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1

Radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improved radiant vessel passive cooling system for liquid-metal poor-type modular nuclear reactors having a reactor vessel and a surrounding containment vessel spaced apart from the reactor vessel to form a first interstitial region containing an inert gas, the improvement comprising: a shell spaced apart from and surrounding the containment vessel to form a second interstitial region comprising a circulatory air passage. The circulatory air passage has an air inlet at a first position and an air outlet at a second position which is vertically higher than the first position. The second interstitial region lies between the shell and the containment vessel; and surface area extension means in the shell is longitudinally disposed from the shell into the second interstitial region towards the containment vessel to receive thermal radiation from the containment vessel. The surface area extension means is spaced apart from the external surface of the containment vessel where heat radiated form the containment vessel is received at the surface extension means for convection, conduction and radiation to air in the circulatory passage.

Germer, J.H.

1987-07-07

2

The theory study on radiant floor heating and cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims at developing a radiant floor cooling system using the existing radiant floor heating system. The theoretical model of the system heat transfer was established and the heat transfer process was simulated by the finite element analysis method. The analysis results show that the cooling and heating system has good performance in energy supply. It can meet the

Ren Yanli; Li Deying

2011-01-01

3

RADIANT COOLING RESEARCH SCOPING STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.2 RADIANT COOLING Radiant cooling uses actively cooled surfaces to absorb excess thermal energy and remove it from a space. This is more or less the inverse of the radiant floor heating systems that have become relatively popular in North American residential applications. In the case of radiant cooling, thermal energy is flowing from the occupants, equipment, lights, and other

Timothy Moore; Fred Bauman; Charlie Huizenga

2006-01-01

4

DOAS, Radiant Cooling Revisited  

SciTech Connect

The article discusses dedicated outdoor air systems (DOAS) and radiant cooling technologies. Both of these topics were covered in previous ASHRAE Journal columns. This article reviews the technologies and their increasing acceptance. The two steps that ASHRAE is taking to disseminate DOAS information to the design community, available energy savings and the market potential of radiant cooling systems are addressed as well.

Hastbacka, Mildred; Dieckmann, John; Bouza, Antonio

2012-12-01

5

Performance evaluation of a radiant floor cooling system integrated with dehumidified ventilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radiant floor cooling system can be used as an alternative to all-air cooling systems, using the existing Ondol system (a radiant floor heating system) in Korea to save energy and maintain indoor thermal comfort. Unfortunately, a radiant floor cooling system may cause condensation on the floor surface under hot and humid conditions during the cooling season. In addition, the

Doosam Song; Taeyeon Kim; Suwon Song; Suckho Hwang; Seung-Bok Leigh

2008-01-01

6

The Suitability and Feasibility of Floor Radiant Cooling System in Northern  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the application of radiant floor heating, system design, and laying status, this paper advances a design idea of using natural cooling source such as ground water or evaporation cooling water for `free cooling'. Based on the above, a mathematic model of low-temperature radiant floor heating\\/cooling is constructed. This paper studies the matching of radiant floor's cooling capacity and

Shousong Liu; Yanqiang Di; Tao Meng; Li Liu; Fei Ma

2009-01-01

7

A STUDY ON THE APPLICATION OF THE RADIANT FLOOR COOLING SYSTEM INTEGRATED WITH A DEHUMIDIFICATION SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

When applying the radiant floor cooling system, it is important to prevent condensation on the floor surface. To solve this problem, a radiant floor cooling system integrated with the dehumidification system has been proposed and evaluated. In doing so, the relationship between the control variables in preventing floor surface condensation is first analyzed, and the control methods are evaluated through

Jae-Han Lim; Myoung-Souk Yeo; Kwang-Woo Kim

8

Application of the control methods for radiant floor cooling system in residential buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In applying radiant floor cooling, its control system must prevent the floor surface condensation in hot and humid weather conditions. With no additional dehumidification system, only the radiant floor cooling system prevents floor condensation. In this case, the effects of the control of the cooling system on the indoor conditions can be changed because of the thermal inertia of the

Jae-Han Lima; Jae-Hun Jo; Yong-Yee Kim; Myoung-Souk Yeo; Kwang-Woo Kim

2006-01-01

9

Effect of a Radiant Panel Cooling System on Indoor Air Quality of a Conditioned Space  

E-print Network

This paper discusses the effect of a radiant cooling panel system on an indoor air quality (IAQ) of a conditioned space. In this study, ceiling radiant cooling panel, mechanical ventilation with fan coil unit (FCU) and 100% fresh air are used...

Mohamed, E.; Abdalla, K. N.

2010-01-01

10

Experimental Study of the Floor Radiant Cooling System Combined with Displacement Ventilation  

E-print Network

ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China HVAC Technologies for Energy Efficiency, Vol. IV-11-4 Experimental Study of the Floor Radiant Cooling System Combined with Displacement Ventilation Yanli Ren1, Deying Li2, Yufeng Zhang1 1...ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China HVAC Technologies for Energy Efficiency, Vol. IV-11-4 Experimental Study of the Floor Radiant Cooling System Combined with Displacement Ventilation Yanli Ren1, Deying Li2, Yufeng Zhang1 1...

Ren, Y.; Li, D.; Zhang, Y.

2006-01-01

11

Numerical simulation of radiant floor cooling system: The effects of thermal resistance of pipe and water velocity on the performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the existing floor heating system, the radiant floor cooling system can be used as an alternative to the conventional all-air cooling systems. In this paper, a numerical model for the radiant floor cooling system is built using finite volume method. The objective of this study is to research the effects of the thermal resistance of pipe and water velocity

Xing Jin; Xiaosong Zhang; Yajun Luo; Rongquan Cao

2010-01-01

12

Comprehensive evaluation of radiant cooling system integrated with ice storage system  

SciTech Connect

Of the electricity consumption in office buildings in Japan, air conditioning accounts for some 50% and is a primary factor in the increase of the peak in power demand, particularly in summer. Aiming to level the load, both the power industry and the government are making efforts to promote thermal storage systems for air conditioning. This paper concerns a radiant cooling system for producing a better thermal environment, integrated with ice storage for load leveling. A model office building (in Tokyo, with a total floor area of 3,300 m{sup 2}) equipped with an ice storage and radiant cooling system is investigated. The simulation of the load-leveling effect, energy-saving possibility, and operating cost and an estimation of the construction cost of the building were carried out in order to comprehensively evaluate the system.

Nakano, Yukio; Miyanaga, Toshiyuki; Oka, Tatsuo

2000-07-01

13

Very low temperature radiant heating/cooling indoor end system for efficient use of renewable energies  

SciTech Connect

Solar or solar-assisted space heating systems are becoming more and more popular. The solar energy utilization efficiency is high when the collector is coupled with indoor radiant heating suppliers, since in principle, lower supply temperature means lower demand temperature and then the system heat loss is less. A new type radiant end system is put forward for even lower supply temperature compared to the conventional radiant floor heating systems. A three dimensional model was established to investigate its energy supply capacities. Simulation results show that 50 W per meter length tube can be achieved with the medium temperature of 30 C for heating and 15 C for cooling. The predicted results agree well with the actual data from a demonstration building. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that a supply temperature of 22 C in winter and of 17 C in summer already met the indoor requirements. The new end system has good prospects for effective use of local renewable resources. (author)

Ren, Jianbo; Wang, Yiping; Wang, Congrong; Xiong, Weicheng [School of Chem. Eng. and Tech., Tianjin Univ., Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhu, Li [School of Architecture, Tianjin Univ., Tianjin 300072 (China)

2010-06-15

14

Radiant ceiling panel heating–cooling systems: experimental and simulated study of the performances, thermal comfort and energy consumptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Well known in the North of Europe, the water ceiling panel systems are mainly used to provide cooling. However, as well as for a radiant floor, this system can be used for heating in winter and cooling in summer. In order to get a better knowledge of the energy performances of such devices, the Gaz de France Research Centre funded

J Miriel; L Serres; A Trombe

2002-01-01

15

Very low temperature radiant heating\\/cooling indoor end system for efficient use of renewable energies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar or solar-assisted space heating systems are becoming more and more popular. The solar energy utilization efficiency is high when the collector is coupled with indoor radiant heating suppliers, since in principle, lower supply temperature means lower demand temperature and then the system heat loss is less. A new type radiant end system is put forward for even lower supply

Jianbo Ren; Yiping Wang; Congrong Wang; Weicheng Xiong; Li Zhu

2010-01-01

16

Evaluation of thermal comfort conditions in a classroom equipped with radiant cooling systems and subjected to uniform convective environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work is to evaluate numerically the human thermal response that 24 students and 1 teacher feel in a classroom equipped with radiant cooling systems and subjected to uniform convective environments, in lightly warm conditions. The evolution of thermal comfort conditions, using the PMV index, is made by the multi-nodal human thermal comfort model.In this numerical model,

Eusébio Z. E. Conceição; M Lúcio

2011-01-01

17

Numerical Simulation of Thermal Comfort Degree in Radiant Floor Cooling Room  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a comfortable and energy-efficient air conditioning system, the application of radiant floor heating system is increasing greatly used in the north of China. Now, more and more people begin to be aware of the problem of thermal comfort degree in radiant floor cooling room. This study aims at developing a radiant floor cooling system using the existing radiant floor

Yanli Ren; Deying Li; Yufeng Zhang

18

Possibilities and limitations of radiant floor cooling  

SciTech Connect

To evaluate the usefulness of radiant floor cooling, it is important to take into account comfort, cooling capacity, control, and design. One limiting factor is the floor surface temperature. In spaces with seated or standing people, the floor temperature should not be lower than 19 C (66 F) for comfort reasons. For higher activity levels, a lower floor surface temperature may be acceptable and the limitation will then be the dew-point temperature in the space. The heat exchange coefficient between a cooled floor and the room is typically around 7 W/m{center_dot}{degree}C (1.23 Btu/ft{sup 2}{center_dot}h{center_dot}{degree}F), where 5.5 W/m{sup 2}{center_dot}{degree}C (0.97 Btu/ft{sup 2}{center_dot}h{center_dot}{degree}F) is radiant heat transfer. In spaces with occupants who are mostly seated, the upper comfort limit for the operative temperature in summer is 26 C (79 F). This means that, based /on the heat exchange between the floor surface and the room, a maximum cooling capacity for a floor system is about 50 W/m{sup 2} (16 Btu/h{center_dot}ft{sup 2}). In several spaces, such as atria, entrance halls, or other spaces with window facades, there will often be a lot of direct sunshine on the floor. In these cases, the cooling capacity is significantly higher and may reach 100 to 150 W/m{sup 2} (32 to 47 Btu/h{center_dot}ft{sup 2}). The cooling capacity, however, also depends on the floor construction, distance between tubes, water flow rate, and floor covering. The influence of these parameters is discussed in this paper, and a method for dimensioning based on a European standard is presented.

Olesen, B.W. [D.F. Liedelt Velta GmbH, Norderstedt (Germany)

1997-12-31

19

Investigation of a radiantly heated and cooled office with an integrated desiccant ventilation unit  

E-print Network

and cooling has been supplied in several forms, including floor heating, ceiling heating and cooling, radiant panels and façade heating and cooling. Among them, façade heating and cooling is the most recently developed system. This dissertation provides a...

Gong, Xiangyang

2009-05-15

20

CFD Simulation and Analysis of the Combined Evaporative Cooling and Radiant Ceiling Air-conditioning System  

E-print Network

Due to such disadvantages as large air duct and high energy consumption of the current all- outdoor air evaporative cooling systems used in the dry region of Northwest China, as well as the superiority of the ceiling cooling system in improving...

Xiang, H.; Yinming, L.; Junmei, W.

2006-01-01

21

A Comparative Study on the Control of the Radiant Floor Cooling System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several items such as surface condensation control, floor temperature, vertical room air temperature difference should be evaluated when the heating panel system is also used for cooling in such a climate as that of Korea, where it is hot and humid during the summer. In particular, achieving a precise control method is very important in preventing surface condensation. Therefore, this

JAE-HAN LIM; YONG-YEE KIM; MYOUNG-SOUK YEO; KWANG-WOO KIM

22

Effect of modelling solar radiation on the cooling performance of radiant floors  

Microsoft Academic Search

When modelling buildings, solar radiation has a large impact on the thermal balance because it usually heats the rooms. In radiant systems that are used for heating and cooling buildings, solar radiation has a large influence both on indoor temperatures and on the efficiency of the radiant system.Many analyses have already been carried out in order to study how beam

Michele De Carli; Massimo Tonon

2011-01-01

23

Hygric design and control of radiant floor cooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY : In humid climates, cooling the floor may lead to fungus growth and condensation. To inhibit fungus growth, the relative humidity of the cooled surface should not be higher than 80%. This condition sets an upper limit for the cooling power, depending on the humidity of the (naturally-ventilated) room air. In this paper the performance of a radiant cooling

Wim H. van der Spoel; Hans J. M. Cauberg

24

Energy performance optimization of radiant slab cooling using building simulation and field measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few field studies of energy performance of radiant cooling systems have been undertaken. A recently constructed 17,500m2 building with a multi-floor radiant slab cooling system in the tower was investigated through simulation calibrated with measured building energy use and meteorological data. For the very cold, dry region where the building was located, it was found that a typical floor of

Zhen Tian; James A. Love

2009-01-01

25

Design of energy efficient building with radiant slab cooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air-conditioning comprises a substantial fraction of commercial building energy use because of compressor-driven refrigeration and fan-driven air circulation. Core regions of large buildings require year-round cooling due to heat gains from people, lights and equipment. Negative environmental impacts include CO2 emissions from electric generation and leakage of ozone-depleting refrigerants. Some argue that radiant cooling simultaneously improves building efficiency and occupant

Zhen Tian

2007-01-01

26

Development of a model to simulate the performance of hydronic radiant cooling ceilings  

SciTech Connect

A significant amount of the electrical energy used to cool non-residential buildings equipped with all-air systems is drawn by the fans that transport the cool air through the thermal distribution system. Hydronic radiant cooling systems have the potential to reduce the amount of air transported through the building by separating the tasks of ventilation and thermal conditioning. Because of the physical properties of water, hydronic radiant cooling systems can transport a given amount of thermal energy using less than 5170 of the otherwise necessary fan energy. This improvement alone significantly reduces the energy consumption and peak power requirement of the air conditioning system. Hydronic radiant cooling systems have been used for more than 30 years in hospital rooms to provide a draft-free, thermally stable environment. The energy savings and peak-load characteristics of these systems have not yet been analyzed systematically. Moreover, adequate guidelines for design and control of these systems do not exist. This has prevented their widespread application to other building types. The evaluation of the theoretical performance of hydronic systems could be made most conveniently by computer models. Energy analysis programs such as DOE-2 do not have the capability to simulate hydronic radiant systems yet. In this paper the development of a model that can simulate accurately the dynamic performance of hydronic radiant cooling systems is described. The model is able to calculate loads, heat extraction rates, room air temperature and room surface temperature distributions, and can be used to evaluate issues such as thermal comfort, controls, system sizing, system configuration and dynamic response. The model was created with the Simulation Problem Analysis and Research Kernel (SPARK) developed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, which provides a methodology for describing and solving the dynamic, non-linear equations that correspond to complex physical systems.

Stetiu, C.; Feustel, H.E.

1995-06-01

27

Using radiant cooled floors to condition large spaces and maintain comfort conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of a hybrid conditioning system that creates a comfortable indoor environment in a building. The operation of a variable-volume displacement conditioning system and a radiant cooled floor have been optimized to reduce the building load. Control strategies were developed that optimize energy consumption and contain moisture levels within specified limits. The development of conditioning-only occupied

P. Simmonds; S. Holst; S. Reuss; W. Gaw

2000-01-01

28

Flightweight radiantly and actively cooled panel: thermal and structural performance  

SciTech Connect

A 2- by 4-ft flightweight panel was subjected to thermal/structural tests representative of design flight conditions for a Mach 6.7 transport and to off-design conditions simulating flight maneuvers and cooling system failures. The panel utilized Rene 41 heat shields backed by a thin layer of insulation to radiate away most of the 12 Btu/ft/sup 2/-sec incident heating. A solution of ethylene glycol in water circulating through tubes in an aluminum-honeycomb-sandwich panel absorbed the remainder of the incident heating (0.8 Btu/sq ft-sec). The panel successfully withstood (1) 46.7 hr of radiant heating which included 53 thermal cycles and 5000 cycles of uniaxial inplane loading of + or - 1200 lfb/in; (2) simulated 2g-maneuver heating conditions and simulated cooling system failures without excessive temperatures on the structural panel; and (3) the extensive thermal/structural tests and the aerothermal tests reported in NASA TP-1595 without significant damage to the structural panel, coolant leaks, or hot-gas ingress to the structural panel.

Shore, C.P.; Nowak, R.J.; Kelly, H.N.

1982-01-01

29

A calculation method for the floor surface temperature in radiant floor system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a calculation method for the floor surface temperature in radiant floor heating\\/cooling system is proposed, a new formula is derived to estimate the floor surface temperature. The floor is divided into two layers. The correlation for the thermal conductivity of the lower layer is developed based on the numerical model of the radiant floor system built in

Xing Jin; Xiaosong Zhang; Yajun Luo

2010-01-01

30

Cooling energy measurements of houses with attics containing radiant barriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tests were conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to determine the magnitude of the energy savings brought about by installing radiant barriers in the attics of single-family houses. The radiant barrier used for this test was a product with two reflective aluminum surfaces on a kraft paper base. The radiant barrier has the potential to reduce the radiant heat

W. P. Levins; M. A. Karnitz; D. K. Knight

1986-01-01

31

Radiant ceiling systems coupled to its environment part 2: Dynamic modeling and validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a study performed in order to develop a dynamic model of radiant ceiling panels in heating or cooling modes coupled to its environment (fenestration, walls, internal loads and ventilation system). The model considers the radiant panels as a dynamic-state finned heat exchanger connected to a detailed lumped dynamic model of the building (R–C network).

Néstor Fonseca; Stephane Bertagnolio; Cristian Cuevas

2010-01-01

32

Using radiant cooled floors to condition large spaces and maintain comfort conditions  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the development of a hybrid conditioning system that creates a comfortable indoor environment in a building. The operation of a variable-volume displacement conditioning system and a radiant cooled floor have been optimized to reduce the building load. Control strategies were developed that optimize energy consumption and contain moisture levels within specified limits. The development of conditioning-only occupied zones is shown and how the overall energy consumption is reduced. Its application in a large airport is described.

Simmonds, P.; Holst, S.; Reuss, S.; Gaw, W.

2000-07-01

33

Radiant Barriers in Roof Insulation Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A local building owner purchased a 6000 square foot metal building to be used as a retail store, parts storage, and repair shop for a large truck maintenance facility. The building manufacturer offered a radiant barrier product as an option in the roof and wall insulating systems. The building manufacturer claimed that using two inches of conventional fiberglass insulation along

Mark C. Tatum

34

A parametric study on radiant floor heating system performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient radiant heating systems are promising technologies for energy saving in commercial and building sectors together with improving occupant thermal comfort. However, the thermal performance of radiant systems in buildings has not been fully understood and accounted for in currently available building energy simulation software. In this paper, the effects of design parameters on performance of a typical radiant floor

S. Sattari; B. Farhanieh

2006-01-01

35

Development of a simulation tool to evaluate the performance of radiant cooling ceilings  

SciTech Connect

Considerable electrical energy used to cool nonresidential buildings equipped with All-Air Systems is drawn by the fans that transport the cool air through the thermal distribution system. Hydropic Cooling Systems have the potential to reduce the amount of air transported through the building by separating the tasks of ventilation and thermal conditioning. Due to the physical properties of water, Hydropic Cooling Systems can transport a given amount of thermal energy using less than 5% of the otherwise necessary fan energy. They are suited to the dry climates that are typical of California and been used for more than 30 years in hospital rooms. However, energy savings and peak-load characteristics have not yet been analyzed. Adequate guidelines for their design and control systems has prevented lack of their widespread application to other building types. Evaluation of theoretical performance of Hydropic Systems could be made by computer models. Energy analysis programs such as DOE-2 do not yet have the capacity to simulate Hydropic Cooling Systems. Scope of this project is developing a model that can accurately simulate the dynamic performance of Hydropic Radiant Cooling Systems. The model can calculate loads, heat extraction rates, room air temperature and room surface temperature distributions, and can be used to evaluate issues such as thermal comfort, controls, system sizing, system configuration and dynamic response. The model was created with the LBL Simulation Problem Analysis and Research Kernel (SPARK), which provides a methodology for describing and solving the dynamic, non-linear equations that correspond to complex physical systems. Potential for Hydropic Radiant Cooling Systems applications can be determined by running this model for a variety of construction types in different California climates.

Stetiu, C.; Feustel, H.E.; Winkelmann, F.C.

1995-06-01

36

Efficient Low-Lift Cooling with Radiant Distribution, Thermal Storage, and Variable-Speed Chiller Controls—Part II: Annual Use and Energy Savings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the cooling efficiency improvements that can be achieved by integrating radiant cooling, cool storage, and variable-speed compressor and transport motor controls. Performance estimates of a baseline system and seven useful combinations of these three efficient low-lift inspired cooling technologies are reported. The technology configurations are simulated in a prototypical office building with three levels of envelope and

Peter Armstrong; Wei Jiang; David W. Winiarski; Srinivas Katipamula; L. K. Norford

2009-01-01

37

Study of the Applications of the Radiant Cooling Panel in Museum Showcases  

E-print Network

The radiant cooling panel was proposed to control the temperature in the showcases to supply a steadier environment for cultural relic preservation. The new showcase and the convectional one's temperature and flow field were compared by numerical...

Yu, L.; Hou, H.; Wan, X.; Chen, H.

2006-01-01

38

Predictive pre-cooling control for low lift radiant cooling using building thermal mass  

E-print Network

Low lift cooling systems (LLCS) hold the potential for significant energy savings relative to conventional cooling systems. An LLCS is a cooling system which leverages existing HVAC technologies to provide low energy cooling ...

Gayeski, Nicholas (Nicholas Thomas)

2010-01-01

39

Where radiant barriers really shine  

SciTech Connect

Manufactures of radiant barrier materials claim their products significantly cut cooling costs by reducing summertime radiant heat gain through attics and ceilings. A new study confirms that radiant barriers can indeed conserve cooling energy. However, the study`s authors found that radiant barriers are much more effective at reducing energy losses from attic air conditioner duct runs than at directly lowering heat transfer through the attic floor into conditioned living space. Furthermore the study demonstrated that radiant barrier savings can be significant even in a new well-weatherized house and that these saving may justify specifying smaller capacity cooling systems. This article discusses the findings of the study.

Engel, R.

1996-07-01

40

Cooling Energy Measurements of Houses with Attics Containing Radiant Barriers  

E-print Network

W. P. Levins M. A. Karnitz D. K. Knight Research Engineer Research Bngineer Project Supervisor Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge National Laboratory Tennessee Valley Authority Oak Ridge, Tennessee Oak Ridge, Tennessee Chattanooga..., Tennessee ABSTRACT Tests were conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to determine the magnitude of the energy savings brought about by installing radiant barriers in the attics of single-family houses. The radiant barrier used...

Levins, W. P.; Karnitz, M. A.; Knight, D. K.

1986-01-01

41

Efficient Low-Lift cooling with Radiant Distribution, Thermal Storage and Variable-Speed Chiller Controls  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Building Technologies Program goal is to develop cost-effective technologies and building practices that will enable the design and construction of net-zero energy buildings by 2025. To support this goal, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated an integrated technology that through utilization of synergies between emerging heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems can significantly reduce energy consumption in buildings. This set consists of thermal storage, dedicated outdoor air system, radiant heating/cooling with a variable speed low-lift-optimized vapor compression system. The results show that the low-lift cooling system provides significant energy savings in many building types and climates locations. This market represents well over half of the entire U.S. commercial building sector. This analysis shows that significant cooling system efficiency gains can be achieved by integrating low-lift cooling technologies. The cooling energy savings for a standard-performance building range from 37% to 84% and, for a high-performance building, from -9% to 70%.

Katipamula, Srinivas; Armstrong, Peter; Wang, Weimin; Fernandez, Nicholas

2010-05-31

42

Mean Radiant Cooling in a Hot-Humid Climate  

E-print Network

Shaded interior mass walls in a hot-humid climate can be thermally grounded to an earth heat sink under an insulated structure. The mean radiant temperature (MRT) of the shaded and thermally grounded interior mass walls will be cooler in summer than...

Garrison, M.

1996-01-01

43

Analysis of Attic Radiant Barrier Systems Using Mathematical Models  

E-print Network

During the past six years, the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) has conducted extensive experimental research on radiant barrier systems (RBS). This paper presents recent research on the development of mathematical attic models. Two levels...

Fairey, P.; Swami, M.

1988-01-01

44

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument is one of five instruments that will be flown aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) observatory. Data from the CERES instrument will be used to study the energy exchanged between the Sun and the Earth's atmosphere, surface and clouds, and space. This webpage describes the TRMM mission, the CERES insrument, and how Earth's daily weather and climate are controlled by the balance between the amount of solar energy received by the Earth (both by its surface and its atmosphere and clouds) and the amount of energy emitted by Earth into space. School children worldwide will be involved in the CERES program, enabling them to be part of a scientific project. As a CERES instrument passes over, students will make local observations to determine the types of clouds over their school, the clouds' altitudes and how much of the sky they cover. Via the Internet, the students will then place their data in the NASA Langley Distributed Active Archive Center where the data will be stored for further analysis by the CERES science team.

45

Efficient Low-Lift Cooling with Radiant Distribution, Thermal Storage, and Variable-Speed Chiller Controls—Part I: Component and Subsystem Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Component and subsystem models used to evaluate the performance of a low-lift cooling system are described. An air-cooled chiller, a hydronic radiant distribution system, variable-speed control, and peak-shifting controls are modeled. A variable-speed compressor that operates over 20:1 speed range and pressure ratios ranging from one to six is at the heart of the chiller. Condenser fan and chilled-water pump

Peter Armstrong; Wei Jiang; David W. Winiarski; Srinivas Katipamula; L. K. Norford; ryan Willingham

2009-01-01

46

Strategies for flow rate balancing in radiant floor heating systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flow rate balancing makes it possible to provide each zone with a design flow rate and to meet the heating load in a radiant floor heating system. Even though the control device of the heating system works well, insufficient water flow rates can degrade control performance and thermal comfort. The water flow rate should be adjusted appropriately to cope with

Seong-Ryong Ryu; Kyu-Nam Rhee; Myoung-Souk Yeo; Kwang-Woo Kim

2008-01-01

47

Computer-aided design of radiant subfloor heating systems  

SciTech Connect

Radiant floor heating, with attributes such as decreasing space-conditioning loads, leveling peak loads, and exhibiting a better tie-in capability with heat pumps, is becoming a viable alternative for space heating and cooling in new or existing buildings when a retrofit is required. Generally, the retrofit is performed either by pouring a thin slab over the existing floor with the heating elements embedded in it or by attaching the heating elements to the subfloor from the joist space, if accessible. In this study, a computer program was developed for space heating from the joisted subfloor. Noting the energy storage in the heated floor and exposed building elements, a quasi-steady-state thermal model was employed, justified in practice by either continuous operation with water temperature modulation or intermittent operation with reasonably short off-periods. The algorithm is capable of predicting the required mean water temperature in a hydronic system when the floor construction details, tube spacing and material, heating load, and room characteristics are known. Alternatively, with a given limitation on the supply water temperature, the system can be optimally selected by reviewing and manipulating all the pertinent design variables. This paper explains the model and describes the computer program with a sample design.

Kilkis, I.B. [Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; [Heatway, Springfield, MO (United States); Sapci, M.

1995-08-01

48

Infiltration Investigation of a Radiantly Heated or Cooled Office  

E-print Network

dehumidification system. Earlier infiltration measurements using the tracer gas procedure showed infiltration levels of 0.78 - 1.12 ACH, while CO2 concentration measurements gave values from 0.1 - 0.2 ACH. This paper reports the results of infiltration levels...

Archer, D. H.; Gong, X.; Claridge, D. E.

2007-01-01

49

Predictive control of intermittently operated radiant floor heating systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A predictive control strategy as a means of improving the energy efficiency of intermittently heated radiant floor heating systems is explored. Both computer simulations and experiments are conducted to assess and compare the energy performance of the predictive control strategy with an existing conventional control strategy. The results show that use of the predictive control strategy could save between 10%

S. H Cho; M Zaheer-uddin

2003-01-01

50

CERES: Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brochure gives a brief description of the science research that is being done with data from the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument flying onboard NASA's Terra satellite. It also contains information about some of the data products and technical specifications.

1999-04-01

51

Design and Experiments of a Solar Low-temperature Hot Water Floor Radiant Heating System  

E-print Network

The solar low-temperature hot water floor radiant heating system combines solar energy heating with floor radiant heating. This kind of environmental heating way not only saves fossil resources and reduces pollution, but also makes people feel more...

Wu, Z.; Li, D.

2006-01-01

52

Advanced radiant combustion system. Final report, September 1989--September 1996  

SciTech Connect

Results of the Advanced Radiant Combustion System (ARCS) project are presented in this report. This work was performed by Alzeta Corporation as prime contractor under a contract to the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technologies as part of a larger DOE program entitled Research Program for Advanced Combustion Systems. The goals of the Alzeta ARCS project were to (a) Improve the high temperature performance characteristics of porous surface ceramic fiber burners, (b) Develop an Advanced Radiant Combustion System (ARCS) that combines combustion controls with an advanced radiant burner, and (c) Demonstrate the advanced burner and controls in an industrial application. Prior to the start of this project, Alzeta had developed and commercialized a porous surface radiant burner, the Pyrocore{trademark} burner. The product had been commercially available for approximately 5 years and had achieved commercial success in a number of applications ranging from small burners for commercial cooking equipment to large burners for low temperature industrial fluid heating applications. The burner was not recommended for use in applications with process temperatures above 1000{degrees}F, which prevented the burner from being used in intermediate to high temperature processes in the chemical and petroleum refining industries. The interest in increasing the maximum use temperature of the burner was motivated in part by a desire to expand the number of applications that could use the Pyrocore product, but also because many of the fluid sensitive heating applications of interest would benefit from the distributed flux characteristic of porous surface burners. Background information on porous surface radiant burners, and a discussion of advantages that would be provided by an improved product, are presented in Section 2.

Sullivan, J.D.; Carswell, M.G.; Long, F.S.

1996-09-01

53

Cooling-energy measurements of unoccupied single-family houses with attics containing radiant barriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tests were conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to determine the magnitude of the energy savings brought about by installing radiant barriers in the attics of single-family houses. The radiant barrier used for this test is a product with two reflective aluminum surfaces on a kraft paper base. The purpose of the radiant barrier is to reduce the radiant

W. P. Levins; M. A. Karnitz

1986-01-01

54

Radiant floors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiant floors are discussed as a means of recovering heat from solar spaces without resorting to rockbeds or other thermal mass storage schemes. Radiant floors may be applied to active, passive or hybrid solar space heating systems. They are described as relatively easy to build and to cost less than other means of thermal mass storage. Five ways of constructing

1982-01-01

55

HYDRONIC RADIANT FLOOR FOR HEATING AND COOLING COUPLED WITH AN UNDERGROUND HEAT EXCHANGER: MODELING APPROACH AND RESULTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the simulation of the thermal performance of a radiant floor for heating and cooling that is connected with an underground heat exchanger installed under the concrete floor of a house. In the heating season, an electric boiler is used to maintain the operative temperature at the set point value by varying the supply water temperature to the

Radu Zmeureanu; Jean Brau

56

Energy, cost, and CO2 emission comparison between radiant wall panel1 systems and radiator systems2  

E-print Network

of application or replacement of radiators9 with low-temperature radiant panels. This paper shows the comparison results of operations of 410 space heating systems: the low-temperature radiant panel system without any additional thermal11 insulation of external walls (PH-WOI), the low-temperature radiant panel system

Boyer, Edmond

57

Numerical Analysis of a Radiant Heat Flux Calibration System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A radiant heat flux gage calibration system exists in the Flight Loads Laboratory at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. This calibration system must be well understood if the heat flux gages calibrated in it are to provide useful data during radiant heating ground tests or flight tests of high speed aerospace vehicles. A part of the calibration system characterization process is to develop a numerical model of the flat plate heater element and heat flux gage, which will help identify errors due to convection, heater element erosion, and other factors. A 2-dimensional mathematical model of the gage-plate system has been developed to simulate the combined problem involving convection, radiation and mass loss by chemical reaction. A fourth order finite difference scheme is used to solve the steady state governing equations and determine the temperature distribution in the gage and plate, incident heat flux on the gage face, and flat plate erosion. Initial gage heat flux predictions from the model are found to be within 17% of experimental results.

Jiang, Shanjuan; Horn, Thomas J.; Dhir, V. K.

1998-01-01

58

RADIANT Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

R24 and Development in Advanced Network Technology (RADIANT) is a computer research division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The first Web site offers many publications from the five research focus groups within RADIANT: High-Performance Networking, Monitoring and Measurement, Cyber Security, Network Architecture, and Robust Systems and Networks. This material is mostly beneficial to professionals and research students specializing in these areas. The site also has links to information about job opportunities available at RADIANT, as well as the Advanced Summer Curriculum for Emerging Network Technologies (ASCENT). ASCENT is a summer internship program that accepts both undergraduate and graduate students interested in networking research.

2001-01-01

59

A dynamic advanced radiation exchange module for use in simulation of spaces with radiant systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface temperature of radiant systems can be significantly different than the temperature of other room surfaces. Therefore, radiation heat exchange often becomes the dominant mode of heat transfer. To accurately predict the surface temperature of radiant systems, it becomes necessary to model radiative heat fluxes in detail, in order to evaluate the thermal environment in terms of energy and

Devin Matthew Rohan

2011-01-01

60

Green Scheduling for Radiant Systems in Buildings Truong X. Nghiem, Madhur Behl, George J. Pappas and Rahul Mangharam  

E-print Network

reduction for buildings with electric radiant floor heating systems. Uncoordinated operation of a multi-zone radiant floor heating system can result in temporally correlated electricity demand surges or peaks results for general affine dynamical systems and applies them to electric radiant floor heating systems

Pappas, George J.

61

Thermal model of attic systems with radiant barriers  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the first phase of a project to model the thermal performance of radiant barriers. The objective of this phase of the project was to develop a refined model for the thermal performance of residential house attics, with and without radiant barriers, and to verify the model by comparing its predictions against selected existing experimental thermal performance data. Models for the thermal performance of attics with and without radiant barriers have been developed and implemented on an IBM PC/AT computer. The validity of the models has been tested by comparing their predictions with ceiling heat fluxes measured in a number of laboratory and field experiments on attics with and without radiant barriers. Cumulative heat flows predicted by the models were usually within about 5 to 10 percent of measured values. In future phases of the project, the models for attic/radiant barrier performance will be coupled with a whole-house model and further comparisons with experimental data will be made. Following this, the models will be utilized to provide an initial assessment of the energy savings potential of radiant barriers in various configurations and under various climatic conditions. 38 refs., 14 figs., 22 tabs.

Wilkes, K.E.

1991-07-01

62

Preliminary Study of a Vented Attic Radiant Barrier System in Hot, Humid Climates Using Side-by-Side, Full-Scale Test Houses  

E-print Network

A series of side-by-side tests was performed using two full scale test houses to determine the effectiveness of a Vented Radiant Barrier System (VRBS) in reducing the ceiling heat flux during the summer cooling season in North Florida. Another...

Lear, W. E.; Barrup, T. E.; Davis, K. E.

1987-01-01

63

Radiant{trademark} Liquid Radioisotope Intravascular Radiation Therapy System  

SciTech Connect

RADIANT{trademark} is manufactured by United States Surgical Corporation, Vascular Therapies Division, (formerly Progressive Angioplasty Systems). The system comprises a liquid {beta}-radiation source, a shielded isolation/transfer device (ISAT), modified over-the-wire or rapid exchange delivery balloons, and accessory kits. The liquid {beta}-source is Rhenium-188 in the form of sodium perrhenate (NaReO{sub 4}), Rhenium-188 is primarily a {beta}-emitter with a physical half-life of 17.0 hours. The maximum energy of the {beta}-particles is 2.1 MeV. The source is produced daily in the nuclear pharmacy hot lab by eluting a Tungsten-188/Rhenium-188 generator manufactured by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Using anion exchange columns and Millipore filters the effluent is concentrated to approximately 100 mCi/ml, calibrated, and loaded into the (ISAT) which is subsequently transported to the cardiac catheterization laboratory. The delivery catheters are modified Champion{trademark} over-the-wire, and TNT{trademark} rapid exchange stent delivery balloons. These balloons have thickened polyethylene walls to augment puncture resistance; dual radio-opaque markers and specially configured connectors.

Eigler, N.; Whiting, J.; Chernomorsky, A.; Jackson, J.; Knapp, F.F., Jr.; Litvack, F.

1998-01-16

64

Economic Evaluation of Insulation/Radiant Barrier Systems for the State of Texas  

E-print Network

This paper presents simulated performance of insulation/radiant barrier systems under different Texas climates. A transient heat and mass transfer model which predicts thermal performance of residential attics (Medina, 1992) was coupled...

Medina, M. A.; Turner, W. D.; O'Neal, D. L.

1994-01-01

65

Improved thermal performance of a hydronic radiant panel heating system by the optimization of tube shapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal performance enhancement of the hydronic radiant floor heating system by tube shape refinements is investigated\\u000a in this paper. Both analytical and detailed numerical modelings are carried out to predict the performance of the radiant\\u000a system. While the simple analytical model briefly investigates the possibility of the effect of the tube shape improvement\\u000a with the parametric analysis, the commercial

Young T. Chae; Kwang Ho Lee; Jae Sung Park

2011-01-01

66

BN-97-4-4 (RP-875) The Radiant Time Series Cooling  

E-print Network

, Ph.D., P.E. Member ASHRAE Daniel E. Fisher, Ph.D. Member ASHRAE Curtis O. Pedersen, Ph.D. Fellow calculations, derived from the heat balancemethod.It effectively replacesall other simpli- fied (non-heat-balance and the radiant time series coefficients and gives a brief comparisonto the heat balance method. INTRODUCTION

67

Radiant-convection heating: a marriage of two systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a theoretical and experimental study aimed at increasing the production capacity and lowering the fuel consumption of low- and medium-temperature industrial heat-processing operations, Burdett Manufacturing Co. finds that radiant-convection heating maximizes the advantages and minimizes the disadvantages of each of the parent techniques, convection heating and infrared heating. Theoretical considerations show that although convection heating is very uniform, it

1976-01-01

68

Thermal Performance Evaluation of Attic Radiant Barrier Systems Using the Large Scale Climate Simulator (LSCS)  

SciTech Connect

Application of radiant barriers and low-emittance surface coatings in residential building attics can significantly reduce conditioning loads from heat flow through attic floors. The roofing industry has been developing and using various radiant barrier systems and low-emittance surface coatings to increase energy efficiency in buildings; however, minimal data are available that quantifies the effectiveness of these technologies. This study evaluates performance of various attic radiant barrier systems under simulated summer daytime conditions and nighttime or low solar gain daytime winter conditions using the large scale climate simulator (LSCS). The four attic configurations that were evaluated are 1) no radiant barrier (control), 2) perforated low-e foil laminated oriented strand board (OSB) deck, 3) low-e foil stapled on rafters, and 4) liquid applied low-emittance coating on roof deck and rafters. All test attics used nominal RUS 13 h-ft2- F/Btu (RSI 2.29 m2-K/W) fiberglass batt insulation on attic floor. Results indicate that the three systems with radiant barriers had heat flows through the attic floor during summer daytime condition that were 33%, 50%, and 19% lower than the control, respectively.

Shrestha, Som S [ORNL] [ORNL; Miller, William A [ORNL] [ORNL; Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01

69

Demonstration of residential solar-assisted heat pump system -- Using ground coils, radiant floors, and pool  

SciTech Connect

A progress report is presented on a 2,700 ft{sup 2} (1,867.8 ft{sup 2} conditioned) home completed in mid-1994 in the Berkeley hills, which uses 320 ft{sup 2} of active, single-glazed roof panels, 2,000 linear feet of buried ground coils, 1,575 linear feet of tubing buried in a massive radiant floor and a 20,000 gal pool covered by a solar-bubble-blanket. The water-source heat pump was used for cooling of forced air to the house, heating from the ground coils to the radiant floor, and heating from the pool to the radiant floor. First, the passive performance of the unoccupied house was determined through three seasons, which showed maximum summertime temperatures of 78 F and minimum winter temperatures of 56 F, with no heating, cooling, or ventilation. With active heating, ventilation, solar heating, heat pump heating, the house maintained temperatures from 65 F at night, and from 68 to 74 F in daytime. The paper presents data on these various heating and cooling modes.

