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1

Solar hybrid cooling system for high-tech offices in subtropical climate – Radiant cooling by absorption refrigeration and desiccant dehumidification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar hybrid cooling design is proposed for high cooling load demand in hot and humid climate. For the typical building cooling load, the system can handle the zone cooling load (mainly sensible) by radiant cooling with the chilled water from absorption refrigeration, while the ventilation load (largely latent) by desiccant dehumidification. This hybrid system utilizes solar energy for driving

K. F. Fong; T. T. Chow; C. K. Lee; Z. Lin; L. S. Chan

2011-01-01

2

The Effect of Heat Gain on the Performance of a Radiant Cooling System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A test cell that simulates a closed building with shaded windows is used to analyse the effects of the heat gain on the performance of a radiant cooling system. The cell has a light metal double- sloped roof at the outside, which acts as a nocturnal radiator and below this roof are hinged, lightweight and operable, reflecting panels that are

BARUCH GIVONI

3

Very low temperature radiant heating/cooling indoor end system for efficient use of renewable energies  

SciTech Connect

Solar or solar-assisted space heating systems are becoming more and more popular. The solar energy utilization efficiency is high when the collector is coupled with indoor radiant heating suppliers, since in principle, lower supply temperature means lower demand temperature and then the system heat loss is less. A new type radiant end system is put forward for even lower supply temperature compared to the conventional radiant floor heating systems. A three dimensional model was established to investigate its energy supply capacities. Simulation results show that 50 W per meter length tube can be achieved with the medium temperature of 30 C for heating and 15 C for cooling. The predicted results agree well with the actual data from a demonstration building. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that a supply temperature of 22 C in winter and of 17 C in summer already met the indoor requirements. The new end system has good prospects for effective use of local renewable resources. (author)

Ren, Jianbo; Wang, Yiping; Wang, Congrong; Xiong, Weicheng [School of Chem. Eng. and Tech., Tianjin Univ., Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhu, Li [School of Architecture, Tianjin Univ., Tianjin 300072 (China)

2010-06-15

4

Radiant ceiling panel heating–cooling systems: experimental and simulated study of the performances, thermal comfort and energy consumptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Well known in the North of Europe, the water ceiling panel systems are mainly used to provide cooling. However, as well as for a radiant floor, this system can be used for heating in winter and cooling in summer. In order to get a better knowledge of the energy performances of such devices, the Gaz de France Research Centre funded

J Miriel; L Serres; A Trombe

2002-01-01

5

A Modular Radiant-Heat-Initiated Passive Decay-Heat-Removal System for Salt-Cooled Reactors  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR), also called the liquid-salt-cooled very high temperature reactor, is a new reactor concept that combines four existing technologies to create a new reactor option: coated-particle graphite-matrix fuels (the same fuel as used in high-temperature gas-cooled reactors), a liquid-fluoride-salt coolant with a boiling point >1200 C, Brayton power cycles, and passive safety systems. A new passive decay-heat cooling system has been invented that is actuated by the increased temperature of the salt under accident conditions and uses radiant heat transfer from and through the salt to a heat exchanger. This safety system takes advantage of two physical properties of the system: (1) the transparency of the salt coolant and (2) the increase in the radiant heat transfer from the salt to a decay-heat exchanger, which is proportional to the temperature of the hot salt to the fourth power (T4) minus the temperature of the heat exchanger surface to the fourth power (T4). For a high-temperature reactor, small increases in coolant temperatures dramatically increase radiant heat transfer.

Forsberg, Charles W [ORNL

2007-01-01

6

A modular radiant-heat-initiated passive decay-heat-removal system for salt-cooled reactors  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR), also called the liquid-salt-cooled very high temperature reactor, is a new reactor concept that combines four existing technologies to create a new reactor option: coated-particle graphite-matrix fuels (the same fuel as used in high-temperature gas-cooled reactors), a liquid-fluoride-salt coolant with a boiling point >1200 deg. C, Brayton power cycles, and passive safety systems. A new passive decay-heat cooling system has been invented that is actuated by the increased temperature of the salt under accident conditions and uses radiant heat transfer from and through the salt to a heat exchanger. This safety system takes advantage of two physical properties of the system: (1) the transparency of the salt coolant and (2) the increase in the radiant heat transfer from the salt to a decay-heat exchanger, which is proportional to the temperature of the hot salt to the fourth power (T{sup 4}) minus the temperature of the heat exchanger surface to the fourth power (T{sup 4}). For a high-temperature reactor, small increases in coolant temperatures dramatically increase radiant heat transfer. (author)

Forsberg, Charles W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831-6165 (United States)

2007-07-01

7

Hydronic radiant cooling: Overview and preliminary performance assessment  

SciTech Connect

A significant amount of electrical energy used to cool non-residential buildings is drawn by the fans used to transport the cool air through the thermal distribution system. Hydronic systems reduce the amount of air transported through the building by separating ventilation and thermal conditioning. Due to the physical properties of water, hydronic distribution systems can transport a given amount of thermal energy using less than 5% of the otherwise necessary fan energy. This savings alone significantly reduces the energy consumption and especially the peak power requirement This survey clearly shows advantages for radiant cooling in combination with hydronic thermal distribution systems in comparison with the All-Air Systems commonly used in California. The report describes a literature survey on the system's development, thermal comfort issues, and cooling performance. The cooling power potential and the cooling power requirement are investigated for several California climates. Peak-power requirement is compared for hydronic radiant cooling and conventional All-Air-Systems.

Feustel, H.E.

1993-05-01

8

Hydronic radiant cooling: Overview and preliminary performance assessment  

SciTech Connect

A significant amount of electrical energy used to cool non-residential buildings is drawn by the fans used to transport the cool air through the thermal distribution system. Hydronic systems reduce the amount of air transported through the building by separating ventilation and thermal conditioning. Due to the physical properties of water, hydronic distribution systems can transport a given amount of thermal energy using less than 5% of the otherwise necessary fan energy. This savings alone significantly reduces the energy consumption and especially the peak power requirement This survey clearly shows advantages for radiant cooling in combination with hydronic thermal distribution systems in comparison with the All-Air Systems commonly used in California. The report describes a literature survey on the system`s development, thermal comfort issues, and cooling performance. The cooling power potential and the cooling power requirement are investigated for several California climates. Peak-power requirement is compared for hydronic radiant cooling and conventional All-Air-Systems.

Feustel, H.E.

1993-05-01

9

Development of a radiant heating and cooling model for building energy simulation software  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient radiant heating and cooling systems are promising technologies in slashing energy bills and improving occupant thermal comfort in buildings with low-energy demands such as houses and residential buildings. However, the thermal performance of radiant systems in buildings has not been fully understood and accounted for in currently available building energy simulation software. The challenging tasks to improve the applicability

Abdelaziz Laouadi

2004-01-01

10

Simplified human body model for evaluating thermal radiant environment in a radiant cooled space  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simplified model of a human body for evaluating a radiant cooled space was developed. The model was constructed by combining cylindrical and rectangular parts. The geometrical validity of the model was verified by examining the effective radiation area and projection area factor of the model. Then, skin temperature and thermal resistance of clothing on the body were defined on

Toshiyuki Miyanaga; Wataru Urabe; Yukio Nakano

2001-01-01

11

RADTEST - THE EXTENSION OF PROGRAM VALIDATION TOWARDS RADIANT HEATING AND COOLING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiant heating and cooling, including building com- ponent embedded systems, have become a common heating and\\/or cooling technology in the recent few years. Some currently available building simulation programs have the ability to model these systems. Some others do not, but users have developed their way of modeling by using the program's limited possibilities. A systematic and complete validation with

Gerhard Zweifel; Matthias Achermann

12

Development of a model to simulate the performance of hydronic radiant cooling ceilings  

SciTech Connect

A significant amount of the electrical energy used to cool non-residential buildings equipped with all-air systems is drawn by the fans that transport the cool air through the thermal distribution system. Hydronic radiant cooling systems have the potential to reduce the amount of air transported through the building by separating the tasks of ventilation and thermal conditioning. Because of the physical properties of water, hydronic radiant cooling systems can transport a given amount of thermal energy using less than 5170 of the otherwise necessary fan energy. This improvement alone significantly reduces the energy consumption and peak power requirement of the air conditioning system. Hydronic radiant cooling systems have been used for more than 30 years in hospital rooms to provide a draft-free, thermally stable environment. The energy savings and peak-load characteristics of these systems have not yet been analyzed systematically. Moreover, adequate guidelines for design and control of these systems do not exist. This has prevented their widespread application to other building types. The evaluation of the theoretical performance of hydronic systems could be made most conveniently by computer models. Energy analysis programs such as DOE-2 do not have the capability to simulate hydronic radiant systems yet. In this paper the development of a model that can simulate accurately the dynamic performance of hydronic radiant cooling systems is described. The model is able to calculate loads, heat extraction rates, room air temperature and room surface temperature distributions, and can be used to evaluate issues such as thermal comfort, controls, system sizing, system configuration and dynamic response. The model was created with the Simulation Problem Analysis and Research Kernel (SPARK) developed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, which provides a methodology for describing and solving the dynamic, non-linear equations that correspond to complex physical systems.

Stetiu, C.; Feustel, H.E.

1995-06-01

13

Three Great Technologies Working Together: DOAS, Radiant Heating and Cooling, and Envelope Tightness  

SciTech Connect

Synergistic systems are: (1) Dedicated Outdoor Air System (DOAS) - Efficient ventilation and dehumidification, Works well with energy recovery, Potential to cascade chilled water to radiant system; (2) Radiant heating and cooling - Comfort heating and cooling, Efficient delivery of energy, Improved zoning capabilities; and (3) Tighter envelope - Reduce uncontrolled loads, Humidity and Cold air. Whole building energy analysis of retrofit energy conservation measures. Conclusions are that: (1) These are preliminary results - further analysis for actual projects should completed; Savings depends on the starting point; Higher savings in the barracks because of 24 hour occupation vs. half-time occupation in the office; and May be difficult to justify retrofit just for energy savings; however, the premium cost over a standard retrofit can be cost effective.

Deru, M.; Benne, K.

2010-01-22

14

Development of a simulation tool to evaluate the performance of radiant cooling ceilings  

SciTech Connect

Considerable electrical energy used to cool nonresidential buildings equipped with All-Air Systems is drawn by the fans that transport the cool air through the thermal distribution system. Hydropic Cooling Systems have the potential to reduce the amount of air transported through the building by separating the tasks of ventilation and thermal conditioning. Due to the physical properties of water, Hydropic Cooling Systems can transport a given amount of thermal energy using less than 5% of the otherwise necessary fan energy. They are suited to the dry climates that are typical of California and been used for more than 30 years in hospital rooms. However, energy savings and peak-load characteristics have not yet been analyzed. Adequate guidelines for their design and control systems has prevented lack of their widespread application to other building types. Evaluation of theoretical performance of Hydropic Systems could be made by computer models. Energy analysis programs such as DOE-2 do not yet have the capacity to simulate Hydropic Cooling Systems. Scope of this project is developing a model that can accurately simulate the dynamic performance of Hydropic Radiant Cooling Systems. The model can calculate loads, heat extraction rates, room air temperature and room surface temperature distributions, and can be used to evaluate issues such as thermal comfort, controls, system sizing, system configuration and dynamic response. The model was created with the LBL Simulation Problem Analysis and Research Kernel (SPARK), which provides a methodology for describing and solving the dynamic, non-linear equations that correspond to complex physical systems. Potential for Hydropic Radiant Cooling Systems applications can be determined by running this model for a variety of construction types in different California climates.

Stetiu, C.; Feustel, H.E.; Winkelmann, F.C.

1995-06-01

15

Analysis and radiant heating tests of a heat-pipe-cooled leading edge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of a heat pipe cooled leading edge was investigated experimentally and analytically. The test model and radiant heaters were positioned to simulate aerodynamic heating distributions and gravity effects at angles of attack of 0 deg, 10 deg, and 20 deg. Steady-state stagnation heating ranged from 239 kW\\/sq m to 395 kW\\/sq m with heat pipes operating at temperatures

C. J. Camarda

1977-01-01

16

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES): algorithm overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS), CERES objectives include the following. (1) For climate change analysis, provide a continuation of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) record of radiative fluxes at the top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA), analyzed using the same techniques as the existing ERBE data. (2) Double the accuracy of

Bruce A. Wielicki; Bruce R. Barkstrom; Bryan A. Baum; Thomas P. Charlock; Richard N. Green; David P. Kratz; Robert B. Lee; Patrick Minnis; G. Louis Smith; Takmeng Wong; David F. Young; Robert D. Cess; James A. Coakley; Dominique A. H. Crommelynck; Leo Donner; Robert Kandel; Michael D. King; Alvin J. Miller; Veerabhadran Ramanathan; David A. Randall; Larry L. Stowe; Ronald M. Welch

1998-01-01

17

Strategies for flow rate balancing in radiant floor heating systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flow rate balancing makes it possible to provide each zone with a design flow rate and to meet the heating load in a radiant floor heating system. Even though the control device of the heating system works well, insufficient water flow rates can degrade control performance and thermal comfort. The water flow rate should be adjusted appropriately to cope with

Seong-Ryong Ryu; Kyu-Nam Rhee; Myoung-Souk Yeo; Kwang-Woo Kim

2008-01-01

18

Advanced radiant combustion system. Final report, September 1989--September 1996  

SciTech Connect

Results of the Advanced Radiant Combustion System (ARCS) project are presented in this report. This work was performed by Alzeta Corporation as prime contractor under a contract to the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technologies as part of a larger DOE program entitled Research Program for Advanced Combustion Systems. The goals of the Alzeta ARCS project were to (a) Improve the high temperature performance characteristics of porous surface ceramic fiber burners, (b) Develop an Advanced Radiant Combustion System (ARCS) that combines combustion controls with an advanced radiant burner, and (c) Demonstrate the advanced burner and controls in an industrial application. Prior to the start of this project, Alzeta had developed and commercialized a porous surface radiant burner, the Pyrocore{trademark} burner. The product had been commercially available for approximately 5 years and had achieved commercial success in a number of applications ranging from small burners for commercial cooking equipment to large burners for low temperature industrial fluid heating applications. The burner was not recommended for use in applications with process temperatures above 1000{degrees}F, which prevented the burner from being used in intermediate to high temperature processes in the chemical and petroleum refining industries. The interest in increasing the maximum use temperature of the burner was motivated in part by a desire to expand the number of applications that could use the Pyrocore product, but also because many of the fluid sensitive heating applications of interest would benefit from the distributed flux characteristic of porous surface burners. Background information on porous surface radiant burners, and a discussion of advantages that would be provided by an improved product, are presented in Section 2.

Sullivan, J.D.; Carswell, M.G.; Long, F.S.

1996-09-01

19

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) experiment, Earth Observing System (EOS) instrument, and calibrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The clouds and the earth's radiant energy system (CERES) experiment will provide consistent data bases of radiation and cloud fields. The CERES instrument consists of a scanning thermistor bolometer package with built-in flight calibration systems. Two bolometer packages will be launched on the earth observing system (EOS) platforms to measure the Earth/atmosphere-reflected solar shortwave and Earth/atmosphere-emitted long wave radiances with measurement accuracy goals approaching 1.0% and 0.5%, respectively. In each package, there are three different bolometers. All bolometers will be calibrated in a unique TRW vacuum facility equipped with blackbodies, a cryogenically cooled active-cavity radiometer, shortwave sources, and other specialized calibration devices. The blackbodies are tied to the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS'90). Using math models, the calibration measurements will define the instrument filtered gains and offsets. This paper outlines the CERES instrument design and radiometric calibrations.

Lee, Robert B.; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Carman, Stephen L.; Cooper, John E.; Folkman, Mark A.; Jarecke, Peter J.; Kopia, Leonard P.; Wielicki, Bruce A.

1993-08-01

20

Bi-Radiant Oven - A low energy oven System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. The principle of the Bi-radiant Oven is to thermally couple the food product and energy source by radiative heat transfer. The Bi-radiant Oven has three important fe...

1982-01-01

21

An investigation of a residential solar system coupled to a radiant panel ceiling  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study of a solar-radiant heating system was performed at Iowa State University's Energy Research House (ERH). The ERH was constructed with copper tubes embedded in the plaster ceilings, thus providing a unique radiant heating system. In addition, 24 water-glycol, flat-plate solar collectors were mounted on the south side of the residence. The present study uses the solar collectors to heat a storage tank via a submerged copper tube oil. Hot water from the storage tank is then circulated through a heat exchanger, which heats the water flowing through the radiant ceiling. This paper contains a description of the solar-radiant system and an interpretation of the data that were measured during a series of transient experiments. In addition, the performance of the flat-plate solar collectors and the water storage tank were evaluated. The characteristics of a solar-to-radiant heat exchanger were also investigated. The thermal behavior of the radiant ceiling and the room enclosures were observed, and the heat transfer from the ceiling by radiation and convection was estimated. The overall heating system was also evaluated using the thermal performances of the individual components. The results of this study verify that it is feasible to use a solar system coupled to a low-temperature radiant-panel heating system for space heating. A sample performance evaluation is also presented.

Zhang, Z.; Pate, M.; Nelson, R.

1988-08-01

22

Radiant{trademark} Liquid Radioisotope Intravascular Radiation Therapy System  

SciTech Connect

RADIANT{trademark} is manufactured by United States Surgical Corporation, Vascular Therapies Division, (formerly Progressive Angioplasty Systems). The system comprises a liquid {beta}-radiation source, a shielded isolation/transfer device (ISAT), modified over-the-wire or rapid exchange delivery balloons, and accessory kits. The liquid {beta}-source is Rhenium-188 in the form of sodium perrhenate (NaReO{sub 4}), Rhenium-188 is primarily a {beta}-emitter with a physical half-life of 17.0 hours. The maximum energy of the {beta}-particles is 2.1 MeV. The source is produced daily in the nuclear pharmacy hot lab by eluting a Tungsten-188/Rhenium-188 generator manufactured by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Using anion exchange columns and Millipore filters the effluent is concentrated to approximately 100 mCi/ml, calibrated, and loaded into the (ISAT) which is subsequently transported to the cardiac catheterization laboratory. The delivery catheters are modified Champion{trademark} over-the-wire, and TNT{trademark} rapid exchange stent delivery balloons. These balloons have thickened polyethylene walls to augment puncture resistance; dual radio-opaque markers and specially configured connectors.

Eigler, N.; Whiting, J.; Chernomorsky, A.; Jackson, J.; Knapp, F.F., Jr.; Litvack, F.

1998-01-16

23

Bi-Radiant Oven: A Low-Energy Oven System. Volume I. Development and Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bi-Radiant Oven system has three important features which provide improved performance. First, the cavity walls are highly reflective rather than absorptive thereby allowing these surfaces to operate at cooler temperatures. Second, the heating element...

D. P. DeWitt M. V. Peart

1980-01-01

24

System for cooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cooling system particularly suitable for use in the air conditioning of buildings is described. The system includes: (A) a cooling zone containing a conduit for cooling fluid, the conduit encountering the heat load, means in the conduit for propelling the fluid through the conduit, and cooling fluid in the conduit; (B) a refrigeration zone containing a closed refrigeration circuit

Wildfeuer

1981-01-01

25

Evaluation of Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Scanner Pointing Accuracy Using a Coastline Detection System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) investigation to examine the role of clouds in the radiative energy flow through the Earth-atmosphere system. The first CERES scanning radiomete...

C. Currey L. Smith B. Neely

2004-01-01

26

Temporal Interpolation Methods for the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is a NASA multisatellite measurement program for monitoring the radiation environment of the earth-atmosphere system. The CERES instrument was flown on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite in late 1997, and will be flown on the Earth Observing System morning satellite in 1998 and afternoon satellite in 2000. To minimize temporal

D. F. Young; P. Minnis; D. R. Doelling; G. G. Gibson; T. Wong

1998-01-01

27

A thermal system model for a radiant-tube continuous reheating furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thermal system mathematical model developed for a gas-fired radiant-tube continuous reheating furnace is discussed. The mathematical model of the furnace integrates submodels for combustion and heat transfer within the radiant tube with models for the furnace enclosure. The transport processes occurring in the radiant tube are treated using a one-dimensional scheme, and the radiation exchange between the load, the radiant-tube surfaces, and the furnace refractories are analyzed using the radiosity method. The continuous furnace operation is simulated under steady-state conditions. Model simulations of load surface temperature variation compare well with measurements in an industrial galvannealing furnace. The scope and flexibility of the model are assessed by performing extensive parametric studies using furnace geometry, material properties, and operating conditions as input parameters in the model and predicting the thermal performance of the furnace. The various parameters studied include the effects of load and refractory emissivities, load velocities, properties of the stock material, and variations in the radiant-tube designs.

Ramamurthy, H.; Ramadhyani, S.; Viskanta, R.

1995-10-01

28

Top-of-Atmosphere Direct Radiative Effect of Aerosols over the Tropical Oceans from the Clouds and the Earth?s Radiant Energy System (CERES) Satellite Instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine months of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES)\\/Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) broadband fluxes combined with the TRMM visible infrared scanner (VIRS) high-resolution imager measurements are used to estimate the daily average direct radiative effect of aerosols for clear-sky conditions over the tropical oceans. On average, aerosols have a cooling effect over the Tropics of 4.6

Norman G. Loeb; Seiji Kato

2002-01-01

29

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An overview of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), a joint U.S.-Japan mission, is presented. The structure and functions of the CERES instrument, which is a three-channel radiometer l...

S. L. Carman L. P. Kopia

1993-01-01

30

Study on the Application of Ceiling Radiant Heating System of Capillary Tube  

Microsoft Academic Search

At first, the article presented particularly the experimental system of floor radiant heating of capillary tube, the arrangement form of capillary tube mat. And then, the experimental method was employed to study heating capacity of capillary tube mat, the characteristic of temperature change on the layer of capillary tube mat, the ceiling surface and indoor air. At same the time,

Yunzhun Fu; Jing Li; Yeyu Wang

2009-01-01

31

Radiometric calibration plan for the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) scanning instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cloud and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) program continues the long term monitoring of the Earth's energy budget begun by the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanning radiometer instruments. The radiometic ground calibration sources employed for ERBE were designed to cover the very large (all Earth) field of view of the non-scanning radiometers. The ERBE radiometer ground and

P. J. Jarecke; M. A. Folkman; L. A. Darnton

1991-01-01

32

Study of thermosiphon and radiant panel passive heating systems for metal buildings  

SciTech Connect

A study of passive-heating systems appropriate for use on metal buildings is being conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme, California. The systems selected for study were chosen on the basis of their appropriateness for retrofit applications, although they are also suitable for new construction: simple radiant panels that communicate directly with the building interior and a backflow thermosiphon that provides heat indirectly.

Biehl, F.A.; Schnurr, N.M.; Wray, W.O.

1983-01-01

33

A Novel Integrated TPV Power Generation System Based on a Cascaded Radiant Burner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cascaded radiant burner has been developed and based on this burner, a novel integrated TPV system has been built. In this system, low bandgap GaSb cells and silicon concentrator solar cells are employed integratedly. The unique cascaded radiant burner consists of two different radiators which cascade-emit two streams of radiation with different spectra. The two different radiators are arranged in tandem, with their surface temperatures being different as well. Two streams of radiation output are matched, respectively, to the bandgaps of silicon cells and GaSb cells. Thus, one stream of radiation output illuminates silicon concentrator solar cells while the other drives low bandgap GaSb cells in the integrated system. In this work, the combustion performance of the cascaded radiant burner was investigated at varying degrees of exhaust heat recuperation. The electrical output characteristics of both silicon concentrator solar cells and GaSb cells in the gas combustion-driven TPV system were measured under various operating conditions. It is shown that this innovative design considerably increases the TPV system efficiency, due to the cascaded utilization of heat released during natural gas combustion and the optimized thermal management.

Qiu, K.; Hayden, A. C. S.

2004-11-01

34

TPV Power Generation System Using a High Temperature Metal Radiant Burner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interest has grown in micro-combined heat and power (micro-CHP). Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) generation of electricity in fuel-fired furnaces is one of the micro-CHP technologies that are attracting technical attention. Previous investigations have shown that a radiant burner that can efficiently convert fuel chemical energy into radiation energy is crucial to realize a practical TPV power system. In this work, we developed a TPV power generation system using a gas-fired metal radiant burner. The burner consists of a high temperature alloy emitter, which could have an increased emissivity at short wavelengths and low emissivity at long wavelengths. The metal emitter is capable of bearing high temperatures of interest to fuel-fired TPV power conversion. GaSb TPV cells were tested in the combustion-driven radiant source. Electric output characteristics of the TPV cells were investigated at various operating conditions. The electric power output of the TPV cells was demonstrated to be promising. At an emitter temperature of 1185°C, an electric power density of 0.476 W/cm2 was generated by the GaSb cells. It is shown that the metal emitter is attractive and could be applied to practical fuel-fired TPV power systems.

Qiu, K.; Hayden, A. C. S.; Entchev, E.

2007-02-01

35

Emergency Cooling System Flows.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Calculations of emergency cooling system (ECS) flows are required to complete the Flood Code documentation and validation. Only minimum ECS flows are required input to the FLOOD code for system safety analysis. ECS flows have not been documented since the...

J. H. Hinton

1985-01-01

36

Gas turbine cooling system  

DOEpatents

A gas turbine engine (10) having a closed-loop cooling circuit (39) for transferring heat from the hot turbine section (16) to the compressed air (24) produced by the compressor section (12). The closed-loop cooling system (39) includes a heat exchanger (40) disposed in the flow path of the compressed air (24) between the outlet of the compressor section (12) and the inlet of the combustor (14). A cooling fluid (50) may be driven by a pump (52) located outside of the engine casing (53) or a pump (54) mounted on the rotor shaft (17). The cooling circuit (39) may include an orifice (60) for causing the cooling fluid (50) to change from a liquid state to a gaseous state, thereby increasing the heat transfer capacity of the cooling circuit (39).

Bancalari, Eduardo E. (Orlando, FL)

2001-01-01

37

Emergency cooling system flows  

SciTech Connect

Calculations of emergency cooling system (ECS) flows are required to complete the Flood Code documentation and validation. Only minimum ECS flows are required input to the FLOOD code for system safety analysis. ECS flows have not been documented since the installation of improvements under Project S-1830 were completed. Calculated ECS flows from the booster pump and cooling water header are given for the loss of coolant (LOCA) and loss of pumping (LOPA) accidents. 7 refs., 2 tabs.

Hinton, J.H.

1985-03-13

38

Hydronic rooftop cooling systems  

DOEpatents

A roof top cooling unit has an evaporative cooling section that includes at least one evaporative module that pre-cools ventilation air and water; a condenser; a water reservoir and pump that captures and re-circulates water within the evaporative modules; a fan that exhausts air from the building and the evaporative modules and systems that refill and drain the water reservoir. The cooling unit also has a refrigerant section that includes a compressor, an expansion device, evaporator and condenser heat exchangers, and connecting refrigerant piping. Supply air components include a blower, an air filter, a cooling and/or heating coil to condition air for supply to the building, and optional dampers that, in designs that supply less than 100% outdoor air to the building, control the mixture of return and ventilation air.

Bourne, Richard C. (Davis, CA); Lee, Brian Eric (Monterey, CA); Berman, Mark J. (Davis, CA)

2008-01-29

39

Superconductor rotor cooling system  

DOEpatents

A system for cooling a superconductor device includes a cryocooler located in a stationary reference frame and a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with a rotating reference frame in which the superconductor device is located. A method of cooling a superconductor device includes locating a cryocooler in a stationary reference frame, and transferring heat from a superconductor device located in a rotating reference frame to the cryocooler through a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with the rotating reference frame.

Gamble, Bruce B. (Wellesley, MA); Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed (Framingham, MA); Schwall, Robert E. (Northborough, MA); Driscoll, David I. (South Euclid, OH); Shoykhet, Boris A. (Beachwood, OH)

2002-01-01

40

Passive containment cooling system  

DOEpatents

A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA. 1 figure.

Billig, P.F.; Cooke, F.E.; Fitch, J.R.

1994-01-25

41

Clouds and the Earth`s radiant energy system (CERES): An Earth observing system experiment  

SciTech Connect

Clouds and the Earth`s Radiant Energy System (CERES) is an investigation to examine the role of cloud/radiation feedback on the Earth`s climate system. The CERES broadband scanning radiometers are an improved version of the Earth`s Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) radiometers. The CERES instruments will fly on several National Aeronautics and Space Administration Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites starting in 1998 and extending over at least 15 years. The CERES science investigations will provide data to extend the ERBE climate record of top-of-atmosphere shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiative fluxes. CERES will also combine simultaneous cloud property data derived using EOS narrowband imagers to provide a consistent set of cloud/radiation data, including SW and LW radiative fluxes at the surface and at several selected levels within the atmosphere. CERES data are expected to provide top-of-atmosphere radiative fluxes with a factor of 2 to 3 less error than the ERBE data. Estimates of radiative fluxes at the surface and especially within the atmosphere will be a much greater challenge but should also show significant improvements over current capabilities. 62 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

Wielicki, B.A.; Barkstrom, B.R.; Harrison, E.F. [NASA/Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States)

1996-05-01

42

Cooling Floor AC Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present HVAC equipments for the residential buildings in the Hot-summer-and-Cold-winter climate region are still at a high energy consuming level. So that the high efficiency HVAC system is an urgently need for achieving the preset government energy saving goal. With its advantage of highly sanitary, highly comfortable and uniform of temperature field, the hot-water resource floor radiation heating system has been widely accepted. This paper has put forward a new way in air-conditioning, which combines the fresh-air supply unit and such floor radiation system for the dehumidification and cooling in summer or heating in winter. By analyze its advantages and limitations, we found that this so called Cooling/ Heating Floor AC System can improve the IAQ of residential building while keep high efficiency quality. We also recommend a methodology for the HVAC system designing, which will ensure the reduction of energy cost of users.

