cloud Identification Chart and The Cloud Cookery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides detailed information about cloud identification, observing, and reporting. It also provides an activity on how to make a cloud in a bottle. French and Spanish versions of the chart are also available. This resource was developed for the Student Cloud Observations On Line (S'COOL) project. S'COOL is a component of NASA's Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project. S'COOL project participants make ground truth measurements for the CERES experiment. Ground truth measurements are land-based observations to compare with satellite data for the purpose of improving the satellite results.

2004-10-01

260

Emerging microbial control issues in cooling water systems  

SciTech Connect

Microbial life affects everything including many industrial processes. The nature and activity of microorganisms determines whether their presence is beneficial or destructive. In cooling towers, the destructive capability of these organisms is manifested. The microorganisms that inhabit industrial cooling water systems can adversely affect the efficiency of the operation by their sheer number and diversity, metabolic wastes or deposits and associated corrosion. Microbiologically influenced corrosion is emerging as a serious problem in cooling systems. This article brings into focus the problems created by microbial infestations in cooling water systems and the control procedures evolved to combat them. Further, the future strategies being evolved in view of environmental concerns with biocides currently used are also discussed.

Choudhary, S.G. [Tata Chemicals Ltd., Babrala (India)

1998-05-01

261

Cooling systems for satellite remote sensing instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current and developing state-of-the-art in cryogenic coolers for satellite sensors was studied for earth oriented satellites. Six representative sensor categories in the 77 K to 300 K range were defined. Cooling capacities were 50 to 1000 mw; both continuous and intermittent duty cycles were considered; lifetimes were one to two years. Conceptual designs were prepared for the most promising coolers in each category. These coolers are Joule-Thomson, Solid Cryogen, Vuilleumier, Thermoelectric, Shielded Radiator, Optical Solar Reflector Radiator and Unshielded Radiator. Weight, envelope, power requirements and operating characteristics of each cooler are described. Scaling data for each cooler are included.

Copeland, R. J.; Oren, J. A.

1975-01-01

262

Steam cooling system for a gas turbine  

DOEpatents

The steam cooling circuit for a gas turbine includes a bore tube assembly supplying steam to circumferentially spaced radial tubes coupled to supply elbows for transitioning the radial steam flow in an axial direction along steam supply tubes adjacent the rim of the rotor. The supply tubes supply steam to circumferentially spaced manifold segments located on the aft side of the 1-2 spacer for supplying steam to the buckets of the first and second stages. Spent return steam from these buckets flows to a plurality of circumferentially spaced return manifold segments disposed on the forward face of the 1-2 spacer. Crossover tubes couple the steam supply from the steam supply manifold segments through the 1-2 spacer to the buckets of the first stage. Crossover tubes through the 1-2 spacer also return steam from the buckets of the second stage to the return manifold segments. Axially extending return tubes convey spent cooling steam from the return manifold segments to radial tubes via return elbows.

Wilson, Ian David (Mauldin, SC); Barb, Kevin Joseph (Halfmoon, NY); Li, Ming Cheng (Cincinnati, OH); Hyde, Susan Marie (Schenectady, NY); Mashey, Thomas Charles (Coxsackie, NY); Wesorick, Ronald Richard (Albany, NY); Glynn, Christopher Charles (Hamilton, OH); Hemsworth, Martin C. (Cincinnati, OH)

2002-01-01

263

Human Exposure to High Radiant Environments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was conducted to assess realistically the degree of physiologic protection afforded by fire fighters' clothing. Eight subjects, each wearing standard and prototype proximity fire fighters' clothing assemblies, were exposed to intense radiant so...

J. H. Veghte

1973-01-01

264

NONWATER QUALITY IMPACTS OF CLOSED-CYCLE COOLING SYSTEMS AND THE INTERACTION OF STACK GAS AND COOLING TOWER PLUMES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a literature survey of the nonwater quality impacts of closed-cycle cooling systems. Following discussions of cooling tower and stack gas plumes, interactions of these plumes are considered. For cooling tower plumes, plume types, behavior, salt drift g...

265

Desiccant dehumidification and cooling systems assessment and analysis  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this report is to provide a preliminary analysis of the principles, sensitivities, and potential for national energy savings of desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems. The report is divided into four sections. Section I deals with the maximum theoretical performance of ideal desiccant cooling systems. Section II looks at the performance effects of non-ideal behavior of system components. Section III examines the effects of outdoor air properties on desiccant cooling system performance. Section IV analyzes the applicability of desiccant cooling systems to reduce primary energy requirements for providing space conditioning in buildings. A basic desiccation process performs no useful work (cooling). That is, a desiccant material drying air is close to an isenthalpic process. Latent energy is merely converted to sensible energy. Only when heat exchange is applied to the desiccated air is any cooling accomplished. This characteristic is generic to all desiccant cycles and critical to understanding their operation. The analyses of Section I show that desiccant cooling cycles can theoretically achieve extremely high thermal CoP`s (>2). The general conclusion from Section II is that ventilation air processing is the most viable application for the solid desiccant equipment analyzed. The results from the seasonal simulations performed in Section III indicate that, generally, the seasonal performance of the desiccant system does not change significantly from that predicted for outdoor conditions. Results from Section IV show that all of the candidate desiccant systems can save energy relative to standard vapor-compression systems. The largest energy savings are achieved by the enthalpy exchange devise.

Collier, R.K. Jr. [Collier Engineering, Reno, NV (United States)

1997-09-01

266

Feasibility of alternative cooling systems for power plants in the northern Great Plains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partial Contents: Power plant water requirements; Operational\\/engineering considerations of wet and dry cooling tower systems; Environmental impacts of closed-cycle cooling systems; Economics of wet and dry cooling towers.

B. A. Tichenor; J. W. Shaw

1974-01-01

267

Closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine  

DOEpatents

Method and apparatus are disclosed for providing a closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine. The method and apparatus provide for bleeding pressurized air from a gas turbine engine compressor for use in cooling the turbine components. The compressed air is cascaded through the various stages of the turbine. At each stage a portion of the compressed air is returned to the compressor where useful work is recovered.

North, William Edward (Winter Springs, FL)

2000-01-01

268

A practical solar energy heating and cooling system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent study has concluded that solar-powered residential heating and cooling system is non technically and economically feasible. Proposed system provides space heating, air conditioning, and hot water. Installation costs will be greater than for conventional heating systems, but this difference will eventually be defrayed by very low operating costs.

Oneill, M. J.; Mcdanal, A. J.; Sims, W. H.

1973-01-01

269

Inhibitor analysis for a solar heating and cooling system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study of potential corrosion inhibitors for the NASA solar heating and cooling system which uses aluminum solar panels is provided. Research consisted of testing using a dynamic corrosion system, along with an economic analysis of proposed corrosion inhibitors. Very good progress was made in finding a suitable inhibitor for the system.

Tabony, J. H.

1977-01-01

270

NASA S'COOL: Student's Cloud Observations Online  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students' Cloud Observations On-Line (S'COOL) is a hand-on project which supports NASA research on the Earth's climate. Science, math and geography are used as students observe, compute and locate vital information through ground truth observations for the CERES (Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System) instrument which orbits the Earth on NASA's TERRA satellite. The CERES instrument is a satellite instrument

Cheryl Dodes

2002-01-01

271

High-Precision Radiant Analysis of the 2001 Leonids Using Telescopic Optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We employed a new line-detection method and tried to separate two radiant points corresponding to the dust trails of Comet 55P/Tempel-Tuttle's perihelion passages in 1699 and 1866. This method integrates the pixel values of a CCD image along a line direction, which enables us to detect 30-times fainter meteors than when using the usual detection methods. It can also precisely determine the angle of the line direction. Two telescopic optics equipped with cooled CCD cameras were pointed to regions that make a right angle with the radiant points in order to precisely determine their positions. Radiant points of the 2001 Leonids derived by this method were found to be consistent with those predicted by McNaught and Asher.

Yanagisawa, Toshifumi; Ohnishi, Kouji; Torii, Ken'ichi; Kohama, Mitsuhiro; Nakajima, Atsushi; Asher, David

2003-06-01

272

Fundamental Aspects of Ozone Chemistry in Recirculating Cooling Water Systems — Data Evaluation Needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proposed uses of ozone for stand-alone cooling water treatment raise critical questions as to what happens chemically. These questions are of more significance to industrial cooling water systems, which typically have higher temperatures and cooling ranges than do comfort cooling systems. When applying ozone to cooling waters, it is very important for the user to understand many fundamental aspects of

Rip G. Rice; J. Fred Wilkes

1992-01-01

273

Solar assisted heat pump heating and cooling system  

SciTech Connect

A heating and cooling system for domestic and commercial use which includes a reversible refrigeration system in the form of a heat pump combined with an exteriorly mounted heat exchanger in the form of a solar collector and an interiorly mounted heat exchanger incorporated into a valance supported peripherally adjacent to but spaced downwardly from the ceiling of a space being conditioned. The refrigeration system includes a compressor and the heat exchange system includes a circulation water pump which together with the compressor constitute the major moving parts of the system with heat exchange and air circulation being obtained by convective airflow. The heating and cooling system is interconnected with the domestic hot water system to satisfy a large porportion of the required domestic hot water by utilizing rejected heat. The interiorly mounted valance heat exchanger dehumidifies the air in the space being conditioned to enable occupants of the space to feel cool and comfortable at a higher temperature setting. The exteriorly mounted heat exchanger utilizes a small quantity of atomized water in a fine mist spray during the cooling cycle for increasing the efficiency of the system. During extremely low ambient temperature conditions, the domestic hot water system supplies heat to the refrigeration system which prevents slugging of the refrigeration system compressor.

Cutlip, L. D.

1985-11-12

274

Use of a temperature-initiated passive cooling system (TIPACS) for the modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS)  

SciTech Connect

A new type of passive cooling system has been invented (Forsberg 1993): the Temperature-Initiated Passive Cooling System (TIPACS). The characteristics of the TIPACS potentially match requirements for an improved reactor-cavity-cooling system (RCCS) for the modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR). This report is an initial evaluation of the TIPACS for the MHTGR with a Rankines (steam) power conversion cycle. Limited evaluations were made of applying the TIPACS to MHTGRs with reactor pressure vessel temperatures up to 450 C. These temperatures may occur in designs of Brayton cycle (gas turbine) and process heat MHTGRs. The report is structured as follows. Section 2 describes the containment cooling issues associated with the MHTGR and the requirements for such a cooling system. Section 3 describes TIPACS in nonmathematical terms. Section 4 describes TIPACS`s heat-removal capabilities. Section 5 analyzes the operation of the temperature-control mechanism that determines under what conditions the TIPACS rejects heat to the environment. Section 6 addresses other design and operational issues. Section 7 identifies uncertainties, and Section 8 provides conclusions. The appendixes provide the detailed data and models used in the analysis.

Forsberg, C.W.; Conklin, J.; Reich, W.J.

1994-04-01

275

Gas-cooled reactor power systems for space  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the characteristics of six designs for power levels of 2, 10, and 20 MWe for operating times of 1 and 7 y are described. The operating conditions for these arbitrary designs were chosen to minimize system specific mass. The designs are based on recent work which benefits from earlier analyses of nuclear space power systems conducted at our Laboratory. Both gas- and liquid-cooled reactors had been considered. Pitts and Walter (1970) reported on the results of a detailed study of a 10-MWe lithium-cooled reactor in a potassium Rankine system. Unpublished results (1966) of a computer analysis provide details of an argon-cooled reactor in an argon Brayton system. The gas-cooled reactor design was based on extensive development work on the 500-MWth reactor for the nuclear ramjet (Pluto) as described by Walter (1964). The designs discussed here draw heavily on the Pluto project experience, which culminated in a successful full-power ground test as reported by Reynolds (1964). At higher power levels gas-cooled reactors coupled with Brayton systems with advanced radiator designs become attractive.

Walter, C.E.

1987-01-01

276

A mixed-gas miniature Joule-Thomson cooling system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mixed-gas Joule-Thomson (JT) cooling system is investigated in which a micromachined JT cold stage of 60 × 10 × 0.7 mm3 is combined with a linear compressor. The cooling system is operated between 1.3 bar and 9.4 bar with a ternary gas mixture of 39 mol% methane, 20 mol% ethane and 41 mol% isobutane. It cools down to below 130 K, and at a cold-tip temperature of 150 K, a cooling power of 46 mW is obtained at a mass-flow rate of 1.35 mg s-1. The background losses are experimentally determined to be 20 mW and are in good agreement with the calculated value of 21 mW. The linear compressor can be used to drive 19 of these miniature JT cold stages in parallel, e.g. for cooling optical detectors in future space missions. In this mode, the compressor pressure ratio is slightly less, resulting in a net cooling power of 23 mW per miniature JT cold stage.

Derking, J. H.; Vermeer, C. H.; Tirolien, T.; Crook, M. R.; ter Brake, H. J. M.

2013-10-01

277

COMMIX analysis of AP-600 Passive Containment Cooling System  

SciTech Connect

COMMIX modeling and basic concepts that relate components, i.e., containment, water film cooling, and natural draft air flow systems. of the AP-600 Passive Containment Cooling System are discussed. The critical safety issues during a postulated accident have been identified as (1) maintaining the liquid film outside the steel containment vessel, (2) ensuring the natural convection in the air annulus. and (3) quantifying both heat and mass transfer accurately for the system. The lack of appropriate heat and mass transfer models in the present analysis is addressed. and additional assessment and validation of the proposed models is proposed.

Chang, J.F.C.; Chien, T.H.; Ding, J.; Sun, J.G.; Sha, W.T.

1992-01-01

278

COMMIX analysis of AP-600 Passive Containment Cooling System  

SciTech Connect

COMMIX modeling and basic concepts that relate components, i.e., containment, water film cooling, and natural draft air flow systems. of the AP-600 Passive Containment Cooling System are discussed. The critical safety issues during a postulated accident have been identified as (1) maintaining the liquid film outside the steel containment vessel, (2) ensuring the natural convection in the air annulus. and (3) quantifying both heat and mass transfer accurately for the system. The lack of appropriate heat and mass transfer models in the present analysis is addressed. and additional assessment and validation of the proposed models is proposed.

Chang, J.F.C.; Chien, T.H.; Ding, J.; Sun, J.G.; Sha, W.T.

1992-11-01

279

Integrating externally developed systems for SNS Linac cooling and vacuum.  

SciTech Connect

External contractors are developing the local cooling and vacuum control systems for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) linac. Soon these systems will be integrated into the facility-wide controls system. Allen-Bradley Logix5000 series programmable controllers, populated with appropriate input/output modules, were selected as the local controllers. These controllers will be interfaced to the facility-wide control system via VME systems with PowerPC processors running the Wind River VxWorks operating system and Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) front-end controller software. This paper describes the interface and integration issues driven by project, cooling system and vacuum system requirements and hardware selections.

Marroquin, P. S. (Pilar S.)

2001-01-01

280

Radiative recombination of ions and nuclei in electron cooling systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental data on rates for the radiative recombination of nuclei (from helium to uranium) and various ions in interaction with an electron beam in electron cooling systems are reviewed. An analysis of the experimental data has yielded the dependence of the radiative recombination rate on the relative electron energy appreciably differently than the theoretical models obtained earlier by H. Kramers and R. Schuch. In addition, it is shown that the radiative recombination rate of nuclei in the experiment depends on the transverse electron energy as T {?/-0.82},which is also different from the results of the calculations by the theoretical model proposed by M. Bell and J. Bell. Experimental data on the cooling of ions in intermediate charge states are analyzed and the dependence of the radiative recombination rate on the charge state of the ion (electron-shell configuration) is shown. For some ion charge states, the rate of the process is of a resonance character. Loss to radiative recombination in the electron cooling system of the NICA Booster is evaluated for the Au32+, Au33+, Au50+, and Au51+ ion beams. Limitations imposed on the Au79+ beam lifetime by radiative recombination in the electron cooling system of the NICA Collider are analyzed. Possible ways to decrease the radiative recombination rate of nuclei by selecting the parameters of the electron cooling system for the NICA Collider are proposed.

Kuznetsov, A. B.; Meshkov, I. N.; Philippov, A. V.

2012-07-01

281

Impact of ambient pressure on performance of desiccant cooling systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The impact of ambient pressure on the performance of the ventilation cycle desiccant cooling system and its components was studied using computer simulations. The impact of ambient pressure depended on whether the system was designed for fixed-mass flow r...

A. A. Pesaran

1991-01-01

282

Copper corrosion & clogging in APS deionized water cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extensive amount of work has been performed on copper corrosion in last century due to its abundant use in domestic and industrial water systems. However, work on copper corrosion in deionized water is very limited. The water cooling system of Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory uses deionized water containing very low dissolved oxygen (less than 10

Bijaya Adak

2009-01-01

283

Preliminary design study of astronomical detector cooling system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The preliminary design of an astronomical detector cooling system for possible use in the NASA C-141 Airborne Infrared Observatory is presented. The system consists of the following elements: supercritical helium tank, Joule-Thomson supply gas conditioner, Joule-Thomson expander (JTX), optical cavity dewar, optical cavity temperature controller, adjustable J-T discharge gas pressure controller, and vacuum pump.

Norman, R. H.

1976-01-01

284

Solar Residential Heating and Cooling System Development Test Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A solar heating and cooling system is described, which was installed in a simulated home at Marshall Space Flight Center. Performance data are provided for the checkout and initial operational phase for key subsystems and for the total system. Valuable in...