Galloway, T.R. [Intellergy, Inc., Berkeley, CA (United States); Gerber, G. [Sun Light and Power Co., Berkeley, CA (United States)

1995-10-01

70

Experimental Performance Analysis on Solar-Water Compound Source Heat Pump for Radiant Floor Heating System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to solve the instability and intermittence of solar heating system, a experiment system of indirect expansion solar assisted water source heat pump radiant floor heating is proposed in the paper. The mathematics model of coefficient of performance for the system is presented after analyzing the operation principle in different conditions. The influence of the inlet and outlet temperatures

Qu Shilin; Ma Fei

2010-01-01

71

Experimental study of thermal comfort for direct radiant floor heating system utilizing R22  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents experimental study for direct radiant floor heating system with air-source heat pump utilizing R22. An experimental platform was established, and thermal comfort of the heating system was analyzed from floor temperature, vertical temperature field, relative humidity, operation temperature and average radiation temperature, radiation asymmetry, PMV (Predicted Mean Vote) and PPD (Predicted Percent Dissatisfied). It shows that the

Xinling Ma; Xiangrui Meng; Jinjing Wu; Xinli Wei; Zhangchuan Zeng

2011-01-01

72

Experimental research and analysis of energy efficiency for direct radiant floor heating system with ASHP  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents experimental research and analysis of energy efficiency for direct radiant floor heating system with ASHP (air source heat pump). An experimental platform was built, and the performance of ASHP, heating effect and energy consumption of heating system were studied. The results show that the indoor heat load can be well met when the output capacity of ASHP

Xinling Ma; Xiangrui Meng; Xinli Wei; Zhangchuan Zeng

2011-01-01

73

Cooling Water System Optimization  

E-print Network

During summer months, many manufacturing plants have to cut back in rates because the cooling water system is not providing sufficient cooling to support higher production rates. There are many low/no-cost techniques available to improve tower...

Aegerter, R.

2005-01-01

74

Simulation study on hydronic balancing to improve individual room control for radiant floor heating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the application of radiant floor heating systems has significantly increased in many countries, resulting in the improvement of thermal comfort and energy efficiency. When it comes to the control method, individual room control is highly recommended because it can ensure thermal comfort and energy saving more successfully than that of central control, which had been widely adopted in the

KN Rhee; SR Ryu; Yeo; KW Kim

2010-01-01

75

Determination of Unfiltered Radiances from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for determining unfiltered shortwave (SW), longwave (LW), and window radiances from filtered radiances measured by the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) satellite instrument is presented. The method uses theoretically derived regression coefficients between filtered and unfiltered radiances that are a function of viewing geometry, geotype, and whether cloud is present. Relative errors in instantaneous

Norman G. Loeb; Kory J. Priestley; David P. Kratz; Erika B. Geier; Richard N. Green; Bruce A. Wielicki; Patricia O'Rawe Hinton; Sandra K. Nolan

2001-01-01

76

Cooling Water Systems Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for the Advancement of Process Technology presents this free sample module on cooling water systems in the process industry. The material includes 21 slides and will help learners understand related terms, the purpose of the basic equipment involved in cooling water systems and the safety, health and environmental concerns involved with these systems.

2013-01-04

77

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Elevation Bearing Assembly Life Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) elevation scan bearings lubricated with Pennzane SHF X2000 and 2% lead naphthenate (PbNp) were life tested for a seven-year equivalent Low Earth Orbit (LEO) operation. The bearing life assembly was tested continuously at an accelerated and normal rate using the scanning patterns developed for the CERES Earth Observing System AM-1 mission. A post-life-test analysis was performed on the collected data, bearing wear, and lubricant behavior.

Brown, Phillip L.; Miller, James B.; Jones, William R., Jr.; Rasmussen, Kent; Wheeler, Donald R.; Rana, Mauro; Peri, Frank

1999-01-01

78

Study of the Heating Load of a Manufactured Space with a Gas-fired Radiant Heating System  

E-print Network

A thermal balance mathematics model of a manufactured space with a gas-fired radiant heating system is established to calculate the heating load. Computer programs are used to solve the model. Envelope internal surface temperatures under different...

Zheng, X.; Dong, Z.

2006-01-01

79

An experimental study of multiple parameter switching control for radiant floor heating systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental facility consisting of two identical 3×4.4×3.8 m3 rooms has been built. Each room has a gas-fired boiler supplying hot water to the radiant-floor heating system. An electrically heated storage tank installed in the circuit ensures that hot water to the floor slab is supplied directly from the storage tank. The facility serves for instantaneous comparisons of two different

S.-H Cho; M Zaheer-uddin

1999-01-01

80

Predictive Control Model for Radiant Heating System Based on Neural Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

A predictive control model of radiant floor heating system is developed based on BP (back propagation) neural network, Which consists of input layer(14), hidden layer(16) and output layer(1). The model is trained with the experiment data and the on-line correction predictive control is conducted. The maximum relative error between the indoor temperature given by the on-line correction predictive control and

Hua Dong; Xiaojing Yan; Fengqin Chao; Ying Li

2008-01-01

81

Determination of Unfiltered Radiances from the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System Instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT A new method for determining unfiltered shortwave (SW), longwave (LW), and window radiances from filtered radiances measured,by the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) satellite instrument is presented. The method,uses theoretically derived regression coefficients between filtered and unfiltered radiances that are a function of viewing geometry, geotype, and whether cloud is present. Relative errors in instantaneous unfiltered

Norman G. Loeb; Kory J. Priestley; David P. Kratz; Erika B. Geier; Richard N. Green; Bruce A. Wielicki; Patricia O’Rawe Hinton; Sandra K. Nolan

2001-01-01

82

Numerical Simulation of a Radiant Heating System Using Solar-Ground Coupled Heat Pump with Seasonal Thermal Storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

To apply the solar-ground coupled heat pump (SGCHP) in severe cold areas, this paper presents the simulation study on a radiant heating system using SGCHP with seasonal thermal storage. The radiant heating system was installed in a detached house in the suburbs of Harbin (126°46'E, 45°45'N). The unit model of each component was given. The performance and operation characteristics of

Xiao Wang; Maoyu Zheng; Wenyong Zhang

2010-01-01

83

Passive containment cooling system  

DOEpatents

A containment cooling system utilizes a naturally induced air flow and a gravity flow of water over the containment shell which encloses a reactor core to cool reactor core decay heat in two stages. When core decay heat is greatest, the water and air flow combine to provide adequate evaporative cooling as heat from within the containment is transferred to the water flowing over the same. The water is heated by heat transfer and then evaporated and removed by the air flow. After an initial period of about three to four days when core decay heat is greatest, air flow alone is sufficient to cool the containment.

Conway, Lawrence E. (Robinson Township, Allegheny County, PA); Stewart, William A. (Penn Hills Township, Allegheny County, PA)

1991-01-01

84

Gas turbine cooling system  

DOEpatents

A gas turbine engine (10) having a closed-loop cooling circuit (39) for transferring heat from the hot turbine section (16) to the compressed air (24) produced by the compressor section (12). The closed-loop cooling system (39) includes a heat exchanger (40) disposed in the flow path of the compressed air (24) between the outlet of the compressor section (12) and the inlet of the combustor (14). A cooling fluid (50) may be driven by a pump (52) located outside of the engine casing (53) or a pump (54) mounted on the rotor shaft (17). The cooling circuit (39) may include an orifice (60) for causing the cooling fluid (50) to change from a liquid state to a gaseous state, thereby increasing the heat transfer capacity of the cooling circuit (39).

Bancalari, Eduardo E. (Orlando, FL)

2001-01-01

85

Personal Cooling System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cool Head, a personal cooling system for use in heat stress occupations, is a spinoff of a channeled cooling garment for space wear. It is portable and includes a heat exchanger, control display unit, liquid reservoir and temperature control unit. The user can eliminate 40 to 60 percent of his body's heat storage and lower heart rate by 50 to 80 beats a minute. The system is used by the Army, Navy, crop dusting pilots, heavy equipment operators and auto racing drivers and is marketed by Life Enhancement Technologies, LLC. Further applications are under consideration.

1986-01-01

86

Topic 14. Retrofit and optimal operation of the building energy systems Performances of Low Temperature Radiant Heating Systems  

E-print Network

Temperature Radiant Heating Systems Milorad Boji1*, Dragan Cvetkovi1 , Jasmina Skerli1 , Danijela Nikoli1, wall heating, floor heating, ceiling heating, EnergyPlus SUMMARY Low temperature heating panel systems exergy sources. The purpose of this paper is to compare floor, wall, ceiling, and floor-ceiling panel

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

87

A proposed combination radiant/convection system for an Arizona residence  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a proposed environmental control system to be demonstrated in a single-family detached residence in Arizona. The home is to be built of heavy mass (adobe) construction and will incorporate radiant surfaces in both the ceiling and the floor supplied by a hydronic source. A convective system will provide peak-load capability, replacement ventilation, and dehumidification control. A control system will be developed that is based on operative temperature. Sensors will monitor surface and temperatures, ambient air temperature, and indoor humidity. It is anticipated that the proposed system will provide a more stable comfort at a lower operating cost.

Scheatzle, D.G. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). School of Architecture

1996-11-01

88

Superconductor rotor cooling system  

DOEpatents

A system for cooling a superconductor device includes a cryocooler located in a stationary reference frame and a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with a rotating reference frame in which the superconductor device is located. A method of cooling a superconductor device includes locating a cryocooler in a stationary reference frame, and transferring heat from a superconductor device located in a rotating reference frame to the cryocooler through a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with the rotating reference frame.

Gamble, Bruce B. (Wellesley, MA); Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed (Framingham, MA); Schwall, Robert E. (Northborough, MA); Driscoll, David I. (South Euclid, OH); Shoykhet, Boris A. (Beachwood, OH)

2002-01-01

89

Waveguide cooling system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved system is described for cooling high power waveguides by the use of cooling ducts extending along the waveguide, which minimizes hot spots at the flanges where waveguide sections are connected together. The cooling duct extends along substantially the full length of the waveguide section, and each flange at the end of the section has a through hole with an inner end connected to the duct and an opposite end that can be aligned with a flange hole in another waveguide section. Earth flange is formed with a drainage groove in its face, between the through hole and the waveguide conduit to prevent leakage of cooling fluid into the waveguide. The ducts have narrowed sections immediately adjacent to the flanges to provide room for the installation of fasteners closely around the waveguide channel.

Chen, B. C. J.; Hartop, R. W. (inventors)

1981-01-01

90

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Visualization Single Satellite Footprint (SSF) Plot Generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument will be launched in 1997 to collect data on the Earth's radiation budget. The data retrieved from the satellite will be processed through twelve subsystems. The Single Satellite Footprint (SSF) plot generator software was written to assist scientists in the early stages of CERES data analysis, producing two-dimensional plots of the footprint radiation and cloud data generated by one of the subsystems. Until the satellite is launched, however, software developers need verification tools to check their code. This plot generator will aid programmers by geolocating algorithm result on a global map.

Barsi, Julia A.

1995-01-01

91

Cloud Effects on Meridional Atmospheric Energy Budget Estimated from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The zonal mean atmospheric cloud radiative effect, defined as the difference of the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) and surface cloud radiative effects, is estimated from three years of Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data. The zonal mean shortwave effect is small, though it tends to be positive (warming). This indicates that clouds increase shortwave absorption in the atmosphere, especially in midlatitudes. The zonal mean atmospheric cloud radiative effect is, however, dominated by the longwave effect. The zonal mean longwave effect is positive in the tropics and decreases with latitude to negative values (cooling) in polar regions. The meridional gradient of cloud effect between midlatitude and polar regions exists even when uncertainties in the cloud effect on the surface enthalpy flux and in the modeled irradiances are taken into account. This indicates that clouds increase the rate of generation of mean zonal available potential energy. Because the atmospheric cooling effect in polar regions is predominately caused by low level clouds, which tend to be stationary, we postulate that the meridional and vertical gradients of cloud effect increase the rate of meridional energy transport by dynamics in the atmosphere from midlatitude to polar region, especially in fall and winter. Clouds then warm the surface in polar regions except in the Arctic in summer. Clouds, therefore, contribute in increasing the rate of meridional energy transport from midlatitude to polar regions through the atmosphere.

Kato, Seiji; Rose, Fred G.; Rutan, David A.; Charlock, Thomas P.

2008-01-01

92

Ground Water Cooling System  

E-print Network

has a total shop area of 128,000 square feet and the majority of the machine tools are equipped with computerized numerical controls. The cooling system was designed around five (5) floor mounted, 50,000 CFM, air handling units which had been...

Greaves, K.; Chave, G. H.

1984-01-01

93

Radiant heat transfer in a closed system of semiopaque bodies separated by an emitting and absorbing gas medium  

SciTech Connect

The extensive use of films and plastics in the construction of modern structures evokes the necessity of solving radiant heat transfer problems relative to thermal radiation. Moreover, the space of these structures is filled with nonisothermal media emitting and absorbing thermal radiation since triatomic gases are usually contained therein. The cause of the nonisothermal nature of the gas space is the different temperature of its bounding surface. The radiant heat transfer problem for this system is solved, in this paper, by a model based on a closed emitting system bounded by a nonisothermal semiopaque shell with the absorption and emission of such a nonisothermal gas medium taken into account.

Gorshenin, V.P.

1988-08-01

94

Bi-radiant oven: a low-energy oven system. Volume I. Development and assessment  

SciTech Connect

The Bi-Radiant Oven system has three important features which provide improved performance. First, the cavity walls are highly reflective rather than absorptive thereby allowing these surfaces to operate at cooler temperatures. Second, the heating elements, similar in construction to those in a conventional oven, but operating at much lower temperatures, provide a prescribed, balanced radiant flux to the top and bottom surfaces of the food product. And third, the baking and roasting utensil has a highly absorptive finish. Instrumentation and methods of measurements have been developed for obtaining the important oven and food parameters during baking: wall, oven air, food and element temperatures; food mass loss rate; irradiance distribution; and convection heat flux. Observations on an experimental oven are presented and discussed. Thermal models relating the irradiance distribution to oven parameters have been compared with measurements using a new heat flux gage developed for the project. Using the DOE recommended test procedures, oven efficiencies of 20 to 23% have been measured. The heating requirements have been determined for seven food types: biscuits, meat loaf, baked foods, apple crisp, cornbread, macaroni and cheese casserole, and cheese souffle. Comparison of energy use with a conventional electric oven shows that energy savings greater than 50% can be realized. Detailed energy balances have been performed on two foods - beef roasts and yellow cake. Consideration of consumer acceptability of this new oven concept have been addressed.

DeWitt, D.P.; Peart, M.V.

1980-04-01

95

Event-based Green Scheduling of Radiant Systems in Buildings Truong X. Nghiem, George J. Pappas and Rahul Mangharam  

E-print Network

of electric radiant heating systems while maintaining indoor thermal comfort. This paper develops an event the disturbances and is thus more suitable for building systems. The effectiveness of the new strategy a customer is charged for both its electricity consumption and its peak demand over the billing cycle

Pappas, George J.

96

Modeling of Residential Attics with Radiant Barriers  

E-print Network

This paper gives a summary of the efforts at ORNL in modeling residential attics with radiant barriers. Analytical models based on a system of macroscopic heat balances have been developed. Separate models have been developed for horizontal radiant...

Wilkes, K. E.

1988-01-01

97

Numerical Simulation of Thermal Performance of Floor Radiant Heating System with Enclosed Phase Change Material  

E-print Network

In the present paper, a kind of enclosed phase change material (PCM) used in solar and low-temperature hot water radiant floor heating is investigated. On the basis of obtaining the best performance of PCM properties, a new radiant heating structure...

Qiu, L.; Wu, X.

2006-01-01

98

A Study on the Required Supply Water Temperature Calculating Method for the Control of Multizone Radiant Floor Heating System  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most common approaches to achieve better thermal comfort with the radiant floor heating system is supply water temperature control, which is that supply water temperature is varied with outdoor air temperature. But the application of this control method was not easy, because there has been no way to determine the supply water tem- perature. So in this

Jeong-Min Choi; Kyu-Nam Lee; Seong-Ryong Ryu; Yong-Yee Kim; Myoung-Souk Yeo; Kwang-Woo Kim

99

Influence of Attic Radiant Barrier Systems on Air Conditioning Demand in an Utility Pilot Project  

E-print Network

to the attic insulation and to the cooling duct system. Both of these mechanisms have strong potential impacts on cooling energy use as illustrated in Figures 1 and 2. The pilot project involved installation of RBS in nine homes that had been extensively...

Parker, D. S.; Sherwin, J. R.

2002-01-01

100

Effects of Radiant Barrier Systems on Ventilated Attics in a Hot and Humid Climate  

E-print Network

Results of side-by-side radiant barrier experiments using two identical 144 ft2 (nominal) test houses are presented. The test houses responded very similarly to weather variations prior to the retrofit. The temperatures of the test houses were...

Medina, M. A.; O'Neal, D. L.; Turner, W. D.

101

Gas turbine vane cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cooling system for stationary vanes in the turbine section of a gas turbine is described. Combustors for the turbine are disposed in a chamber that receives compressed air from a compressor section. This compressed air forms both combustion air and cooling air. The cooling air portion of the compressed air is recirculated through the vanes by bleeding it from

A. G. Chen; G. G. McQuiggan

1995-01-01

102

Mapping temperature and radiant geothermal heat flux anomalies in the Yellowstone geothermal system using ASTER thermal infrared data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of this work was to use satellite-based thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing data to measure, map, and monitor geothermal activity within the Yellowstone geothermal area to help meet the missions of both the U.S. Geological Survey Yellowstone Volcano Observatory and the Yellowstone National Park Geology Program. Specifically, the goals were to: 1) address the challenges of remotely characterizing the spatially and temporally dynamic thermal features in Yellowstone by using nighttime TIR data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and 2) estimate the temperature, geothermal radiant emittance, and radiant geothermal heat flux (GHF) for Yellowstone’s thermal areas (both Park wide and for individual thermal areas). ASTER TIR data (90-m pixels) acquired at night during January and February, 2010, were used to estimate surface temperature, radiant emittance, and radiant GHF from all of Yellowstone’s thermal features, produce thermal anomaly maps, and update field-based maps of thermal areas. A background subtraction technique was used to isolate the geothermal component of TIR radiance from thermal radiance due to insolation. A lower limit for the Yellowstone’s total radiant GHF was established at ~2.0 GW, which is ~30-45% of the heat flux estimated through geochemical (Cl-flux) methods. Additionally, about 5 km2 was added to the geodatabase of mapped thermal areas. This work provides a framework for future satellite-based thermal monitoring at Yellowstone as well as exploration of other volcanic / geothermal systems on a global scale.

Vaughan, R. Greg; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; Jaworowski, Cheryl; Heasler, Henry

2012-01-01

103

Transient temperature responses of hydronic radiant floor heating system by different pipe embedding depth and water supply condition.  

PubMed

"Ondol" is a Korean unique heating system. It is a specific radiant floor heating system using combustion heat of briquette or timber in Korea. Such traditional "Ondol" is changed to radiant heating system with pipe-coil embedded in the floor or slab. This study has contributed to the understandings of the transient behaviours of Ondol-heated floor panels and enclosure exposed to this type of heating system. The result is that the water supply temperature had a large effect on the rate of increase in floor surface and room air temperature. But, in spite of a higher water supply temperature, the heat flow rate was not increased considerably. The shallow pipe embedding depths, of course, result in a low heat flow rate. PMID:8373479

Chung, K S; Sohn, J Y; Baik, Y K; Kang, J S

1993-07-01

104

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Sensors and Preflight Calibration Plans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) spacecraft sensors are designed to measure broadband earth-reflected solar shortwave (0.3-5 microns) and earth-emitted longwave (5- > 100 microns) radiances at the top of the atmosphere as part of the Mission to Planet Earth program. The scanning thermistor bolometer sensors respond to radiances in the broadband shortwave (0.3-5 microns) and total-wave (0.3- > 100 microns) spectral regions, as well as to radiances in the narrowband water vapor window (8-12 microns) region. 'ne sensors are designed to operate for a minimum of 5 years aboard the NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission and Earth Observing System AM-1 spacecraft platforms that are scheduled for launches in 1997 and 1998, respectively. The flight sensors and the in-flight calibration systems will be calibrated in a vacuum ground facility using reference radiance sources, tied to the international temperature scale of 1990. The calibrations will be used to derive sensor gains, offsets, spectral responses, and point spread functions within and outside of the field of view. The shortwave, total-wave, and window ground calibration accuracy requirements (1 sigma) are +/-0.8, +/-0.6, and +/-0.3 W /sq m/sr, respectively, while the corresponding measurement precisions are +/-O.5% and +/-1.0% for the broadband longwave and shortwave radiances, respectively. The CERES sensors, in-flight calibration systems, and ground calibration instrumentation are described along with outlines of the preflight and in-flight calibration approaches.

Lee, Robert B., III; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Smith, G. Louis; Cooper, John E.; Kopia, Leonard P.; Lawrence, R. Wes; Thomas, Susan; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Crommelynck, Dominique A. H.

1996-01-01

105

Examination of operational dynamics of radiant ceiling panel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiant ceiling panels can be used in large-volume halls, e.g. vehicle repair shops and markets, to heat the entire or specific zones of the enclosed space. The system with radiant panels may be of small water capacity when just one or several units are installed over selected zones to provide additional heating. Depending on dimensions of radiant ceiling panel, its mounting mode and the temperature of its feeding medium, various thermal conditions are created under such panel. Thermal effects are also affected by the mode of thermal or cooling power control and dynamics of such control for an individual radiant panel or a set of panels. The dynamics of attainable radiant ceiling panel capacity was investigated and used as the grounds to determine general requirements for time-domain automatic control programs and those for operation of the controllers. The results presented from the examinations carried out for water radiators are not intended to delineate the requirements for all automatic control loops for water radiators; they are aimed at attracting attention to issues to be considered when preparing the algorithm of automatic control in particular situations.

Dudkiewicz, Edyta; Jadwiszczak, Piotr; Je?owiecki, Janusz

2011-06-01

106

Cooling system for automotive engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An internal combustion engine: a structure subject to heat flux; and a cooling system is described which consists of: a cooling circuit which includes: (a) a coolant jacket formed about the structure subject to high heat flux and into which coolant is introduced in liquid form, permitted to boil and discharged in gaseous form, (b) a radiator exposed to a

Hirano

1986-01-01

107

Temperature initiated passive cooling system  

DOEpatents

A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature.

Forsberg, Charles W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01

108

Nonimaging radiant energy device  

DOEpatents

A nonimaging radiant energy device may include a hyperbolically shaped reflective element with a radiant energy inlet and a radiant energy outlet. A convex lens is provided at the radiant energy inlet and a concave lens is provided at the radiant energy outlet. Due to the provision of the lenses and the shape of the walls of the reflective element, the radiant energy incident at the radiant energy inlet within a predetermined angle of acceptance is emitted from the radiant energy outlet exclusively within an acute exit angle. In another embodiment, the radiant energy device may include two interconnected hyperbolically shaped reflective elements with a respective convex lens being provided at each aperture of the device.

Winston, Roland (Chicago, IL); Ning, Xiaohui (North Providence, RI)

1996-01-01

109

Nonimaging radiant energy device  

DOEpatents

A nonimaging radiant energy device may include a hyperbolically shaped reflective element with a radiant energy inlet and a radiant energy outlet. A convex lens is provided at the radiant energy inlet and a concave lens is provided at the radiant energy outlet. Due to the provision of the lenses and the shape of the walls of the reflective element, the radiant energy incident at the radiant energy inlet within a predetermined angle of acceptance is emitted from the radiant energy outlet exclusively within an acute exit angle. In another embodiment, the radiant energy device may include two interconnected hyperbolically shaped reflective elements with a respective convex lens being provided at each aperture of the device.

Winston, Roland (Chicago, IL); Ning, Xiaohui (North Providence, RI)

1993-01-01

110

Process Cooling Systems  

E-print Network

the information and basic techniques needed by the plant operating engineer for =npleting an eca10mic evaluation of a cooling tower efficiency irrprovement rroclification or investment. BASIC DEFINITIO~ FC - First Cost - 'll1is is the initial oost of any... to be in use. oc Depreciation Olarge - OC is the annual depreciation of the investJrent. For the thermal upgrade exarrple, straight line depreciation would be FC/EL. TYPES OF ECCN:MIC MEASURES funey saved today is rrore valuable than that saved at a...

McCann, C. J.

1983-01-01

111

Gas turbine vane cooling system  

SciTech Connect

A cooling system for stationary vanes in the turbine section of a gas turbine is described. Combustors for the turbine are disposed in a chamber that receives compressed air from a compressor section. This compressed air forms both combustion air and cooling air. The cooling air portion of the compressed air is recirculated through the vanes by bleeding it from the chamber and further pressurizing it, after which it flows through a cooling air flow path in the vanes, thereby resulting in the cooling of the vanes and the heating of the air. The heated air is then returned to the chamber where it mixes with the incoming combustion air, thereby giving up a portion of the heat transferred from the vane to the combustion air. As a result, the temperature of the combustion air is increased, thereby increasing the thermodynamic efficiency of the gas turbine. The cooling scheme provides cooling to the vane inner and outer shrouds, as well as the airfoil, by means of circumferentially extending holes in the shrouds that connect with a cooling air cavity in the airfoil. 5 figs.

Chen, A.G.; McQuiggan, G.G.

1995-03-07

112

Non-intrusive cooling system  

DOEpatents

A readily replaceable heat exchange cooling jacket for applying fluid to a system conduit pipe. The cooling jacket comprises at least two members, separable into upper and lower portions. A chamber is formed between the conduit pipe and cooling jacket once the members are positioned about the pipe. The upper portion includes a fluid spray means positioned above the pipe and the bottom portion includes a fluid removal means. The heat exchange cooling jacket is adaptable with a drain tank, a heat exchanger, a pump and other standard equipment to provide a system for removing heat from a pipe. A method to remove heat from a pipe, includes the steps of enclosing a portion of the pipe with a jacket to form a chamber between an outside surface of the pipe and the cooling jacket; spraying cooling fluid at low pressure from an upper portion of the cooling jacket, allowing the fluid to flow downwardly by gravity along the surface of the pipe toward a bottom portion of the chamber; and removing the fluid at the bottom portion of the chamber.

Morrison, Edward F. (Burnt Hills, NY); Bergman, John W. (Barrington, NH)

2001-05-22

113

Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES), a Review: Past, Present and Future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) project s objectives are to measure the reflected solar radiance (shortwave) and Earth-emitted (longwave) radiances and from these measurements to compute the shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and the surface and radiation divergence within the atmosphere. The fluxes at TOA are to be retrieved to an accuracy of 2%. Improved bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) have been developed to compute the fluxes at TOA from the measured radiances with errors reduced from ERBE by a factor of two or more. Instruments aboard the Terra and Aqua spacecraft provide sampling at four local times. In order to further reduce temporal sampling errors, data are used from the geostationary meteorological satellites to account for changes of scenes between observations by the CERES radiometers. A validation protocol including in-flight calibrations and comparisons of measurements has reduced the instrument errors to less than 1%. The data are processed through three editions. The first edition provides a timely flow of data to investigators and the third edition provides data products as accurate as possible with resources available. A suite of cloud properties retrieved from the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) by the CERES team is used to identify the cloud properties for each pixel in order to select the BRDF for each pixel so as to compute radiation fluxes from radiances. Also, the cloud information is used to compute radiation at the surface and through the atmosphere and to facilitate study of the relationship between clouds and the radiation budget. The data products from CERES include, in addition to the reflected solar radiation and Earth emitted radiation fluxes at TOA, the upward and downward shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes at the surface and at various levels in the atmosphere. Also at the surface the photosynthetically active radiation and ultraviolet radiation (total, UVA and UVB) are computed. The CERES instruments aboard the Terra and Aqua spacecraft have served well past their design life times. A CERES instrument has been integrated onto the NPP platform and is ready for launch in 2011. Another CERES instrument is being built for launch in 2014, and plans are being made for a series of follow-on missions.

Smith, G. L.; Priestley, K. J.; Loeb, N. G.; Wielicki, B. A.; Charlock, T. P.; Minnis, P.; Doelling, D. R.; Rutan, D. A.

2011-01-01

114

Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES), a review: Past, present and future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) project's objectives are to measure the reflected solar radiance (shortwave) and Earth-emitted (longwave) radiances and from these measurements to compute the shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and the surface and radiation divergence within the atmosphere. The fluxes at TOA are to be retrieved to an accuracy of 2%. Improved bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) have been developed to compute the fluxes at TOA from the measured radiances with errors reduced from ERBE by a factor of two or more. Instruments aboard the Terra and Aqua spacecraft provide sampling at four local times. In order to further reduce temporal sampling errors, data are used from the geostationary meteorological satellites to account for changes of scenes between observations by the CERES radiometers. A validation protocol including in-flight calibrations and comparisons of measurements has reduced the instrument errors to less than 1%. The data are processed through three editions. The first edition provides a timely flow of data to investigators and the third edition provides data products as accurate as possible with resources available. A suite of cloud properties retrieved from the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) by the CERES team is used to identify the cloud properties for each pixel in order to select the BRDF for each pixel so as to compute radiation fluxes from radiances. Also, the cloud information is used to compute radiation at the surface and through the atmosphere and to facilitate study of the relationship between clouds and the radiation budget. The data products from CERES include, in addition to the reflected solar radiation and Earth emitted radiation fluxes at TOA, the upward and downward shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes at the surface and at various levels in the atmosphere. Also at the surface the photosynthetically active radiation and ultraviolet radiation (total, UVA and UVB) are computed. The CERES instruments aboard the Terra and Aqua spacecraft have served well past their design life times. A CERES instrument has been integrated onto the NPP platform and is ready for launch in 2011. Another CERES instrument is being built for launch in 2014, and plans are being made for a series of follow-on missions.

Smith, G. L.; Priestley, K. J.; Loeb, N. G.; Wielicki, B. A.; Charlock, T. P.; Minnis, P.; Doelling, D. R.; Rutan, D. A.

2011-07-01

115

Porous radiant burners having increased radiant output  

DOEpatents

Means and methods for enhancing the output of radiant energy from a porous radiant burner by minimizing the scattering and increasing the adsorption, and thus emission of such energy by the use of randomly dispersed ceramic fibers of sub-micron diameter in the fabrication of ceramic fiber matrix burners and for use therein.

Tong, Timothy W. (Tempe, AZ); Sathe, Sanjeev B. (Tempe, AZ); Peck, Robert E. (Tempe, AZ)

1990-01-01

116

Solar-powered cooling system  

DOEpatents

A solar-powered adsorption-desorption refrigeration and air conditioning system uses nanostructural materials made of high specific surface area adsorption aerogel as the adsorptive media. Refrigerant molecules are adsorbed on the high surface area of the nanostructural material. A circulation system circulates refrigerant from the nanostructural material to a cooling unit.

Farmer, Joseph C

2013-12-24

117

Boiling liquid engine cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A boiling liquid cooling system is described for an engine, comprising: means defining in the engine a coolant jacket into which coolant is introduced in liquid state and from which coolant is discharged in gaseous state; a radiator into which gaseous coolant from the coolant jacket is introduced to be liquified; an electric pump for pumping the coolant thus liquified

N. Miura; Y. Hayashi

1987-01-01

118

Lamination cooling system formation method  

DOEpatents

An electric motor, transformer or inductor having a cooling system. A stack of laminations have apertures at least partially coincident with apertures of adjacent laminations. The apertures define straight or angled cooling-fluid passageways through the lamination stack. Gaps between the adjacent laminations are sealed by injecting a heat-cured sealant into the passageways, expelling excess sealant, and heat-curing the lamination stack. Manifold members adjoin opposite ends of the lamination stack, and each is configured with one or more cavities to act as a manifold to adjacent passageway ends. Complex manifold arrangements can create bidirectional flow in a variety of patterns.

Rippel, Wally E [Altadena, CA; Kobayashi, Daryl M [Monrovia, CA

2009-05-12

119

Efficient Low-Lift Cooling with Radiant Distribution, Thermal Storage and Variable-Speed Chiller Controls Part I: Component and Subsystem Models  

SciTech Connect

this paper develops component and subsystem models used to evaluat4e the performance of a low-lift cooling system with an air-colled chiller optimized for variable-speed and low-pressure-ratio operation, a hydronic radient distribution system, variable-speed transport miotor controls, and peak-shifting controls.

Armstrong, Peter; Jiang, Wei; Winiarski, David W.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Norford, L. K.; Willingham, ryan

2009-03-31

120

A STUDY ON THE APPLICABILITY OF THE TIME-DIVISION HOT-WATER SUPPLY HEATING FOR ONDOL - THE RADIANT FLOOR HEATING SYSTEM IN KOREA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The typical Korean residential buildings, especially apartment buildings, are furnished with ONDOL - the Korean traditional radiant floor heating system. The buildings are getting more insulated and air tight for heating in hard winter. O NDOL floors and walls are heavy enough to take up large thermal capacities for the better efficiency of the heating system. The developed computer simulation

Yong-Yee Kim; Ho-Tae Seok; Jeong-Min Choi; Hyun-Woo Lee; Kwang-Woo Kim

121

Large modular graphite radiant heaters for testing space shuttle thermal protection systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A graphite radiant heating array, capable of heating a 5-ft span of shuttle wing leading edge or a 4 x 8 ft flat panel through an entry thermal profile up to 3200 G, has been designed and built by McDonnell Douglas Corporation for NASA-Johnson Space Center. The unique, interchangeable, self-contained heather modules and their versatile support structure/coolant manifold are discussed along with the extensive thermal analysis that accompanied the design effort. A complete description of the geometric capabilities of the array, as well as the design details of the individual modules, is presented. The complete performance envelope of the array is discussed, including maximum temperature and gradients, heating uniformity, and the required utilities and support equipment.

Cox, B. G.; Christensen, H. E.

1975-01-01

122

Jet-engine combustor spectral radiation measurements using fiberoptic instrumentation system. Radiant energy power source for jet aircraft. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is a summary of spectral radiation measurements made at Williams Air Force Base, Chandler, Arizona on a General Electric J-85-5 engine. The spectral radiation measurements consisted of a complete axial profile down the combustor and are directed toward the application of Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft. Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft relates to the

Doellner

1986-01-01

123

Evaluation of existing cooling systems for reducing cooling power consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work was designed to estimate the cooling load power consumption during the summer in the hot and humid areas of Iran. The actual electrical energy consumption for cooling systems of some typical buildings with various applications (3 residential home buildings, 2 industrial plant buildings, a trade center with 38 shops, 3 public sectors and a city hospital) in a

M. S. Hatamipour; H. Mahiyar; M. Taheri

2007-01-01

124

Effect of bake-out on reducing VOC emissions and concentrations in a residential housing unit with a radiant floor heating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzed the effect of bake-out on reducing VOC emissions and indoor concentrations in a residential housing unit with a radiant floor heating system. The effect of an elevated temperature on VOC emissions from a wallpaper assembly, plywood flooring assembly, and particle board (as an example of furniture material) was investigated in a small-scale chamber. Simultaneously, in the residential

Dong Hwa Kang; Dong Hee Choi; Seung Min Lee; Myoung Souk Yeo; Kwang Woo Kim

2010-01-01

125

Missouri automated radiology system: A dynamic, interactive diagnostic and management system for radiant images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Missouri Automated Radiology System has functioned in full support of the Department of Radiology for more than 7 years. For the past 5 years, MARS has functioned as a minicomputer system on a DEC (Digital Equipment Corporation) PDP-15 computer. While continuing to effectively support the department, in daily use by 20 staff and 15 resident physicians, MARS has continued to

Gwilym S. Lodwick; Richard J. Tully; Carroll R. Markivee; B. R. Hakimi; Fred J. Dittrich

1977-01-01

126

Cooling system for superconducting magnet  

DOEpatents

A cooling system is configured to control the flow of a refrigerant by controlling the rate at which the refrigerant is heated, thereby providing an efficient and reliable approach to cooling a load (e.g., magnets, rotors). The cooling system includes a conduit circuit connected to the load and within which a refrigerant circulates; a heat exchanger, connected within the conduit circuit and disposed remotely from the load; a first and a second reservoir, each connected within the conduit, each holding at least a portion of the refrigerant; a heater configured to independently heat the first and second reservoirs. In a first mode, the heater heats the first reservoir, thereby causing the refrigerant to flow from the first reservoir through the load and heat exchanger, via the conduit circuit and into the second reservoir. In a second mode, the heater heats the second reservoir to cause the refrigerant to flow from the second reservoir through the load and heat exchanger via the conduit circuit and into the first reservoir.

Gamble, Bruce B. (Wellesley, MA); Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed (Framingham, MA)

1998-01-01

127

Temperature regulation of radiant floor heating systems using two-parameter on-off control: An experimental study  

SciTech Connect

An experimental facility consisting of two 3 x 4.4 x 3.8 m (9.8 x 14.4 x 12.4 ft) rooms identical in construction was built. The test facility was designed to enable simultaneous comparison of two different control strategies, each implemented in a separate room. Each room was installed with a gas-fired boiler supplying hot water to the radiant floor heating system. An electrically heated storage tank was also installed in the circuit so that hot water to the floor slab could be supplied directly from the storage tank. This latter arrangement was found to be useful in accurately assessing the performance of different flow-modulating control strategies. Four different control strategies were evaluated. (1) Conventional air temperature-based on-off control. In this scheme the pump is operated in on-off mode to maintain room air temperature within chosen limits. (2) Digital PI control. Here, a PI controller is used to modulate the two-way valve to maintain room air temperature at the setpoint. (3) floor slab temperature-based on-off control. In this strategy the pump is operated in the on-off mode to maintain the slab temperature within high and low limits. (4) Two-parameter (air and floor slab temperature) on-off control. In this scheme the pump is operated in the on-off mode to maintain both room air and slab temperatures within desired limits. Feedback signals from the room and slab temperatures were used in alternate sequence to control the pump. Results show that two-parameter on-off control keeps the room air temperature and slab temperature within reasonable limits and gives good temperature regulation. Being simple and cost-effective, it is a good candidate for radiant heat control.

Cho, S.H. [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Zaheer-uddin, M. [Concordia Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Centre for Building Studies

1997-12-31

128

46 CFR 153.432 - Cooling systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

(a) Each cargo cooling system must have an equivalent standby unit that is installed and that can be placed in operation immediately after failure of the primary cooling system. (b) Each tankship that has a cargo tank with a required cooling system must have a manual that...

2010-10-01

129

Preliminary study of a radiantly heated bed for the production of high-purity silicon  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the exploration of a processing method which uses radiant heating of the particles of a fluidized bed for the production of high-purity silicon. The process involves heating the particles at the surface of a shallow fluidized bed by radiant heaters located above the surface of the bed. The radiant sources could be cooled by a purge of

O. Levenspiel; M. B. Larson; F. Ouyang; G. T. Zhang

1984-01-01

130

Thermal Storage with Conventional Cooling Systems  

E-print Network

simple thermal energy storage system that already exists in almost every structure - concrete. Thermal storage calculations simulate sub-cooling of a building's structure during unoccupied times. During occupied times, the sub-cooled concrete reduces peak...

Kieninger, R. T.

1994-01-01

131

Mining Gold from your Cooling Water System  

E-print Network

Mining Gold from your Cooling Water System Tino Mendez Director Energy Engineering The Benham Companies, LLC Oklahoma City, Oklahoma ABSTRACT You may be missing on a fabulous opportunity to save on operating costs in your cooling water...Mining Gold from your Cooling Water System Tino Mendez Director Energy Engineering The Benham Companies, LLC Oklahoma City, Oklahoma ABSTRACT You may be missing on a fabulous opportunity to save on operating costs in your cooling water...

Mendez, T.

132

Cool systems for hot cities  

SciTech Connect

On a hot summer day, Los Angeles, CA, like Baltimore, MD, Phoenix, AZ, Washington, D.C., and Tokyo, Japan, is c. 6-8 degrees F hotter than its surrounding areas. Dark buildings and pavement have replaced urban vegetation in these cities, absorbing more solar heat. The urban heat islands that are created result in increased air-conditioning costs, energy use, and pollution. Scientists at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have been studying the effects of roof system color and type on the energy used to cool a building. The results of this research indicate that roofing professionals should consider the reflectance (albedo) and emittance (release of absorbed heat) of the roof systems they install.

Akbari, Hashem; Bretz, Sarah

1998-09-02

133

Evaporative cooling enhanced cold storage system  

DOEpatents

The invention provides an evaporatively enhanced cold storage system wherein a warm air stream is cooled and the cooled air stream is thereafter passed into contact with a cold storage unit. Moisture is added to the cooled air stream prior to or during contact of the cooled air stream with the cold storage unit to effect enhanced cooling of the cold storage unit due to evaporation of all or a portion of the added moisture. Preferably at least a portion of the added moisture comprises water condensed during the cooling of the warm air stream.