Jun, Lu; Hao, Ding; Hong, Zhang; Ce, Gao Dian

43

Compensation for spectral darkening of short wave optics occurring on the cloud's and the Earth's radiant energy system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cloud's and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is an investigation into the role of clouds and radiation in the Earth's climate system. Four CERES scanning thermistor bolometer instruments are currently in orbit. Flight model 1 (FM1) and 2 (FM2) are aboard the Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra satellite and FM3 and FM4 are aboard the EOS Aqua satellite. Each

Grant Matthews; Kory Priestley; Peter Spence; Denise Cooper; Dale Walikainen

2005-01-01

44

Bi-radiant oven: a low-energy oven system. Volume I. Development and assessment  

SciTech Connect

The Bi-Radiant Oven system has three important features which provide improved performance. First, the cavity walls are highly reflective rather than absorptive thereby allowing these surfaces to operate at cooler temperatures. Second, the heating elements, similar in construction to those in a conventional oven, but operating at much lower temperatures, provide a prescribed, balanced radiant flux to the top and bottom surfaces of the food product. And third, the baking and roasting utensil has a highly absorptive finish. Instrumentation and methods of measurements have been developed for obtaining the important oven and food parameters during baking: wall, oven air, food and element temperatures; food mass loss rate; irradiance distribution; and convection heat flux. Observations on an experimental oven are presented and discussed. Thermal models relating the irradiance distribution to oven parameters have been compared with measurements using a new heat flux gage developed for the project. Using the DOE recommended test procedures, oven efficiencies of 20 to 23% have been measured. The heating requirements have been determined for seven food types: biscuits, meat loaf, baked foods, apple crisp, cornbread, macaroni and cheese casserole, and cheese souffle. Comparison of energy use with a conventional electric oven shows that energy savings greater than 50% can be realized. Detailed energy balances have been performed on two foods - beef roasts and yellow cake. Consideration of consumer acceptability of this new oven concept have been addressed.

DeWitt, D.P.; Peart, M.V.

1980-04-01

45

Design and calibration features of the clouds and the earth's radiant energy system (CERES) instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The clouds and the earth's radiant energy system (CERES) instrument has been developed based on the earth radiation budget experiment (ERBE). The CERES instrument will be flown on the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission and on the first two Earth Observation System platforms. The techniques which were used to calibrate the ERBE instruments on the ground and to maintain calibration in orbit to 1% precision are being refined and applied to the design and calibration of the CERES instrument. The same types of on-board calibration devices will be used for CERES as were used on ERBE to determine any changes in the sensors' responses. The TRW Radiometric Calibration Facility which was used for ERBE calibration has been upgraded for CERES by incorporation of a radiometrically characterized black body as a reference and a cryogenic active cavity radiometer as a calibration transfer device for the shortwave calibration system.

Smith, G. L.; Lee, Robert B.; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Cooper, John E.; Kopia, Leonard P.; Lawrence, Roland W.

1995-12-01

46

MULTICRITERION EVALUATION OF AN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE HEATING\\/COOLING SYSTEM IN CLIMATE CONDITIONS OF CENTRAL EUROPE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this case study is to investigate an integrated heating\\/cooling system performance in central Europe climate conditions. The possibility of a reliable application of radiant low-temperature heating\\/ high-temperature cooling ceiling system with capillary mats is discussed. ESP-r, an energy performance simulation program, was used for this purpose. Three types of the buildings are taken into account: a residential

Karel Kabele

47

Radiant barriers  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses the effectiveness of radiant barriers in houses. Used in conjunction with mineral insulation and proper ventilation, they keep houses cooler in summer and warmer in winter. In addition, they save energy. Problems with installation, lack of reliable guidelines and cost are drawbacks.

Henkenius, M.

1989-09-01

48

Radiometric calibration plan for the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) scanning instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cloud and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) program continues the long term monitoring of the Earth's energy budget begun by the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanning radiometer instruments. The radiometic ground calibration sources employed for ERBE were designed to cover the very large (all Earth) field of view of the non-scanning radiometers. The ERBE radiometer ground and flight calibration proved to be more accurate than the requirement. The ground calibration sources to be used for CERES will be optimally designed to calibrate the much more narrow field of view of the scanning radiometer to improve on the absolute calibration performance. In addition, the shortwave calibration will be made in narrow bands to eliminate uncertainty in the spectral shape of the shortwave calibration source. Each shortwave band will be absolutely calibrated by transfer to a blackbody using a cryogenic active cavity radiometer fitted with the same telescope optics as the CERES radiometers.

Jarecke, P. J.; Folkman, M. A.; Darnton, L. A.

1991-08-01

49

Cryo Utilities Room Cooling System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the mechanical equipment failures at the Laboratory are due to the loss of cooling water. In order to insure the proper operating temperatures and to increase the reliability of the mechanical equipment in the D0 Cryo Utilities Room it is necessary to provide an independent liquid cooling system. To this end, an enclosed glycoVwater cooling system which transfers

G. S. Ball

1989-01-01

50

Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors with passive cooling system  

DOEpatents

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of cooling medium flow circuits which cooperate to remove and carry heat away from the fuel core upon loss of the normal cooling flow circuit to areas external thereto.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Fanning, Alan W. (San Jose, CA)

1991-01-01

51

Super-radiant dynamics, doorways and resonances in nuclei and other open mesoscopic systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phenomenon of super-radiance (Dicke effect, coherent spontaneous radiation by a gas of atoms coupled through a common radiation field) is well known in quantum optics. This review discusses similar physics that emerges in open and marginally stable quantum many-body systems. In the presence of open decay channels, the intrinsic states are coupled through the continuum. At sufficiently strong continuum coupling, the spectrum of resonances undergoes restructuring with segregation of very broad super-radiant states and trapping of remaining long-lived compound states. The appropriate formalism describing this phenomenon is based on the Feshbach projection method and effective non-Hermitian Hamiltonian. A broader generalization is related to the idea of doorway states connecting quantum states of different structures. The method is explained in detail and examples of applications are given to nuclear, atomic and particle physics. The interrelation of the collective dynamics through continuum and possible intrinsic many-body chaos is studied, including universal mesoscopic conductance fluctuations. The theory serves as a natural framework for the general description of quantum signal transmission through an open mesoscopic system.

Auerbach, Naftali; Zelevinsky, Vladimir

2011-10-01

52

Analysis of clouds and the Earth's radiant energy system (CERES) lunar measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments were designed to measure the reflected shortwave and emitted longwave radiances of the Earth's radiation budget and to investigate the cloud interactions with global radiances for the long-term monitoring of Earth's climate. The CERES instrument with the three scanning thermistor bolometers measure broadband radiances in the shortwave (0.3 to 5.0 micrometer), total (0.3 to >100 micrometer) and 8 - 12 micrometer water vapor window regions. The four CERES instruments (Flight Models 1 through 4) aboard Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua platforms were instrumental in conducting lunar radiance measurement on a regular basis. Moon-reflected solar radiances were measured with the shortwave sensor while both moon-reflected solar and moon-emitted longwave radiances were measured using the total sensor. The CERES sensors performed lunar measurements at various phase angles ranging from four to ten degrees before and after each full moon phase. Additional measurements were also conducted during the lunar eclipse events. The resulting filtered radiances were normalized to the mean sun-moon distance and the mean earth-moon distance. The lunar radiances measured by the sensors from all CERES instruments for a period of January 2001 to June 2007 were analyzed and compared. The CERES total sensor results showed a variation of about +/- 0.5 percent, while a +/- 2.0 percent variation was seen in shortwave sensor results.

Thomas, Susan; Priestley, K. J.; Matthews, G. M.

2007-10-01

53

Experiences in solar cooling systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of performance evaluations for nine solar cooling systems are presented, and reasons fow low or high net energy balances are discussed. Six of the nine systems are noted to have performed unfavorably compared to standard cooling systems due to thermal storage losses, excessive system electrical demands, inappropriate control strategies, poor system-to-load matching, and poor chiller performance. A reduction in heat losses in one residential unit increased the total system efficiency by 2.5%, while eliminating heat losses to the building interior increased the efficiency by 3.3%. The best system incorporated a lithium bromide absorption chiller and a Rankine cycle compression unit for a commercial application. Improvements in the cooling tower and fan configurations to increase the solar cooling system efficiency are indicated. Best performances are expected to occur in climates inducing high annual cooling loads.

Ward, D. S.

54

Structural state and mechanical properties of the material in the sialon-titanium nitride system after radiant heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short-term radiant heating of the material of the Sialon-titanium nitride system in the temperature range 1230–2300°C is accompanied by oxidation of the titanium nitride with oxidation of rutile and titanium oxynitride (the lattice spacing of these compounds increases with increasing temperature) and also by the breakdown of ß'-Si3N4 to ß-Si3N4 and ß'-phase with a higher aluminum and oxygen content. The

Yu. G. Gogotsi; O. N. Grigor'ev; V. L. Tikush

1988-01-01

55

Automated Job Controller for Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Production Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is one of NASA's highest priority Earth Observing System (EOS) scientific instruments. The CERES science team will integrate data from the CERES Flight Model 5 (FM5) on the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) in addition to the four CERES scanning instrument on Terra and Aqua. The CERES production system consists of over 75 Product Generation Executives (PGEs) maintained by twelve subsystem groups. The processing chain fuses CERES instrument observations with data from 19 other unique sources. The addition of FM5 to over 22 instrument years of data to be reprocessed from flight models 1-4 creates a need for an optimized production processing approach. This poster discusses a new approach, using JBoss and Perl to manage job scheduling and interdependencies between PGEs and external data sources. The new optimized approach uses JBoss to serve handler servlets which regulate PGE-level job interdependencies and job completion notifications. Additional servlets are used to regulate all job submissions from the handlers and to interact with the operator. Perl submission scripts are used to build Process Control Files and to interact directly with the operating system and cluster scheduler. The result is a reduced burden on the operator by algorithmically enforcing a set of rules that determine the optimal time to produce data products with the highest integrity. These rules are designed on a per PGE basis and periodically change. This design provides the means to dynamically update PGE rules at run time and increases the processing throughput by using an event driven controller. The immediate notification of a PGE's completion (an event) allows successor PGEs to launch at the proper time with minimal start up latency, thereby increasing computer system utilization.

Gleason, J. L.; Hillyer, T. N.

2011-12-01

56

Controlling the transmission of radiant energy through windows: a novel ventilated reversible glazing system  

Microsoft Academic Search

State-of-the-art glazing systems can provide very good solutions for cold climate conditions, and fairly effective ones for warm climates. However, there is still no window system on the market that can offer the flexibility required to provide a comfortable visual environment and an efficient energy response in climates where heating is required in winter, and cooling is required in summer.

Yair Etzion; Evyatar Erell

2000-01-01

57

S'COOL Brochure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brochure describes and promotes the S'COOL program. S'COOL, the Students' Cloud Observations On Line, is a component of NASA's Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project. Participants make ground truth measurements for the CERES experiment to compare with satellite data for the purpose of improving the satellite results.

2009-04-01

58

Temperature initiated passive cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby

Charles W

1994-01-01

59

Actively pressurized engine cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a method of operating an engine cooling system of the type comprising a heat exchanger, means for circulating a liquid coolant through coolant passages in the engine and through the heat exchanger, and means for adjusting the cooling effect of the heat exchanger on the fluid, the method comprising the steps of: adjusting the heat transfer capacity

Scarselletta

1988-01-01

60

Cooling system for automotive engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An internal combustion engine: a structure subject to heat flux; and a cooling system is described which consists of: a cooling circuit which includes: (a) a coolant jacket formed about the structure subject to high heat flux and into which coolant is introduced in liquid form, permitted to boil and discharged in gaseous form, (b) a radiator exposed to a

Hirano

1986-01-01

61

Combustor liner cooling system  

DOEpatents

A combustor liner is disclosed. The combustor liner includes an upstream portion, a downstream end portion extending from the upstream portion along a generally longitudinal axis, and a cover layer associated with an inner surface of the downstream end portion. The downstream end portion includes the inner surface and an outer surface, the inner surface defining a plurality of microchannels. The downstream end portion further defines a plurality of passages extending between the inner surface and the outer surface. The plurality of microchannels are fluidly connected to the plurality of passages, and are configured to flow a cooling medium therethrough, cooling the combustor liner.

Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Berkman, Mert Enis

2013-08-06

62

Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES), A Review: Past, Present and Future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Clouds and earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) project's objectives are to measure the reflected solar radiance (shortwave) and Earth-emitted (longwave) radiances and from these measurements to compute the shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes at the top of the atmo-sphere (TOA) and the surface and radiation divergence within the atmosphere. The fluxes at TOA are to be retrieved to an accuracy of 2The data products from CERES include, in addition to the reflected solar radiation and Earth emitted radiation fluxes at TOA, the upward and downward surface shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes, the radiation fluxes 500 mb and 250 mb altitude. Also at the surface the photosynthetically active radiation and ultraviolet radiation (total, UVA and UVB) are computed. Another application of the CERES scanning radiometers is special operations in which the azimuth of the scan plane of a CERES instrument is programmed in order to line up with ground stations or other spacecraft instruments. This capability has been used to compare radiances with those of other spacecraft instruments and with ground stations. One use of this ability has been to rotate a CERES instrument so as to scan in the same plane as a second instrument, as was done with a CERES instrument on both the Terra and Aqua spacecraft in order to compare radiance measurements. These compar-isons are needed in order to assure that any changes in the radiation budget record due to the change of instruments is understood and quantified and not attributed to a climate shift. The CEREinstrumentsaboardtheT erraandAquaspacecraf thaveservedwellpasstheirdesignlif etimes.ACERE onmissions.

Smith, G. Louis

63

Superconducting magnet cooling system  

DOEpatents

A device is provided for cooling a conductor to the superconducting state. The conductor is positioned within an inner conduit through which is flowing a supercooled liquid coolant in physical contact with the conductor. The inner conduit is positioned within an outer conduit so that an annular open space is formed therebetween. Through the annular space is flowing coolant in the boiling liquid state. Heat generated by the conductor is transferred by convection within the supercooled liquid coolant to the inner wall of the inner conduit and then is removed by the boiling liquid coolant, making the heat removal from the conductor relatively independent of conductor length.

Vander Arend, Peter C. (Center Valley, PA); Fowler, William B. (St. Charles, IL)

1977-01-01

64

Non-intrusive cooling system  

DOEpatents

A readily replaceable heat exchange cooling jacket for applying fluid to a system conduit pipe. The cooling jacket comprises at least two members, separable into upper and lower portions. A chamber is formed between the conduit pipe and cooling jacket once the members are positioned about the pipe. The upper portion includes a fluid spray means positioned above the pipe and the bottom portion includes a fluid removal means. The heat exchange cooling jacket is adaptable with a drain tank, a heat exchanger, a pump and other standard equipment to provide a system for removing heat from a pipe. A method to remove heat from a pipe, includes the steps of enclosing a portion of the pipe with a jacket to form a chamber between an outside surface of the pipe and the cooling jacket; spraying cooling fluid at low pressure from an upper portion of the cooling jacket, allowing the fluid to flow downwardly by gravity along the surface of the pipe toward a bottom portion of the chamber; and removing the fluid at the bottom portion of the chamber.

Morrison, Edward F. (Burnt Hills, NY); Bergman, John W. (Barrington, NH)

2001-05-22

65

Experiences in solar cooling systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Six of the nine solar cooling systems discussed in this paper had negative energy savings. In several cases the solar cooling system used substantially more energy than a conventional system could have been expected to use. Two systems, however, had significant energy savings. These systems (1 residential and 1 commercial) obtained system thermal efficiencies of 12.0 to 12.4 percent. Their system overall efficiences averaged 11.2 and 5.2 percent respectively. The residential-sized system achieved an annual energy savings of about 16.8 GJ/year, or approximately .34 GJ/year.m2 of collector. The commercial system had equivalent values of 137 GJ/year or about .22 GJ/year/sq m of collector. It should be noted that these efficiencies re much lower than those of well-designed and properly controlled cooling systems in commercial sizes. However, with realistic system modifications and subsequent improvements in performance these solar cooling systems can be expected to achieve savings in nonrenewable energy sources of approximately 1.2 GJ/year/sq m of collector. These savings can be compared to those associated with solar space and domestic hot water heating systems of 2.2 and 2.5 GJ/year/sq m of collector, respectively.

Ward, D. S.; Oberoi, H. S.

66

Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES), a review: Past, present and future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) project's objectives are to measure the reflected solar radiance (shortwave) and Earth-emitted (longwave) radiances and from these measurements to compute the shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and the surface and radiation divergence within the atmosphere. The fluxes at TOA are to be retrieved to an accuracy of 2%. Improved bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) have been developed to compute the fluxes at TOA from the measured radiances with errors reduced from ERBE by a factor of two or more. Instruments aboard the Terra and Aqua spacecraft provide sampling at four local times. In order to further reduce temporal sampling errors, data are used from the geostationary meteorological satellites to account for changes of scenes between observations by the CERES radiometers.A validation protocol including in-flight calibrations and comparisons of measurements has reduced the instrument errors to less than 1%. The data are processed through three editions. The first edition provides a timely flow of data to investigators and the third edition provides data products as accurate as possible with resources available.A suite of cloud properties retrieved from the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) by the CERES team is used to identify the cloud properties for each pixel in order to select the BRDF for each pixel so as to compute radiation fluxes from radiances. Also, the cloud information is used to compute radiation at the surface and through the atmosphere and to facilitate study of the relationship between clouds and the radiation budget. The data products from CERES include, in addition to the reflected solar radiation and Earth emitted radiation fluxes at TOA, the upward and downward shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes at the surface and at various levels in the atmosphere. Also at the surface the photosynthetically active radiation and ultraviolet radiation (total, UVA and UVB) are computed. The CERES instruments aboard the Terra and Aqua spacecraft have served well past their design life times. A CERES instrument has been integrated onto the NPP platform and is ready for launch in 2011. Another CERES instrument is being built for launch in 2014, and plans are being made for a series of follow-on missions.

Smith, G. L.; Priestley, K. J.; Loeb, N. G.; Wielicki, B. A.; Charlock, T. P.; Minnis, P.; Doelling, D. R.; Rutan, D. A.

2011-07-01

67

Photosynthetically active radiation from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a method that retrieves surface photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and its direct and diffuse components from the Surface and Atmospheric Radiation Budget (SARB) product of Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES). The shortwave spectrum in the SARB Edition 2 is calculated in 15 bands, 4 of which are used to develop the PAR, in conjunction with the look-up tables described in this paper. We apply these look-up tables to existing CERES Terra Edition 2 products. The new retrieved surface PAR is validated with LI-COR PAR measurements at seven Surface Radiation Budget Network (SURFRAD) sites using data from March 2000 to June 2005. The relative bias of retrieved all-sky PAR at the SURFRAD sites is 4.6% (positive sign indicating retrieval exceeds measurement), and 54% of the all-sky samples are within the ±10% uncertainty of the LI-COR PAR measurements. The satellite field-of-view (FOV) is more representative of the ground instrument FOV under clear conditions, so 89% of clear-sky retrievals are within the uncertainty of the LI-COR PAR measurements at SURFRAD sites with positive biases at most sites. The retrieved PAR is also validated at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains Central Facility (CF) site using data from October 2003 to June 2004 for those FOVs having both LI-COR and Rotating Shadowband Spectroradiometer (RSS) ground measurements; for this small domain, all-sky relative biases are again positive (1.9%) for LI-COR but negative (-4.2%) for RSS. The direct-to-diffuse ratio derived from CERES is smaller than that from RSS for both clear and cloudy conditions. CERES also retrieves the broadband shortwave insolation, and the relative biases for the broadband retrievals are much less than those for PAR at the above sites. It appears that some of the ground-based measurements of PAR do not have the fidelity of those for broadband shortwave insolation.

Su, Wenying; Charlock, Thomas P.; Rose, Fred G.; Rutan, David

2007-06-01

68

Porous radiant burners having increased radiant output  

DOEpatents

Means and methods for enhancing the output of radiant energy from a porous radiant burner by minimizing the scattering and increasing the adsorption, and thus emission of such energy by the use of randomly dispersed ceramic fibers of sub-micron diameter in the fabrication of ceramic fiber matrix burners and for use therein.

Tong, Timothy W. (Tempe, AZ); Sathe, Sanjeev B. (Tempe, AZ); Peck, Robert E. (Tempe, AZ)

1990-01-01

69

Underground-desiccant cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Underground-Desiccant Cooling System relies on the successful coordination of various components. The central feature of the system is a bed of silica gel which will absorb moisture from house air until the gel has become saturated. When this point has been reached, the silica gel must be regenerated by passing hot air through it. For this project, the hot

1982-01-01

70

Preliminaries to the ergodic theory of infinite-dimensional systems: A model of radiant cavity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss a number of mathematical results that are relevant to the statistical mechanics of a model of radiant cavity in which the electromagnetic field interacts with a nonlinear charged oscillator. In particular, we show that energy equipartition in the sense of Jeans would exclude local exponential instability of orbits; it would also prevent the existence of significant finite invariant measures on a given energy surface. A phase space of infinite total energy is defined, and an invariant measure in it is built, for which different modes of the field are statistically independent.

Casati, Giulio; Guarneri, Italo; Valz-Gris, Fausto

1983-01-01

71

System for cooling internal combustion engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system is described for cooling internal combustion engines comprising: a main cooling water line for circulating water through a radiator; a by-pass cooling water line diverging from the main cooling water line and circulating water without passing through the radiator; a motor-driven valve mechanism positioned for mixing the water from the main cooling water line with the water from

M. Nishikata; M. Nozaki

1987-01-01

72

Correction of drifts in the measurements of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System scanning thermistor bolometer instruments on the Terra and Aqua satellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is an investigation into the role of clouds and radiation in the Earth's climate system. Four CERES scanning thermistor bolometer instruments are currently in orbit. Flight model 1 (FM1) and 2 (FM2) are aboard the Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra satellite and FM3 and FM4 are aboard the EOS Aqua satellite.

Peter L. Spence; Kory J. Priestley; Edward A. Kizer; Susan Thomas; Denise L. Cooper; Dale R. Walikainen

2004-01-01

73

Efficient Low-Lift Cooling with Radiant Distribution, Thermal Storage and Variable-Speed Chiller Controls Part I: Component and Subsystem Models  

SciTech Connect

this paper develops component and subsystem models used to evaluat4e the performance of a low-lift cooling system with an air-colled chiller optimized for variable-speed and low-pressure-ratio operation, a hydronic radient distribution system, variable-speed transport miotor controls, and peak-shifting controls.

Armstrong, Peter; Jiang, Wei; Winiarski, David W.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Norford, L. K.; Willingham, ryan

2009-03-31

74

Passive cooling safety system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors  

DOEpatents

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel. The passive cooling system includes a closed primary fluid circuit through the partitions surrounding the reactor vessel and a partially adjoining secondary open fluid circuit for carrying transferred heat out into the atmosphere.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA); Hui, Marvin M. (Sunnyvale, CA); Berglund, Robert C. (Saratoga, CA)

1991-01-01

75

Indirect passive cooling system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors  

DOEpatents

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel. The passive cooling system includes a closed primary fluid circuit through the partitions surrounding the reactor vessel and a partially adjoining secondary open fluid circuit for carrying transferred heat out into the atmosphere.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

1990-01-01

76

Beverage dispenser cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a beverage dispensing system of the type having a supply container of the beverage located at a storage site, valve means at a dispensing site remote from the storage site for dispensing the beverage, pressure means for supplying the beverage under pressure from the supply container to the valve means through a beverage conduit, refrigeration means at the storage

Stanfill

1988-01-01

77

Boiling liquid engine cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A boiling liquid cooling system is described for an engine, comprising: means defining in the engine a coolant jacket into which coolant is introduced in liquid state and from which coolant is discharged in gaseous state; a radiator into which gaseous coolant from the coolant jacket is introduced to be liquified; an electric pump for pumping the coolant thus liquified

N. Miura; Y. Hayashi

1987-01-01

78

Determination of wavelength-dependent spectral darkening occurring on a broadband Earth observing radiometer: application to clouds and the Earth's radiant energy system (CERES)  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is estimated that in order to best detect real changes in the Earth's climate system, space based instrumentation measuring the Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) needs to remain calibrated with a stability of 0.3% per decade. This stability is beyond the specification of existing ERB programs such as the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES, using three broadband

Grant Matthews; Kory Priestley; Norman G. Loeb; Konstantin Loukachine; Susan Thomas; Dale Walikainen; Bruce A. Wielicki

2006-01-01

79

A STUDY ON THE APPLICABILITY OF THE TIME-DIVISION HOT-WATER SUPPLY HEATING FOR ONDOL - THE RADIANT FLOOR HEATING SYSTEM IN KOREA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The typical Korean residential buildings, especially apartment buildings, are furnished with ONDOL - the Korean traditional radiant floor heating system. The buildings are getting more insulated and air tight for heating in hard winter. O NDOL floors and walls are heavy enough to take up large thermal capacities for the better efficiency of the heating system. The developed computer simulation

Yong-Yee Kim; Ho-Tae Seok; Jeong-Min Choi; Hyun-Woo Lee; Kwang-Woo Kim

80

Effect of radiant barriers and attic ventilation on residential attics and attic duct systems: New tools for measuring and modeling  

SciTech Connect

A simple duct system was installed in an attic test module for a large scale climate simulator at a US national laboratory. The goal of the tests and subsequent modeling was to develop an accurate method of assessing duct system performance in the laboratory, enabling limiting conditions to be imposed at will and results to be applied to residential attics with attic duct systems. Steady-state tests were done at a severe summer and a mild winter condition. In all tests the roof surface was heated above ambient air temperatures by infrared lights. The attic test module first included then did not include the duct system. Attic ventilation from eave vents to a ridge vent was varied from none to values achievable by a high level of power ventilation. A radiant barrier was attached to the underside of the roof deck, both with and without the duct system in place. Tests were also done without the radiant barrier, both with and without the duct system. When installed, the insulated ducts ran along the floor of the attic, just above the attic insulation and along the edge of the attic near the eaves and one gable. These tests in a climate simulator achieved careful control and reproducibility of conditions. This elucidated dependencies that would otherwise be hidden by variations in uncontrolled variables. Based on the comparisons with the results of the tests at the mild winter condition and the severe summer condition, model predictions for attic air and insulation temperatures should be accurate within {+-} 10 F ({+-} 6 C). This is judged adequate for design purposes and could be better when exploring the effect of changes in attic and duct parameters at fixed climatic conditions.

Petrie, T.W.; Childs, P.W.; Christian, J.E.; Wilkes, K.E.

1998-07-01

81

Gas hydrate cool storage system  

DOEpatents

The invention presented relates to the development of a process utilizing a gas hydrate as a cool storage medium for alleviating electric load demands during peak usage periods. Several objectives of the invention are mentioned concerning the formation of the gas hydrate as storage material in a thermal energy storage system within a heat pump cycle system. The gas hydrate was formed using a refrigerant in water and an example with R-12 refrigerant is included. (BCS)

Ternes, M.P.; Kedl, R.J.

1984-09-12

82

46 CFR 153.432 - Cooling systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.432 Cooling systems. (a) Each cargo cooling system must have...

2012-10-01

83

46 CFR 153.432 - Cooling systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.432 Cooling systems. (a) Each cargo cooling system must have...

2011-10-01

84

Jet-engine combustor spectral radiation measurements using fiberoptic instrumentation system. Radiant energy power source for jet aircraft. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is a summary of spectral radiation measurements made at Williams Air Force Base, Chandler, Arizona on a General Electric J-85-5 engine. The spectral radiation measurements consisted of a complete axial profile down the combustor and are directed toward the application of Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft. Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft relates to the

Doellner

1986-01-01

85

Broadband measurements of lunar radiances using the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft\\/Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

12 Currently, the moon is being used as a radiometric target to determine on-orbit relative shifts or shifts in the responses of certain spacecraft shortwave sensors. Along these lines, the 1998 Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Spacecraft\\/Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) thermistor bolometer sensor observations of lunar radiances were analyzed to evaluate the feasibility using the lunar

Robert B. Lee; G. Louis Smith; Peter L. Spence; Dale R. Walikainen; Zbigniew P. Szewczyk; Jack Paden; Kory J. Priestley

2001-01-01

86

Cooling system optimisation of turbine guide vane  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discuses the problem of cooling system optimisation within a gas turbine vane. The analysis involves the optimisation of size and location of internal cooling passages within the vane. Cooling is provided with ten circular passages and heat is transported only convectively. The task is approached in 3D configuration. Each passage is fed with cooling air of constant parameters

Grzegorz Nowak; W?odzimierz Wróblewski

2009-01-01

87

Evaluation of Three Commercial Microclimate Cooling Systems,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three commercially available microclimate cooling systems were evaluated for their ability to reduce heat stress in men exercising in a hot environment while wearing high insulative, low permeability clothing. The cooling systems were: 1) ILC Dover Model ...

B. S. Cadarette B. S. DeCristofano K. N. Speckman M. N. Sawka

1988-01-01

88

Cooling system for superconducting magnet  

SciTech Connect

A cooling system is configured to control the flow of a refrigerant by controlling the rate at which the refrigerant is heated, thereby providing an efficient and reliable approach to cooling a load (e.g., magnets, rotors). The cooling system includes a conduit circuit connected to the load and within which a refrigerant circulates; a heat exchanger, connected within the conduit circuit and disposed remotely from the load; a first and a second reservoir, each connected within the conduit, each holding at least a portion of the refrigerant; a heater configured to independently heat the first and second reservoirs. In a first mode, the heater heats the first reservoir, thereby causing the refrigerant to flow from the first reservoir through the load and heat exchanger, via the conduit circuit and into the second reservoir. In a second mode, the heater heats the second reservoir to cause the refrigerant to flow from the second reservoir through the load and heat exchanger via the conduit circuit and into the first reservoir. 3 figs.