W. R. Humphries D. E. Melton

1974-01-01

285

Advanced energy transmission fluids for heating and cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring a comprehensive program to develop high-performance energy transmission fluids for use in district heating and cooling (DHC) systems. These fluids would substantially reduce flow frictional losses and enhance heat transfer. In system enhancement scoping studies, the fluids have been shown to yield potentially significant upfront capital equipment cost reductions by allowing the

K. E. Kasza; S. U. Choi; J. Kaminsky

1987-01-01

286

A System for Cooling inside a Glove Box  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An easy, efficient, reliable, and low-cost method of constructing a cooling system using a simple circulating pump is described. The system is employed in conjunction with an inert atmosphere glove box to achieve the synthesis of air- and moisture-sensitive compounds inside the glove box at controlled, low temperatures without contaminating the…

Sanz, Martial

2010-01-01

287

Performance evaluation of solar absorption cooling system of Bahal (Haryana)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents the modeling of a solar -powered, single-stage, absorption cooling system using a flat plate collector and water-lithium bromide solution. A modular computer program has been developed for the absorp- tion system to simulate various cycle configurations with the help of weather data of village Bahal, Distt. Bh i- wani, Haryana, India. The effects of hot water inlet

V. MITTAL; K. S. KASANA; N. S. THAKUR

2005-01-01

288

Thermal Hydraulic Analysis of an Experimental Reactor Cavity Cooling System with Water: Performance and Stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This experimental study investigated the thermal hydraulic behavior and boiling mechanisms present in a scaled reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS). The experimental facility reflects a ¼ scale model of one conceptual design for decay heat removal in advanced GenIV nuclear reactors. Radiant heaters supply up to 25 kW/m2 onto a three parallel riser tube and cooling panel test section assembly, representative of a 5° sector model of the full scale concept. Derived similarity relations have preserved the thermal hydraulic flow patterns and integral system response, ensuring relevant data and similarity among scales. Attention will first be given to the characterization of design features, form and heat losses, nominal behavior, repeatability, and data uncertainty. Then, tests performed in single-phase have evaluated the steady-state behavior. Following, the transition to saturation and subsequent boiling allowed investigations onto four parametric effects at two-phase flow and will be the primary focus area of remaining analysis. Baseline conditions at two-phase flow were defined by 15.19 kW of heated power and 80% coolant inventory, and resulted in semi-periodic system oscillations by the mechanism of hydrostatic head fluctuations. Void generation was the result of adiabatic expansion of the fluid due to a reduction in hydrostatic head pressure, a phenomena similar to flashing. At higher powers of 17.84 and 20.49 kW, this effect was augmented, creating large flow excursions that followed a smooth and sinusoidal shaped path. Stabilization can occur if the steam outflow condition incorporates a nominal restriction, as it will serve to buffer the short time scale excursions of the gas space pressure and dampen oscillations. The influences of an inlet restriction, imposed by an orifice plate, introduced subcooling boiling within the heated core and resulted in chaotic interactions among the parallel risers. The penultimate parametric examined effects of boil-off and inventory loss, where five different stages of natural circulation flow were identified: single-phase heating, transitional nucleate boiling, hydrostatic head fluctuations, stable two-phase flow, and geysering. Finally, the implementation of the model RCCS to a full scale plant was investigated by a multivariate test simulating an hypothetical accident scenario.

Lisowski, Darius D.

289

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT IV, MAINTAINING THE COOLING SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE PURPOSE OF THE COOLING SYSTEM, CARE MAINTENANCE OF THE COOLING SYSTEM, COOLING SYSTEM COMPONENTS, AND TROUBLESHOOTING TIPS. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING…

Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

290

Warehouse control system cools energy costs 20%  

SciTech Connect

Developed specifically for the food-processing industry, Levy Systems' Refrigeration Control and Monitoring System (RCMS) uses four basic techniques to lower electric-power costs: reducing defrost heat loads, reducing fan-operation heat loads, controlling coil usage, and incorporating utility variable rate structures into the coil operation. With this system, employees know the temperatures throughout the facility, the status and efficiency of every coil and every blast freezer, and actual product temperatures - all from a single computer terminal.

Not Available

1985-10-01

291

Prelaunch Calibrations of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission and Earth Observing System Morning (EOS-AM1) Spacecraft Thermistor Bolometer Sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) spacecraft scanning thermistor bolometer sensors measure earth radiances in the broadband shortwave solar (O.3 - 5.0 micron and total (0.3 to 100 microns) spectral bands as well as in the 8-12 microns water vapor window spectral band. On November 27, 1997, the launch of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft placed the first set of CERES sensors into orbit, and 30 days later, the sensors initiated operational measurements of the earth radiance fields. In 1998, the Earth Observing System morning (EOS-AM1) spacecraft will place the second and third sensor sets into orbit. The prelaunch CERES sensors' count conversion coefficients (gains and zero-radiance offsets) were determined in vacuum ground facilities. The gains were tied radiometrically to the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90). The gain determinations included the spectral properties (reflectance, transmittance, emittance, etc.) of both the sources and sensors as well as the in-field-of-view (FOV) and out-of-FOV sensor responses. The resulting prelaunch coefficients for the TRMM and EOS-AM1 sensors are presented. Inflight calibration systems and on-orbit calibration approaches are described, which are being used to determine the temporal stabilities of the sensors' gains and offsets from prelaunch calibrations through on-orbit measurements. Analyses of the TRMM prelaunch and on-orbit calibration results indicate that the sensors have retained their ties to ITS-90 at accuracy levels better than /- 0.3% between the 1995 prelaunch and 1997 on-orbit calibrations.

Lee, Robert B., III; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Bitting, Herbert C.; Crommelynck, Dominique A. H.; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Priestley, Kory J.; Smith, G. Louis; Thomas, Susan; Thornhill, K. Lee; Wilson, Robert S.

1998-01-01

292

Research on the Compatibility of the Cooling Unit in an Automotive Exhaust-based Thermoelectric Generator and Engine Cooling System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temperature difference between the hot and cold sides of thermoelectric modules is a key factor affecting the conversion efficiency of an automotive exhaust-based thermoelectric generator (TEG). In the work discussed in this paper the compatibility of TEG cooling unit and engine cooling system was studied on the basis of the heat transfer characteristics of the TEG. A new engine-cooling system in which a TEG cooling unit was inserted was simulated at high power and high vehicle speed, and at high power and low vehicle speed, to obtain temperatures and flow rates of critical inlets and outlets. The results show that coolant temperature exceeds its boiling point at high power and low vehicle speed, so the new system cannot meet cooling requirements under these conditions. Measures for improvement to optimize the cooling system are proposed, and provide a basis for future research.

Deng, Y. D.; Liu, X.; Chen, S.; Xing, H. B.; Su, C. Q.

2014-06-01

293

Perspective on Use of Fresh Water for Cooling Systems of Thermoelectric Powerplants in Florida.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report considers the cooling-water requirement for 3 types of cooling systems generally used in Florida: cooling ponds, evaporative cooling towers, and once-through cooling. A distinction is made between the quantity of water withdrawn from a water s...

G. H. Hughes

1975-01-01

294

CONTROL STRATEGIES OF OPEN CYCLE DESICCANT COOLING SYSTEMS MINIMISING ENERGY CONSUMPTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Open-cycle desiccant cooling systems generally operate either in indirect evaporative cooling or in desiccant cooling mode depending on outdoor air conditions. In addition to the switch point temperature between evaporative and desiccant cooling, the regeneration temperature and the supply airflow rate are key control parameters to achieve optimal cooling performance. The influence of these control strategy parameters on the efficiency

Stéphane GINESTET; Pascal STABAT; Dominique MARCHIO

295

Experimental Assessment of Halogenated Organics in Waters from Cooling Towers and Once-Through Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chlorine is the principal biocide used for antifoulant treatment of cooling systems in electric power generating plants. An experimental assessment was made of halogenated organics in chlorinated cooling waters from both once-through and closed-cycle cool...

R. L. Jolley W. W. Pitt F. G. Taylor S. J. Hartmann G. Jones

1977-01-01

296

EVA space suit Evaporative Cooling/Heating Glove System (ECHGS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new astronaut glove, the Evaporative Cooling/Heating Glove System (ECHGS), was designed and developed to allow the handling of objects between -200 F and +200 F. Active heating elements, positioned at each finger pad, provide additional heat to the finger pads from the rest of the finger. A water evaporative cooling system provides cooling by the injection of water to the finger areas and the subsequent direct evaporation to space. Thin, flexible insulation has been developed for the finger areas to limit thermal conductivity. Component and full glove tests have shown that the glove meets and exceeds the requirements to hold a 11/2 inch diameter bar at + or - 200 F for three minutes within comfort limits. The ECHGS is flexible, lightweight and comfortable. Tactility is reasonable and small objects can be identified especially by the fingertips beyond the one half width active elements.

Coss, F. A.

1976-01-01

297

The Golden Canopies (Infant Radiant Warmer)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cradle warmer is based on technology in heated transparent materials developed by Sierracin Corporation, Sylmar, California he original application was in heated faceplates for the pressure suit heated faceplates worn by pilots of an Air Force/NASA reconnaissance and weather research plane. Later, Sierracin advanced the technology for other applications, among them the cockpit windows of the NASA X-15 supersonic research vehicle and the helmet faceplates of Apollo astronauts. Adapting the technology to hospital needs, Sierracin teamed with Cavitron Corporation, Anaheim, California, which produces the cradle warmer and two other systems employing Sierracin's electrically-heated transparencies. Working to combat the infant mortality rate, hospitals are continually upgrading delivery room and nursery care techniques. Many have special procedures and equipment to protect infants during the "period of apprehension," the critical six to 12 hours after delivery. One such item of equipment is an aerospace spinoff called the Infant Radiant Warmer, a "golden canopy" which provides uniform, controlled warmth to the infant's cradle. Warmth is vitally important to all newborns, particularly premature babies; they lose heat more rapidly than adults because they have greater surface area in comparison with body mass.

1978-01-01

298

Effect of radiant spectral characteristics on performance of a near-infra-red heating module  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We simulated the heat transfer phenomena of the heating module that is primarily based on the radiant energy in the near-infra-red(NIR) domain. In the module, the power emitted by the lamp filament is distributed to the lamp glass, reflector, and the target medium, which are cooled by an air flow. The radiant heat transfer is simulated by using the ray-tracing scheme, in which the spectral characteristics of the emission and the materials are incorporated. The heat transport from the lamp glass to the cooling air is analyzed by using the finite volume method. As the lamp-filament temperature rises in the range of 3000-3400K, the NIR radiant power on the target medium increases. However, the lamp-glass temperature also rises, and the proportion of the NIR power to the entire radiation has a peak in the temperature range. The spectral distributions of the absorbed energies in all the components in the module are highly non-uniform, and a monochromatic model of the radiant heat transfer may result in a significant discrepancy.

Kim, Ju-Hyun; Choi, Won-Taek; Han, Minsub

2011-12-01

299

Wind turbine generators having wind assisted cooling systems and cooling methods  

DOEpatents

A wind generator includes: a nacelle; a hub carried by the nacelle and including at least a pair of wind turbine blades; and an electricity producing generator including a stator and a rotor carried by the nacelle. The rotor is connected to the hub and rotatable in response to wind acting on the blades to rotate the rotor relative to the stator to generate electricity. A cooling system is carried by the nacelle and includes at least one ambient air inlet port opening through a surface of the nacelle downstream of the hub and blades, and a duct for flowing air from the inlet port in a generally upstream direction toward the hub and in cooling relation to the stator.

Bagepalli, Bharat (Niskayuna, NY) [Niskayuna, NY; Barnes, Gary R. (Delanson, NY) [Delanson, NY; Gadre, Aniruddha D. (Rexford, NY) [Rexford, NY; Jansen, Patrick L. (Scotia, NY) [Scotia, NY; Bouchard, Jr., Charles G. (Schenectady, NY); Jarczynski, Emil D. (Scotia, NY) [Scotia, NY; Garg, Jivtesh (Cambridge, MA) [Cambridge, MA

2008-09-23

300

Possibilities of small-passage systems of internal convective blade cooling for gas turbines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydraulic and thermal characteristics of turbine blades with small-passage cooling systems are analyzed. It is shown that a generalized hydraulic characteristic can be derived for the cooling systems of gas turbine blades of different dimensions. The initial thermal efficiency of blade cooling is shown to be practically independent of the cooling passage diameter. At the cooling passage outlet, the required cooling efficiency can obtained only through an increase in air flow rate. The cooling systems described here provide sufficient blade cooling for initial gas temperatures of 1900-1950 K with air flow rates equal to 3 percent of the gas flow rate.

Klimenko, V. N.

301

Kinetic model for predicting the composition of chlorinated water discharged from power plant cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of applying a kinetic model to the chlorination data supplied by Commonwealth Edison on the once-through cooling system at the Quad Cities Nuclear Station provide a validation of the model. The two examples given demonstrate that the model may be applied to either once-through cooling systems or to cooling systems involving cooling towers.

Lietzke

1977-01-01

302

Prototype solar heating and cooling systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A combination of monthly progress reports are presented. It contains a summary of activities and progress made from November 1, 1978, to February 28, 1979. The effort calls for the development, manufacture, test, system installation, maintenance, problem resolution, and performance evaluation.

1979-01-01

303

System design package for a solar heating and cooling system installed at Akron, Ohio  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information used to evaluate the design of a solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system is given. A conventional heat pump provides summer cooling items as the design data brochure, system performance specification, system hazard analysis, spare parts list, and detailed design drawings. A solar system is installed in a single-family dwelling at Akron, Ohio, and at Duffield, Virginia.

1979-01-01

304

Reverberatory screen for a radiant burner  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to porous mat gas fired radiant burner panels utilizing improved reverberatory screens. The purpose of these screens is to boost the overall radiant output of the burner relative to a burner using no screen and the same fuel-air flow rates. In one embodiment, the reverberatory screen is fabricated from ceramic composite material, which can withstand higher operating temperatures than its metallic equivalent. In another embodiment the reverberatory screen is corrugated. The corrugations add stiffness which helps to resist creep and thermally induced distortions due to temperature or thermal expansion coefficient differences. As an added benefit, it has been unexpectedly discovered that the corrugations further increase the radiant efficiency of the burner. In a preferred embodiment, the reverberatory screen is both corrugated and made from ceramic composite material.

Gray, Paul E. (North East, MD)

1999-01-01

305

Corrosion inhibitors for solar heating and cooling systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Problems dealing with corrosion and corrosion protection of solar heating and cooling systems are discussed. A test program was conducted to find suitable and effective corrosion inhibitors for systems employing either water or antifreeze solutions for heat transfer and storage. Aluminum-mild-steel-copper-stainless steel assemblies in electrical contact were used to simulate a multimetallic system which is the type most likely to be employed. Several inhibitors show promise for this application.

Humphries, T. S.; Deramus, G. E., Jr.

1977-01-01

306

BETTER DUCT SYSTEMS FOR HOME HEATING AND COOLING.  

SciTech Connect

This is a series of six guides intended to provide a working knowledge of residential heating and cooling duct systems, an understanding of the major issues concerning efficiency, comfort, health, and safety, and practical tips on installation and repair of duct systems. These guides are intended for use by contractors, system designers, advanced technicians, and other HVAC professionals. The first two guides are also intended to be accessible to the general reader.

ANDREWS,J.

2001-01-01

307

Gas cooled fuel cell systems technology development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first phase of a planned multiphase program to develop a Phosphoric is addressed. This report describes the efforts performed that culminated in the: (1) Establishment of the preliminary design requirements and system conceptual design for the nominally rated 375 kW PAFC module and is interfacing power plant systems; (2) Establishment of PAFC component and stack performance, endurance, and design parameter data needed for design verification for power plant application; (3) Improvement of the existing PAFC materials data base and establishment of materials specifications and process procedes for the cell components; and (4) Testing of 122 subscale cell atmospheric test for 110,000 cumulative test hours, 12 subscale cell pressurized tests for 15,000 cumulative test hours, and 12 pressurized stack test for 10,000 cumulative test hours.

Feret, J. M.

1983-01-01

308

Gas cooled fuel cell systems technology development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first phase of a planned multiphase program to develop a Phosphoric is addressed. This report describes the efforts performed that culminated in the: (1) Establishment of the preliminary design requirements and system conceptual design for the nominally rated 375 kW PAFC module and is interfacing power plant systems; (2) Establishment of PAFC component and stack performance, endurance, and design parameter data needed for design verification for power plant application; (3) Improvement of the existing PAFC materials data base and establishment of materials specifications and process procedes for the cell components; and (4) Testing of 122 subscale cell atmospheric test for 110,000 cumulative test hours, 12 subscale cell pressurized tests for 15,000 cumulative test hours, and 12 pressurized stack test for 10,000 cumulative test hours.

Feret, J. M.

1983-08-01

309

Evaporative cooling system for remote medical center  

SciTech Connect

Beaudin Ganze Consulting Engineers (BGCE) undertook the challenge of designing an environmentally safe heating, ventilating and air-conditioning system for the remodel and expansion of Provenant Medical Surgical Center at Summit in Frisco, Colo. The medical facility, located in the Rocky Mountains, was to be transformed from a modular semi-permanent emergency room structure to a larger, permanent surgical medical center. The emergency room clinic would not be closed during this process. Complex mechanical and electrical issues were resolved by the BGCE team. The issues included the continuity of emergency medical services, designing an efficient air-conditioning system and, if possible, eliminating ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFC`s) from the site.

Beaudin, D. [Beaudin Ganze Consulting Engineers, Inc., Vail, CO (United States)

1996-05-01

310

Solar Heating and Cooling of Residential Buildings: Design of Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the second of two training courses designed to develop the capability of practitioners in the home building industry to design solar heating and cooling systems. The course is organized in 23 modules to separate selected topics and to facilitate learning. Although a compact schedule of one week is shown, a variety of formats can be…

Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins. Solar Energy Applications Lab.