Carr, Peter (Cary, NC)

1991-01-01

134

Evaporative cooling enhanced cold storage system  

DOEpatents

The invention provides an evaporatively enhanced cold storage system wherein a warm air stream is cooled and the cooled air stream is thereafter passed into contact with a cold storage unit. Moisture is added to the cooled air stream prior to or during contact of the cooled air stream with the cold storage unit to effect enhanced cooling of the cold storage unit due to evaporation of all or a portion of the added moisture. Preferably at least a portion of the added moisture comprises water condensed during the cooling of the warm air stream. 3 figures.

Carr, P.

1991-10-15

135

Heat exchanger with auxiliary cooling system  

DOEpatents

A heat exchanger with an auxiliary cooling system capable of cooling a nuclear reactor should the normal cooling mechanism become inoperable. A cooling coil is disposed around vertical heat transfer tubes that carry secondary coolant therethrough and is located in a downward flow of primary coolant that passes in heat transfer relationship with both the cooling coil and the vertical heat transfer tubes. A third coolant is pumped through the cooling coil which absorbs heat from the primary coolant which increases the downward flow of the primary coolant thereby increasing the natural circulation of the primary coolant through the nuclear reactor.

Coleman, John H. (Salem Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

1980-01-01

136

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) algorithm theoretical basis document. Volume 1; Overviews (subsystem 0)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The theoretical bases for the Release 1 algorithms that will be used to process satellite data for investigation of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) are described. The architecture for software implementation of the methodologies is outlined. Volume 1 provides both summarized and detailed overviews of the CERES Release 1 data analysis system. CERES will produce global top-of-the-atmosphere shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere, at the surface, and within the atmosphere by using the combination of a large variety of measurements and models. The CERES processing system includes radiance observations from CERES scanning radiometers, cloud properties derived from coincident satellite imaging radiometers, temperature and humidity fields from meteorological analysis models, and high-temporal-resolution geostationary satellite radiances to account for unobserved times. CERES will provide a continuation of the ERBE record and the lowest error climatology of consistent cloud properties and radiation fields. CERES will also substantially improve our knowledge of the Earth's surface radiation budget.

Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator); Barkstrom, Bruce R. (Principal Investigator); Baum, Bryan A.; Cess, Robert D.; Charlock, Thomas P.; Coakley, James A.; Green, Richard N.; Lee, Robert B., III; Minnis, Patrick; Smith, G. Louis

1995-01-01

137

Indoor Humidity Analysis of an Integrated Radiant Cooling and Desiccant Ventilation System  

E-print Network

Effectiveness. Part 2-Correlations, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, Vol 42 n12, 2171-2185. [15] Simonson, C.J., Shang, W., Besant, R.W., 2000, Part- Load Performance of Energy Wheels: Part I-wheel speed control, ASHRAE Transactions Vol 106 part 1, 286-300. [16... Effectiveness. Part 2-Correlations, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, Vol 42 n12, 2171-2185. [15] Simonson, C.J., Shang, W., Besant, R.W., 2000, Part- Load Performance of Energy Wheels: Part I-wheel speed control, ASHRAE Transactions Vol 106 part 1, 286-300. [16...

Gong, X.; Claridge, D. E.

2006-01-01

138

Cooling system for electrical machine  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A hydraulic circuit branch of a cooling system in thermal contact with the stator winding of a hydraulic power generator is provided with a feed tube divided into two separate input tube sections. The downstream ends of the input tube sections are connected to respective multiplicities of subsidiary hydraulic circuit branches in the form of winding bars via a pair of semicircular manifolds. The current throughput through the winding bars is monitored by determining the difference between the rates of coolant flow through the approximately identical input tube sections. If the rates of coolant flow or throughputs in the input tube sections differ from one another by an amount which itself differs from a predetermined reference value by more than a preselected threshold, a warning signal is generated indicating that heat removal from the hydraulic power generator is being impaired.

1988-06-28

139

Reactor steam isolation cooling system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a reactor steam isolation cooling system. It comprises: a containment building having a containment wall; a reactor pressure vessel disposed inside the containment building and including a nuclear reactor core therein operable for generating reactor steam; an isolation pool disposed outside the containment building and adjacent to the containment wall and containing pool water; an isolation condenser including: a plurality of parallel heat pipes; a tube sheet disposed between the hot and cold tubes and through which the heat pipes are disposed in sealing contact therewith; and means for selectively channeling the reactor steam from the pressure vessel between the hot tubes of the evaporator assembly for removing heat therefrom to form reactor condensate.

Dillmann, C.W.

1992-10-27

140

Reactor core isolation cooling system  

DOEpatents

A reactor core isolation cooling system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core, a drywell vessel, a containment vessel, and an isolation pool containing an isolation condenser. A turbine is operatively joined to the pressure vessel outlet steamline and powers a pump operatively joined to the pressure vessel feedwater line. In operation, steam from the pressure vessel powers the turbine which in turn powers the pump to pump makeup water from a pool to the feedwater line into the pressure vessel for maintaining water level over the reactor core. Steam discharged from the turbine is channeled to the isolation condenser and is condensed therein. The resulting heat is discharged into the isolation pool and vented to the atmosphere outside the containment vessel for removing heat therefrom. 1 figure.

Cooke, F.E.

1992-12-08

141

Emergency cooling system and method  

DOEpatents

An improved emergency cooling system and method are disclosed that may be adapted for incorporation into or use with a nuclear BWR wherein a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) containing a nuclear core and a heat transfer fluid for circulation in a heat transfer relationship with the core is housed within an annular sealed drywell and is fluid communicable therewith for passage thereto in an emergency situation the heat transfer fluid in a gaseous phase and any noncondensibles present in the RPV, an annular sealed wetwell houses the drywell, and a pressure suppression pool of liquid is disposed in the wetwell and is connected to the drywell by submerged vents. The improved emergency cooling system and method has a containment condenser for receiving condensible heat transfer fluid in a gaseous phase and noncondensibles for condensing at least a portion of the heat transfer fluid. The containment condenser has an inlet in fluid communication with the drywell for receiving heat transfer fluid and noncondensibles, a first outlet in fluid communication with the RPV for the return to the RPV of the condensed portion of the heat transfer fluid and a second outlet in fluid communication with the drywell for passage of the noncondensed balance of the heat transfer fluid and the noncondensibles. The noncondensed balance of the heat transfer fluid and the noncondensibles passed to the drywell from the containment condenser are mixed with the heat transfer fluid and the noncondensibles from the RPV for passage into the containment condenser. A water pool is provided in heat transfer relationship with the containment condenser and is thermally communicable in an emergency situation with an environment outside of the drywell and the wetwell for conducting heat transferred from the containment condenser away from the wetwell and the drywell. 5 figs.

Oosterkamp, W.J.; Cheung, Y.K.

1994-01-04

142

Internal convective cooling systems for hypersonic aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parametric studies were conducted to investigate the relative merits of construction materials, coolants, and cooled panel concepts for internal convective cooling systems applied to airframe structures of hydrogen-fueled hypersonic aircraft. These parametric studies were then used as a means of comparing various cooled structural arrangements for a hypersonic transport and a hypersonic research airplane. The cooled airplane studies emphasized weight aspects as related to the choice of materials, structural arrangements, structural temperatures, and matching of the cooling system heat load to the available hydrogen fuel-flow heat sink. Consideration was given to reliability and to fatigue and fracture aspects, as well. Even when auxiliary thermal protection system items such as heat shielding, insulation, and excess hydrogen for cooling are considered the more attractive actively cooled airframe concepts indicated potential payload increases of from 40 percent to over 100 percent for the hypersonic transport as compared to the results of previous studies of the same vehicle configuration with an uncooled airframe.

Anthony, F. M.; Dukes, W. H.; Helenbrook, R. G.

1975-01-01

143

Sensor performance of Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments aboard EOS Terra and Aqua spacecraft based on post-launch calibration studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments were designed to measure the reflected shortwave and emitted longwave radiances of the Earth's radiation budget and to investigate the cloud interactions with global radiances for the long-term monitoring of Earth's climate. The three scanning thermistor bolometers measure the broadband radiances in the shortwave (0.3 to 5.0 micrometer), total (0.3 to

Susan Thomas; K. J. Priestley; P. C. Hess; R. S. Wilson; M. A. Avery; D. R. Walikainen; Z. P. Szewczyk; D. L. Cooper; M. Shankar

2009-01-01

144

Conversion of radiant light energy in photobioreactors  

SciTech Connect

The conversion of radiant light energy into chemical affinity by microorganisms in photobioreactors is examined. The kinetics of entropy production in the system is theoretically established from entropy and energy balances for the material and photonic phases in the reactor. A negative chemical affinity term compensated for by a radiant energy term at a higher level of energy characterizes photosynthetic organisms. The local volumetric rate of radiant light energy absorbed, which appears in the dissipation function as an irreversible term, is calculated for monodimensional approximations providing analytical solutions and for general tridimensional equations requiring the solution of a new numerical algorithm. Solutions for the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis cultivated in photoreactors with different geometries and light energy inputs are compared. Thermodynamic efficiency of the photosynthesis is calculated. The highest value of 15% found for low radiant energy absorption rates corresponds to a maximum quantum yield in the reactor.

Cornet, J.F.; Dussap, C.G.; Gros, J.B. (Univ. Blase Pascal, Aubiere (France). Lab. de Genie Chimique Biologique)

1994-06-01

145

Ground Calibrations of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Spacecraft Thermistor Bolometers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) spacecraft scanning thermistor bolometers will measure earth-reflected solar and earth-emmitted,longwave radiances, at the top-of-the-atmosphere. The measurements are performed in the broadband shortwave (0.3-5.0 micron) and longwave (5.0 - >100 micron) spectral regions as well as in the 8 -12 micron water vapor window over geographical footprints as small as 10 kilometers at the nadir. The CERES measurements are designed to improve our knowledge of the earth's natural climate processes, in particular those related to clouds, and man's impact upon climate as indicated by atmospheric temperature. November 1997, the first set of CERES bolometers is scheduled for launch on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Spacecraft. The CERES bolometers were calibrated radiometrically in a vacuum ground facility using absolute reference sources, tied to the International Temperature Scale of 1990. Accurate bolometer calibrations are dependent upon the derivations of the radiances from the spectral properties [reflectance, transmittance, emittance, etc.] of both the sources and bolometers. In this paper, the overall calibration approaches are discussed for the longwave and shortwave calibrations. The spectral responses for the TRMM bolometer units are presented and applied to the bolometer ground calibrations in order to determine pre-launch calibration gains.

Lee, Robert B., III; Smith, G. Lou; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Direndra K.; Thornhill, K. Lee; Bolden, William C.; Wilson, Robert S.

1997-01-01

146

Effective use of cooling lakes and cooling towers in hybrid cooling systems. Completion report, July 1983August 1984  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research summarized in this report analyzes the consequences of the use of hybrid cooling systems for the dissipation of waste heat from thermoelectric power generation. The hybrid cooling system study consists of a combination of cooling towers and a cooling lake to receive a specified heat load. A transient computer simulation model of both the cooling lake stratification and

Sturm

1984-01-01

147

Latent heat storage in cooling systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In building space conditioning applications where cooling is a major component, thermal energy storage can be used to shift the electrical cooling load imposed on a utility during peak cooling loads and small buildings located in summer peaking utility service areas are particularly attractive for application of this technology. Ice is the latent heat storage material most commonly used as the thermal storage medium for building cooling; however, new materials including clathrates, salt hydrates, and liquid-liquid systems are being explored. Cool storage applications are explored and provides an overview of research underway to develop these new latent heat materials is provided.

Tomlinson, J. J.

148

Advances in Solar Heating and Cooling Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on technological advancements in the fields of solar collectors, thermal storage systems, and solar heating and cooling systems. Diagrams aid in the understanding of the thermodynamics of the systems. (CP)

Ward, Dan S.

1976-01-01

149

Atmospheric impacts of evaporative cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report summarizes available information on the effects of various power plant cooling systems on the atmosphere. While evaporative cooling systems sharply reduce the biological impacts of thermal discharges in water bodies, they create (at least, for heat-release rates comparable to those of two-unit nuclear generating stations) atmospheric changes. For an isolated site such as required for a nuclear power

1976-01-01

150

Performance stability of the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument sensors on board the Aqua and Terra spacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments measure the earth-reflected shortwave energy as well as the earth-emitted thermal energy, which are two components of the earth's energy budget. These measurements are made through four instruments on two spacecraft as part of the Earth Observing System (EOS) mission - Flight Models 1 and 2 onboard the Terra spacecraft, and Flight Models 3 and 4 onboard the Aqua spacecraft. Each instrument comprises of three sensors that measure the radiances in different spectral regions- a shortwave channel that measures energy in the 0.3 to 5 micron wavelength band, a total channel that measures all the incident energy (0.3- <100 microns) and a window channel that measures the water-vapor window region of 8 to 12 microns. The required accuracy of the CERES sensors is achieved through pre-launch ground-based calibrations as well as on-orbit calibration activities. Onorbit calibration is carried out using the Internal Calibration Module (ICM) that consists of a quartz-halogen tungsten lamp, blackbodies, and a solar diffuser plate known as the Mirror Attenuator Mosaic (MAM). The ICM calibration provides information about the change in the CERES sensors' broadband radiometric gains on-orbit from the pre-launch values. Several validation studies are conducted in order to monitor the behavior of the instruments in various spectral bands. The CERES Edition-3 data products incorporate the latest upgrades to the calibration techniques. In this paper, we present the on-orbit performance stability as well as some validation studies using the CERES Edition-3 data products from all four instruments.

Shankar, Mohan; Priestley, Kory; Thomas, Susan; Hess, Phillip; Walikainen, Dale

2012-09-01

151

Technical evaluation of a solar heating system having conventional hydronic solar collectors and a radiant panel slab. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A simple innovative solar heating design (Solar Option One) using conventional hydronic solar collectors and a radiant panel slab was constructed. An objective of hybrid solar design is to combine the relative advantages of active and passive design approaches while minimizing their respective disadvantages. A test house using the Solar Option One heating system was experimentally monitored to determine its energy based performance during the 1982-83 heating season. The test residence is located in Lyndonville, Vermont, an area which has a characteristically cold and cloudy climate. The two story residence has a floor area of about 1400 square feet and is constructed on a 720 square foot 5.5 inch thick floor slab. A 24 inch packed gravel bed is located beneath the slab and the slab-gravel bed is insulated by two inches of polystyrene insulation. The test building is of frame construction and uses insulation levels which have become commonplace throughout the country. The structure would not fall into the superinsulated category but was tightly constructed so as to have a low infiltration level. The building is sun-tempered in that windows were concentrated somewhat on the South side and all but avoided on the North. A solar greenhouse on the South side of the building was closed off from the structure permanently throughout the testing so as to better observe the solar heating invention without confounding variables. The monitoring equipment generated an internal gain of about 17,000 BTUs per day, roughly the equivalent of occupancy by two persons. A full description of the experimental testing program is given. System efficiency and performance are reported.

Starr, R.J.

1984-04-01

152

Assessment of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Flight Model 5 (FM5) instrument performance and stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) scanning radiometer is designed to measure the solar radiation reflected by the Earth and thermal radiation emitted by the Earth. Four CERES instruments are supporting the EOS missions; two aboard the Terra spacecraft, launched in 1999 and two aboard the Aqua spacecraft, launched in 2002. A fifth instrument, Flight Model 5 (FM5), launched in October 2011 aboard the S-NPP satellite, began taking radiance measurements on January 27th, 2012. The CERES FM5 instrument uses three scanning thermistor bolometers to make broadband radiance measurements in the shortwave (0.3 - 5.0 micrometers), total (0.3 - <100 micrometers) and water vapor window (8 - 12 micrometer) regions. An internal calibration module (ICM) used for in-flight calibration is built into the CERES instrument package consisting of an anodized aluminum blackbody source for calibrating the total and window sensors, and a shortwave internal calibration source (SWICS) for the shortwave sensor. The ICM sources, along with a solar diffusor called the Mirror Attenuator Mosaic (MAM), are used to define shifts or drifts in the sensor response over the life of the mission. In addition, validation studies are conducted to assess the pointing accuracy of the instrument and understand any spectral changes that may occur with the sensors allowing for corrections to be made to the radiance calculations in later CERES data products. This paper summarizes the on-orbit behavior of the CERES FM5 instrument by outlining trends in the internal calibration data and discussing the various validation studies used to assess the performance and stability of the instrument.

Smith, Nathaniel P.; Thomas, Susan; Shankar, Mohan; Szewczyk, Z. P.; Wilson, Robert S.; Walikainen, Dale R.; Daniels, Janet L.; Hess, Phillip C.; Priestley, Kory J.

2014-09-01

153

Performance of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Flight Model 5 (FM5) instrument on NPP mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument was designed to provide accurate measurements for the long-term monitoring of Earth's radiation energy budget. Flight Model 5, the sixth of the CERES instrument was launched aboard the NPP spacecraft on October 2011 and it has started the Earth-viewing measurements on January 26, 2012. The CERES instrument with the three scanning sensors measure radiances in 0.3 to 5.0 micron region with Shortwave sensor, 0.3 to <100 microns with Total sensor and 8 to 12 micron region with Window sensor. The pre-launch accuracy goal for the CERES instrument measurements is to have the emitted longwave radiances within 0.5% and the shortwave radiances within 1.0%. An accurate determination of the radiometric gains and spectral responsivity of CERES FM5 sensors was accomplished through rigorous calibrations using the primary sources. Post-launch evaluation of the sensor performance consists of sensor calibrations with the on-board sources and the solar diffuser called Mirror Attenuator Mosaic (MAM). The calibration results using onboard sources are also compared to pre-launch values which serve as a traceability standard to carry the ground determined sensor radiometric gains to orbit. Several validation studies utilising targets such as tropical ocean and deep convective clouds are performed as part of the Cal/Val protocol. The scan elevation offset in the sensor measurement will be determined from the spacecraft pitch manuveur activity viewing the deep space. This paper covers the early-orbit checkout activities and the overall performance of the CERES-FM5 instrument. The postlaunch calibration and the validation results from the instrument are presented.

Thomas, Susan; Priestley, Kory J.; Hess, Phillip C.; Wilson, Robert S.; Smith, Nathaniel P.; Timcoe, Mark G.; Shankar, Mohan; Walikainen, Dale R.

2012-09-01

154

Spectral Characterizations of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Thermistor Bolometers using Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) Techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) techniques are being used to characterize the relative spectral response, or sensitivity, of scanning thermistor bolometers in the infrared (IR) region (2 - >= 100-micrometers). The bolometers are being used in the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) program. The CERES measurements are designed to provide precise, long term monitoring of the Earth's atmospheric radiation energy budget. The CERES instrument houses three bolometric radiometers, a total wavelength (0.3- >= 150-micrometers) sensor, a shortwave (0.3-5-micrometers) sensor, and an atmospheric window (8-12-micrometers) sensor. Accurate spectral characterization is necessary for determining filtered radiances for longwave radiometric calibrations. The CERES bolometers spectral response's are measured in the TRW FTS Vacuum Chamber Facility (FTS - VCF), which uses a FTS as the source and a cavity pyroelectric trap detector as the reference. The CERES bolometers and the cavity detector are contained in a vacuum chamber, while the FTS source is housed in a GN2 purged chamber. Due to the thermal time constant of the CERES bolometers, the FTS must be operated in a step mode. Data are acquired in 6 IR spectral bands covering the entire longwave IR region. In this paper, the TRW spectral calibration facility design and data measurement techniques are described. Two approaches are presented which convert the total channel FTS data into the final CERES spectral characterizations, producing the same calibration coefficients (within 0.1 percent). The resulting spectral response curves are shown, along with error sources in the two procedures. Finally, the impact of each spectral response curve on CERES data validation will be examined through analysis of filtered radiance values from various typical scene types.

Thornhill, K. Lee; Bitting, Herbert; Lee, Robert B., III; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Wilson, Robert S.

1998-01-01

155

Engine cooling fan coupling system controlled in concert with a cooling system thermostat  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cooling fan coupling system is described for an engine for an automotive vehicle, the engine comprising a rotating member and a coolant circulation system comprising a coolant radiator, a cooling fan for propelling air past the radiator to cool the coolant radiator, and a thermostatic valve for controlling flow of coolant through the coolant radiator. The thermostatic valve is

S. Suzaki; T. Shira; H. Adachi; M. Hayashi; K. Hattori; Y. Takakura

1987-01-01

156

The radiant of the Leonids meteor storm in 2001  

E-print Network

We have measured the radiant of the Leonids meteor storm in November 2001 by using new observational and analysis techniques. The radiant was measured as the intersections of lines which were detected and extrapolated from images obtained at a single observing site (Akeno Observatory, Japan). The images were obtained by two sets of telephoto lenses equipped with cooled CCD cameras. The measured radiant, (R.A., Dec.)=(154$^\\circ$.35, 21$^\\circ$.55) (J2000), is found to be in reasonable agreement with the theoretical prediction by McNaught and Asher (2001), which verifies their dust trail theory.

Ken'ichi Torii; Mitsuhiro Kohama; Toshifumi Yanagisawa; Kouji Ohnishi

2002-10-29

157

Desiccant Cooling Systems - A Review  

E-print Network

of the Pennington cycle. This has been investigated further by Tae Seok [lo] and he predicts a COP of 2.58 assuming ideal components. Due to the additional heat exchanger and the nature of the finned coil and cooling tower components, this cycle is more...' was chosen for the reversible nature of the evaporative cooling in the finned coil. Tae Seok [lo] predicted a COP of 1.25 for ARI conditions but again for unrealistic, ideal components. The low thermal COP'S found in the Pennington cycle...

Kettleborough, C. F.; Ullah, M. R.; Waugaman, D. G.

1986-01-01

158

An experimental study of the transient response of a radiant panel ceiling and enclosure  

SciTech Connect

The transient responses of a radiant heating system and enclosure was investigated for a range of hot-water supply temperatures and flow rates. The radiant heating system consisted of copper tubes embedded in a standard plaster ceiling at 6-in (152-mm) intervals. Transient experiments were performed by heating the radiant ceiling and enclosure from a cooled-down condition by using a step change in the hot-water supply temperature. Temperature transients in the water supply and return lines on the ceiling and wall surfaces and in the room air were then monitored for a period of several hours. Results were as follows: the ceiling temperature was uniform; the thermal response of the ceiling and enclosure was slow because of the large thermal mass in the ceiling; the air temperature did not lag the wall and floor temperature; and the room walls were heated by a combination of radiation heat transfer from the ceiling and convection heat transfer from the air. In addition, the transient response of the radiant system was found to be a function of water supply temperature but not of water flow rate.

Zhang, Z.; Pate, M.B.

1986-01-01

159

Cooling system for a nuclear reactor  

DOEpatents

A cooling system for a gas-cooled nuclear reactor is disclosed which includes at least one primary cooling loop adapted to pass coolant gas from the reactor core and an associated steam generator through a duct system having a main circulator therein, and at least one auxiliary cooling loop having communication with the reactor core and adapted to selectively pass coolant gas through an auxiliary heat exchanger and circulator. The main and auxiliary circulators are installed in a common vertical cavity in the reactor vessel, and a common return duct communicates with the reactor core and intersects the common cavity at a junction at which is located a flow diverter valve operative to effect coolant flow through either the primary or auxiliary cooling loops.

Amtmann, Hans H. (Rancho Santa Fe, CA)

1982-01-01

160

Compensation for spectral darkening of short wave optics occurring on the cloud's and the Earth's radiant energy system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cloud's and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is an investigation into the role of clouds and radiation in the Earth's climate system. Four CERES scanning thermistor bolometer instruments are currently in orbit. Flight model 1 (FM1) and 2 (FM2) are aboard the Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra satellite and FM3 and FM4 are aboard the EOS Aqua satellite. Each CERES instrument measures in three broadband radiometric regions: the shortwave (SW 0.3-5?m), total (0.3- > 100?m), and window (8-12?m). It has been found that both CERES instruments on the Terra platform imply that the SW flux scattered from the Earth had dropped by up to 2% from 2000 to 2004. No climatological explanation for this drop could be found, suggesting the cause was a drift in both the Terra instruments. However, the onboard calibration lamps for the SW channels do not show a change in gain of this magnitude. Experience from other satellite missions has shown that optics in the orbital environment can become contaminated, severely reducing their transmission of ultra-violet (UV) radiation. Since the calibration lamps emit little radiance in the UV spectral region it was suggested that contaminates could be responsible for an undetectable 'spectral darkening' of the CERES SW channel optics and hence the apparent drop in SW flux. Further evidence for this was found by looking at the comparison between simultaneous measurements made by FM1 and FM2. The proposed mechanisms for contaminant build up would not apply to a CERES instrument operating in the normal cross track scan mode. Indeed it was found from the comparison between CERES instruments on Terra that the response of the instrument operating in rotating azimuth plane (RAPS) mode consistently dropped relative to the other cross track instrument. Since at all times one of the instruments operates in cross track mode, where it is not subject to spectral darkening, it allowed that unit to be used as a calibration standard from which the darkening of the other RAPS instrument can be measured. A table of adjustment coefficients to compensate for this spectral darkening are therefore derived in this paper. These figures are designed to be multiplied by SW fluxes or radiances produced in the climate community using Edition 2 CERES data. SW CERES measurements that have been revised using these coeffcients are therefore to be referred to as ERBE-like Edition2_Rev1 or SSF Edition2B_Rev1 data in future literature. Current work to fully characterize the effect of spectral darkening on the instrument spectral response before the release of Edition 3 data is also described.

Matthews, Grant; Priestley, Kory; Spence, Peter; Cooper, Denise; Walikainen, Dale

2005-08-01

161

Biomedical Application of Aerospace Personal Cooling Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Personal thermoregulatory systems which are used by astronauts to alleviate thermal stress during extravehicular activity have been applied to the therapeutic management of multiple sclerosis. However, little information is available regarding the physiologic and circulatory changes produced by routine operation of these systems. The objectives of this study were to compare the effectiveness of two passive and two active cooling vests and to measure the body temperature and circulatory changes produced by each cooling vest configuration. The MicroClimate Systems and the Life Enhancement Tech(LET) lightweight liquid cooling vests, the Steele Vest and LET's Zipper Front Garment were used to cool the chest region of 10 male and female subjects (25 to 55 yr.) in this study. Calf, forearm and finger blood flows were measured using a tetrapolar impedance rheograph. The subjects, seated in an upright position at normal room temperature (approx.22C), were tested for 60 min. with the cooling system operated at its maximum cooling capacity. Blood flows were recorded continuously using a computer data acquisition system with a sampling frequency of 250 Hz. Oral, right and left ear temperatures and cooling system parameters were logged manually every 5 min. Arm, leg, chest and rectal temperatures; heart rate; respiration; and an activity index were recorded continuously on a U.F.I., Inc. Biolog ambulatory monitor. In general, the male and female subjects' oral and ear temperature responses to cooling were similar for all vest configurations tested. Oral temperatures during the recovery period were significantly (P<0.05) lower than during the control period, approx. 0.2 - 0.5C, for both men and women wearing any of the four different garments. The corresponding ear temperatures were significantly (P<0.05) decreased approx.0.2 - 0.4C by the end of the recovery period. Compared to the control period, no significant differences were found in rectal temperatures during cooling and recovery periods.

Ku, Yu-Tsuan E.; Lee, Hank C.; Montgomery, Leslie D.; Webbon, Bruce W.; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

1997-01-01

162

Performance assessment of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments aboard Terra and Aqua spacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments were designed to measure the reflected shortwave and emitted longwave radiances of the Earth's radiation budget and to investigate the cloud interactions with global radiances for the long-term monitoring of Earth's climate. The three scanning thermistor bolometer sensors on CERES measure broadband radiances in the shortwave (0.3 to 5.0 micrometer), total (0.3 to <100 micrometer) and in 8 - 12 micrometer water vapor window regions. Of the five CERES instruments that are currently in operation, four of the CERES instruments (Flight Models1 through 4) fly aboard Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua platforms with two instruments aboard each spacecraft, in 705 KM sun-synchronous orbits of 10:30 AM and 1:30 PM equatorial crossing time. A rigorous and comprehensive radiometric calibration and validation protocol comprising of various studies was developed to evaluate the calibration accuracy of the CERES instruments. The in-flight calibration of CERES sensors are carried out using the internal calibration module (ICM) comprising of blackbody sources and quartzhalogen tungsten lamp, and a solar diffuser plate known as the Mirror Attenuator Mosaic (MAM). The ICM calibration results are instrumental in determining the changes in CERES sensors' gains after launch from the prelaunch determined values and the on-orbit gain variations. In addition to the broadband response changes derived from the on-board blackbody and the tungsten lamp, the shortwave and the total sensors show a spectrally dependent drop in responsivity in the shorter wavelegth region below one micron that were brought to light through validation studies. The spectrally dependent changes were attributed to the instrument operational modes and the corrections were derived using the sensor radiance comparisons. This paper covers the on-orbit behavior of CERES sensors aboard the Terra and Aqua spacecraft and the determination of the sensor response changes utilising the in-flight calibration and the radiance measurement comparisons viewing various targets. The corrections for the sensor response changes were incorporated in the radiance calculations of CERES Edition3 data products.

Thomas, Susan; Priestley, K. J.; Shankar, M.; Smith, N. M.; Loeb, N. G.; Walikainen, D. R.; Hess, P. C.; Wilson, R. S.; Smith, N. P.

2013-09-01

163

Cooling Systems Research at Argonne National Laboratory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies of the thermal plumes resulting from discharges from once-through cooling systems of electric generating stations are reviewed. The collection of large amounts of water temperature data for definition of the three-dimensional structure of a therma...

S. A. Spigarelli

1977-01-01

164

Numerical Stimulation of Radiant Floor Heating with Displacement Ventilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiant floor heating has received the increasing attention due to the wide advantages, especially the energy saving as compared to the conventional air-conditioning system. This study presents a numerical investigation of radiant floor heating with the displacement ventilation in the room. The air isotherms and flow patterns with and without displacement ventilation, as well as the heat fluxes along the

Liu Xianglong; Gong Guangcai

2010-01-01

165

Understanding aging in containment cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

A study has been performed to assess the effects of aging in nuclear power plant containment cooling systems. Failure records from national databases, as well as plant specific data were reviewed and analyzed to identify aging characteristics for this system. The predominant aging mechanisms were determined, along with the most frequently failed components and their associated failure modes. This paper discusses the aging mechanisms present in the containment spray system and the containment fan cooler system, which are two systems used to provide the containment cooling function. The failure modes, along with the relative frequency of each is also discussed.

Lofaro, R.J.

1993-12-01

166

Cooling systems research at Argonne National Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of the thermal plumes resulting from discharges from once-through cooling systems of electric generating stations are reviewed. The collection of large amounts of water temperature data for definition of the three-dimensional structure of a thermal plume, of current data, and related ambient data for model evaluation purposes required the development of an integrated data collection system. The Argonne system

Spigarelli

1977-01-01

167

Analysis of energy transfer in industrial gas-fired radiant tube furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermal system mathematical model has been developed to predict heat transfer from the products of combustion in the radiant tubes to the ultimate load in the furnace. The three-dimensional thermal model for the furnace involved the integration of various submodels for the radiant tube and the furnace enclosure.^ For the radiant tube, mathematical models were developed to describe turbulent

Ramamurthy Hariharan

1993-01-01

168

Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors with passive cooling system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a passive cooling system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors. It consists of the combination of a reactor vessel enclosing a heat generating core and assembly containing fissionable fuel surrounded by a spaced apart encircling fuel core assembly support cylinder provided with an upper and a lower inward projecting flange for securing the fuel core assembly within the reactor vessel, a primary heat exchanger cylinder positioned concentrically intermediate the fuel core assembly support cylinder and the fuel core assembly in spaced apart relation with each the support cylinder and the fuel core assembly, the reactor vessel being substantially filled with liquid metal coolant whereby the fuel core assembly is submerged therein, the fuel core assembly having a multiplicity of vertical coolant passages extending through the axial length thereof providing for a primary heat exchanging convection circuit for the liquid metal coolant passing upward through the heat producing fuel core to an area above the fuel core assembly and returning around down through a space between the fuel core assembly and the primary heat exchanger cylinder for recycling around and up through the fuel core assembly.

Hunsbedt, A.; Fanning, A.W.

1991-06-04

169

Stability of flux-controlled radiant slabs  

SciTech Connect

The radiant floor, a heating system employed from antiquity, is enjoying a resurgence due to the availability of piping made from new plastics. Plastic tubing is embedded in a serpentine pattern within a concrete floor. Warm water is circulated continuously by a low-power pump with heat supplied by a heat pump or an electric or fossil-fuel-powered boiler. A semilinear model for a saturating, proportionally flux-modulated radiant slab is obtained It is then shown by Lyapunov`s direct method that, when the enclosure parameters meet a stringent condition, each operating point of the semilinear model is a point of global asymptotic stability.

MacCluer, C.R. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

1994-12-31

170

COOL ROOF COATINGS INCORPORATING GLASS HOLLOW MICROSPHERES  

EPA Science Inventory

Solar Gain is in part responsible for up to 56% of energy consumed by cooling systems in residential buildings. By reflecting and scattering radiant energy from the sun, the surface temperature of exterior walls and roofs can be greatly reduced. Previous studies have indicated...

171

Ozone Treatment in Cooling Water Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ozone treatment for preventing the biofouling in cooling water systems is investigated.In the fresh water system, the separating effect of the ozonated water on the microorganisms such as the sphaerotilus and the zoogloea which adhere to the piping and form the slime is recognized. When the ozonated water is supplied intermittently to the piping without stopping the flow of the

N. Kaiga; T. Seki; K. Iyasu

1989-01-01

172

Rating floor heating and cooling panels using a thermograph robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy, exergy, environment, and comfort advantages of panel heating and cooling systems in green buildings are especially important for hybrid HVAC (Heating Ventilating and Air-conditioning) systems, which co-locate radiant floor panels with forcedair convection systems. In spite of their advantages, implementation of hybrid HVAC systems is difficult, because there are no empirical data concerning their rating and design. This situation

Birol I. Kilkis

2005-01-01

173

Process Cooling Pumping Systems Analysis  

E-print Network

rejection while operating three pumps each. 2. Check Valve induced Pump Failure – While attempting to take readings, both systems exhibited check valve failure to hold. This failure causes significant short-circuiting of water to the cold well, causing...

Sherman, C.

2008-01-01

174

Effect of attic ventilation on the performance of radiant barriers  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the experiments was to quantify how attic ventilation would affect the performance of a radiant barrier. Ceiling heat flux and space cooling load were both measured. Results of side-by-side radiant barrier experiments using two identical 13.38 m[sup 2] (nominal) test houses are presented in this paper. The test houses responded similarly to weather variations. Indoor temperatures of the test houses were controlled to within 0.2 [degrees] C. Ceiling heat fluxes and space cooling load were within a 2.5 percent difference between both test houses. The results showed that a critical attic ventilation flow rate of 1.3 (1/sec)/m[sup 2] of the attic floor existed after which the percentage reduction in ceiling heat fluxes produced by the radiant barriers did not change with increasing attic airflow rates. The ceiling heat flux reductions produced by the radiant barriers were between 25 and 35 percent, with 28 percent being the percent reduction observed most often in the presence of attic ventilation. The space-cooling load reductions observed were between two to four percent. All results compiled in this paper were for attics with unfaced fiberglass insulation with a resistance level of 3.35 m[sup 2]K/W (nominal) and for a perforated radiant barrier with low emissivities (less than 0.05) on both sides.

Medina, M.A.; O'Neal, D.L. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Turner, W.D. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Coll. of Engineering)

1992-11-01

175

Understanding and reducing energy and costs in industrial cooling systems  

E-print Network

pressures as a retrofit. Considerations of free cooling and improved cooling tower operations are shown as additional "big hitters”. It is made clear that with appropriate measurements and an understanding of the cooling system, significant savings can...

Muller, M.R.; Muller, M.B.

2012-01-01

176

Integrated mine cooling and water conditioning system  

SciTech Connect

A method is described comprising: cooling an aqueous liquid at ground level, by means of a refrigeration system which rejects heat, to produce an aqueous ice slurry of ice crystals in the aqueous liquid; separating ice from some of the aqueous ice slurry produced at ground level, washing the ice and melting the ice to produce potable water at ground level, and using the potable water hydrostatic energy to power hydraulic machinery at the location below ground level; feeding the aqueous ice slurry from ground level to a location substantially below ground level to cool that location by heat exchange with the slurry, thereby producing warm aqueous liquid; withdrawing the warm aqueous liquid from the location, returning it to ground level and then cooling the aqueous liquid by means of the refrigeration system to again convert it to an aqueous ice slurry; and recycling the slurry to the location substantially below ground level.

Husain, M.; Nail, J.A.

1988-06-14

177

PCM Passive Cooling System Containing Active Subsystems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multistage system has been proposed for cooling a circulating fluid that is subject to intermittent intense heating. The system would be both flexible and redundant in that it could operate in a basic passive mode, either sequentially or simultaneously with operation of a first, active cooling subsystem, and either sequentially or simultaneously with a second cooling subsystem that could be active, passive, or a combination of both. This flexibility and redundancy, in combination with the passive nature of at least one of the modes of operation, would make the system more reliable, relative to a conventional cooling system. The system would include a tube-in-shell heat exchanger, within which the space between the tubes would be filled with a phase-change material (PCM). The circulating hot fluid would flow along the tubes in the heat exchanger. In the basic passive mode of operation, heat would be conducted from the hot fluid into the PCM, wherein the heat would be stored temporarily by virtue of the phase change.

Blanding, David E.; Bass, David I.

2005-01-01

178

Effective use of cooling lakes and cooling towers in hybrid cooling systems. Completion report, July 1983-August 1984  

SciTech Connect

The research summarized in this report analyzes the consequences of the use of hybrid cooling systems for the dissipation of waste heat from thermoelectric power generation. The hybrid cooling system study consists of a combination of cooling towers and a cooling lake to receive a specified heat load. A transient computer simulation model of both the cooling lake stratification and the cooling tower thermodynamic performance is developed. The model is calibrated and verified with field data. Simulations of various combinations of cooling lake and cooling tower capacities for a given power plant heat load are conducted to determine the effect on lake thermal structure, total water loss by evaporation, and power plant intake temperatures.

Sturm, T.W.

1984-08-01

179

Automotive non-pressure cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a non-pressure automotive engine cooling system comprising: a radiator containing a liquid coolant, coupling hoses that intercouple the radiator to the engine, pump means associated with the engine for circulating coolant through the engine and radiator. The pump means has a suction side, a radiator cap sealed on the radiator, an expansion tank disposed in the engine

1987-01-01

180

ASSESSING POWER PLANT COOLING WATER INTAKE SYSTEM  

E-print Network

ASSESSING POWER PLANT COOLING WATER INTAKE SYSTEM ENTRAINMENT IMPACTS Prepared For: California that the uses of this information will not infringe upon privately owned rights. This report has not been and recognizing the importance of publishing this work so it could be used by other researchers and decision

181

Research and development on passive cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments are carried out to investigate the effects of the natural convection of superheated gas as well as those of the standpipes on the temperature distributions of the components and the heat removal performance in the water-cooling panel system for the MHTGR for decay heat removal, and to verify reliability of the design and evaluation methods. The numerical results of

Shoji Takada

2004-01-01

182

ANALYSIS OF EFFECTIVENESS OF CAVITY COOLING SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) in an HTGR provides protection to the concrete structures surrounding the reactor and also provides a means for transporting parasitic heat losses from the reactor pressure vessel to the ultimate heat sink, i.e. the environment. PBMR propose to utilize large volume standpipes in order to simplify the piping layout and to increase the thermal

Martin P. van Staden

183

Radiant zone heated particulate filter  

SciTech Connect

A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter including an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A radiant zoned heater includes N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones includes M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones, restricts exhaust gas flow in a portion of the PM filter that corresponds to the selected one of the N zones, and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

2011-12-27

184

Cooling apparatus for a gas transmission system  

SciTech Connect

An improved cooling apparatus is described for a gas transmission system, including: input means for receiving a medium to be cooled; output means for transmitting the medium after it is cooled; and, cooling means intercoupling the input means and the output means including radiator means having an input end and an output end, the input end connected to the input means and the output end connected to the output means; the cooling means including, in addition, fan means positioned to cooperate with the radiator means for producing a flow of cooling air across the radiator means; the fan means including a rotatable fan having a desired direction of rotation, a drive-motor for driving the fan in the desired direction and belt means intercoupling the drive-motor and the rotatable fan for rotation of the fan; the belt means includes a belt having, alternatively, a taut state and a slack state. Adjustable belt-tensioning means including a frame and being mechanically coupled to the belt for tensioning the belt between the taut state and the slack state, the adjustable belt-tensioning means including a sheave in rotating contact with the belt. A shaft having first and second ends, carrying the sheave at the first end and positioned in the frame substantially parallel to the plane of the belt and spaced from the belt an adjustable distance corresponding to the condition desired for the belt between the taut state and the slack state; a sprag-clutch having a first race fixedly connected to the frame and a unidirectionally rotatable second race coupled to the second end of the shaft. The second race having a direction of rotation relative to the first race which corresponds to the desired direction of rotation of the fan.