Gamble, B.B.; Sidi-Yekhlef, A.

1998-12-15

89

Cooling system for superconducting magnet  

DOEpatents

A cooling system is configured to control the flow of a refrigerant by controlling the rate at which the refrigerant is heated, thereby providing an efficient and reliable approach to cooling a load (e.g., magnets, rotors). The cooling system includes a conduit circuit connected to the load and within which a refrigerant circulates; a heat exchanger, connected within the conduit circuit and disposed remotely from the load; a first and a second reservoir, each connected within the conduit, each holding at least a portion of the refrigerant; a heater configured to independently heat the first and second reservoirs. In a first mode, the heater heats the first reservoir, thereby causing the refrigerant to flow from the first reservoir through the load and heat exchanger, via the conduit circuit and into the second reservoir. In a second mode, the heater heats the second reservoir to cause the refrigerant to flow from the second reservoir through the load and heat exchanger via the conduit circuit and into the first reservoir.

Gamble, Bruce B. (Wellesley, MA); Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed (Framingham, MA)

1998-01-01

90

REGISTRATION OF 'RADIANT' BARLEY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

'Radiant' (PI 633971), a proanthocyanidin-free two-row spring feed and potential malting barley released in 2003, was developed by the Washington State University Agricultural Research Center cooperatively with the Idaho and Oregon Agricultural Research Experiment Stations and the USDA-ARS. Radiant...

91

Analysis of the natural convective air cooling tests in the FFTF (Fast Flux Test Facility) interim decay storage vessel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the analysis performed on tests in the FFTF Interim Decay Storage (IDS) facility to evaluate natural convective air cooling of large, sodium filled vessels. The test program was undertaken to support design of the emergency cooling system concepts, RVACS (GE's Radiant Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System) and RACS (Rockwell's Auxiliary Cooling System), proposed by General Electric and Rockwell

J. C. Guzek; R. L. Stover; D. L. Polzin; S. Guttenberg

1987-01-01

92

Development of actively cooled panels for advanced propulsion systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of actively cooled flowpath panels for the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) propulsion system was a critical task in the development plan of the air vehicle system. This task encompassed development of design requirements and loads, and component design and testing. In the early 90's the effort focused on six cooled panel designs based in five different materials (NARloy-Z, Haynes 188, MoRe, IN909, C/C and C/SiC), each satisfying requirements in a different area of the propulsion flowpath. Eventually, three of these designs were fabricated and tested. For these tests, two primary facilities were used. The first was a radiant heating facility at Wright Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), and the second, a vitiated air heater at General Applied Science Laboratories (GASL) Inc. In these facilities, tests were run to validate thermal and mechanical models and to demonstrate coating durability and effectiveness. Additional tests to assess the damage tolerance of these designs were planned but never run. These tests ultimately exposed strengths and weaknesses in the designs and the analysis methods.

Hauber, Brett K.

1998-01-01

93

Evaluation of three commercial microclimate cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three commercially available microclimate cooling systems were evaluated for their ability to reduce heat stress in men exercising in a hot environment while wearing high insulative, low permeability clothing. The cooling systems were: (1) ILC Dover Model 19 Coolvest (ILC) (2) LSSI Coolhead(LSSI), and (3) Thermacor Cooling vest (THERM). Endurance Time (ET), Heart Rate (HR), rectal temperature (Tre), mean skin

Bruce S. Cadarette; Barry S. Decristofano; Karen N. Speckman; Michael N. Sawka

1988-01-01

94

On-orbit solar calibration methods using the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) in-flight calibration system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) scanning thermistor bolometers measure earth-reflected solar and earth-emitted longwaveradiances, at the top- of-the-atmosphere. The bolometers measure the earthradiances in the broadband shortwave solar (0.3-5.0 microns) and total (0.3-<100 microns) spectral bands as well as in the 8-<12 microns water vapor window spectral band over geographical footprints as small as 10 kilometers at nadir. December 1999, the second and third set of CERES bolometers was launchedon the Earth Observing Mission Terra Spacecraft. May 2003, the fourth and fifth set of bolometers was launched on the Earth Observing Mission Aqua Spacecraft. Recently, (October 2011) the sixth instrument was launched on the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System Preparatory Project (Suomi NPP) Spacecraft. Ground vacuum calibrations define the initial count conversion coefficients that are used to convert the bolometer output voltages into filtered earth radiances. The mirror attenuator mosaic (MAM), a solar diffuser plate, was built into the CERES instrument package calibration system in order to define in-orbit shifts or drifts in the sensor responses. The shortwave and shortwave part of the total sensors are calibrated using the solar radiances reflected from the MAM's. Each MAM consists of baffle-solar diffuser plate systems, which guide incoming solar radiances into the instrument fields of view of the shortwave and total wave sensor units. The MAM diffuser reflecting type surface consists of an array of spherical aluminum mirror segments, which are separated by a Merck Black A absorbing surface, overcoated with SIOx (SIO2 for PFM). Thermistors are located in each MAM plate and the total channel baffle. The CERES MAM is designed to yield calibration precisions approaching .5 percent for the total and shortwave detectors. In this presentation, the MAM solar calibration contrasting procedures will be presented along with on-orbit measurements for the eleven years the CERES instruments have been on-orbit. A switch to an azimuth rotation raster scan of the Sun rather than a fixed azimuth rotating elevation scan will be discussed. Comparisons are also made between the Terra, Aqua, and Suomi NPP CERES instruments during their MAM solar calibrations and total solar irradiance experimental results to determine how precise the CERES solar calibration facilities are at tracking the sun's irradiance.

Wilson, Robert S.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Hess, Phillip

2012-09-01

95

Evaporative cooling enhanced cold storage system  

DOEpatents

The invention provides an evaporatively enhanced cold storage system wherein a warm air stream is cooled and the cooled air stream is thereafter passed into contact with a cold storage unit. Moisture is added to the cooled air stream prior to or during contact of the cooled air stream with the cold storage unit to effect enhanced cooling of the cold storage unit due to evaporation of all or a portion of the added moisture. Preferably at least a portion of the added moisture comprises water condensed during the cooling of the warm air stream.

Carr, Peter (Cary, NC)

1991-01-01

96

Evaporative cooling enhanced cold storage system  

DOEpatents

The invention provides an evaporatively enhanced cold storage system wherein a warm air stream is cooled and the cooled air stream is thereafter passed into contact with a cold storage unit. Moisture is added to the cooled air stream prior to or during contact of the cooled air stream with the cold storage unit to effect enhanced cooling of the cold storage unit due to evaporation of all or a portion of the added moisture. Preferably at least a portion of the added moisture comprises water condensed during the cooling of the warm air stream. 3 figures.

Carr, P.

1991-10-15

97

Earth-coupled radiant heating and cooling system for hot, humid climates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 2600 ft² detached earth-coupled, superinsulated residence has been constructed and tested in Atlanta, Georgia. The house is directly coupled to the earth through the use of earth-side and house-side heat exchangers. The earth-side heat exchanger consists of three wells drilled 150 ft (45.7m) deep into the clay and granite adjacent to the house. The house-side exchanger consists of 46

J. M. Akridge; J. P. Cleveland; D. Keebaugh

1990-01-01

98

Postlaunch Radiometric Validation of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Proto-Flight Model on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Spacecraft through 1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument contains three scanning thermistor bolometer radiometric channels. These channels measure broadband radiances in the shortwave (0.3-5.0 m), total (0.3->100 m), and water vapor window regions (8-12 m). Ground-based radiometric calibrations of the CERES flight models were conducted by TRW Inc.'s Space and Electronics Group of Redondo Beach, California. On-orbit calibration

Kory J. Priestley; Bruce R. Barkstrom; Robert B. Lee III; Richard N. Green; Susan Thomas; Robert S. Wilson; Peter L. Spence; Jack Paden; D. K. Pandey; Aiman Al-Hajjah

2000-01-01

99

Conversion of radiant light energy in photobioreactors  

SciTech Connect

The conversion of radiant light energy into chemical affinity by microorganisms in photobioreactors is examined. The kinetics of entropy production in the system is theoretically established from entropy and energy balances for the material and photonic phases in the reactor. A negative chemical affinity term compensated for by a radiant energy term at a higher level of energy characterizes photosynthetic organisms. The local volumetric rate of radiant light energy absorbed, which appears in the dissipation function as an irreversible term, is calculated for monodimensional approximations providing analytical solutions and for general tridimensional equations requiring the solution of a new numerical algorithm. Solutions for the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis cultivated in photoreactors with different geometries and light energy inputs are compared. Thermodynamic efficiency of the photosynthesis is calculated. The highest value of 15% found for low radiant energy absorption rates corresponds to a maximum quantum yield in the reactor.

Cornet, J.F.; Dussap, C.G.; Gros, J.B. (Univ. Blase Pascal, Aubiere (France). Lab. de Genie Chimique Biologique)

1994-06-01

100

Reactor core isolation cooling system  

DOEpatents

A reactor core isolation cooling system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core, a drywell vessel, a containment vessel, and an isolation pool containing an isolation condenser. A turbine is operatively joined to the pressure vessel outlet steamline and powers a pump operatively joined to the pressure vessel feedwater line. In operation, steam from the pressure vessel powers the turbine which in turn powers the pump to pump makeup water from a pool to the feedwater line into the pressure vessel for maintaining water level over the reactor core. Steam discharged from the turbine is channeled to the isolation condenser and is condensed therein. The resulting heat is discharged into the isolation pool and vented to the atmosphere outside the containment vessel for removing heat therefrom.

Cooke, Franklin E. (San Jose, CA)

1992-01-01

101

Emergency cooling system and method  

DOEpatents

An improved emergency cooling system and method are disclosed that may be adapted for incorporation into or use with a nuclear BWR wherein a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) containing a nuclear core and a heat transfer fluid for circulation in a heat transfer relationship with the core is housed within an annular sealed drywell and is fluid communicable therewith for passage thereto in an emergency situation the heat transfer fluid in a gaseous phase and any noncondensibles present in the RPV, an annular sealed wetwell houses the drywell, and a pressure suppression pool of liquid is disposed in the wetwell and is connected to the drywell by submerged vents. The improved emergency cooling system and method has a containment condenser for receiving condensible heat transfer fluid in a gaseous phase and noncondensibles for condensing at least a portion of the heat transfer fluid. The containment condenser has an inlet in fluid communication with the drywell for receiving heat transfer fluid and noncondensibles, a first outlet in fluid communication with the RPV for the return to the RPV of the condensed portion of the heat transfer fluid and a second outlet in fluid communication with the drywell for passage of the noncondensed balance of the heat transfer fluid and the noncondensibles. The noncondensed balance of the heat transfer fluid and the noncondensibles passed to the drywell from the containment condenser are mixed with the heat transfer fluid and the noncondensibles from the RPV for passage into the containment condenser. A water pool is provided in heat transfer relationship with the containment condenser and is thermally communicable in an emergency situation with an environment outside of the drywell and the wetwell for conducting heat transferred from the containment condenser away from the wetwell and the drywell. 5 figs.

Oosterkamp, W.J.; Cheung, Y.K.

1994-01-04

102

Ground calibrations of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) tropical rainfall measuring mission spacecraft thermistor bolometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) spacecraft scanning thermistor bolometers will measure earth-reflected solar and earth-emitted longwave radiances, at the top-of-the-atmosphere. The measurements are performed in the broadband shortwave and longwave spectral regions as well as in the 8-12 micrometers water vapor window over geographical footprints as small as 10 kilometers at the nadir. The CERES measurements are designed to improve our knowledge of the earth's natural climate processes, in particular those related to clouds, and man's impact upon climate as indicated by atmospheric temperature. November 1997, the first set of CERES bolometers is scheduled for launch on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Missions (TRMM) Spacecraft. The CERES bolometers were calibrated radiometrically in a vacuum ground facility using absolute reference sources, tied to the International Temperature Scale of 1990. Accurate bolometer calibrations are dependent upon the derivations of the radiances from the spectral properties of both the sources and bolometers. In this paper, the overall calibration approaches are discussed for the longwave and shortwave calibrations. The spectral response for the TRMM bolometer units are presented and applied to the bolometer ground calibrations in order to determine pre-launch calibration gains.

Lee, Robert B.; Smith, G. Louis; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Thornhill, K. L.; Bolden, William C.; Wilson, Robert S.

1997-09-01

103

Far-IR spectral response measurements of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) sensors using a Fourier transform spectrometer and pyro-electric reference detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The clouds and the Earth's radiant energy system (CERES) program continues the long term monitoring of the Earth's radiant energy budget begun by the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanning radiometer instruments. The CERES instrument contains three thermal detector based radiometers with broadband spectral responses. The relative spectral responses must be characterized at far infrared wavelengths out to 200 micrometers in support of absolute radiometric calibration. This will be accomplished with a Fourier transform spectrometer as a spectral source, relay optics and a vacuum chamber containing the sensors. This facility currently under development for the CERES program will measure end-to-end sensor spectral response relative to a spectrally flat well characterized reference detector also located in the vacuum chamber. Facility design and controls on the measurement process to assure spectral accuracy are discussed.

Frink, Mark E.; Jarecke, Peter J.; Folkman, Mark A.; Wright, Robert E.

1993-08-01

104

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument level 1 science data validation plan for geolocated radiances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From spacecraft platforms, the clouds and the Earth's radiant energy system (CERES) scanning thermistor bolometers are designed to measure broadband Earth-reflected solar shortwave (0.3 - 5.0 micrometer) and Earth-emitted long wave (5.0 - greater than 100 micrometer) radiances as well as emitted longwave radiances in the 8 - 12 micrometer water vapor window over geographical footprints as small as 10 kilometers at the nadir. In ground vacuum facilities, the thermistor bolometers and in-flight blackbody and tungsten lamp calibration systems are being calibrated using radiometric sources tied to the international temperature scale of 1990 (ITS'90). Using the in-flight calibration systems, the bolometers will be calibrated periodically before and after spacecraft launch to verify the stability of the bolometers responses and to determine response drifts/shifts if they occur. The in-flight systems calibration analyses along with validation analyses will be used to determine the flight data reduction coefficients (instrument gains and offsets) which will be used to convert the bolometer measurements into calibrated radiances at the top-of-the-atmosphere (approximately 30 km). If a bolometer response shifts or drifts more than 0.5% in the longwave region or more than 1.0% in the shortwave region, and if the validation studies verify the bolometer response change, the flight data reduction coefficients will be corrected. A coastline detection method, using strong contrasting longwave ocean-land scenes, will be used to assess error limits on the geographical locations of the radiances. The detection method was successfully used to assess upper limits (6 km) on the geolocation errors for the Earth radiation budget satellite (ERBS) bolometric measurements of longwave radiances. For CERES, the detection method may be extended to shortwave radiances. In this paper, elements of the CERES instrument level 1 validation plan radiometric strategies are presented as well as the geolocation validation approaches.

Lee, Robert B.; Childers, Brooks A.; Smith, G. L.; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Thomas, Susan

1996-11-01

105

Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor plant system  

DOEpatents

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting for fuel decay during reactor shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. The reactor system is enhanced with sealing means for excluding external air from contact with the liquid metal coolant leaking from the reactor vessel during an accident. The invention also includes a silo structure which resists attack by leaking liquid metal coolant, and an added unique cooling means.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

1993-01-01

106

Development of Cooling System for Gyrotron Collector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the development of cooling system for 42 GHz, 200 kW gyrotron collector is presented. The design of the cooling duct has been finalized after different analyses such as, the fluid analysis, the thermal analysis, the structural analysis, etc. All analyses have been carried out by ANSYS software and the development of the cooling system based on the final design is performed.

Goswami, Uttam Kumar; Singh, Udaybir; Kumar, Nitin; Sahu, Naveen Kumar; Kumar, Anil; Yadav, Vivek; Kumar, Manoj; Khatun, Hasina; Dua, Rajeshwar Lal; Sinha, A. K.

2013-08-01

107

Advances in Solar Heating and Cooling Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on technological advancements in the fields of solar collectors, thermal storage systems, and solar heating and cooling systems. Diagrams aid in the understanding of the thermodynamics of the systems. (CP)

Ward, Dan S.

1976-01-01

108

Performance stability of the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument sensors on board the Aqua and Terra spacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments measure the earth-reflected shortwave energy as well as the earth-emitted thermal energy, which are two components of the earth's energy budget. These measurements are made through four instruments on two spacecraft as part of the Earth Observing System (EOS) mission - Flight Models 1 and 2 onboard the Terra spacecraft, and Flight Models 3 and 4 onboard the Aqua spacecraft. Each instrument comprises of three sensors that measure the radiances in different spectral regions- a shortwave channel that measures energy in the 0.3 to 5 micron wavelength band, a total channel that measures all the incident energy (0.3- <100 microns) and a window channel that measures the water-vapor window region of 8 to 12 microns. The required accuracy of the CERES sensors is achieved through pre-launch ground-based calibrations as well as on-orbit calibration activities. Onorbit calibration is carried out using the Internal Calibration Module (ICM) that consists of a quartz-halogen tungsten lamp, blackbodies, and a solar diffuser plate known as the Mirror Attenuator Mosaic (MAM). The ICM calibration provides information about the change in the CERES sensors' broadband radiometric gains on-orbit from the pre-launch values. Several validation studies are conducted in order to monitor the behavior of the instruments in various spectral bands. The CERES Edition-3 data products incorporate the latest upgrades to the calibration techniques. In this paper, we present the on-orbit performance stability as well as some validation studies using the CERES Edition-3 data products from all four instruments.

Shankar, Mohan; Priestley, Kory; Thomas, Susan; Hess, Phillip; Walikainen, Dale

2012-09-01

109

Technical evaluation of a solar heating system having conventional hydronic solar collectors and a radiant panel slab. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A simple innovative solar heating design (Solar Option One) using conventional hydronic solar collectors and a radiant panel slab was constructed. An objective of hybrid solar design is to combine the relative advantages of active and passive design approaches while minimizing their respective disadvantages. A test house using the Solar Option One heating system was experimentally monitored to determine its energy based performance during the 1982-83 heating season. The test residence is located in Lyndonville, Vermont, an area which has a characteristically cold and cloudy climate. The two story residence has a floor area of about 1400 square feet and is constructed on a 720 square foot 5.5 inch thick floor slab. A 24 inch packed gravel bed is located beneath the slab and the slab-gravel bed is insulated by two inches of polystyrene insulation. The test building is of frame construction and uses insulation levels which have become commonplace throughout the country. The structure would not fall into the superinsulated category but was tightly constructed so as to have a low infiltration level. The building is sun-tempered in that windows were concentrated somewhat on the South side and all but avoided on the North. A solar greenhouse on the South side of the building was closed off from the structure permanently throughout the testing so as to better observe the solar heating invention without confounding variables. The monitoring equipment generated an internal gain of about 17,000 BTUs per day, roughly the equivalent of occupancy by two persons. A full description of the experimental testing program is given. System efficiency and performance are reported.

Starr, R.J.

1984-04-01

110

Steam powered heating\\/cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cooling system is described having a boiler, a heat source for the boiler including a burner, an absorption machine having a generator section and an absorber section, a steam trap for the generator section of the absorption machine, a condensate tank with a vent line to atmosphere and work to be heated. The cooling system consists of a steam

1987-01-01

111

Performance of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Flight Model 5 (FM5) instrument on NPP mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument was designed to provide accurate measurements for the long-term monitoring of Earth's radiation energy budget. Flight Model 5, the sixth of the CERES instrument was launched aboard the NPP spacecraft on October 2011 and it has started the Earth-viewing measurements on January 26, 2012. The CERES instrument with the three scanning sensors measure radiances in 0.3 to 5.0 micron region with Shortwave sensor, 0.3 to <100 microns with Total sensor and 8 to 12 micron region with Window sensor. The pre-launch accuracy goal for the CERES instrument measurements is to have the emitted longwave radiances within 0.5% and the shortwave radiances within 1.0%. An accurate determination of the radiometric gains and spectral responsivity of CERES FM5 sensors was accomplished through rigorous calibrations using the primary sources. Post-launch evaluation of the sensor performance consists of sensor calibrations with the on-board sources and the solar diffuser called Mirror Attenuator Mosaic (MAM). The calibration results using onboard sources are also compared to pre-launch values which serve as a traceability standard to carry the ground determined sensor radiometric gains to orbit. Several validation studies utilising targets such as tropical ocean and deep convective clouds are performed as part of the Cal/Val protocol. The scan elevation offset in the sensor measurement will be determined from the spacecraft pitch manuveur activity viewing the deep space. This paper covers the early-orbit checkout activities and the overall performance of the CERES-FM5 instrument. The postlaunch calibration and the validation results from the instrument are presented.

Thomas, Susan; Priestley, Kory J.; Hess, Phillip C.; Wilson, Robert S.; Smith, Nathaniel P.; Timcoe, Mark G.; Shankar, Mohan; Walikainen, Dale R.

2012-09-01

112

Soft Computing in Absorption Cooling Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Absorption cooling systems make sense in many applications for process water cooling. Instead of mechanically compressing\\u000a a refrigerant gas, as in the conventional vapor compression process, absorption cooling uses a thermo-chemical process. Two\\u000a different fluids are used, a refrigerant and an absorbent. Heat directly from natural gas combustion, solar energy, waste-heat\\u000a source or indirectly from a boiler, drives the process.

Arzu ?ahin; Soteris Kalogirou

113

Performance of a solar desiccant cooling system  

SciTech Connect

A solar desiccant cooling system was operated at the Solar Energy Applications Laboratory, Colordado State University, throughout the 1986 summer. The system comprises an American Solar King fresh air heating/desiccant evaporative cooling unit, a Sunmaster evacuated tube solar collector, hot water solar storage tank, auxiliary electric boiler, controls, and accessories. The cooling unit is operated in the ventilation mode, fresh air being dried in a rotating desiccant matrix, and cooled by heat exchange and evaporative cooling. Return air is used as a cooling medium in a rotating heat exchange matrix, heated by solar energy in a heat exchange coil, and discarded through the rotating desiccant bed. The solar-driven system provided over 90 percent of the seasonal cooling requirements in an experimental, residence type building at average COP levels of 1.0 and solar collection efficiencies of 50 percent when supplied with solar heated water at temperatures of 50 to 65/sup 0/C. Detailed operating results, including total and average solar cooling provided, coefficients of performance, and overall solar cooling performance ratios are presented.

Lof, G.O.G.; Cler, G.; Brisbane, T.

1988-08-01

114

Radiant energy power source structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a radiant energy power source structure for providing electrical power to a vehicle utilizing radiant energy from a jet engine, the jet engine of the type having a radiant energy emitting combustion chamber formed from spaced apart inner and outer concentric elongated cylindrical liners, the combustion chamber outer liner concentrically surrounded by an elongated annular outer combustion

Doellner

1992-01-01

115

Cooling system for a nuclear reactor  

DOEpatents

A cooling system for a gas-cooled nuclear reactor is disclosed which includes at least one primary cooling loop adapted to pass coolant gas from the reactor core and an associated steam generator through a duct system having a main circulator therein, and at least one auxiliary cooling loop having communication with the reactor core and adapted to selectively pass coolant gas through an auxiliary heat exchanger and circulator. The main and auxiliary circulators are installed in a common vertical cavity in the reactor vessel, and a common return duct communicates with the reactor core and intersects the common cavity at a junction at which is located a flow diverter valve operative to effect coolant flow through either the primary or auxiliary cooling loops.

Amtmann, Hans H. (Rancho Santa Fe, CA)

1982-01-01

116

Closed Loop Cooling Systems for HTS Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stirling Cryogenics & Refrigeration BV has developed a complete range of closed loop cooling systems for High Temperature Superconducting applications. Several solutions are available depending on the requirements of the application to be cooled. Using liquid nitrogen as a working medium, a temperature as low as 65K can be used. The cooling power at 65K can be in the range of several hundred watts to several kilowatts. The distribution of the cooling power can be done by using the latent heat of evaporation or by using the heat capacity of sub-cooled liquid. The latter requires a fully automated pumping cryostat, containing all the components required for a controlled cool down of the application, sub cooling of the working fluid, transport of the liquid through the application and precise temperature regulation. For low temperature applications, two-stage cryocoolers provide cooling power at 20K and 80K temperature regions. Distribution of cooling capacity can eg. be done by forced flow of gaseous helium or by reliquefaction of neon.

Willems, D.; Dioguardi, F.; den Heijer, R.

2006-04-01

117

Development of jet pump solar cooling system. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small vapor jet solar cooling system capable of cooling about one room (7000 Btu\\/h) was designed, built and performance tested. The vapor jet solar cooling system is a new low cost cooling system which runs primarily on solar energy from relatively low cost flat plate solar collectors. The jet pump solar cooling system is basically a standard vapor compression

R. E. Holmes; F. Zeren

1983-01-01

118

Performance assessment of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments aboard Terra and Aqua spacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments were designed to measure the reflected shortwave and emitted longwave radiances of the Earth's radiation budget and to investigate the cloud interactions with global radiances for the long-term monitoring of Earth's climate. The three scanning thermistor bolometer sensors on CERES measure broadband radiances in the shortwave (0.3 to 5.0 micrometer), total (0.3 to <100 micrometer) and in 8 - 12 micrometer water vapor window regions. Of the five CERES instruments that are currently in operation, four of the CERES instruments (Flight Models1 through 4) fly aboard Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua platforms with two instruments aboard each spacecraft, in 705 KM sun-synchronous orbits of 10:30 AM and 1:30 PM equatorial crossing time. A rigorous and comprehensive radiometric calibration and validation protocol comprising of various studies was developed to evaluate the calibration accuracy of the CERES instruments. The in-flight calibration of CERES sensors are carried out using the internal calibration module (ICM) comprising of blackbody sources and quartzhalogen tungsten lamp, and a solar diffuser plate known as the Mirror Attenuator Mosaic (MAM). The ICM calibration results are instrumental in determining the changes in CERES sensors' gains after launch from the prelaunch determined values and the on-orbit gain variations. In addition to the broadband response changes derived from the on-board blackbody and the tungsten lamp, the shortwave and the total sensors show a spectrally dependent drop in responsivity in the shorter wavelegth region below one micron that were brought to light through validation studies. The spectrally dependent changes were attributed to the instrument operational modes and the corrections were derived using the sensor radiance comparisons. This paper covers the on-orbit behavior of CERES sensors aboard the Terra and Aqua spacecraft and the determination of the sensor response changes utilising the in-flight calibration and the radiance measurement comparisons viewing various targets. The corrections for the sensor response changes were incorporated in the radiance calculations of CERES Edition3 data products.

Thomas, Susan; Priestley, K. J.; Shankar, M.; Smith, N. M.; Loeb, N. G.; Walikainen, D. R.; Hess, P. C.; Wilson, R. S.; Smith, N. P.

2013-09-01

119

40 CFR 89.329 - Engine cooling system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine cooling system. 89.329 Section 89.329 Protection...Test Equipment Provisions § 89.329 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient capacity...

2013-07-01

120

40 CFR 91.307 - Engine cooling system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine cooling system. 91.307 Section 91.307 Protection...Test Equipment Provisions § 91.307 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient...

2013-07-01

121

40 CFR 90.307 - Engine cooling system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine cooling system. 90.307 Section 90.307 Protection...Test Equipment Provisions § 90.307 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient...

2013-07-01

122

Gas hydrate cool storage system  

DOEpatents

This invention is a process for formation of a gas hydrate to be used as a cool storage medium using a refrigerant in water. Mixing of the immiscible refrigerant and water is effected by addition of a surfactant and agitation. The difficult problem of subcooling during the process is overcome by using the surfactant and agitation and performance of the process significantly improves and approaches ideal.

Ternes, Mark P. (Knoxville, TN); Kedl, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1985-01-01

123

The Cooling Device of Drum Brake System by Using Thermoelestic Cooling Module  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research is presented a kind of cooling device for a vehicleˇ¦s drum brake cooling system, which comprises a thermoelectric cooling (TEC) chip and a heat exchange system. After inputting electric power, the TEC chip provides one cooling surface which is stick on the brake system and absorbs the heat from the brake pads or shoes. The other surface releases

M.-H. Hsueh

2012-01-01

124

Passive cooling system for top entry liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors  

DOEpatents

A liquid metal cooled nuclear fission reactor plant having a top entry loop joined satellite assembly with a passive auxiliary safety cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. This satellite type reactor plant is enhanced by a backup or secondary passive safety cooling system which augments the primary passive auxiliary cooling system when in operation, and replaces the primary cooling system when rendered inoperative.

Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA); Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Hui, Marvin M. (Cupertino, CA)

1992-01-01

125

Project Radiant Outlaw  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1992, the U.S. Navy initiated Project Radiant Outlaw, an advanced technology demonstration (ATD) project to demonstrate long range non-cooperative identification (NCID) of airborne and surface targets. The concept utilizes a ruggedized, compact airborne sensor package containing a stable laser radar (LADAR) operating in low probability of intercept mode and a shared aperture starring focal plane array mid-wave (3.8 to

Chyau N. Shen; Bruce Waeber; Lesley Girata; Alex Lovett

1994-01-01

126

ASRM full scale test case cooling system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After an ASRM static firing, excessive motorcase heating resulting from Al2O3 accumulation could cause irrecoverable case loss if adequate cooling were not determined and provided. Cooling system performance parameters and design criteria were determined through this analysis. Comparisons were made with data from literature. Advances in the thermal analysis were accomplished as compared to previous investigators. Results were based on the analysis, comparisons to other investigators, and utilization of test data from literature.