311

Erosion corrosion of pump impeller of cyclic cooling water system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An impeller of a pump of cyclic cooling water system (CCWS) of power plant, failed after about 13years of service. Tolyltriazole (TT) is included in the water as corrosion inhibitor. Most of the surface of both blades was pitted, and clear grinding marks were noticeable. The pits are horseshoe-shaped. Examination of those pits revealed a pattern of dendrites on the

S. Ariely; A. Khentov

2006-01-01

312

Solar-driven ejector-absorption cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usage possibility of ejector-absorption cooling systems (EACSs) in Turkey using meteorological data has been investigated. This study also determines whether or not the required heat for the generator of an EACS can be obtained from solar energy in Turkey. There are two important reasons for the usage of EACSs in Turkey. One of them is that the production and

Adnan Sözen; Mehmet Özalp

2005-01-01

313

He-3 cooling systems for space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a space-compatible He(3) refrigerator would provide a significant improvement in several areas of research in the 0.3 to 1 K temperature range. There are several methods of achieving these temperatures on Earth: He(3) refrigeration, dilution refrigeration, and adiabatic demagnetization refrigeration. The progress of adapting He(3) refrigeration for use in space is described. Various cycles and possible embodiments of He(3) refrigerators are described. Also included is an analysis of the liquid confinement and liquid-vapor phase-separation system. A possible configuration is then analyzed. Finally, the results of ground-based experiments will be discussed.

Kittel, P.

1984-01-01

314

Improvement of Cooling Performance of a Thermoelectric Air Cooling System Using a Vapor Chamber Heat Sink  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since vapor chambers exhibit excellent thermal performance, they are suited to use as the basis of a heat sink. This work presents the results of tests carried out to investigate the potential application of a vapor chamber heat sink for improving the cooling performance of a thermoelectric (TE) air cooling system. To this end, two sets of TE air coolers were constructed. The cold side of the TE module of both sets was fixed to a conventional plate-fin heat sink. The hot side of one set was fixed to a vapor chamber heat sink, whereas the other set was fixed to a conventional plate-fin heat sink. The effects of air flow rate and electric current supplied to the TE module on the cooling performance were considered. Experimental data were compared with corresponding data for a conventional plate-fin heat sink. It also has been experimentally proven that the use of a vapor chamber heat sink increases the coefficient of performance (COP) by up to 34.2%.

Lertsatitthanakorn, C.; Tipsaenprom, W.; Rungsiyopas, M.

2014-06-01

315

21 CFR 880.5130 - Infant radiant warmer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Identification. The infant radiant warmer is a device consisting of an infrared heating element intended to be placed over an infant to maintain the infant's body temperature by means of radiant heat. The device may also contain a...

2013-04-01

316

The tracker systems for the muon ionization cooling experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will be the first experiment to demonstrate muon ionization cooling in the momentum range of 140-240 MeV/c. The experiment is a single-particle experiment where the input and output beam emittances are constructed from an ensemble of selected single-muon candidates. The fiber trackers are placed in a solenoidal field of 4 T (one before and one after the cooling channel) to measure the muon 4-momentum and provide the basic information for determining the emittances. This paper gives a brief overview of MICE and then describes the details of the fiber tracker assemblies, the unique construction technique used (which for the first time used 350?m diameter scintillating fiber), the readout electronics and performance with respect to light yield, hit resolution and tracking efficiency as measured in a recent cosmic-ray test of the two final tracker systems.

Heidt, C.

2013-08-01

317

Hydraulic tests of emergency cooling system: L-Area  

SciTech Connect

The delay in L-Area startup provided an opportunity to obtain valuable data on the Emergency Cooling System (ECS) which will permit reactor operation at the highest safe power level. ECS flow is a major input to the FLOOD code which calculates reactor ECS power limits. The FLOOD code assesses the effectiveness of the ECS cooling capacity by modeling the core and plenum hydraulics under accident conditions. Presently, reactor power is not limited by the ECS cooling capacity (power limit). However, the manual calculations of ECS flows had been recently updated to include piping changes (debris strainer, valve changes, pressure release systems) and update fitting losses. Both updates resulted in reduced calculated ECS flows. Upon completion of the current program to update, validate, and document, reactor power may be limited under certain situations by ECS cooling capacity for some present reactor charge designs. A series of special hydraulic tests (Reference 1, 3) were conducted in L-Area using all sources of emergency coolant including the ECS pumps (Reference 2). The tests provided empirical hydraulic data on the ECS piping. These data will be used in computer models of the system as well as manual calculations of ECS flows. The improved modeling and accuracy of the flow calculations will permit reactor operation at the highest safe power level with respect to an ECS power limit.

Hinton, J H

1988-01-01

318

Cooling system for automotive engine or the like  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of cooling a device, the steps of: boiling a liquid coolant in a coolant jacket to produce a vapor; condensing the vapor produced in the boiling step, in a radiator; increasing the boiling point of the liquid coolant by reducing the heat exchange capacity of the radiator in the event that the rate of condensation exceeds a predetermined maximum value and the boiling point of the liquid coolant falls below a predetermined minimum value, the coolant jacket and the radiator form part of a cooling system, and includes the step of selectively sealing the cooling system to selectively permit pressure in the system to vary above or below atmospheric. In a method of cooling a device, the steps of: boiling a liquid coolant in a coolant jacket to produce a vapor; condensing the vapor produced in the boiling step, in a radiator; sensing the level of coolant in the coolant jacket; pumping liquid coolant from the radiator to the coolant jacket in response to the level sensing step; sensing a difference in pressure between pressure in the radiator and atmospheric pressure; and reducing the heat exchange capacity of the radiator in the event that the sensed difference in pressure indicates that the rate of condensation exceeds a predetermined maximum value.

Hayashi, Y.

1987-07-07

319

Performance evaluation of an active solar cooling system utilizing low cost plastic collectors and an evaporatively-cooled absorption chiller  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the summer of 1982, air conditioning in Solar House 3 at Colorado State University was provided by an evaporatively-cooled absorption chiller. The single-effect lithium bromide chiller is an experimental three-ton unit from which heat is rejected by direct evaporative cooling of the condenser and absorber walls, thereby eliminating the need for a separate cooling tower. Domestic hot water was also provided by use of a double-walled heat exchanger and 80-gal hot water tank. A schematic of the system is given. Objectives of the project were: (1) evaluation of system performance over the course of one cooling season in Fort Collins, Colorado; (2) optimization of system operation and control; (3) development of a TRNSYS compatible model of the chiller; and (4) determination of cooling system performance in several U.S. climates by use of the model.

Lof, G. O.; Westhoff, M. A.; Karaki, S.

1984-02-01

320

Next-Generation Evaporative Cooling Systems for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit Portable Life Support System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) is currently underway at NASA Johnson Space Center. The AEMU PLSS features two new evaporative cooling systems, the Reduced Volume Prototype Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (RVP SWME), and the Auxiliary Cooling Loop (ACL). The RVP SWME is the third generation of hollow fiber SWME hardware, and like its predecessors, RVP SWME provides nominal crewmember and electronics cooling by flowing water through porous hollow fibers. Water vapor escapes through the hollow fiber pores, thereby cooling the liquid water that remains inside of the fibers. This cooled water is then recirculated to remove heat from the crewmember and PLSS electronics. Major design improvements, including a 36% reduction in volume, reduced weight, and more flight like back-pressure valve, facilitate the packaging of RVP SWME in the AEMU PLSS envelope. In addition to the RVP SWME, the Auxiliary Cooling Loop (ACL), was developed for contingency crewmember cooling. The ACL is a completely redundant, independent cooling system that consists of a small evaporative cooler--the Mini Membrane Evaporator (Mini-ME), independent pump, independent feed-water assembly and independent Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG). The Mini-ME utilizes the same hollow fiber technology featured in the RVP SWME, but is only 25% of the size of RVP SWME, providing only the necessary crewmember cooling in a contingency situation. The ACL provides a number of benefits when compared with the current EMU PLSS contingency cooling technology; contingency crewmember cooling can be provided for a longer period of time, more contingency situations can be accounted for, no reliance on a Secondary Oxygen Vessel (SOV) for contingency cooling--thereby allowing a SOV reduction in size and pressure, and the ACL can be recharged-allowing the AEMU PLSS to be reused, even after a contingency event. The development of these evaporative cooling systems will contribute to a more robust and comprehensive AEMU PLSS.

Makinen, Janice V.; Anchondo, Ian; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Colunga, Aaron

2012-01-01

321

Electrical Breakdown Characteristics of Superconducting Magnet System in Sub-Cooled Liquid Nitrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dielectric characteristics of gaseous helium (GHe) injected into the cooling system to make sub-cooled nitrogen condition with constant pressure is found to be extraordinarily weak in dielectric strength by H. Mitsuii (1998). In high voltage superconducting machines using the sub-cooled nitrogen cooling system, the current lead part in GHe environment could be electrical weak points rather than the superconducting magnet

Hyoungku Kang; Chanjoo Lee; Tae Kuk Ko; Bok-Yeol Seok

2007-01-01

322

CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR POOL WATER TREATMENT AND COOLING SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) pool water treatment and cooling system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

J.A. Ziegler

1999-08-31

323

Correcting Aberrations in Complex Magnet Systems for Muon Cooling Channels  

SciTech Connect

Designing and simulating complex magnet systems needed for cooling channels in both neutrino factories and muon colliders requires innovative techniques to correct for both chromatic and spherical aberrations. Optimizing complex systems, such as helical magnets for example, is also difficult but essential. By using COSY INFINITY, a differential algebra based code, the transfer and aberration maps can be examined to discover what critical terms have the greatest influence on these aberrations.

J.A. Maloney, B. Erdelyi, A. Afanaciev, R.P. Johnson, Y.S. Derbenev, V.S. Morozov

2011-03-01

324

Angular Distribution Models for Top-of-Atmosphere Radiative Flux Estimation from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Instrument on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Satellite. Part 1; Methodology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES) investigates the critical role that clouds and aerosols play in modulating the radiative energy flow within the Earth-atmosphere system. CERES builds upon the foundation laid by previous missions, such as the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment, to provide highly accurate top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes together with coincident cloud and aerosol properties inferred from high-resolution imager measurements. This paper describes the method used to construct empirical angular distribution models (ADMs) for estimating shortwave, longwave, and window TOA radiative fluxes from CERES radiance measurements on board the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite. To construct the ADMs, multiangle CERES measurements are combined with coincident high-resolution Visible Infrared Scanner measurements and meteorological parameters from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts data assimilation product. The ADMs are stratified by scene types defined by parameters that have a strong influence on the angular dependence of Earth's radiation field at the TOA. Examples of how the new CERES ADMs depend upon the imager-based parameters are provided together with comparisons with existing models.

Loeb, N. G.; Smith, N. M.; Kato, S.; Miller, W. F.; Gupta, S. K.; Minnis, P.; Wielicki, B. A.

2003-01-01

325

Radiant energy receiver having improved coolant flow control means  

DOEpatents

An improved coolant flow control for use in radiant energy receivers of the type having parallel flow paths is disclosed. A coolant performs as a temperature dependent valve means, increasing flow in the warmer flow paths of the receiver, and impeding flow in the cooler paths of the receiver. The coolant has a negative temperature coefficient of viscosity which is high enough such that only an insignificant flow through the receiver is experienced at the minimum operating temperature of the receiver, and such that a maximum flow is experienced at the maximum operating temperature of the receiver. The valving is accomplished by changes in viscosity of the coolant in response to the coolant being heated and cooled. No remotely operated valves, comparators or the like are needed.

Hinterberger, H.

1980-10-29

326

Heat transfer characteristics of porous radiant burners  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a numerical study of the heat transfer characteristics of porous radiant burners, which have significant advantages over conventional burners. The heat transfer characteristics are investigated using a one-dimensional conduction, convection, and radiation model. The combustion phenomenon is modeled as spatially dependent heat generation. Nonlocal thermal equilibrium between the gas and solid phases is accounted for by using

T. W. Tong; S. B. Sathe

1991-01-01

327

MICE: The International Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment: Diagnostic Systems  

SciTech Connect

The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment will make detailed measurements of muon ionization cooling using a new constructed low-energy muon beam at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). The experiment is a single-particle experiment and utilizes many detector techniques from high energy physics experiments. To characterize and monitor the muon beamline, newly developed scintillating fiber profile monitors and scintillator paddle rate monitors are employed. In order to monitor the purity of the beam and tag the arrival time of individual muons, a dual aerogel Cherenkov system is used, and a plastic scintillator time-of-flight system will be used. The phase-space vectors of the muons will be measured by two identical spectrometer systems (one before and one after the cooling apparatus) which employ a fiber tracker system, and electron and muon calorimeters are used to tag outgoing muons. We will discuss the design of the MICE diagnostic systems, the operation, and give the first results from beam measurements in the MICE experimental hall.

Bross, Alan D.; /Fermilab; Hart, Terrence Lee; /IIT, Chicago

2008-06-24

328

Gas-cooled reactor power systems for space  

SciTech Connect

Efficiency and mass characteristics for four gas-cooled reactor power system configurations in the 2- to 20-MWe power range are modeled. The configurations use direct and indirect Brayton cycles with and without regeneration in the power conversion loop. The prismatic ceramic core of the reactor consists of several thousand pencil-shaped tubes made from a homogeneous mixture of moderator and fuel. The heat rejection system is found to be the major contributor to system mass, particularly at high power levels. A direct, regenerated Brayton cycle with helium working fluid permits high efficiency and low specific mass for a 10-MWe system.

Walter, C.E.

1987-01-01

329

Solar cooling system performance, Frenchman's Reef Hotel, Virgin Islands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The operational and thermal performance of a variety of solar systems are described. The Solar Cooling System was installed in a hotel at St. Thomas, U. S. Virgin Islands. The system consists of the evacuated glass tube collectors, two 2500 gallon tanks, pumps, computerized controller, a large solar optimized industrial sized lithium bromide absorption chiller, and associated plumbing. Solar heated water is pumped through the system to the designed public areas such as lobby, lounges, restaurant and hallways. Auxiliary heat is provided by steam and a heat exchanger to supplement the solar heat.

Harber, H.

1981-01-01

330

Solar cooling system performance, Frenchman's Reef Hotel, Virgin Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The operational and thermal performance of a variety of solar systems are described. The Solar Cooling System was installed in a hotel at St. Thomas, U. S. Virgin Islands. The system consists of the evacuated glass tube collectors, two 2500 gallon tanks, pumps, computerized controller, a large solar optimized industrial sized lithium bromide absorption chiller, and associated plumbing. Solar heated water is pumped through the system to the designed public areas such as lobby, lounges, restaurant and hallways. Auxiliary heat is provided by steam and a heat exchanger to supplement the solar heat.

Harber, H.

1981-09-01

331

Copper corrosion & clogging in APS deionized water cooling system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extensive amount of work has been performed on copper corrosion in last century due to its abundant use in domestic and industrial water systems. However, work on copper corrosion in deionized water is very limited. The water cooling system of Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory uses deionized water containing very low dissolved oxygen (less than 10 ppb). Therefore, It is expected that copper corrosion would be less in this system. On the contrary, APS suffers significant clogging in its water cooling circuit resulting from the deposition of corrosion product and carries out frequent expensive maintenance to retain the required flow rate. The location of pH and corrosion potential of APS water cooling system is very close to the boundary condition of the two oxides (CuO and Cu 2O) of the Pourbaix diagram of copper. While a single phase presence of either of these two oxides is stable as a protective layer, a mixture of the two oxides is unstable. An unstable protective layer results in spalling of the oxide layer. A fluctuation in water chemistry (which is common in an industrial facility) triggers a phase transformation between these two oxides due to its near boundary values. It was observed that the location of pH and corrosion potential was away from the boundaries in high dissolved oxygen condition (more than 2000 ppm). Hence, the possibility of phase transformation becomes lesser in high dissolved oxygen condition than in low dissolved oxygen condition. A test station, that was a replica of the APS water cooling system, was used to perform experiments in both high and low oxygen condition. It was demonstrated that high oxygen condition results in less clogging than in low oxygen condition. Microstructural characterization was performed on the coupons from test station and on some components from APS to evaluate oxide surface and determine phases. Mechanism of the phase transformation was suggested.

Adak, Bijaya

332

Memory device for two-dimensional radiant energy array computers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A memory device for two dimensional radiant energy array computers was developed, in which the memory device stores digital information in an input array of radiant energy digital signals that are characterized by ordered rows and columns. The memory device contains a radiant energy logic storing device having a pair of input surface locations for receiving a pair of separate radiant energy digital signal arrays and an output surface location adapted to transmit a radiant energy digital signal array. A regenerative feedback device that couples one of the input surface locations to the output surface location in a manner for causing regenerative feedback is also included

Schaefer, D. H.; Strong, J. P., III (inventors)

1977-01-01

333

Rheological control on the radiant density of active lava flows and domes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During an effusive-extrusive eruption, the capability of an active lava body (flow or dome) to radiate thermal energy depends on how the lava discharge rate is accommodated by the expansion of the magma body and by the cooling of its surface. This feature can be described by a single empirical parameter, defined "radiant density" (crad; in J m- 3) that, for a given discharge rate, expresses the efficiency of the lava body to change its area and/or to insulate its inner core, thus modulating the heat radiated from the active surface. By comparing the Volcanic Radiative Energy (VRE; in J), detected by MODIS during 28 eruptions at 18 active volcanoes, with their erupted lava volumes (Vol; in m3), we show that the radiant density (crad = VRE/Vol) is inversely proportional to the silica content of the erupted lava. Basic lavas (45-52 wt.% SiO2) have the highest observed radiant density (1 to 4 × 108 J m- 3) while intermediate (52-63 wt.% SiO2) and acidic (> 63 wt.% SiO2) lavas show a gradually lower radiant densities (1.5 to 9 × 107 J m- 3 and 0.2 to 1 × 107 J m- 3 for intermediate and acidic composition, respectively). We regard this correlation as the result of the control that the rheology of lavas exerts on cooling and spreading processes of related bodies. In particular, we found that for any given compositional group the radiant density is essentially related to a "characteristic thickness" of active lavas, at the time of a satellite acquisition. We suggest that the radiant density of effusive/extrusive lava bodies can be predicted (± 50%) by means of an empirical relationship based on the SiO2 content of the erupted lava. This makes this parameter very useful in observing volcanic activity, especially in remote regions where access may not be possible. By measuring the energy radiated during an eruption and by assuming a lava composition (based on the tectonic setting or magmatic province), we suggest that the radiant density can be used to estimate lava discharge rates and erupted volumes for volcanoes characterised by effusive or extrusive activity.