Leonard, P.A.

1987-07-21

185

Vented Cavity Radiant Barrier Assembly And Method  

DOEpatents

A vented cavity radiant barrier assembly (2) includes a barrier (12), typically a PV module, having inner and outer surfaces (18, 22). A support assembly (14) is secured to the barrier and extends inwardly from the inner surface of the barrier to a building surface (14) creating a vented cavity (24) between the building surface and the barrier inner surface. A low emissivity element (20) is mounted at or between the building surface and the barrier inner surface. At least part of the cavity exit (30) is higher than the cavity entrance (28) to promote cooling air flow through the cavity.

Dinwoodie, Thomas L. (Piedmont, CA); Jackaway, Adam D. (Berkeley, CA)

2000-05-16

186

Study on a mean radiant temperature measure tool based on an almost spherical array of radiometric sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mean radiant temperature has significant influence on indoor thermal comfort conditions. It has gained greater importance with the wider application of heating and cooling systems based on the use of large surfaces with a temperature slightly higher or lower than the indoor temperature (hot/cold floors or ceilings), because these systems operate through the radiant temperature control. The most used tool to measure radiant temperature, the globe thermometer, still has large margins of error, most of all due to the uncertainty in the evaluation of the convection heat exchanges between the globe surface and the indoor air. The feasibility of a device to measure mean radiant temperature in indoor condition, alternative to the globe-thermometer (obtained placing radiometric sensors (thermopiles) on the sides of different geometric regular solids), is proposed. The behavior has been investigated for different regular solids, such as the residual error and its dependence on walls average temperature, non-uniformity magnitude, orientation and position of the solid in the enclosure, room shape, non-uniformity temperature distribution. Icosahedron shape shows an excellent behavior, with errors lower than 0.1 K in all the examined conditions.

Fontana, L.

2012-11-01

187

Hybrid optomechanical cooling by atomic ? systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate a hybrid quantum system consisting of a cavity optomechanical device optically coupled to an ultracold quantum gas. We show that the dispersive properties of the ultracold gas can be used to dramatically modify the optomechanical response of the mechanical resonator. We examine hybrid schemes wherein the mechanical resonator is coupled either to the motional or the spin degrees of freedom of the ultracold gas. In either case, we find an enhancement of more than two orders of magnitude in optomechanical cooling due to this hybrid interaction. Significantly, based on demonstrated parameters for the cavity optomechanical device, we identify regimes that enable the ground-state cooling of the resonator from room temperature. In addition, the hybrid system considered here represents a powerful interface for the use of an ultracold quantum gas for state preparation, sensing, and quantum manipulation of a mesoscopic mechanical resonator.

Bariani, F.; Singh, S.; Buchmann, L. F.; Vengalattore, M.; Meystre, P.

2014-09-01

188

Preliminary design package for solar heating and cooling systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Summarized preliminary design information on activities associated with the development, delivery and support of solar heating and cooling systems is given. These systems are for single family dwellings and commercial applications. The heating/cooling system use a reversible vapor compression heat pump that is driven in the cooling mode by a Rankine power loop, and in the heating mode by a variable speed electric motor. The heating/cooling systems differ from the heating-only systems in the arrangement of the heat pump subsystem and the addition of a cooling tower to provide the heat sink for cooling mode operation.

1978-01-01

189

Evaluation of a Direct Evaporative Roof-Spray Cooling System  

E-print Network

Roof-Spray cooling systems are being extensively used to reduce the air-conditioning usage in industrial and commercial buildings. In buildings without air-conditioning, evaporative roof spray cooling systems help to reduce the interior temperatures...

Carrasco, A.; Pittard, R.; Kondepudi, S. N.; Somasundaram, S.

1987-01-01

190

Survey and Alignment of the Fermilab Electron Cooling System  

SciTech Connect

The goal of achieving the Tevatron luminosity of 3 x 10{sup 32} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} requires Electron Cooling in the Recycler Ring to provide an increased flux of antiprotons. The Fermilab Electron Cooling system has been designed to assist accumulation of antiprotons for the Tevatron collider operations. The installation along with the survey and alignment of the Electron Cooling system in the Recycler Ring were completed in November 2004. The Electron Cooling system was fully commissioned in May 2005 and the first cooling of antiprotons was achieved in July 2005. This paper discusses the alignment methodology employed to survey and align the Electron Cooling system.

Oshinowo, Babatunde O'Sheg; Leibfritz, Jerry

2006-09-01

191

Active cooling system alternatives for concentrating photovoltaic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A design trade-off study was employed to choose an active cooling system for a large concentrating photovoltaic irrigation system. Wet cooling tower, air cooler-pond 'hybrid', and air cooler-evaporator designs were compared with respect to parasitic power requirements, initial cost, operating cost, reliability, maintenance requirements, load matching, and any corrosion, pollutants or residues resulting from operation. It is concluded that the

L. D. Clements; M. J. Oleary

1980-01-01

192

Radiant panel perimeter heating options: Effectiveness and thermal comfort  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of perimeter heating in a room by a radiant ceiling panel supplementing a central air-heating system is performed numerically. Located above the window in a suspended ceiling, the heated panel thermally affects both the room and the plenum above the panel. In multistory office buildings the thermal comfort of a room is influenced not only by the outdoor temperature and the radiant panel within the room but also by the enclosures above and beneath the room. Thermal comfort and energy efficiency in the room were investigated as functions of various parameters, including (1) effect of insulation, or lack of it, on top (plenum side) of the radiant panel; (2) effect of adding a partition in the plenum to determine if the heat lost form the top of the panel can be directed to the floor located directly above the panel; and (3) radiant panel surface temperature.

Freestone, M.D.; Worek, W.M. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1996-11-01

193

Performance of the dark energy camera liquid nitrogen cooling system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dark Energy Camera, the Imager and its cooling system was installed onto the Blanco 4m telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile in September 2012. The imager cooling system is a LN2 two-phase closed loop cryogenic cooling system. The cryogenic circulation processing is located off the telescope. Liquid nitrogen vacuum jacketed transfer lines are run up the outside of the telescope truss tubes to the imager inside the prime focus cage. The design of the cooling system along with commissioning experiences and initial cooling system performance is described. The LN2 cooling system with the DES imager was initially operated at Fermilab for testing, then shipped and tested in the Blanco Coudé room. Now the imager is operating inside the prime focus cage. It is shown that the cooling performance sufficiently cools the imager in a closed loop mode, which can operate for extended time periods without maintenance or LN2 fills.

Cease, H.; Alvarez, M.; Alvarez, R.; Bonati, M.; Derylo, G.; Estrada, J.; Flaugher, B.; Flores, R.; Lathrop, A.; Munoz, F.; Schmidt, R.; Schmitt, R. L.; Schultz, K.; Kuhlmann, S.; Zhao, A.

2014-01-01

194

Angular Distribution Models for Top-of-Atmosphere Radiative Flux Estimation from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Instrument on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Satellite. Part I: Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) investigates the critical role that clouds and aerosols play in modulating the radiative energy flow within the Earth-atmosphere system. CERES builds upon the foundation laid by previous missions, such as the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment, to provide highly accurate top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes together with coincident cloud and aerosol properties inferred from

Norman G. Loeb; Natividad Manalo-Smith; Seiji Kato; Walter F. Miller; Shashi K. Gupta; Patrick Minnis; Bruce A. Wielicki

2003-01-01

195

Electromechanically cooled germanium radiation detector system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have successfully developed and fielded an electromechanically cooled germanium radiation detector (EMC-HPGe) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This detector system was designed to provide optimum energy resolution, long lifetime, and extremely reliable operation for unattended and portable applications. For most analytical applications, high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors are the standard detectors of choice, providing an unsurpassed combination of high energy resolution performance and exceptional detection efficiency. Logistical difficulties associated with providing the required liquid nitrogen (LN) for cooling is the primary reason that these systems are found mainly in laboratories. The EMC-HPGe detector system described in this paper successfully provides HPGe detector performance in a portable instrument that allows for isotopic analysis in the field. It incorporates a unique active vibration control system that allows the use of a Sunpower Stirling cycle cryocooler unit without significant spectral degradation from microphonics. All standard isotopic analysis codes, including MGA and MGA++ [1], GAMANL [2], GRPANL [3]and MGAU [4], typically used with HPGe detectors can be used with this system with excellent results. Several national and international Safeguards organisations including the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have expressed interest in this system. The detector was combined with custom software and demonstrated as a rapid Field Radiometric Identification System (FRIS) for the U.S. Customs Service [5]. The European Communities' Safeguards Directorate (EURATOM) is field-testing the first Safeguards prototype in their applications. The EMC-HPGe detector system design, recent applications, and results will be highlighted.

Lavietes, Anthony D.; Joseph Mauger, G.; Anderson, Eric H.

1999-02-01

196

Polk power station syngas cooling system  

SciTech Connect

Tampa Electric Company (TEC) is in the site development and construction phase of the new Polk Power Station Unit No. 1. This will be the first unit at a new site and will use Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Technology. The unit will utilize Texaco`s oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasification, along with combined cycle power generation, to produce nominal 260MW. Integral to the gasification process is the syngas cooling system. The design, integration, fabrication, transportation, and erection of this equipment have provided and continue to provide major challenges for this project.

Jenkins, S.D.

1995-01-01

197

Infrared radiant heater  

SciTech Connect

An infrared radiant heating apparatus is described for use in heating articles rapidly and efficiently by infrared radiation absorption. The apparatus comprises a support frame, a heat absorbing and radiating heater mounted on the support frame, the heater including an inner heat cone and an outer heat cone spaced apart from each other and joined together along their outer peripheries to define a combustion chamber. The outer heat cone has an exposed convex conical surface and forms a heat absorbing and radiating material. The heater further includes a fuel pipe extending to a nozzle which extends through the inner heat cone and opens into the combustion chamber, a shroud surrounding the fuel pipe, a cylindrical jacket surrounding and spaced apart from the shroud and joined at one end to the inner heat cone, a helical exhaust pipe disposed within the jacket and surrounding the shroud, the inner cone having exhaust ports along its outer periphery, with each of the exhaust ports connected to the helical exhaust pipe by a tubular pipe. Means for channeling combustion and exhaust gases from the combustion chamber lies along the inner surface of the outer cone and to the exhaust ports. Burner means including means for supplying fuel to the fuel pipe and means supply air through the space between the jacket and the shroud and to the nozzle. Hot gases pass through the tubular pipes and through the helical exhaust pipe and the incoming combustion air passes over the helical exhaust pipe and is preheated from the transfer of heat.

Schmidt, G.

1987-07-28

198

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document. Volume 3; Cloud Analyses and Determination of Improved Top of Atmosphere Fluxes (Subsystem 4)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The theoretical bases for the Release 1 algorithms that will be used to process satellite data for investigation of the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) are described. The architecture for software implementation of the methodologies is outlined. Volume 3 details the advanced CERES methods for performing scene identification and inverting each CERES scanner radiance to a top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) flux. CERES determines cloud fraction, height, phase, effective particle size, layering, and thickness from high-resolution, multispectral imager data. CERES derives cloud properties for each pixel of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) visible and infrared scanner and the Earth Observing System (EOS) moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer. Cloud properties for each imager pixel are convolved with the CERES footprint point spread function to produce average cloud properties for each CERES scanner radiance. The mean cloud properties are used to determine an angular distribution model (ADM) to convert each CERES radiance to a TOA flux. The TOA fluxes are used in simple parameterization to derive surface radiative fluxes. This state-of-the-art cloud-radiation product will be used to substantially improve our understanding of the complex relationship between clouds and the radiation budget of the Earth-atmosphere system.

1995-01-01

199

Improving the Water Efficiency of Cooling Production System  

E-print Network

For most of the time, cooling towers (CTs) of cooling systems operate under partial load conditions and by regulating the air circulation with a variable frequency drive (VFD), significant reduction in the fan power can be achieved. In Kuwait...

Maheshwari, G.; Al-Hadban, Y.; Al-Taqi, H. H.; Alasseri, R.

2010-01-01

200

Systems Simulation and Economic Analysis for Active Solar Cooling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A consistent methodology has been developed by which general solar cooling market capture goals have been translated into specific cost and performance goals for solar cooling systems and subsystems. Preliminary results indicate that realistic cost/perfor...

M. Warren, M. Wahlig

1981-01-01

201

A Free Cooling Based Chilled Water System at Kingston  

E-print Network

In efforts to reduce operating costs, the IBM site at Kingston, New York incorporated the energy saving concept of 'free cooling' (direct cooling of chilled water with condenser water) with the expansion of the site chilled water system. Free...

Jansen, P. R.

1984-01-01

202

The Thermodynamic and Cost Benefits of Floating Cooling Systems  

E-print Network

. The application of a floating cooling concept to evaporative heat rejection systems can have significant impact on improving plant performance. The floating cooling concept refers to the optimization of yearly plant output and energy consumption by taking...

Svoboda, K. J.; Klooster, H. J.; Johnnie, D. H., Jr.

1983-01-01

203

Solar heating and cooling systems design and development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development and delivery of eight prototype solar heating and cooling systems for installation and operational test was reported. Two heating and six heating and cooling units will be delivered for single family residences, multiple family residences and commercial applications.

1977-01-01

204

40 CFR 91.307 - Engine cooling system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

An engine cooling system is required with sufficient capacity to maintain the engine at normal operating temperatures as prescribed by the engine manufacturer. Auxiliary fan(s) may be used to maintain sufficient engine cooling during dynamometer...

2010-07-01

205

40 CFR 90.307 - Engine cooling system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

An engine cooling system is required with sufficient capacity to maintain the engine at normal operating temperatures as prescribed by the engine manufacturer. Auxiliary fan(s) may be used to maintain sufficient engine cooling during engine dynamometer...

2010-07-01

206

CCHP System with Interconnecting Cooling and Heating Network  

E-print Network

The consistency between building heating load, cooling load and power load are analyzed in this paper. The problem of energy waste and low equipment usage in a traditional CCHP (combined cooling, heating and power) system with generated electricity...

Fu, L.; Geng, K.; Zheng, Z.; Jiang, Y.

2006-01-01

207

Integrated exhaust gas recirculation and charge cooling system  

DOEpatents

An intake system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger configured to deliver compressed intake charge, comprising exhaust gas from the exhaust system and ambient air, through an intake charge conduit and to cylinders of the internal combustion engine. An intake charge cooler is in fluid communication with the intake charge conduit. A cooling system, independent of the cooling system for the internal combustion engine, is in fluid communication with the intake charge cooler through a cooling system conduit. A coolant pump delivers a low temperature cooling medium from the cooling system to and through the intake charge cooler for the transfer of heat from the compressed intake charge thereto. A low temperature cooler receives the heated cooling medium through the cooling system conduit for the transfer or heat therefrom.

Wu, Ko-Jen

2013-12-10

208

Development of hybrid solar-assisted cooling\\/heating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar-assisted ejector cooling\\/heating system (SACH) was developed in this study. The SACH combines a pump-less ejector cooling system (ECS) with an inverter-type heat pump (R22) and is able to provide a stable capacity for space cooling. The ECS is driven by solar heat and is used to cool the condenser of the R22 heat pump to increase its COP

B. J. Huang; J. H. Wu; H. Y. Hsu; J. H. Wang

2010-01-01

209

Coloration Determination of Spectral Darkening Occurring on a Broadband Earth Observing Radiometer: Application to Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is estimated that in order to best detect real changes in the Earth s climate system, space based instrumentation measuring the Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) must remain calibrated with a stability of 0.3% per decade. Such stability is beyond the specified accuracy of existing ERB programs such as the Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES, using three broadband radiometric scanning channels: the shortwave 0.3 - 5microns, total 0.3. > 100microns, and window 8 - 12microns). It has been shown that when in low earth orbit, optical response to blue/UV radiance can be reduced significantly due to UV hardened contaminants deposited on the surface of the optics. Since typical onboard calibration lamps do not emit sufficient energy in the blue/UV region, this darkening is not directly measurable using standard internal calibration techniques. This paper describes a study using a model of contaminant deposition and darkening, in conjunction with in-flight vicarious calibration techniques, to derive the spectral shape of darkening to which a broadband instrument is subjected. Ultimately the model uses the reflectivity of Deep Convective Clouds as a stability metric. The results of the model when applied to the CERES instruments on board the EOS Terra satellite are shown. Given comprehensive validation of the model, these results will allow the CERES spectral responses to be updated accordingly prior to any forthcoming data release in an attempt to reach the optimum stability target that the climate community requires.

Matthews, Grant; Priestley, Kory; Loeb, Norman G.; Loukachine, Konstantin; Thomas, Susan; Walikainen, Dale; Wielicki, Bruce A.

2006-01-01

210

Solar energy system for heating and cooling of buildings utilizing moist air cycles  

SciTech Connect

An integrated system is presented for the collection, storage, and utilization of solar energy in the heating and cooling of buildings utilizing a moist air cycle involving evaporation and condensation of water vapor at constant pressure to obtain the advantages of high heat capacity, resulting from phase change, and low mass flow rate. Subersaturated moist air is circulated through solar collectors where evaporation takes place; the coolant leaving the solar collectors in a saturated condition and returning to a hot storage tank. There the coolant flows across the surface of hot stored water where condensation takes place, and thereafter leaves the hot storage tank in a saturated condition and at a temperature only slightly above that of the stored water. The hot storage tank further includes floating heat exchanger means for heating water in the portable water supply system. Upon leaving the hot storage tank the coolant is passed through a novel humidifying device which restores exactly the amount of moisture that was lost by condensation. This device withdraws water from the hot storage tank by means of a pump and introduces the water into the moist air stream in the form of a fog and very fine mist by the process of high pressure atomization. The supersaturated mixture is then returned to the solar collectors to repeat the cycle. Suitable controls modulate both the air and water flow rates in response to the rate at which solar energy is being collected. The system also includes means for using the solar equipment at night to dissipate thermal energy with the moist air cycle and thus chill water in a second tank to create a heat sink. Another salient feature of this system is means for heating and cooling a space or a building by circulating conditioned air through building cavities, creating a thermal envelope and utilizing the radiant effect of large surfaces such as walls and/or ceilings and floors to heat and cool the space.

Holbrook, E.M.; Wallace, J.J.

1980-01-08

211

Investigation of a Condenser-Linked Radiant Cooling System using a Heat Balance Based Energy Simulation Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the more powerful benefits of using computer simulation in the process of designing buildings is the ability to try ideas that may not appear feasible on the surface but could potentially have some merit. This is especially true when investigating the energy consumption of buildings—computer simulation allows the architect and engineer to reasonably predict the energy consumption of

Richard K. Strand

212

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) algorithm theoretical basis document. volume 2; Geolocation, calibration, and ERBE-like analyses (subsystems 1-3)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The theoretical bases for the Release 1 algorithms that will be used to process satellite data for investigation of the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) are described. The architecture for software implementation of the methodologies is outlined. Volume 2 details the techniques used to geolocate and calibrate the CERES scanning radiometer measurements of shortwave and longwave radiance to invert the radiances to top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) and surface fluxes following the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) approach, and to average the fluxes over various time and spatial scales to produce an ERBE-like product. Spacecraft ephemeris and sensor telemetry are used with calibration coefficients to produce a chronologically ordered data product called bidirectional scan (BDS) radiances. A spatially organized instrument Earth scan product is developed for the cloud-processing subsystem. The ERBE-like inversion subsystem converts BDS radiances to unfiltered instantaneous TOA and surface fluxes. The TOA fluxes are determined by using established ERBE techniques. Hourly TOA fluxes are computed from the instantaneous values by using ERBE methods. Hourly surface fluxes are estimated from TOA fluxes by using simple parameterizations based on recent research. The averaging process produces daily, monthly-hourly, and monthly means of TOA and surface fluxes at various scales. This product provides a continuation of the ERBE record.

Wielicki, B. A. (Principal Investigator); Barkstrom, B. R. (Principal Investigator); Charlock, T. P.; Baum, B. A.; Green, R. N.; Minnis, P.; Smith, G. L.; Coakley, J. A.; Randall, D. R.; Lee, R. B., III

1995-01-01

213

The analysis of GSHP radiant floor heating with PCM for energy storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the prominent position of constructing resource conservation and environmental-friendly society in the industrialization and modernization developmental strategy, this paper compared the GSHP, radiant floor heating system, PCM for heat storage with its corresponding style, conceived a new energy system-GSHP radiant floor heating system with PCM for energy storage. This paper had analyzed the influences of water supply temperature,

Wang Jinggang; Kang Ligai; Zhao Jinxiu

2009-01-01

214

A model for radionuclide transport in the Cooling Water System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A radionuclide transport model developed to assess radiological levels in the K-reactor Cooling Water System (CWS) in the event of an inadvertent process water (PW) leakage to the cooling water (CW) in the heat exchangers (HX) is described. During and following a process water leak, the radionuclide transport model determines the time-dependent release rates of radionuclide from the cooling water

Kahook

1992-01-01

215

BPM System for Electron Cooling in the Fermilab Recycler Ring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a VXI based system used to acquire and process BPM data for the electron cooling system in the Fermilab Recycler ring. The BPM system supports acquisition of data from 19 BPM locations in five different sections of the electron cooling apparatus. Beam positions for both electrons and anti-protons can be detected simultaneously with a resolution of ±50 ?m. We calibrate the system independently for each beam type at each BPM location. We describe the system components, signal processing and modes of operation used in support of the electron-cooling project and present experimental results of system performance for the developmental electron cooling installation at Fermilab.

Joireman, Paul W.; Cai, Jerry; Chase, Brian E.; Saewert, Greg W.

2004-11-01

216

Intelligent Engine Systems: Thermal Management and Advanced Cooling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the Advanced Turbine Cooling and Thermal Management program is to develop intelligent control and distribution methods for turbine cooling, while achieving a reduction in total cooling flow and assuring acceptable turbine component safety and reliability. The program also will develop embedded sensor technologies and cooling system models for real-time engine diagnostics and health management. Both active and passive control strategies will be investigated that include the capability of intelligent modulation of flow quantities, pressures, and temperatures both within the supply system and at the turbine component level. Thermal management system concepts were studied, with a goal of reducing HPT blade cooling air supply temperature. An assessment will be made of the use of this air by the active clearance control system as well. Turbine component cooling designs incorporating advanced, high-effectiveness cooling features, will be evaluated. Turbine cooling flow control concepts will be studied at the cooling system level and the component level. Specific cooling features or sub-elements of an advanced HPT blade cooling design will be downselected for core fabrication and casting demonstrations.

Bergholz, Robert

2008-01-01

217

Natural circulating passive cooling system for nuclear reactor containment structure  

DOEpatents

A passive cooling system for the contaminant structure of a nuclear reactor plant providing protection against overpressure within the containment attributable to inadvertent leakage or rupture of the system components. The cooling system utilizes natural convection for transferring heat imbalances and enables the discharge of irradiation free thermal energy to the atmosphere for heat disposal from the system.

Gou, Perng-Fei (Saratoga, CA); Wade, Gentry E. (Saratoga, CA)

1990-01-01

218

Passive cooling system for nuclear reactor containment structure  

DOEpatents

A passive cooling system for the contaminant structure of a nuclear reactor plant providing protection against overpressure within the containment attributable to inadvertent leakage or rupture of the system components. The cooling system utilizes natural convection for transferring heat imbalances and enables the discharge of irradiation free thermal energy to the atmosphere for heat disposal from the system.

Gou, Perng-Fei (Saratoga, CA); Wade, Gentry E. (Saratoga, CA)

1989-01-01

219

S'COOL Tutorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial provides detailed information about the importance of ground truth measurements for investigative science and various cloud properties. CERES measurements contribute to our understanding of the interaction between clouds and solar energy, the most significant factor controlling our climate. Studentsâ Cloud Observations On-Line (S'COOL) is a K-12 educational outreach effort of Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), a NASA instrument that observes Earth from space. S'COOL involves students in making ground truth observations of clouds for comparison with satellite data. S'COOL involves four basic steps, which are explained in the tutorial: determining satellite overpass time, observing cloud properties, transmitting results to NASA, and comparing results with satellite-retrieved properties.

2003-01-01

220

Building solar energy heating system and cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A built-in solar combination heating and cooling system for a building, particularly a residence, having a sub-floor below grade, walls, one or more ceilings, and a peaked roof comprises a first heat exchange means and a second heat exchange means, where the first heat exchange means absorbs heat from the southerly surface of the roof, and the second heat exchange

Stilber

1980-01-01

221

Potential of solar cooling systems for peak demand reduction  

SciTech Connect

We investigated the technical feasibility of solar cooling for peak demand reduction using a building energy simulation program (DOE2.1D). The system studied was an absorption cooling system with a thermal coefficient of performance of 0.8 driven by a solar collector system with an efficiency of 50% with no thermal storage. The analysis for three different climates showed that, on the day with peak cooling load, about 17% of the peak load could be met satisfactorily with the solar-assisted cooling system without any thermal storage. A performance availability analysis indicated that the solar cooling system should be designed for lower amounts of available solar resources that coincide with the hours during which peak demand reduction is required. The analysis indicated that in dry climates, direct-normal concentrating collectors work well for solar cooling; however, in humid climates, collectors that absorb diffuse radiation work better.

Pesaran, A.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Neymark, J. [Neymark (Joel), Golden, CO (United States)] [Neymark (Joel), Golden, CO (United States)

1994-11-01

222

Radiative effects of African dust and smoke observed from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cloud and aerosol effects have a significant impact on the atmospheric radiation budget in the tropical Atlantic because of the spatial and temporal extent of desert dust and smoke from biomass burning in the atmosphere. The influences of African dust and smoke aerosols on cloud radiative properties over the tropical Atlantic Ocean were analyzed for the month of July for 3 years (2006-2008) using colocated data collected by the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments on the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) and Aqua satellites. Aerosol layer height and type can be accurately determined using CALIOP data through directly measured parameters such as optical depth, volume depolarization ratio, attenuated backscatter, and color ratio. On average, clouds below 5 km had a daytime instantaneous shortwave (SW) radiative flux of 270.2 ± 16.9 W/m2 and thin cirrus clouds had a SW radiative flux of 208.0 ± 12.7 W/m2. When dust aerosols interacted with clouds below 5 km, as determined from CALIPSO, the SW radiative flux decreased to 205.4 ± 13.0 W/m2. Similarly, smoke aerosols decreased the SW radiative flux of low clouds to a value of 240.0 ± 16.6 W/m2. These decreases in SW radiative flux were likely attributed to the aerosol layer height and changes in cloud microphysics. CALIOP lidar observations, which more accurately identify aerosol layer height than passive instruments, appear essential for better understanding of cloud-aerosol interactions, a major uncertainty in predicting the climate system.

Yorks, John E.; McGill, Matt; Rodier, Sharon; Vaughan, Mark; Hu, Yongxiang; Hlavka, Dennis

2009-09-01

223

Development of a solar-powered passive ejector cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of an ejector refrigeration system that is powered by solar thermal energy. The cooling system contains no active parts and is therefore deemed passive. Water is used as the refrigerant though other natural refrigerants could be used for lower temperature operation. A prototype system was built with a nominal cooling capacity of 7 kW. This

V. M Nguyen; S. B Riffat; P. S Doherty

2001-01-01

224

Solar space heating and cooling by selective use of the components of a desiccant cooling system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The economic advantages of by-passing various components of a desiccant cooling system under conditions not requiring their use are estimated by evaluating the annual costs of heating and cooling a commercial building in three representative U.S. cities. Life-cycle costs of systems employing solar heat for space heating and desiccant regeneration are compared with those using electric heat. The costs of purchasing and operating heating and desiccant cooling systems, with and without solar heat supply, are compared with those employing conventional heating and vapor compression cooling. The conditions under which commercial buildings can be cooled with desiccant systems at costs competitive with conventional systems are identified. A commercially available vapor compression air conditioner is used as a standard of comparison for energy consumption and room comfort. Heating and cooling requirements of the building are determined by use of the BLAST computer model in a simulation of long term system operation. Performance of the desiccant cooling system and life cycle savings obtained by its use are determined by simulation employing the TRNSYS computer model. TRNSYS compatible subroutines are developed to simulate operation of the desiccant equipment, the building, and the controllers that operate and monitor the system components. The results are presented in tabular and graphical form. This study shows that in the widely different climates represented in Los Angeles, New York, and Miami, by-passing various components in the desiccant cooling system when they are not needed is economically advantageous. Operation cost of the complete system decreased by 47.3% in Los Angeles, by 30.9% in New York City, and by 23.9% in Miami by not operating the desiccant wheel and other elements. The ventilation desiccant cooling system has major economic advantage over conventional systems under conditions of moderate humidity, as in Los Angeles and New York City. In Miami, however, the thermal energy needed for desiccant cooling is three to four times greater than that for Los Angeles and New York, so the desiccant system is not a competitive option in hot, humid climates. Life cycle savings in the three locations show that operation of the desiccant cooling and heating system with solar energy is more costly than with conventional energy at 1996 prices. Solar energy would become competitive, however, if annual electric energy inflation rates exceed 10 percent.

Abbud, Ihsan Aladdin

225

Nuclear reactor cooling system decontamination reagent regeneration  

DOEpatents

An improved method for decontaminating the coolant system of water-cooled nuclear power reactors and for regenerating the decontamination solution. A small amount of one or more weak-acid organic complexing agents is added to the reactor coolant, and the pH is adjusted to form a decontamination solution which is circulated throughout the coolant system to dissolve metal oxides from the interior surfaces and complex the resulting metal ions and radionuclide ions. The coolant containing the complexed metal ions and radionuclide ions is passed through a strong-base anion exchange resin bed which has been presaturated with a solution containing the complexing agents in the same ratio and having the same pH as the decontamination solution. As the decontamination solution passes through the resin bed, metal-complexed anions are exchanged for the metal-ion-free anions on the bed, while metal-ion-free anions in the solution pass through the bed, thus removing the metal ions and regenerating the decontamination solution.

Anstine, Larry D. (San Jose, CA); James, Dean B. (Saratoga, CA); Melaika, Edward A. (Berkeley, CA); Peterson, Jr., John P. (Livermore, CA)

1985-01-01

226

Performance Testing of Radiant Barriers  

E-print Network

TVA has conducted a study to determine the effects of radiant barriers (RBI (i.e., material with a low emissivity surface facing an air space), when used with fiberglass, on attic heat transfer during summer and winter. This study employed five...

Hall, J. A.

1986-01-01

227

Results from a scaled reactor cavity cooling system with water at steady state  

SciTech Connect

We present a summary of steady-state experiments performed with a scaled, water-cooled Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) at the Univ. of Wisconsin - Madison. The RCCS concept is used for passive decay heat removal in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) design and was based on open literature of the GA-MHTGR, HTR-10 and AVR reactor. The RCCS is a 1/4 scale model of the full scale prototype system, with a 7.6 m structure housing, a 5 m tall test section, and 1,200 liter water storage tank. Radiant heaters impose a heat flux onto a three riser tube test section, representing a 5 deg. radial sector of the actual 360 deg. RCCS design. The maximum heat flux and power levels are 25 kW/m{sup 2} and 42.5 kW, and can be configured for variable, axial, or radial power profiles to simulate prototypic conditions. Experimental results yielded measurements of local surface temperatures, internal water temperatures, volumetric flow rates, and pressure drop along the test section and into the water storage tank. The majority of the tests achieved a steady state condition while remaining single-phase. A selected number of experiments were allowed to reach saturation and subsequently two-phase flow. RELAP5 simulations with the experimental data have been refined during test facility development and separate effects validation of the experimental facility. This test series represents the completion of our steady-state testing, with future experiments investigating normal and off-normal accident scenarios with two-phase flow effects. The ultimate goal of the project is to combine experimental data from UW - Madison, UI, ANL, and Texas A and M, with system model simulations to ascertain the feasibility of the RCCS as a successful long-term heat removal system during accident scenarios for the NGNP. (authors)

Lisowski, D. D. [Univ. of Wisconsin - Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Albiston, S. M.; Tokuhiro, A. [Univ. of Idaho - Moscow, Moscow, ID 83843 (United States); Anderson, M. H.; Corradini, M. L. [Univ. of Wisconsin - Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

2012-07-01

228

Preliminary design activities for solar heating and cooling systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information on the development of solar heating and cooling systems is presented. The major emphasis is placed on program organization, system size definition, site identification, system approaches, heat pump and equipment design, collector procurement, and other preliminary design activities.

1978-01-01

229

Sensor performance of Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments aboard EOS Terra and Aqua spacecraft based on post-launch calibration studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments were designed to measure the reflected shortwave and emitted longwave radiances of the Earth's radiation budget and to investigate the cloud interactions with global radiances for the long-term monitoring of Earth's climate. The three scanning thermistor bolometers measure the broadband radiances in the shortwave (0.3 to 5.0 micrometer), total (0.3 to >100 micrometer) and 8 - 12 micrometer water vapor window regions. Four CERES instruments (Flight Models1 through 4) are flying aboard EOS Terra and Aqua platforms with two instruments aboard each spacecraft. The post launch calibration of CERES sensors are carried out using the internal calibration module (ICM) comprising of blackbody sources and quartz-halogen tungsten lamp, and a solar diffuser plate known as the Mirror Attenuator Mosaic (MAM). The ICM calibration results are instrumental in understanding the shift in CERES sensors' gains after launch from the pre-launch determined values. Several validation studies are also conducted with the CERES measurements to monitor the behavior of the sensors in various spectral regions. In addition to the broadband response changes derived from the on-board blackbody and the tungsten lamp, the shortwave and the total sensors show further drop in responsivity in the UV spectral region that were brought to light through validation studies. Further analyses were performed to correct for these response changes at all spectral regions. This paper reports the sensor response changes that were determined with the on-board calibration sources and the investigation of the additional factors that influence the performance of the CERES sensors in orbit.

Thomas, Susan; Priestley, K. J.; Hess, P. C.; Wilson, R. S.; Avery, M. A.; Walikainen, D. R.; Szewczyk, Z. P.; Cooper, D. L.; Shankar, M.

2009-08-01

230

HVAC Equipment Design Options for Near-Zero-Energy Homes - Scoping Assessment of Radiant Panel Distribution System Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the energy efficiency of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment has increased substantially in recent years, new approaches are needed to continue this trend. Conventional unitary equipment and system designs have matured to a point where cost-effective, dramatic efficiency improvements that meet near-zero-energy housing (NZEH) goals require a radical rethinking of opportunities to improve system performance. The large reductions

Van Baxter; Van David

2007-01-01

231

Laboratory research on combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP) systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP) systems offer the potential for a significant increase in fuel use efficiency by generating electricity onsite and recycling the exhaust gas for heating, cooling, or dehumidifying. A challenge for CCHP system is the efficient integration of distributed generation (DG) equipment with thermally-activated (TA) technologies. The China Ministry of Science and Technology and Tsinghua University

L. Fu; X. L. Zhao; S. G. Zhang; Y. Jiang; H. Li; W. W. Yang

2009-01-01

232

Solar heating and cooling systems design and development. [prototype development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of twelve prototype solar heating/cooling systems, six heating and six heating and cooling systems, two each for single family, multi-family, and commercial applications, is reported. Schedules and technical discussions, along with illustrations on the progress made from April 1, 1977 through June 30, 1977 are detailed.

1977-01-01

233

COOLING FAN AND SYSTEM PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upcoming emissions regulations (Tiers 3, 4a and 4b) are imposing significantly higher heat loads on the cooling system than lesser regulated machines. This work was a suite of tasks aimed at reducing the parasitic losses of the cooling system, or improving the design process through six distinct tasks: 1. Develop an axial fan that will provide more airflow, with less

Ronald Dupree

2005-01-01

234

Performance of a Fog System for Cooling Greenhouses  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaporative cooling system for greenhouses based on spraying water in very fine droplets (in the fog-size range) without wetting the foliage, is proposed. The combination of ventilation and evaporation flow rates was determined as a function of solar radiation and the ambient climate conditions in order to provide the desired climate conditions. This cooling system can provide a wide

A. Arbel; O. Yekutieli; M. Barak

1999-01-01

235

Heat pump system with selective space cooling  

DOEpatents

A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve. 4 figs.

Pendergrass, J.C.

1997-05-13

236

Heat pump system with selective space cooling  

DOEpatents

A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve.

Pendergrass, Joseph C. (Gainesville, GA)

1997-01-01

237

Current status of cooled IR detectors at i3system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper shows the current status of cooled IR detector technologies at i3system, South Korea. Mass production technology of i3system has successfully supplied lots of QVGA cooled IR detectors to camera customers. i3system has also developed small pitch cooled IR detectors with 320×256 and 640×512 formats for several different applications such as thermal sights and 24-hour operation observation units. In 2013, i3system's cooled IR detector has been launched in STSAT(Science and Technology SATellite)-2C through Naro-1 program which was South Korea's first successful launch vehicle for satellite. Owing to i3system's robust, intensive design and test programs, IR detector technologies have been space qualified without any further efforts by the space program. Currently, development programs for SXGA(1280×1024) with small pitch cooled detector are being progressed and its status is addressed.

Bae, Sooho; Kim, Young-Ho; Kim, Byung-Hyuk; Lee, Ho-Joon; Jung, Han

2014-06-01

238

Simulation of radiant cooling performance with evaporative cooling sources  

E-print Network

hand, and potential for nighttime precooling, on the other; 2) the tube spacing within the slab; 3) the warmerhand, and potential for nighttime precooling, on the other; 2) the tube spacing within the slab; 3) the warmer

Moore, Timothy

2008-01-01

239

Unsteady thermal performance analysis of a room with serial and parallel duct radiant floor heating system using hot airflow  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the unsteady thermal performance of a test room heated by circulating hot airflow under the floor was analyzed with a developed mathematical model based on heat transfer equilibrium among the air flow, the floor and the indoor air. The time variations in the indoor air temperature for the serial duct floor heating system were investigated theoretically and

O?uz Bozk?r; Suat Canbazo?lu

2004-01-01

240

Cooling System Using Natural Circulation for Air Conditioning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, Cooling systems with natural circulation loop of refrigerants are reviewed. The cooling system can largely reduce energy consumption of a cooling system for the telecommunication base site. The cooling system consists of two refrigeration units; vapor compression refrigeration unit and sub-cooling unit with a natural-circulation loop. The experiments and calculations were carried out to evaluate the cycle performance of natural circulation loop with HFCs and CO2. The experimental results showed that the cooling capacity of R410A is approximately 30% larger than that of R407C at the temperature difference of 20K and the cooling capacity of CO2 was approximately 4-13% larger than that of R410A under the two-phase condition. On the other hand, the cooling capacity of CO2 was approximately 11% smaller than that of R410A under the supercritical condition. The cooling capacity took a maximum value at an amount of refrigerant and lineally increased as the temperature difference increases and the slightly increased as the height difference. The air intake temperature profile in the inlet of the heat exchangers makes the reverse circulation under the supercritical state and the driving head difference for the reverse circulation depends on the density change to temperature under the supercritical state. Also, a new fan control method to convert the reverse circulation into the normal circulation was reviewed.

Okazaki, Takashi; Seshimo, Yu

241

A hemolysis study of an intravascular blood cooling system for localized organ tissue cooling.  

PubMed

Therapeutic hypothermia can reduce both ischemic and reperfusion injury arising after strokes and heart attacks. New localized organ cooling systems offer a way to reduce tissue damage more effectively with fewer side effects. To assess initial blood safety of our new organ cooling system, the CoolGuide Cooling System (CCS), we investigated safe operating conditions and configurations from a hemolysis perspective. The CCS consists of a peristaltic pump, a custom-built external heat exchanger, a chiller, biocompatible polyvinyl cellulose (PVC) tubing, and a control console. The CCS cools and circulates autologous blood externally and re-delivers cooled blood to the patient through a conventional catheter inserted directly into the organ at risk. Catheter configurations used included: a 7F guide catheter only, a 7F guide with a 0.038" wire inserted through the center and advanced 2 cm distal to the catheter distal tip, a 6F guide catheter only and a 6F guide with a 0.014" guidewire similarly inserted through the center. Using porcine blood, an in vitro test rig was used to measure the degree of hemolysis generation, defined as the percentage change in free hemoglobin, adjusted for total hemoglobin and hematocrit, between exiting and entering blood. The highest degree of hemolysis generation was 0.11±0.04%, based on the average behavior with a 6F catheter and a 0.014" guidewire configuration at a blood flow rate of approximately 130 mL/min. In terms of average percentage free hemoglobin exiting the system, based on total hemoglobin, the highest value measured was 0.17%±0.03%, using this 6F and 0.014" guidewire configuration. This result is significantly below the most stringent European guideline of 0.8% used for blood storage and transfusion. This study provides initial evidence showing hemolysis generation arising from the CoolGuide Cooling System is likely to be clinically insignificant. PMID:23047283

Merrill, T L; Mingin, T; Merrill, D R; Botbyl, J; Akers, J E

2013-01-01

242

Redesigning Process Cooling Systems in the Plastics Industry  

E-print Network

with a combined chilled water load of approximately 650 tons. LIFETIME’S PLASTICS FACILITY Lifetime’s plastic facility has 21 blow molding machines with a total rated throughput of 35,000 lbs of plastic/hr. Each machine requires cooling... for the mold, hydraulic coolers, and gear box coolers. Additionally, the facility has four water cooled air compressors sized 100 hp and 200 hp. LIFETIME’S ORIGINAL EQUIPMENT Lifetime operated four individual process cooling systems in Building B11...