Schuetz, Cary E.; Hollenbeck, Anne K.

1993-07-01

127

Cooling system for continuous metal casting machines  

DOEpatents

A continuous metal caster cooling system is provided in which water is supplied in jets from a large number of small nozzles against the inner surface of rim at a temperature and with sufficient pressure that the velocity of the jets is sufficiently high that the mode of heat transfer is substantially by forced convection, the liquid being returned from the cooling chambers through return pipes distributed interstitially among the nozzles. 9 figs.

Draper, R.; Sumpman, W.C.; Baker, R.J.; Williams, R.S.

1988-06-07

128

Project Radiant Outlaw  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1992, the U.S. Navy initiated Project Radiant Outlaw, an advanced technology demonstration (ATD) project to demonstrate long range non-cooperative identification (NCID) of airborne and surface targets. The concept utilizes a ruggedized, compact airborne sensor package containing a stable laser radar (LADAR) operating in low probability of intercept mode and a shared aperture starring focal plane array mid-wave (3.8 to 4.5 micrometers ) infrared sensor. This sensor package is capable of multiple modes of identification. The processor utilizes adaptive ASW (anti-submarine warfare) acoustic processor technology developed by the Navy. The radiant outlaw sensor package, along with its processor, is capable of various methods of identification as follows: (1) target skin vibration or (mu) -Doppler signature, (2) range profiling, (3) high resolution infrared, and (4) pixel registered passive infrared and active 3-D LADAR imaging. This paper describes the radiant outlaw concept along with its various modes of identification. The risks associated with long range NCID demonstration are discussed and the risk reduction program described. Accomplishments to date including the aspect independent automatic target recognition (ATR) demonstration are described. Finally, various concepts for transition are discussed.

Shen, Chyau N.; Waeber, Bruce; Girata, Lesley; Lovett, Alex

1994-10-01

129

Research goals for active solar cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy savings potential of current absorption and Rankine cooling systems has been estimated by analysis of detailed computer simulations using TRNSYS in four cities (Phoenix, Miami, Fort Worth, and Washington, DC) and by projecting electrical and thermal performance improvements that can and must be made for economically viable systems. Incremental system cost goals for the year 2000 are established

M. L. Warren; H. S. Liers

1983-01-01

130

Preoperational test report, recirculation condenser cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

This represents a preoperational test report for Recirculation Condenser Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The four system provide condenser cooling water for vapor space cooling of tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102. Each system consists of a valved piping loop, a pair of redundant recirculation pumps, a closed-loop evaporative cooling tower, and supporting instrumentation; equipment is located outside the farm on concrete slabs. Piping is routed to the each ventilation condenser inside the farm via below-grade concrete trenches. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

Clifton, F.T.

1997-11-04

131

COOL ROOF COATINGS INCORPORATING GLASS HOLLOW MICROSPHERES  

EPA Science Inventory

Solar Gain is in part responsible for up to 56% of energy consumed by cooling systems in residential buildings. By reflecting and scattering radiant energy from the sun, the surface temperature of exterior walls and roofs can be greatly reduced. Previous studies have indicated...

132

Ground calibrations of the Clouds and the Earth's radiant energy System (CERES) instrument for the tropical rainfall measuring mission (TRMM)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clouds and the Earth's radiation energy system (CERES), a key experiment in the Earth observing system (EOS), is designed to measure the reflected shortwave and the emitted longwave radiances from Earth and its atmosphere. The CERES instrument consists of a scanning thermistor bolometer package with built in flight calibration systems. The first CERES instrument is scheduled for launch in 1997 aboard the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Japanese National Space Development Agency (NASDA) tropical rainfall measuring mission (TRMM) spacecraft. The laboratory calibrations of the instrument were conducted in the TRW vacuum facilities which are equipped with blackbodies, a cryogenically cooled transfer active-cavity radiometer, shortwave reference source, solar simulator and a constant radiance reference source. This paper describes the calibration facility and the calibration procedures for the CERES instrument.

Thomas, Susan; Lee, Robert B.; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Wilson, Robert S.; Bush, Kathryn A.; Paden, Jack; Lee, K. P.; Bolden, William C.

1996-11-01

133

Advanced solar\\/gas desiccant cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A desiccant cooling system with significantly higher thermal efficiency than current state of the art desiccant systems is studied. The findings and data are based on extensive computer modeling and actual operating test results of an experimental breadboard unit employing an approach developed for the separation of moisture from an airstream using solid desiccants (silica gel). The results confirmed the

B. Huskey; J. Sharp; A. Venero; M. Yen

1982-01-01

134

Ozone Treatment in Cooling Water Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ozone treatment for preventing the biofouling in cooling water systems is investigated.In the fresh water system, the separating effect of the ozonated water on the microorganisms such as the sphaerotilus and the zoogloea which adhere to the piping and form the slime is recognized. When the ozonated water is supplied intermittently to the piping without stopping the flow of the

N. Kaiga; T. Seki; K. Iyasu

1989-01-01

135

Passive Cooling System for a Vehicle  

DOEpatents

A passive cooling system for a vehicle (114) transfers heat from an overheated internal component, for example, an instrument panel (100), to an external portion (116) of the vehicle (114), for example, a side body panel (126). The passive cooling system includes one or more heat pipes (112) having an evaporator section (118) embedded in the overheated internal component and a condenser section (120) at the external portion (116) of the vehicle (114). The evaporator (118) and condenser (120) sections are in fluid communication. The passive cooling system may also include a thermally conductive film (140) for thermally connecting the evaporator sections (118) of the heat pipes (112) to each other and to the instrument panel (100).

Hendricks, T. J.; Thoensen, T.

2005-11-15

136

Design of solar heating and cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents a method for making an energy and an economic cost\\/benefit analysis of solar energy systems. A graphical method is presented for evaluating the performance of solar domestic hot water system, solar heating systems, and solar heating and cooling systems. Methods for selecting the optimum collector area based on benefit-to-cost ratio and for systematically making detailed design calculations

D. M. Joncich; D. J. Leverenz; D. C. Hittle; G. N. Walton

1978-01-01

137

Atmospheric impacts of evaporative cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

The report summarizes available information on the effects of various power plant cooling systems on the atmosphere. While evaporative cooling systems sharply reduce the biological impacts of thermal discharges in water bodies, they create (at least, for heat-release rates comparable to those of two-unit nuclear generating stations) atmospheric changes. For an isolated site such as required for a nuclear power plant, these changes are rather small and local, and usually environmentally acceptable. However, one cannot say with certainty that these effects will remain small as the number of reactors on a given site increases. There must exist a critical heat load for a specific site which, if exceeded, can create its own weather patterns, and thus create inadvertent weather changes such as rain and snow, severe thunderstorms, and tornadoes. Because proven mathematical models are not available, it is not now possible to forecast precisely the extent and frequency of the atmospheric effects of a particular heat-dissipation system at a particular site. Field research on many aspects of cooling system operation is needed in order to document and quantify the actual atmospheric changes caused by a given cooling system and to provide the data needed to develop and verify mathematical and physical models. The more important topics requiring field study are plume rise, fogging and icing (from certain systems), drift emission and deposition rates, chemical interactions, cloud and precipitation formation and critical heat-release rates.

Carson, J.E.

1976-10-01

138

Passive cooling system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors with backup coolant flow path  

DOEpatents

A liquid metal cooled nuclear fission reactor plant having a passive auxiliary safety cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. This reactor plant is enhanced by a backup or secondary passive safety cooling system which augments the primary passive auxiliary cooling system when in operation, and replaces the primary system when rendered inoperable.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

1993-01-01

139

Integrated mine cooling and water conditioning system  

SciTech Connect

A method is described comprising: cooling an aqueous liquid at ground level, by means of a refrigeration system which rejects heat, to produce an aqueous ice slurry of ice crystals in the aqueous liquid; separating ice from some of the aqueous ice slurry produced at ground level, washing the ice and melting the ice to produce potable water at ground level, and using the potable water hydrostatic energy to power hydraulic machinery at the location below ground level; feeding the aqueous ice slurry from ground level to a location substantially below ground level to cool that location by heat exchange with the slurry, thereby producing warm aqueous liquid; withdrawing the warm aqueous liquid from the location, returning it to ground level and then cooling the aqueous liquid by means of the refrigeration system to again convert it to an aqueous ice slurry; and recycling the slurry to the location substantially below ground level.

Husain, M.; Nail, J.A.

1988-06-14

140

Evaluation of three commercial microclimate cooling systems.  

PubMed

Three commercially available microclimate cooling systems were evaluated for their ability to reduce heat stress in men exercising in a hot environment while wearing high insulative, low permeability clothing. Five male volunteers performed three 180-min experiments (three repeats of 10 min rest, 50 min walking at 440 watts) in an environment of 38 degrees C dry bulb (Tdb), 12 degrees C dew point (Tdp). The cooling systems were: 1) ILC Dover Model 19 Coolvest (ILC), mean inlet temperature 5.0 degrees C; 2) LSSI Coolhead (LSSI), mean inlet temperature 14.5 degrees C; and 3) Thermacor Cooling Vest (THERM), mean inlet temperature 28.3 degrees C. Endurance time (ET), heart rate (HR), rectal temperature (Tre), mean skin temperature (Tsk), sweating rate (SR), rated perceived exertion (RPE), and thermal sensation (TS) were measured. A computer model prediction of ET with no cooling was 101 min. ET was greater (p less than 0.01) with ILC (178 min) than THERM (131 min) which was greater (p less than 0.01) than LSSI (83 min). The subjects self terminated on all LSSI tests because of headaches. Statistical analyses were performed on data collected at 60 min to have values on all subjects. There were no differences in HR, Tre, SR, or TS values among the cooling vests. The subjects' Tsk was lower (p less than 0.05) for the LSSI than THERM; and RPE values were higher (p less than 0.05) for LSSI than the other two vests. These data suggest an improved physiological response to exercise heat stress with all three commercial systems with the greatest benefit in performance time provided by the ILC cooling system. PMID:2302131

Cadarette, B S; DeCristofano, B S; Speckman, K L; Sawka, M N

1990-01-01

141

Performance of Active Solar Space-Cooling Systems: 1980 Cooling Season.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A detailed analysis of the solar absorption cooling process as represented by the NSDN system is presented. There is comprehensive data on eight solar cooling systems in the NSDN. Among these eight systems solar cooling by an absorption chiller is not a c...

D. Blum S. Frock T. Logee D. Missal P. Wetzel

1980-01-01

142

Simultaneous targeting and design for cooling water systems with multiple cooling water supplies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a technique for simultaneous targeting and design in cooling water systems comprising of at least two cooling towers and several cooling water using operations. The presented technique is based on a superstructure from which a mathematical formulation is derived using system specific variables and parameters. It is demonstrated that in a system like this, true optimality can

Thokozani Majozi; Anand Moodley

2008-01-01

143

Narcissus analysis for cooled staring IR system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Narcissus can have a deleterious effect on image quality for cooled infrared imaging systems. Therefore, analysis of narcissus is important for designing both scanning and staring optics. Narcissus is generally assumed to be negligible in staring IR optical designs because the shading effects can be removed by calibration of the detector array data. However, the calibration usually decreases sensitiveness of

Feng-Yun He; Ji-Cheng Cui; Shu-Long Feng; Xin Zhang

2007-01-01

144

Refined model of solar space cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer simulation was used to study the feasibility of a solar-cooled residential housing unit in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. The study has progressed through a series of system models; emphasis here is placed on the development of the refined model which describes the operation of the WF 36 absorption chiller. It is noted that the results of the

R. L. Jenks; A. Kremheller; W. A. Rogers; R. W. Jones

1978-01-01

145

Economics of solar heating and cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar heating and cooling for a private residence are discussed in terms of amortization time for a house with a 30 year mortgage at 8.5%. Different collector systems (tubular, flat, concentrating) and sizes are compared, with reference to their initial and life cycle costs. National energy savings are calculated for widespread use of solar power, which could reach the Quad

W. L. Corcoran

1978-01-01

146

The development of engine evaporative cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fundamental heat transfer study has been conducted on a new engine cooling system in which heat is removed from the engine through the boiling process in the water jacket and is radiated to the air through a condenser. By carrying out a basic experiment using a model boiler as a substitute for the cylinder heat water jacket and a

T. Kubozuka; N. Ogawa; Y. Hirano; Y. Hayashi

1987-01-01

147

Cooled baffle system for spaceborne infrared telescopes.  

PubMed

We report the design and testing of a compact system of baffles for cooled infrared telescopes. The baffle system consists of a reflecting forebaffle and a black aftbaffle and provides a high level of rejection of emission from off-axis sources. The forebaffle reflects radiation incident at angles greater than 40° off axis out of the telescope, thereby reducing the aperture heat load. The black aftbaffle absorbs radiation scattered or diffracted by the forebaffle, as well as radiation from sources within 40° off axis. We describe ground-based measurements at ? = 0.9 µm of the baffle system at ambient temperature and rocketborne measurements at far-infrared wavelengths of the baffle system at ~3 K. The effective emissivity of the cooled forebaffle was measured to be 7 × 10(-3). The system has been successfully used in rocketborne measurements of the diffuse infrared background and will be used in the Infrared Telescope in Space. PMID:21037777

Bock, J J; Lange, A E; Matsuhara, H; Matsumoto, T; Onaka, T; Sato, S

1995-05-01

148

Cooling system for internal combustion engines  

SciTech Connect

A cooling system for an internal combustion engine is described comprising: a head-side water jacket and a block-side water jacket made independent of each other; and a radiator and a cooling fan shared between the two water jackets. The improvement comprises: a first cooling water conduit for connecting the outlet of the head-side water jacket and the inlet of the radiator; a mixing valve having two water inlets and one water outlet; a second cooling water conduit for connecting one of the water inlets of the mixing valve and the outlet of the radiator; a third conduit for connecting the water outlet of the block-side water jacket and the remaining one of the water inlets of the mixing valve; a water pump, a fourth conduit branched midway from the second conduit and connected with the water inlet of the head-side water jacket; an auxiliary water pump; a fifth conduit branched midway from the third conduit and connected with the first conduit; one-way valve; and a control unit for controlling the mixing ratio of the mixing valve, the displacement of the auxiliary water pump and the operation of the cooling fan.

Itakura, M.

1988-07-26

149

Radiant exchange in partially specular architectural environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radiant exchange method, also known as radiosity, was originally developed for thermal radiative heat transfer applications. Later it was used to model architectural lighting systems, and more recently it has been extended to model acoustic systems. While there are subtle differences in these applications, the basic method is based on solving a system of energy balance equations, and it is best applied to spaces with mainly diffuse reflecting surfaces. The obvious drawback to this method is that it is based around the assumption that all surfaces in the system are diffuse reflectors. Because almost all architectural systems have at least some partially specular reflecting surfaces in the system it is important to extend the radiant exchange method to deal with this type of surface reflection. [Work supported by NSF.

Beamer, C. Walter; Muehleisen, Ralph T.

2003-10-01

150

S'COOL Student Bookmark  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This bookmark provides basic information about the importance of ground truth measurements for investigative science and the formation of clouds. It also provides information about an opportunity for students to participate in a real-time collaborative scientific experiment with NASA scientists: the Student Cloud Observations On Line (S'COOL) project. SâCOOL is a component of NASA's Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project. S'COOL project participants make ground truth measurements for the CERES experiment. Ground truth measurements are land-based observations to compare with satellite data for the purpose of improving the satellite results.

2005-05-01

151

S'COOL Teacher Bookmark  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This bookmark provides basic information about the importance of ground truth measurements for investigative science and the formation of clouds. It also provides information about an opportunity for students to participate in a real-time collaborative scientific experiment with NASA scientists: the Student Cloud Observations On Line (S'COOL) project. S'COOL is a component of NASA's Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project. S'COOL project participants make ground truth measurements for the CERES experiment. Ground truth measurements are land-based observations to compare with satellite data for the purpose of improving the satellite results.

2006-08-01

152

Thermostatically controlled solar heating and cooling system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a solar heating and cooling system for simultaneously heating or cooling an ambient air system within a building, heating a hot water supply for domestic use within the building and heating or cooling a swimming pool adjacent the building comprising a building. This comprises a swimming pool as a primary water source, a solar connector connected to the swimming pool, a heat pump for controlling ambient air temperature within the building, an energy conservation unit connected to the heat pump and to the hot water supply for utilizing hot gases from the heat pump to heat water in the hot water supply and an air heat exchanger connected to the air system and to the heat pump for selectively heating or cooling air in the building. Also a water heat exchanger is connected to a water source for selectively transferring heat between the heat pump and the water source, a well as a secondary water source connected to the water heat exchanger.

Yovanofski, T.

1986-12-16

153

Cooling system for automotive engine or the like  

Microsoft Academic Search

An internal combustion engine is described having a structure subject to high heat flux; and a cooling system for removing heat from the engine. In addition, a method is described of cooling an internal combustion engine using a cooling system comprising the steps of: introducing liquid coolant into a cooling circuit which includes a coolant jacket formed about structure of

Kubozuka

1987-01-01

154

Method for passive cooling liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors, and system thereof  

DOEpatents

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Busboom, Herbert J. (San Jose, CA)

1991-01-01

155

21 CFR 880.5130 - Infant radiant warmer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...maintain the infant's body temperature by means of radiant...device may also contain a temperature monitoring sensor...alarm system (infant temperature, manual mode if...

2010-04-01

156

21 CFR 880.5130 - Infant radiant warmer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...maintain the infant's body temperature by means of radiant...device may also contain a temperature monitoring sensor...alarm system (infant temperature, manual mode if...

2009-04-01

157

Radiant Heating in Seamless Flooring - A Feasibility Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of using radiant heating in seamless flooring as a supplemental heating source in housing units. The resistance of twenty seamless flooring systems to abrasion, flow, impact, flame, stain, moistur...

P. G. Campbell M. A. Post M. Godette W. E. Roberts

1977-01-01

158

21 CFR 880.5130 - Infant radiant warmer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...infant to maintain the infant's body temperature by means of radiant heat. The device may also contain a temperature monitoring sensor, a heat output...mechanism, and an alarm system (infant temperature, manual mode if present, and...

2013-04-01

159

Prelaunch calibrations of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission and Earth Observing System morning (EOS-AM1) spacecraft thermistor bolometer sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) spacecraft scanning thermistor bolometer sensors measure Earth radiances in the broadband shortwave solar (0.3-5.0 ?m) and total (0.3->100 ?m) spectral bands as well as in the 8-12-?m water vapor window spectral band. On November 27, 1997, the launch of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft placed the first set of

Robert B. Lee; Bruce R. Barkstrom; Herbert C. Bitting; Dominique A. H. Crommelynck; Jack Paden; Dhirendra K. Pandey; Kory J. Priestley; G. Louis Smith; Susan Thomas; K. Lee Thornhill; Robert S. Wilson

1998-01-01

160

Narcissus analysis for cooled staring IR system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Narcissus can have a deleterious effect on image quality for cooled infrared imaging systems. Therefore, analysis of narcissus is important for designing both scanning and staring optics. Narcissus is generally assumed to be negligible in staring IR optical designs because the shading effects can be removed by calibration of the detector array data. However, the calibration usually decreases sensitiveness of the system and Narcissus variation may be noticeable for sensors when the conditions changes as follows: 1. warming and cooling the optical housing, 2. zooming optical elements, 3. movement of lenses for focus. In that case, it will result in shading and other image defects even after calibration. To minimize these effects, narcissus should be assessed and controlled during the design of staring array IR system. We provided a direct and fast method for analyzing the narcissus variation in the presence of software such as LightTools, TracePro and ASAP, and proposed the principles in optical design of staring IR systems to reduce narcissus. A cooled staring IR system with serious narcissus was estimated and reoptimized. Narcissus analysis of this IR system confirmed the efficiency of the analysis method.

He, Feng-Yun; Cui, Ji-Cheng; Feng, Shu-Long; Zhang, Xin

2007-12-01

161

Integrated plate-type cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

Integrated plate-type concepts for cooling oil and water have been introduced by Alfa Laval Desalt A/S, of Copenhagen. The customized systems are offered to manufacturers of gearboxes, hydraulic systems and diesel engines up to 5000 kW in capacity, for applications in marine propulsion systems and power plants. The integrated plate heat exchanger concept for oil and water cooling is said to offer a number of benefits, including reduced weight and volume, which allows smaller package sizes and simpler foundations. When sea water is used for the cooling media, titanium is used as plate material while for other media, stainless steel is used. Alfa Laval has worked with MAN B W Alpha Diesel since 1979 to adapt the plate heat exchangers for a range of its products. These include the four-stroke, medium-speed diesel engines rated between 800 and 3920 kW, reduction gearboxes with PTO systems for propellers up to 15,000 kW and eight meters in diameter. 3 figs.

Not Available

1993-09-01

162

Steam powered heating/cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

A cooling system is described having a boiler, a heat source for the boiler including a burner, an absorption machine having a generator section and an absorber section, a steam trap for the generator section of the absorption machine, a condensate tank with a vent line to atmosphere and work to be heated. The cooling system consists of a steam supply line from the boiler to the generator section of the absorption machine; a condensate return line from the generator section of the absorption machine through the steam trap to the condensate tank; a return line from the condensate tank to the boiler; and outlet supply line from the absorption section of the absorption machine to the work; a return line from the work to the absorption section of the absorption machine; and a condensate return pump on the return line from the condensate tank to the boiler.

Perry, J.E.

1987-05-19

163

Survey and Alignment of the Fermilab Electron Cooling System  

SciTech Connect

The goal of achieving the Tevatron luminosity of 3 x 10{sup 32} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} requires Electron Cooling in the Recycler Ring to provide an increased flux of antiprotons. The Fermilab Electron Cooling system has been designed to assist accumulation of antiprotons for the Tevatron collider operations. The installation along with the survey and alignment of the Electron Cooling system in the Recycler Ring were completed in November 2004. The Electron Cooling system was fully commissioned in May 2005 and the first cooling of antiprotons was achieved in July 2005. This paper discusses the alignment methodology employed to survey and align the Electron Cooling system.

Oshinowo, Babatunde O'Sheg; Leibfritz, Jerry; /Fermilab

2006-09-01

164

Evaluation of geothermal cooling systems for Arizona  

SciTech Connect

Arizona consumes nearly 50 percent more electricity during the peak summer season of May through part of October, due to the high cooling load met by electrical-driven air conditioning units. This study evaluates two geothermal-driven cooling systems that consume less electricity, namely, absorption cooling and heat pumps. Adsorption cooling requires a geothermal resource above 105{sup 0}C (220{sup 0}F) in order to operate at a reasonable efficiency and capacity. Geothermal resources at these temperatures or above are believed existing in the Phoenix and Tucson areas, but at such depths that geothermal-driven absorption systems have high capital investments. Such capital investments are uneconomical when paid out over only five months of operation each year, but become economical when cascaded with other geothermal uses. There may be other regions of the state, where geothermal resources exist at 105{sup 0}C (220{sup 0}F) or higher at much less depth, such as the Casa Grande/Coolidge or Hyder areas, which might be attractive locations for future plants of the high-technology industries. Geothermal assisted heat pumps have been shown in this study to be economical for nearly all areas of Arizona. They are more economical and reliable than air-to-air heat pumps. Such systems in Arizona depend upon a low-temperature geothermal resource in the narrow range of 15.5 to 26.6{sup 0}C (60 to 80{sup 0}F), and are widely available in Arizona. The state has over 3000 known (existing) thermal wells, out of a total of about 30,000 irrigation wells.

White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

1982-08-01

165

Cooling system for automotive engine or the like  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an internal combustion engine having a structure subject to high heat flux, a cooling system comprising: (a) a cooling system for removing heat from the structure, the cooling system comprising: a coolant jacket disposed about the structure and into which coolant is introduced in liquid form and permitted to boil; a radiator in which coolant vapor is

N. Ogawa; T. Kubozuka; Y. Hirano

1986-01-01

166

Design of panel heating and cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

Panel heating and cooling systems use controlled temperature surfaces in the floor, walls, or ceiling of a conditioned space. The temperature is maintained by a circulating fluid through a circuit embedded in the panel. Heat transfer occurs by radiation and convection to or from a room. The performance of these systems may be determined by design calculations or testing. Thermal testing and system analysis by experiments are costly and inefficient. For different closed panel systems, finite element-based models and programs were developed by which temperature distribution in the construction, interdependence between performance and mean carrier fluid temperature, panel surface temperature, and room temperature can be calculated. One single power function product of all relevant parameters has been derived as an algorithm for performance calculations of panel heating and cooling systems, which can be adapted for other systems. Findings have been verified by experiment for floor heating panels with best results. These basic equations provided the design standards for German Standard DIN 4725, ''Thermal Output of Floor Heating'', which has been adopted as European Standard EN 1264. Finite element method calculation results were also compared with results from design calculations based on the ASHRAE method.

Bohle, J.; Klan, H.

2000-07-01

167

Experimental measurement on characteristics of cool storage air conditioning system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experimental apparatus of cool storage air conditioning system is designed and constructed. The characteristics of cool storage air-conditioning system are experimentally measured. The temperature variation of coolant in the evaporator is presented by experiments. The refrigerant temperature in the evaporator and the compressor discharge temperature are also shown. The cool storage experiments are carried out to measure the refrigeration capacity of the chiller in cool storage mode, and the cool storage capacity in the storage tank. The measured results show that the coolant temperature difference between inlet and outlet in the evaporator, the refrigerant evaporating temperature, discharging temperature of the compressor and the refrigeration capacity of the chiller during cool storage period can maintain stable. The cool storage capacity in the storage tank approximately increases in linearity with cool storage time. This indicates the cool storage air conditioning system can stably operate.

Fang, Guiyin; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Man; Wu, Shuangmao

2008-12-01

168

Infrared radiant heater  

SciTech Connect

An infrared radiant heating apparatus is described for use in heating articles rapidly and efficiently by infrared radiation absorption. The apparatus comprises a support frame, a heat absorbing and radiating heater mounted on the support frame, the heater including an inner heat cone and an outer heat cone spaced apart from each other and joined together along their outer peripheries to define a combustion chamber. The outer heat cone has an exposed convex conical surface and forms a heat absorbing and radiating material. The heater further includes a fuel pipe extending to a nozzle which extends through the inner heat cone and opens into the combustion chamber, a shroud surrounding the fuel pipe, a cylindrical jacket surrounding and spaced apart from the shroud and joined at one end to the inner heat cone, a helical exhaust pipe disposed within the jacket and surrounding the shroud, the inner cone having exhaust ports along its outer periphery, with each of the exhaust ports connected to the helical exhaust pipe by a tubular pipe. Means for channeling combustion and exhaust gases from the combustion chamber lies along the inner surface of the outer cone and to the exhaust ports. Burner means including means for supplying fuel to the fuel pipe and means supply air through the space between the jacket and the shroud and to the nozzle. Hot gases pass through the tubular pipes and through the helical exhaust pipe and the incoming combustion air passes over the helical exhaust pipe and is preheated from the transfer of heat.

Schmidt, G.

1987-07-28

169

Angular Distribution Models for Top-of-Atmosphere Radiative Flux Estimation from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Instrument on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Satellite. Part I: Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) investigates the critical role that clouds and aerosols play in modulating the radiative energy flow within the Earth-atmosphere system. CERES builds upon the foundation laid by previous missions, such as the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment, to provide highly accurate top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes together with coincident cloud and aerosol properties inferred from

Norman G. Loeb; Natividad Manalo-Smith; Seiji Kato; Walter F. Miller; Shashi K. Gupta; Patrick Minnis; Bruce A. Wielicki

2003-01-01

170

Cooling performance of a water-cooling panel system for modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments on a water cooling panel system were performed to investigate its heat removal performance and the temperature distribution of components for a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR). The analytical code THANPACST2 was applied to analyze the experimental results to verify the validity of the analytical method and the model.

Shoji Takada; Kunihiko Suzuki; Yoshiyuki Inagaki; Yukio Sudo

1995-01-01

171

A passive evaporative cooling system by natural ventilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaporative cooling is used extensively for cooling in climates with medium to low humidity. In residential buildings the conventional mechanical systems tend to be both noisy and unsightly protuberances on buildings, whilst traditional cooling systems incorporated into the building structure which employ chimneys and the like tend to be designed for the specific building and so may not have wide

Zahra Giabaklou; John A. Ballinger

1996-01-01

172

Cooling system for automotive engine or the like  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an internal combustion engine a structure subject to high heat flux, and a cooling system for removing heat from the structure, the cooling system comprising: a cooling circuit including: a coolant jacket formed about the structure and into which coolant is introduced in liquid form and permitted to boil; a radiator in which gaseous coolant is condensed

Kubozuka

1986-01-01

173

Electromechanically cooled germanium radiation detector system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have successfully developed and fielded an electromechanically cooled germanium radiation detector (EMC-HPGe) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This detector system was designed to provide optimum energy resolution, long lifetime, and extremely reliable operation for unattended and portable applications. For most analytical applications, high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors are the standard detectors of choice, providing an unsurpassed combination of high energy resolution performance and exceptional detection efficiency. Logistical difficulties associated with providing the required liquid nitrogen (LN) for cooling is the primary reason that these systems are found mainly in laboratories. The EMC-HPGe detector system described in this paper successfully provides HPGe detector performance in a portable instrument that allows for isotopic analysis in the field. It incorporates a unique active vibration control system that allows the use of a Sunpower Stirling cycle cryocooler unit without significant spectral degradation from microphonics. All standard isotopic analysis codes, including MGA and MGA++[1], GAMANL[2], GRPANL[3] and MGAU[4], typically used with HPGe detectors can be used with this system with excellent results. Several national and international Safeguards organisations including the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have expressed interest in this system. The detector was combined with custom software and demonstrated as a rapid Field Radiometric Identification System (FRIS) for the U.S. Customs Service [5]. The European Communities' Safeguards Directorate (EURATOM) is field-testing the first Safeguards prototype in their applications. The EMC-HPGe detector system design, recent applications, and results will be highlighted.