Coppola, D.; Laiolo, M.; Piscopo, D.; Cigolini, C.

2013-01-01

334

66 FR 59084 - Public Housing Assessment System Physical Condition Scoring Process Interim Scoring, Corrections...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...owned or supplied heating sources. Convection/Radiant Heat System Covers Missing...Noisy/Vibrating/Leaking HVAC--Convection/Radiant Heat System Covers Missing...Areas) Deficiency: A cover on the convection/radiant heat system...

2001-11-26

335

64 FR 26166 - Public Housing Assessment System Physical Condition Scoring Process  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...deficiencies: Inoperable Rust/Corrosion Convection/Radiant Heat System/Covers...areas of the unit. Severe: N/A. Convection/Radiant Heat System Covers Missing/Damaged (HVAC) Convection/Radiant heat system cover is...

1999-05-13

336

64 FR 33650 - Public Housing Assessment System, Physical Condition Scoring Process  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Unit--Missing/Misaligned Chimney Convection/Radiant Heat System/Covers...areas of the unit. Severe: N/A. Convection/Radiant Heat System Covers Missing/Damaged (HVAC) Convection/Radiant heat system cover is...

1999-06-23

337

Solar heating and cooling technical data and systems analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The acquisition and processing of selected parametric data for inclusion in a computerized Data Base using the Marshall Information Retrieval and Data System (MIRADS) developed by NASA-MSFC is discussed. This data base provides extensive technical and socioeconomic information related to solar energy heating and cooling on a national scale. A broadly based research approach was used to assist in the support of program management and the application of a cost-effective program for solar energy development and demonstration.

Christensen, D. L.

1976-01-01

338

Total spectral radiant flux measurements on Xe excimer lamps from 115 nm to 1000 nm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Xe excimer lamps are used as VUV source for industrial application like surface cleaning. To determine the VUV efficiency of the lamp the radiant flux need to be known. Due to the difficulties of VUV measurements, it is often determined by interpolation from a value of a fixed angle, which results in large uncertainties. Here a goniometric setup is presented to measure the radiant flux of VUV sources like Xe excimer lamps which emit a narrow spectral band in the VUV range between ? = 147 nm and 200 nm with a peak at 172 nm and spectral lines in NIR. By the use of two monochromators, we measure the spectral resolved radiant flux from 120 nm to 1000 nm. The measurement uncertainty of 9.7 % is rather low for the VUV spectral range and depends mainly on the uncertainty of the used deuterium calibration standard from PTB (7%). Due to the strong temperature dependence of the transmission edge of silica used for the lamp vessel, the measurements are done in nitrogen atmosphere to ensure the convection cooling of the lamp. We measured the radiance distribution curve and radiant flux of Xe excimer lamps and could show the angle dependence of the spectrum. The measured correlation between the VUV band and the NIR lines gives us a better understanding of the plasma kinetics, which is used to optimize the pulsed excitation of the lamp.

Trampert, Klaus E.; Paravia, Mark; Daub, Rüdiger; Heering, Wolfgang

2007-06-01

339

Floating Loop System For Cooling Integrated Motors And Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant  

DOEpatents

A floating loop vehicle component cooling and air-conditioning system having at least one compressor for compressing cool vapor refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one condenser for condensing the hot vapor refrigerant into hot liquid refrigerant by exchanging heat with outdoor air; at least one floating loop component cooling device for evaporating the hot liquid refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one expansion device for expanding the hot liquid refrigerant into cool liquid refrigerant; at least one air conditioning evaporator for evaporating the cool liquid refrigerant into cool vapor refrigerant by exchanging heat with indoor air; and piping for interconnecting components of the cooling and air conditioning system.

Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W [Kingston, TN; Coomer, Chester [Knoxville, TN; Marlino, Laura D [Oak Ridge, TN

2006-02-07

340

Solar heating and cooling system installed at Columbus, Ohio  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Solar Energy System was installed as a part of a new construction of a college building. The building will house classrooms and laboratories, administrative offices and three lecture halls. The Solar Energy System consists of 4,096 square feet (128 panels) Owens/Illinois Evacuated Glass Tube Collector Subsystem, and a 5,000 gallon steel tank below ground storage system. Hot water is circulated between the collectors and storage tank, passing through a water/lithium bromide absorption chiller to cool the building.

1980-01-01

341

Desiccant degradation in desiccant cooling systems: An experimental study  

SciTech Connect

The authors conducted experiments to quantify the effects of thermal cycling and exposure to contamination on solid desiccant materials that may be used in desiccant cooling systems. The source of contamination was cigarette smoke, which is considered one of the worst pollutants in building cooling applications. The authors exposed five different solid desiccants to ``ambient`` and ``contaminated`` humid air: silica gel, activated alumina, activated carbon, molecular sieves, and lithium chloride. They obtained the moisture capacity of samples as a function of exposure time. Compared to virgin desiccant samples, the capacity loss caused by thermal cycling with humid ambient air was 10 percent to 30 percent for all desiccants. The capacity loss because of combined effect of thermal cycling with ``smoke-filled`` humid air was between 30 percent to 70 percent. The higher losses occurred after four months of experiment time, which is equivalent to four to eight years of field operation. Using a system model and smoke degradation data on silica gel, the authors predicted that, for low-temperature regeneration, the loss in performance of a ventilation-cycle desiccant cooling system would be between 10 percent to 35 percent, in about eight years, with higher value under worst conditions.

Pesaran, A.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1993-11-01

342

Project S'COOL  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Students Clouds Observations On-Line or S'COOL project was piloted in 1997. It was created with the idea of using students to serve as one component of the validation for the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument which was launched with the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) in November, 1997. As part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise CERES is interested in the role clouds play in regulating our climate. Over thirty schools became involved in the initial thrust of the project. The CERES instrument detects the location of clouds and identifies their physical properties. S'COOL students coordinate their ground truth observations with the exact overpass of the satellite at their location. Their findings regarding cloud type, height, fraction and opacity as well as surface conditions are then reported to the NASA Langley Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data is then accessible to both the CERES team for validation and to schools for educational application via the Internet. By March of 1998 ninety-three schools, in nine countries had enrolled in the S'COOL project. Joining the United States participants were from schools in Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland. The project is gradually becoming the global project envisioned by the project s creators. As students obtain the requested data useful for the scientists, it was hoped that students with guidance from their instructors would have opportunity and motivation to learn more about clouds and atmospheric science as well.

Green, Carolyn J.; Chambers, Lin H.

1998-01-01

343

Optimal Fan Arrangement for Electronic Equipment with Multi-Fan CoolingSystem including Air Cooled Heat Sink with Fan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Parametric study is conducted for optimizing the fan arrangement of the electronic equipment with several fans inthe equipment. Those fans are cooling for central processing unit (CPU), for power supply unit (PSU), and for the other devices in the equipment (system exhaust fan). We have used the Taguchi method of the experimental design for finding the optimal arrangement of those fans. The result shows system fans with high wind capacity does not always mean to enhance the cooling performance of the electronic equipment. When there is a system exhaust fan, it is recommended to set flow direction of CPU fan to up-flow, it is just opposite to flow direction of commercial CPU fan. This setting enables to exhaust the hot wasted air from CPU very efficiently. It is also found that the separation of the CPU from the PSU cooling system is an effective way to cool both components respectively.

Matsushima, Hitoshi; Terakado, Shuichi; Asano, Ichirou

344

SOLERAS - Saudi University Solar Cooling Laboratories Project: King Abdulaziz University. Solar Cooling Systems Design Report. Phase 1 Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An assessment of the performance and adaptability of solar cooling systems to the Saudi Arabian environment was studied at King Abdulaziz University. Development of a solar research laboratory and the hardware and software available for installation are c...

1986-01-01

345

76 FR 22173 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System-Cooling Water Intake Structures at Existing...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Discharge Elimination System--Cooling Water Intake Structures at Existing Facilities...Discharge Elimination System--Cooling Water Intake Structures at Existing Facilities...requirements under section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) for all existing power...

2011-04-20

346

DEVELOP A CONCENTRATED SOLAR POWER-BASED THERMAL COOLING SYSTEM VIA SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

A small scale CSP-based cooling system prototype (300W cooling capacity) and the system performance simulation tool will be developed as a proof of concept. Practical issues will be identified to improve our design. ...

347

Technique for Estimating Ventilation Requirements for Personal Air-Cooling Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Individuals wearing encapsulating garments require auxiliary cooling systems to sustain physical and cognitive performance when exposed to high temperatures or workloads. Heat transfer in such cooling systems are typically based on either air or liquid as...

J. W. Kaufman

1999-01-01

348

Prospectus for an electron cooling system for the recycler  

SciTech Connect

The Recycler ring was added to the Main Injector (MI) project in 1997 as means to recover the antiprotons remaining at the end of Tevatron stores and to serve as a second stage accumulator to raise the maximum stack current. This report describes an electron cooling system with substan-tially higher stack capacity than the Recycler stochastic cooling system which could be brought into operation toward the end of Run II. It is the major component of a program to double the de-sign Run II luminosity and should have a positive effect on integrated luminosity soon after turn-on. The upgrade potential is intended to meet the longer term needs of the Laboratory?s luminosity upgrade program. The current experience with electron cooling is discussed to provide the ratio-nale for the choice of design parameters and to make clear the needs for additional development work. Both analytical and numerical development of the theory has been pursued to confirm that the limits in principle are well beyond foreseen need. The specific hardware described is not the only realization that has been considered, but it is in some ways the most conservative. The gen-eral scheme of using an electrostatic accelerator with high efficiency charge recovery was actively discussed in the 1980?s. Recent developments have served to build confidence in this approach, but, by whatever means realized, a Recycler electron cooling system will require significant extension of current practice. The Prospectus incorporates the ideas and understanding current 15 September 1998. Rapid progress toward a comprehensive development plan at this time means that its details will already differ from ideas now current.

J.A. MacLachlan, Editor

1998-11-01

349

POOL WATER TREATMENT AND COOLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

SciTech Connect

The Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System is located in the Waste Handling Building (WHB), and is comprised of various process subsystems designed to support waste handling operations. This system maintains the pool water temperature within an acceptable range, maintains water quality standards that support remote underwater operations and prevent corrosion, detects leakage from the pool liner, provides the capability to remove debris from the pool, controls the pool water level, and helps limit radiological exposure to personnel. The pool structure and liner, pool lighting, and the fuel staging racks in the pool are not within the scope of the Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System. Pool water temperature control is accomplished by circulating the pool water through heat exchangers. Adequate circulation and mixing of the pool water is provided to prevent localized thermal hotspots in the pool. Treatment of the pool water is accomplished by a water treatment system that circulates the pool water through filters, and ion exchange units. These water treatment units remove radioactive and non-radioactive particulate and dissolved solids from the water, thereby providing the water clarity needed to conduct waste handling operations. The system also controls pool water chemistry to prevent advanced corrosion of the pool liner, pool components, and fuel assemblies. Removal of radioactivity from the pool water contributes to the project ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) goals. A leak detection system is provided to detect and alarm leaks through the pool liner. The pool level control system monitors the water level to ensure that the minimum water level required for adequate radiological shielding is maintained. Through interface with a demineralized water system, adequate makeup is provided to compensate for loss of water inventory through evaporation and waste handling operations. Interface with the Site Radiological Monitoring System provides continuous radiological monitoring of the pool water. The Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System, Site-Generated Radiological Waste Handling System, Site Radiological Monitoring System, Waste Handling Building Electrical System, Site Water System, and the Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System.

V. King

2000-06-19

350

D0 Silicon Upgrad: D0 Silicon Cooling System  

SciTech Connect

The cooling system design is not complete. This paper lays out the general design and some of the design calculations that have been performed up to this date. Further refinement will be performed. This is especially true in the piping layout, piping insulation and detector manifold areas. The silicon detector is cooled by means of a coolant in the beryllium channels that also act as the primary supporting device for the silicon ladders and wedges. The coolant is water with ethylene glycol added as a freezing point depressant. The glycol concentration in the coolant is 30% by weight resulting in a freezing point of approximately -15 C. If the water/glycol is not sufficient for maintaining the desired detector temperature the concentration of the water/glycol may be changed or an alternative coolant may be used.

Squires, B.; /Fermilab

1998-07-14

351

CFD analyses of natural circulation in the air-cooled reactor cavity cooling system  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Convection Shutdown Heat Removal Test Facility (NSTF) is currently being built at Argonne National Laboratory, to evaluate the feasibility of the passive Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) for Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). CFD simulations have been applied to evaluate the NSTF and NGNP RCCS designs. However, previous simulations found that convergence was very difficult to achieve in simulating the complex natural circulation. To resolve the convergence issue and increase the confidence of the CFD simulation results, additional CFD simulations were conducted using a more detailed mesh and a different solution scheme. It is found that, with the use of coupled flow and coupled energy models, the convergence can be greatly improved. Furthermore, the effects of convection in the cavity and the effects of the uncertainty in solid surface emissivity are also investigated. (authors)

Hu, R. [Nuclear Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL (United States)] [Nuclear Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL (United States); Pointer, W. D. [Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN (United States)] [Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN (United States)

2013-07-01

352

A system for quantifying the cooling effectiveness of bicycle helmets.  

PubMed

This article describes the design and development of a system that is capable of quantifying the thermal comfort of bicycle helmets. The motivation for the development of the system stems from the desire both to increase helmet use and to provide the designer with a quantitative method of evaluating the thermal comfort of a helmet. The system consists of a heated mannequin head form, a heated reference sphere, a small wind tunnel, and a data acquisition system. Both the head form and the reference sphere were instrumented with thermocouples. The system is capable of simulating riding speeds ranging from 4.5-15.5 m/s. A cooling effectiveness, C1, that is independent of both ambient conditions and wind velocity is defined as a measure of how well the helmet ventilates as compared to the reference sphere. The system was validated by testing six commercially available bicycle helmets manufactured between approximately 1992 and 1998. PMID:11036573

Reid, J; Wang, E L

2000-08-01

353

Computer Simulation Performed for Columbia Project Cooling System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This demo shows a high-fidelity simulation of the air flow in the main computer room housing the Columbia (10,024 intel titanium processors) system. The simulation asseses the performance of the cooling system and identified deficiencies, and recommended modifications to eliminate them. It used two in house software packages on NAS supercomputers: Chimera Grid tools to generate a geometric model of the computer room, OVERFLOW-2 code for fluid and thermal simulation. This state-of-the-art technology can be easily extended to provide a general capability for air flow analyses on any modern computer room. Columbia_CFD_black.tiff

Ahmad, Jasim

2005-01-01

354

System and method for cooling a super-conducting device  

SciTech Connect

A system and method for cooling a superconductive rotor coil. The system comprises a rotatable shaft coupled to the superconductive rotor coil. The rotatable shaft may comprise an axial passageway extending through the rotatable shaft and a first passageway extending through a wall of the rotatable shaft to the axial passageway. The axial passageway and the first passageway are operable to convey a cryogenic fluid to the superconductive rotor coil through the wall of the rotatable shaft. A cryogenic transfer coupling may be provided to supply cryogenic fluid to the first passageway.

Bray, James William (Niskayuna, NY); Steinbach, Albert Eugene (Schenectady, NY); Dawson, Richard Nils (Voorheesville, NY); Laskaris, Evangelos Trifon (Schenectady, NY); Huang, Xianrul (Clifton Park, NY)

2008-01-08

355

Modular cogeneration in district heating and cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

The use of prepackaged cogeneration systems of modular size (100 kWe - 10 MWe) in conjunction with district heating and cooling is proposed as a way to enhance the energy conservation potential of both cogeneration and district energy systems. This report examines the technical and institutional aspects of this marriage of technologies, and develops a research agenda whose goal is to define this potential use of cogeneration more accurately and to develop the generic technology base needed to bring it to actuality. 11 refs.

Andrews, J.W.; Aalto, P.; Gleason, T.C.J.; Skalafuris, A.J.

1987-12-01

356

System Study: Reactor Core Isolation Cooling 1998–2012  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) system at 31 U.S. commercial boiling water reactors. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2012 for selected components were obtained from the Equipment Performance and Information Exchange (EPIX). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing trend was identified in the HPCI results. Statistically significant decreasing trends were identified for RCIC start-only and 8-hour trends.

T. E. Wierman

2013-10-01

357

Exhaust Heat CoGeneration System Using Phase Change Cooling for Heavy Duty Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A waste heat recovery system composed of a two phase cooling system, an exhaust heat exchanger, and mini-turbine (expander) has been proposed by Henry Works, Inc to generate auxiliary power via harvesting engine cooling and exhaust heat loss from heavy duty vehicles. The objective of this research is to evaluate the two phase cooling system through engine dynamometer testing and

Kiran K. Katta; Myoungjin Kim; Mike Taggett

358

30 CFR 36.47 - Tests of exhaust-gas cooling system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Tests of exhaust-gas cooling system. 36.47 Section 36.47 ...Requirements § 36.47 Tests of exhaust-gas cooling system. (a) The adequacy of the exhaust-gas cooling system and its components shall...