Anderson, G. R.

2006-01-01

243

Thermal performance of radiant heating floors in furnished enclosed spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radiant floor heating systems offer distinctive advantages in several special applications and allow to use low temperature heat. A renewed interest has grown in the study of the thermo-physical behaviour of such systems and the influence on health; consequently more accurate design methodologies, taking into account the various relevant parameters, have been developed. However, such methodologies usually refer to

L. Fontana

2011-01-01

244

Automotive non-pressure cooling system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a non-pressure automotive engine cooling system comprising: a radiator containing a liquid coolant, coupling hoses that intercouple the radiator to the engine, pump means associated with the engine for circulating coolant through the engine and radiator. The pump means has a suction side, a radiator cap sealed on the radiator, an expansion tank disposed in the engine compartment, vent means on the tank for venting the tank to atmosphere, a coupling tube disposed between the radiator below the radiator cap and the expansion tank to enable free flow of the coolant under expansion from the radiator to the expansion tank. The radiator cap seals the radiator but provides a substantially non-pressure and unimpeded fluid path from the radiator to the coupling tube, a return line coupled from the expansion tank to the suction side of the pump means. The radiator has a gooseneck with the radiator cap sealably engaged with the gooseneck, an outlet port from the top of the radiator to which the coupling tube is connected. The outlet port is continuously open and unblocked by the radiator cap to provide free fluid flow from the radiator to the expansion tank over the entire operating temperature range, the radiator cap sealing only at the top of the gooseneck, and means for supporting the expansion tank at a position at a height corresponding to the top of the radiator. Under normal temperature operating conditions, the liquid level line is substantially the same in both the radiator and the expansion tank.

Skinner, A.A.

1987-07-07

245

Solar heating and cooling technical data and systems analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research activities described herein were concentrated on the areas of economics, heating and cooling systems, architectural design, materials characteristics, climatic conditions, educational information packages, and evaluation of solar energy systems and components.

Christensen, D. L.

1977-01-01

246

Cooling system early-stage design tool for naval applications  

E-print Network

This thesis utilizes concepts taken from the NAVSEA Design Practices and Criteria Manualfor Surface Ship Freshwater Systems and other references to create a Cooling System Design Tool (CSDT). With the development of new ...

Fiedel, Ethan R

2011-01-01

247

Solar heating and cooling systems design and development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress in the development of prototype solar heating/cooling systems is reported. Results obtained from refinement/improvement of the single family, multifamily, and commercial systems configurations and generalized studies on several of the subsystems are presented.

1977-01-01

248

Solar heating and cooling systems design and development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar heating and heating/cooling systems were designed for single family, multifamily, and commercial applications. Subsystems considered included solar collectors, heat storage systems, auxiliary energy sources, working fluids, and supplementary controls, piping, and pumps.

1976-01-01

249

Solar residential heating and cooling system development test program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar heating and cooling system is described, which was installed in a simulated home at Marshall Space Flight Center. Performance data are provided for the checkout and initial operational phase for key subsystems and for the total system. Valuable information was obtained with regard to operation of a solar cooling system during the first summer of operation. Areas where improvements and modifications are required to optimize such a system are discussed.

Humphries, W. R.; Melton, D. E.

1974-01-01

250

Radiant Power Measuring Instrument (RPMI)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are no author-identified significant results in this report. The radiant power measuring instrument is a rugged, hand-carried instrument which provides an ERTS investigator with a capability of obtaining radiometric measurements needed to determine solar and atmospheric parameters that affect the ERTS radiance measurements. With these parameters, ERTS data can be transformed into absolute target reflectance signatures, making accurate unambiguous interpretations possible.

Rogers, R. H. (principal investigator)

1973-01-01

251

Closed loop air cooling system for combustion turbines  

DOEpatents

Convective cooling of turbine hot parts using a closed loop system is disclosed. Preferably, the present invention is applied to cooling the hot parts of combustion turbine power plants, and the cooling provided permits an increase in the inlet temperature and the concomitant benefits of increased efficiency and output. In preferred embodiments, methods and apparatus are disclosed wherein air is removed from the combustion turbine compressor and delivered to passages internal to one or more of a combustor and turbine hot parts. The air cools the combustor and turbine hot parts via convection and heat is transferred through the surfaces of the combustor and turbine hot parts. 1 fig.

Huber, D.J.; Briesch, M.S.

1998-07-21

252

Compact Solid State Cooling Systems: Compact MEMS Electrocaloric Module  

SciTech Connect

BEETIT Project: UCLA is developing a novel solid-state cooling technology to translate a recent scientific discovery of the so-called giant electrocaloric effect into commercially viable compact cooling systems. Traditional air conditioners use noisy, vapor compression systems that include a polluting liquid refrigerant to circulate within the air conditioner, absorb heat, and pump the heat out into the environment. Electrocaloric materials achieve the same result by heating up when placed within an electric field and cooling down when removed—effectively pumping heat out from a cooler to warmer environment. This electrocaloric-based solid state cooling system is quiet and does not use liquid refrigerants. The innovation includes developing nano-structured materials and reliable interfaces for heat exchange. With these innovations and advances in micro/nano-scale manufacturing technologies pioneered by semiconductor companies, UCLA is aiming to extend the performance/reliability of the cooling module.

None

2010-10-01

253

Model Predictive Control for the Operation of Building Cooling Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This brief presents a model-based predictive control (MPC) approach to building cooling systems with thermal energy storage. We focus on buildings equipped with a water tank used for actively storing cold water produced by a series of chillers. First, simplified models of chillers, cooling towers, thermal storage tanks, and buildings are developed and validated for the purpose of model-based control

Yudong Ma; Francesco Borrelli; Brandon Hencey; Brian Coffey; Sorin Bengea; Philip Haves

2012-01-01

254

Cryogenic cooling system for the ground test accelerator  

SciTech Connect

A cryogenic cooling system has been designed, built and tested for the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Major components of the GTA require cooling to less than 50 K to reduce rf-heating and to increase thermal stability. The cooling system is capable of cooling (at an acceptable rate for thermal stresses) the cryogenically cooled components and then maintaining them at their operating temperature during accelerator testing for all modes and power levels of operation. The accelerator components are cooled by circulating cold, dense helium gas (about 21 K and 2.1 MPa) through the components. The circulating helium is refrigerated in a heat exchanger that uses boiling liquid hydrogen as a source of refrigeration. The cryogenic cooling system consists of the following major components: a liquid hydrogen (LH[sub 2]) storage Dewar with a transfer line to an LH[sub 2] run tank containing an LH[sub 2]/gaseous helium (GHe) heat exchanger, circulation lines, and a circulation pump. The system, sized to cool a load of approximately 40 kW at temperatures as low as 20 K, is operational, but has not yet been operated in conjunction with the accelerator.

Edeskuty, F.J.; Stewart, W.F.; Moeller, J.; Durham, F. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Spulgis, I. (CVI, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States))

1993-01-01

255

Cryogenic cooling system for the Ground Test Accelerator  

SciTech Connect

A cryogenic cooling system has been designed, built and tested for the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Major components of the GTA require cooling to less than 50 K to reduce rf-heating and to increase thermal stability. The cooling system is capable of cooling (at an acceptable rate for thermal stresses) the cryogenically cooled components and then maintaining them at their operating temperature during accelerator testing for all modes and power levels of operation. The accelerator components are cooled by circulating cold, dense helium gas (about 21 K and 2.1 MPa) through the components. The circulating helium is refrigerated in a heat exchanger that uses boiling liquid hydrogen as a source of refrigeration. The cryogenic cooling system consists of the following major components: a liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) storage Dewar with a transfer line to an LH{sub 2} run tank containing an LH{sub 2}/gaseous helium (GHe) heat exchanger, circulation lines, and a circulation pump. The system, sized to cool a load of approximately 40 kW at temperatures as low as 20 K, is operational, but has not yet been operated in conjunction with the accelerator.

Edeskuty, F.J.; Stewart, W.F.; Moeller, J.; Durham, F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Spulgis, I. [CVI, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States)

1994-12-31

256

Cryogenic cooling system for the ground test accelerator  

SciTech Connect

A cryogenic cooling system has been designed, built and tested for the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Major components of the GTA require cooling to less than 50 K to reduce rf-heating and to increase thermal stability. The cooling system is capable of cooling (at an acceptable rate for thermal stresses) the cryogenically cooled components and then maintaining them at their operating temperature during accelerator testing for all modes and power levels of operation. The accelerator components are cooled by circulating cold, dense helium gas (about 21 K and 2.1 MPa) through the components. The circulating helium is refrigerated in a heat exchanger that uses boiling liquid hydrogen as a source of refrigeration. The cryogenic cooling system consists of the following major components: a liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) storage Dewar with a transfer line to an LH{sub 2} run tank containing an LH{sub 2}/gaseous helium (GHe) heat exchanger, circulation lines, and a circulation pump. The system, sized to cool a load of approximately 40 kW at temperatures as low as 20 K, is operational, but has not yet been operated in conjunction with the accelerator.

Edeskuty, F.J.; Stewart, W.F.; Moeller, J.; Durham, F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Spulgis, I. [CVI, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States)

1993-06-01

257

OPERATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF CLOSED CYCLE COOLING SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of a study of operational and environmental impacts of closed cooling systems, used for about a quarter of the nation's steam-electric generating capacity. Conclusions relating to operational impacts include: (1) closed cycle cooling leads to increased pow...

258

Water cooling tower and water level control system therefor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an improved water cooling tower system including a water cooling tower structure having a top portion, a bottom portion, an intermediate portion therebetween, a water-collecting basin operatively disposed in the bottom portion of the structure, a heat exchange means operatively disposed in the intermediate portion of the structure, means for recirculating the water from the water-collecting basin

Kinkead

1989-01-01

259

Isolation condenser with shutdown cooling system heat exchanger  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described for cooling a nuclear boiling water reactor, the reactor having a reactor core for heating reactor coolant to generate steam, a turbine-generator for receiving the steam and generating electric power, and a feedwater system for receiving spent steam and providing feedwater back into the reactor, the process comprising: providing a condenser cooling shell; filling the condenser

Gluntz

1989-01-01

260

Prototype solar heating and cooling systems, including potable hot water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress made in the development, delivery, and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water is reported. The system consists of the following subsystems: collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition. A comparison of the proposed Solaron Heat Pump and Solar Desiccant Heating and Cooling Systems, installation drawings, data on the Akron House at Akron, Ohio, and other program activities are included.

Bloomquist, D.; Oonk, R. L.

1977-01-01

261

Preoperational test report, primary ventilation condenser cooling system  

SciTech Connect

This represents the preoperational test report for the Primary Ventilation Condenser Cooling System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system uses a closed chilled water piping loop to provide offgas effluent cooling for tanks AY101, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102; the offgas is cooled from a nominal 100 F to 40 F. Resulting condensation removes tritiated vapor from the exhaust stack stream. The piping system includes a package outdoor air-cooled water chiller with parallel redundant circulating pumps; the condenser coil is located inside a shielded ventilation equipment cell. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

Clifton, F.T.

1997-10-29

262

One layer porous radiant burners : experimental and numerical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porous radiant burners show numerous advantages over traditional systems such as improved efficiency and low pollutants emissions. Combustion is stabilized within a solid matrix but depending on operating conditions, can move outside. The results depend on the solid matrix characteristics. In order to inquire into the solid matrix properties effects, experimental tests have been performed on an opened burner made

S. Gauthier; E. Lebas; D. Baillis

2007-01-01

263

2. VIEW SOUTH OF WIND TUNNEL 138 AND COOLING SYSTEM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW SOUTH OF WIND TUNNEL 138 AND COOLING SYSTEM 140, NORTH ELEVATION - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Subsonic Wind Tunnel Building, Bounded by Clara Barton Parkway & McArthur Boulevard, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

264

Heat pumps in district heating and district cooling systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis presents an analysis of heat pump operation in a District Heating and District Cooling system. Two heat pumps with supersonic centrifugal compressors use untreated sewage as their heat source/sink for the simultaneous production of heating and...

M. Havskjold

1993-01-01

265

40 CFR 89.329 - Engine cooling system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

An engine cooling system is required with sufficient capacity to maintain the engine at normal operating temperatures as prescribed by the engine manufacturer. [59 FR 31335, June 17, 1994. Redesignated at 63 FR 56995, Oct. 23,...

2010-07-01

266

Preliminary design package for prototype solar heating and cooling systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary is given of the preliminary analysis and design activity on solar heating and cooling systems. The analysis was made without site specific data other than weather; therefore, the results indicate performance expected under these special conditions. Major items include a market analysis, design approaches, trade studies and other special data required to evaluate the preliminary analysis and design. The program calls for the development and delivery of eight prototype solar heating and cooling systems for installation and operational test. Two heating and six heating and cooling units will be delivered for Single Family Residences, Multiple-family Residences and commercial applications.

1978-01-01

267

77 FR 36014 - Initial Test Program of Emergency Core Cooling Systems for Boiling-Water Reactors  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Emergency Core Cooling Systems for Boiling-Water Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...Emergency Core Cooling Systems for Boiling- Water Reactors.'' This guide describes...cooling systems (ECCSs) for boiling-water reactors (BWRs). DATES:...

2012-06-15

268

Developing, testing, evaluating and optimizing solar heating and cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

The objective is to develop and test various integrated solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water systems, and to evaluate their performance. Systems composed of new, as well as previously tested, components are carefully integrated so that effects of new components on system performance can be clearly delineated. The SEAL-DOE program includes six tasks which have received funding for the 1991--92 fifteen-month period. These include: (1) a project employing isothermal operation of air and liquid solar space heating systems; (2) a project to build and test several generic solar water heaters; (3) a project that will evaluate advanced solar domestic hot water components and concepts and integrate them into solar domestic hot water systems; (4) a liquid desiccant cooling system development project; (5) a project that will perform system modeling and analysis work on solid desiccant cooling systems research; and (6) a management task. The objectives and progress in each task are described in this report.

Not Available

1992-01-24

269

Cooling systems for satellite remote sensing instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current and developing state-of-the-art in cryogenic coolers for satellite sensors was studied for earth oriented satellites. Six representative sensor categories in the 77 K to 300 K range were defined. Cooling capacities were 50 to 1000 mw; both continuous and intermittent duty cycles were considered; lifetimes were one to two years. Conceptual designs were prepared for the most promising coolers in each category. These coolers are Joule-Thomson, Solid Cryogen, Vuilleumier, Thermoelectric, Shielded Radiator, Optical Solar Reflector Radiator and Unshielded Radiator. Weight, envelope, power requirements and operating characteristics of each cooler are described. Scaling data for each cooler are included.

Copeland, R. J.; Oren, J. A.

1975-01-01

270

Cooling Tests of an Airplane Equipped with an NACA Cowling and a Wing-duct Cooling System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cooling tests were made of a Northrop A-17A attack airplane successively equipped with a conventional.NACA cowling and with a wing-duct cooling system. The method of cooling the engine by admitting air from the propeller slipstream into wing ducts, passing it first through the accessory compartment and then over the engine from rear to front, appeared to offer possibilities for improved engine cooling, increased cooling of the accessories, and better fairing of the power-plant installation. The results showed that ground cooling for the wing duct system without cowl flap was better than for the NACA cowling with flap; ground cooling was appreciably improved by installing a cowl flap. Satisfactory temperatures were maintained in both climb and high-speed flight, but, with the use of conventional baffles, a greater quantity of cooling air appeared to be required for the wing duct system.

Turner, L I , Jr; Bierman, David; Boothy, W B

1941-01-01

271

Solar heating and cooling system design and development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and development of marketable solar heating and cooling systems for single family and commercial applications is described. The delivery, installation, and monitoring of the prototype systems are discussed. Seven operational test sites are discussed in terms of system performance. Problems encountered with equipment and installation were usually due to lack of skills required for solar system installation.

1979-01-01

272

Water cooling system using a piezoelectrically actuated flow pump for a medical headlight system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microchips inside modern electronic equipment generate heat and demand, each day, the use of more advanced cooling techniques as water cooling systems, for instance. These systems combined with piezoelectric flow pumps present some advantages such as higher thermal capacity, lower noise generation and miniaturization potential. The present work aims at the development of a water cooling system based on

Rogério F. Pires; Sandro L. Vatanabe; Amaury R. de Oliveira; Paulo H. Nakasone; Emílio C. Silva

2007-01-01

273

Steam cooling system for a gas turbine  

DOEpatents

The steam cooling circuit for a gas turbine includes a bore tube assembly supplying steam to circumferentially spaced radial tubes coupled to supply elbows for transitioning the radial steam flow in an axial direction along steam supply tubes adjacent the rim of the rotor. The supply tubes supply steam to circumferentially spaced manifold segments located on the aft side of the 1-2 spacer for supplying steam to the buckets of the first and second stages. Spent return steam from these buckets flows to a plurality of circumferentially spaced return manifold segments disposed on the forward face of the 1-2 spacer. Crossover tubes couple the steam supply from the steam supply manifold segments through the 1-2 spacer to the buckets of the first stage. Crossover tubes through the 1-2 spacer also return steam from the buckets of the second stage to the return manifold segments. Axially extending return tubes convey spent cooling steam from the return manifold segments to radial tubes via return elbows.

Wilson, Ian David (Mauldin, SC); Barb, Kevin Joseph (Halfmoon, NY); Li, Ming Cheng (Cincinnati, OH); Hyde, Susan Marie (Schenectady, NY); Mashey, Thomas Charles (Coxsackie, NY); Wesorick, Ronald Richard (Albany, NY); Glynn, Christopher Charles (Hamilton, OH); Hemsworth, Martin C. (Cincinnati, OH)

2002-01-01

274

Microscale liquid cooling system for high heat flux processor cooling applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The requirements for thermal management in high performance computers are rapidly outpacing the capabilities of the best commercial heat sinks, including those with integrated heat pipes. The problem lies in three compounding trends: a) higher total chip power, b) higher local heat flux in chip hotspots, and c) smaller system enclosures. Pumped liquid cooling is a promising alternative, but this

Girish Upadhya; Mark Munch; Peng Zhou; J. Horn; Douglas Werner; Mark McMaster

2006-01-01

275

S'COOL: Cloud Identification Chart and The Cloud Cookery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides detailed information about cloud identification, observing, and reporting. It also provides an activity on how to make a cloud in a bottle. French and Spanish versions of the chart are also available. This resource was developed for the Student Cloud Observations On Line (S'COOL) project. S'COOL is a component of NASA's Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project. S'COOL project participants make ground truth measurements for the CERES experiment. Ground truth measurements are land-based observations to compare with satellite data for the purpose of improving the satellite results.

2004-10-01

276

NONWATER QUALITY IMPACTS OF CLOSED-CYCLE COOLING SYSTEMS AND THE INTERACTION OF STACK GAS AND COOLING TOWER PLUMES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a literature survey of the nonwater quality impacts of closed-cycle cooling systems. Following discussions of cooling tower and stack gas plumes, interactions of these plumes are considered. For cooling tower plumes, plume types, behavior, salt drift g...

277

Evaluation of two cooling systems under a firefighter coverall.  

PubMed

Firemen often suffer from heat strain. This study investigated two chest cooling systems for use under a firefighting suit. In nine male subjects, a vest with water soaked cooling pads and a vest with water perfused tubes were compared to a control condition. Subjects performed 30 min walking and 10 min recovery in hot conditions, while physiological and perceptual parameters were measured. No differences were observed in heart rate and rectal temperature, but scapular skin temperature and fluid loss were lower using the perfused vest. Thermal sensation was cooler for the perfused vest than for the other conditions, while the cool pad vest felt initially cooler than control. However, comfort and RPE scores were similar. We conclude that the cooling effect of both tested systems, mainly providing a (temporally) cooler thermal sensation, was limited and did not meet the expectations. PMID:24798511

Teunissen, Lennart P J; Wang, Li-Chu; Chou, Shih-Nung; Huang, Chin-Hsien; Jou, Gwo-Tsuen; Daanen, Hein A M

2014-11-01

278

The RF System for the International Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment  

E-print Network

The International Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment (MICE) is designed to demonstrate the effectiveness of ionisation cooling to reduce the phase space footprint of a charged particle beam, principally to allow the subsequent acceleration of muons for next generation colliders and/or neutrino factories. The experiment (and indeed any subsequent accelerator cooling channel based on the same principles) poses certain unusual requirements on its RF system, whilst the precision measurement of the ionisation cooling process demands special diagnostics. This paper shall outline the key features of the RF system, including the low level RF control, the power amplifier chain, distribution network, cavities, tuners and couplers, many parts of which are required to operate in a high magnetic field environment. The RF diagnostics which, in conjunction with the other MICE diagnostics, shall allow detailed knowledge of the amplitude and phase of the acceleration field during the transit of each individual muon will also ...

Ronald, K.; Dick, A.J.; Speirs, D.C.; Moss, A.; Grant, A.; White, C.; Griffiths, S.; Stanley, T.; Li, D.; DeMello, A.J.; Virostek, S.; Moretti, A.; Pasquinelli, R.; Peterson, D.; Schultz, R.; Volk, J.; Popovic, M.; Torun, Y.; Hanlet, P.; Alsari, S.; Long, K.; Pasternak, J.; Hunt, C.; Summers, D.; Luo, T.; Smith, P.J.

2014-01-01

279

Electron Beam Size Measurements in the Fermilab Electron Cooling System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fermilab Electron Cooling Project requires a straight trajectory and constant beam size to provide maximum cooling of the antiprotons in the Recycler. A measurement system was developed using movable apertures and steering bumps to measure the beam size in a 20m long, nearly continuous, solenoid. This paper will focus on results of these measurements of the beam size and the difficulties in making those measurements.

Kroc, T. K.; Burov, A. V.; Bolshakov, T. B.; Shemyakin, A.; Seletskiy, S. M.

2006-03-01

280

Closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine  

DOEpatents

Method and apparatus are disclosed for providing a closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine. The method and apparatus provide for bleeding pressurized air from a gas turbine engine compressor for use in cooling the turbine components. The compressed air is cascaded through the various stages of the turbine. At each stage a portion of the compressed air is returned to the compressor where useful work is recovered.

North, William Edward (Winter Springs, FL)

2000-01-01

281

Closed-loop electroosmotic microchannel cooling system for VLSI circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing heat generation rates in VLSI circuits motivate research on compact cooling technologies with low thermal resistance. This paper develops a closed-loop two-phase microchannel cooling system using electroosmotic pumping for the working fluid. The design, fabrication, and open-loop performance of the heat exchanger and pump are summarized. The silicon heat exchanger, which attaches to the test chip (1 cm2),

Linan Jiang; James Mikkelsen; Jae-Mo Koo; David Huber; Shuhuai Yao; Lian Zhang; Peng Zhou; James G. Maveety; Ravi Prasher; Juan G. Santiago; Thomas W. Kenny; Kenneth E. Goodson

2002-01-01

282

Electron beam size measurements in the Fermilab Electron Cooling System  

SciTech Connect

The Fermilab Electron Cooling Project requires a straight trajectory and constant beam size to provide maximum cooling of the antiprotons in the Recycler. A measurement system was developed using movable apertures and steering bumps to measure the beam size in a 20m long, nearly continuous, solenoid. This paper will focus on results of these measurements of the beam size and the difficulties in making those measurements.

Kroc, T.K.; Burov, A.V.; Bolshakov, T.B.; Shemyakin, A.; /Fermilab; Seletskiy, S.M.; /Rochester U.

2005-09-01

283

A practical solar energy heating and cooling system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent study has concluded that solar-powered residential heating and cooling system is non technically and economically feasible. Proposed system provides space heating, air conditioning, and hot water. Installation costs will be greater than for conventional heating systems, but this difference will eventually be defrayed by very low operating costs.

Oneill, M. J.; Mcdanal, A. J.; Sims, W. H.

1973-01-01

284

Use of a temperature-initiated passive cooling system (TIPACS) for the modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS)  

SciTech Connect

A new type of passive cooling system has been invented (Forsberg 1993): the Temperature-Initiated Passive Cooling System (TIPACS). The characteristics of the TIPACS potentially match requirements for an improved reactor-cavity-cooling system (RCCS) for the modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR). This report is an initial evaluation of the TIPACS for the MHTGR with a Rankines (steam) power conversion cycle. Limited evaluations were made of applying the TIPACS to MHTGRs with reactor pressure vessel temperatures up to 450 C. These temperatures may occur in designs of Brayton cycle (gas turbine) and process heat MHTGRs. The report is structured as follows. Section 2 describes the containment cooling issues associated with the MHTGR and the requirements for such a cooling system. Section 3 describes TIPACS in nonmathematical terms. Section 4 describes TIPACS`s heat-removal capabilities. Section 5 analyzes the operation of the temperature-control mechanism that determines under what conditions the TIPACS rejects heat to the environment. Section 6 addresses other design and operational issues. Section 7 identifies uncertainties, and Section 8 provides conclusions. The appendixes provide the detailed data and models used in the analysis.

Forsberg, C.W.; Conklin, J.; Reich, W.J.

1994-04-01

285

District cooling: Phase 2, Direct freeze ice slurry system testing  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this research are to: extend the range of pressure drop data for ice-water slurry flows, and design and build a prototypical ice slurry distribution system which demonstrates ice slurry handling at an end user's heat exchanger, without sending ice slurry directly through the heat exchanger. The results of Phase 1 work demonstrated a 40% reduction in pump power required to move an ice-water slurry versus the same mass flow of water only. In addition to lower pressure drop, pumping ice slurries is advantageous because of the large latent and sensible heat cooling capacity stored in the ice compared to only sensible heat in chilled water. For example, an ice-water slurry with a 20% ice fraction (by mass) has a mass flow rate that is 70% less than the mass flow rate required for a chilled water system cooling and equivalent load. The greatly reduced mass flow combined with the friction reducing effects of ice-water slurries results in a total savings of 83% in pumping power. Therefore, a substantial savings potential exists for capital costs and system operating costs in ice-water slurry district cooling systems. One potential disadvantage of an ice-slurry district cooling system is the introduction of ice into equipment not so designed, such as air handlers at end user locations. A prototypic ice slurry distribution loop will demonstrate a cooling network which will provide ice slurry to an end user but sends ice free water into the actual heat transfer.

Winters, P.J.

1991-01-02

286

Gas-cooled reactor power systems for space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characteristics of six designs for power levels of 2, 10, and 20 MWe for operating time of 1 and 7 years are described. The operating conditions for these arbitrary designs were chosen to minimize system specific mass. The designs are based on recent work which benefits from earlier analyses of nuclear space power systems conducted at LLNL. Both gas and liquid cooled reactors had been considered. Pitts and Walter reported on the results of a detailed study of a 10 MWe lithium cooled reactor in a potassium Rankine system. Unpublished results of a computer analysis provide details of an argon cooled reactor in an argon Brayton system. The gas cooled reactor design was based on extensive development work on the 500 MWth reactor for the nuclear ramjet (Pluto) as described by Walter. The designs discussed here draw heavily on the Pluto project experience, which culminated in a successful full power ground test as reported by Reynolds. At higher power levels gas cooled reactors coupled with Brayton systems with advanced radiator designs becomes attractive.

Walter, C. E.

287

Sub-cooled nitrogen cryogenic cooling system for superconducting fault current limiter by using GM-cryocooler  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 21st Century Frontier R&D Program was planned to develop and commercialize the inductive Superconducting Fault Current Limiter (SFCL) in Korea until 2011. The 1.2 kV/80 A inductive SFCL was planned to develop at the first year in the first phase (2001-2002) and the 6.6 kV/200 A inductive SFCL for short run operation test was planned to develop at the second and third year in the first phase (2002-2004). The experimental characteristics of conduction-cooled cooling system developed in the first year was very weak from the sudden large thermal disturbance. Therefore, the conduction-cooled cooling system was concluded not appropriate for the cryogenic technology of the application of superconducting fault current limiter. In the third year research, the improved sub-cooled nitrogen cooling system was adopted and investigated. In this paper, the characteristics of each cooling type was compared and the basic deign of ameliorated cooling system was introduced and the total heat load of the cooling system was calculated and compared with the heat load of the cooling system developed at 2nd year research.

Kang, Hyoungku; Kim, Hyung Jin; Bae, Duck Kweon; Ahn, Min Cheol; Chang, Ho-Myung; Ko, Tae Kuk

2005-01-01

288

Warehouse control system cools energy costs 20%  

SciTech Connect

Developed specifically for the food-processing industry, Levy Systems' Refrigeration Control and Monitoring System (RCMS) uses four basic techniques to lower electric-power costs: reducing defrost heat loads, reducing fan-operation heat loads, controlling coil usage, and incorporating utility variable rate structures into the coil operation. With this system, employees know the temperatures throughout the facility, the status and efficiency of every coil and every blast freezer, and actual product temperatures - all from a single computer terminal.

Not Available

1985-10-01

289

Electro-kinetic microchannel cooling system for servers  

Microsoft Academic Search

While servers have always required careful thermal design, three compounding trends are making system design unusually demanding with next generation: a) higher power in individual chips, b) higher local heat flux in chip hotspots, and c) the goal of integrating more chips with less separation on a 1U rack system. Pumped liquid cooling is a promising alternative because it allows

G. Upadhya; Peng Zhou; J. Hom; K. Goodson; M. Munch

2004-01-01

290

Risk-informed design changes for a passive cooling system  

E-print Network

The failure probability of a passive decay heat removal system after a LOCA is evaluated as part of a risk-informed design process for a helium-cooled fast reactor. The system was modeled using RELAP5-3D. The epistemic ...

Patalano, Giovanbattista

2007-01-01

291

Prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress is reviewed in the development, delivery, and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water. The system consisted of the following subsystems: collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition.

1978-01-01

292

Prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These combined quarterly reports summarize the activities from November 1977 through September 1978, and over the progress made in the development, delivery and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water. The system consists of the following subsystems: solar collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition.

1978-01-01

293

Preliminary design study of astronomical detector cooling system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The preliminary design of an astronomical detector cooling system for possible use in the NASA C-141 Airborne Infrared Observatory is presented. The system consists of the following elements: supercritical helium tank, Joule-Thomson supply gas conditioner, Joule-Thomson expander (JTX), optical cavity dewar, optical cavity temperature controller, adjustable J-T discharge gas pressure controller, and vacuum pump.

Norman, R. H.

1976-01-01

294

Resonance Control Cooling System for the APT/LEDA RFQ  

SciTech Connect

The Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) resonance control cooling system (RCCS) for the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) in support of the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) is described. Constant flow regulating valves to distribute the required flow to the 424 channels and to permit use of centrifugal pumps is discussed. Control system schema are described to regulate resonance frequency during steady state operation.

Domer, G.A.; Floersch, R.H.

1998-11-04

295

The evaporative cooling system for the ATLAS inner detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the evaporative system used to cool the silicon detector structures of the inner detector sub-detectors of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The motivation for an evaporative system, its design and construction are discussed. In detail the particular requirements of the ATLAS inner detector, technical choices and the qualification and manufacture of final components

D. Attree; B. Anderson; E. C. Anderssen; V. Akhnazarov; R. J. Apsimon; P. Barclay; L. E. Batchelor; R. L. Bates; M. Battistin; J. Bendotti; S. Berry; A. Bitadze; J. P. Bizzel; P. Bonneau; M. Bosteels; J. M. Butterworth; S. Butterworth; A. A. Carter; J. R. Carter; A. Catinaccio; F. Corbaz; H. O. Danielsson; E. Danilevich; N. Dixon; S. D. Dixon; F. Doherty; O. Dorholt; M. Doubrava; K. Egorov; K. Einsweiler; A. C. Falou; P. Feraudet; P. Ferrari; K. Fowler; J. T. Fraser; R. S. French; M. Galuska; F. Gannaway; G. Gariano; M. D. Gibson; M. Gilchriese; D. Giugni; J. Godlewski; I. Gousakov; B. Gorski; G. D. Hallewell; N. Hartman; R. J. Hawkings; S. J. Haywood; N. P. Hessey; I. Ilyashenko; S. Infante; J. N. Jackson; T. J. Jones; J. Kaplon; S. Katunin; S. Lindsay; L. Luisa; N. Massol; F. Mc Ewan; S. J. Mc Mahon; C. Menot; J. Mistry; J. Morris; D. M. Muskett; K. Nagai; A. Nichols; R. Nicholson; R. B. Nickerson; S. L. Nielsen; P. E. Nordahl; M. Olcese; M. Parodi; F. Perez-Gomez; H. Pernegger; E. Perrin; L. P. Rossi; A. Rovani; E. Ruscino; H. Sandaker; A. Smith; V. Sopko; S. Stapnes; M. Stodulski; J. Tarrant; J. Thadome; D. Tovey; M. Turala; M. Tyndel; V. Vacek; E. van der Kraaij; G. H. A. Viehhauser; E. Vigeolas; P. S. Wells; S. Wenig; P. Werneke

2008-01-01

296

A COOLING SYSTEM FOR BUIDINGS USING WIND ENERGY  

E-print Network

A COOLING SYSTEM FOR BUIDINGS USING WIND ENERGY Hamid Daiyan Islamic Azad University - Semnan in dray land, and only uses wind energy for conditioning. It technologies date back over 1000 years. Wind system, Wind energy, Temperature Fig.1 Wind tower of Doulat-Abad garden of Yazd with it's altitude is 33

297

Automatic heating/cooling energy distribution system. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

This project consisted of developing and installing a computerized heating and cooling air distribution system. The features of the system are as follows: (1) reduced temperature variation because of a constant flow of energy and more precise temperature control. This characteristic allows the facility to be operated at a lower temperature in winter and a higher temperature in the summer with the same creature comfort because the occupants are not being exposed to constant temperature variations or bursts of heating or cooling air. (2) Ability to reduce the energy required by any room for any period of time when the room is unoccupied or the activity in the room doesn't require the same temperature as other parts of the facility. The description of the system in this report assumes the logic consistent with winter heating requirements. An interpretation of summer cooling operation could be developed by substituting air-conditions on-time for furnace burn-time in the discussion.

Not Available

1983-03-14

298

Traveling Wave RF Systems for Helical Cooling Channels  

SciTech Connect

The great advantage of the helical ionization cooling channel (HCC) is its compact structure that enables the fast cooling of muon beam 6-dimensional phase space. This compact aspect requires a high average RF gradient, with few places that do not have cavities. Also, the muon beam is diffuse and requires an RF system with large transverse and longitudinal acceptance. A traveling wave system can address these requirements. First, the number of RF power coupling ports can be significantly reduced compared with our previous pillbox concept. Secondly, by adding a nose on the cell iris, the presence of thin metal foils traversed by the muons can possibly be avoided. We show simulations of the cooling performance of a traveling wave RF system in a HCC, including cavity geometries with inter-cell RF power couplers needed for power propagation.

Yonehara, K.; Lunin, A.; Moretti, A.; Popovic, M.; Romanov, G.; /Fermilab; Neubauer, M.; Johnson, R.P.; /Muons Inc., Batavia; Thorndahl, L.; /CERN

2009-05-01

299

Gas fired radiant tube heater  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a fuel fired radiant tube burner. It comprises a first generally cylindrical heat tube; a second cylindrical heat transfer tube concentrically disposed within the heat tube and defining a longitudinally-extending annular exhaust gas passageway therebetween; a third cylindrical burner tube concentrically disposed within the second tube and defining a longitudinally-extending annular heat distribution passageway therebetween; burner means within the third tube at one axial end of the third tube and sealed with respect thereto for igniting, combusting and burning a source of fuel and air to form heated products of combustion within the third tube casing; plate means closing the first, second and third tube axial end openings which are adjacent one another, the plate means effective to cause the products of combustion to enter the heat distribution passageway; and aperture and opening means associated with the heat distribution passageway for developing a substantially laminar flow of the products of combustion within the heat distribution passageway.

Hemsath, K.H.

1992-01-21

300

Thermal Hydraulic Analysis of an Experimental Reactor Cavity Cooling System with Water: Performance and Stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This experimental study investigated the thermal hydraulic behavior and boiling mechanisms present in a scaled reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS). The experimental facility reflects a ¼ scale model of one conceptual design for decay heat removal in advanced GenIV nuclear reactors. Radiant heaters supply up to 25 kW/m2 onto a three parallel riser tube and cooling panel test section assembly, representative of a 5° sector model of the full scale concept. Derived similarity relations have preserved the thermal hydraulic flow patterns and integral system response, ensuring relevant data and similarity among scales. Attention will first be given to the characterization of design features, form and heat losses, nominal behavior, repeatability, and data uncertainty. Then, tests performed in single-phase have evaluated the steady-state behavior. Following, the transition to saturation and subsequent boiling allowed investigations onto four parametric effects at two-phase flow and will be the primary focus area of remaining analysis. Baseline conditions at two-phase flow were defined by 15.19 kW of heated power and 80% coolant inventory, and resulted in semi-periodic system oscillations by the mechanism of hydrostatic head fluctuations. Void generation was the result of adiabatic expansion of the fluid due to a reduction in hydrostatic head pressure, a phenomena similar to flashing. At higher powers of 17.84 and 20.49 kW, this effect was augmented, creating large flow excursions that followed a smooth and sinusoidal shaped path. Stabilization can occur if the steam outflow condition incorporates a nominal restriction, as it will serve to buffer the short time scale excursions of the gas space pressure and dampen oscillations. The influences of an inlet restriction, imposed by an orifice plate, introduced subcooling boiling within the heated core and resulted in chaotic interactions among the parallel risers. The penultimate parametric examined effects of boil-off and inventory loss, where five different stages of natural circulation flow were identified: single-phase heating, transitional nucleate boiling, hydrostatic head fluctuations, stable two-phase flow, and geysering. Finally, the implementation of the model RCCS to a full scale plant was investigated by a multivariate test simulating an hypothetical accident scenario.

Lisowski, Darius D.

301

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT IV, MAINTAINING THE COOLING SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE PURPOSE OF THE COOLING SYSTEM, CARE MAINTENANCE OF THE COOLING SYSTEM, COOLING SYSTEM COMPONENTS, AND TROUBLESHOOTING TIPS. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING…

Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

302

The development of a solar residential heating and cooling system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The MSFC solar heating and cooling facility was assembled to demonstrate the engineering feasibility of utilizing solar energy for heating and cooling buildings, to provide an engineering evaluation of the total system and the key subsystems, and to investigate areas of possible improvement in design and efficiency. The basic solar heating and cooling system utilizes a flat plate solar energy collector, a large water tank for thermal energy storage, heat exchangers for space heating, and an absorption cycle air conditioner for space cooling. A complete description of all systems is given. Development activities for this test system included assembly, checkout, operation, modification, and data analysis, all of which are discussed. Selected data analyses for the first 15 weeks of testing are included, findings associated with energy storage and the energy storage system are outlined, and conclusions resulting from test findings are provided. An evaluation of the data for summer operation indicates that the current system is capable of supplying an average of 50 percent of the thermal energy required to drive the air conditioner. Preliminary evaluation of data collected for operation in the heating mode during the winter indicates that nearly 100 percent of the thermal energy required for heating can be supplied by the system.

1975-01-01

303

Research on the Compatibility of the Cooling Unit in an Automotive Exhaust-based Thermoelectric Generator and Engine Cooling System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temperature difference between the hot and cold sides of thermoelectric modules is a key factor affecting the conversion efficiency of an automotive exhaust-based thermoelectric generator (TEG). In the work discussed in this paper the compatibility of TEG cooling unit and engine cooling system was studied on the basis of the heat transfer characteristics of the TEG. A new engine-cooling system in which a TEG cooling unit was inserted was simulated at high power and high vehicle speed, and at high power and low vehicle speed, to obtain temperatures and flow rates of critical inlets and outlets. The results show that coolant temperature exceeds its boiling point at high power and low vehicle speed, so the new system cannot meet cooling requirements under these conditions. Measures for improvement to optimize the cooling system are proposed, and provide a basis for future research.