Lavietes, A. D.; Joseph Mauger, G.; Anderson, E. H.

1999-02-01

174

Gas turbine engine component cooling system  

SciTech Connect

In a gas turbine engine including a compressor supported in an annular frame, the frame having a front frame portion extending upstream of the compressor, the front frame having radially inner and outer surfaces, the inner surface defining a flowpath to the compressor, a system is described for cooling an engine component which consists of: the front frame including an aperture extending therethrough; a housing for mounting the engine component therein, including a plurality of heat transfer fins extending outwardly therefrom; and the housing being mounted to the radially outer surface of the front frame so that the heat transfer fins extend through the aperture and into the flowpath.

Colman, M.E.; Goeller, R.E.

1986-09-02

175

An innovative system based on water-water heat pump with radiant panels and a ventilation energy recovery system for residential air-conditioning and tap water production  

Microsoft Academic Search

This plant (installed in a 200 m-super-2 two-floor house in Pordenone – Italy) is made up of a well-water condensed heat pump with variable fl ow ‘digital’ scroll compressor and of ceiling radiant panels. The heat pump also supplies the tap water storage tank. A mechanical ventilation plant controls the indoor air quality and allows active energy recovery from the

Giuseppe Ranzato; Marco Grisot; Luca Cecchinato; Alessio Gastaldello

2007-01-01

176

Flight and ground calibrations: TRMM and EOS-AM1 clouds and the Earth's radiant energy system (CERES) instrument zero radiance offsets determination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument has scanning thermistor bolometers that measure broadband radiances in the shortwave, total and 8-12 micron water vapor window regions. On November 27, 1997, the CERES Protoflight model (PFM) instrument was launched aboard the Tropical Rainfall measuring Mission spacecraft. In December 1998, the CERES FLight models I and II instruments are scheduled for launch on the Earth Observing System-AM1 platform. The instrument generally operates in three scan modes; crosstrack normal, rotating azimuth normal and rotating azimuth short modes, while measuring the earth reflected and emitted radiances. The sensor measurements have shown a dependency on observation geometry during each of these scan modes of operation. At each elevation observation angle, the zero radiance offsets of the sensors were measured on the ground using end caps and a constant radiance reference source, consisting of a curved strip blackbody. On-orbit, offsets were determined from observations of cold space. This paper describes the procedures and facilities used to determine the zero radiance offsets. The offset values calculated from ground and in-flight data for TRMM sensors, as well as the ground measurements for the FM1 and FM2 sensors are presented.

Thomas, Susan; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Lee, Robert B.; Priestley, Kory J.; Bitting, Herbert C.; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Smith, G. Louis; Thornhill, K. L.; Wilson, Robert S.

1998-10-01

177

Magnetohydrodynamic research program of the MHD Energy center at Mississippi State University and structural features of MHD radiant boilers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetohydrodynamic is conducted largerly through use of test stand which simulates conditions in the MHD gas stream. Continual modification of the test stand to reflect experimental results produced a test stand capable of test runs of 100 hours; runs of more than 500 hours are planned. The test stand is described, and experimental results are discussed. The design and construction of MHD radiant boiler are described. The radiant furnance serves several functions in a heat recovery and seed recovery system; it cools flue gases to a temperature suitable for entrance to the secondary superheater; it generates steam; it provides for the removal of molten ash at high temperatures; and it provides access for intrusive and nonintrusive instrumentation to the gas-side environment.

Shepard, W. S.

178

Energy saving possibilities with cooled-ceiling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on hour-by-hour simulation studies, this paper presents the annual energy consumption characteristics of water-panel type cooled-ceiling systems in comparison with conventional all-air systems. In particular, some unique energy saving measures associated with cooled-ceiling systems are numerically studied. The results indicate that a cooled-ceiling system can save much of the fan energy required in all-air systems, and that in the

J. Niu; J. v. d. Kooi; H. v. d. Rhee

1995-01-01

179

New Directions for Evaporative Cooling Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|New energy saving technology can be applied to older cooling towers; in addition, evaporative chilling, a process that links a cooling tower to the chilling equipment, can reduce energy use by 80 percent. (Author/MLF)|

Robison, Rita

1981-01-01

180

Investigation of a Condenser-Linked Radiant Cooling System using a Heat Balance Based Energy Simulation Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the more powerful benefits of using computer simulation in the process of designing buildings is the ability to try ideas that may not appear feasible on the surface but could potentially have some merit. This is especially true when investigating the energy consumption of buildings—computer simulation allows the architect and engineer to reasonably predict the energy consumption of

Richard K. Strand

181

The analysis of GSHP radiant floor heating with PCM for energy storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the prominent position of constructing resource conservation and environmental-friendly society in the industrialization and modernization developmental strategy, this paper compared the GSHP, radiant floor heating system, PCM for heat storage with its corresponding style, conceived a new energy system-GSHP radiant floor heating system with PCM for energy storage. This paper had analyzed the influences of water supply temperature,

Wang Jinggang; Kang Ligai; Zhao Jinxiu

2009-01-01

182

Nonwater Quality Impacts of Closed-Cycle Cooling Systems and the Interaction of Stack Gas and Cooling Tower Plumes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives results of a literature survey of the nonwater quality impacts of closed-cycle cooling systems. Following discussions of cooling tower and stack gas plumes, interactions of these plumes are considered. For cooling tower plumes, plume type...

G. A. Englesson M. C. Hu

1979-01-01

183

Cooling and shielding systems for infrared detectors - requirements and limits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents three main cooling systems used for infrared detectors. At first thermoelectric devices are discussed. They allow cooling down the detector with low efficiency and not to the very low temperature. They do not generate any vibrations and therefore are suitable for thermal detectors, where the microphone effect can decrease their performance. Photon detectors need to be cooled

B. Wiecek

2005-01-01

184

Cooling system. [salt solution evaporation and solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cooling system for air conditioning of buildings is described which comprises creating a cold medium by dissolving a salt in water, said salt being characterized by forming an endothermic solution, passing air through or over said cold solution to cool the air before introduction into said building. After the potential cooling effect is exhausted the salt is recovered by

Telkes

1977-01-01

185

Cooling system for automotive engine or the like  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an internal combustion engine having a structure subject to high heat flux, a cooling system comprising: (a) a cooling circuit for removing heat from the structure, the cooling circuit comprising: a coolant jacket disposed about the structure and into which coolant is introduced in liquid form and permitted to boil; a radiator in which coolant vapor is

K. Fujigaya; N. Ogawa; H. Shimonosono; Y. Minezaki

1986-01-01

186

Open cycle lithium chloride cooling system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A lithium chloride open cycle absorption chiller has been designed, built and tested. Solution reconcentration takes place in a small counter current packed column supplied with solar heated air. Removal of noncondensable gases that enter the chiller dissolved in the strong solution and the make-up refrigerant streams is accomplished by a liquid-jet ejector and a small vacuum pump. Cooling capacities approaching 1.4 tons and COP levels of 0.58 have been achieved at non-optimum operating conditions. Test results from preliminary system operation suggest that mass transfer processes in both the packed column reconcentrator and the absorber are controlled by concentration gradients in the lithium chloride solution. Liquid phase controlled mass transfer dictates an operating strategy different from the previously assumed gas phase controlled process to obtain maximum rates of evaporation in the packed column. Determination of optimal operating conditions leading to decreased electrical power consumption and improved cooling capacity and coefficient of performance will require further analysis and testing.

Lenz, T. G.; Loef, G. O. G.; Iyer, R.; Wenger, J.

1983-05-01

187

Gas turbine engine component cooling system  

SciTech Connect

An electronic control apparatus is described which is positionable in a cooling fluid environment comprising: a housing for containing an electronic control having an outer surface; a plurality of heat transfer fins extending from the outer surface of the housing and positionable in the cooling fluid environment for cooling the fins and housing; environmental sensor means disposed in and connected to the housing adjacent to the heat transfer fins and being connectible to the electronic control; and the sensor means being positioned in the housing in flow communication with the cooling fluid flowable over the fins for sensing a characteristic of primarily the cooling fluid environment.

Colman, M.E.; Goeller, R.E.

1986-07-22

188

On-orbit solar calibration methods using the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) in-flight calibration system: lessons learned  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) scanning thermistor bolometers measure earth-reflected solar and earth-emitted long-wave radiances, at the top- of-the-atmosphere. The bolometers measure the earth radiances in the broadband shortwave solar (0.3-5.0 microns) and total (0.3->100 microns) spectral bands as well as in the 8->12 microns water vapor window spectral band over geographical footprints as small as 10 kilometers at nadir. December 1999, the second and third set of CERES bolometers was launched on the Earth Observing Mission Terra Spacecraft. May 2003, the fourth and fifth set of bolometers was launched on the Earth Observing Mission Aqua Spacecraft. Recently, (October 2011) the sixth instrument was launched on the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System Preparatory Project (Suomi NPP) Spacecraft. Ground vacuum calibrations define the initial count conversion coefficients that are used to convert the bolometer output voltages into filtered earth radiances. The mirror attenuator mosaic (MAM), a solar diffuser plate, was built into the CERES instrument package calibration system in order to define on-orbit shifts or drifts in the sensor responses. It followed a similar design as the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanners with improvements from lessons learned. The shortwave and shortwave part of the total-wave sensors are calibrated using the solar radiances reflected from the MAM's. Each MAM consists of baffle-solar diffuser plate systems, which guide incoming solar radiances into the instrument fields of view of the shortwave and total wave sensor units. The MAM diffuser reflecting type surface consists of an array of spherical aluminum mirror segments, which are separated by a Merck Black A absorbing surface, over-coated with SIOx (SIO2 for PFM). Thermistors are located within each MAM plate and the total channel baffle. The CERES MAM is designed to yield calibration precisions approaching .5 percent for the total and shortwave detectors. The Terra FM1 and FM2 shortwave channels and the FM1 and FM2 total channels MAM calibration systems showed shifts in their solar calibrations of 1.5, 2.5, 1.5 and 6 percent, respectively within the first year. The Aqua FM3, and FM4 shortwave channels and the FM3 and FM4 total channels MAM calibration systems showed shifts in their solar calibrations of 1.0, 1.2, 2.1 and .8 percent, respectively within the first year. A possible explanation has attributed the MAM reflectance change to on-orbit solar ultraviolet/atomic oxygen/out-gassing induced chemical changes to the SIOx coated MAM assembly during ram and solar exposure. There is also changes to the sensor telescope shortwave filters as well as the Total channel mirrors and/or sensors. The Soumi NPP FM5 is still after 2.5 years displaying a stability of less than .5 percent. In this presentation, lessons learned from the ERBE MAM and application of knowledge of how the space environment affected the CERES FM1-4 solar calibrations will be presented along with on-orbit measurements for the thirteen years the CERES instruments have been on-orbit.

Wilson, Robert S.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Hess, Phillip; Shankar, Mohan; Smith, Nathaniel; Szewczyk, Peter

2013-09-01

189

Natural circulating passive cooling system for nuclear reactor containment structure  

DOEpatents

A passive cooling system for the contaminant structure of a nuclear reactor plant providing protection against overpressure within the containment attributable to inadvertent leakage or rupture of the system components. The cooling system utilizes natural convection for transferring heat imbalances and enables the discharge of irradiation free thermal energy to the atmosphere for heat disposal from the system.

Gou, Perng-Fei (Saratoga, CA); Wade, Gentry E. (Saratoga, CA)

1990-01-01

190

Passive cooling system for nuclear reactor containment structure  

DOEpatents

A passive cooling system for the contaminant structure of a nuclear reactor plant providing protection against overpressure within the containment attributable to inadvertent leakage or rupture of the system components. The cooling system utilizes natural convection for transferring heat imbalances and enables the discharge of irradiation free thermal energy to the atmosphere for heat disposal from the system.

Gou, Perng-Fei (Saratoga, CA); Wade, Gentry E. (Saratoga, CA)

1989-01-01

191

S'COOL Tutorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial provides detailed information about the importance of ground truth measurements for investigative science and various cloud properties. CERES measurements contribute to our understanding of the interaction between clouds and solar energy, the most significant factor controlling our climate. Studentsâ Cloud Observations On-Line (S'COOL) is a K-12 educational outreach effort of Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), a NASA instrument that observes Earth from space. S'COOL involves students in making ground truth observations of clouds for comparison with satellite data. S'COOL involves four basic steps, which are explained in the tutorial: determining satellite overpass time, observing cloud properties, transmitting results to NASA, and comparing results with satellite-retrieved properties.

2003-01-01

192

Electronics Cooling Using a Self-Contained, Sub-Cooled Pumped Liquid System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electronic thermal packaging design continues to look for novel solutions for enhancing the performance of microelectronic cooling solutions. Driven by increasing thermal performance requirements, particularly in densely packaged militarized electronic systems and other high density or extreme use products, thermal designers are showing that to achieve the necessary cooling, combinations of existing technologies may offer further enhancement than has already

W. John Bilski; Gregg Baldassarre; Matt Connors; Jerry Toth; Kevin L. Wert

2008-01-01

193

Radiant heat transfer at high temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of methods of the radiant heat transfer theory is based on certain simplified assumptions of radiation properties. Approximate methods for the determination of radiant heat transfer at high temperatures are considered, giving attention to the thin-layer approximation, the 'gray' gas approximation, the radiant heat conduction approximation, the zonal method, and methods taking into account the frequency dependence of

L. M. Biberman

1974-01-01

194

Study on Temporary Space Cooling System using Ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a temporary space cooling system using ice was evaluated for the simple cooling of spaces, such as prefabricated buildings and tents used for events and at times of disaster, and analysis and experiments were conducted concerning the system. First, the concept of this system was established. Two types of cooling methods - natural and forced circulation - were adopted. Next, the cooling capacity was predicted by calculation. Measurement results were also presented concerning the cooling capacity of the forced circulation-type system in a temporary tent. Furthermore, this system was actually tested on a temporary tent and a prefabricated building and demonstration experiments were conducted. The operation results were indicated and the cooling capacity was evaluated.

Nagata, Tsutomu; Hamada, Yasuhiro; Itoh, Yuki; Kubota, Hideki; Ono, Takayuki; Hashimoto, Yoshiaki

195

Potential of solar cooling systems for peak demand reduction  

SciTech Connect

We investigated the technical feasibility of solar cooling for peak demand reduction using a building energy simulation program (DOE2.1D). The system studied was an absorption cooling system with a thermal coefficient of performance of 0.8 driven by a solar collector system with an efficiency of 50% with no thermal storage. The analysis for three different climates showed that, on the day with peak cooling load, about 17% of the peak load could be met satisfactorily with the solar-assisted cooling system without any thermal storage. A performance availability analysis indicated that the solar cooling system should be designed for lower amounts of available solar resources that coincide with the hours during which peak demand reduction is required. The analysis indicated that in dry climates, direct-normal concentrating collectors work well for solar cooling; however, in humid climates, collectors that absorb diffuse radiation work better.

Pesaran, A.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Neymark, J. [Neymark (Joel), Golden, CO (United States)

1994-11-01

196

Radiative effects of African dust and smoke observed from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cloud and aerosol effects have a significant impact on the atmospheric radiation budget in the tropical Atlantic because of the spatial and temporal extent of desert dust and smoke from biomass burning in the atmosphere. The influences of African dust and smoke aerosols on cloud radiative properties over the tropical Atlantic Ocean were analyzed for the month of July for 3 years (2006-2008) using colocated data collected by the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments on the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) and Aqua satellites. Aerosol layer height and type can be accurately determined using CALIOP data through directly measured parameters such as optical depth, volume depolarization ratio, attenuated backscatter, and color ratio. On average, clouds below 5 km had a daytime instantaneous shortwave (SW) radiative flux of 270.2 ± 16.9 W/m2 and thin cirrus clouds had a SW radiative flux of 208.0 ± 12.7 W/m2. When dust aerosols interacted with clouds below 5 km, as determined from CALIPSO, the SW radiative flux decreased to 205.4 ± 13.0 W/m2. Similarly, smoke aerosols decreased the SW radiative flux of low clouds to a value of 240.0 ± 16.6 W/m2. These decreases in SW radiative flux were likely attributed to the aerosol layer height and changes in cloud microphysics. CALIOP lidar observations, which more accurately identify aerosol layer height than passive instruments, appear essential for better understanding of cloud-aerosol interactions, a major uncertainty in predicting the climate system.

Yorks, John E.; McGill, Matt; Rodier, Sharon; Vaughan, Mark; Hu, Yongxiang; Hlavka, Dennis

2009-09-01

197

Development of a solar-powered passive ejector cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of an ejector refrigeration system that is powered by solar thermal energy. The cooling system contains no active parts and is therefore deemed passive. Water is used as the refrigerant though other natural refrigerants could be used for lower temperature operation. A prototype system was built with a nominal cooling capacity of 7 kW. This

V. M Nguyen; S. B Riffat; P. S Doherty

2001-01-01

198

Comparative analysis of thermally activated, environmentally friendly cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares the relative performances of three different thermally activated, environmentally friendly cooling systems, e.g. a silica-gel–water adsorption system, a LiBr–H2O absorption system and a desiccant air system. The adsorption and absorption systems in the current study employ water as the refrigerant, while the desiccant system cools atmospheric air directly. Each of these systems can be utilized at relatively

Y. Gupta; L. Metchop; A. Frantzis; P. E. Phelan

2008-01-01

199

The MANX Muon Cooling Experiment Detection System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MANX experiment is being proposed to demonstrate the reduction of 6D muon phase space emittance, using a continuous liquid absorber to provide ionization cooling in a helical solenoid magnetic channel. The experiment involves the construction of a two-period-long helical cooling channel (HCC) to reduce the muon invariant emittance by a factor of two. The HCC would replace the current

S. A. Kahn; R. J. Abrams; C. Ankenbrandt; M. A. C. Cummings; R. P. Johnson; T. J. Robertsa; K. Yoneharab

2010-01-01

200

Simulations and economic analyses of desiccant cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The progress to date in the development and analysis of computer simulations of solar-powered desiccant cooling using an axial-flow disc-type dehumidifier wheel, solar-powered space heating, and electrically driven, standard vapor-compression air-conditioning systems for residential use is documented. Computer simulations for both solar and conventional heating and cooling systems were performed for 12-month heating and cooling seasons. Annual thermal performance and

B. C. Shelpuk; D. W. Hooker; G. J. Jorgensen; C. E. Bingham

1979-01-01

201

A SOLAR EJECTOR COOLING SYSTEM USING REFRIGERANT R141b  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-performance solar ejector cooling system using R141b as the working fluid was developed. We obtain experimentally a COP of 0.5 for a single-stage ejector cooling system at a generating temperature of 90°C, condensing temperature of 28°C, and an evaporating temperature 8°C. For solar cooling application, an optimum overall COP can be obtained around 0.22 at a generating temperature of

B. J Huang; J. M Chang; V. A Petrenko; K. B Zhuk

1998-01-01

202

Improvement in Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System/Surface and Atmosphere Radiation Budget Dust Aerosol Properties, Effects on Surface Validation of Clouds and Radiative Swath  

SciTech Connect

Within the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) science team (Wielicki et al. 1996), the Surface and Atmospheric Radiation Budget (SARB) group is tasked with calculating vertical profiles of heating rates, globally, and continuously, beneath CERES footprint observations of Top of Atmosphere (TOA) fluxes. This is accomplished using a fast radiative transfer code originally developed by Qiang Fu and Kuo-Nan Liou (Fu and Liou 1993) and subsequently highly modified by the SARB team. Details on the code and its inputs can be found in Kato et al. (2005) and Rose and Charlock (2002). Among the many required inputs is characterization of the vertical column profile of aerosols beneath each footprint. To do this SARB combines aerosol optical depth information from the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument along with aerosol constituents specified by the Model for Atmosphere and Chemical Transport (MATCH) of Collins et al. (2001), and aerosol properties (e.g. single scatter albedo and asymmetry parameter) from Tegen and Lacis (1996) and OPAC (Hess et al. 1998). The publicly available files that include these flux profiles, called the Clouds and Radiative Swath (CRS) data product, available from the Langley Atmospheric Sciences Data Center (http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/). As various versions of the code are completed, publishable results are named ''Editions.'' After CRS Edition 2A was finalized it was found that dust aerosols were too absorptive. Dust aerosols have subsequently been modified using a new set of properties developed by Andy Lacis and results have been released in CRS Edition 2B. This paper discusses the effects of changing desert dust aerosol properties, which can be significant for the radiation budget in mid ocean, a few thousand kilometers from the source regions. Resulting changes are validated via comparison of surface observed fluxes from the Saudi Solar Village surface site (Myers et al. 1999), and the E13 site at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM), Southern Great Plains (SGP) central facility.

Rutan, D.; Rose, F.; Charlock, T.P.

2005-03-18

203

Nuclear reactor cooling system decontamination reagent regeneration  

DOEpatents

An improved method for decontaminating the coolant system of water-cooled nuclear power reactors and for regenerating the decontamination solution. A small amount of one or more weak-acid organic complexing agents is added to the reactor coolant, and the pH is adjusted to form a decontamination solution which is circulated throughout the coolant system to dissolve metal oxides from the interior surfaces and complex the resulting metal ions and radionuclide ions. The coolant containing the complexed metal ions and radionuclide ions is passed through a strong-base anion exchange resin bed which has been presaturated with a solution containing the complexing agents in the same ratio and having the same pH as the decontamination solution. As the decontamination solution passes through the resin bed, metal-complexed anions are exchanged for the metal-ion-free anions on the bed, while metal-ion-free anions in the solution pass through the bed, thus removing the metal ions and regenerating the decontamination solution.

Anstine, Larry D. (San Jose, CA); James, Dean B. (Saratoga, CA); Melaika, Edward A. (Berkeley, CA); Peterson, Jr., John P. (Livermore, CA)

1985-01-01

204

Spectral radiant emission of dynamic resistive arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A persistent question in the infrared scene projection community has been the spectral characteristics of resistive array emission. This paper describes the results of a comprehensive study performed on two resistive array technologies; the Nuclear Optical Dynamic Display System (NODDS) and the Santa Barbara Infrared (SBIR) Large Format Resistive Array (LFRA) product lines. A Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectral radiometer is used to measure the spectral radiant emission of both resistive array technologies at multiple drive levels and substrate temperatures. Application of the results to scene projection and cross spectral non-uniformity correction is discussed.

Brown, Matthew; Hayes, Alexander G.; Anderson, Kirk; James, Jay; Harrison, David C.

2007-04-01

205

The MANX Muon Cooling Experiment Detection System  

SciTech Connect

The MANX experiment is being proposed to demonstrate the reduction of 6D muon phase space emittance, using a continuous liquid absorber to provide ionization cooling in a helical solenoid magnetic channel. The experiment involves the construction of a two-period-long helical cooling channel (HCC) to reduce the muon invariant emittance by a factor of two. The HCC would replace the current cooling section of the MICE experiment now being set up at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. The MANX experiment would use the existing MICE spectrometers and muon beam line. We discuss the placement of detection planes to optimize the muon track resolution.

Kahn, S. A.; Abrams, R. J.; Ankenbrandt, C.; Cummings, M. A. C.; Johnson, R. P.; Robertsa, T. J. [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL (United States); Yoneharab, K. [Fermilab, Batavia, IL (United States)

2010-03-30

206

Get the most out of your cooling system  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Warm weather poses management challenges to maintain production efficiency in broiler chickens. Proper maintenance and operation of ventilation and cooling system components is essential to maintain the proper thermal environment and efficient use of energy. Fan and evaporative cooling system clea...

207

Laboratory research on combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP) systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP) systems offer the potential for a significant increase in fuel use efficiency by generating electricity onsite and recycling the exhaust gas for heating, cooling, or dehumidifying. A challenge for CCHP system is the efficient integration of distributed generation (DG) equipment with thermally-activated (TA) technologies. The China Ministry of Science and Technology and Tsinghua University

L. Fu; X. L. Zhao; S. G. Zhang; Y. Jiang; H. Li; W. W. Yang

2009-01-01

208

Assessing Maintenance of Evaporative Cooling Systems in Legionellosis Outbreaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to conduct systematic reviews of existing evaporative cooling system maintenance guidelines and of published Legionnaires’ disease outbreaks to determine what, if any, maintenance practices were in place at the time of the disease outbreaks and then to contrast the reported practices with the published guidelines for evaporative cooling systems. For the first review, similarities in the

Kelly M. Rangel; George Delclos; Robert Emery; Elaine Symanski

2011-01-01

209

Cooling system for automotive engine or the like  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an internal combustion engine: a structure subject to high heat flux a cooling system for removing heat from the structure, the system comprising: (a) a cooling circuit including: (i) a coolant jacket formed about the structure and into which coolant is introduced in liquid form and permitted to boil; (ii) a radiator in which gaseous coolant is

Y. Hayashi; Y. Murakami

1987-01-01

210

Weather-predicted control of building free cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the optimization of a weather-predicted free cooling system combined with heat storage is shown. The method of incorporating weather forecasts into the control system is presented. The regime of operation was selected and optimized based on free cooling energy and the required temperature parameters of a building’s indoor environment, using variable flow rate control through the heat

Klemen Dovrtel

2011-01-01

211

Advanced cooling system using miniature heat pipes in mobile PC  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes various cooling solutions using heat pipes for cooling a notebook PC. These are: 1) heat pipe with heat spreader plate; 2) hybrid system-i.e., heat pipe with heat sink and fan; and 3) hinged heat pipe system. For heat input of less than 12 W, the thermal resistance measured between the surface of the CPU to ambient was

Thang Nguyen; Masataka Mochizuki; Koichi Mashiko; Yuji Saito; I. Sanciuc; Rex Boggs

2000-01-01

212

Cooling system for an automobile engine  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a cooling system for an automobile engine having a water jacket, a radiator, a water pump, and a thermostat housing, comprising: a first passage communicating an upper outlet of the water jacket with an inlet of the radiator provided at a lower portion, a second passage communicating an upper outlet of the radiator with an inlet of the water pump and having the thermostat housing at the upstream of the pump; an outlet of the pump communicated with a lower inlet of the water jacket; a bypass connected between the first passage and the thermostat housing; a thermostat comprising a thermo-sensitive device, a first valve and a second valve disposed in the thermostat housing both the valves operatively connect to the thermo-sensitive device, so that the first valve closes the second passage and the second valve opens the bypass; the thermo-sensitive device disposes in the bypass and the first and second valves operate by the operation of the thermo-sensitive device.

Kuze, Y.

1987-07-14

213

Ice pond cooling system for power plants  

SciTech Connect

The use of melting ice to cool the power plant condenser effluent is considered as an alternative approach for high latitude locations where ice is readily available. The main interest in this technique is the expected reduction in water consumption. The results of a feasibility study of the engineering and economical possibilities of a power plant employing this technique are presented. This scheme was applied to a 1000 MW nuclear power plant that requires a constant condenser cooling water flow of 1337 cfs.

Miller, A.C.; Pena, J.A.; Urbsanski, J.; Kerr, S.N.

1983-09-01

214

Heat pump system with selective space cooling  

DOEpatents

A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve.

Pendergrass, Joseph C. (Gainesville, GA)

1997-01-01

215

Heat pump system with selective space cooling  

DOEpatents

A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve. 4 figs.

Pendergrass, J.C.

1997-05-13

216

A hemolysis study of an intravascular blood cooling system for localized organ tissue cooling.  

PubMed

Therapeutic hypothermia can reduce both ischemic and reperfusion injury arising after strokes and heart attacks. New localized organ cooling systems offer a way to reduce tissue damage more effectively with fewer side effects. To assess initial blood safety of our new organ cooling system, the CoolGuide Cooling System (CCS), we investigated safe operating conditions and configurations from a hemolysis perspective. The CCS consists of a peristaltic pump, a custom-built external heat exchanger, a chiller, biocompatible polyvinyl cellulose (PVC) tubing, and a control console. The CCS cools and circulates autologous blood externally and re-delivers cooled blood to the patient through a conventional catheter inserted directly into the organ at risk. Catheter configurations used included: a 7F guide catheter only, a 7F guide with a 0.038" wire inserted through the center and advanced 2 cm distal to the catheter distal tip, a 6F guide catheter only and a 6F guide with a 0.014" guidewire similarly inserted through the center. Using porcine blood, an in vitro test rig was used to measure the degree of hemolysis generation, defined as the percentage change in free hemoglobin, adjusted for total hemoglobin and hematocrit, between exiting and entering blood. The highest degree of hemolysis generation was 0.11±0.04%, based on the average behavior with a 6F catheter and a 0.014" guidewire configuration at a blood flow rate of approximately 130 mL/min. In terms of average percentage free hemoglobin exiting the system, based on total hemoglobin, the highest value measured was 0.17%±0.03%, using this 6F and 0.014" guidewire configuration. This result is significantly below the most stringent European guideline of 0.8% used for blood storage and transfusion. This study provides initial evidence showing hemolysis generation arising from the CoolGuide Cooling System is likely to be clinically insignificant. PMID:23047283

Merrill, T L; Mingin, T; Merrill, D R; Botbyl, J; Akers, J E

2012-10-09

217

Design Studies of Magnet Systems for Muon Helical Cooling Channels  

SciTech Connect

Helical cooling channels with superimposed solenoid and helical dipole and quadrupole coils, and a pressurized gas absorber in the aperture offer high efficiency of 6D muon beam cooling. In this paper, we continue design studies and comparison of two basic concepts of magnet system proposed for a helical cooling channel focusing on the high field sections. The results of magnetic analysis and Lorentz force calculations as well as the superconductor choice are presented and discussed.