2013-07-01

359

New concepts and designs for blast furnace linings and cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 1960`s, concurrent with major technological developments in blast furnace operation, cooling became increasingly important in extending furnace campaign life. Cooling systems developed from simple shower spray and jacket types, to intensive plate and stave systems. Each system has advantages and disadvantages. The principal furnace cooling areas are: underhearth (which has ceased to be a cause of premature end

Carmichael

1996-01-01

360

Cooling system for automotive engine or the like including coolant return pump back-up arrangement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes, in an automotive vehicle having a passenger compartment and an engine compartment; an engine, the engine being disposed in the engine compartment and having structure which is subject to high heat flux; a cooling system for removing heat from the engine; and a passenger compartment heating arrangement incorporated with the cooling system, the cooling system and the

N. Ogawa; T. Kubozuka

1986-01-01

361

Performance enhancement of a thermally activated cooling system using microchannel heat exchangers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current study a thermally activated cooling system that combines an ORC system with a vapor compression cooling cycle was developed and tested under laboratory conditions. This combined system can utilize waste heat or other thermal sources such as solar and geothermal to generate power and cooling. Hot oil with temperature up to 200 °C was used as the simulated

Hailei Wang; Richard B. Peterson

2011-01-01

362

What is Success? Evaluating S'COOL, an Educational Outreach Project Focused on NASA's CERES Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Students' Cloud Observations On-Line (S'COOL) Project involved students in K-16 as ground truth observers for a NASA Earth-Observing satellite instrument. The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument allows scientists to study the Earth's energy budget and how clouds affect it. Student reports of cloud conditions help scientists verify their algorithms and allow students to be involved in obtaining and analyzing real scientific data. The presentation contains 23 slides.

Chambers, Lin H.; Costulis, P. Kay; Young, David F.; Green, Carolyn J.; Stoddard, Douglas B.; Haberer, Susan J.

2000-01-01

363

Study on indoor thermal environment of office space controlled by cooling panel system using field measurement and the numerical simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to analyze the performance of a cooling panel system installed in the vertical plane with condensation (hereinafter a cooling panel system) using field measurement and coupled simulation of convection and radiation (CFD). Unlike an all-air cooling system, the cooling panel system could remove the cooling load by convection and radiation. Since the surface temperature

Taeyeon Kim; Shinsuke Kato; Shuzo Murakami; Ji-woong Rho

2005-01-01

364

Improved radiant burner material. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Under DOE/ERIP funds were made available to Superkinetic, Inc. for the development of an improved radiant burner material. Three single crystal ceramic fibers were produced and two fiber materials were made into felt for testing as radiant burner screens. The materials were alpha alumina and alpha silicon nitride. These fibers were bonded with a high temperature ceramic and made into a structurally sound trusswork like screen composed of million psi fiber members. These screens were about 5% solid for 95 porosity as needed to permit the flow of combustable natural gas and air mixture. Combustion test proved that they performed very satisfactory and better than the current state of art screen and showed no visable degrade after testing. It is recommended that more time and money be put into expanding this technology and test these new materials for their maximum temperature and durability for production applications that require better burner material.

Milewski, J.V.; Shoultz, R.A.; Bourque, M.M.; Milewski, E.B. [and others

1998-01-01

365

A gas-cooled reactor surface power system  

SciTech Connect

A human outpost on Mars requires plentiful power to assure survival of the astronauts. Anywhere from 50 to 500 kW of electric power (kWe) will be needed, depending on the number of astronauts, level of scientific activity, and life-cycle closure desired. This paper describes a 250-kWe power system based on a gas-cooled nuclear reactor with a recuperated closed Brayton cycle conversion system. The design draws upon the extensive data and engineering experience developed under the various high-temperature gas cooled reactor programs and under the SP-100 program. The reactor core is similar in power and size to the research reactors found on numerous university campuses. The fuel is uranium nitride clad in Nb1%Zr, which has been extensively tested under the SP-100 program. The fuel rods are arranged in a hexagonal array within a BeO block. The BeO softens the spectrum, allowing better use of the fuel and stabilizing the geometry against deformation during impact or other loadings. The system has a negative temperature feedback coefficient so that the power level will automatically follow a variable load without the need for continuous adjustment of control elements. Waste heat is removed by an air-cooled heat exchanger using cold Martian air. The amount of radioactivity in the reactor at launch is very small (less than a Curie, and about equal to a truckload of uranium ore). The system will need to be engineered so that criticality can not occur for any launch accident. This system is also adaptable for electric propulsion or life-support during transit to and from Mars.

Lipinski, Ronald J.; Wright, Steven A.; Lenard, Roger X.; Harms, Gary A. [Sandia National Laboratories, MS-1146, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

1999-01-22

366

Radiant Barriers Save Energy in Buildings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Langley Research Center needed to coat the Echo 1 satellite with a fine mist of vaporized metal, and collaborated with industry to create "radiant barrier technology." In 2010, Ryan Garrett learned about a new version of the technology resistant to oxidation and founded RadiaSource in Ogden, Utah, to provide the NASA-derived technology for applications in homes, warehouses, gymnasiums, and agricultural settings.

2014-01-01

367

EST Telescope: primary mirror, support, and cooling system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solar telescope EST is currently in the conceptual design phase. It is planned to be build on the Canary Islands until end of the decade. It is specialized on polarimetric observations and will provide high spatial and spectral observations of the different solar atmospheric layers. The diameter of the primary mirror blank is 4.2m. Different types of mirror shapes were investigated with respect to thermal and mechanical characteristics. To remove the absorbed heat an air cooling system from the back side will be applied. Additional an air flushing system will remove remaining warm air from the front side. A major problem of a large open telescope will be the wind load. Results of the investigations will be shown. To achieve optimal optical performance an active support system is planned. The primary mirror cell needs to be stiff enough to support the primary mirror without deformation at strong wind in case of the open telescope option, but sufficient room for the active support system and cooling system below the backside of the mirror is also required. Preliminary designs and analysis results will be presented.

Volkmer, R.; Manni, F.; Giannuzzi, M.; Scotto, A.; Cavaller, L.; Scheiffelen, T.; Bettonvil, F.; Berrilli, F.

2010-07-01

368

System design package for the solar heating and cooling central data processing system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The central data processing system provides the resources required to assess the performance of solar heating and cooling systems installed at remote sites. These sites consist of residential, commercial, government, and educational types of buildings, and the solar heating and cooling systems can be hot-water, space heating, cooling, and combinations of these. The instrumentation data associated with these systems will vary according to the application and must be collected, processed, and presented in a form which supports continuity of performance evaluation across all applications. Overall software system requirements were established for use in the central integration facility which transforms raw data collected at remote sites into performance evaluation information for assessing the performance of solar heating and cooling systems.

1978-01-01

369

Review of microclimate cooling systems in the chemical, biological, radiological environment  

SciTech Connect

Soldiers may work in hot environments and under conditions posing a biological, chemical, or nuclear threat. Chemical protective overgarments are worn to prevent contact with toxins; however, they prevent dissipation of body heat. This review addresses the effectiveness of microclimate cooling systems in alleviating thermal strain in personnel encapsulated in protective overgarments during exertion in the heat. Air, liquid, and passive ice cooling systems are primarily reviewed, but other methodologies are also discussed. Air cooling can increase tolerance time fourfold, but high ambient temperature air cooling may be dangerous. Liquid cooling is effective in reducing heat strain at light to moderate work loads and is beneficial when applied to the thighs during lower-body exercise. Overcooling and discomfort can occur with a liquid-cooled system due to cutaneous vasoconstriction. Liquid-cooled systems are heavy, require excessive maintenance, and tube compression can result in interrupted coolant flow. Air cooling is inefficient compared to liquid cooling because of air's lower specific heat. Ice cooling may only be suitable for short-term work and is generally less effective than either air or liquid cooling although the wearer can move about untethered. The best cooling system design approach may he indicated by consideration of the unique cooling needs of personnel performing specific tasks in various environments. Microclimate cooling CBR Environment.

Derion, T.; Pozos, R.S.

1993-09-22

370

Radiant heat and thermal comfort in vehicles.  

PubMed

Infrared-reflective (IRR) treatment of automotive glass has been shown to reduce air temperature in vehicle cabins, thereby increasing fuel economy and occupant comfort. Its effect on radiant heat, however, may augment these benefits. In this study, the hypothesis that radiant heat affects subjective comfort ratings in a vehicle was tested. IRR films were systematically applied to the driver-side window of an outdoor stationary vehicle. In Phase 1, cabin air temperature was controlled while participants rated their thermal comfort. In Phase 2, air temperature was adjusted according to participants' responses. Results in Phase 1 showed that the IRR treatment improved thermal comfort on the left forearm, which was exposed to direct solar irradiance, but not whole-body thermal comfort. In Phase 2, participants indicated that they were comfortable at a higher air temperature (mean of 2.5 degrees F [1.4 degrees C]) with the IRR treatment than in the untreated condition. The results indicate that reducing radiant heat via IRR treatment affects subjective assessments of thermal comfort and allows occupants to maintain the same level of comfort in a warmer vehicle cabin. Applications of this research include future implementations of IRR treatment on automotive glass that may lead to greater fuel economy savings and occupant comfort than have previously been estimated. PMID:16553069

Devonshire, Joel M; Sayer, James R

2005-01-01

371

Laminated turbine vane design and fabrication. [utilizing film cooling as a cooling system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A turbine vane and associated endwalls designed for advanced gas turbine engine conditions are described. The vane design combines the methods of convection cooling and selective areas of full coverage film cooling. The film cooling technique is utilized on the leading edge, pressure side, and endwall regions. The turbine vane involves the fabrication of airfoils from a stack of laminates with cooling passages photoetched on the surface. Cold flow calibration tests, a thermal analysis, and a stress analysis were performed on the turbine vanes.

Hess, W. G.

1979-01-01

372

Heat transfer in minichannels and microchannels CPU cooling systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A CPU functioning is extremely complex and it was experimentally revealed that a direct dependence between working speed and cooling degree exists. When the contact between two surfaces is imperfect, the specific thermal resistance of interface layer suddenly increases, so it became of frequent use to apply diverse materials between the CPU and radiator. These materials should both fill the gaps occurred due to surfaces roughness, material's fatigue, loading pressure etc. and transfer as much heat as possible during a short period of time. In order to ensure an appropriate cooling, other complementary methods are used, such as coolers, water or other liquids cooling, Peltier effect and even freon micro-refrigerating systems. In either situation, there are micro or nano channels through which fluids flow and thermal exchange takes place. The present paper aims to analyze the heat transfer under the mentioned conditions, considering the micro or nano scale dimensions of the channels. The thermal calculus can differ with respect to Kn number and for this case for thermal modelling diverse mathematical models can be realized. The model used is validated by comparing the results to numerical results obtained by authors from literature.

Mihai, Ioan C.

2009-01-01

373

Arrangement of boiling liquid cooling system of internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a motor vehicle having an internal combustion engine mounted in an engine room of a vehicle body comprising: a boiling liquid cooling system associated with the engine for cooling the same by using a latent heat of coolant, which comprises: means for defining in the engine proper a coolant jacket which contains therein a liquid coolant leaving an unoccupied space at the upper portion thereof thereby to form a liquid coolant level therein; a first conduit extending from the unoccupied space of the coolant jacket; a condenser having an inlet connected to the leading end of the first conduit and an outlet positioned lower than the inlet, the inlet being positioned lower than the coolant level in the coolant jacket; a second conduit extending from the outlet of the condenser to the coolant jacket of the engineer proper; and a cooling fan located in the vicinity of the condenser to produce, when energized, a flow of air which passes through the condenser; where the condenser and the fan are inclined with respect to a horizontally arranged member of the vehicle so that the flow of air which has passed through the condenser fails to directly collide with the engine proper.

Hayashi, Y.

1986-10-07

374

Modification of the Core Cooling System of TRIGA 2000 Reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To accomplish safety requirements, a set of actions has to be performed following the recommendations of the IAEA safety series 35 applied to research reactor. Such actions are considered in modernization of the old system, improving the core cooling system and safety evaluations. Due to the complexity of the process and the difficulty in putting the apparatus in the reactor core, analytical and experimental study on the determination of flow and temperature distribution in the whole coolant channel are difficult to be done. In the present work, a numerical study of flow and temperature distribution in the coolant channel of TRIGA 2000 has been carried out using CFD package. For this study, simulations were carried out on 3-D tested model. The model consists of the reactor tank, thermal and thermalizing column, reflector, rotary specimen rack, chimney, fuel element, primary pipe, diffuser, beam tube and a part of the core are constructed by 1.50 million unstructured tetrahedral cell elements. The results show that for the initial condition (116 fuel elements in the core) and for the inlet temperature of 24°C and the primary velocity of 5.6 m/s, there no boiling phenomena occur in the coolant channel. Due to this result, it is now possible to improve the core cooling system of TRIGA 2000 reactor. Meanwhile, forced flow from the diffuser system only affected the flow pattern in the outside of chimney and put on a small effect to the fluid flow's velocity in the inside of chimney.

Umar, Efrizon; Fiantini, Rosalina

2010-06-01

375

Modification of the Core Cooling System of TRIGA 2000 Reactor  

SciTech Connect

To accomplish safety requirements, a set of actions has to be performed following the recommendations of the IAEA safety series 35 applied to research reactor. Such actions are considered in modernization of the old system, improving the core cooling system and safety evaluations. Due to the complexity of the process and the difficulty in putting the apparatus in the reactor core, analytical and experimental study on the determination of flow and temperature distribution in the whole coolant channel are difficult to be done. In the present work, a numerical study of flow and temperature distribution in the coolant channel of TRIGA 2000 has been carried out using CFD package. For this study, simulations were carried out on 3-D tested model. The model consists of the reactor tank, thermal and thermalizing column, reflector, rotary specimen rack, chimney, fuel element, primary pipe, diffuser, beam tube and a part of the core are constructed by 1.50 million unstructured tetrahedral cell elements. The results show that for the initial condition (116 fuel elements in the core) and for the inlet temperature of 24 deg. C and the primary velocity of 5.6 m/s, there no boiling phenomena occur in the coolant channel. Due to this result, it is now possible to improve the core cooling system of TRIGA 2000 reactor. Meanwhile, forced flow from the diffuser system only affected the flow pattern in the outside of chimney and put on a small effect to the fluid flow's velocity in the inside of chimney.

Umar, Efrizon; Fiantini, Rosalina [National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia, Jalan Tamansari 71, Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia)

2010-06-22

376

Pilot-scale cooling tower to evaluate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control strategies for cooling system makeup water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pilot-scale cooling towers can be used to evaluate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control strategies when using particular cooling system makeup water and particular operating conditions. To study the potential for using a number of different impaired waters as makeup water, a pilot-scale system capable of generating 27 000 kJ/h heat load and maintaining recirculating water flow with a Reynolds number of 1.92 × 104 was designed to study these critical processes under conditions that are similar to full-scale systems. The pilot-scale cooling tower was equipped with an automatic makeup water control system, automatic blowdown control system, semi-automatic biocide feeding system, and corrosion, scaling, and biofouling monitoring systems. Observed operational data revealed that the major operating parameters, including temperature change (6.6 °C), cycles of concentration (N = 4.6), water flow velocity (0.66 m/s), and air mass velocity (3660 kg/h m2), were controlled quite well for an extended period of time (up to 2 months). Overall, the performance of the pilot-scale cooling towers using treated municipal wastewater was shown to be suitable to study critical processes (corrosion, scaling, biofouling) and evaluate cooling water management strategies for makeup waters of complex quality.

Chien, S. H.; Hsieh, M. K.; Li, H.; Monnell, J.; Dzombak, D.; Vidic, R.

2012-02-01

377

Drainable evacuated tubular solar cooling system at Frenchman's Reef Hotel  

SciTech Connect

The Frenchman's Reef Hotel in the Virgin Islands operates its own total energy plant which has the capacity to satisfy the entire requirements of the 510-room hotel for electricity, desalinated drinking water and sewage treatment. The solar energy system consists of a 13,384 square foot array of drainable evacuated tube collectors arranged on three wings of the hotel. Solar heated water is supplied to a 200 ton absorption chiller which cools public rooms in the hotel. A programmable microprocessor controller oversees all functions of the solar energy system and monitors and records data which can be subsequently recovered locally or over the telephone, either as hard copy printout or on tape. The construction and startup of the array and system operating results are discussed. System heat losses are assessed. (LEW)

Platt, D.M.

1981-05-01

378

Toward an Earth Clouds, Aerosols and Radiation Explore (EarthCARE) thermal flux determination: Evaluation using Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) true along-track data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth Clouds, Aerosols and Radiation Explorer (EarthCARE) mission developed by the European Space Agency and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency addresses the need to improve the understanding of the interactions between cloud, aerosol, and radiation processes. The broadband radiometer (BBR) instrument on board the EarthCARE spacecraft provides measurements of broadband reflected solar and emitted thermal radiances at the top of atmosphere (TOA) over the along-track satellite path at three fixed viewing zenith angles. The multiangular information provided by the BBR, combined with the spectral information from the EarthCARE's multispectral imager (MSI) can be exploited to construct accurate thermal radiance-to-flux conversion algorithms on the basis of radiative transfer modeling. In this study, the methodology to derive longwave (LW) fluxes from BBR and MSI data is described, and the performance of the LW BBR angular models is compared with the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Terra flux retrievals in order to evaluate the reliability of the BBR synthetic models when applied to satellite-based radiances. For this purpose, the BBR methodology proposed in this work is adapted to the CERES and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument specifications, and new LW angular models for CERES are developed. According to plane-parallel simulations, the BBR LW flux uncertainty caused by flux inversion could be reduced up to 0.4 W m-2. The intercomparison between CERES BBR-like adapted and CERES original angular models is performed over a BBR-like database of CERES true along track, and the averaged instantaneous retrievals agree to within 2 W m-2.

Domenech, C.; Wehr, T.; Fischer, J.

2011-03-01

379

Comparison and analysis of two aerosol retrievals over the ocean in the Terra/Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System-Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer single scanner footprint data: 1. Global evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite aerosol remote sensing entered a new era with the deployment of advanced satellite imaging instruments such as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the NASA Terra and Aqua satellites. These new instruments provide the opportunity to learn more about aerosol properties than was possible using the simpler NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), which has been used to retrieve aerosol optical thickness for more than 20 years. Combining historical AVHRR and the more advanced MODIS aerosol retrievals to form a long-term aerosol data record is critical for studying aerosol climate forcing. To achieve this objective, it is necessary to build a connection and establish consistency between the two retrievals through a careful evaluation of the two retrieval methods applied to the same data. As a first step in this effort, this paper exploits the potential of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Single-Scanner Footprint (SSF) data set that includes aerosol products derived from Terra MODIS data at the same locations using both the multichannel MODIS and the two-channel AVHRR aerosol retrieval algorithms. The analysis examines the differences in the results seen over oceans on a global scale. It was found in a global mean sense that advancement in the aerosol retrieval over ocean from the MODIS algorithm relative to the AVHRR method is realized mostly in the improvement of the aerosol size parameter (ASP) rather than in the aerosol optical thickness (AOT). However, regional differences were observed in both AOT and ASP retrieved from the MODIS and AVHRR algorithms. These are examined further in the second part of this two-part paper. Cloud contamination and surface roughness appear to affect both aerosol retrievals, effects that need further investigation.