Deng, Y. D.; Liu, X.; Chen, S.; Xing, H. B.; Su, C. Q.

2014-06-01

304

Thermotunneling Based Cooling Systems for High Efficiency Buildings  

SciTech Connect

GE Global Research's overall objective was to develop a novel thermotunneling-cooling device. The end use for these devices is the replacement of vapor cycle compression (VCC) units in residential and commercial cooling and refrigeration systems. Thermotunneling devices offer many advantages over vapor cycle compression cooling units. These include quiet, reliable, non-moving parts operation without refrigerant gases. Additionally theoretical calculations suggest that the efficiency of thermotunneling devices can be 1.5-2x that of VCC units. Given these attributes it can be seen that thermotunneling devices have the potential for dramatic energy savings and are environmentally friendly. A thermotunneling device consists of two low work function electrodes separated by a sub 10 nanometer-sized gap. Cooling by thermotunneling refers to the transport of hot electrons across the gap, from the object to be cooled (cathode) to the heat rejection electrode (anode), by an applied potential. GE Global Research's goal was to model, design, fabricate devices and demonstrate cooling base on the thermotunneling technology.

Aimi, Marco; Arik, Mehmet; Bray, James; Gorczyca, Thomas; Michael, Darryl; Weaver, Stan

2007-09-30

305

Tests and procedures for optimizing EMIR cooling system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EMIR is a wide-field camera and a multi-object, intermediate resolution near-infrared spectrograph for the GTC telescope. EMIR is a cryogenic instrument whose cooling system is based on four two-stage CCCs' Leybold Coolpower 5/100 whose cooling capacity is 100W@80K, in the 1st stage, and 5W@20K, in the 2nd stage, operated directly by two compressors in dual mode (two cold heads for each compressor). During the verification phase some phenomena affecting the cooling system efficiency have been observed. In consequence, the possible influences of the temperature of the water in the cooling unit the compressor, the compressor input power and the quality of the insulating vacuum in the instrument have been studied. Contamination in the Closed Helium Cycle is another possible cause that has been evaluated. The methods used in the tests and the cleaning procedures are described. The results allow us to reach some conclusions regarding the use and maintenance of this type of cooling systems.

Fernández Izquierdo, Patricia; Lizon, Jean Louis; Núñez Cagigal, Miguel Á.; Patrón Recio, Jesús; Barreto Cabrera, Maria; Garzón López, Francisco

2014-07-01

306

Optimized Design of a Furnace Cooling System  

E-print Network

and into the atmosphere after each use, but plans exist to implement a recapture system to re-cycle the gas through the system multiple times. FIGURE 1. FURNACE SCHEMATIC. The outer chamber wall is made of stainless steel and cannot be exposed to extreme... endangering the structural integrity of the stainless steel pressure vessel wall. The inner chamber temperature that corresponds with this process is displayed in Fig. 3. The outer chamber wall also contains a water jacket with a 40 gal/min flow rate...

Morelli, F.; Bretschneider, R.; Dauzat, J.; Guymon, M.; Studebaker, J.; Rasmussen, B. P.

2013-01-01

307

Prototype solar heating and cooling systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A combination of monthly progress reports are presented. It contains a summary of activities and progress made from November 1, 1978, to February 28, 1979. The effort calls for the development, manufacture, test, system installation, maintenance, problem resolution, and performance evaluation.

1979-01-01

308

DIII-D water-cooling system upgrades through modeling and power saving projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DIII-D water-cooling system for the fusion facility at General Atomics consists of the vessel and coil cooling water systems (DIII-D water), components cooling water systems (power supplies, ion-sources, diagnostics and gyrotrons), and heat rejection system (cooling tower and heat exchanger) for the operation of the fusion facility. Since 2005 the water-cooling systems have undergone major upgrades, resulting in average

H. H. Yip; P. S. Mauzey; P. M. Anderson; T. Le; T. Hegstad; A. Thomas; D. Leung

2009-01-01

309

Gas cooled fuel cell systems technology development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first phase of a planned multiphase program to develop a Phosphoric is addressed. This report describes the efforts performed that culminated in the: (1) Establishment of the preliminary design requirements and system conceptual design for the nominally rated 375 kW PAFC module and is interfacing power plant systems; (2) Establishment of PAFC component and stack performance, endurance, and design parameter data needed for design verification for power plant application; (3) Improvement of the existing PAFC materials data base and establishment of materials specifications and process procedes for the cell components; and (4) Testing of 122 subscale cell atmospheric test for 110,000 cumulative test hours, 12 subscale cell pressurized tests for 15,000 cumulative test hours, and 12 pressurized stack test for 10,000 cumulative test hours.

Feret, J. M.

1983-01-01

310

Gas cooled fuel cell systems technology development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first phase of a planned multiphase program to develop a Phosphoric is addressed. This report describes the efforts performed that culminated in the: (1) Establishment of the preliminary design requirements and system conceptual design for the nominally rated 375 kW PAFC module and is interfacing power plant systems; (2) Establishment of PAFC component and stack performance, endurance, and design parameter data needed for design verification for power plant application; (3) Improvement of the existing PAFC materials data base and establishment of materials specifications and process procedes for the cell components; and (4) Testing of 122 subscale cell atmospheric test for 110,000 cumulative test hours, 12 subscale cell pressurized tests for 15,000 cumulative test hours, and 12 pressurized stack test for 10,000 cumulative test hours.

Feret, J. M.

1983-08-01

311

System design package for a solar heating and cooling system installed at Akron, Ohio  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information used to evaluate the design of a solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system is given. A conventional heat pump provides summer cooling items as the design data brochure, system performance specification, system hazard analysis, spare parts list, and detailed design drawings. A solar system is installed in a single-family dwelling at Akron, Ohio, and at Duffield, Virginia.

1979-01-01

312

Radiant Barrier Performance during the Heating Season  

E-print Network

Results of winter experiments conducted in Central Texas are presented. The experiments were side-by-side tests using two identical 144 ft2 houses which responded similarly to weather variations prior to any retrofits. Two radiant barrier...

Medina, M. A.; O'Neal, D. L.; Turner, W. D.

313

Static characteristics of equilibrium two-phase transpiration cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem is formulated on steady two-phase cooling of a homogeneous porous plate. A close relationship is shown to exist between thermal and hydrodynamic components of the process governed by a nonlinear closed system of differential equations. The laws of filtration movement of a coolant with its phase conversions inside a porous wall are analysed. On the basis of the

A. V. Luikov; L. L. Vasiliev; V. A. Maiorov

1975-01-01

314

Monitoring system for a liquid-cooled nuclear fission reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A monitoring system for detecting changes in the liquid levels in various regions of a water-cooled nuclear power reactor, viz., in the downcomer, in the core, in the inlet and outlet plenums, at the head, and elsewhere; and also for detecting changes in the density of the liquid in these regions. A plurality of gamma radiation detectors are used, arranged

DeVolpi

1987-01-01

315

Gas-cooled reactor power systems for space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large amounts of electric power are required for some of the systems envisioned in support of SDI. Since various applications are being considered, and an overall power architecture study has not been completed, the required power levels and corresponding operating times for specific systems are not known. The characteristics of six designs for power levels of 2, 10 and 20 MWe for operating time of 1 and 7 yrs are described. The operating conditions for these arbitrary designs were chosen to minimize system specific mass. Both gas and liquid cooled reactors are considered. The designs discussed draw heavily on the Pluto project experience. Gas cooled thermal reactors coupled with Brayton cycle power conversion appear to provide reasonable multimegawatt space power systems. An advanced radiation design must be developed which can meet the mass limit assumed. The inherent high temperature capability of the reactors considered removes the reactor as a limiting condition on system performance.

Walter, Carl E.

316

Cooling system, for power generating plant, using split or partitioned heat exchanger  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus and method comprising a base cooling system using a refrigeration cycle, a peak-shaving system using a secondary cooling liquid, and a regeneration system for the peak-shaving system secondary cooling liquid. A split or partitioned heat exchanger alternately condenses only the refrigerant in the base cooling system or it condenses that refrigerant and a refrigerant used to cool hot secondary cooling liquid. The apparatus can be used in power generating plants with the split heat exchanger located in a cooling tower.

Husain, M.; Lai, B.; Schmitt, R.L.

1982-02-16

317

Improvement of Cooling Performance of a Thermoelectric Air Cooling System Using a Vapor Chamber Heat Sink  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since vapor chambers exhibit excellent thermal performance, they are suited to use as the basis of a heat sink. This work presents the results of tests carried out to investigate the potential application of a vapor chamber heat sink for improving the cooling performance of a thermoelectric (TE) air cooling system. To this end, two sets of TE air coolers were constructed. The cold side of the TE module of both sets was fixed to a conventional plate-fin heat sink. The hot side of one set was fixed to a vapor chamber heat sink, whereas the other set was fixed to a conventional plate-fin heat sink. The effects of air flow rate and electric current supplied to the TE module on the cooling performance were considered. Experimental data were compared with corresponding data for a conventional plate-fin heat sink. It also has been experimentally proven that the use of a vapor chamber heat sink increases the coefficient of performance (COP) by up to 34.2%.

Lertsatitthanakorn, C.; Tipsaenprom, W.; Rungsiyopas, M.

2014-06-01

318

Solar heating and cooling system installed at Leavenworth, Kansas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A solar heating and cooling is described which is designed to furnish 90 percent of the overall heating load, 70 percent of the cooling load and 100 percent of the domestic hot water load. The building has two floors with a total of 12,000 square feet gross area. The system has 120 flat-plate liquid solar panels with a net area of 2,200 square feet. Five 3 ton Arkla solar assisted absorption units provide the cooling, in conjunction with a 3,000 gallon chilled water storage tank. Two 3,000 gallon storage tanks are provided with one designated for summer use, whereas both tanks are utilized during winter.

1980-06-01

319

Cooling system for automotive engine or the like  

SciTech Connect

A cooling system for an engine having a structure subject to a high heat flux is described comprising: a coolant jacket disposed about the structure; a radiator in fluid communication with the coolant jacket through a connection structure; a device associated with the radiator for varying the amount of heat exchange between the radiator and a cooling medium surrounding the same; a first temperature sensor disposed in the radiator, a reservoir which is fluidly discrete from the cooling circuit and in which liquid coolant is stored; a level control conduit fluidly interconnecting the reservoir and the coolant jacket; a pump disposed in the level control conduit; and a level sensor disposed in the coolant jacket.

Hirano, Y.

1988-02-02

320

Solar heating and cooling system installed at Leavenworth, Kansas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar heating and cooling is described which is designed to furnish 90 percent of the overall heating load, 70 percent of the cooling load and 100 percent of the domestic hot water load. The building has two floors with a total of 12,000 square feet gross area. The system has 120 flat-plate liquid solar panels with a net area of 2,200 square feet. Five 3 ton Arkla solar assisted absorption units provide the cooling, in conjunction with a 3,000 gallon chilled water storage tank. Two 3,000 gallon storage tanks are provided with one designated for summer use, whereas both tanks are utilized during winter.

1980-01-01

321

Current cost and performance requirements for residential cool storage systems  

SciTech Connect

This study defines the current cost and performance requirements for residential cool storage technologies based on the characteristics of conventional air conditioning equipment and residential time-of-day (TOD) rate structures existing during the 1986--1987 time frame. Currently, rate structures are changing rapidly. Given the volatility of rate structures, the establishment of cost goal is challenging. The goals presented in this study are based on the utility rate structure as of 1986. This study serves to define residential cool storage cost and performance requirements in the current economic environment as well as the many issues affecting the requirements for residential cool storage systems both now and in the future. The same methodology can be employed to establish long-run goals once future rate structures are adequately defined. 12 refs., 6 figs., 18 tabs.

Brown, D.R.; Spanner, G.E.

1988-08-01

322

Experimental Studies of NGNP Reactor Cavity Cooling System With Water  

SciTech Connect

This project will investigate the flow behavior that can occur in the reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) with water coolant under the passive cooling-mode of operation. The team will conduct separate-effects tests and develop associated scaling analyses, and provide system-level phenomenological and computational models that describe key flow phenomena during RCCS operation, from forced to natural circulation, single-phase flow and two-phase flow and flashing. The project consists of the following tasks: Task 1. Conduct separate-effects, single-phase flow experiments and develop scaling analyses for comparison to system-level computational modeling for the RCCS standpipe design. A transition from forced to natural convection cooling occurs in the standpipe under accident conditions. These tests will measure global flow behavior and local flow velocities, as well as develop instrumentation for use in larger scale tests, thereby providing proper flow distribution among standpipes for decay heat removal. Task 2. Conduct separate-effects experiments for the RCCS standpipe design as two-phase flashing occurs and flow develops. As natural circulation cooling continues without an ultimate heat sink, water within the system will heat to temperatures approaching saturation , at which point two-phase flashing and flow will begin. The focus is to develop a phenomenological model from these tests that will describe the flashing and flow stability phenomena. In addition, one could determine the efficiency of phase separation in the RCCS storage tank as the two-phase flashing phenomena ensues and the storage tank vents the steam produced. Task 3. Develop a system-level computational model that will describe the overall RCCS behavior as it transitions from forced flow to natural circulation and eventual two-phase flow in the passive cooling-mode of operation. This modeling can then be used to test the phenomenological models developed as a function of scale.

Michael Corradini; Mark Anderson; Yassin Hassan; Akira Tokuhiro

2013-01-16

323

Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Cavity Cooling System  

SciTech Connect

The design of passive heat removal systems is one of the main concerns for the modular very high temperature gas-cooled reactors (VHTR) vessel cavity. The reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) is a key heat removal system during normal and off-normal conditions. The design and validation of the RCCS is necessary to demonstrate that VHTRs can survive to the postulated accidents. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) STAR-CCM+/V3.06.006 code was used for three-dimensional system modeling and analysis of the RCCS. A CFD model was developed to analyze heat exchange in the RCCS. The model incorporates a 180-deg section resembling the VHTR RCCS experimentally reproduced in a laboratory-scale test facility at Texas A&M University. All the key features of the experimental facility were taken into account during the numerical simulations. The objective of the present work was to benchmark CFD tools against experimental data addressing the behavior of the RCCS following accident conditions. Two cooling fluids (i.e., water and air) were considered to test the capability of maintaining the RCCS concrete walls' temperature below design limits. Different temperature profiles at the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) wall obtained from the experimental facility were used as boundary conditions in the numerical analyses to simulate VHTR transient evolution during accident scenarios. Mesh convergence was achieved with an intensive parametric study of the two different cooling configurations and selected boundary conditions. To test the effect of turbulence modeling on the RCCS heat exchange, predictions using several different turbulence models and near-wall treatments were evaluated and compared. The comparison among the different turbulence models analyzed showed satisfactory agreement for the temperature distribution inside the RCCS cavity medium and at the standpipes walls. For such a complicated geometry and flow conditions, the tested turbulence models demonstrated that the realizable k-epsilon model with two-layer all y+ wall treatment performs better than the other k-epsilon and k-omega turbulence models when compared to the experimental results and the Reynolds stress transport turbulence model results. A scaling analysis was developed to address the distortions introduced by the CFD model in simulating the physical phenomena inside the RCCS system with respect to the full plant configuration. The scaling analysis demonstrated that both the experimental facility and the CFD model achieve a satisfactory resemblance of the main flow characteristics inside the RCCS cavity region, and convection and radiation heat exchange phenomena are properly scaled from the actual plant.

Angelo Frisani; Yassin A. Hassan; Victor M. Ugaz

2010-11-02

324

Performance evaluation of an active solar cooling system utilizing low cost plastic collectors and an evaporatively-cooled absorption chiller  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the summer of 1982, air conditioning in Solar House 3 at Colorado State University was provided by an evaporatively-cooled absorption chiller. The single-effect lithium bromide chiller is an experimental three-ton unit from which heat is rejected by direct evaporative cooling of the condenser and absorber walls, thereby eliminating the need for a separate cooling tower. Domestic hot water was also provided by use of a double-walled heat exchanger and 80-gal hot water tank. A schematic of the system is given. Objectives of the project were: (1) evaluation of system performance over the course of one cooling season in Fort Collins, Colorado; (2) optimization of system operation and control; (3) development of a TRNSYS compatible model of the chiller; and (4) determination of cooling system performance in several U.S. climates by use of the model.

Lof, G. O.; Westhoff, M. A.; Karaki, S.

1984-02-01

325

Correcting Aberrations in Complex Magnet Systems for Muon Cooling Channels  

SciTech Connect

Designing and simulating complex magnet systems needed for cooling channels in both neutrino factories and muon colliders requires innovative techniques to correct for both chromatic and spherical aberrations. Optimizing complex systems, such as helical magnets for example, is also difficult but essential. By using COSY INFINITY, a differential algebra based code, the transfer and aberration maps can be examined to discover what critical terms have the greatest influence on these aberrations.

J.A. Maloney, B. Erdelyi, A. Afanaciev, R.P. Johnson, Y.S. Derbenev, V.S. Morozov

2011-03-01

326

Characteristics of cooling water fouling in a heat exchange system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the efficiency of the physical water treatment method in preventing and controlling fouling accumulation\\u000a on heat transfer surfaces in a laboratory heat exchange system with tap and artificial water. To investigate the fouling characteristics,\\u000a an experimental test facility with a plate type heat exchange system was newly built, where cooling and hot water moved in\\u000a opposite directions

Sun-Kyung Sung; Sang-Ho Suh; Dong-Woo Kim

2008-01-01

327

Emergency core cooling system for a fast reactor. [LMFBR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main heat transport system for a liquid-metal-cooled nuclear reactor is constructed with elevated piping and guard vessels or pipes around all components of the system below the elevation of the elevated piping so the head developed by the pumps at emergency motor speed will be unsufficient to lift the liquid-metal-coolant over the top of the guard tanks or pipes

H. G. Johnson; R. N. Madsen

1976-01-01

328

Next-Generation Evaporative Cooling Systems for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit Portable Life Support System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) is currently underway at NASA Johnson Space Center. The AEMU PLSS features two new evaporative cooling systems, the Reduced Volume Prototype Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (RVP SWME), and the Auxiliary Cooling Loop (ACL). The RVP SWME is the third generation of hollow fiber SWME hardware, and like its predecessors, RVP SWME provides nominal crewmember and electronics cooling by flowing water through porous hollow fibers. Water vapor escapes through the hollow fiber pores, thereby cooling the liquid water that remains inside of the fibers. This cooled water is then recirculated to remove heat from the crewmember and PLSS electronics. Major design improvements, including a 36% reduction in volume, reduced weight, and more flight like back-pressure valve, facilitate the packaging of RVP SWME in the AEMU PLSS envelope. In addition to the RVP SWME, the Auxiliary Cooling Loop (ACL), was developed for contingency crewmember cooling. The ACL is a completely redundant, independent cooling system that consists of a small evaporative cooler--the Mini Membrane Evaporator (Mini-ME), independent pump, independent feed-water assembly and independent Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG). The Mini-ME utilizes the same hollow fiber technology featured in the RVP SWME, but is only 25% of the size of RVP SWME, providing only the necessary crewmember cooling in a contingency situation. The ACL provides a number of benefits when compared with the current EMU PLSS contingency cooling technology; contingency crewmember cooling can be provided for a longer period of time, more contingency situations can be accounted for, no reliance on a Secondary Oxygen Vessel (SOV) for contingency cooling--thereby allowing a SOV reduction in size and pressure, and the ACL can be recharged-allowing the AEMU PLSS to be reused, even after a contingency event. The development of these evaporative cooling systems will contribute to a more robust and comprehensive AEMU PLSS.

Makinen, Janice V.; Anchondo, Ian; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Colunga, Aaron

2012-01-01

329

Alkali Metal Backup Cooling for Stirling Systems - Experimental Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a Stirling Radioisotope Power System (RPS), heat must be continuously removed from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules to maintain the modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. The Stirling convertor normally provides this cooling. If the Stirling convertor stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS at the cost of an early termination of the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) can be used to passively allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling convertor. In a previous NASA SBIR Program, Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) developed a series of sodium VCHPs as backup cooling systems for Stirling RPS. The operation of these VCHPs was demonstrated using Stirling heater head simulators and GPHS simulators. In the most recent effort, a sodium VCHP with a stainless steel envelope was designed, fabricated and tested at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) with a Stirling convertor for two concepts; one for the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) back up cooling system and one for the Long-lived Venus Lander thermal management system. The VCHP is designed to activate and remove heat from the stopped convertor at a 19 degC temperature increase from the nominal vapor temperature. The 19 degC temperature increase from nominal is low enough to avoid risking standard ASRG operation and spoiling of the Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI). In addition, the same backup cooling system can be applied to the Stirling convertor used for the refrigeration system of the Long-lived Venus Lander. The VCHP will allow the refrigeration system to: 1) rest during transit at a lower temperature than nominal; 2) pre-cool the modules to an even lower temperature before the entry in Venus atmosphere; 3) work at nominal temperature on Venus surface; 4) briefly stop multiple times on the Venus surface to allow scientific measurements. This paper presents the experimental results from integrating the VCHP with an operating Stirling convertor and describes the methodology used to achieve their successful combined operation.

Schwendeman, Carl; Tarau, Calin; Anderson, William G.; Cornell, Peggy A.

2013-01-01

330

Alkali Metal Backup Cooling for Stirling Systems - Experimental Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a Stirling Radioisotope Power System (RPS), heat must be continuously removed from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules to maintain the modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. The Stirling convertor normally provides this cooling. If the Stirling convertor stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS at the cost of an early termination of the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) can be used to passively allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling convertor. In a previous NASA SBIR Program, Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) developed a series of sodium VCHPs as backup cooling systems for Stirling RPS. The operation of these VCHPs was demonstrated using Stirling heater head simulators and GPHS simulators. In the most recent effort, a sodium VCHP with a stainless steel envelope was designed, fabricated and tested at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) with a Stirling convertor for two concepts; one for the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) back up cooling system and one for the Long-lived Venus Lander thermal management system. The VCHP is designed to activate and remove heat from the stopped convertor at a 19 C temperature increase from the nominal vapor temperature. The 19 C temperature increase from nominal is low enough to avoid risking standard ASRG operation and spoiling of the Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI). In addition, the same backup cooling system can be applied to the Stirling convertor used for the refrigeration system of the Long-lived Venus Lander. The VCHP will allow the refrigeration system to: 1) rest during transit at a lower temperature than nominal; 2) pre-cool the modules to an even lower temperature before the entry in Venus atmosphere; 3) work at nominal temperature on Venus surface; 4) briefly stop multiple times on the Venus surface to allow scientific measurements. This paper presents the experimental results from integrating the VCHP with an operating Stirling convertor and describes the methodology used to achieve their successful combined operation.

Schwendeman, Carl; Tarau, Calin; Anderson, William G.; Cornell, Peggy A.

2013-01-01

331

CARMENES ultra-stable cooling system: very promising results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CARMENES is a high resolution spectrograph to detect planets through the variation of radial velocity, destined for the Calar Alto Observatory in Almeria, Spain. The optical bench has a working temperature of 140K with a 24 hours stability of ±0,1K; goal ±0,01K. It is enclosed with a radiation shield actively cooled with thermalized nitrogen gas that flows through strategically positioned heat exchangers to remove its radiative load. The cooling system has an external preparation unit (N2GPU), which provides the nitrogen gas through actively vaporizing liquid nitrogen with heating resistances and a three stage circuit flow, each one controlled by an independent PID. Since CARMENES is still in the construction phase, a dedicated test facility has been built in order to simulate the instrument and correctly establish the N2GPU parameters. Furthermore, the test facility allows a wide range of configurations set-ups, which enables a full characterization of the N2GPU and the cooling system. The N2GPU has been designed to offer a wide temperature range of thermally stabilized nitrogen gas flow, which apart from CARMENES could also be used to provide ultra-high thermal stability in other cryogenic instruments. The present paper shows the testing of the cooling performance, the hardware used and the very promising results obtained.

Mirabet, E.; Carvas, P.; Lizon, J.-L.; Becerril, S.; Rodríguez, E.; Abril, M.; Cárdenas, M. C.; Morales, R.; Pérez, D.; Sánchez Carrasco, M. A.; Amado, P. J.; Seifert, W.; Quirrenbach, A.; Caballero, J. A.; Ribas, I.; Reiners, A.; Dreizler, S.

2014-07-01

332

Open air–vapor compression refrigeration system for air conditioning and hot water cooled by cool water  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an open air–vapor compression refrigeration system for air conditioning and hot water cooled by cool water and proves its feasibility through performance simulation. Pinch technology is used in analysis of heat exchange in the surface heat exchanger, and the temperature difference at the pinch point is selected as 6°C. Its refrigeration depends mainly on both air and

Shaobo Hou; Huacong Li; Hefei Zhang

2007-01-01

333

Prelaunch Calibrations of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission and Earth Observing System Morning (EOS-AM1) Spacecraft Thermistor Bolometer Sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) spacecraft scanning thermistor bolometer sensors measure earth radiances in the broadband shortwave solar (O.3 - 5.0 micron and total (0.3 to 100 microns) spectral bands as well as in the 8-12 microns water vapor window spectral band. On November 27, 1997, the launch of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft placed the first set of CERES sensors into orbit, and 30 days later, the sensors initiated operational measurements of the earth radiance fields. In 1998, the Earth Observing System morning (EOS-AM1) spacecraft will place the second and third sensor sets into orbit. The prelaunch CERES sensors' count conversion coefficients (gains and zero-radiance offsets) were determined in vacuum ground facilities. The gains were tied radiometrically to the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90). The gain determinations included the spectral properties (reflectance, transmittance, emittance, etc.) of both the sources and sensors as well as the in-field-of-view (FOV) and out-of-FOV sensor responses. The resulting prelaunch coefficients for the TRMM and EOS-AM1 sensors are presented. Inflight calibration systems and on-orbit calibration approaches are described, which are being used to determine the temporal stabilities of the sensors' gains and offsets from prelaunch calibrations through on-orbit measurements. Analyses of the TRMM prelaunch and on-orbit calibration results indicate that the sensors have retained their ties to ITS-90 at accuracy levels better than /- 0.3% between the 1995 prelaunch and 1997 on-orbit calibrations.

Lee, Robert B., III; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Bitting, Herbert C.; Crommelynck, Dominique A. H.; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Priestley, Kory J.; Smith, G. Louis; Thomas, Susan; Thornhill, K. Lee; Wilson, Robert S.

1998-01-01

334

Vibrational cooling and thermoelectric response of nanoelectromechanical systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important goal in nanoelectromechanics is to cool the vibrational motion, ideally to its quantum ground state. Cooling by an applied charge current is a particularly simple and hence attractive strategy to this effect. Here we explore this phenomenon in the context of the general theory of thermoelectrics. In linear response, this theory describes thermoelectric refrigerators in terms of their cooling efficiency ? and figure of merit ZT. We show that both concepts carry over to phonon cooling in nanoelectromechanical systems. As an important consequence, this allows us to discuss the efficiency of phonon refrigerators in relation to the fundamental Carnot efficiency. We illustrate these general concepts by thoroughly investigating a simple double-quantum-dot model with the dual advantage of being quite realistic experimentally and amenable to a largely analytical analysis theoretically. Specifically, we obtain results for the efficiency, the figure of merit, and the effective temperature of the vibrational motion in two regimes. In the quantum regime in which the vibrational motion is fast compared to the electronic degrees of freedom, we can describe the electronic and phononic dynamics of the model in terms of master equations. In the complementary classical regime of slow vibrational motion, the dynamics is described in terms of an appropriate Langevin equation. Remarkably, we find that the efficiency can approach the maximal Carnot value in the quantum regime, with large associated figures of merit. In contrast, the efficiencies are typically far from the Carnot limit in the classical regime. Our theoretical results should provide guidance to implementing efficient vibrational cooling of nanoelectromechanical systems in the laboratory.

Arrachea, Liliana; Bode, Niels; von Oppen, Felix

2014-09-01

335

Perspective on use of fresh water for cooling systems of thermoelectric powerplants in florida. Water resources investigations (final report)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report considers the cooling-water requirement for 3 types of cooling systems generally used in Florida: cooling ponds, evaporative cooling towers, and once-through cooling. A distinction is made between the quantity of water withdrawn from a water supply for cooling purposes and the quantity of water that is consumed as a result of the cooling process. (GRA)

1975-01-01

336

Thermal Stress Calculations for Heatpipe-Cooled Reactor Power Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A heatpipe-cooled fast reactor concept has been under development at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the past several years, to be used as a power source for nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) or as a planetary surface power system. The reactor core consists of an array of modules that are held together by a core lateral restraint system. Each module includes a single heatpipe surrounded by 3-6 clad fuel pins. As part of this development effort, a partial array of a candidate heatpipe-cooled reactor is to be tested in the SAFE-100 experimental program at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The partial array comprises 19 3-pin modules, which are powered by resistance heaters. This paper describes the analyses that were performed in support of this test program, to assess thermal and structural performance and to specify the test conditions needed to simulate reactor operating conditions.

Kapernick, Richard J.; Guffee, Ray M.

2003-01-01

337

Solar heating and cooling technical data and systems analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The acquisition and processing of selected parametric data for inclusion in a computerized Data Base using the Marshall Information Retrieval and Data System (MIRADS) developed by NASA-MSFC is discussed. This data base provides extensive technical and socioeconomic information related to solar energy heating and cooling on a national scale. A broadly based research approach was used to assist in the support of program management and the application of a cost-effective program for solar energy development and demonstration.

Christensen, D. L.

1976-01-01

338

Cooling dominated Hybrid Ground Source Heat Pump System application  

Microsoft Academic Search

â–º Hybrid Ground Source Heat Pump System covers the loads of an office glass building. â–º Two glazing and ground loop fluid temperatures entering heat pump are examined. â–º Extensive cooling tower sizing is performed for four packings in above conditions. â–º Smallest approach applies for biggest number of transfer units for the same flows. â–º Lowest ratio of pressure

Z. Sagia; C. Rakopoulos; E. Kakaras

2012-01-01

339

Description and cost analysis of a deluge dry\\/wet cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of combined dry\\/wet cooling systems for large base-load power plants offers the potential for significant water savings as compared to evaporatively cooled power plants and significant cost savings in comparison to dry cooled power plants. The results of a detailed engineering and cost study of one type of dry\\/wet cooling system are described. In the ''deluge'' dry\\/wet cooling

L. E. Wiles; J. A. Bamberger; D. J. Braun; D. W. Faletti; C. E. Willingham

1978-01-01

340

Solar heating and cooling system installed at Columbus, Ohio  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Solar Energy System was installed as a part of a new construction of a college building. The building will house classrooms and laboratories, administrative offices and three lecture halls. The Solar Energy System consists of 4,096 square feet (128 panels) Owens/Illinois Evacuated Glass Tube Collector Subsystem, and a 5,000 gallon steel tank below ground storage system. Hot water is circulated between the collectors and storage tank, passing through a water/lithium bromide absorption chiller to cool the building.

1980-01-01

341

Keeping cool while planning a major cooling system modification for a large base-loaded power plant  

SciTech Connect

This paper addresses vital considerations which need to be addressed to help ensure that the wisest approach is used for evaluating or modifying existing open or closed cycle cooling systems. (authors)

Mallory, J. [Sargent and Lundy LLC, 55 East Monroe Street, Chicago, IL 60603 (United States); Randels, R. [Sargent and Lundy LLC, 1860 N. 95th Lane, Phoenix, AZ 85037 (United States); Penrose, J.; Ludovisi, D. [Sargent and Lundy LLC, 55 East Monroe Street, Chicago, IL 60603 (United States)

2012-07-01

342

Improving the Efficiency of Your Process Cooling System  

E-print Network

Many industries require process cooling to achieve desired outcomes of specific processes. This cooling may come from cooling towers, once-through water, mechanical refrigeration, or cryogenic sources such as liquid nitrogen or dry ice. This paper...

Baker, R.

2005-01-01

343

DEVELOP A CONCENTRATED SOLAR POWER-BASED THERMAL COOLING SYSTEM VIA SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

A small scale CSP-based cooling system prototype (300W cooling capacity) and the system performance simulation tool will be developed as a proof of concept. Practical issues will be identified to improve our design. ...

344

78 FR 64027 - Preoperational Testing of Emergency Core Cooling Systems for Pressurized-Water Reactors  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the U.S. Advanced Pressurized-Water Reactor, U.S. Evolutionary Power...Cooling Systems for Pressurized-Water Reactors.'' Draft Regulatory Guide...Emergency Core Cooling Systems for New Boiling-Water Reactors'' (proposed new RG...

2013-10-25

345

Radiant energy to electric energy converter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiant energy is converted into electric energy by irradiating a capacitor including an ionic dielectric. The dielectric is a sintered crystal superionic conductor, e.g., lanthanum trifluoride, lanthanum trichloride, or silver bromide, so that a multiplicity of crystallites exist between electrodes of the capacitor. The radiant energy cyclically irradiates the dielectric so that the dielectric exhibits a cyclic photocapacitive like effect. Adjacent crystallites have abutting surfaces that enable the crystallites to effectively form a multiplicity of series capacitor elements between the electrodes. Each of the capacitor elements has a dipole layer only on or near its surface. The capacitor is initially charged to a voltage just below the dielectric breakdown voltage by connecting it across a DC source causing a current to flow through a charging resistor to the dielectric. The device can be utilized as a radiant energy detector or as a solar energy cell.

Sher, Arden (Inventor)

1980-01-01

346

D0 Silicon Upgrad: D0 Silicon Cooling System  

SciTech Connect

The cooling system design is not complete. This paper lays out the general design and some of the design calculations that have been performed up to this date. Further refinement will be performed. This is especially true in the piping layout, piping insulation and detector manifold areas. The silicon detector is cooled by means of a coolant in the beryllium channels that also act as the primary supporting device for the silicon ladders and wedges. The coolant is water with ethylene glycol added as a freezing point depressant. The glycol concentration in the coolant is 30% by weight resulting in a freezing point of approximately -15 C. If the water/glycol is not sufficient for maintaining the desired detector temperature the concentration of the water/glycol may be changed or an alternative coolant may be used.

Squires, B.; /Fermilab

1998-07-14

347

The Cold Mass Support System and the Helium Cooling System for theMICE Focusing Solenoid  

SciTech Connect

The heart of the absorber focus coil (AFC) module for the muon ionization cooling experiment (MICE) is the two-coil superconducting solenoid that surrounds the muon absorber. The superconducting magnet focuses the muons that are cooled using ionization cooling, in order to improve the efficiency of cooling. The coils of the magnet may either be run in the solenoid mode (both coils operate at the same polarity) or the gradient (the coils operate at opposite polarity). The AFC magnet cold mass support system is designed to carry a longitudinal force up to 700 kN. The AFC module will be cooled using three pulse tube coolers that produce 1.5 W of cooling at 4.2 K. One of the coolers will be used to cool the liquid (hydrogen or helium) absorber used for ionization cooling. The other two coolers will cool the superconducting solenoid. This report will describe the MICE AFC magnet. The cold mass supports will be discussed. The reasons for using a pulsed tube cooler to cool this superconducting magnet will also be discussed.

Yang, Stephanie Q.; Green, Michael A.; Lau, Wing W.; Senanayake,Rohan S.; Witte, Holger

2006-08-10

348

21 CFR 880.5130 - Infant radiant warmer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...5130 Infant radiant warmer. (a) Identification. The infant radiant warmer is a device consisting of an infrared heating element intended to be placed over an infant to maintain the infant's body temperature by means of...

2011-04-01

349

Heat pipe radiation cooling of advanced hypersonic propulsion system components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heat transfer, heat pipe, and system studies were performed to assess the newly proposed heat pipe radiation cooling (HPRC) concept. With an HPRC system, heat is removed from the ramburner and nozzle of a hypersonic aircraft engine by a surrounding, high-temperature, heat pipe nacelle structure, transported to nearby external surfaces, and rejected to the environment by thermal radiation. With HPRC, the Mach number range available for using hydrocarbon fuels for aircraft operation extends into the Mach 4 to Mach 6 range, up from the current limit of about Mach 4. Heat transfer studies using a newly developed HPRC computer code determine cooling system and ramburner and nozzle temperatures, heat loads, and weights for a representative combined-cycle engine cruising at Mach 5 at 80,000 ft altitude. Heat pipe heat transport calculations, using the Los Alamos code HTPIPE, reveal that adequate heat trasport capability is available using molybdenum-lithium heat pipe technology. Results show that the HPRC system radiator area is limited in size to the ramburner-nozzle region of the engine nacelle; reasonable system weights are expected; hot section temperatures are consistent with advanced structural materials development goals; and system impact on engine performance is minimal.

Martin, R. A.; Keddy, M.; Merrigan, M. A.; Silverstein, C. C.

1991-01-01

350

System Study: Reactor Core Isolation Cooling 1998–2012  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) system at 31 U.S. commercial boiling water reactors. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2012 for selected components were obtained from the Equipment Performance and Information Exchange (EPIX). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing trend was identified in the HPCI results. Statistically significant decreasing trends were identified for RCIC start-only and 8-hour trends.

T. E. Wierman

2013-10-01

351

Performance enhancement of a thermally activated cooling system using microchannel heat exchangers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current study a thermally activated cooling system that combines an ORC system with a vapor compression cooling cycle was developed and tested under laboratory conditions. This combined system can utilize waste heat or other thermal sources such as solar and geothermal to generate power and cooling. Hot oil with temperature up to 200 °C was used as the simulated

Hailei Wang; Richard B. Peterson

2011-01-01

352

A gas-cooled reactor surface power system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A human outpost on Mars requires plentiful power to assure survival of the astronauts. Anywhere from 50 to 500 kW of electric power (kWe) will be needed, depending on the number of astronauts, level of scientific activity, and life-cycle closure desired. This paper describes a 250-kWe power system based on a gas-cooled nuclear reactor with a recuperated closed Brayton cycle conversion system. The design draws upon the extensive data and engineering experience developed under the various high-temperature gas cooled reactor programs and under the SP-100 program. The reactor core is similar in power and size to the research reactors found on numerous university campuses. The fuel is uranium nitride clad in Nb1%Zr, which has been extensively tested under the SP-100 program. The fuel rods are arranged in a hexagonal array within a BeO block. The BeO softens the spectrum, allowing better use of the fuel and stabilizing the geometry against deformation during impact or other loadings. The system has a negative temperature feedback coefficient so that the power level will automatically follow a variable load without the need for continuous adjustment of control elements. Waste heat is removed by an air-cooled heat exchanger using cold Martian air. The amount of radioactivity in the reactor at launch is very small (less than a Curie, and about equal to a truckload of uranium ore). The system will need to be engineered so that criticality can not occur for any launch accident. This system is also adaptable for electric propulsion or life-support during transit to and from Mars.

Lipinski, Ronald J.; Wright, Steven A.; Lenard, Roger X.; Harms, Gary A.

1999-01-01

353

A gas-cooled reactor surface power system  

SciTech Connect

A human outpost on Mars requires plentiful power to assure survival of the astronauts. Anywhere from 50 to 500 kW of electric power (kWe) will be needed, depending on the number of astronauts, level of scientific activity, and life-cycle closure desired. This paper describes a 250-kWe power system based on a gas-cooled nuclear reactor with a recuperated closed Brayton cycle conversion system. The design draws upon the extensive data and engineering experience developed under the various high-temperature gas cooled reactor programs and under the SP-100 program. The reactor core is similar in power and size to the research reactors found on numerous university campuses. The fuel is uranium nitride clad in Nb1%Zr, which has been extensively tested under the SP-100 program. The fuel rods are arranged in a hexagonal array within a BeO block. The BeO softens the spectrum, allowing better use of the fuel and stabilizing the geometry against deformation during impact or other loadings. The system has a negative temperature feedback coefficient so that the power level will automatically follow a variable load without the need for continuous adjustment of control elements. Waste heat is removed by an air-cooled heat exchanger using cold Martian air. The amount of radioactivity in the reactor at launch is very small (less than a Curie, and about equal to a truckload of uranium ore). The system will need to be engineered so that criticality can not occur for any launch accident. This system is also adaptable for electric propulsion or life-support during transit to and from Mars.

Lipinski, Ronald J.; Wright, Steven A.; Lenard, Roger X.; Harms, Gary A. [Sandia National Laboratories, MS-1146, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

1999-01-22

354

Laminated turbine vane design and fabrication. [utilizing film cooling as a cooling system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A turbine vane and associated endwalls designed for advanced gas turbine engine conditions are described. The vane design combines the methods of convection cooling and selective areas of full coverage film cooling. The film cooling technique is utilized on the leading edge, pressure side, and endwall regions. The turbine vane involves the fabrication of airfoils from a stack of laminates with cooling passages photoetched on the surface. Cold flow calibration tests, a thermal analysis, and a stress analysis were performed on the turbine vanes.

Hess, W. G.