Kashikhin, V.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Lamm, M.J.; Lopes, M.L.; Zlobin, A.V.; /Fermilab; Alsharo'a, M.; Johnson, R.P.; Kahn, Stephen A.; /MUONS Inc., Batavia

2008-06-25

218

Development of design charts for solar cooling systems. Part I: computer simulation for a solar cooling system and development of solar cooling design charts  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated transient simulation program is developed for simulating the Iraqi solar house cooling system, using TRNSYS as a design tool. The simulation is modeled for other virtual solar cooling systems similar to the Iraqi solar house. A number of computer programs were developed and used in parallel with TRNSYS for developing an integrated program for the complete simulation of

Khalid A. Joudi; Qussai J. Abdul-Ghafour

2003-01-01

219

Electromagnetic Pumps for Main Cooling Systems of Commercialized Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electromagnetic pump (EMP) has superior potential to improve the economic performance and ease of maintenance of sodium-cooled fast reactors. This study investigates the adequateness of a modular-type EMP system for large-sized (1,500MWe class) sodium-cooled fast reactors. A flow rate of over 500 m\\/min is required for the main circulating pump of such reactors. There is concern that such a

Kosuke AIZAWA; Yoshitaka CHIKAZAWA; Shoji KOTAKE; Kuniaki ARA; Rie AIZAWA; Hiroyuki OTA

2011-01-01

220

Improvement of operating method on HFETR primary cooling system.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

By using the characteristics of primary cooling system on HFETR(high flux engineering test reactor), the improvement of operating method is discussed. Based on the actual measured data, the calculating results of system resistance are presented. The resul...

Y. Wu H. Cai J. Lin H. Qiang G. Wu

1992-01-01

221

Improvement of Cooling Performance of a Compact Thermoelectric Air Conditioner Using a Direct Evaporative Cooling System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of tests carried out to investigate the potential application of a direct evaporative cooling (DEC) system for improving the performance of a compact thermoelectric (TE) air conditioner. The compact TE air conditioner is composed of three TE modules. The cold and hot sides of the TE modules were fixed to rectangular fin heat sinks. The DEC system produced cooling air that was used to assist the release of heat from the heat sinks at the hot side of the TE modules. The results showed that the cooling air dry bulb temperature from the DEC system achieved drops of about 5.9°C in parallel with about a 33.4% rise in relative humidity. The cooling efficiency of the DEC system varies between 72.1% and 81.5%. It increases the cooling capacity of the compact TE air conditioner from 53.0 W to 74.5 W. The 21.5 W (40.6%) increase represents the difference between the compact air conditioner operating with ambient air flowing through the TE module's heat sinks, and the compact air conditioner operating with the cooler air from the DEC system flowing through the TE module's heat sinks. In both scenarios, electric current of 4.5 A was supplied to the TE modules. It also has been experimentally proven that the coefficient of performance (COP) of the compact TE air conditioner can be improved by up to 20.9% by incorporating the DEC system.

Tipsaenporm, W.; Lertsatitthanakorn, C.; Bubphachot, B.; Rungsiyopas, M.; Soponronnarit, S.

2012-06-01

222

Closed loop air cooling system for combustion turbines  

DOEpatents

Convective cooling of turbine hot parts using a closed loop system is disclosed. Preferably, the present invention is applied to cooling the hot parts of combustion turbine power plants, and the cooling provided permits an increase in the inlet temperature and the concomitant benefits of increased efficiency and output. In preferred embodiments, methods and apparatus are disclosed wherein air is removed from the combustion turbine compressor and delivered to passages internal to one or more of a combustor and turbine hot parts. The air cools the combustor and turbine hot parts via convection and heat is transferred through the surfaces of the combustor and turbine hot parts. 1 fig.

Huber, D.J.; Briesch, M.S.

1998-07-21

223

Closed loop air cooling system for combustion turbines  

DOEpatents

Convective cooling of turbine hot parts using a closed loop system is disclosed. Preferably, the present invention is applied to cooling the hot parts of combustion turbine power plants, and the cooling provided permits an increase in the inlet temperature and the concomitant benefits of increased efficiency and output. In preferred embodiments, methods and apparatus are disclosed wherein air is removed from the combustion turbine compressor and delivered to passages internal to one or more of a combustor and turbine hot parts. The air cools the combustor and turbine hot parts via convection and heat is transferred through the surfaces of the combustor and turbine hot parts.

Huber, David John (North Canton, OH); Briesch, Michael Scot (Orlando, FL)

1998-01-01

224

Compact Solid State Cooling Systems: Compact MEMS Electrocaloric Module  

SciTech Connect

BEETIT Project: UCLA is developing a novel solid-state cooling technology to translate a recent scientific discovery of the so-called giant electrocaloric effect into commercially viable compact cooling systems. Traditional air conditioners use noisy, vapor compression systems that include a polluting liquid refrigerant to circulate within the air conditioner, absorb heat, and pump the heat out into the environment. Electrocaloric materials achieve the same result by heating up when placed within an electric field and cooling down when removed—effectively pumping heat out from a cooler to warmer environment. This electrocaloric-based solid state cooling system is quiet and does not use liquid refrigerants. The innovation includes developing nano-structured materials and reliable interfaces for heat exchange. With these innovations and advances in micro/nano-scale manufacturing technologies pioneered by semiconductor companies, UCLA is aiming to extend the performance/reliability of the cooling module.

None

2010-10-01

225

Developing rapid heating and cooling systems using pyrolytic graphite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid heating and cooling is desired in many applications. A new type of rapid heating and cooling system using pyrolytic graphite (PG) was investigated. Due to a large degree of anisotropy, a factor of 200 in thermal conductivity difference and a factor of 1200 in electrical resistivity difference, PG is suitable for rapid surface heating. The high electrical resistivity and

Donggang Yao; Byung Kim

2003-01-01

226

Performance tests of high temperature superconducting power cable cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high temperature superconducting power cable requires forced flow cooling. Liquid nitrogen is circulated by a pump and cooled down by a subcooling system. Typical operating temperature range is expected to be between 65 K and 80 K. The circulating liquid nitrogen is subcooled by liquid nitrogen boiling on the shell side of a subcooler heat exchanger, and then it

Deukyong Koh; Hankil Yeom; Yongju Hong; Kwansoo Lee

2004-01-01

227

OPERATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF CLOSED CYCLE COOLING SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of a study of operational and environmental impacts of closed cooling systems, used for about a quarter of the nation's steam-electric generating capacity. Conclusions relating to operational impacts include: (1) closed cycle cooling leads to increased pow...

228

Development of an ejector cooling system with thermal pumping effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a feasibility study of an ejector cooling system (ECS) that utilizes a multi-function generator (MFG) to eliminate the mechanical pump. The MFG serves as both a pump and a vapor generator. The MFG is designed based on the pressure equilibration between high and low pressures through heating and cooling process. In this design, an ECS that contains

B. J. Huang; S. S. Hu; S. H. Lee

2006-01-01

229

Modeling and simulation of improved solar absorption cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar absorption cooling is economically unattractive compared to vapor compression cooling. This is due to the high cost and relatively low efficiency of the equipment. Improved configurations of the different components of the solar absorption system were studied, and techniques for their evaluation developed. The method consists of mathematic modeling and computer simulations. Three advanced absorption cycles, the absorption-resorption, double

Campos-Velarde

1983-01-01

230

Cryogenic cooling system for the ground test accelerator  

SciTech Connect

A cryogenic cooling system has been designed, built and tested for the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Major components of the GTA require cooling to less than 50 K to reduce rf-heating and to increase thermal stability. The cooling system is capable of cooling (at an acceptable rate for thermal stresses) the cryogenically cooled components and then maintaining them at their operating temperature during accelerator testing for all modes and power levels of operation. The accelerator components are cooled by circulating cold, dense helium gas (about 21 K and 2.1 MPa) through the components. The circulating helium is refrigerated in a heat exchanger that uses boiling liquid hydrogen as a source of refrigeration. The cryogenic cooling system consists of the following major components: a liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) storage Dewar with a transfer line to an LH{sub 2} run tank containing an LH{sub 2}/gaseous helium (GHe) heat exchanger, circulation lines, and a circulation pump. The system, sized to cool a load of approximately 40 kW at temperatures as low as 20 K, is operational, but has not yet been operated in conjunction with the accelerator.

Edeskuty, F.J.; Stewart, W.F.; Moeller, J.; Durham, F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Spulgis, I. [CVI, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States)

1993-06-01

231

Cryogenic cooling system for the ground test accelerator  

SciTech Connect

A cryogenic cooling system has been designed, built and tested for the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Major components of the GTA require cooling to less than 50 K to reduce rf-heating and to increase thermal stability. The cooling system is capable of cooling (at an acceptable rate for thermal stresses) the cryogenically cooled components and then maintaining them at their operating temperature during accelerator testing for all modes and power levels of operation. The accelerator components are cooled by circulating cold, dense helium gas (about 21 K and 2.1 MPa) through the components. The circulating helium is refrigerated in a heat exchanger that uses boiling liquid hydrogen as a source of refrigeration. The cryogenic cooling system consists of the following major components: a liquid hydrogen (LH[sub 2]) storage Dewar with a transfer line to an LH[sub 2] run tank containing an LH[sub 2]/gaseous helium (GHe) heat exchanger, circulation lines, and a circulation pump. The system, sized to cool a load of approximately 40 kW at temperatures as low as 20 K, is operational, but has not yet been operated in conjunction with the accelerator.

Edeskuty, F.J.; Stewart, W.F.; Moeller, J.; Durham, F. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Spulgis, I. (CVI, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States))

1993-01-01

232

Impact of advanced fluids on costs of district cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three alternate fluids, ice-water slurry, friction reduction additive and the combination of them, have been compared for use in District Cooling Systems (DCS). The effect of the fluids on cost and cooling capacities were considered for the two cases of new and existing DCS separately. Two criteria were used in comparisons among fluids in each case: constant pumping power which

D. M. France; B. D. Knodel

1992-01-01

233

Cool Stars, Stellar Systems and the Sun.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The series of 'Cool Star' meetings concentrates on the astrophysics of low-mass stars (with masses similar to that of the Sun and lower), including the Sun. The meeting in St. Andrews, Scotland, was the 15th in this series, and focused in particular on the origin of low-mass stars and their planets, as well as the properties of their atmospheres. This volume provides a comprehensive overview of the science presented by the 350 participants of this meeting. The book is suitable for researchers and graduate students interested in the astrophysics of cool stars and the Sun.

Stempels, Eric

2009-02-01

234

Efficient use of gas by the employment of assembly-type radiant roofs in industrial furnaces  

SciTech Connect

Compared with conventional flame burner heating systems, special burners such as radiant burners allow a more efficient utilization of gas in industrial furnaces in many cases of application. Practice has shown that the integration of radiant burners into assembly-type roof elements and the additional application of radiation-active ceramic protective layers permit an efficient design and employment of radiant roofs. Self-supporting superstructure elements made of heat-resistant reinforced concrete and recently also of fibrous materials are used as assembly-type roof elements which carry the radiant burners alone. Model investigations have shown that an increase in emissivity of burner bricks and adjacent roof and wall areas makes it possible to intensify the radiant heat transfer in the furnace chambers.

Borrmann, F.; Hafner, K.

1988-01-01

235

Broadband measurements of lunar radiances using the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft/Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

12 Currently, the moon is being used as a radiometric target to determine on-orbit relative shifts or shifts in the responses of certain spacecraft shortwave sensors. Along these lines, the 1998 Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Spacecraft/Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) thermistor bolometer sensor observations of lunar radiances were analyzed to evaluate the feasibility using the lunar radiances to calibrate the CERES sensor responses. Over a 5 to 110 degree phase angle range, the CERES sensors were used to measure: broadband shortwave (0.3 micrometers to 5.0 micrometers ) moon-reflected solar filtered radiances; broadband total (0.3 micrometers to more than 100 micrometers ) moon- reflected solar and moon-emitted longwave filtered radiances; and narrowband window (8 micrometers to 12 micrometers ) moon- emitted longwave filtered radiances. The TRMM/CERES on-orbit radiance measurements are tied to an International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) modeled radiometric scale at uncertainty levels approaching 0.2% (0.2 Wm-2sr-1). Therefore, the TRMM/CERES measurements should be useful in forecasting the precisions of scheduled CERES lunar measurements from the NASA Terra and Aqua Spacecraft platforms near phase angle of 22 and 55 degrees, respectively. The 7-degree phase angle, 1998 CERES shortwave, total, and window measurements yielded lunar filtered radiances of approximately 4.5+/- 0.2, 24.4+/- 0.5, and 4.5+/- 0.2 Wm-2sr-1, respectively. These lunar measurements indicate that broadband shortwave radiances can be characterized at the 5% uncertainty range. The 7-degree, shortwave lunar radiances were found to be approximately 1.5 and 3 times brighter greater the corresponding radiances found at the 22-degree and 55-degree phase angles, respectively. Therefore, the Terra and Aqua CERES lunar shortwave measurements near 22.5- degree and 55-degree phase angles should yield projected precisions in the 7% and 15% range, respectively. The CERES lunar filtered radiance are presented and discussed. Research efforts are outlined briefly for comparing the total sensor broadband and window narrowband longwave lunar radiances during the January 9, 2001 lunar eclipse.

Lee, Robert B.; Smith, G. Louis; Spence, Peter L.; Walikainen, Dale R.; Szewczyk, Zbigniew P.; Paden, Jack; Priestley, Kory J.

2001-02-01

236

Impact of advanced fluids on costs of district cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

Three alternate fluids, ice-water slurry, friction reduction additive and the combination of them, have been compared for use in District Cooling Systems (DCS). The effect of the fluids on cost and cooling capacities were considered for the two cases of new and existing DCS separately. Two criteria were used in comparisons among fluids in each case: constant pumping power which allows for the most benefit, and constant velocity which is more practical consideration. An economic assessment for a 500 ton system shows a potential cost difference in the total pipe cost for a new system of 70% when a 30% ice slurry is used in place of chilled water. The pipe diameter is reduced to 40% using the slurry. These results apply to the constant comparison and are independent of the use of additive. Friction reduction additives serve to reduce pumping power and pressure drop. The ice-water slurry also has a significant impact on existing district cooling systems. It can potentially expand the cooling capacity by 500% without new piping being installed while maintaining the same pumping power, velocity and pressure-drop as the chilled water system. Again, friction reduction additives serve to reduce pumping power and pressure-drop. They do not influence cooling capacity. The cost for expanding the piping to increase the cooling capacity by the same amount by the use of conventional district cooling technology has been shown to be extremely high compared to the ice-water slurry system.

Choi, U.S. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); France, D.M.; Knodel, B.D. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States) Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

1992-01-01

237

Impact of advanced fluids on costs of district cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

Three alternate fluids, ice-water slurry, friction reduction additive and the combination of them, have been compared for use in District Cooling Systems (DCS). The effect of the fluids on cost and cooling capacities were considered for the two cases of new and existing DCS separately. Two criteria were used in comparisons among fluids in each case: constant pumping power which allows for the most benefit, and constant velocity which is more practical consideration. An economic assessment for a 500 ton system shows a potential cost difference in the total pipe cost for a new system of 70% when a 30% ice slurry is used in place of chilled water. The pipe diameter is reduced to 40% using the slurry. These results apply to the constant comparison and are independent of the use of additive. Friction reduction additives serve to reduce pumping power and pressure drop. The ice-water slurry also has a significant impact on existing district cooling systems. It can potentially expand the cooling capacity by 500% without new piping being installed while maintaining the same pumping power, velocity and pressure-drop as the chilled water system. Again, friction reduction additives serve to reduce pumping power and pressure-drop. They do not influence cooling capacity. The cost for expanding the piping to increase the cooling capacity by the same amount by the use of conventional district cooling technology has been shown to be extremely high compared to the ice-water slurry system.

Choi, U.S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); France, D.M.; Knodel, B.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1992-07-01

238

Application of radiant heating saves energy  

SciTech Connect

Application of radiant principles is one of the best kept secrets of the 20th century. The purpose of this application can reduce energy requirements. The theory of energy release from a high temperature surface was first proposed as a commercial product in the early 1900s. This article provides an understanding of how transfer or radiant energy works, identifies the factors that contribute to its economical performance and demonstrates how applications of radiant heating can provide comfort with lower energy costs.

Buckley, N.A. (Buckley Assoc., Eden, NY (US))

1989-09-01

239

HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEM FOR CALUTRON  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is invented for heating or cooling the electrostatic liner conventionally disposed in a calutron tank. The apparatus is additionally arranged to mount the liner in its intended position in a readily detachable manner so as to facilitate disassembly of the calutron.

Starr, A.M.

1960-06-28

240

HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEM FOR CALUTRON  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus is invented for heating or cooling the electrostatic liner ; conventionally disposed in a calutron tank. The apparatus is additionally ; arranged to mount the liner in its intended position in a readily detachable ; manner so as to facilitate disassembly of the calutron.

Starr

1960-01-01

241

Modelling an actively-cooled CPV system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have constructed a 7-node, 1-dimensional model of the heat flow in a water-cooled CPV receiver. The model is validated against data from a module exposed to solar irradiance at various concentrations up to 1,000X at the PETAL solar dish facility at Sede Boqer.

Buonomano, A.; Mittelman, G.; Faiman, D.; Biryukov, S.; Melnichak, V.; Bukobza, D.; Kabalo, S.

2012-10-01

242

Compact liquid cooling system for small, moveable electronic equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compact liquid cooling system has been evaluated in a benchmark of self-contained heat exchanger units that fit within small movable electronic equipment, such as PCs and workstations. The compact cooling system connects to a multichip module package via a pair of flexible stainless steel hoses. The system contains a fluid expansion chamber, a liquid-to-air heat exchanger core, a fan,

T. Y. Tom Lee; James Andrews; P. Chow; D. Saums

1992-01-01

243

Modeling and performance of the MHTGR (Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor) reactor cavity cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) of the Modular High- Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) proposed by the U.S. Department of Energy is designed to remove the nuclear afterheat passively in the event that neither the heat transport system nor the shutdown cooling circulator subsystem is available. A computer dynamic simulation for the physical and mathematical modeling of and RCCS is

Conklin

1990-01-01

244

76 FR 6551 - Medical Devices; General and Plastic Surgery Devices; Classification of Contact Cooling System...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plastic Surgery Devices; Classification of Contact Cooling System for Aesthetic Use AGENCY...Administration (FDA) is classifying the contact cooling system for aesthetic use into...II Special Controls Guidance Document: Contact Cooling System for Aesthetic...

2011-02-07

245

Cooling and shielding systems for infrared detectors - requirements and limits.  

PubMed

This paper presents three main cooling systems used for infrared detectors. At first thermoelectric devices are discussed. They allow cooling down the detector with low efficiency and not to the very low temperature. They do not generate any vibrations and therefore are suitable for thermal detectors, where the microphone effect can decrease their performance. Photon detectors need to be cooled down even to 77K or better. The only way to have such deep cooling is to use the cooler based on thermodynamic cycle such as Stirling one. With the high efficiency one can easily obtain cryogenic temperature for a detector. The electromagnetic noise and vibration generation are the main disadvantages of using such devices. Joule-Thomson effect during gas expansion is 3rdcooling system discussed in the paper. It is highly effective process, used for gas liquefaction too. The working gas is being removed during cooling into the atmosphere, so the need of continuous supplying with compressed one, what makes this system very difficult for remote applications. In the paper, simple calculations are presented to illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of the different cooling systems. PMID:17282258

Wiecek, B

2005-01-01

246

A model for radionuclide transport in the Cooling Water System  

SciTech Connect

A radionuclide transport model developed to assess radiological levels in the K-reactor Cooling Water System (CWS) in the event of an inadvertent process water (PW) leakage to the cooling water (CW) in the heat exchangers (HX) is described. During and following a process water leak, the radionuclide transport model determines the time-dependent release rates of radionuclide from the cooling water system to the environment via evaporation to the atmosphere and blow-down to the Savannah River. The developed model allows for delay times associated with the transport of the cooling water radioactivity through cooling water system components. Additionally, this model simulates the time-dependent behavior of radionuclides levels in various CWS components. The developed model is incorporated into the K-reactor Cooling Tower Activity (KCTA) code. KCTA allows the accident (heat exchanger leak rate) and the cooling tower blow-down and evaporation rates to be described as time-dependent functions. Thus, the postulated leak and the consequence of the assumed leak can be modelled realistically. This model is the first of three models to be ultimately assembled to form a comprehensive Liquid Pathway Activity System (LPAS). LPAS will offer integrated formation, transport, deposition, and release estimates for radionuclides formed in a SRS facility. Process water and river water modules are forthcoming as input and downstream components, respectively, for KCTA.

Kahook, S.D.

1992-08-01

247

CONTAINMENT SYSTEM, SPRAY CHAMBER, LOOKING NORTH WITH MIST COOLING MOLTEN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CONTAINMENT SYSTEM, SPRAY CHAMBER, LOOKING NORTH WITH MIST COOLING MOLTEN STEEL SLABS AS THEY PROGRESS THROUGH THIS CHAMBER. - U.S. Steel, Fairfield Works, Continuous Caster, Fairfield, Jefferson County, AL

248

Detail exterior view looking southwest of gas cooling system. Engine ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail exterior view looking southwest of gas cooling system. Engine house is shown in right background. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

249

2. VIEW SOUTH OF WIND TUNNEL 138 AND COOLING SYSTEM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW SOUTH OF WIND TUNNEL 138 AND COOLING SYSTEM 140, NORTH ELEVATION - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Subsonic Wind Tunnel Building, Bounded by Clara Barton Parkway & McArthur Boulevard, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

250

Natural circulating passive cooling system for nuclear reactor containment structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses a passive cooling, natural circulation system. It is for the containment structure of a nuclear reactor plant which is isolated from containment material within the reactor containment and provides overpressure protection within the containment housing.

P. F. Gou; G. E. Wade

1990-01-01

251

Cooling Systems Studies for Neodymium Doped Glass and YAG Lasers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An analytical evaluation of a variety of techniques was performed for cooling laser cavities and for rejecting heat from laser systems. Advantages, disadvantages, and unique areas of applicability for each technique were summarized to provide criteria for...

R. S. Woodard P. J. Kendall K. W. Fagin

1970-01-01

252

Indirect evaporative cooling potential in air–water systems in temperate climates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments have prompted a review of evaporative cooling technology as an effective means of cooling modern deep plan buildings. Prominent among these developments is the success of high temperature sensible cooling systems, particularly, chilled ceilings, which require a supply of cooling water at 14–18°C. Crucial to the success of evaporative cooling technology, as a significant means of cooling in

Ben Costelloe; Donal Finn

2003-01-01

253

Developing, testing, evaluating and optimizing solar heating and cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

The objective is to develop and test various integrated solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water systems, and to evaluate their performance. Systems composed of new, as well as previously tested, components are carefully integrated so that effects of new components on system performance can be clearly delineated. The SEAL-DOE program includes six tasks which have received funding for the 1991--92 fifteen-month period. These include: (1) a project employing isothermal operation of air and liquid solar space heating systems; (2) a project to build and test several generic solar water heaters; (3) a project that will evaluate advanced solar domestic hot water components and concepts and integrate them into solar domestic hot water systems; (4) a liquid desiccant cooling system development project; (5) a project that will perform system modeling and analysis work on solid desiccant cooling systems research; and (6) a management task. The objectives and progress in each task are described in this report.

Not Available

1992-01-24

254

Emerging microbial control issues in cooling water systems  

SciTech Connect

Microbial life affects everything including many industrial processes. The nature and activity of microorganisms determines whether their presence is beneficial or destructive. In cooling towers, the destructive capability of these organisms is manifested. The microorganisms that inhabit industrial cooling water systems can adversely affect the efficiency of the operation by their sheer number and diversity, metabolic wastes or deposits and associated corrosion. Microbiologically influenced corrosion is emerging as a serious problem in cooling systems. This article brings into focus the problems created by microbial infestations in cooling water systems and the control procedures evolved to combat them. Further, the future strategies being evolved in view of environmental concerns with biocides currently used are also discussed.

Choudhary, S.G. [Tata Chemicals Ltd., Babrala (India)

1998-05-01

255

S'COOL: Cloud Identification Chart and The Cloud Cookery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides detailed information about cloud identification, observing, and reporting. It also provides an activity on how to make a cloud in a bottle. French and Spanish versions of the chart are also available. This resource was developed for the Student Cloud Observations On Line (S'COOL) project. S'COOL is a component of NASA's Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project. S'COOL project participants make ground truth measurements for the CERES experiment. Ground truth measurements are land-based observations to compare with satellite data for the purpose of improving the satellite results.

2004-10-01

256

Low NOX radiant tube burner and method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A radiant tube and burner assembly is described comprising: (a) a radiant tube having a burner leg and an exhaust leg; (b) a plenum positioned at least in part normal to and between the burner leg and the exhaust leg for mixing combustion air with at least a restricted quantity of products of combustion from the exhaust leg and for

Finke

1989-01-01

257

Condensate Cooling System of the 60 MW Turbine with Combined Wet--Dry Cooling Tower (A-1).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The air-condensation cooling system with a wet-dry cooling tower to be used on the first unit of a 3-unit 380 MW heat- and power-producing power plant in the USSR is described. Unlike the traditional evaporation coolers (tower and ventilator cooling tower...

1977-01-01

258

NONWATER QUALITY IMPACTS OF CLOSED-CYCLE COOLING SYSTEMS AND THE INTERACTION OF STACK GAS AND COOLING TOWER PLUMES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a literature survey of the nonwater quality impacts of closed-cycle cooling systems. Following discussions of cooling tower and stack gas plumes, interactions of these plumes are considered. For cooling tower plumes, plume types, behavior, salt drift g...

259

Desiccant dehumidification and cooling systems assessment and analysis  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this report is to provide a preliminary analysis of the principles, sensitivities, and potential for national energy savings of desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems. The report is divided into four sections. Section I deals with the maximum theoretical performance of ideal desiccant cooling systems. Section II looks at the performance effects of non-ideal behavior of system components. Section III examines the effects of outdoor air properties on desiccant cooling system performance. Section IV analyzes the applicability of desiccant cooling systems to reduce primary energy requirements for providing space conditioning in buildings. A basic desiccation process performs no useful work (cooling). That is, a desiccant material drying air is close to an isenthalpic process. Latent energy is merely converted to sensible energy. Only when heat exchange is applied to the desiccated air is any cooling accomplished. This characteristic is generic to all desiccant cycles and critical to understanding their operation. The analyses of Section I show that desiccant cooling cycles can theoretically achieve extremely high thermal CoP`s (>2). The general conclusion from Section II is that ventilation air processing is the most viable application for the solid desiccant equipment analyzed. The results from the seasonal simulations performed in Section III indicate that, generally, the seasonal performance of the desiccant system does not change significantly from that predicted for outdoor conditions. Results from Section IV show that all of the candidate desiccant systems can save energy relative to standard vapor-compression systems. The largest energy savings are achieved by the enthalpy exchange devise.

Collier, R.K. Jr. [Collier Engineering, Reno, NV (United States)

1997-09-01

260

Advanced Desiccant Cooling System Development. Final Report, September 1982-June 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A gas-fueled cooling system based on the concept of desiccant dehumidification was developed. The system uses a solid desiccant to perform dehumidification. After removal of the moisture, the air is sensibly cooled by heat exchange and evaporative cooling...

B. Cohen M. Ross R. Arora J. Swanson P. Sarkisian

1990-01-01

261

Feasibility of Alternative Cooling Systems for Power Plants in the Northern Great Plains.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial Contents: Power plant water requirements; Operational/engineering considerations of wet and dry cooling tower systems; Environmental impacts of closed-cycle cooling systems; Economics of wet and dry cooling towers.

B. A. Tichenor J. W. Shaw

1974-01-01

262

40 CFR 749.68 - Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems. 749...SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT WATER TREATMENT CHEMICALS Air Conditioning and Cooling...Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems....

2009-07-01

263

40 CFR 749.68 - Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems. 749...SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT WATER TREATMENT CHEMICALS Air Conditioning and Cooling...Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems....