Zhao, Tom X.-P.; Laszlo, Istvan; Minnis, Patrick; Remer, Lorraine

2005-11-01

380

An ultrasensitive fouling monitoring system for cooling towers  

SciTech Connect

Fouling in industrial water has been a serious problem for many years. For example, the deterioration of the efficiency of heat exchangers and the occurrence of corrosion can cause cooling water leakage into the process streams. Biocides, dispersants, and filtration systems typically are used to prevent these problems. However, if these treatment programs are started too late, the early stages of fouling can occur. Here, a simple method for assessing fouling and chemical treatment efficiency is described. An ultrasensitive fouling sensor that uses piezoelectric quartz crystals was developed which detects fouling in the early stages.

Nohata, Y. [Hakuto Co. Ltd., Yokkaichi (Japan); Taguchi, H. [Mie Univ., Tsu (Japan)

1995-03-01

381

Solar heating and cooling technical data and systems analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The accomplishments of a project to study solar heating and air conditioning are outlined. Presentation materials (data packages, slides, charts, and visual aids) were developed. Bibliographies and source materials on materials and coatings, solar water heaters, systems analysis computer models, solar collectors and solar projects were developed. Detailed MIRADS computer formats for primary data parameters were developed and updated. The following data were included: climatic, architectural, topography, heating and cooling equipment, thermal loads, and economics. Data sources in each of these areas were identified as well as solar radiation data stations and instruments.

Christensen, D. L.

1976-01-01

382

Using a closed loop system to cool generator and lubricating oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operators at the 12-MW Koma Kulshan Project in northern Washington State have come up with an innovative way to cool the generator and bearing lubrication oil in the hydro plant. The new cooling system works much like an automobile's cooling system. Koma Kulshan is owned by Koma Kulshan Associates, a partnership that includes Pacific Energy and Utilico Group. The project

1993-01-01

383

Engineering and Cost Comparison of Three Different All-Dry Cooling Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results of a detailed engineering and cost study of three different all-dry cooling systems to assess the potential for reducing the cost of all-dry cooling for steam electric power plants are described. The three types of cooling systems considered were:...

B. C. Fryer D. J. Braun D. J. Braun D. W. Faletti L. E. Wiles

1976-01-01

384

40 CFR 749.68 - Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems...CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT WATER TREATMENT CHEMICALS Air Conditioning...749.68 Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling...

2013-07-01

385

Options for thermal energy storage in solar-cooling systems. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The current effort concentrates on design requirements of thermal storage subsystems for active solar cooling systems. The use of thermal storage with respect to absorption, Rankine, and desiccant cooling technologies is examined.

Curran, H.M.; DeVries, J.

1981-05-01

386

Design of Dehumidifiers for Use in Desiccant Cooling and Dehumidification Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of rotary dehumidifiers in open cycle desiccant cooling systems is investigated by analyzing the performance of the rotary heat exchanger-rotary dehumidifier subsystem. For a given cooling load, the required regeneration heat supply can be minimiz...

E. Van den Bulck J. W. Mitchell S. A. Klein

1984-01-01

387

40 CFR 749.68 - Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems...CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT WATER TREATMENT CHEMICALS Air Conditioning...749.68 Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling...

2012-07-01

388

40 CFR 749.68 - Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems...CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT WATER TREATMENT CHEMICALS Air Conditioning...749.68 Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling...

2011-07-01

389

Surface radiation budget in the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) effort and in the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The surface radiation budget (SRB) and the atmospheric radiative flux divergence (ARD) are vital components of the weather and climate system. The importance of radiation in a complex international scientific endeavor, the GEWEX of the World Climate Research Programme is explained. The radiative transfer techniques and satellite instrumentation that will be used to retrieve the SRB and ARD later in this decade with the CERES are discussed; CERES is a component of the Earth Observing System satellite program. Examples of consistent SRB and ARD retrievals made with Nimbus-7 and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project data from July 1983 are presented.

Charlock, Thomas P.; Smith, G. L.; Rose, Fred G.

1990-01-01

390

Advanced Heating and Cooling Systems in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource was developed through a seed grant from the CAAT and discusses the advanced air conditioning systems placed in HEVs and safety precautions to follow when servicing them. These systems are high voltage A/C compressors and the components controlling them (A/C ECU, HV ECU, and Converter Control Circuit). Safety precautions discussed include Class 0 insulated gloves, insulated tools, color coding of wire looms to indicate voltage, CAT III and IV multimeter use, and properly disabling high voltage circuits. For educators looking to modify current courses, a syllabus is included with highlighted fields where HEV systems and safety were incorporated into an existing automotive heating and cooling course at Lewis and Clark Community College.

College, Lewis A.

391

Detecting and mitigating aging in component cooling water systems  

SciTech Connect

The time-dependent effects of aging on component cooling water (CCW) systems in nuclear power plants has been studied and documented as part of a research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. It was found that age related degradation leads to failures in the CCW system which can result in an increase in system unavailability, if not properly detected and mitigated. To identify effective methods of managing this degradation, information on inspection, monitoring, and maintenance practices currently available was obtained from various operating plants and reviewed. The findings were correlated with the most common aging mechanisms and failure modes, and a compilation of aging detection and mitigation practices was formulated. This paper discusses the results of this work.

Lofaro, R.J. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Aggarwal, S. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States))

1992-01-01

392

Detecting and mitigating aging in component cooling water systems  

SciTech Connect

The time-dependent effects of aging on component cooling water (CCW) systems in nuclear power plants has been studied and documented as part of a research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. It was found that age related degradation leads to failures in the CCW system which can result in an increase in system unavailability, if not properly detected and mitigated. To identify effective methods of managing this degradation, information on inspection, monitoring, and maintenance practices currently available was obtained from various operating plants and reviewed. The findings were correlated with the most common aging mechanisms and failure modes, and a compilation of aging detection and mitigation practices was formulated. This paper discusses the results of this work.

Lofaro, R.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Aggarwal, S. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

1992-06-01

393

Shuttle cryogenic supply system optimization study. Volume 4: Cryogenic cooling in environmental control systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of cryogenic fluid cooling in the environmental control system of the space shuttle was conducted. The technique for treating the cryogenic fluid storage and supply tanks and subsystems as integrated systems was developed. It was concluded that a basic incompatibility exists between the heat generated and the cryogen usage rate and cryogens cannot be used to absorb the generated heat. The use of radiators and accumulators to provide additional cooling capability is recommended.

1973-01-01

394

Evaporative Cooling and Dehumidification Garment for Portable Life Support Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the design and development of an innovative thermal and humidity control system for future space suits. The system comprises an evaporation cooling and dehumidification garment (ECDG) and a lithium chloride absorber radiator (LCAR). The ECDG absorbs heat and water vapor from inside the suit pressure garment, while the LCAR rejects heat to space without venting water vapor. The ECDG is built from thin, flexible patches with coversheets made of non-porous, water-permeable membranes that -enclose arrays of vapor flow passages. Water vapor from inside the spacesuit diffuses across the water permeable membranes, enters the vapor flow channels, and then flows to the LCAR, thus dehumidifying the internal volume of the space suit pressure garment. Additional water evaporation inside the ECDG provides cooling for sensible heat loads. -The heat released from condensation and absorption in the LCAR is rejected to the environment by thermal radiation. We have assembled lightweight and flexible ECDG pouches from prototypical materials and measured their performance in a series of separate effects tests under well-controlled, prototypical conditions. Sweating hot plate tests at typical space suit pressures show that ECDG pouches can absorb over 60 W/ft of latent heat and 20 W/ft of sensible heat from the pressure garment environment. These results are in good agreement with the predictions of our analysis models.

Izenson, Michael; Chen, Weibo; Bue, Grant

2013-01-01

395

A study on performance improvement of thermoelectric cooling system by a vibrating piezoelectric actuator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated on improving of cooling performance of the thermoelectric cooling system by a vibrating from the piezoelectric actuator. Experiment was carried out to investigate cooling performance of the thermoelectric cooling system for the cases; one without the piezoelectric actuator and the other with the piezoelectric actuator. Temperature measurement experiment and flow visualization experiment were performed to compare cooling performance for the cases, respectively. Cooling performance of the thermoelectric cooling system was improved by the piezoelectric actuator when the results of temperature measurement and flow visualization were compared, because forced convection was generated by vibrating (acoustic streaming) from the piezoelectric actuator and the cold air in cooling region was actively circulated by impulsive convection.

Yoon, Hee-Sung; Choi, Je-Se; Oh, Yool-Kwon

2011-11-01

396

Science Data Processing and Distribution of Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CERES project at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) provides critical cloud and Earth radiation budget climate data records (CDRs) to support global climate change research. CERES has produced over 30 Instrument years of data from TRMM, Terra, and Aqua, and is preparing to collect, calibrate, process and distribute data from CERES Flight Model 5 on the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP). A complex system of algorithm development, data collection, processing, archive and distribution is being developed to manage science data from CERES on NPP. A new state-of-the-art data archival and distribution system called Archive - Next Generation (ANGe) has also been developed at the Langley Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) and now supports efficient data ingest, archive, and distribution for CERES. The CERES data system integrates data from multiple sources to produce an extensive set of high quality climate data records. For NPP, CERES data will be fused with clouds and aerosol information obtained using VIIRS radiance and geolocation data, making accurate and stable calibration of VIIRS radiances critical to maintaining high quality CERES CDRs. New science processing algorithms will provide improved clouds and aerosol information that feed flux calculations and time and space averaging, and will be applied to processing CERES NPP data. A more robust ground calibration campaign has also been developed for the CERES sensors. The addition of CERES data from NPP will extend Earth radiation budget climate data records well into the next decade. This paper will describe the data flow, science data processing, and distribution of CERES data from NPP.

Closs, J. W.; Robbins, J. L.; Miller, W. F.

2009-12-01

397

Development of Cooling System for Cryogenic Preamplifier in Ft-Icr Ion Trap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cooling system of cryogenic preamplifier was designed and fabricated for Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) ion trap. A cryogenic preamplifier consisted of non-magnetic materials is thermally connected to the cooling medium which is passing through the flange maintaining ultra-high vacuum in the ion cell. At the other end, the cooling medium is thermally anchored to the coldhead of cryocooler (conduction-cooled system) or liquid helium (liquid circulation system). In the conduction-cooled system the temperature distribution along the cooling medium was calculated by the relevant thermal analysis for steady-state. The liquid circulation unit with cryogenic preamplifier was installed in 7 T FT-ICR system and the temperature at the preamplifier was measured during the initial cool-down process. The effects of thermal radiation, contact resistance, and magnetic field on the temperature distribution were also investigated.

Choi, Y. S.; Kim, D. L.; Painter, T. A.; Choi, M. C.; Kim, H. S.; Yoo, J. S.

2008-03-01

398

Thermoelectric generator cooling system and method of control  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is provided that includes a thermoelectric generator and an exhaust gas system operatively connected to the thermoelectric generator to heat a portion of the thermoelectric generator with exhaust gas flow through the thermoelectric generator. A coolant system is operatively connected to the thermoelectric generator to cool another portion of the thermoelectric generator with coolant flow through the thermoelectric generator. At least one valve is controllable to cause the coolant flow through the thermoelectric generator in a direction that opposes a direction of the exhaust gas flow under a first set of operating conditions and to cause the coolant flow through the thermoelectric generator in the direction of exhaust gas flow under a second set of operating conditions.

Prior, Gregory P; Meisner, Gregory P; Glassford, Daniel B

2012-10-16

399

Optimization of the cooling system in a double multilayer monochromator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of heat transfer and deformation analyses of the first of two monochromator crystals installed in a DMM (double multilayer monochromator) for SAXS (small angle X-ray scattering) beamline at the Pohang Light Source (PLS). The DMM was developed to allow precise rotational and linear motion of the crystal. The two crystals have independent driving systems and can be rotated simultaneously, but the first crystal absorbs most of the heat power, so we used the ANSYS program to calculate the temperature distribution and the deformation in the first crystal and in the crystal holder. When the contact geometry between the crystal and the crystal holder is changed, the surface slope error coming from thermal deformation varies. With these analyses of deformation and slope error, an optimized cooling system was designed for the first crystal holder.

Kim, Seungnam; Kim, Myeongjin; Lee, Chaesun; Kim, Jehan; Kim, Kwangwoo

2013-11-01

400

THE SNS RESONANCE CONTROL COOLING SYSTEM CONTROL VALVE UPGRADE PERFORMANCE  

SciTech Connect

The normal-conducting linac of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) uses 10 separate Resonance Control Cooling System (RCCS) water skids to control the resonance of 6 Drift Tube Linac (DTL) and 4 Coupled Cavity Linac (CCL) accelerating structures. The RCCS water skids use 2 control valves; one to regulate the chilled water flow and the other to bypass water to a chilled water heat exchanger. These valves have hydraulic actuators that provide position and feedback to the control system. Frequency oscillations occur using these hydraulic actuators due to their coarse movement and control of the valves. New pneumatic actuator and control positioners have been installed on the DTL3 RCCS water skid to give finer control and regulation of DTL3 cavity temperature. This paper shows a comparison of resonance control performance for the two valve configurations.

Williams, Derrick C [ORNL; Schubert, James Phillip [ORNL; Tang, Johnny Y [ORNL

2008-01-01

401

Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft  

SciTech Connect

This report beings with a historical overview on the origin and early beginnings of Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft. The report reviews the work done in Phase I (Grant DE-FG01-82CE-15144) and then gives a discussion of Phase II (Grant DE-FG01-86CE-15301). Included is a reasonably detailed discussion of photovoltaic cells and the research and development needed in this area. The report closes with a historical perspective and summary related to situations historically encountered on projects of this nature. 15 refs.

Doellner, O.L.

1992-02-01

402

Prediction of the thermal environment and thermal response of simple panels exposed to radiant heat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of predicting the radiant heat flux distribution produced by a bank of tubular quartz heaters was applied to a radiant system consisting of a single unreflected lamp irradiating a flat metallic incident surface. In this manner, the method was experimentally verified for various radiant system parameter settings and used as a source of input for a finite element thermal analysis. Two finite element thermal analyses were applied to a thermal system consisting of a thin metallic panel exposed to radiant surface heating. A two-dimensional steady-state finite element thermal analysis algorithm, based on Galerkin's Method of Weighted Residuals (GFE), was formulated specifically for this problem and was used in comparison to the thermal analyzers of the Engineering Analysis Language (EAL). Both analyses allow conduction, convection, and radiation boundary conditions. Differences in the respective finite element formulation are discussed in terms of their accuracy and resulting comparison discrepancies. The thermal analyses are shown to perform well for the comparisons presented here with some important precautions about the various boundary condition models. A description of the experiment, corresponding analytical modeling, and resulting comparisons are presented.

Turner, Travis L.; Ash, Robert L.

1989-01-01

403

Hybrid vapor compression refrigeration system with an integrated ejector cooling cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A refrigeration system was developed which combines a basic vapor compression refrigeration cycle with an ejector cooling cycle. The ejector cooling cycle is driven by the waste heat from the condenser in the vapor compression refrigeration cycle. The additional cooling capacity from the ejector cycle is directly input into the evaporator of the vapor compression refrigeration cycle. The governing equations

Yinhai Zhu; Peixue Jiang

404

Expanding the limits on engines and vehicles imposed by circulating liquid engine cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operational limits of the cooling system for a liquid cooled internal combustion engine are also limits on the engine's power, fuel economy and air quality possibilities. When coolant temperatures in a traditional liquid cooled engine approach the saturation temperature of water, optimum engine settings must be degraded to prevent detonation. This paper discusses the nature of the limits imposed

J. W. Evans; J. T. Light

1986-01-01

405

EXPERIMENTAL BASED METHOD FOR SIZING PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SYSTEM SUITABLE FOR COOLING GREENHOUSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents new method for designing photovoltaic power system (PVPS) suitable for cooling the greenhouses. The designed PVPS is installed at Serw station at Domietta for cooling cucumber crop. The greenhouse, under test has the geometrical configuration of, 6m length, 4m width and 2m height. The indoor temperature of the greenhouse is 50°c before cooling. This level of temperature

H. M. NOOR

406

Description and Cost Analysis of a Deluge Dry/Wet Cooling System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of combined dry/wet cooling systems for large base-load power plants offers the potential for significant water savings as compared to evaporatively cooled power plants and significant cost savings in comparison to dry cooled power plants. The res...

D. J. Braun D. J. Braun D. W. Faletti J. A. Bamberger L. E. Wiles

1978-01-01

407

Comparative analysis of cool storage systems based on ice and clathrates  

SciTech Connect

Cool storage systems coupled to split system air conditioners can effectively shift approx. 95% of the electrical demand for residential cooling to offpeak periods. A technical and economic analysis of three cool storage configurations using ice or clathrates is presented. Results of this analysis show that a direct contact system with a 6/sup 0/C clathrate is the most efficient of the storage systems analyzed. However, to break even with a simple air conditioning system, a nonpressurized storage medium is a requirement for cool storage systems.

Tomlinson, J.J.; Olszewski, M.; Geist, G.A.

1984-01-01

408

Analysis and comparison of active solar desiccant and absorption cooling systems. Part 2; Annual simulation results  

SciTech Connect

A comparative analysis has been performed to compare the cooling and dehumidification performance of future ventilation mode desiccant systems, proposed advanced absorption systems, and conventional vapor compression systems. A common framework has been developed for direct comparison of these different cooling technologies; this method is described in a companion paper. This paper presents the application of this method to annual simulations of cooling system performance in five cities.