1979-01-01

355

Halogen compatible treatment programs for open recirculating cooling water systems  

SciTech Connect

Stabilized phosphate cooling water programs have been exceptionally effective and well established in the marketplace for close to twenty years. Identification of this technology allowed chromate to be eliminated from open recirculating systems, providing less toxic operating conditions. However, very good control of stabilized phosphate applications is necessary in order to ensure chrome-like corrosion and deposit control performance. Difficulties with stabilized phosphate technology have occurred when it is used along with chlorine. Elevated chlorine dosages are sometimes necessary for microbial control. When this occurs, copper induced pitting becomes a concern as does the degradation of the cooling water program itself, i.e. phosphonate reversion. New programs have been identified which maintain their component integrity in the presence of chlorine. They offer improved deposit control performance under a variety of stressed cooling water conditions by using select polymer blends, as opposed to a single polymer. They also incorporate a new azole corrosion inhibition chemistry which minimizes copper-induced pitting associated with over-chlorination. Laboratory and field experience with this technology is discussed.

Kessler, S.M.; Given, K.M.

1999-07-01

356

Engineering and cost comparison of three different all-dry cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of a detailed engineering and cost study of three different all-dry cooling systems to assess the potential for reducing the cost of all-dry cooling for steam electric power plants are described. The three types of cooling systems considered were: state-of-the-art (SOA) dry cooling system; with a conventional surface condenser, and water used to condense the steam is passed through

B. C. Fryer; D. J. Braun; D. W. Faletti; L. E. Wiles

1976-01-01

357

Application of system engineering processes to analyze and predict engine cooling fan system noise for off-highway machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

System Engineering processes were applied to create a Cooling Fan System Noise Analysis Tool for a back-hoe loader machine. The Cooling Fan System Noise Analysis Tool combined elements of aeroacoustic theory, Fan Law, sound power measurements and particle image velocimetry into a single computer analysis tool. The cooling fan system consisted of a cooling fan, multiple radiators in front of the cooling fan, a shroud, a mock engine behind the cooling fan, and a simulated engine compartment. A vortex flow structure was measured in front of the cooling fan. The cooling fan system sound power spectrum was measured. The radiated sound power spectrum for the vortex interaction with the fan blades was calculated. Measured and predicted cooling fan system sound power results were compared. The overall structure and approach will be presented along with an overview of the theory and initial results.

Masini, Christopher P.; Mann, J. Adin

2005-09-01

358

Preliminary study of a radiantly heated fluidized bed for the production of high purity silicon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The preparation of very pure silicon from silane (SIH4) using radiant heating of the hot silicon particles of a fluidized bed is discussed. The fraction of electrical energy supplied to the heater which is actually absorbed by the particles and the heat transfer coefficient between the hot bed and the cool distributor plate were investigated. The experimental design is presented and the results of the study are summarized.

Levenspiel, O.; Larson, M.; Zhang, G. T.; Ouyang, F.

1983-01-01

359

Pilot-scale cooling tower to evaluate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control strategies for cooling system makeup water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pilot-scale cooling towers can be used to evaluate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control strategies when using particular cooling system makeup water and particular operating conditions. To study the potential for using a number of different impaired waters as makeup water, a pilot-scale system capable of generating 27 000 kJ/h heat load and maintaining recirculating water flow with a Reynolds number of 1.92 × 104 was designed to study these critical processes under conditions that are similar to full-scale systems. The pilot-scale cooling tower was equipped with an automatic makeup water control system, automatic blowdown control system, semi-automatic biocide feeding system, and corrosion, scaling, and biofouling monitoring systems. Observed operational data revealed that the major operating parameters, including temperature change (6.6 °C), cycles of concentration (N = 4.6), water flow velocity (0.66 m/s), and air mass velocity (3660 kg/h m2), were controlled quite well for an extended period of time (up to 2 months). Overall, the performance of the pilot-scale cooling towers using treated municipal wastewater was shown to be suitable to study critical processes (corrosion, scaling, biofouling) and evaluate cooling water management strategies for makeup waters of complex quality.

Chien, S. H.; Hsieh, M. K.; Li, H.; Monnell, J.; Dzombak, D.; Vidic, R.

2012-02-01

360

Measuring Wildland Fire Radiant Power, Energy Release and Gas Evolution at 'Intermediate Scale'  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildland fire has been observed and studied at the laboratory scale (~ 1m) and Landscape scale (~100m) but little effort has been made to compare and correlate data taken at these differing scales. We have undertaken a comprehensive program of investigation of wildland fire radiant energy release at all scales. In this paper we discuss experiments that check the basic assumptions relating radiant energy release to fuel consumption at an 'intermediate scale' of ~ 5m. We measured the vertical radiant flux and total fire radiant energy release (FRE) from wildland fuel material in addition to gaseous combustion products. For this experimental series, and other experiments performed at laboratory and landscape scale, we developed a suite of fire measurement apparatus including an inexpensive two-band infrared radiometer, a combustion gas concentration monitor and a 3-axis orthorectified videography system. The experiments in this study were conducted at a spatial scale of ~5m and a temporal scale of 5s in outdoor plots using prepared, previously collected wildland fuels characteristic of the hardwood oak-hickory-maple forest of the Eastern United States. We measured a linear increase in radiant energy output with fuel loading over a range of fuel loadings from 0.16 kg/m2 to 3.36 kg/m2. The proportion of energy produced radiantly was relatively constant at around 20%. It is envisioned that this work, combined with other investigations at differing spatial scales currently under way by our group, will allow correlation of various fire effects to radiant energy release in a 'dose-response' relationship.

Kremens, R. L.; Dickinson, M. B.; Bova, A.

2009-05-01

361

A Cooling System for the EAPU Shuttle Upgrade  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Shuttle orbiter currently uses hydrazine-powered APU's for powering its hydraulic system pumps. To enhance vehicle safety and reliability, NASA is pursuing an APU upgrade where the hydrazine powered turbine is replaced by an electric motor pump and battery power supply. This EAPU (Electric APU) upgrade presents several thermal control challenges most notably the new requirement for moderate temperature control of high-power electron ics at 132 of (55.6 C). This paper describes how the existing Water Spray Boiler (WSB), which currently cools the hydraulic fluid and APU lubrication oil, is being modified to provide EAPU thermal management.

Tongue, Stephen; Guyette, Greg; Irbeck, Bradley

2001-01-01

362

Cooling system for automotive engine or the like  

SciTech Connect

A cooling system is described for an internal combustion engine having a structure subject to high heat flux and a lubricant system, comprising: a coolant jacket disposed about the structure and into which coolant is introduced in liquid form and permitted to boil; a radiator in which gaseous coolant is condensed to its liquid state; a vapor transfer conduit leading from the coolant jacket to the radiator for transferring coolant vapor from the coolant jacket to the radiator for condensation therein; means for returning liquid coolant from the radiator to the coolant jacket in a manner to maintain the structure immersed in a predetermined depth of liquid coolant; a device associated with the radiator for varying the rate of heat exchange between the radiator and a cooling medium which surrounds the radiator; a first parameter sensor for sensing a parameter which varies with the temperature of the coolant in the coolant jacket; a second parameter sensor for sensing a parameter which varies with the load on the engine; a circuit response to the first and second parameter sensors for operating the device in a manner which tends to maintain the temperature of the coolant in the coolant jacket at a level determined in response to the load on the engine; a housing in fluid communication with the coolant jacket; and a heat exchanger disposed in the housing and immersed in liquid coolant, the heat exchanger being arranged to have lubricant from engine lubricating system circulated therethrough.

Hayashi, Y.

1986-12-09

363

Efficacy of different antifouling treatments for seawater cooling systems.  

PubMed

In an industrial seawater cooling system, the effects of three different antifouling treatments, viz. sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), aliphatic amines (Mexel®432) and UV radiation, on the characteristics of the fouling formed were evaluated. For this study a portable pilot plant, as a side-stream monitoring system and seawater cooling system, was employed. The pilot plant simulated a power plant steam condenser, having four titanium tubes under different treatment patterns, where fouling progression could be monitored. The nature of the fouling obtained was chiefly inorganic, showing a clear dependence on the antifouling treatment employed. After 72 days the tubes under treatment showed a reduction in the heat transfer resistance (R) of around 70% for NaClO, 48% for aliphatic amines and 55% for UV, with respect to the untreated tube. The use of a logistic model was very useful for predicting the fouling progression and the maximum asymptotic value of the increment in the heat transfer resistance (?R(max)). The apparent thermal conductivity (?) of the fouling layer showed a direct relationship with the percentage of organic matter in the collected fouling. The characteristics and mode of action of the different treatments used led to fouling with diverse physicochemical properties. PMID:21038152

López-Galindo, Cristina; Casanueva, José F; Nebot, Enrique

2010-11-01

364

A supervisory control strategy for building cooling water systems for practical and real time applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a model based supervisory control strategy for online control of building central cooling water systems to enhance their energy efficiency. The supervisory control strategy seeks the minimum energy input to provide adequate cooling energy for buildings, taking into account the characteristics and interactions of central cooling water systems as well as the requirements and constraints of practical

Zhenjun Ma; Shengwei Wang; Xinhua Xu; Fu Xiao

2008-01-01

365

A New System for Cooling and Gas Promoting Extraction Utilizing Carbon Dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a new system utilizing carbon dioxide (CO2) to promote gas extraction and to cool a mining face. Based on the phase transformation characteristics of CO2, this system chooses CO2 as the secondary refrigerant to cool mining face; after absorbing heat from the mining face, low temperature CO2 is injected into goaf, cooling goaf and improving desorption of

Wang Lan yun; Jiang Shu guang; Xu Yong liang; Zhang Wei qing; Shao Hao; Wu Zheng yan; Zou Li li

2010-01-01

366

40 CFR 749.68 - Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems...CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT WATER TREATMENT CHEMICALS Air Conditioning...749.68 Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling...

2013-07-01

367

40 CFR 749.68 - Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems...CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT WATER TREATMENT CHEMICALS Air Conditioning...749.68 Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling...

2012-07-01

368

Experimental and Computational Study of a Scaled Reactor Cavity Cooling System  

E-print Network

The Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR) is one of the next generation nuclear reactors designed to achieve high temperatures to support industrial applications and power generation. The Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) is a passive...

Vaghetto, Rodolfo

2013-11-25

369

Experimental and CFD Analysis of Advanced Convective Cooling Systems  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to study the fundamental physical phenomena in the reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) of very high-temperature reactors (VHTRs). One of the primary design objectives is to assure that RCCS acts as an ultimate heat sink capable of maintaining thermal integrity of the fuel, vessel, and equipment within the reactor cavity for the entire spectrum of postulated accident scenarios. Since construction of full-scale experimental test facilities to study these phenomena is impractical, it is logical to expect that computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations will play a key role in the RCCS design process. An important question then arises: To what extent are conventional CFD codes able to accurately capture the most important flow phenomena, and how can they be modified to improve their quantitative predictions? Researchers are working to tackle this problem in two ways. First, in the experimental phase, the research team plans to design and construct an innovative platform that will provide a standard test setting for validating CFD codes proposed for the RCCS design. This capability will significantly advance the state of knowledge in both liquid-cooled and gas-cooled (e.g., sodium fast reactor) reactor technology. This work will also extend flow measurements to micro-scale levels not obtainable in large-scale test facilities, thereby revealing previously undetectable phenomena that will complement the existing infrastructure. Second, in the computational phase of this work, numerical simulation of the flow and temperature profiles will be performed using advanced turbulence models to simulate the complex conditions of flows in critical zones of the cavity. These models will be validated and verified so that they can be implemented into commercially available CFD codes. Ultimately, the results of these validation studies can then be used to enable a more accurate design and safety evaluation of systems in actual nuclear power applications (both during normal operation and accident scenarios).

Yassin A. Hassan; Victor M. Ugaz

2012-06-27

370

Memory device for two-dimensional radiant energy array computers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A memory device for two dimensional radiant energy array computers was developed, in which the memory device stores digital information in an input array of radiant energy digital signals that are characterized by ordered rows and columns. The memory device contains a radiant energy logic storing device having a pair of input surface locations for receiving a pair of separate radiant energy digital signal arrays and an output surface location adapted to transmit a radiant energy digital signal array. A regenerative feedback device that couples one of the input surface locations to the output surface location in a manner for causing regenerative feedback is also included

Schaefer, D. H.; Strong, J. P., III (inventors)

1977-01-01

371

Biofouling studies with methylchloro/methylisothiazolone in model cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

Model systems were developed to evaluate microbial growth on surfaces and to determine the efficacy of biocides. Dynamic systems were used to simulate key operating parameters in industrial cooling towers. Biofouling was measured on wood, stainless steel, and heat transfer surfaces. Biocide testing in these model systems showed that methylchloro-methylisothiazolone was effective in controlling microbial growth in biofilms. The efficacy of the isothiazolone biocide was related to the treatment level and the nutrient content of the recirculating water. Biofilm control was monitored using viable counts of microorganisms as well as measuring specific biomass components (protein and carbohydrate) on surfaces. An on-line fouling monitor (heat exchanger) confirmed that low biofilm growth correlated with low heat transfer resistance.

Williams, T.M.; Holz, J.W. Jr. [Rohm and Haas Co., Spring House, PA (United States)

1998-12-31

372

Detecting and mitigating aging in component cooling water systems  

SciTech Connect

The time-dependent effects of aging on component cooling water (CCW) systems in nuclear power plants has been studied and documented as part of a research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. It was found that age related degradation leads to failures in the CCW system which can result in an increase in system unavailability, if not properly detected and mitigated. To identify effective methods of managing this degradation, information on inspection, monitoring, and maintenance practices currently available was obtained from various operating plants and reviewed. The findings were correlated with the most common aging mechanisms and failure modes and a compilation of aging detection and mitigation practices was formulated. This paper discusses the results of this work.

Lofaro, R.J.

1991-12-31

373

Detecting and mitigating aging in component cooling water systems  

SciTech Connect

The time-dependent effects of aging on component cooling water (CCW) systems in nuclear power plants has been studied and documented as part of a research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. It was found that age related degradation leads to failures in the CCW system which can result in an increase in system unavailability, if not properly detected and mitigated. To identify effective methods of managing this degradation, information on inspection, monitoring, and maintenance practices currently available was obtained from various operating plants and reviewed. The findings were correlated with the most common aging mechanisms and failure modes and a compilation of aging detection and mitigation practices was formulated. This paper discusses the results of this work.

Lofaro, R.J.

1991-01-01

374

Water cooling system using a piezoelectrically actuated flow pump for a medical headlight system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microchips inside modern electronic equipment generate heat and demand, each day, the use of more advanced cooling techniques as water cooling systems, for instance. These systems combined with piezoelectric flow pumps present some advantages such as higher thermal capacity, lower noise generation and miniaturization potential. The present work aims at the development of a water cooling system based on a piezoelectric flow pump for a head light system based on LEDs. The cooling system development consists in design, manufacturing and experimental characterization steps. In the design step, computational models of the pump, as well as the heat exchanger were built to perform sensitivity studies using ANSYS finite element software. This allowed us to achieve desired flow and heat exchange rates by varying the frequency and amplitude of the applied voltage. Other activities included the design of the heat exchanger and the dissipation module. The experimental tests of the cooling system consisted in measuring the temperature difference between the heat exchanger inlet and outlet to evaluate its thermal cooling capacity for different values of the flow rate. Comparisons between numerical and experimental results were also made.

Pires, Rogério F.; Vatanabe, Sandro L.; de Oliveira, Amaury R.; Nakasone, Paulo H.; Silva, Emílio C.

2007-04-01

375

Wafer cooling for a high current serial ion implantation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates performance of a gas-cooled, low temperature electrostatic chuck and the effects of gas injection radius change on the wafer cooling efficiency. Wafer temperature measurements were taken for two new electro-static chuck designs at different gas cooling pressures during high current ion implantation. Typical input beam power density was 1.3 W\\/cm2. An improvement in cooling performance was achieved

Svetlana B. Radovanov; Steven R. Walther; Edward Evans; Jon Ballou; Nicholas R. White; William Frutiger

1999-01-01

376

COOLING SYSTEM FOR THE MERIT HIGH-POWER TARGET EXPERIMENT  

SciTech Connect

MERIT is a proof-of-principle experiment of a target station suitable as source for future muon colliders or neutrino factories. When installed at the CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) PS (Proton Synchrotron) complex fast-extracted high-intensity proton beams intercepted a free mercury jet inside a normal-conducting, pulsed 15-T capture solenoid magnet cooled with liquid nitrogen. Up to 25 MJ of Joule heat was dissipated in the magnet during a pulse. The fully automated, remotely controlled cryogenic system of novel design permitted the transfer of nitrogen by the sole means of differential pressures inside the vessels. This fast cycling system permitted several hundred tests in less than three weeks during the 2007 data taking campaign.

Haug, F.; Pereira, H.; Silva, P.; Pezzetti, M.; Pavlov, O.; Pirotte, O.; Metselaar, J.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fabich, A.; Lettry, J. [CERN, CH-1211, Geneva, 23 (Switzerland); Kirk, H. G. [BNL, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); McDonald, K. T. [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Titus, P. [NW22-225 MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, 185 Albany Street, Cambridge MA 02139 (United States); Bennett, J. R. J. [CCLRC, RAL, Chilton, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

2010-04-09

377

THE SNS RESONANCE CONTROL COOLING SYSTEM CONTROL VALVE UPGRADE PERFORMANCE  

SciTech Connect

The normal-conducting linac of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) uses 10 separate Resonance Control Cooling System (RCCS) water skids to control the resonance of 6 Drift Tube Linac (DTL) and 4 Coupled Cavity Linac (CCL) accelerating structures. The RCCS water skids use 2 control valves; one to regulate the chilled water flow and the other to bypass water to a chilled water heat exchanger. These valves have hydraulic actuators that provide position and feedback to the control system. Frequency oscillations occur using these hydraulic actuators due to their coarse movement and control of the valves. New pneumatic actuator and control positioners have been installed on the DTL3 RCCS water skid to give finer control and regulation of DTL3 cavity temperature. This paper shows a comparison of resonance control performance for the two valve configurations.

Williams, Derrick C [ORNL; Schubert, James Phillip [ORNL; Tang, Johnny Y [ORNL

2008-01-01

378

Design and evaluation of active cooling systems for Mach 6 cruise vehicle wings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Active cooling systems, which included transpiration, film, and convective cooling concepts, are examined. Coolants included hydrogen, helium, air, and water. Heat shields, radiation barriers, and thermal insulation are considered to reduce heat flow to the cooling systems. Wing sweep angles are varied from 0 deg to 75 deg and wing leading edge radii of 0.05 inch and 2.0 inches are examined. Structural temperatures are varied to allow comparison of aluminum alloy, titanium alloy, and superalloy structural materials. Cooled wing concepts are compared among themselves, and with the uncooled concept on the basis of structural weight, cooling system weight, and coolant weight.

Mcconarty, W. A.; Anthony, F. M.

1971-01-01

379

The cryogenic helium cooling system for the Tokamak physics experiment  

SciTech Connect

The Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) will use supercritical helium to cool all the magnets and supply helium to the Vacuum cryopumping subsystem. The heat loads will come from the standard steady state conduction and thermal radiation sources and from the pulsed loads of the nuclear and eddy currents caused by the Central Solenoid Coils and the plasma positioning coils. The operations of the TPX will begin with pulses of up to 1000 seconds in duration every 75 minutes. The helium system utilizes a pulse load leveling scheme to buffer out the effects of the pulse load and maintain a constant cryogenic plant operation. The pulse load leveling scheme utilizes the thermal mass of liquid and gaseous helium stored in a remote dewar to absorb the pulses of the tokamak loads. The mass of the stored helium will buffer out the temperature pulses allowing 5 K helium to be delivered to the magnets throughout the length of the pulse. The temperature of the dewar will remain below 5 K with all the energy of the pulse absorbed. This paper will present the details of the heat load sources, of the pulse load leveling scheme operations, a partial helium schematic, dewar temperature as a function of time, the heat load sources as a function of time and the helium temperature as a function of length along the various components that will be cooled.

Felker, B.; Slack, D.S.; Wendland, C.R.

1995-09-29

380

A New Principle for Electronic Cooling of Mesoscopic Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many semiconductor heterostructures the electrons behave like a low-dimensional system and develop new properties susceptible to control by an external parameter. Mesoscopic transport and optical properties have been studied extensively in this way, but low-dimensional thermal properties have to date received much less attention. In this work(Luis G.C. Rego and George Kirczenow, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75) (15), 2262 (99) we present the concepts of a new form of cooling of semiconductor mesoscopic samples which could be used in low temperature experiments. The cooling is the result of a quasi-static expansion of the electrons occupying the quasi-2D subbands of a quantum well (QW) or a multiple-quantum-well array, induced by an external electric field applied perpendicularly to the QW plane. Under ideal conditions the final temperature is half of the original and the dynamics of the process is universal and reversible. The feasibility of the process is investigated by self-consistent calculations at temperatures below 1K.

Rego, Luis G. C.

2000-03-01

381

Floating Loop System For Cooling Integrated Motors And Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A floating loop vehicle component cooling and air-conditioning system having at least one compressor for compressing cool vapor refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one condenser for condensing the hot vapor refrigerant into hot liquid refrigerant by exchanging heat with outdoor air; at least one floating loop component cooling device for evaporating the hot liquid refrigerant into hot vapor

John S. Hsu; Curtis W. Ayers; Chester Coomer; Laura D. Marlino

2006-01-01

382

Luminosity of the NICA Collider in working mode with using electron cooling system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper investigates the problem of balance between the intrabeam scattering, electron cooling and radiative recombination processes in the NICA Collider working mode with using of electron cooling system. The reducing methods of radiative recombination influence due to electron cooling are discussed.

Kuznetsov, A. B.; Meshkov, I. N.; Tuzikov, A. V.; Philippov, A. V.

2014-09-01

383

Hydraulic Modeling of Large District Cooling Systems for Master Planning Purposes  

E-print Network

, District Cooling System, Central Chilled Water System, Master Planning, Hydraulic Simulation ABSTRACT District Cooling Systems (DCS) have been widely applied in large institutions such as universities, government facilities, commercial districts... are to be built on campus, chilled water piping will be added to connect them with the existing DCS. The existing DCS hydraulic system may need to be modified to accommodate the new buildings. Accordingly, the total cooling capacity may need to be enlarged...

Xu, C.; Chen, Q.; Claridge, D. E.; Turner, W. D.; Deng, S.

2006-01-01

384

Design and Development of Geothermal Cooling System for Composite Climatic Zone in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tropical climate buildings use about 70 % of operating energy for cooling of built environment. In composite climatic zone like Nagpur, Maharashtra, India several electro-mechanical cooling appliances viz., evaporative coolers, air conditioners, etc. are used. Application of geothermal cooling system is a very apt option for saving energy and reducing emission when compared to conventional cooling techniques. In the present work design methodology of geothermal cooling system is broadly elaborated and is applied to a case study of an educational building located in composite climate. The application of conventional and geothermal cooling systems is compared in terms of energy consumption. It is found that geothermal cooling system saves around 90 % of electricity as compared to air conditioner and 100 % of water as compared to evaporative coolers. This approach can further be extended for larger applications that will reduce consumption of energy and water in buildings.

Ralegaonkar, R.; Kamath, M. V.; Dakwale, V. A.

2014-08-01

385

Design and Development of Geothermal Cooling System for Composite Climatic Zone in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tropical climate buildings use about 70 % of operating energy for cooling of built environment. In composite climatic zone like Nagpur, Maharashtra, India several electro-mechanical cooling appliances viz., evaporative coolers, air conditioners, etc. are used. Application of geothermal cooling system is a very apt option for saving energy and reducing emission when compared to conventional cooling techniques. In the present work design methodology of geothermal cooling system is broadly elaborated and is applied to a case study of an educational building located in composite climate. The application of conventional and geothermal cooling systems is compared in terms of energy consumption. It is found that geothermal cooling system saves around 90 % of electricity as compared to air conditioner and 100 % of water as compared to evaporative coolers. This approach can further be extended for larger applications that will reduce consumption of energy and water in buildings.

Ralegaonkar, R.; Kamath, M. V.; Dakwale, V. A.

2014-09-01

386

Cryogenic cooling with cryocooler on a rotating system.  

PubMed

We developed a system that continuously maintains a cryocooler for long periods on a rotating table. A cryostat that holds the cryocooler is set on the table. A compressor is located on the ground and supplies high-purity (>99.999%) and high-pressure (1.7 MPa) helium gas and electricity to the cryocooler. The operation of the cryocooler and other instruments requires the development of interface components between the ground and rotating table. A combination of access holes at the center of the table and two rotary joints allows simultaneous circulation of electricity and helium gas. The developed system provides two innovative functions under the rotating condition, cooling from room temperature and the maintenance of a cold condition for long periods. We have confirmed these abilities as well as temperature stability under a condition of continuous rotation at 20 rpm. The developed system can be applied in various fields, e.g., in tests of Lorentz invariance, searches for axion, radio astronomy, and cosmology, and application of radar systems. In particular, there is a plan to use this system for a radio telescope observing cosmic microwave background radiation. PMID:23742598

Oguri, S; Choi, J; Kawai, M; Tajima, O

2013-05-01

387

Optimization of a solar cooling system with interior energy storage  

SciTech Connect

This paper focuses on the optimization of the performance of a solar absorption cooling system composed by four units with interior energy storage. A full dynamic simulation model that includes the solar collector field, the absorption heat pump system and the building load calculation has been developed. It has been applied to optimize the coupling of a system based on this new technology of solar powered absorption heat pump, to a bioclimatic building recently constructed in the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA) in Spain. The absorption heat pump system considered is composed by four heat pumps that store energy in the form of crystallized salts so that no external storage capacity is required. Each heat pump is composed of two separate barrels that can charge (store energy from the solar field) and discharge (deliver heat or cold to the building) independently. Different configurations of the four units have been analysed taking into account the storage possibilities of the system and its capacity to respond to the building loads. It has been shown how strong the influence of the control strategies in the overall performance is, and the importance of using hourly simulations models when looking for highly efficient buildings. (author)

Sanjuan, C.; Soutullo, S.; Heras, M.R. [Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency in Buildings Unit, CIEMAT, Madrid E-28040 (Spain)

2010-07-15

388

Literature Review of Uncertainty of Analysis Methods (Cool Roofs), Report to the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality  

E-print Network

to the industrial buildings. Cooling energy savings were also mentioned from the papers that focused primarily on the urban heat island effect. These papers mentioned that the cool roof systems contribute to the reduction of the heat island effect. Page 5... et al.Various roofing systems 3---263------35 x22000Parker et al.Different roofing systems 3235---34 x21998Parker et al.Reflective roofing systems 19 x21988Taha et al.Heat islands 141914------35 31990Levins & HerronRadiant barriers 3171119 x31996...

Haberl, J. S.; Cho, S.

2004-01-01

389

Time of Flight system to investigate positronium cooling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A positronium Time of Flight (TOF) apparatus, conceived to work with continuous positron beams of intensity up to ~106 positrons/s, was developed. The geometry of the TOF chamber and the acquisition chain are described in detail. The performances of the set up were preliminary tested with a laboratory positron beam of ~5 × 103 positrons/s by measuring the Time of Flight of Ps emitted from oxidized nanochannels produced in a Si single crystal. A TOF spectrum of ~104 events was collected in 9 days with a time resolution of 8 ns. The analysis of the TOF spectrum is discussed. This apparatus is going to be assembled at the intense positron source NEPOMUC at FRM-II reactor, where the measurement time of each spectrum will be reduced to less than 2 h, making this TOF system appropriate to investigate positronium emission after cooling in porous materials held at cryogenic temperature.

Di Noto, L.; Mariazzi, S.; Bettonte, M.; Nebbia, G.; Brusa, R. S.

2012-05-01

390

R&D on The Cooling Systems Using Natural Refrigerants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of waste heat of low temperatures is an important problem from the environmental considerations. Notice that adsorption cycles have a distinct advantage over other systems of their ability to produce cooling by using low waste heat as 60 to 80°C and also being absolutely benign for the environment. However the present available adsorption chillers are still heavier and larger in size. Hence their compactness and cost reduction as well as higher efficiency are urgent tasks for wider use. This review discusses recent development on adsorption heat pumps as well as forthcoming applications. The sources are mainly papers and discussions at the IEA Annex 24 Workshop in Turin, Italy (1999), FOA6 (Fundamental of Adsorption) Conference in Presquile de Giens, France (1998) and ISHPC (International Sorption Heat Pump Conference) in Munich, Germany (1999).

Yanagi, Hideharu

391

Introduce Freshness Estimate Function into Cooling System of Foods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cooling system controlled by the freshness estimate function to freshly store foods,was examined. To drive the freshness estimate expression,an experiment on storage of tuna was made and the following results were obtained. 1) Ratio of weight to initial weight,yield,was greatly influenced by conditions of humidity and velocity of air. 2) K value was not influenced by conditions of air velocity under 95-75% humidity and 0 -1m/s air velocity. 3) Change of color was influenced by conditions of humidity and velocity of air. So using weight of evaporated water in tuna as a function,relative expression of humidity and velocity of air for saving weight loss of tuna was induced.

Ishikawa, Makiko; Matsuoka, Fumio; Sugimoto, Takeshi

392

Sealed Battery Block Provided With A Cooling System  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to a sealed battery block operating at a pressure of at least 1 bar relative, the battery including a container made of a plastics material and made up of a lid and of a case subdivided into wells by at least one partition, said battery being provided with a cooling system including two cheek plates made of a plastics material and co-operating with the outside faces of respective ones of two opposite walls of said case, each cheek plate co-operating with the corresponding wall to define a compartment provided with a plurality of ribs forming baffles for fluid flow purposes, and with an inlet orifice and an outlet orifice for the fluid, said battery being characterized in that each of said ribs extends in a direction that forms an angle relative to the plane of said partition lying in the range 60.degree. to 90.degree..

Verhoog, Roelof (Bordeaux, FR); Barbotin, Jean-Loup (Pompignac, FR)

1999-11-16

393

Preliminary description of the ground test accelerator cryogenic cooling system  

SciTech Connect

The Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) under construction at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is part of the Neutral Particle Beam Program supported by the Strategic Defense Initiative Office. The GTA is a full-sized test facility to evaluate the feasibility of using a negative ion accelerator to produce a neutral particle beam (NPB). The NPB would ultimately be used outside the earth's atmosphere as a target discriminator or as a directed energy weapon. The operation of the GTA at cryogenic temperature is advantageous for two reasons: first, the decrease of temperature caused a corresponding decrease in the rf heating of the copper in the various units of the accelerator, and second, at the lower temperature the decrease in the thermal expansion coefficient also provides greater thermal stability and consequently, better operating stability for the accelerator. This paper discusses the cryogenic cooling system needed to achieve these advantages. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Edeskuty, F.J.; Stewart, W.F.

1988-01-01

394

Thermochemically recuperated and steam cooled gas turbine system  

DOEpatents

A gas turbine system is described in which the expanded gas from the turbine section is used to generate the steam in a heat recovery steam generator and to heat a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel and the steam in a reformer. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon gas to hydrogen and carbon monoxide for combustion in a combustor. A portion of the steam from the heat recovery steam generator is used to cool components, such as the stationary vanes, in the turbine section, thereby superheating the steam. The superheated steam is mixed into the hydrocarbon gas upstream of the reformer, thereby eliminating the need to raise the temperature of the expanded gas discharged from the turbine section in order to achieve effective conversion of the hydrocarbon gas. 4 figs.

Viscovich, P.W.; Bannister, R.L.

1995-07-11

395

Thermochemically recuperated and steam cooled gas turbine system  

DOEpatents

A gas turbine system in which the expanded gas from the turbine section is used to generate the steam in a heat recovery steam generator and to heat a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel and the steam in a reformer. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon gas to hydrogen and carbon monoxide for combustion in a combustor. A portion of the steam from the heat recovery steam generator is used to cool components, such as the stationary vanes, in the turbine section, thereby superheating the steam. The superheated steam is mixed into the hydrocarbon gas upstream of the reformer, thereby eliminating the need to raise the temperature of the expanded gas discharged from the turbine section in order to achieve effective conversion of the hydrocarbon gas.

Viscovich, Paul W. (Longwood, FL); Bannister, Ronald L. (Winter Springs, FL)

1995-01-01

396

Legionnaires' disease bacteria in power plant cooling systems: Phase 2  

SciTech Connect

Legionnaires' Disease Bacteria (Legionella) are a normal component of the aquatic community. The study investigated various environmental factors that affect Legionella profiles in power plant cooling waters. The results indicate that each of the four factors investigated (incubation temperature, water quality, the presence and type of associated biota, and the nature of the indigenous Legionella population) is important in determining the Legionella profile of these waters. Simple predictive relationships were not found. At incubation temperatures of 32/sup 0/ and 37/sup 0/C, waters from a power plant where infectious Legionella were not observed stimulated the growth of stock Legionella cultures more than did waters from plants where infectious Legionella were prevalent. This observation is consistent with Phase I results, which showed that densities of Legionella were frequently reduced in closed-cycle cooling systems despite the often higher infectivity of Legionella in closed-cycle waters. In contrast, water from power plants where infectious Legionella were prevalent supported the growth of indigenous Legionella pneumophila at 42/sup 0/C, while water from a power plant where infectious Legionella were absent did not support growth of indigenous Legionella. Some Legionella are able to withstand a water temperature of 85/sup 0/C for several hours, thus proving more tolerant than was previously realized. Finally, the observation that water from two power plants where infectious Legionella were prevalent usually supported the growth of Group A Legionella at 45/sup 0/C indicates the presence, of soluble Legionella growth promoters in these waters. This test system could allow for future identification and control of these growth promoters and, hence, of Legionella. 25 refs., 23 figs., 10 tabs.

Tyndall, R.L.; Christensen, S.W.; Solomon, J.A.

1985-04-01

397

Electric and Gas Fired Radiant Tubes 'ERT'  

E-print Network

operating in carburizing or endothermic atmosphere. The patent which was granted covers the utilization of this tube in a furnace in conjunction with an aspirator which pulls a small controlled amount of air through the tube. In a endothermic atmosphere..., this air en trainment in the tube has the capability of over coming the carburizing effect on the alloy, keeping the resistance constant and assuring long life and a reliability that is consistent with fuel-fired radiant tube designs. The Prolectric...

Nilsen, E. K.

1981-01-01

398

Wind effects on the performance of the reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main safety features of current liquid-metal reactor (LMR) designs is the utilization of decay heat removal systems that remove heat by natural convection. The reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system (RVACS) is one of these passive systems. The performance of the reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system (RVACS) of a liquid-metal reactor is a function of the pressure difference

C. P. Tzanos; A. Hunsbedt

1996-01-01

399

Top-of-Atmosphere Direct Radiative Effect of Aerosols from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Satellite Instrument (CERES)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nine months of CERES/TRMM broadband fluxes combined with VIRS high-resolution imager measurements are used to estimate the daily average direct radiative effect of aerosols for clear-sky conditions over the tropical oceans. On average, aerosols have a cooling effect over the tropics of 4.6 +/- 1 W/sq m. The magnitude is approx.2 W/sq m smaller over the southern tropical oceans than it is over northern tropical oceans. The direct effect derived from CERES is highly correlated with coincident aerosol optical depth retrievals inferred from 0.63 microns VIRS radiances (correlation coefficient of 0.96). The slope of the regression line is approx. -32 W/sq m/t over the equatorial Pacific Ocean, but changes both regionally and seasonally, depending on the aerosol characteristics. Near sources of biomass burning and desert dust, the aerosol direct effect reaches -25 W sq m to -30 W/sq m. The direct effect from CERES also shows a dependence on wind speed. The reason for this dependence is unclear-it may be due to increased aerosol (e.g. sea-salt or aerosol transport) or increased surface reflection (e.g. due to whitecaps). The uncertainty in the tropical average direct effect from CERES is approx. 1 W/sq m (approx. 20%) due mainly to cloud contamination, the radiance-to-flux conversion, and instrument calibration. By comparison, uncertainties in the direct effect from the ERBE and CERES "ERBE-Like" products are a factor of 3 to 5 larger.

Loeb, N. G.; Kato, S.

2002-01-01

400

Radiant heat and thermal comfort in vehicles.  

PubMed

Infrared-reflective (IRR) treatment of automotive glass has been shown to reduce air temperature in vehicle cabins, thereby increasing fuel economy and occupant comfort. Its effect on radiant heat, however, may augment these benefits. In this study, the hypothesis that radiant heat affects subjective comfort ratings in a vehicle was tested. IRR films were systematically applied to the driver-side window of an outdoor stationary vehicle. In Phase 1, cabin air temperature was controlled while participants rated their thermal comfort. In Phase 2, air temperature was adjusted according to participants' responses. Results in Phase 1 showed that the IRR treatment improved thermal comfort on the left forearm, which was exposed to direct solar irradiance, but not whole-body thermal comfort. In Phase 2, participants indicated that they were comfortable at a higher air temperature (mean of 2.5 degrees F [1.4 degrees C]) with the IRR treatment than in the untreated condition. The results indicate that reducing radiant heat via IRR treatment affects subjective assessments of thermal comfort and allows occupants to maintain the same level of comfort in a warmer vehicle cabin. Applications of this research include future implementations of IRR treatment on automotive glass that may lead to greater fuel economy savings and occupant comfort than have previously been estimated. PMID:16553069

Devonshire, Joel M; Sayer, James R

2005-01-01

401

Methodology to determine cost and performance goals for active solar cooling systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Systems analysis is used to calculate the 20 yr. present value of energy savings of solar cooling systems located in Texas, Arizona, Florida, and Washington, DC, and methods of solar system development to meet the cost goals of economic operation are outlined. Solar cooling systems are projected to begin commercial entry in 1986 and reach 20% of the total cooling market by the year 2000, producing 0.14 quads of displaced energy. A numerical simulation was carried out for both residential and commercial solar cooling units with consideration for system cost goals, cost goals per unit collector area, and the cost goals per ton of cooling. System size was targeted as a 3 ton residential chiller and a 25 ton commercial absorption cooling unit. The costs for volume production are provided, along with trends for an incrementally decreasing need for tax incentives, ending in about 1994

Warren, M. L.; Wahlig, M.

1981-11-01

402

Evaporation-Cooled Protective Suits for Firefighters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Suits cooled by evaporation of water have been proposed as improved means of temporary protection against high temperatures near fires. When air temperature exceeds 600 F (316 C) or in the presence of radiative heating from nearby sources at temperatures of 1,200 F (649 C) or more, outer suits now used by firefighters afford protection for only a few seconds. The proposed suits would exploit the high latent heat of vaporization of water to satisfy a need to protect against higher air temperatures and against radiant heating for significantly longer times. These suits would be fabricated and operated in conjunction with breathing and cooling systems like those with which firefighting suits are now equipped

Weinstein, Leonard Murray

2007-01-01

403

An experimental investigation of a gas turbine disk cooling system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of an experimental study of the cooling of a model disk similar to an engine disk are compared with the results obtained by three-dimensional finite difference computation, and it is reconfirmed that the determination of cooling air temperature is one of the most important data for predicting the disk temperature. The minimum cooling air flow rate necessary to prevent ingress of external hot gas is determined by the fluctuation of cooling air temperature inside the wheel space with the external axial hot gas flow for values of the rotational Reynolds number of 0-6.5 million. The effect of rotational speed on the minimum cooling air flow rate is found to be negligible, and it is shown that the determination of the ingress of hot gas using the pressure difference criterion underestimates the minimum cooling air flow rate.

Kobayashi, N.; Matsumato, M.; Shizuya, M.

1983-03-01

404

Cooling system for a bearing of a turbine rotor  

DOEpatents

In a gas turbine, a bore tube assembly radially inwardly of an aft bearing conveys cooling steam to the buckets of the turbine and returns the cooling steam to a return. To cool the bearing and thermally insulate the bearing from the cooling steam paths, a radiation shield is spaced from the bore tube assembly by a dead air gap. Additionally, an air passageway is provided between the radiation shield and the inner surface of an aft shaft forming part of the rotor. Air is supplied from an inlet for flow along the passage and radially outwardly through bores in the aft shaft disk to cool the bearing and insulate it from transfer of heat from the cooling steam.

Schmidt, Mark Christopher (Niskayuna, NY)

2002-01-01

405

Comparative Study Between Air-Cooled and Water-Cooled Condensers of the Air-Conditioning Systems  

E-print Network

The weather in Kuwait is very dry where the dry-bulb temperature exceeds the wet-bulb temperature more than 20oC in most of the summer months. Thus, the air-conditioning (A/C) system with the water-cooled (WC) condensers is expected to perform more...

Maheshwari, G. P.; Mulla Ali, A. A.