2010-07-01

264

Closed-loop electroosmotic microchannel cooling system for VLSI circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing heat generation rates in VLSI circuits motivate research on compact cooling technologies with low thermal resistance. This paper develops a closed-loop two-phase microchannel cooling system using electroosmotic pumping for the working fluid. The design, fabrication, and open-loop performance of the heat exchanger and pump are summarized. The silicon heat exchanger, which attaches to the test chip (1 cm2),

Linan Jiang; James Mikkelsen; Jae-Mo Koo; David Huber; Shuhuai Yao; Lian Zhang; Peng Zhou; James G. Maveety; Ravi Prasher; Juan G. Santiago; Thomas W. Kenny; Kenneth E. Goodson

2002-01-01

265

Integrated Liquid Cooling Systems for 3-D Stacked TSV Modules  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an integrated liquid cooling system for 3-D stacked modules with high dissipation level is proposed. The fluidic interconnects in this system are elaborated and the sealing technique for different fluid interfaces is discussed. Meanwhile, the pressure drop for each part of the system is analyzed. The optimized fluidic interconnects minimizing the pressure drop have been designed and

Gong Yue Tang; Siow Pin Tan; Navas Khan; D. Pinjala; John H. Lau; Ai Bin Yu; Kripesh Vaidyanathan; Kok Chuan Toh

2010-01-01

266

Fundamental Aspects of Ozone Chemistry in Recirculating Cooling Water Systems — Data Evaluation Needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proposed uses of ozone for stand-alone cooling water treatment raise critical questions as to what happens chemically. These questions are of more significance to industrial cooling water systems, which typically have higher temperatures and cooling ranges than do comfort cooling systems. When applying ozone to cooling waters, it is very important for the user to understand many fundamental aspects of

Rip G. Rice; J. Fred Wilkes

1992-01-01

267

Modeling of Rankine cycle\\/vapor compression cycle cooling systems for solar energy applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar cooling system computer simulations were utilized in the determination of daily and seasonal cooling performance and in determining design values such as cooling capacity, collector area, storage size, and sizes of pumps and piping. RC\\/VCC solar cooling systems converted collected solar heat into a cooling effect. This was accomplished at the site of the installation by using the Rankine

A. N. Egrican

1977-01-01

268

Automatic pre-cooling system for large infrared instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An infrared instrument used for observation has to keep the detector and optical components in a very cold environment during operation. However, because of maintenance, upgrades, and other routine work, there are situations that require the instrument to be warmed-up and then cooled-down again. At Subaru Observatory, our MOIRCS infrared instrument has required warm-up and cool-down several times a year for routine maintenance and filter replacement. The MOIRCS instrument has a large heat capacity and cool-down using only the closed cycle cooler is impractical due to the huge amount of time it would require. To address this problem Subaru engineers have created a mechanism to allow PRE-COOLING of the instrument via liquid nitrogen - allowing for a much faster pre-cool process. Even with liquid nitrogen, the pre-cool process requires 10 tanks and almost a week of continual monitoring in order to reach the desired target temperature. It is very difficult to work for such a long period of time at the oxygen starved summit of Mauna Kea (4205 meters),and issues of man-power and scheduling conflicts only add to the problems. To address these concerns Subaru developed an automated pre-cooling system which works continuously and remotely at the summit. The strategy was to have basic functionality for pre-cooling and user friendly interface. i.e. (1) Continuous cooling until the target temperature is reached by automated liquid nitrogen tank exchanges and precision temperature control by automated changes to the liquid nitrogen flow. (2) Remote monitoring and control of all parameter setting by Web browser as user interface (UI). The goal of the Subaru pre-cooling system was to make it both inexpensive and quick to implement by using existing technologies. The original goal (to cut down on labor and precision temperature control) has been attained through several pre-cooling and software/hardware modification cycles. We will report on the progress and status of our pre-cooling experiences in this presentation.

Omata, Koji; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Colley, Stephen; Cook, David; Gorman, William; Magrath, Barney; Ramos, Lucio; Kleinman, Scot; Tokoku, Chihiro; Konishi, Masahiro; Yoshikawa, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Ichi; Suzuki, Ryuji

2008-07-01

269

Assessing maintenance of evaporative cooling systems in legionellosis outbreaks.  

PubMed

This study was designed to conduct systematic reviews of existing evaporative cooling system maintenance guidelines and of published Legionnaires' disease outbreaks to determine what, if any, maintenance practices were in place at the time of the disease outbreaks and then to contrast the reported practices with the published guidelines for evaporative cooling systems. For the first review, similarities in the reported recommendations were assessed; in the second review, any reported information about the state of the evaporative cooling system during the outbreak investigation was summarized. The systematic reviews yielded 38 current guidelines for evaporative cooling systems and 38 published outbreak investigations. The guidelines varied regarding the recommended type and dose of biocides, frequency of general inspections and total system maintenance, the preferred disinfection and cleaning procedures when testing a system for microbiological contamination, the type and frequency of testing procedures, and interpretation of test results. Overall, the maintenance guidelines did not contain sufficiently detailed procedures to prevent the problems that were observed in the outbreak investigations. These maintenance procedures included lack or improper use of a biocide; infrequent testing for microbiological contamination; improper use or maintenance of drift eliminators; and lack of a total system cleaning within 6 months of the outbreak for cooling systems that were either under continuous use, recently started up, or frequently switched on and off. This study suggests that more specific and standardized maintenance guidelines for the control of Legionella bacteria are needed and that these guidelines must be properly implemented to help reduce further Legionnaires' disease outbreaks associated with evaporative cooling systems. PMID:21416443

Rangel, Kelly M; Delclos, George; Emery, Robert; Symanski, Elaine

2011-04-01

270

Replacement inhibitors for tank farm cooling coil systems  

SciTech Connect

Sodium chromate has been an effective corrosion inhibitor for the cooling coil systems in Savannah River Site (SRS) waste tanks for over 40 years. Due to their age and operating history, cooling coils occasionally fail allowing chromate water to leak into the environment. When the leaks spill 10 lbs. or more of sodium chromate over a 24-hr period, the leak incidents are classified as Unusual Occurrences (UO) per CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act). The cost of reporting and cleaning up chromate spills prompted High Level Waste Engineering (HLWE) to initiate a study to investigate alternative tank cooling water inhibitor systems and the associated cost of replacement. Several inhibitor systems were investigated as potential alternatives to sodium chromate. All would have a lesser regulatory impact, if a spill occurred. However, the conversion cost is estimated to be $8.5 million over a period of 8 to 12 months to convert all 5 cooling systems. Although each of the alternative inhibitors examined is effective in preventing corrosion, there is no inhibitor identified that is as effective as chromate. Assuming 3 major leaks a year (the average over the past several years), the cost of maintaining the existing inhibitor was estimated at $0.5 million per year. Since there is no economic or regulatory incentive to replace the sodium chromate with an alternate inhibitor, HLWE recommends that sodium chromate continue to be used as the inhibitor for the waste tank cooling systems.

Hsu, T.C.

1995-03-23

271

Gas-cooled reactor power systems for space  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the characteristics of six designs for power levels of 2, 10, and 20 MWe for operating times of 1 and 7 y are described. The operating conditions for these arbitrary designs were chosen to minimize system specific mass. The designs are based on recent work which benefits from earlier analyses of nuclear space power systems conducted at our Laboratory. Both gas- and liquid-cooled reactors had been considered. Pitts and Walter (1970) reported on the results of a detailed study of a 10-MWe lithium-cooled reactor in a potassium Rankine system. Unpublished results (1966) of a computer analysis provide details of an argon-cooled reactor in an argon Brayton system. The gas-cooled reactor design was based on extensive development work on the 500-MWth reactor for the nuclear ramjet (Pluto) as described by Walter (1964). The designs discussed here draw heavily on the Pluto project experience, which culminated in a successful full-power ground test as reported by Reynolds (1964). At higher power levels gas-cooled reactors coupled with Brayton systems with advanced radiator designs become attractive.

Walter, C.E.

1987-01-01

272

A mixed-gas miniature Joule-Thomson cooling system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mixed-gas Joule-Thomson (JT) cooling system is investigated in which a micromachined JT cold stage of 60 × 10 × 0.7 mm3 is combined with a linear compressor. The cooling system is operated between 1.3 bar and 9.4 bar with a ternary gas mixture of 39 mol% methane, 20 mol% ethane and 41 mol% isobutane. It cools down to below 130 K, and at a cold-tip temperature of 150 K, a cooling power of 46 mW is obtained at a mass-flow rate of 1.35 mg s-1. The background losses are experimentally determined to be 20 mW and are in good agreement with the calculated value of 21 mW. The linear compressor can be used to drive 19 of these miniature JT cold stages in parallel, e.g. for cooling optical detectors in future space missions. In this mode, the compressor pressure ratio is slightly less, resulting in a net cooling power of 23 mW per miniature JT cold stage.

Derking, J. H.; Vermeer, C. H.; Tirolien, T.; Crook, M. R.; ter Brake, H. J. M.

2013-10-01

273

COMMIX analysis of AP-600 Passive Containment Cooling System  

SciTech Connect

COMMIX modeling and basic concepts that relate components, i.e., containment, water film cooling, and natural draft air flow systems. of the AP-600 Passive Containment Cooling System are discussed. The critical safety issues during a postulated accident have been identified as (1) maintaining the liquid film outside the steel containment vessel, (2) ensuring the natural convection in the air annulus. and (3) quantifying both heat and mass transfer accurately for the system. The lack of appropriate heat and mass transfer models in the present analysis is addressed. and additional assessment and validation of the proposed models is proposed.

Chang, J.F.C.; Chien, T.H.; Ding, J.; Sun, J.G.; Sha, W.T.

1992-11-01

274

COMMIX analysis of AP-600 Passive Containment Cooling System  

SciTech Connect

COMMIX modeling and basic concepts that relate components, i.e., containment, water film cooling, and natural draft air flow systems. of the AP-600 Passive Containment Cooling System are discussed. The critical safety issues during a postulated accident have been identified as (1) maintaining the liquid film outside the steel containment vessel, (2) ensuring the natural convection in the air annulus. and (3) quantifying both heat and mass transfer accurately for the system. The lack of appropriate heat and mass transfer models in the present analysis is addressed. and additional assessment and validation of the proposed models is proposed.

Chang, J.F.C.; Chien, T.H.; Ding, J.; Sun, J.G.; Sha, W.T.

1992-01-01

275

Behavior of power-limited transverse stochastic cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of stochastic cooling systems is usually done under the assumption that the system performance is not limited by the available electronic gain. In practical systems, it may prove to be the case that cost-induced limitations on the maximum available output power restrict the maximum attainable gain, thereby restricting it to be less than its optimal value. Such is the case in the anti-proton sources at both CERN and Fermilab. The criteria that one would employ in, for example, upgrading such a power-limited system prove to be rather different from those for a system for which one can optimize the gain. In the following sections we first develop the formulas relevant to the behavior of power-limited cooling systems; we limit our treatment throughout to the case of systems which cool the transverse phase space of the beam. We then discuss the implications of our results for the upgrade of such cooling systems, contrasting this case with that for systems in which the electronic gain can be optimized. Finally, we apply our results to the specific case of the Fermilab debuncher ring. 3 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Goldberg, D.A.; Lambertson, G.R.

1988-07-01

276

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT IV, MAINTAINING THE COOLING SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE PURPOSE OF THE COOLING SYSTEM, CARE MAINTENANCE OF THE COOLING SYSTEM, COOLING SYSTEM COMPONENTS, AND TROUBLESHOOTING TIPS. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING…

Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

277

A System for Cooling inside a Glove Box  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An easy, efficient, reliable, and low-cost method of constructing a cooling system using a simple circulating pump is described. The system is employed in conjunction with an inert atmosphere glove box to achieve the synthesis of air- and moisture-sensitive compounds inside the glove box at controlled, low temperatures without contaminating the…

Sanz, Martial

2010-01-01

278

Correcting Aberrations in Complex Magnet Systems for Muon Cooling Channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designing and simulating complex magnet systems needed for cooling channels in both neutrino factories and muon colliders requires innovative techniques to correct for both chromatic and spherical aberrations. Optimizing complex systems, such as helical magnets for example, is also difficult but essential. By using COSY INFINITY, a differential algebra based code, the transfer and aberration maps can be examined to

J. A. Maloney; B. Erdelyi; A. Afanaciev; R. P. Johnson; Y. S. Derbenev; V. S. Morozov

2011-01-01

279

Potential environmental impacts of solar heating and cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identification of potential environmental effects of solar heating and cooling systems is given, including a discussion of the increases and decreases in air, water, and solid waste residuals associated with these systems. In addition, other impacts which are more qualitative but no less concrete in nature, including aesthetic, social, and consumer safety considerations, are also identified. These qualitative impacts

T. J. Consroe; F. M. Glaser; R. W. Jr. Shaw

1976-01-01

280

Resonance Control Cooling System for the APT/LEDA RFQ  

SciTech Connect

The Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) resonance control cooling system (RCCS) for the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) in support of the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) is described. Constant flow regulating valves to distribute the required flow to the 424 channels and to permit use of centrifugal pumps is discussed. Control system schema are described to regulate resonance frequency during steady state operation.

Domer, G.A.; Floersch, R.H.

1998-11-04

281

The evaporative cooling system for the ATLAS inner detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the evaporative system used to cool the silicon detector structures of the inner detector sub-detectors of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The motivation for an evaporative system, its design and construction are discussed. In detail the particular requirements of the ATLAS inner detector, technical choices and the qualification and manufacture of final components

D. Attree; B. Anderson; E. C. Anderssen; V. Akhnazarov; R. J. Apsimon; P. Barclay; L. E. Batchelor; R. L. Bates; M. Battistin; J. Bendotti; S. Berry; A. Bitadze; J. P. Bizzel; P. Bonneau; M. Bosteels; J. M. Butterworth; S. Butterworth; A. A. Carter; J. R. Carter; A. Catinaccio; F. Corbaz; H. O. Danielsson; E. Danilevich; N. Dixon; S. D. Dixon; F. Doherty; O. Dorholt; M. Doubrava; K. Egorov; K. Einsweiler; A. C. Falou; P. Feraudet; P. Ferrari; K. Fowler; J. T. Fraser; R. S. French; M. Galuska; F. Gannaway; G. Gariano; M. D. Gibson; M. Gilchriese; D. Giugni; J. Godlewski; I. Gousakov; B. Gorski; G. D. Hallewell; N. Hartman; R. J. Hawkings; S. J. Haywood; N. P. Hessey; I. Ilyashenko; S. Infante; J. N. Jackson; T. J. Jones; J. Kaplon; S. Katunin; S. Lindsay; L. Luisa; N. Massol; F. Mc Ewan; S. J. Mc Mahon; C. Menot; J. Mistry; J. Morris; D. M. Muskett; K. Nagai; A. Nichols; R. Nicholson; R. B. Nickerson; S. L. Nielsen; P. E. Nordahl; M. Olcese; M. Parodi; F. Perez-Gomez; H. Pernegger; E. Perrin; L. P. Rossi; A. Rovani; E. Ruscino; H. Sandaker; A. Smith; V. Sopko; S. Stapnes; M. Stodulski; J. Tarrant; J. Thadome; D. Tovey; M. Turala; M. Tyndel; V. Vacek; E. van der Kraaij; G. H. A. Viehhauser; E. Vigeolas; P. S. Wells; S. Wenig; P. Werneke

2008-01-01

282

Solar cooling with concentrating photovoltaic\\/thermal (CPVT) systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simultaneous production of electrical and high grade thermal energy is proposed with a concentrating photovoltaic\\/thermal (CPVT) system operating at elevated temperature. CPVT collectors may operate at temperatures above 100°C, and the thermal energy can drive processes such as refrigeration, desalination and steam production. The performance and cost of a CPVT system with single effect absorption cooling are investigated in detail.

Gur Mittelman; Abraham Kribus; Abraham Dayan

2007-01-01

283

A System for Cooling inside a Glove Box  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An easy, efficient, reliable, and low-cost method of constructing a cooling system using a simple circulating pump is described. The system is employed in conjunction with an inert atmosphere glove box to achieve the synthesis of air- and moisture-sensitive compounds inside the glove box at controlled, low temperatures without contaminating the…

Sanz, Martial

2010-01-01

284

Performance evaluation of solar absorption cooling system of Bahal (Haryana)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents the modeling of a solar -powered, single-stage, absorption cooling system using a flat plate collector and water-lithium bromide solution. A modular computer program has been developed for the absorp- tion system to simulate various cycle configurations with the help of weather data of village Bahal, Distt. Bh i- wani, Haryana, India. The effects of hot water inlet

V. MITTAL; K. S. KASANA; N. S. THAKUR

2005-01-01

285

Advanced solar\\/gas desiccant cooling system. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results are documented of a research and development effort to produce a desiccant cooling system with significantly higher thermal efficiency than current state-of-the-art desiccant systems. The report findings and data are based on extensive computer modeling and actual operating test results of an experimental breadboard unit employing a totally new approach. For the separation of moisture from an airstream

B. Huskey; J. Sharp; A. Venero; H. Yen

1982-01-01

286

Modeling a grid-connected, passively-cooled CPV system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 4-parameter formula is proposed for describing the hourly AC performance of a grid-connected, passively-cooled CPV system. The formula is validated against data from a pair of Soitec systems in the northern and southern hemispheres and found to be accurate to at least +/- 10% at all times of the year.

Strobach, E.; Faiman, D.; Melnichak, V.; Bukobza, D.; Kabalo, S.; Gombert, A.; Gerstmaier, T.; Roettger, M.

2012-10-01

287

Cooling system for automotive engine or the like  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a cooling system for an internal combustion engine. This system comprises: a coolant jacket in which coolant is boiled and a coolant vapor produced; a radiator in fluid communication with the coolant jacket and in which the coolant vapor produced in the coolant jacket is condensed to its liquid form; and a vapor manifold interposed between the

Shimonosono

1987-01-01

288

Cooling system for automotive engine or the like  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cooling system is described for an internal combustion engine having a structure subject to high heat flux and a lubricant system, comprising: a coolant jacket disposed about the structure and into which coolant is introduced in liquid form and permitted to boil; a radiator in which gaseous coolant is condensed to its liquid state; a vapor transfer conduit leading

Hayashi

1986-01-01

289

Heat Pipe Cooling System with Sensible Heat Sink.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A heat pipe cooling system which employs a sensible heat sink is discussed. With this type of system, incident aerodynamic heat is transported via a heat pipe from the stagnation region to the heat sink and absorbed by raising the temperature of the heat ...

C. C. Silverstein

1988-01-01

290

Compact systems cool solid-state and gas lasers  

SciTech Connect

The design of a high-performance laser-cooling system requires careful integration of a number of components. The type of laser and its end use will determine the relative importance of individual system attributes. A Nd:YAG laser, for example, will require that no cooper be used in the deionized-water circuit. A laser used in a doctor's office will need to have lower fan and pump noise than one used on a factory floor. The optimum cooling system for a particular application will be the result of a number of iterations and compromises that satisfy the heat-transfer requirements and maintain the needs of both laser manufacturer and end user. This article addresses the cooling needs of both solid-state and gas lasers from the viewpoint of the laser supplier and the end user.

Goldman, R.D. (Iytron Inc., Woburn, MA (USS))

1991-03-01

291

Improve corrosion and deposition control in alkaline cooling water systems  

SciTech Connect

Utility operators can use a calcium carbonate inhibitor to improve corrosion control and meet environmental discharge limits for phosphorus on cooling water systems. Due to volume, maintaining cooling towers` operating parameters such as pH, Cl{sub 2}, cycles, etc., are a huge endeavor to balance water chemistry. The goal of a cooling water system is to provide a reliable heat-transfer medium--water--to numerous exchangers without impairing the energy transfer efficiency. Traditionally, alkaline phosphate and alkaline-zinc based programs have been used to control corrosion and minimize scaling of heat-transfer surfaces. However, restrictions on phosphate discharges for water systems are requiring utility operators to seek other water treatment programs. Two case histories show how hydrocarbon processing industry facilities used a calcium carbonate inhibitor to reduce phosphate discharges, control corrosion and maintain heat-transfer efficiency on affected exchangers.

Geiger, G.E. [Betz Water Management Group, Horsham, PA (United States)

1996-01-01

292

Traveling Wave RF Systems for Helical Cooling Channels  

SciTech Connect

The great advantage of the helical ionization cooling channel (HCC) is its compact structure that enables the fast cooling of muon beam 6-dimensional phase space. This compact aspect requires a high average RF gradient, with few places that do not have cavities. Also, the muon beam is diffuse and requires an RF system with large transverse and longitudinal acceptance. A traveling wave system can address these requirements. First, the number of RF power coupling ports can be significantly reduced compared with our previous pillbox concept. Secondly, by adding a nose on the cell iris, the presence of thin metal foils traversed by the muons can possibly be avoided. We show simulations of the cooling performance of a traveling wave RF system in a HCC, including cavity geometries with inter-cell RF power couplers needed for power propagation.

Yonehara, K.; Lunin, A.; Moretti, A.; Popovic, M.; Romanov, G.; /Fermilab; Neubauer, M.; Johnson, R.P.; /Muons Inc., Batavia; Thorndahl, L.; /CERN

2009-05-01

293

Subsurface ground temperature: Implications for a district cooling system  

SciTech Connect

Elevated ground temperatures represent an undesirable source of heat gain for uninsulated buried piping found in many district cooling systems. It has been customary for the owners of district cooling systems in northern climates not to insulate their buried chilled water piping. Utility engineers for a large district cooling system at one northern US university have relied on published subsurface ground temperature data and over the past 30 years have installed more than 15 miles (24 km) of directly buried uninsulated chilled water supply and return distribution piping. The utility engineers now estimate that during the summer cooling season, peak heat gains in the buried chilled water piping exceed 450 tons (1,583 kW) and cause $100,000 in energy losses each year. Ground heat gains due to elevated subsurface temperature have been suspected as production tonnage exceeds end-user sales by 10% during the peak cooling season. The utilities staff decided it was time to reassess method for installing chilled water piping on campus and determine if the university design standard of installing uninsulated buried chilled water piping remains valid for the campus environment.

McCabe, R.E.; Bender, J.J.; Potter, K.R. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

1995-12-01

294

Design of solar heating and cooling systems. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents a method for making an energy and an economic cost\\/benefit analysis of solar energy systems. A graphical method is presented for evaluating the performance of solar domestic hot water systems, solar heating systems, and solar heating and cooling systems. Methods for selecting the optimum collector area based on benefit-to-cost ratio and for systemtically making detailed design calculations

D. M. Joncich; D. J. Leverenz; D. C. Hittle; G. N. Walton

1978-01-01

295

COOLING EFFECT ENHANCEMENT IN MAGNETRON SPUTTERING SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetron Sputtering system is a vacuum process used to deposit thin films on substrate for a wide variety of commercial and scientific purposes, such as making ultra- thin semiconductors, metal films, etc. It plays an important role in a coating system. In order to get the uniform deposition of material surface, high voltage and electric current are used in magnetron

Jae-Sang BAEK; Youn J. KIM

296

The integration of cryogenic cooling systems with superconducting electronic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for cryogenic cooling has been critical issue that has kept superconducting electronic devices from reaching the market place. Even though the performance of the superconducting circuit is superior to silicon electronics, the requirement for cryogenic cooling has put the superconducting devices at a disadvantage. This report will talk about the various methods for refrigerating superconducting devices. Cryocooler types

Michael A

2003-01-01

297

Surface cooled, vacuum impregnated superconducting magnet systems: Design, construction, applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design and construction of three superconducting magnet systems for applications in the fields of medical imaging, plasma physics and nuclear physics are described. All three systems have vacuum impregnated, intrinsically stable coils with cooling at the outer surfaces of the winding package with liquid helium, and are all coupled in some way to closed cycle cooling systems. General theories are discussed. The techniques used in both the design and the construction of the different magnet systems, are given. The use of numerical methods for the calculation of thermal and mechanical properties of superconducting coil systems, is emphasized. The experimental results obtained with the Delft magnetic resonance imaging system are described and examples of images showing sagittal sections of the human head, successfully produced with this system, are given.

Dam, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; Pieterman, Karel

298

Wind turbine generators having wind assisted cooling systems and cooling methods  

DOEpatents

A wind generator includes: a nacelle; a hub carried by the nacelle and including at least a pair of wind turbine blades; and an electricity producing generator including a stator and a rotor carried by the nacelle. The rotor is connected to the hub and rotatable in response to wind acting on the blades to rotate the rotor relative to the stator to generate electricity. A cooling system is carried by the nacelle and includes at least one ambient air inlet port opening through a surface of the nacelle downstream of the hub and blades, and a duct for flowing air from the inlet port in a generally upstream direction toward the hub and in cooling relation to the stator.

Bagepalli, Bharat (Niskayuna, NY); Barnes, Gary R. (Delanson, NY); Gadre, Aniruddha D. (Rexford, NY); Jansen, Patrick L. (Scotia, NY); Bouchard, Jr., Charles G. (Schenectady, NY); Jarczynski, Emil D. (Scotia, NY); Garg, Jivtesh (Cambridge, MA)

2008-09-23

299

Simulation of an adsorption solar cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A more realistic theoretical simulation model for a tubular solar adsorption refrigerating system using activated carbon–methanol (AC\\/M) pair has been introduced. The mathematical model represents the heat and mass transfer inside the adsorption bed, the condenser, and the evaporator. The simulation technique takes into account the variations of ambient temperature and solar radiation along the day. Furthermore, the local pressure,

H. Z. Hassan; A. A. Mohamad; R. Bennacer

2011-01-01

300

BETTER DUCT SYSTEMS FOR HOME HEATING AND COOLING.  

SciTech Connect

This is a series of six guides intended to provide a working knowledge of residential heating and cooling duct systems, an understanding of the major issues concerning efficiency, comfort, health, and safety, and practical tips on installation and repair of duct systems. These guides are intended for use by contractors, system designers, advanced technicians, and other HVAC professionals. The first two guides are also intended to be accessible to the general reader.

ANDREWS,J.

2001-01-01

301

Air conditioning system with supplemental ice storing and cooling capacity  

DOEpatents

The present air conditioning system with ice storing and cooling capacity can generate and store ice in its pipe assembly or in an ice storage tank particularly equipped for the system, depending on the type of the air conditioning system. The system is characterized in particular in that ice can be produced and stored in the air conditioning system whereby the time of supplying cooled air can be effectively extended with the merit that the operation cycle of the on and off of the compressor can be prolonged, extending the operation lifespan of the compressor in one aspect. In another aspect, ice production and storage in great amount can be performed in an off-peak period of the electrical power consumption and the stored ice can be utilized in the peak period of the power consumption so as to provide supplemental cooling capacity for the compressor of the air conditioning system whereby the shift of peak and off-peak power consumption can be effected with ease. The present air conditioning system can lower the installation expense for an ice-storing air conditioning system and can also be applied to an old conventional air conditioning system.

Weng, Kuo-Lianq (Taichung, TW); Weng, Kuo-Liang (Taichung, TW)

1998-01-01

302

Hydraulic Tests of Emergency Cooling System: L-Area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The delay in L-Area startup provided an opportunity to obtain valuable data on the Emergency Cooling System (ECS) which will permit reactor operation at the highest safe power level. ECS flow is a major input to the FLOOD code which calculates reactor ECS...

J. H. Hinton

1988-01-01

303

Simulation of Engine Cooling System Based on AMESim  

Microsoft Academic Search

On a basis of a 4-cylinders gasoline engine the steady heater transfer and coolant flow in the cooling system were simulated at the rated operation mode in the model. Comparison between simulation and measurement on the test bench shows that the simulated results are in good accord with experimental data and the deviation is less than 2.4%, thus the model

Gu Ning; Ni Ji-Min

2009-01-01

304

Geothermal Cooling Retrofit System. Third Quarter Report; Fourth Quarter Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Use of ground source air cooling is described. It was found that summer humidity in Oklahoma was too high for good performance of the system. Modifications to the house and addition of an air source heat pump to the ground tubes were discussed. (ERA citat...

B. R. Farrar

1982-01-01

305

Solar Heating and Cooling of Residential Buildings: Design of Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is the second of two training courses designed to develop the capability of practitioners in the home building industry to design solar heating and cooling systems. The course is organized in 23 modules to separate selected topics and to facilitate learning. Although a compact schedule of one week is shown, a variety of formats can be…

Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins. Solar Energy Applications Lab.

306

Simulation of a solar heating and cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents thermal and economic analyses of a solar heated and air conditioned house in the Albuquerque climate. The system includes the following components: water heating collector, a water storage unit, a service hot water facility, a lithium bromide-water air conditioner (with cooling tower), an auxiliary energy source, and associated controls. The analysis of the thermal performance indicates the

L. W. Butz; W. A. Beckman; J. A. Duffie

1974-01-01

307

Efficient cooling system for IT equipment in a data center  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the air-intake format of forced-air-cooled equipment on the efficiency of air conditioning systems are studied. A modern data center features a large number of information-processing devices to provide telecommunication services. These devices generate considerable heat, and the equipment that houses these devices often employs \\

Y. Furihata; H. Hayama; M. Enai; T. Mori

2003-01-01

308

Portable self-contained power and cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A portable power and cooling system is described comprising: a drive unit including a combustion section, a scroll-type expander section, a scroll-type air compressor section, and a power output drive shaft, the expander and air compressor sections connected together for synchronousmovement via said power output drive shaft; said combustion section including a combustion air inlet and a combustion gas outlet,

1993-01-01

309

Cooling system for automotive engine or the like  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an internal combustion engine having a structure subject to high heat flux a cooling system comprising: a coolant jacket disposed about the structure and into which coolant is introduced in liquid form, permitted to boil and discharged in gaseous form; a radiator in fluid communication with the coolant jacket which receives coolant vapor produced therein and condenses

Y. Hirano; T. Kubozuka

1988-01-01

310

Boiling liquid cooling system for internal combustion engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a cooling system for an internal combustion engine, the engine including a coolant jacket, and having a condenser and conduit means for conducting coolant vapor from substantially the highest zone in the coolant jacket to the condenser and for returning coolant condensate to the coolant jacket. The condensate is characterized in that the coolant is a high

1986-01-01

311

Parts-arrangement in boiling liquid cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a boiling liquid cooling system for an engine which generates heat when operated, an arrangement is described comprising: means defining in the engine a coolant jacket into which coolant is introduced in liquid state through an inlet port formed in the engine and from which coolant is discharged in gaseous state through an outlet port formed in the engine;

Hayashi

1986-01-01

312

Radiator anti-freeze arrangement for evaporative type cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A boiling liquid cooling system is described for an engine, comprising: means defining in the engine a coolant jacket into which coolant is introduced in liquid state through an inlet port formed in the engine and from which coolant is discharged in gaseous state through an outlet port formed in the engine; a radiator into which gaseous coolant from the

Hayashi

1986-01-01

313

Special Hydraulic Tests of Emergency Cooling System, L-Area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The delay in the L-Area startup provides an opportunity to obtain valuable data on the emergency cooling system (ECS). A series of special hydraulic tests of the ECS are proposed for L-Area. These tests are in addition to the test proposed by SRL. The tes...