Warren, M.L. (ASI Controls, San Ramon, CA (US)); Wahlig, M. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA). Applied Science Div.)

1991-02-01

409

Environmental and economic comparison of cooling-system designs for steam-electric power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The selection of waste heat rejection systems for steam-electric power plants involves a trade-off among environmental, energy and water conservation, and economic factors. This study compares four general types of cooling systems on the basis of these factors. The cooling systems chosen for study are: once-through systems including surface canals and submerged multiport diffusers; shallow closed cycle cooling ponds; mechanical

K. F. Najjar; J. J. Shaw; E. E. Adams; G. H. Jirka; D. R. F. Harleman

1979-01-01

410

Air--vapor dynamics in large-scale atmospheric spray cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric spray cooling systems are alternatives to cooling towers and cooling ponds. A quantity Number of Transfer Units (NTU) containing the spray drop-wise parameters allows prediction of cooling range if local wet-bulb temperature is known. The essential problem is predicting local wet-bulb proceeding windward through the spray field. Theory was developed for this purpose involving wind attenuation and turbulent diffusion.

S. Chaturvedi; R. W. Porter

1978-01-01

411

THE MODELING OF AIR-COOLED ABSORPTION CHILLER INTEGRATION IN CHP SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Absorption chillers are well suited for the use of exhaust heat from prime movers, and they improve the heat utilization of Cooling, Heating, and Power (CHP) systems. An air-cooled absorption chiller eliminates the cooling tower and brings considerable advantages as compared to water-cooled chillers. However, the expensive capital cost and crystallization of LiBr (Lithium Bromide) solution in certain operation conditions

Xiaohong Liao; Patricia Garland; Reinhard Radermacher

2004-01-01

412

Evaporation-Cooled Protective Suits for Firefighters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Suits cooled by evaporation of water have been proposed as improved means of temporary protection against high temperatures near fires. When air temperature exceeds 600 F (316 C) or in the presence of radiative heating from nearby sources at temperatures of 1,200 F (649 C) or more, outer suits now used by firefighters afford protection for only a few seconds. The proposed suits would exploit the high latent heat of vaporization of water to satisfy a need to protect against higher air temperatures and against radiant heating for significantly longer times. These suits would be fabricated and operated in conjunction with breathing and cooling systems like those with which firefighting suits are now equipped

Weinstein, Leonard Murray

2007-01-01

413

Cryogenic cooling with cryocooler on a rotating system.  

PubMed

We developed a system that continuously maintains a cryocooler for long periods on a rotating table. A cryostat that holds the cryocooler is set on the table. A compressor is located on the ground and supplies high-purity (>99.999%) and high-pressure (1.7 MPa) helium gas and electricity to the cryocooler. The operation of the cryocooler and other instruments requires the development of interface components between the ground and rotating table. A combination of access holes at the center of the table and two rotary joints allows simultaneous circulation of electricity and helium gas. The developed system provides two innovative functions under the rotating condition, cooling from room temperature and the maintenance of a cold condition for long periods. We have confirmed these abilities as well as temperature stability under a condition of continuous rotation at 20 rpm. The developed system can be applied in various fields, e.g., in tests of Lorentz invariance, searches for axion, radio astronomy, and cosmology, and application of radar systems. In particular, there is a plan to use this system for a radio telescope observing cosmic microwave background radiation. PMID:23742598

Oguri, S; Choi, J; Kawai, M; Tajima, O

2013-05-01

414

Optimization of a solar cooling system with interior energy storage  

SciTech Connect

This paper focuses on the optimization of the performance of a solar absorption cooling system composed by four units with interior energy storage. A full dynamic simulation model that includes the solar collector field, the absorption heat pump system and the building load calculation has been developed. It has been applied to optimize the coupling of a system based on this new technology of solar powered absorption heat pump, to a bioclimatic building recently constructed in the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA) in Spain. The absorption heat pump system considered is composed by four heat pumps that store energy in the form of crystallized salts so that no external storage capacity is required. Each heat pump is composed of two separate barrels that can charge (store energy from the solar field) and discharge (deliver heat or cold to the building) independently. Different configurations of the four units have been analysed taking into account the storage possibilities of the system and its capacity to respond to the building loads. It has been shown how strong the influence of the control strategies in the overall performance is, and the importance of using hourly simulations models when looking for highly efficient buildings. (author)

Sanjuan, C.; Soutullo, S.; Heras, M.R. [Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency in Buildings Unit, CIEMAT, Madrid E-28040 (Spain)

2010-07-15

415

Thermochemically recuperated and steam cooled gas turbine system  

DOEpatents

A gas turbine system in which the expanded gas from the turbine section is used to generate the steam in a heat recovery steam generator and to heat a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel and the steam in a reformer. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon gas to hydrogen and carbon monoxide for combustion in a combustor. A portion of the steam from the heat recovery steam generator is used to cool components, such as the stationary vanes, in the turbine section, thereby superheating the steam. The superheated steam is mixed into the hydrocarbon gas upstream of the reformer, thereby eliminating the need to raise the temperature of the expanded gas discharged from the turbine section in order to achieve effective conversion of the hydrocarbon gas.

Viscovich, Paul W. (Longwood, FL); Bannister, Ronald L. (Winter Springs, FL)

1995-01-01

416

Preliminary description of the ground test accelerator cryogenic cooling system  

SciTech Connect

The Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) under construction at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is part of the Neutral Particle Beam Program supported by the Strategic Defense Initiative Office. The GTA is a full-sized test facility to evaluate the feasibility of using a negative ion accelerator to produce a neutral particle beam (NPB). The NPB would ultimately be used outside the earth's atmosphere as a target discriminator or as a directed energy weapon. The operation of the GTA at cryogenic temperature is advantageous for two reasons: first, the decrease of temperature caused a corresponding decrease in the rf heating of the copper in the various units of the accelerator, and second, at the lower temperature the decrease in the thermal expansion coefficient also provides greater thermal stability and consequently, better operating stability for the accelerator. This paper discusses the cryogenic cooling system needed to achieve these advantages. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Edeskuty, F.J.; Stewart, W.F.

1988-01-01

417

R&D on The Cooling Systems Using Natural Refrigerants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of waste heat of low temperatures is an important problem from the environmental considerations. Notice that adsorption cycles have a distinct advantage over other systems of their ability to produce cooling by using low waste heat as 60 to 80°C and also being absolutely benign for the environment. However the present available adsorption chillers are still heavier and larger in size. Hence their compactness and cost reduction as well as higher efficiency are urgent tasks for wider use. This review discusses recent development on adsorption heat pumps as well as forthcoming applications. The sources are mainly papers and discussions at the IEA Annex 24 Workshop in Turin, Italy (1999), FOA6 (Fundamental of Adsorption) Conference in Presquile de Giens, France (1998) and ISHPC (International Sorption Heat Pump Conference) in Munich, Germany (1999).

Yanagi, Hideharu

418

Sealed Battery Block Provided With A Cooling System  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to a sealed battery block operating at a pressure of at least 1 bar relative, the battery including a container made of a plastics material and made up of a lid and of a case subdivided into wells by at least one partition, said battery being provided with a cooling system including two cheek plates made of a plastics material and co-operating with the outside faces of respective ones of two opposite walls of said case, each cheek plate co-operating with the corresponding wall to define a compartment provided with a plurality of ribs forming baffles for fluid flow purposes, and with an inlet orifice and an outlet orifice for the fluid, said battery being characterized in that each of said ribs extends in a direction that forms an angle relative to the plane of said partition lying in the range 60.degree. to 90.degree..

Verhoog, Roelof (Bordeaux, FR); Barbotin, Jean-Loup (Pompignac, FR)

1999-11-16

419

Thermochemically recuperated and steam cooled gas turbine system  

DOEpatents

A gas turbine system is described in which the expanded gas from the turbine section is used to generate the steam in a heat recovery steam generator and to heat a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel and the steam in a reformer. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon gas to hydrogen and carbon monoxide for combustion in a combustor. A portion of the steam from the heat recovery steam generator is used to cool components, such as the stationary vanes, in the turbine section, thereby superheating the steam. The superheated steam is mixed into the hydrocarbon gas upstream of the reformer, thereby eliminating the need to raise the temperature of the expanded gas discharged from the turbine section in order to achieve effective conversion of the hydrocarbon gas. 4 figs.

Viscovich, P.W.; Bannister, R.L.

1995-07-11

420

Suboptimal on–off switching control strategies for chilled water cooling systems with storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dynamic model of vapour compression refrigeration system is developed. The overall model consists of the following basic components: a compressor, a condenser, an expansion valve, an evaporator, an evaporative cooler and a cool storage. The integrated system is referred to as chilled water cooling system with storage (CWCS). The mathematical modelling of the CWC system undertaken in this study

Wei-Ling Jian; M. Zaheeruddin

1998-01-01

421

A new combined cooling, heating and power system driven by solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP) system is proposed. This system is driven by solar energy, which is different from the current CCHP systems with gas turbine or engine as prime movers. This system combines a Rankine cycle and an ejector refrigeration cycle, which could produce cooling output, heating output and power output simultaneously. The effects of hour

Jiangfeng Wang; Yiping Dai; Lin Gao; Shaolin Ma

2009-01-01

422

Impact of Surface Characteristics on Radiant Panel Output  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the experimental results of a research project conducted to determine the impact of surface charac- teristics on radiant panel output. The hemispherical and angu- lar emittance and radiant panel output were measured for various modern building materials. The surfaces were found to have uniformly high hemispherical emittances and could be considered diffuse emitters. An office-sized environmental chamber

P. Calvin Lindstrom; Daniel E. Fisher; Curtis O. Pedersen

423

a Study on Performance Evaluation of Thermoelectric Cooling System Using Piezoelectric Bending Actuator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the performance of thermoelectric cooling system using the piezoelectric bending actuator. The temperatures in the cooling region of thermoelectric cooling system were measured with and without operation of piezoelectric bending actuator at the frequencies of 90 Hz and 120 Hz. The cooling coefficients were calculated by the temperature measurement results, and the thermo-flow phenomenon in the cooling region was visualized under the same condition. The coefficient of performance of the thermoelectric cooling system was improved by the piezoelectric bending actuator when the results of temperature measurement and thermo-flow visualization were compared, because that the vibration from the piezoelectric bending actuator generated compulsive convection and the cold air in the cooling region was actively circulated by the compulsive convection.

Yoon, Hee-Sung; Yang, Ho-Dong; Oh, Yool-Kwon

424

Beam Based Measurements for Stochastic Cooling Systems at Fermilab  

SciTech Connect

Improvement of antiproton stacking rates has been pursued for the last twenty years at Fermilab. The last twelve months have been dedicated to improving the computer model of the Stacktail system. The production of antiprotons encompasses the use of the entire accelerator chain with the exception of the Tevatron. In the Antiproton Source two storage rings, the Debuncher and Accumulator are responsible for the accumulation of antiprotons in quantities that can exceed 2 x 10{sup 12}, but more routinely, stacks of 5 x 10{sup 11} antiprotons are accumulated before being transferred to the Recycler ring. Since the beginning of this recent enterprise, peak accumulation rates have increased from 2 x 10{sup 11} to greater than 2.3 x 10{sup 11} antiprotons per hour. A goal of 3 x 10{sup 11} per hour has been established. Improvements to the stochastic cooling systems are but a part of this current effort. This paper will discuss Stacktail system measurements and experienced system limitations.

Lebedev, V.A.; Pasquinelli, R.J.; Werkema, S.J.; /Fermilab

2007-09-13

425

Optimal Fan Arrangement for Electronic Equipment with Multi-Fan CoolingSystem including Air Cooled Heat Sink with Fan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parametric study is conducted for optimizing the fan arrangement of the electronic equipment with several fans inthe equipment. Those fans are cooling for central processing unit (CPU), for power supply unit (PSU), and for the other devices in the equipment (system exhaust fan). We have used the Taguchi method of the experimental design for finding the optimal arrangement of those

Hitoshi Matsushima; Shuichi Terakado; Ichirou Asano

2009-01-01

426

SOLERAS - Saudi University Solar Cooling Laboratories Project: King Abdulaziz University. Solar cooling systems design report. Phase 1 report  

SciTech Connect

An assessment of the performance and adaptability of solar cooling systems to the Saudi Arabian environment was studied at King Abdulaziz University. Development of a solar research laboratory and the hardware and software available for installation are considered. The university's facilities for solar energy research are briefly described. A budget for the research project is proposed. (BCS)

Not Available

1986-01-01

427

Cooling system for a bearing of a turbine rotor  

DOEpatents

In a gas turbine, a bore tube assembly radially inwardly of an aft bearing conveys cooling steam to the buckets of the turbine and returns the cooling steam to a return. To cool the bearing and thermally insulate the bearing from the cooling steam paths, a radiation shield is spaced from the bore tube assembly by a dead air gap. Additionally, an air passageway is provided between the radiation shield and the inner surface of an aft shaft forming part of the rotor. Air is supplied from an inlet for flow along the passage and radially outwardly through bores in the aft shaft disk to cool the bearing and insulate it from transfer of heat from the cooling steam.

Schmidt, Mark Christopher (Niskayuna, NY)

2002-01-01

428

Consideration of sub-cooled LN2 circulation system for HTS power machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a sub-cooled liquid nitrogen (LN) circulation system for HTS power equipment. The planned circulation system consists of a sub-cool heat exchanger (subcooler) and a circulation pump. The sub-cooler will be connected to a neon turbo- Brayton cycle refrigerator with a cooling power of 2 kW at 65 K. Sub-cooled LN will be delivered into the sub-cooler by the pump and cooled within it. Sub-cooled LN is adequate fluid for cooling HTS power equipment, because its dielectric strength is high and it supports a large critical current. However, a possibility of LN solidification in the sub-cooler is a considerable issue. The refrigerator will produce cold neon gas of about 60 K, which is lower than the nitrogen freezing temperature of 63 K. Therefore, we designed two-stage heat exchangers which are based on a plate-fin type and a tube-intube type. Process simulations of those heat exchangers indicate that sub-cooled LN is not frozen in either sub-cooler. The plate-fin type sub-cooler is consequently adopted for its reliability and compactness. Furthermore, we found that a cooling system with a Brayton refrigerator has the same total cooling efficiency as a cooling system with a Stirling refrigerator.

Yoshida, Shigeru; Hirai, Hirokazu; Nara, N.; Nagasaka, T.; Hirokawa, M.; Okamoto, H.; Hayashi, H.; Shiohara, Y.

2012-06-01

429

Gas-cooled reactor for space power systems  

SciTech Connect

Reactor characteristics based on extensive development work on the 500-MWt reactor for the Pluto nuclear ramjet are described for space power systems useful in the range of 2 to 20 MWe for operating times of 1 y. The modest pressure drop through the prismatic ceramic core is supported at the outlet end by a ceramic dome which also serves as a neutron reflector. Three core materials are considered which are useful at temperatures up to about 2000 K. Most of the calculations are based on a beryllium oxide with uranium dioxide core. Reactor control is accomplished by use of a burnable poison, a variable-leakage reflector, and internal control rods. Reactivity swings of 20% are obtained with a dozen internal boron-10 rods for the size cores studied. Criticality calculations were performed using the ALICE Monte Carlo code. The inherent high-temperature capability of the reactor design removes the reactor as a limiting condition on system performance. The low fuel inventories required, particularly for beryllium oxide reactors, make space power systems based on gas-cooled near-thermal reactors a lesser safeguard risk than those based on fast reactors.

Walter, C.E.; Pearson, J.S.

1987-05-01

430

THERMAL STRESS CALCULATIONS FOR HEATPIPE-COOLED REACTOR POWER SYSTEMS.  

SciTech Connect

A heatpipe-cooled fast reactor concept has been under development at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the past several years, to be used as a power source for nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) or as a planetary surface power system. The reactor core consists of an array of modules that are held together by a core lateral restraint system. Each module comprises a single heatpipe surrounded by 3-6 clad fuel pins. As part of the design development and performance assessment activities for these reactors, specialized methods and models have been developed to perform thermal and stress analyses of the core modules. The methods have been automated so that trade studies can be readily performed, looking at design options such as module size, heatpipe and clad thickness, use of sleeves to contain the fuel, material type, etc. This paper describes the methods and models that have been developed, and presents thermal and stress analysis results for a Mars surface power system and a NEP power source.

Kapernick, R. J. (Richard J.); Guffee, R. M. (Ray M.)

2001-01-01

431

DEVELOPMENT OF SUPERVISORY CONTROL STRATEGY FOR ONLINE CONTROL OF CENTRAL COOLING WATER SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a model-based supervisory control strategy for online control of building central cooling water systems to enhance their energy efficiency. Simplified chiller and cooling tower models are developed and used to predict the system energy performance, environment quality as well as the system response to the changes of control settings. A novel and simple optimization technique, named as

Shengwei Wang; Zhenjun Ma; Xinhua Xu

2007-01-01

432

Analysis and comparison of active solar desiccant and absorption cooling systems. Part 1; Model description  

SciTech Connect

A comparative analysis has been performed to compare the cooling and dehumidification performance of future ventilation-mode desiccant systems, proposed advanced absorption systems, and conventional vapor compression systems. A common framework has been developed for direct comparison of these different cooling technologies; this method is described in this paper.

Warren, M.L. (ASI Controls, San Ramon, CA (US)); Wahlig, M. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA). Applied Science Div.)

1991-02-01

433

Analysis and comparison of active solar desiccant and absorption cooling systems. Part 1; Model description  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative analysis has been performed to compare the cooling and dehumidification performance of future ventilation-mode desiccant systems, proposed advanced absorption systems, and conventional vapor compression systems. A common framework has been developed for direct comparison of these different cooling technologies; this method is described in this paper.