2004-01-01

406

The evolution of water cooling for IBM large server systems: Back to the future  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a technical perspective and review of water cooling technology as implemented through 5 generations of IBM's high performance computing systems from the S360\\/91 to the recently announced IBM Power 575 supercomputing system. The use of hybrid air-to-water cooling and then indirect (cold plate) water cooling in earlier IBM systems is described. Attention is given to how and

M. J. Ellsworth; L. A. Campbell; R. E. Simons; R. R. S. Iyengar

2008-01-01

407

GROUNDLOOPEVAPORATIVEFLUIDCOOLERCHILLERTOGROUNDLOOP CHILLERTOGROUNDLOOP&  

E-print Network

MAKE GALLAGHER HALL LEED PLATINUM RADIANT HEATING AND COOLING 1. Radiant Floor and Ceiling Panels 2 GRUPP, WESTERN COOLING EFFICIENCY CENTER | STATE PARTNERSHIP FOR ENERGY EFFICIENT DEMONSTRATIONS RADIANT radiant system. CONVENTIONAL Conventional building systems supply all space conditioning with large

California at Davis, University of

408

Thermal and economic analysis of three HVAC (heating, ventilating, and air conditioning) system types in a typical VA (Veterans Administration) patient facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal and economic analyses were performed for three different types of heating, ventilating, and cooling systems for a patient room in a typical VA patient facility in each of four locations. Thermal analysis was done with the U.S. Army's Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics (BLAST) energy analysis program. Radiant panel, variable air volume (VAV), and fan coil systems were

G. N. Walton; S. R. Petersen

1987-01-01

409

Cool Roof Systems; What is the Condensation Risk?  

SciTech Connect

A white roof, or cool roof, is constructed to decrease thermal loads from solar radiation, therefore saving energy by decreasing the cooling demands. Unfortunately, cool roofs with a mechanically attached membrane have shown a higher risk of intermediate condensation in the materials below the membrane in certain climates (Ennis & Kehrer, 2011) and in comparison with similar constructions with a darker exterior surface (Bludau, Zirkelbach, & Kuenzel, 2009). As a consequence, questions have been raised regarding the sustainability and reliability of using cool roof membranes in northern U.S. climate zones.

Kehrer, Manfred [ORNL; Pallin, Simon B [ORNL

2014-01-01

410

Photovoltaic-electrodialysis regeneration method for liquid desiccant cooling system  

SciTech Connect

Liquid desiccant cooling system (LDCS) is an (a novel) air-conditioning system with good energy saving potential. Regenerator is the power centre for LDCS. Currently, the regeneration process is always fuelled by thermal energy. Nevertheless, this regeneration pattern has some disadvantages in that its performance will become poor when the surrounding atmosphere is of high humidity, and the heat provided for regeneration will be unfavourable to the following dehumidification process. To ameliorate that, a new regeneration method is proposed in this paper: a membrane regenerator is employed to regenerate the liquid desiccant in an electrodialysis way; while solar photovoltaic generator is adopted to supply electric power for this process. Analysis has been made about this new regeneration method and the result reveals: this new manner achieves good stability with the immunity against the adverse impact from the outside high humidity; its performance is much higher than that of the thermal regeneration manner while putting aside the low efficiency of the photovoltaic system. Besides, purified water can be obtained in company with the regeneration process. (author)

Li, Xiu-Wei [College of Power Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Zhang, Xiao-Song [School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

2009-12-15

411

MY NASA DATA: Graphing S'COOL Data: Temperature, Pressure and Humidity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students download cloud and surface data from the NASA Clouds and Earthâs Radiant Energy System (CERES) Studentsâ Cloud Observations On-Line (SâCOOL) student observation database Web site, then develop and compare graphs to explore the relationships between surface temperature, pressure, and humidity. Students then investigate possible patterns in cloud-types and the surface conditions for several locations on a particular date of their choice from the SâCOOL data. The lesson provides detailed procedure instructions, related links and sample graphs, follow-up questions and extensions, and Teacher Notes.

2010-03-14

412

Adaptive Thermal Management for Portable System Batteries by Forced Convection Cooling  

E-print Network

Adaptive Thermal Management for Portable System Batteries by Forced Convection Cooling Qing Xie is proposed to derive the ATMB policy. Keywords-- battery system; adaptive thermal management; forced thermal management problem for batteries (ATMB) in the portable systems with forced convection cooling

Pedram, Massoud

413

Exergetic modeling and experimental performance assessment of a novel desiccant cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

New approaches to space conditioning of buildings are required to resolve economic, environmental, and regulatory issues. One of the alternative systems that is brought to agenda is the desiccant cooling systems, which may provide important advantages in solving air conditioning problems. This study deals with the performance analysis and evaluation of a novel desiccant cooling system using exergy analysis method.

Ertaç Hürdo?an; Orhan Buyükalaca; Arif Hepbasli; Tuncay Y?lmaz

2011-01-01

414

Investigation of thermal performance of a passive solar building with floor radiant heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a theoretical study of an integrated radiant floor heating–direct gain passive solar system. Thermal mass is utilized both for storage of auxiliary heating energy and direct solar gains incident on the floor. An explicit finite difference model is developed to accurately model nonlinear effects and auxiliary heating control. The numerical simulation model is employed to study the

Andreas K Athienitis

1997-01-01

415

Cooling system for automotive engine or the like  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described of cooling an internal combustion engine comprising the steps of: introducing liquid coolant into a cooling circuit which includes a coolant jacket formed about structure of the engine subject to high heat flux; permitting the coolant in the coolant jacket to boil and produce coolant vapor; transferring the coolant vapor to a radiator which defines a

Y. Hirano; T. Kubozuka

1986-01-01

416

Cooling performance of piezoelectric fan in notebook system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin form factor and high computing performance are the inevitable trend of notebook industry. Both vectors impose more stringent challenge on thermal solution design to maintain internal components and external chassis surfaces within temperature requirements. Cooling industry contributed great effort in miniaturizing conventional blower fan to thin form factor for supporting thin notebook cooling. However, due to the physical size

Ng Kar Mun; I. Sauciuc; H. Wada; N. Tanaka

2010-01-01

417

FULLY INTEGRATED ONE PHASE LIQUID COOLING SYSTEM FOR ORGANIC BOARDS  

E-print Network

cooling circuit consists of a cool plate for the power components, a heat exchanger to reject the heat and fabrication of micro-channels have been Power Components on µ-Channel - Structure Reservoir Heat Exchanger noise. Pump designs have been proposed to meet these requirements, being modu- lar though [11]. Pumps

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

418

Improving the cooling performance of a mechanical resonator with two-level-system defects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the cooling performance of a realistic mechanical resonator containing defects. The normal cooling method through an optomechanical system does not work efficiently due to those defects. We show that, by employing periodical ?z pulses, we can eliminate the interaction between defects and their surrounding heat baths up to the first order of time. Compared with the cooling performance of the no ?z pulses case, much better cooling results are obtained. Moreover, this pulse sequence has the ability to improve the cooling performance of the resonator with different defect energy gaps and different defect damping rates.

Chen, Tian; Wang, Xiang-Bin

2014-10-01

419

Improving Cooling performance of the mechanical resonator with the two-level-system defects  

E-print Network

We study cooling performance of a realistic mechanical resonator containing defects. The normal cooling method through an optomechanical system does not work efficiently due to those defects. We show by employing periodical $\\sigma_z$ pulses, we can eliminate the interaction between defects and their surrounded heat baths up to the first order of time. Compared with the cooling performance of no $\\sigma_z$ pulses case, much better cooling results are obtained. Moreover, this pulse sequence has an ability to improve the cooling performance of the resonator with different defects energy gaps and different defects damping rates.

Tian Chen; Xiang-Bin Wang

2014-06-03

420

Air cooled turbine component having an internal filtration system  

DOEpatents

A centrifugal particle separator is provided for removing particles such as microscopic dirt or dust particles from the compressed cooling air prior to reaching and cooling the turbine blades or turbine vanes of a turbine engine. The centrifugal particle separator structure has a substantially cylindrical body with an inlet arranged on a periphery of the substantially cylindrical body. Cooling air enters centrifugal particle separator through the separator inlet port having a linear velocity. When the cooling air impinges the substantially cylindrical body, the linear velocity is transformed into a rotational velocity, separating microscopic particles from the cooling air. Microscopic dust particles exit the centrifugal particle separator through a conical outlet and returned to a working medium.

Beeck, Alexander R. (Orlando, FL)

2012-05-15

421

The effects of aging on BWR core isolation cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

A study was performed to assess the effects of aging on the Reactor Core Isolation Cooling (RCIC) system in commercial Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs). This study is part of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The objectives of this program are to provide an understanding of the aging process and how it affects plant safety so that it can be properly managed. This is one of a number of studies performed under the NPAR program which provide a technical basis for the identification and evaluation of degradation caused by age. The failure data from national databases, as well as plant specific data were reviewed and analyzed to understand the effects of aging on the RCIC system. This analysis identified important components that should receive the highest priority in terms of aging management. The aging characterization provided information on the effects of aging on component failure frequency, failure modes, and failures causes. Current inspection, surveillance, and monitoring practices were also reviewed.

Lee, B.S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1994-10-01

422

The ETA10 liquid-nitrogen-cooled supercomputer system  

SciTech Connect

A supercomputer was developed using CMOS circuit technology operating at liquid-nitrogen temperatures. As many as 2000 packaged circuit chips of up to 20 000 gates each operate at a temperature below 90 {Kappa} (which approximately doubles the speed of the circuit chips). Extensive utilization of built-in self-test provides for device and interconnect testability from the wafer at the foundry to the central processor product immersed in nitrogen. The devices have been packaged and interconnected with special attention to materials choices to assure reliability of the connection structures. Laboratory cryogenic cycling studies have been completed at the device and the printed circuit board levels. Heat-transfer experiments were conducted to validate nucleate boiling peak heat flux limits of --12 W/cm/sup 2/ in liquid nitrogen. A vacuum-jacketed cryostat vessel was developed to provide the central processor chips with their liquid-nitrogen environment and to allow several thousand signal wires to connect to them with minimal heat leak. A closed-loop cryogenic refrigeration system was developed to recondense the gaseous nitrogen generated from the boiling heat transfer in the cryostat. The cryogenic system controls the nitrogen flows and pressures during normal operating conditions and provides automatic warm-up/cool-down of cryostats and central processor electronics.

Carlson, D.M.; Sullivan, D.C.; Bach, R.E.; Resnick, D.R. (ETA Systems, Inc., St. Paul, MN (USA))

1989-08-01

423

Impact of surface characteristics on radiant panel output  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the experimental results of a research project conducted to determine the impact of surface characteristics on radiant panel output. The hemispherical and angular emittance and radiant panel output were measured for various modern building materials. The surfaces were found to have uniformly high hemispherical emittances and could be considered diffuse emitters. An office-sized environmental chamber was used to test radiant ceiling, floor, and wall panels under both natural and forced convection conditions. The results of these experiments showed that for the surfaces and conditions tested, surface texture did not have a significant impact on the rate of heat transfer from the radiant panels.

Lindstrom, P.C.; Fisher, D.E.; Pedersen, C.O. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

1998-10-01

424

Finding radiant-energy sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Antenna is scanned in orthogonal directions to pinpoint interfering sources. Satellite system locates ground-based microwave transmitter to accuracy of about 100 miles. When data on misalinement of satellite antenna boresight are used to correct antenna pointing, accuracy is improved to better than 70 miles.

Schaffer, G. J.

1978-01-01

425

Experimental Evaluation of One, Two, and Three Stage Evaporative Cooling Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal performance of four different arrangements of evaporative air coolers have been evaluated experimentally during the hot summer of Kuwait. The systems include one-stage direct evaporative cooling (DEC), one-stage indirect evaporative cooler (IEC) linked to an external cooling tower, two-stage indirect\\/direct evaporative coolers (IEC\\/DEC), and three-stage system of evaporative cooling and mechanical vapor compression (IEC\\/DEC-MVC). Two variables are used

Faisal Al-Juwayhel; Hisham El-Dessouky; Hisham Ettouney; Mona Al-Qattan

2004-01-01

426

Final cooling of coke oven gas using a closed-loop, recirculated wash-water system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bethlehem Steel Corporation has developed a closed-loop, recirculated wash-water system for the final cooling of coke oven gas streams. The system employs physical separation of suspended solids from the cooling water, indirect cooling of the recirculating water, and injection of a small amount of a water-immiscible solvent to minimise the deposition of naphthalenic solids in the indirect heat exchanger. A

R. E. Watkins; K. R. Burcaw

1983-01-01

427

Role of bacterial adhesion in the microbial ecology of biofilms in cooling tower systems  

PubMed Central

The fate of the three heterotrophic biofilm forming bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Flavobacterium sp. in pilot scale cooling towers was evaluated both by observing the persistence of each species in the recirculating water and the formation of biofilms on steel coupons placed in each cooling tower water reservoir. Two different cooling tower experiments were performed: a short-term study (6 days) to observe the initial bacterial colonization of the cooling tower, and a long-term study (3 months) to observe the ecological dynamics with repeated introduction of the test strains. An additional set of batch experiments (6 days) was carried out to evaluate the adhesion of each strain to steel surfaces under similar conditions to those found in the cooling tower experiments. Substantial differences were observed in the microbial communities that developed in the batch systems and cooling towers. P. aeruginosa showed a low degree of adherence to steel surfaces both in batch and in the cooling towers, but grew much faster than K. pneumoniae and Flavobacterium in mixed-species biofilms and ultimately became the dominant organism in the closed batch systems. However, the low degree of adherence caused P. aeruginosa to be rapidly washed out of the open cooling tower systems, and Flavobacterium became the dominant microorganism in the cooling towers in both the short-term and long-term experiments. These results indicate that adhesion, retention and growth on solid surfaces play important roles in the bacterial community that develops in cooling tower systems. PMID:19177226

Liu, Yang; Zhang, Wei; Sileika, Tadas; Warta, Richard; Cianciotto, Nicholas P.; Packman, Aaron

2009-01-01

428

Prediction of the thermal environment and thermal response of simple panels exposed to radiant heat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of predicting the radiant heat flux distribution produced by a bank of tubular quartz heaters was applied to a radiant system consisting of a single unreflected lamp irradiating a flat metallic incident surface. In this manner, the method was experimentally verified for various radiant system parameter settings and used as a source of input for a finite element thermal analysis. Two finite element thermal analyses were applied to a thermal system consisting of a thin metallic panel exposed to radiant surface heating. A two-dimensional steady-state finite element thermal analysis algorithm, based on Galerkin's Method of Weighted Residuals (GFE), was formulated specifically for this problem and was used in comparison to the thermal analyzers of the Engineering Analysis Language (EAL). Both analyses allow conduction, convection, and radiation boundary conditions. Differences in the respective finite element formulation are discussed in terms of their accuracy and resulting comparison discrepancies. The thermal analyses are shown to perform well for the comparisons presented here with some important precautions about the various boundary condition models. A description of the experiment, corresponding analytical modeling, and resulting comparisons are presented.

Turner, Travis L.; Ash, Robert L.

1989-01-01

429

Adiabatic radiant hot air burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report describes a low emissions hot air system for direct product drying and environmental heating. Specific emissions target were 0.5 ppm of nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) and 3.0 ppm of carbon monoxide (CO), as measured in the vitiated stream (mixed process air and combustion products). The firing rate turndown target was 50:1 and temperature range target was 200-1600 F.

R. K. Tidball; B. N. Marshall; F. E. Moreno; R. L. Pam

1992-01-01

430

Comparisons between point response function measurements and theory for the clouds and the Earth's radiant energy system (CERES) TRMM and the EOS-AM spacecraft thermistor bolometer sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All physical measuring devices have finite response times determined by the characteristics of their optical, electrical, and thermal components. In a system which is not time-critical, one merely waits for the system to stabilize, and then reads the measurement. In a system which is in motion, such as the CERES scanners, the spatial location of any measurement is dependent upon the response time of the detector. In order for the remotely sensed data to be accurately geolocated, the systematic delays between the time-of-observation of the scene and the time-of-measurement must be determined. The first CERES instrument was launched aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) platform from Japans Tanegashima Island Space Center on 28 November 1997. The next two CERES instruments are scheduled for dual launch on the EOS/AM-1 platform in late 1998. In this paper we specifically address the delay between the time of observation of a scene, and its actual measurement as determined from Point Response Function Source data taken in the CERES calibration chamber at TRW in Redondo Beach; and we compare the theoretically generated Point Spread Functions to these measurements. The agreement between the measured and theoretical contours in excellent, in the total and shortwave channels. For all 3 instruments, the calculated time-delay of 0.023ms to the centroid,and the measured peak delay of 0.022ms are very consistent. The result of on-orbit coastline detection algorithms are currently being analyzed in comparison with the PSF delays used in the geolocation algorithms in order to further validate the proper geolocation of the measured data.

Paden, Jack; Smith, G. Louis; Lee, Robert B., III; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Priestley, Kory J.; Bitting, Herbert C.; Thomas, Susan; Wilson, Robert S.

1998-10-01

431

Heat exchanger. [rocket combustion chambers and cooling systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A heat exchanger, as exemplified by a rocket combustion chamber, is constructed by stacking thin metal rings having microsized openings therein at selective locations to form cooling passages defined by an inner wall, an outer wall and fins. Suitable manifolds are provided at each end of the rocket chamber. In addition to the cooling channel openings, coolant feed openings may be formed in each of rings. The coolant feed openings may be nested or positioned within generally U-shaped cooling channel openings. Compression on the stacked rings may be maintained by welds or the like or by bolts extending through the stacked rings.

Sokolowski, D. E. (inventor)

1978-01-01

432

Cooling system for automotive engine or the like  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an internal combustion engine having a structure subject to high heat flux a cooling system comprising: a coolant jacket disposed about the structure and into which coolant is introduced in liquid form, permitted to boil and discharged in gaseous form; a radiator in fluid communication with the coolant jacket which receives coolant vapor produced therein and condenses it to its liquid form. The radiator includes a small collection vessel disposed at the bottom thereof; a reservoir in which coolant is stored, the reservoir being fluidly interposed between the collection vessel of the radiator and the coolant jacket. The reservoir is sized so as to contain sufficient liquid to fill the radiator but insufficient to fill the radiator and the coolant jacket; means for returning condensate from the radiator to the coolant jacket in a manner which maintains the level of liquid coolant in the coolant jacket at a predetermined level; a first temperature sensor disposed in the radiator; a second temperature sensor disposed in the coolant jacket; a device associated with the radiator.

Hirano, Y.; Kubozuka, T.

1988-08-30

433

Gas-cooled fuel cell systems technology development program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report addresses the fourth logical unit of work of a multiyear program whose overall objective is the development of a gas-cooled phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) for electric utility power plant application. This PAFC Technology Development Program continuation is structured to build upon the current cell technology baseline so as to advance critical component technologies to meet the performance, endurance, reliability and cost goals associated with successful energy service. The primary technical objectives are: Demonstrate performance endurance of current cell technology in 10-cell stacks at 70 psia, 190 C, and 267 mA/cm sup 2. Select and utilize materials, procedures, and methods that improve cell degradation rate to less than 8 mV/1000 hours. Develop cost effective criteria, processes, and design configurations for stack components. Develop design configuration for multiple stack unit and a single 100 kW size fuel cell stack and attain performance goals. Develop design configuration for a 375 kW fuel cell module and demonstrate by test the average cell beginning-of-use performance objectives. Manufacture four 375 kW fuel cell modules and establish performance characteristics and interactions with other systems in a 1.5 MW pilot power plant. Progress is described.

Feret, J. M.

1989-06-01

434

Cryogenic cooling for spacecraft sensors, instruments, and experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several disciplines requiring in-space cryogenic cooling are identified including high-energy, gamma-ray, and IR astronomy, relativity missions, and superconducting devices. Radiant coolers are limited in terms of temperature ranges and cooling loads. Other spacecraft cryogenic systems include stored solid cryogenic coolers using materials such as hydrogen, neon, argon, and methane. Two such cooler designs are described including one for the Nimbus F limb radiance inversion radiometer and one for the Nimbus G limb infrared monitoring of the atmosphere. Suggestions for increasing the performance of solid cryogenic coolers are made, such as a multimission cooler, a mechanical refrigerator, Stirling-cycle refrigerators, and Vuilleumier mechanized coolers. Techniques for obtaining cryogenic cooling in the milli-K range are identified as dilution refrigeration and adiabatic demagnetization.

Sherman, A.

1978-01-01

435

System design and installation for RS600 programmable control system for solar heating and cooling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Procedures for installing, operating, and maintaining a programmable control system which utilizes a F8 microprocessor to perform all timing, control, and calculation functions in order to customize system performance to meet individual requirements for solar heating, combined heating and cooling, and/or hot water systems are described. The manual discusses user configuration and options, displays, theory of operation, trouble-shooting procedures, and warranty and assistance. Wiring lists, parts lists, drawings, and diagrams are included.

1978-01-01

436

POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF SOLAR HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report discusses potential environmental consequences of solar energy utilization for heating and cooling buildings. It identifies the areas in which both positive and negative impacts are possible, summarizes the national research and development program directed toward sol...

437

System identification and optimal control for mixed-mode cooling  

E-print Network

The majority of commercial buildings today are designed to be mechanically cooled. To make the task of air conditioning buildings simpler, and in some cases more energy efficient, windows are sealed shut, eliminating ...

Spindler, Henry C. (Henry Carlton), 1970-

2004-01-01

438

Potential of Evaporative Cooling Systems for Buildings in India  

E-print Network

Evaporative cooling potential for building in various climatic zones in India is investigated. Maintainable indoor conditions are obtained from the load - capacity analysis for the prevailing ambient conditions. For the assumed activity level...

Maiya, M. P.; Vijay, S.

2010-01-01

439

Hybrid Cooling Systems for Low-Temperature Geothermal Power Production  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the identification and evaluation of methods by which the net power output of an air-cooled geothermal power plant can be enhanced during hot ambient conditions with a minimal amount of water use.

Ashwood, A.; Bharathan, D.

2011-03-01

440

Solar Heating and Cooling of Residential Buildings: Sizing, Installation and Operation of Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training course and a companion course titled "Design of Systems for Solar Heating and Cooling of Residential Buildings," are designed to train home designers and builders in the fundamentals of solar hydronic and air systems for space heating and cooling and domestic hot water heating for residential buildings. Each course, organized in 22…

Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins. Solar Energy Applications Lab.

441

Cryogenic cooling system of HTS transformers by natural convection of subcooled liquid nitrogen  

E-print Network

Cryogenic cooling system of HTS transformers by natural convection of subcooled liquid nitrogen Ho-793, South Korea Abstract Heat transfer analysis on a newly proposed cryogenic cooling system is performed, and over-load operation. One of the key techniques to realize these advantages in practice is the cryogenic

Chang, Ho-Myung

442

Combined engine cooling system and waste-heat driven heat pump  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved engine cooling system is combined with a jet-driven heat pump system for utilizing otherwise wasted heat from an engine to produce refrigeration and heating of cabin, charge air and other media without requiring additional shaft power from the engine. In a closed cycle, vaporized refrigerant fluid is conveyed via jet ejectors from the engine cooling jacket at a

Lowi

1982-01-01

443

ASSESSMENT OF CORROSION PRODUCTS FROM ONCE-THROUGH COOLING SYSTEMS WITH MECHANICAL ANTIFOULING DEVICES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an assessment of corrosion products from steam-electric power plant once-through cooling systems equipped with mechanical antifouling devices. (About 67% of the currently operating plants in the U.S. use once-through cooling systems. Various cleaning m...

444

40 CFR 749.68 - Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems.  

...for use in cooling systems. (d) Definitions...Substances Control Act, 15 U.S.C. 2602, apply...Substances Control Act, 15 U.S.C. 2601 et seq...closed cooling water system that transfers heat...entity; any State or political subdivision...

2014-07-01

445

Cooling performance of a vertical ground-coupled heat pump system installed in a school building  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the cooling performance of a water-to-refrigerant type ground heat source heat pump system (GSHP) installed in a school building in Korea. The evaluation of the cooling performance has been conducted under the actual operation of GSHP system in the summer of year 2007. Ten heat pump units with the capacity of 10HP each were installed in the

Yujin Hwang; Jae-Keun Lee; Young-Man Jeong; Kyung-Min Koo; Dong-Hyuk Lee; In-Kyu Kim; Sim-Won Jin; Soo H. Kim

2009-01-01

446

Study of Operating Control Strategies for Hybrid Ground Source Heat Pump System with Supplemental Cooling Tower  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground source heat pump for cooling-dominated commercial buildings may utilize supplemental cooling towers to reduce system first cost and to improve system performance. The use of hybrid ground source heat pump (HGSP) can reduce the size of the ground-loop heat exchanger. Degradation of the heat pump performance due to the excess heat in the ground can be avoided by offsetting

Jinggang Wang; Xiaoxia Gao; Zhenjiang Yin; Fang Li

2009-01-01

447

UNSTEADY, COOLED TURBINE SIMULATION USING A PC-LINUX ANALYSIS SYSTEM  

E-print Network

1 UNSTEADY, COOLED TURBINE SIMULATION USING A PC-LINUX ANALYSIS SYSTEM Michael G. List1 , Mark G-processor, GUMBO, and a post- processing and visualization tool, Turbomachinery Visual3 (TV3) were run in a Linux for running unsteady, cooled turbine analysis on commodity PC's running the Linux operating system

Cincinnati, University of

448

The Numerical Approach to Analysis of Microchannel Cooling Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The paper deals with microchannel cooling where water is the cooling liquid. ANSYS software and CFDRC-ACE one were used to\\u000a analyse the flows and the origin of large amount of heat that can be overtaken from the chip when microchannels are applied.\\u000a The concept of microscale heat transfer coefficient is discussed. The phenomena taking place in microchannel flows are simulated

Ewa Raj; Zbigniew Lisik; Malgorzata Langer; Grzegorz Tosik; Janusz Wozny

2005-01-01

449

Portable self-contained power and cooling system  

SciTech Connect

A portable power and cooling system is described comprising: a drive unit including a combustion section, a scroll-type expander section, a scroll-type air compressor section, and a power output drive shaft, the expander and air compressor sections connected together for synchronousmovement via said power output drive shaft; said combustion section including a combustion air inlet and a combustion gas outlet, said scroll-type expander section including at least one pair of meshed axially extending involute spiral wrap members having involute centers and defining at least one expansion chamber between them that moves radially between an expander inlet zone, which is in fluid communicatino with the combustion gas outlet, and an outlet zone when one wrap member is orbited along a circular path about an orbit center relative to the other wrap member, said scroll type air compressor section including at least one pair of meshed axially extending involute spiral wrap members having involute centers and defining at least one compression chamber between them that moves radially between a compressor inlet zone and an outlet zone, which is in fluid communication with the combustion air inlet of the combustoin section, when one wrap member is orbited along a circular path relative to the other wrap member about an orbit radius, said drive connecting unit integrally connecting said one wrap member of each of said scroll-type expander and air compressor sections; means for causing combustion within said combustion chamber such that the products of combustion are expanded by said scroll-type expander section and exhausted out said expander outlet, air is drawn into said air compressor inlet zone, compressed within, expelled through said air compressor outlet zone, and delivered to said combustoin chamber and said power output shaft is rotated; a refrigeration system, a refrigerant condenser, a refrigerant expansion valve and a refrigerant evaporator, and a conduit.

McCullough, J.E.

1993-07-20

450

Decompression cooling system operation for HTS power cable in the KEPCO power grid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 3-phase 22.9 kV/50 MVA 410 m HTS power cable system was installed at power grid of KEPCO and had been operated for 20 months. In the HTS cable system, an open type cooling system was constructed for cooling LN2 using as coolant for superconducting cable. The cooling capacity of the cooling system was 6 kW at 69 K. Subcooled LN2 flew thorough 410 m HTS cable, maintaining 69 K of operating temperature for HTS cable. The electric load had fluctuated continuously with the load status so that the cooling state was also controlled to keep stable operating condition. The consumed LN2 used for making subcooled state was refilled periodically, and the amount was 3 tons in average. During all the operating period, the HTS cable system supplied electric power stably without any problem.

Yang, H. S.; Sohn, S. H.; Lim, J. H.; Yim, S. W.; Jeon, H. J.; Jung, S. Y.; Han, S. C.; Hwang, S. D.

2014-01-01

451

Performance Assessment of a Desiccant Cooling System in a CHP Application with an IC Engine  

SciTech Connect

Performance of a desiccant cooling system was evaluated in the context of combined heat and power (CHP). The baseline system incorporated a desiccant dehumidifier, a heat exchanger, an indirect evaporative cooler, and a direct evaporative cooler. The desiccant unit was regenerated through heat recovery from a gas-fired reciprocating internal combustion engine. The system offered sufficient sensible and latent cooling capacities for a wide range of climatic conditions, while allowing influx of outside air in excess of what is typically required for commercial buildings. Energy and water efficiencies of the desiccant cooling system were also evaluated and compared with those of a conventional system. The results of parametric assessments revealed the importance of using a heat exchanger for concurrent desiccant post cooling and regeneration air preheating. These functions resulted in enhancement of both the cooling performance and the thermal efficiency, which are essential for fuel utilization improvement. Two approaches for mixing of the return air and outside air were examined, and their impact on the system cooling performance and thermal efficiency was demonstrated. The scope of the parametric analyses also encompassed the impact of improving the indirect evaporative cooling effectiveness on the overall cooling system performance.

Jalalzadeh-Azar, A. A.; Slayzak, S.; Judkoff, R.; Schaffhauser, T.; DeBlasio, R.

2005-04-01

452

Electromagnetially-induced-transparency-like ground-state cooling in a double-cavity optomechanical system  

E-print Network

We propose to cool a mechanical resonator close to its ground state via an electromagnetically-induced-transparency- (EIT-) like cooling mechanism in a double-cavity optomechanical system, where an additional cavity couples to the original one in the standard optomechanical system. By choosing optimal parameters such that the cooling process of the mechanical resonator corresponds to the maximum value of the optical fluctuation spectrum and the heating process to the minimum one, the mechanical resonator can be cooled with the final mean phonon number less than that at the absence of the additional cavity. And we show the mechanical resonator may be cooled close to its ground state via such an EIT-like cooling mechanism even when the original resolved sideband condition is not fulfilled at the absence of the additional cavity.

Yujie Guo; Kai Li; Wenjie Nie; Yong Li

2014-07-19

453

78 FR 64029 - Cost-Benefit Analysis for Radwaste Systems for Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Systems for Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...Systems for Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors,'' in which the NRC...system components for light water nuclear power reactors. ADDRESSES:...

2013-10-25

454

Experimental study on active cooling systems used for thermal management of high-power multichip light-emitting diodes.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to develop suitable cooling systems for high-power multichip LEDs. To this end, three different active cooling systems were investigated to control the heat generated by the powering of high-power multichip LEDs in two different configurations (30 and 2 × 15 W). The following cooling systems were used in the study: an integrated multi-fin heat sink design with a fan, a cooling system with a thermoelectric cooler (TEC), and a heat pipe cooling device. According to the results, all three systems were observed to be sufficient for cooling high-power LEDs. Furthermore, it was observed that the integrated multifin heat sink design with a fan was the most efficient cooling system for a 30 W high-power multichip LED. The cooling system with a TEC and 46 W input power was the most efficient cooling system for 2 × 15 W high-power multichip LEDs. PMID:25162058

Kaya, Mehmet

2014-01-01

455

Cryogenic system for the infrared space telescope SPICA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SPICA mission has been proposed to JAXA as the second Japanese IR space telescope to be launched in 2017. The SPICA spacecraft, launched with an H-IIA launch vehicle, is to be transferred into a halo orbit around the Sun-Earth L2, where effective radiant cooling is feasible owing to solar rays and radiant heat fluxes from the Earth constantly coming from the same direction. That optimal thermal environment enables this IR space telescope to use a large 3.5-mdiameter- single-aperture primary mirror cooled to 4.5 K with advanced mechanical cryocoolers and effective radiant cooling instead of a massive and short-lived cryogen. As a result of thermal and structural analyses, the thermal design of cryogenic system was obtained. Then, mechanical cryocoolers have been developed to meet cooling requirement at 1.7 K, 4.5 K and 20 K. The latest results of upgrading of the 20 K-class two-stage Stirling cooler, the 4K-class JT cooler, and the 1K-class JT cooler indicate that all cryocoolers gain a sufficient margin of cooling capacity with unprecedentedly low power consumption for the cooling requirement. It is concluded that the feasibility of the SPICA mission was confirmed for the critical cryogenic system design, while some attempts to achieve higher reliability, higher cooling capacity and less vibration have been continued for stable operations throughout the entire mission period.

Sugita, Hiroyuki; Sato, Yoichi; Nakagawa, Takao; Murakami, Hiroshi; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Enya, Keigo; Murakami, Masahide; Tsunematsu, Shoji; Hirabayashi, Masayuki

2008-07-01

456

Angular Distribution Models for Top-of-Atmosphere Radiative Flux Estimation from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Instrument on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Satellite. Part II; Validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes from the Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES) are estimated from empirical angular distribution models (ADMs) that convert instantaneous radiance measurements to TOA fluxes. This paper evaluates the accuracy of CERES TOA fluxes obtained from a new set of ADMs developed for the CERES instrument onboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). The uncertainty in regional monthly mean reflected shortwave (SW) and emitted longwave (LW) TOA fluxes is less than 0.5 W/sq m, based on comparisons with TOA fluxes evaluated by direct integration of the measured radiances. When stratified by viewing geometry, TOA fluxes from different angles are consistent to within 2% in the SW and 0.7% (or 2 W/sq m) in the LW. In contrast, TOA fluxes based on ADMs from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) applied to the same CERES radiance measurements show a 10% relative increase with viewing zenith angle in the SW and a 3.5% (9 W/sq m) decrease with viewing zenith angle in the LW. Based on multiangle CERES radiance measurements, 18 regional instantaneous TOA flux errors from the new CERES ADMs are estimated to be 10 W/sq m in the SW and, 3.5 W/sq m in the LW. The errors show little or no dependence on cloud phase, cloud optical depth, and cloud infrared emissivity. An analysis of cloud radiative forcing (CRF) sensitivity to differences between ERBE and CERES TRMM ADMs, scene identification, and directional models of albedo as a function of solar zenith angle shows that ADM and clear-sky scene identification differences can lead to an 8 W/sq m root-mean-square (rms) difference in 18 daily mean SW CRF and a 4 W/sq m rms difference in LW CRF. In contrast, monthly mean SW and LW CRF differences reach 3 W/sq m. CRF is found to be relatively insensitive to differences between the ERBE and CERES TRMM directional models.

Loeb, N. G.; Loukachine, K.; Wielicki, B. A.; Young, D. F.

2003-01-01

457

Realization of the NIST Total Spectral Radiant Flux Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total spectral radiant flux scale has been realized at National Institute of Standards and Technology using a goniospectroradiometer for the 360 nm to 800 nm region. The construction of the goniospectroradiometer and results of the scale realization as well as the uncertainty budget are presented. Introduction. There are increasing needs for total spectral radiant flux standards, which are required

Y. Ohno; Y. Zong

458

Impact of Surface Characteristics on Radiant Panel Output  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the experimental results of a research project conducted to determine the impact of surface charac- teristics on radiant panel output. The hemispherical and angu- lar emittance and radiant panel output were measured for various modern building materials. The surfaces were found to have uniformly high hemispherical emittances and could be considered diffuse emitters. An office-sized environmental chamber

P. Calvin Lindstrom; Daniel E. Fisher; Curtis O. Pedersen

459

Infrared Face Recognition Based on Radiant Energy and Curvelet Transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a infrared face recognition method using radiant energy conversion and curvelet transformation is proposed. Firstly, to get the stable feature of thermal face, thermal images are converted into radiant energy images according to Stefan-Boltzmann's law. Secondly, curvelet transform has better directional and edge representation abilities than widely used wavelet transformation and other classic transformations. Inspired by these

Zhihua Xie; Shiqian Wu; Guodong Liu; Zhijun Fang

2009-01-01

460

IMPACTS OF REFRIGERANTLINE LENGTH ON SYSTEM EFFICIENCY IN RESIDENTIAL HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS USING REFRIGERANT DISTRIBUTION.  

SciTech Connect

The effects on system efficiency of excess refrigerant line length are calculated for an idealized residential heating and cooling system. By excess line length is meant refrigerant tubing in excess of the 25 R provided for in standard equipment efficiency test methods. The purpose of the calculation is to provide input for a proposed method for evaluating refrigerant distribution system efficiency. A refrigerant distribution system uses refrigerant (instead of ducts or pipes) to carry heat and/or cooling effect from the equipment to the spaces in the building in which it is used. Such systems would include so-called mini-splits as well as more conventional split systems that for one reason or another have the indoor and outdoor coils separated by more than 25 ft. This report performs first-order calculations of the effects on system efficiency, in both the heating and cooling modes, of pressure drops within the refrigerant lines and of heat transfer between the refrigerant lines and the space surrounding them.

ANDREWS, J.W.

2001-04-01

461

Cost and Performance Goals for Commercial Active Solar Absorption Cooling Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Economic and thermal performance analysis is used to determine cost goals for typical commercial active solar cooling systems to be installed between the years 1986 and 2000. Market penetration for heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems depend...

M. L. Warren, M. Wahlig

1981-01-01

462

Cost and Performance Goal Methodology for Active Solar-Cooling Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Economic and thermal performance analyses of typical residential and commercial active solar cooling systems are used to determine cost goals for systems to be installed between the years 1986 and 2000. Market studies indicate a relationship between marke...

M. L. Warren, M. Wahlig

1982-01-01

463

Characterization of selected application of biomass energy technologies and a solar district heating and cooling system  

SciTech Connect

The following systems are discussed: energy self-sufficient farms, wood gasification, energy from high-yield silviculture farms, and solar district heating and cooling. System descriptions and environmental data are included for each one. (MHR)

None

1980-09-01

464

Sub-cooled liquid nitrogen cryogenic system with neon turbo-refrigerator for HTS power equipment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a prototype sub-cooled liquid nitrogen (LN) circulation system for HTS power equipment. The system consists of a neon turbo-Brayton refrigerator with a LN sub-cooler and LN circulation pump unit. The neon refrigerator has more than 2 kW cooling power at 65 K. The LN sub-cooler is a plate-fin type heat exchanger and is installed in a refrigerator cold box. In order to carry out the system performance tests, a dummy cryostat having an electric heater was set instead of a HTS power equipment. Sub-cooled LN is delivered into the sub-cooler by the LN circulation pump and cooled within it. After the sub-cooler, sub-cooled LN goes out from the cold box to the dummy cryostat, and comes back to the pump unit. The system can control an outlet sub-cooled LN temperature by adjusting refrigerator cooling power. The refrigerator cooling power is automatically controlled by the turbo-compressor rotational speed. In the performance tests, we increased an electric heater power from 200 W to 1300 W abruptly. We confirmed the temperature fluctuation was about ±1 K. We show the cryogenic system details and performance test results in this paper.

Yoshida, S.; Hirai, H.; Nara, N.; Ozaki, S.; Hirokawa, M.; Eguchi, T.; Hayashi, H.; Iwakuma, M.; Shiohara, Y.

2014-01-01

465

Advanced Aerodynamics and Cooling System Solutions for Higher Fuel Efficiency and Decreased Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Auxiliary load systems, fuel and lubrication systems, and cooling systems are an integral part of any truck, and contribute\\u000a to the overall design and energy use\\/management. Research and development appropriate to this topic include advanced aerodynamics,\\u000a heat exchanger technologies, heat pipe\\/two-phase flow systems, advanced pumps and compressors, and other advanced thermal\\u000a and fluid management concepts to improve electric powertrain cooling,

Ilhan Bayraktar

466

Operation of a forced two phase cooling system on a large superconducting magnet  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the operation of a forced two phase cooling system on a two meter diameter superconducting solenoid. The magnet is a thin high current density superconducting solenoid which is cooled by forced two phase helium in tubes around the coil. The magnet, which is 2.18 meters in diameter and 3.4 meters long, has a cold mass of 1700 kg. The two phase cooling system contains less than 300 liters of liquid helium, most of which is contained in a control dewar. This paper describes the operating characteristics of the LBL two phase forced cooling system during cooldown and warm up. The paper presents experimental data on operations of the magnet using either a helium pump or the refrigerator compressor to circulate two phase helium through the superconducting coil cooling tubes.

Green, M.A.; Burns, W.A.; Eberhard, P.H.; Gibson, G.H.; Pripstein, M.; Ross, R.R.; Smits, R.G.; Taylor, J.D.; Van Slyke, H.

1980-05-01

467

Development of a Transient Heat and Mass Transfer Model of Residential Attics to Predict Energy Savings Produced by the Use of Radiant Barriers  

E-print Network

A transient heat and mass transfer model was developed to predict ceiling heat gain/loss through the attic space in residences and to accurately estimate savings in cooling and heating loads produced by the use of radiant barriers. The model...

Medina, M. A.

468