Mashuri L. Warren; Michael Wahlig

1991-01-01

434

Analysis and comparison of active solar desiccant and absorption cooling systems. Part 2; Annual simulation results  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative analysis has been performed to compare the cooling and dehumidification performance of future ventilation mode desiccant systems, proposed advanced absorption systems, and conventional vapor compression systems. A common framework has been developed for direct comparison of these different cooling technologies; this method is described in a companion paper. This paper presents the application of this method to annual

Marshuri L. Warren; Michael Wahlig

1991-01-01

435

Design Studies of Magnet Systems for Muon Helical Cooling Channels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Helical cooling channels with superimposed solenoid and helical dipole and quadrupole coils, and a pressurized gas absorber in the aperture offer high efficiency of 6D muon beam cooling. In this paper, we continue design studies and comparison of two basi...

A. V. Zlobin M. Lamm M. L. Lopes V. S. Kashikhin V. V. Kashikhin

2008-01-01

436

Air cooled turbine component having an internal filtration system  

DOEpatents

A centrifugal particle separator is provided for removing particles such as microscopic dirt or dust particles from the compressed cooling air prior to reaching and cooling the turbine blades or turbine vanes of a turbine engine. The centrifugal particle separator structure has a substantially cylindrical body with an inlet arranged on a periphery of the substantially cylindrical body. Cooling air enters centrifugal particle separator through the separator inlet port having a linear velocity. When the cooling air impinges the substantially cylindrical body, the linear velocity is transformed into a rotational velocity, separating microscopic particles from the cooling air. Microscopic dust particles exit the centrifugal particle separator through a conical outlet and returned to a working medium.

Beeck, Alexander R. (Orlando, FL)

2012-05-15

437

Nuclear reactor cooling system decontamination reagent regeneration. [PWR; BWR  

DOEpatents

An improved method for decontaminating the coolant system of water-cooled nuclear power reactors and for regenerating the decontamination solution is described. A small amount of one or more weak-acid organic complexing agents is added to the reactor coolant, and the pH is adjusted to form a decontamination solution which is circulated throughout the coolant system to dissolve metal oxides from the interior surfaces and complex the resulting metal ions and radionuclide ions. The coolant containing the complexed metal ions and radionuclide ions is passed through a strong-base anion exchange resin bed which has been presaturated with a solution containing the complexing agents in the same ratio and having the same pH as the decontamination solution. As the decontamination solution passes through the resin bed, metal-complexed anions are exchanged for the metal-ion-free anions on the bed, while metal-ion-free anions in the solution pass through the bed, thus removing the metal ions and regenerating the decontamination solution.

Anstine, L.D.; James, D.B.; Melaika, E.A.; Peterson, J.P. Jr.

1980-06-06

438

COOLING FAN AND SYSTEM PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENTS  

SciTech Connect

Upcoming emissions regulations (Tiers 3, 4a and 4b) are imposing significantly higher heat loads on the cooling system than lesser regulated machines. This work was a suite of tasks aimed at reducing the parasitic losses of the cooling system, or improving the design process through six distinct tasks: 1. Develop an axial fan that will provide more airflow, with less input power and less noise. The initial plan was to use Genetic Algorithms to do an automated fan design, incorporating forward sweep for low noise. First and second generation concepts could not meet either performance or sound goals. An experienced turbomachinery designer, using a specialized CFD analysis program has taken over the design and has been able to demonstrate a 5% flow improvement (vs 10% goal) and 10% efficiency improvement (vs 10% goal) using blade twist only. 2. Fan shroud developments, using an 'aeroshroud' concept developed at Michigan State University. Performance testing at Michigan State University showed the design is capable of meeting the goal of a 10% increase in flow, but over a very narrow operating range of fan performance. The goal of 10% increase in fan efficiency was not met. Fan noise was reduced from 0 to 2dB, vs. a goal of 5dB at constant airflow. The narrow range of fan operating conditions affected by the aeroshroud makes this concept unattractive for further development at this time 3. Improved axial fan system modeling is needed to accommodate the numbers of cooling systems to be redesigned to meet lower emissions requirements. A CFD fan system modeling guide has been completed and transferred to design engineers. Current, uncontrolled modeling practices produce flow estimates in some cases within 5% of measured values, and in some cases within 25% of measured values. The techniques in the modeling guide reduced variability to the goal of + 5% for the case under study. 4. Demonstrate the performance and design versatility of a high performance fan. A 'swept blade mixed flow' fan was rapid prototyped from cast aluminum for a performance demonstration on a small construction machine. The fan was mounted directly in place of the conventional fan (relatively close to the engine). The goal was to provide equal airflow at constant fan speed, with 75% of the input power and 5 dB quieter than the conventional fan. The result was a significant loss in flow with the prototype due to its sensitivity to downstream blockage. This sensitivity to downstream blockage affects flow, efficiency, and noise all negatively, and further development was terminated. 5. Develop a high efficiency variable speed fan drive to replace existing slipping clutch style fan drives. The goal for this task was to provide a continuously variable speed fan drive with an efficiency of 95%+ at max speed, and losses no greater than at max speed as the fan speed would vary throughout its entire speed range. The process developed to quantify the fuel savings potential of a variable speed fan drive has produced a simple tool to predict the fuel savings of a variable speed drive, and has sparked significant interest in the use of variable speed fan drive for Tier 3 emissions compliant machines. The proposed dual ratio slipping clutch variable speed fan drive can provide a more efficient system than a conventional single ratio slipping clutch fan drive, but could not meet the established performance goals of this task, so this task was halted in a gate review prior to the start of detailed design. 6. Develop a cooling system air filtration device to allow the use of automotive style high performance heat exchangers currently in off road machines. The goal of this task was to provide a radiator air filtration system that could allow high fin density, louvered radiators to operate in a find dust application with the same resistance to fouling as a current production off-road radiator design. Initial sensitivity testing demonstrated that fan speed has a significant impact on the fouling of radiator cores due to fine dusts, so machines equipped with continuously variabl

Ronald Dupree

2005-07-31

439

Role of bacterial adhesion in the microbial ecology of biofilms in cooling tower systems.  

PubMed

The fate of the three heterotrophic biofilm forming bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Flavobacterium sp. in pilot scale cooling towers was evaluated both by observing the persistence of each species in the recirculating water and the formation of biofilms on steel coupons placed in each cooling tower water reservoir. Two different cooling tower experiments were performed: a short-term study (6 days) to observe the initial bacterial colonization of the cooling tower, and a long-term study (3 months) to observe the ecological dynamics with repeated introduction of the test strains. An additional set of batch experiments (6 days) was carried out to evaluate the adhesion of each strain to steel surfaces under similar conditions to those found in the cooling tower experiments. Substantial differences were observed in the microbial communities that developed in the batch systems and cooling towers. P. aeruginosa showed a low degree of adherence to steel surfaces both in batch and in the cooling towers, but grew much faster than K. pneumoniae and Flavobacterium in mixed-species biofilms and ultimately became the dominant organism in the closed batch systems. However, the low degree of adherence caused P. aeruginosa to be rapidly washed out of the open cooling tower systems, and Flavobacterium became the dominant microorganism in the cooling towers in both the short-term and long-term experiments. These results indicate that adhesion, retention and growth on solid surfaces play important roles in the bacterial community that develops in cooling tower systems. PMID:19177226

Liu, Yang; Zhang, Wei; Sileika, Tadas; Warta, Richard; Cianciotto, Nicholas P; Packman, Aaron

2009-01-01

440

Dry and wet-peaking tower cooling systems for power plant application  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new concept of power plant heat-sink system is presented which employs the combination of a conventional wet-tower and a conventional dry-tower. The purpose of this cooling system is to reduce wet cooling-tower makeup-water requirements in water-short areas. The dry tower operates all year around while the wet-peaking tower is used only above certain ambient dry-bulb temperatures. The two cooling

M. W. Larinoff; L. L. Forster

1976-01-01

441

Dry and wet-peaking tower cooling systems for power plant application  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new concept of power plant heat-sink system is presented which employs the combination of a conventional wet-tower and a conventional dry-tower. The purpose of this cooling system is to reduce wet cooling-tower makeup-water requirements in water-short areas. The dry tower operates all year around while the wet-peaking tower is used only above certain ambient dry-bulb temperatures. The two cooling

M. W. Larinoff; L. L. Forster

1977-01-01

442

Commissioning of Fermilab's Electron Cooling System for 8GeV Antiprotons  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 4.3-MeV electron cooling system [1] has been installed at Fermilab in the Recycler antiproton storage ring and is currently being commissioned. The cooling system is designed to assist accumulation of 8.9-GeV\\/c antiprotons for the Tevatron collider operations. This paper reports on the progress of the electron beam commissioning effort as well as on detailed plans of demonstrating the cooling

S. Nagaitsev; D. Broemmelsiek; A. Burov; K. Carlson; C. Gattuso; M. Hu; B. Kramper; T. Kroc; J. Leibfritz; L. Prost; S. Pruss; G. Saewert; C. W. Schmidt; A. Shemyakin; M. Sutherland; V. Tupikov; A. Warner; S. Seletsky; W. Gai; G. K. Budker

2005-01-01

443

Cryogenic cooling for spacecraft sensors, instruments, and experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several disciplines requiring in-space cryogenic cooling are identified including high-energy, gamma-ray, and IR astronomy, relativity missions, and superconducting devices. Radiant coolers are limited in terms of temperature ranges and cooling loads. Other spacecraft cryogenic systems include stored solid cryogenic coolers using materials such as hydrogen, neon, argon, and methane. Two such cooler designs are described including one for the Nimbus F limb radiance inversion radiometer and one for the Nimbus G limb infrared monitoring of the atmosphere. Suggestions for increasing the performance of solid cryogenic coolers are made, such as a multimission cooler, a mechanical refrigerator, Stirling-cycle refrigerators, and Vuilleumier mechanized coolers. Techniques for obtaining cryogenic cooling in the milli-K range are identified as dilution refrigeration and adiabatic demagnetization.

Sherman, A.

1978-01-01

444

Design of a Convective Cooling System for a Mach 6 Hypersonic Transport Airframe.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results of analytical and design studies are presented for a water-glycol convective cooling system for the airframe structure of a hypersonic transport. System configurations and weights are compared. The influences of system pressure drop and flow contr...

F. M. Anthony R. G. Helenbrook

1971-01-01

445

Stochastic Cooling  

SciTech Connect

Stochastic Cooling was invented by Simon van der Meer and was demonstrated at the CERN ISR and ICE (Initial Cooling Experiment). Operational systems were developed at Fermilab and CERN. A complete theory of cooling of unbunched beams was developed, and was applied at CERN and Fermilab. Several new and existing rings employ coasting beam cooling. Bunched beam cooling was demonstrated in ICE and has been observed in several rings designed for coasting beam cooling. High energy bunched beams have proven more difficult. Signal suppression was achieved in the Tevatron, though operational cooling was not pursued at Fermilab. Longitudinal cooling was achieved in the RHIC collider. More recently a vertical cooling system in RHIC cooled both transverse dimensions via betatron coupling.

Blaskiewicz, M.

2011-01-01

446

Monitoring system for a liquid-cooled nuclear fission reactor  

DOEpatents

A monitoring system for detecting changes in the liquid levels in various regions of a water-cooled nuclear power reactor, viz., in the downcomer, in the core, in the inlet and outlet plenums, at the head, and elsewhere; and also for detecting changes in the density of the liquid in these regions. A plurality of gamma radiation detectors are used, arranged vertically along the outside of the reactor vessel, and collimator means for each detector limits the gamma-radiation it receives as emitting from only isolated regions of the vessel. Excess neutrons produced by the fission reaction will be captured by the water coolant, by the steel reactor walls, or by the fuel or control structures in the vessel. Neutron capture by steel generates gamma radiation having an energy level of the order of 5-12 MeV, whereas neutron capture by water provides an energy level of approximately 2.2 MeV, and neutron capture by the fission fuel or its cladding provides an energy level of 1 MeV or less. The intensity of neutron capture thus changes significantly at any water-metal interface. Comparative analysis of adjacent gamma detectors senses changes from the normal condition with liquid coolant present to advise of changes in the presence and/or density of the coolant at these specific regions. The gamma detectors can also sense fission-product gas accumulation at the reactor head to advise of a failure of fuel-pin cladding.

DeVolpi, Alexander (Bolingbrook, IL)

1987-01-01

447

Gas-cooled fuel cell systems technology development program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report addresses the fourth logical unit of work of a multiyear program whose overall objective is the development of a gas-cooled phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) for electric utility power plant application. This PAFC Technology Development Program continuation is structured to build upon the current cell technology baseline so as to advance critical component technologies to meet the performance, endurance, reliability and cost goals associated with successful energy service. The primary technical objectives are: Demonstrate performance endurance of current cell technology in 10-cell stacks at 70 psia, 190 C, and 267 mA/cm sup 2. Select and utilize materials, procedures, and methods that improve cell degradation rate to less than 8 mV/1000 hours. Develop cost effective criteria, processes, and design configurations for stack components. Develop design configuration for multiple stack unit and a single 100 kW size fuel cell stack and attain performance goals. Develop design configuration for a 375 kW fuel cell module and demonstrate by test the average cell beginning-of-use performance objectives. Manufacture four 375 kW fuel cell modules and establish performance characteristics and interactions with other systems in a 1.5 MW pilot power plant. Progress is described.

Feret, J. M.

1989-06-01

448

System design and installation for RS600 programmable control system for solar heating and cooling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Procedures for installing, operating, and maintaining a programmable control system which utilizes a F8 microprocessor to perform all timing, control, and calculation functions in order to customize system performance to meet individual requirements for solar heating, combined heating and cooling, and/or hot water systems are described. The manual discusses user configuration and options, displays, theory of operation, trouble-shooting procedures, and warranty and assistance. Wiring lists, parts lists, drawings, and diagrams are included.

1978-01-01

449

ASSESSMENT OF CORROSION PRODUCTS FROM ONCE-THROUGH COOLING SYSTEMS WITH MECHANICAL ANTIFOULING DEVICES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an assessment of corrosion products from steam-electric power plant once-through cooling systems equipped with mechanical antifouling devices. (About 67% of the currently operating plants in the U.S. use once-through cooling systems. Various cleaning m...

450

A Computer Program Predicting Steady-State Performance of a Nuclear Research Reactor's Cooling System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performances of a nuclear reactor are directly affected by its cooling system, especially when it uses wet towers to evacuate the heat generated in the nuclear reactor core. Failure of the cooling system can yield very serious damages to most of the components of the nuclear reactor core. In this work, a computer program simulating the thermal behavior of

Sidi Ali; Kamel

2002-01-01

451

The analysis of a solar?assisted desiccant evaporative cooling system and its application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The direct application of an evaporative cooling system is impractical in Taiwan due to local hot and humid weather conditions. In this study, a hybrid cooling system utilizing an evaporative cooler coupled with a chemical dehumidifier is investigated. The solid desiccant, or silica gel, which could be regenerated by solar energy, dehumidifies the incoming air while the evaporative cooler effectively

1988-01-01

452

Development of a perfusion suit incorporating auxiliary heating and cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based upon numerous assertions that a garment should be developed to maximise athletes' muscle performance while maintaining freedom of movement, this paper initially discusses the development of a perfusion suit that utilises a flexible single layer cooling system, with a view to the development of a cooling garment that does not employ a conventional tubing system which can restrict movement.

J. E. Ruckman; S. G. Hayes; J. H. Cho

2002-01-01

453

Design and performance of solar powered absorption cooling systems in office buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper contributes to the system design of solar thermal absorption chillers. A full simulation model was developed for absorption cooling systems, combined with a stratified storage tank, steady-state or dynamic collector model and hourly resolved building loads. The model was validated with experimental data from various solar cooling plants.As the absorption chillers can be operated at reduced generator temperatures

Ursula Eicker; Dirk Pietruschka

2009-01-01

454

Use of dissolved ozone for controlling planktonic and sessile bacteria in industrial cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cooling water treatment requires effective, environmentally-safe biocides compatible with system operation. The unique combination of high biocidal activity during use with no toxic discharge, could render dissolved ozone a safe biocide for cooling water treatment. Planktonic and sessile cells of Pseudomonas fluorescens (a frequent microbial contaminant of industrial systems) were used in this work to assess the biocidal effectiveness of

M. R. Viera; P. S. Guiamet; M. F. L. de Mele; H. A. Videla

1999-01-01

455

Spallation Neutron Source Drift Tube Linac Resonance Control Cooling System Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Resonance Control Cooling System (RCCS) was designed by Los Alamos National Laboratory for the warm linac of the Spallation Neutron Source. The primary design focus was directed on water-cooling of individual component contributions. The sizing of the RCCS water skid was accomplished by means of a specially created SINDA\\/FLUINT model tailored to these system requirements. A new model was

A. Feschenko; Yu. Kiselev; A. Kovalishin; L. Kravchuk; A. Kvasha; J. Tang; A. Aleksandrov; M. Champion; P. Gibson; J. Schubert

2005-01-01

456

Potential Environmental Impacts of Solar Heating and Cooling Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report discusses potential environmental consequences of solar energy utilization for heating and cooling buildings. It identifies the areas in which both positive and negative impacts are possible, summarizes the national research and development pr...

T. J. Consroe F. M. Glaser R. W. Shaw

1976-01-01

457

POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF SOLAR HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report discusses potential environmental consequences of solar energy utilization for heating and cooling buildings. It identifies the areas in which both positive and negative impacts are possible, summarizes the national research and development program directed toward sol...

458

Simplified method for estimating the cooling loads of passive solar systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simplified procedure for estimating the auxiliary cooling load caused by passive solar heating systems is presented. The primary assumption is ideal ventilation such that no auxiliary cooling is required when ambient temperature is below the thermostat setting. Factors based on bin temperature data are used to account for the portion of solar gain which occurs during overheated periods. A nomogram and data for annual analysis of solar aperture cooling loads are presented. Methods of accounting for shading and movable insulation are also discussed. Certain passive solar systems can result in high cooling loads, which may even be great enough to offset the heating load reduction.