G. F. Merz

1985-01-01

314

Gas-cooled reactor power systems for space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large amounts of electric power are required for some of the systems envisioned in support of SDI. Since various applications are being considered, and an overall power architecture study has not been completed, the required power levels and corresponding operating times for specific systems are not known. The characteristics of six designs for power levels of 2, 10 and 20 MWe for operating time of 1 and 7 yrs are described. The operating conditions for these arbitrary designs were chosen to minimize system specific mass. Both gas and liquid cooled reactors are considered. The designs discussed draw heavily on the Pluto project experience. Gas cooled thermal reactors coupled with Brayton cycle power conversion appear to provide reasonable multimegawatt space power systems. An advanced radiation design must be developed which can meet the mass limit assumed. The inherent high temperature capability of the reactors considered removes the reactor as a limiting condition on system performance.

Walter, Carl E.

315

Application of system engineering processes to analyze and predict engine cooling fan system noise for off-highway machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

System Engineering processes were applied to create a Cooling Fan System Noise Analysis Tool for a back-hoe loader machine. The Cooling Fan System Noise Analysis Tool combined elements of aeroacoustic theory, Fan Law, sound power measurements and particle image velocimetry into a single computer analysis tool. The cooling fan system consisted of a cooling fan, multiple radiators in front of

Christopher P. Masini; J. Adin Mann

2005-01-01

316

Current cost and performance requirements for residential cool storage systems  

SciTech Connect

This study defines the current cost and performance requirements for residential cool storage technologies based on the characteristics of conventional air conditioning equipment and residential time-of-day (TOD) rate structures existing during the 1986--1987 time frame. Currently, rate structures are changing rapidly. Given the volatility of rate structures, the establishment of cost goal is challenging. The goals presented in this study are based on the utility rate structure as of 1986. This study serves to define residential cool storage cost and performance requirements in the current economic environment as well as the many issues affecting the requirements for residential cool storage systems both now and in the future. The same methodology can be employed to establish long-run goals once future rate structures are adequately defined. 12 refs., 6 figs., 18 tabs.

Brown, D.R.; Spanner, G.E.

1988-08-01

317

Developing, testing, evaluating and optimizing solar heating and cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

The objective is to develop and test various integrated solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water systems, and to evaluate their performance. Systems composed of new, as well a previously tested, components are carefully integrated so that effects of new components on system performance can be clearly delineated. The SEAL-DOE program includes six tasks which have received funding for the 1991--1992 fifteen-month period. These include: (1) a project employing isothermal operation of air and liquid solar space hearing systems, (2) a project to build and test several generic solar water heaters, (3) a project that will evaluate advanced solar domestic hot water components and concepts and integrate them into solar domestic hot water systems, (4) a liquid desiccant cooling system development project, (5) a project that will perform system modeling and analysis work on solid desiccant cooling systems research, and (6) a management task. The objectives and progress in each task are described in this report. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Not Available

1991-11-01

318

The integration of cryogenic cooling systems with superconducting electronic systems  

SciTech Connect

The need for cryogenic cooling has been critical issue that has kept superconducting electronic devices from reaching the market place. Even though the performance of the superconducting circuit is superior to silicon electronics, the requirement for cryogenic cooling has put the superconducting devices at a disadvantage. This report will talk about the various methods for refrigerating superconducting devices. Cryocooler types will be compared for vibration, efficiency, and cost. Some solutions to specific problems of integrating cryocoolers to superconducting devices are presented.

Green, Michael A.

2003-07-01

319

Hydraulic tests of emergency cooling system: L-Area  

SciTech Connect

The delay in L-Area startup provided an opportunity to obtain valuable data on the Emergency Cooling System (ECS) which will permit reactor operation at the highest safe power level. ECS flow is a major input to the FLOOD code which calculates reactor ECS power limits. The FLOOD code assesses the effectiveness of the ECS cooling capacity by modeling the core and plenum hydraulics under accident conditions. Presently, reactor power is not limited by the ECS cooling capacity (power limit). However, the manual calculations of ECS flows had been recently updated to include piping changes (debris strainer, valve changes, pressure release systems) and update fitting losses. Both updates resulted in reduced calculated ECS flows. Upon completion of the current program to update, validate, and document, reactor power may be limited under certain situations by ECS cooling capacity for some present reactor charge designs. A series of special hydraulic tests (Reference 1, 3) were conducted in L-Area using all sources of emergency coolant including the ECS pumps (Reference 2). The tests provided empirical hydraulic data on the ECS piping. These data will be used in computer models of the system as well as manual calculations of ECS flows. The improved modeling and accuracy of the flow calculations will permit reactor operation at the highest safe power level with respect to an ECS power limit.

Hinton, J H

1988-01-01

320

Diagnostics of vibrations in induction motor-pump system used for reactor core cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis and diagnostics of vibration in industrial systems play a significant rule to prevent severe damages. This paper proposes a non-linear model to simulate the torsional vibration in the reactor core cooling system. Simulation results of an operating reactor core cooling system set with the actual parameters are presented to validate the accuracy and reliability of the proposed analytical method.

S. A. Qutb; A. M. Abdel-Hamid; A. Mansour; S. E. Soliman

2006-01-01

321

Electrical Breakdown Characteristics of Superconducting Magnet System in Sub-Cooled Liquid Nitrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dielectric characteristics of gaseous helium (GHe) injected into the cooling system to make sub-cooled nitrogen condition with constant pressure is found to be extraordinarily weak in dielectric strength by H. Mitsuii (1998). In high voltage superconducting machines using the sub-cooled nitrogen cooling system, the current lead part in GHe environment could be electrical weak points rather than the superconducting magnet

Hyoungku Kang; Chanjoo Lee; Tae Kuk Ko; Bok-Yeol Seok

2007-01-01

322

Correcting Aberrations in Complex Magnet Systems for Muon Cooling Channels  

SciTech Connect

Designing and simulating complex magnet systems needed for cooling channels in both neutrino factories and muon colliders requires innovative techniques to correct for both chromatic and spherical aberrations. Optimizing complex systems, such as helical magnets for example, is also difficult but essential. By using COSY INFINITY, a differential algebra based code, the transfer and aberration maps can be examined to discover what critical terms have the greatest influence on these aberrations.

J.A. Maloney, B. Erdelyi, A. Afanaciev, R.P. Johnson, Y.S. Derbenev, V.S. Morozov

2011-03-01

323

Compact liquid cooling system for small, moveable electronic equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evaluation of a compact liquid cooling system is provided as a benchmark of self-contained heat exchanger units that can be used in small movable electronic equipment. The sealed system contains a fluid expansion chamber, a liquid-to-air heat exchanger core, a fan, and a pump that connects to a multichip module (MCM) package through a pair of flexible stainless steel

T. Y. Tom Lee; James A. Andrews; Peter Chow; David Saums

1992-01-01

324

Analysis of advanced solar hybrid desiccant cooling systems for buildings  

SciTech Connect

This report describes an assessment of the energy savings possible from developing hybrid desiccant/vapor-compression air conditioning systems. Recent advances in dehumidifier design for solar desiccant cooling systems have resulted in a dehumidifier with a low pressure drop and high efficiency in heat and mass transfer. A recent study on hybrid desiccant/vapor compression systems showed a 30%-80% savings in resource energy when compared with the best conventional systems with vapor compression. A system consisting of a dehumidifier with vapor compression subsystems in series was found to be the simplest and best overall performer.

Schlepp, D.; Schultz, K.

1984-10-01

325

77 FR 36014 - Initial Test Program of Emergency Core Cooling Systems for Boiling-Water Reactors  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Cooling Systems for Boiling-Water Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...Cooling Systems for Boiling- Water Reactors.'' This guide describes methods...systems (ECCSs) for boiling-water reactors (BWRs). DATES: Submit...

2012-06-15

326

Simulation and analysis of district-heating and -cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

A computer simulation model, GEOCITY, was developed to study the design and economics of district heating and cooling systems. GEOCITY calculates the cost of district heating based on climate, population, energy source, and financing conditions. The principal input variables are minimum temperature, heating degree-days, population size and density, energy supply temperature and distance from load center, and the interest rate. For district cooling, maximum temperature and cooling degree-hours are required. From this input data the model designs the fluid transport and district heating systems. From this design, GEOCITY calculates the capital and operating costs for the entire system. GEOCITY was originally developed to simulate geothermal district heating systems and thus, in addition to the fluid transport and distribution models, it includes a reservoir model to simulate the production of geothermal energy from geothermal reservoirs. The reservoir model can be adapted to simulate the supply of hot water from any other energy source. GEOCITY has been used extensively and has been validated against other design and cost studies. GEOCITY designs the fluid transport and distribution facilities and then calculates the capital and operating costs for the entire system. GEOCITY can simulate nearly any financial and tax structure through varying the rates of return on equity and debt, the debt-equity ratios, and tax rates. Both private and municipal utility systems can be simulated.

Bloomster, C.H.; Fassbender, L.L.

1983-03-01

327

Cooling system for vertical shaft V-type engine  

SciTech Connect

A cooling system in a V-type engine is described having a crankcase with cylinders arranged horizontally and so as to form a V therebetween, a bottom wall attached to the crankcase at a level lower than the cylinders, and a vertically arranged crankshaft substantially at the junction of the V. The cooling system consists of: a coolant pump having a pump shaft arranged parallel to the crankshaft, within the V spaced from the junction, and spaced from the cylinders vertically in axial direction of the crankshaft; the coolant pump being joined to a first face of the bottom wall of the crankcase and having outlet passages extending orthogonal to the crankshaft and ending at the first face of the bottom wall, separate cooling jackets mounted at the cylinders and having therein separate inlets at a second face of the bottom wall of the crankcase, and intermediate coolant passages provided within the bottom wall between the first and second faces and joining the outlet passages to the inlets of the cooling jackets.

Tamba, S.; Fukui, N.; Miguchi, A.

1988-07-12

328

Electron cooling system for ITEP ion storage ring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main goal of the Tera Watt A Cumulator project (Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow) is accumulation in the storage ring of an intense ion beam, its longitudinal compression and the use of the extracted beam for plasma experiments. However, beam parameters at the target are decreased because of extreme transverse heating and growth of the beam momentum spread due to intrabeam scattering. These effects can be suppressed by application of the electron cooling system (ECS). Design study of ECS has been performed in the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. The design project and characteristics of the system are described, as well as analysis of the accumulation kinetics in the presence of the cooling system. Design work has shown that because of the small length of the straight section (2.35 m), the effective length of the cooling system is small (about 55 60 cm). Nevertheless, for long accumulation times (>100 s), the system allows us to significantly improve the beam parameters at the target (specific energy, specific power, and so on) and to suppress the beam losses by an order of magnitude.

Zenkevich, P. R.; Alexeev, N. N.; Barkhudaryan, A. V.; Bolshakov, A. Ye.; Koshkarev, D. G.; Sharkov, Yu. V.; Bykovsky, V. F.; Korotaev, Yu. V.; Meshkov, I. N.; Sidorin, A. O.; Smirnov, A. V.; Syresin, Ye. M.; Titkova, I. V.

2002-07-01

329

Solar cooling system performance, Frenchman's Reef Hotel, Virgin Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The operational and thermal performance of a variety of solar systems are described. The Solar Cooling System was installed in a hotel at St. Thomas, U. S. Virgin Islands. The system consists of the evacuated glass tube collectors, two 2500 gallon tanks, pumps, computerized controller, a large solar optimized industrial sized lithium bromide absorption chiller, and associated plumbing. Solar heated water is pumped through the system to the designed public areas such as lobby, lounges, restaurant and hallways. Auxiliary heat is provided by steam and a heat exchanger to supplement the solar heat.

Harber, H.

1981-09-01

330

A two-phase cooling system for the Jetfoil Visual Augmentation System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two-phase 'thermosiphon' principle is employed by a novel cooling system developed for temperature control of the IR-illumination and camera night Visual Augmentation System (VAS) used by a commercial hydrofoil craft. Performance comparisons are conducted between the two-phase and current, pumped loop VAS cooling systems, after the construction and testing of a full scale thermosiphon device. The new system is found to raise temperatures slightly, but eliminates a significant portion of the current system's operating noise and reduces cooling system weight by 67 percent.

Hamasaki, R. H.; Abe, J. L.; Franklin, J. L.

1983-07-01

331

Cloud radiative forcing at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility: 2. Vertical redistribution of radiant energy by clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Documentation of the effects of clouds on the radiant energy balance of the surface and atmosphere represents a shortcoming in the set of observations that are needed to ascertain the validity of climate model simulations. While clouds are known to cool the climate system from top of atmosphere (TOA) radiation budget studies, the redistribution of energy between the surface and atmosphere and within the atmosphere by clouds has not been examined in detail with observations. Using data collected at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, we use measurements of cloud occurrence and structure together with a scheme to characterize the cloud microphysical and radiative properties to estimate the uncertainty in our ability to calculate the radiative forcing and effect of clouds at the top of atmosphere, the surface and within the atmosphere. We find that overcast clouds during 2000 tended to have a small net influence on the atmosphere (6 W m-2 ± 3 W m-2 of heating) with net TOA and surface cooling (25 W m-2 ± 3 W m-2 and 32 ± 3 W m-2, respectively). These statistics mask a significant redistribution of radiant energy within the atmosphere by clouds where low overcast clouds resulted in strong atmospheric cooling (37 W m-2 ± 9 W m-2), and thin high clouds resulted in warming (21 W m-2 ± 6 W m-2) suggesting that accurate prediction of the phasing of these cloud types within meteorological features is important for capturing the essential feedbacks by clouds to the general circulation.

Mace, Gerald G.; Benson, Sally; Kato, Seiji

2006-06-01

332

A study on energy saving of cooling\\/reheating system using compact heat exchanger  

Microsoft Academic Search

When circulated air passes through the cooling coil in an air-conditioning system, the air is over-cooled to eliminate the\\u000a moisture and decrease the temperature. The cooled air is then reheated to recover the temperature. The purpose of the present\\u000a study was to evaluate the performance of a cooling\\/reheating system with regard to both cooling and reheating energy savings\\u000a affected by

Seong-Yeon Yoo; Jin-Hyuck Kim; Myoung-Seok Jie

2010-01-01

333

New directions in ceramic radiant tubes  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas-fired ceramic radiant tubes (CRTs) made some giant steps forward during the past five years. New heat-resistant ceramic materials developed under GRI contract by companies such as Coors Ceramics and INEX led the way. Then, under GRI sponsorship, Eclipse Combustion and Pyronics both developed ceramic single-ended recuperative radiant (SER) tube assemblies suitable for high temperature applications. These ceramic tubes were a step up from metallic radiant tubes and could tolerate high temperatures and high heat fluxes. Further, they offered substantial lifecycle cost and maintenance savings over conventional metal radiant tubes. The next generation of CRT developments follows closely on the heels of the first. Responding to today's environmental concerns and tightening emissions restrictions, Eclipse Combustion and Pyronics, under GRI sponsorship, are developing low NO[sub x] SERs that offer all the advantages of their earlier tubes plus reduced emissions. INEX and Coors Ceramics, again under GRI sponsorship, are working on ceramic radiant U-tubes which, when perfected, can be used in larger furnaces than the SERs. This paper describes these newest developments.

Not Available

1993-05-20

334

Impact of ambient pressure on performance of desiccant cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

The impact of ambient pressure on the performance of the ventilation cycle desiccant cooling system and its components was studied using computer simulations. The impact of ambient pressure depended on whether the system was designed for fixed-mass flow rate or fixed-volume flow rate operation. As ambient pressure decreased from 1.0 to 0.8 atm, the system thermal coefficient of performance increased by 8% for both fixed-mass and fixed-volume flow rate, the cooling capacity of the system (in kW) was decreased by 14% for the fixed-volume flow rate system and increased by 7% for the fixed-mass flow rate system, the electric power requirements for the system with fixed-volume flow rate did not change, and the electric power requirement for the fixed-mass flow rate system increased by 44%. The overall coefficient of performance increased up to 5% for the fixed-volume flow rate systems, and decreased up to 4% for the fixed-mass flow rate system. 16 refs.

Pesaran, A.A.

1991-12-01

335

Thermal Stress Calculations for Heatpipe-Cooled Reactor Power Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A heatpipe-cooled fast reactor concept has been under development at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the past several years, to be used as a power source for nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) or as a planetary surface power system. The reactor core consists of an array of modules that are held together by a core lateral restraint system. Each module includes a single heatpipe surrounded by 3-6 clad fuel pins. As part of this development effort, a partial array of a candidate heatpipe-cooled reactor is to be tested in the SAFE-100 experimental program at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The partial array comprises 19 3-pin modules, which are powered by resistance heaters. This paper describes the analyses that were performed in support of this test program, to assess thermal and structural performance and to specify the test conditions needed to simulate reactor operating conditions.

Kapernick, Richard J.; Guffee, Ray M.

2003-01-01

336

Cooling atom-cavity systems into entangled states  

SciTech Connect

Generating entanglement by simply cooling a system into a stationary state which is highly entangled has many advantages. Schemes based on this idea are robust against parameter fluctuations, tolerate relatively large spontaneous decay rates, and achieve high fidelities independent of their initial state. A possible implementation of this idea in atom-cavity systems has recently been proposed by Kastoryano et al., [Kastoryano et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 090502 (2011).]. Here we propose an improved entanglement cooling scheme for two atoms inside an optical cavity which achieves higher fidelities for comparable single-atom cooperativity parameters C. For example, we predict fidelities above 90% even for C as low as 20 without having to detect photons.

Busch, J.; De, S.; Spiller, T. P.; Beige, A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Ivanov, S. S.; Torosov, B. T. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Sofia University, James Bourchier 5 Boulevard, 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria)

2011-08-15

337

Floating Loop System For Cooling Integrated Motors And Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant  

DOEpatents

A floating loop vehicle component cooling and air-conditioning system having at least one compressor for compressing cool vapor refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one condenser for condensing the hot vapor refrigerant into hot liquid refrigerant by exchanging heat with outdoor air; at least one floating loop component cooling device for evaporating the hot liquid refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one expansion device for expanding the hot liquid refrigerant into cool liquid refrigerant; at least one air conditioning evaporator for evaporating the cool liquid refrigerant into cool vapor refrigerant by exchanging heat with indoor air; and piping for interconnecting components of the cooling and air conditioning system.

Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W [Kingston, TN; Coomer, Chester [Knoxville, TN; Marlino, Laura D [Oak Ridge, TN

2006-02-07

338

Feasibility Studies on Commercialized Fast Breeder Reactor System (2) Gas Cooled High Temperature FBR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) and Electric Utilities have been conducting Feasibility Studies on Commercialized FBR Systems since July 1999 under the cooperation Agreement. In that studies the preliminary concepts of various types of fast breeder reactors such as sodium cooled, heavy metal cooled and gas cooled reactors etc. have been designed and evaluated. For the gas cooled reactors,

Yoshihiro Kiso; Jun Kobayashi; Masanori Kid; Masashi Nomura; Masakazu Ichimiya

339

Effects of power-plant cooling systems on marine phytoplankton  

Microsoft Academic Search

The large quattities of marine phytoplankton passing through the cooling systems of two Southern California coastal power plants were found to be greatly reduced in numbers (41.7%) and in volume (33.7%). The biomass killed from June, 1972 to May, 1973 amounted to approximately 1,700 tons of organic carbon. Phytoplankton mortalities were most pronounced from October to December when intake waters

F. J.-P. Briand; F. J. P

1975-01-01

340

Incremental cooling load determination for passive direct gain heating systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the applicability of the National Association of Home Builders (NAHB) full load compressor hour method for predicting the cooling load increase in a residence, attributable to direct gain passive heating systems. The NAHB method predictions are compared with the results of 200 hour-by-hour simulations using BLAST and the two methods show reasonable agreement. The degree of agreement and the limitations of the NAHB method are discussed.

Sullivan, P.W.; Mahone, D.; Fuller, W.; Gruber, J.; Kammerud, R.; Place, W.; Andersson, B.

1981-05-01

341

Peltier cooling system utilizing liquid heat exchanger combined with pump  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peltier cooling systems utilizing liquid heat transfer directly with thermoelectric modules are adopted in fridges for hotel-use, home-bar and so forth. This paper reports the development of a highly efficient, high capacity liquid heat exchanger in which a thermoelectric module is installed to minimize electric power consumption and reduce cost. In the heat exchanger, a highly efficient 62-mm diameter round

H. Nishihata; O. Kido; T. Ueno

2002-01-01

342

Solar heating and cooling system installed at Columbus, Ohio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Solar Energy System was installed as a part of a new construction of a college building. The building will house classrooms and laboratories, administrative offices and three lecture halls. The Solar Energy System consists of 4,096 square feet (128 panels) Owens/Illinois Evacuated Glass Tube Collector Subsystem, and a 5,000 gallon steel tank below ground storage system. Hot water is circulated between the collectors and storage tank, passing through a water/lithium bromide absorption chiller to cool the building.

1980-09-01

343

DEVELOP A CONCENTRATED SOLAR POWER-BASED THERMAL COOLING SYSTEM VIA SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

A small scale CSP-based cooling system prototype (300W cooling capacity) and the system performance simulation tool will be developed as a proof of concept. Practical issues will be identified to improve our design. ...

344

Heat exchange and hydraulic resistance of compact laser mirror cooling systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydraulic resistance of cooling systems for laser mirrors and the heat exchange in them have been investigated experimentally. The data obtained have been generalized for several cooling systems with different porous elements.

Shanin, Yu. I.; Shanin, O. I.

2013-07-01

345

Reverberatory screen for a radiant burner  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to porous mat gas fired radiant burner panels utilizing improved reverberatory screens. The purpose of these screens is to boost the overall radiant output of the burner relative to a burner using no screen and the same fuel-air flow rates. In one embodiment, the reverberatory screen is fabricated from ceramic composite material, which can withstand higher operating temperatures than its metallic equivalent. In another embodiment the reverberatory screen is corrugated. The corrugations add stiffness which helps to resist creep and thermally induced distortions due to temperature or thermal expansion coefficient differences. As an added benefit, it has been unexpectedly discovered that the corrugations further increase the radiant efficiency of the burner. In a preferred embodiment, the reverberatory screen is both corrugated and made from ceramic composite material.

Gray, Paul E. (North East, MD)

1999-01-01

346

Commissioning and initial performance of the Dark Energy Camera liquid nitrogen cooling system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dark Energy Camera and its cooling system has been shipped to Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile for installation onto the Blanco 4m telescope. Along with the camera, the cooling system has been installed in the Coudé room at the Blanco Telescope. Final installation of the cooling system and operations on the telescope is planned for the middle of 2012. Initial commissioning experiences and cooling system performance is described.

Cease, H.; DePoy, D.; Derylo, G.; Diehl, H. T.; Estrada, J.; Flaugher, B.; Kuk, K.; Kuhlmann, S.; Lathrop, A.; Schultz, K.; Reinert, R. J.; Schmitt, R. L.; Stefanik, A.; Zhao, A.

2012-09-01

347

Overview of Open-Cycle Desiccant Cooling Systems and Materials  

SciTech Connect

This paper has presented a review of the thermodynamics of three desiccant cooling cycles: the ventilation cycle, the recirculation cycle, and the Dunkle cycle. For the ventilation cycle the qualitative effects of changes in the effectiveness of individual components were analyzed. There are two possible paths to improved dehumidifier performance: changing the design of dehumidifiers using currently available desiccants so as to increase effectiveness without increasing parasitic losses, or developing new desiccants specifically tailored for solar cooling applications. The later part of this paper has considered the second option. A list of desirable desiccant properties was defined, properties of currently used solid and liquid desiccants were compared to this list, and a hypothetical desiccant type that would give improved system performance was discussed.

Collier, R.; Arnold, F.; Barlow, R.

1981-09-01

348

Technical and Economic Assessment Of Solar Thermal Absorption Cooling Systems in Small Commercial Buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the results of an initial assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of supplemental solar thermal absorption cooling systems for small commercial and institutional buildings in the Southwestern United States. Solar thermal absorption cooling systems use chillers powered by solar energy rather than natural gas or electricity. The following factors may position solar thermal absorption cooling systems

Steven S. Burns; Michael S. Goggin; Douglas W. Hinrichs; Kenneth K. Lee

2007-01-01

349

A simplified solar cooling design method for closed-loop liquid systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines a simplified solar cooling design method for closed loop liquid systems. At the present state-of-the-art, solar cooling system performance can only be predicted by a detailed computer simulation. A simulation program (SHASP) has been used in solar cooling systems analysis; however, since not all designers have access to computers that can handle detailed simulation, an alternative is

D. K. Anand; R. B. Abarcar; R. W. Allen

1979-01-01

350

Cooling system for automotive engine or the like including coolant return pump back-up arrangement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes, in an automotive vehicle having a passenger compartment and an engine compartment; an engine, the engine being disposed in the engine compartment and having structure which is subject to high heat flux; a cooling system for removing heat from the engine; and a passenger compartment heating arrangement incorporated with the cooling system, the cooling system and the

N. Ogawa; T. Kubozuka

1986-01-01

351

Experimental investigation of two-stage indirect\\/direct evaporative cooling system in various climatic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cooling performance of two-stage indirect\\/direct evaporative cooling system is experimentally investigated in the various simulated climatic conditions. For this purpose, a two-stage evaporative cooling experimental setup consisting of an indirect evaporative cooling stage (IEC) followed by a direct evaporative cooling stage (DEC) was designed, constructed and tested. Due to the wide variety of climatic conditions in Iran, two air simulators

Ghassem Heidarinejad; Mojtaba Bozorgmehr; Shahram Delfani; Jafar Esmaeelian

2009-01-01

352

Active cooling for downhole instrumentation: Preliminary analysis and system selection  

SciTech Connect

A feasibility study and a series of preliminary designs and analyses were done to identify candidate processes or cycles for use in active cooling systems for downhole electronic instruments. A matrix of energy types and their possible combinations was developed and the energy conversion process for each pari was identified. The feasibility study revealed conventional as well as unconventional processes and possible refrigerants and identified parameters needing further clarifications. A conceptual design or series od oesigns for each system was formulated and a preliminary analysis of each design was completed. The resulting coefficient of performance for each system was compared with the Carnot COP and all systems were ranked by decreasing COP. The system showing the best combination of COP, exchangeability to other operating conditions, failure mode, and system serviceability is chosen for use as a downhole refrigerator. 85 refs., 48 figs., 33 tabs.

Bennett, G.A.

1988-03-01

353

System and method for cooling a super-conducting device  

DOEpatents

A system and method for cooling a superconductive rotor coil. The system comprises a rotatable shaft coupled to the superconductive rotor coil. The rotatable shaft may comprise an axial passageway extending through the rotatable shaft and a first passageway extending through a wall of the rotatable shaft to the axial passageway. The axial passageway and the first passageway are operable to convey a cryogenic fluid to the superconductive rotor coil through the wall of the rotatable shaft. A cryogenic transfer coupling may be provided to supply cryogenic fluid to the first passageway.

Bray, James William (Niskayuna, NY); Steinbach, Albert Eugene (Schenectady, NY); Dawson, Richard Nils (Voorheesville, NY); Laskaris, Evangelos Trifon (Schenectady, NY); Huang, Xianrul (Clifton Park, NY)

2008-01-08

354

Passive-solar directional-radiating cooling system  

DOEpatents

A radiative cooling system for use with an ice-making system having a radiating surface aimed at the sky for radiating energy at one or more wavelength bands for which the atmosphere is transparent and a cover thermally isolated from the radiating surface and transparent at least to the selected wavelength or wavelengths, the thermal isolation reducing the formation of condensation on the radiating surface and/or cover and permitting the radiation to continue when the radiating surface is below the dewpoint of the atmosphere, and a housing supporting the radiating surface, cover and heat transfer means to an ice storage reservoir.

Hull, J.R.; Schertz, W.W.

1985-06-27

355

Passive-solar directional-radiating cooling system  

DOEpatents

A radiative cooling system for use with an ice-making system having a radiating surface aimed at the sky for radiating energy at one or more wavelength bands for which the atmosphere is transparent and a cover thermally isolated from the radiating surface and transparent at least to the selected wavelength or wavelengths, the thermal isolation reducing the formation of condensation on the radiating surface and/or cover and permitting the radiation to continue when the radiating surface is below the dewpoint of the atmosphere, and a housing supporting the radiating surface, cover and heat transfer means to an ice storage reservoir.

Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Schertz, William W. (Batavia, IL)

1986-01-01

356

A gas-cooled reactor surface power system  

SciTech Connect

A human outpost on Mars requires plentiful power to assure survival of the astronauts. Anywhere from 50 to 500 kW of electric power (kWe) will be needed, depending on the number of astronauts, level of scientific activity, and life-cycle closure desired. This paper describes a 250-kWe power system based on a gas-cooled nuclear reactor with a recuperated closed Brayton cycle conversion system. The design draws upon the extensive data and engineering experience developed under the various high-temperature gas cooled reactor programs and under the SP-100 program. The reactor core is similar in power and size to the research reactors found on numerous university campuses. The fuel is uranium nitride clad in Nb1{percent}Zr, which has been extensively tested under the SP-100 program. The fuel rods are arranged in a hexagonal array within a BeO block. The BeO softens the spectrum, allowing better use of the fuel and stabilizing the geometry against deformation during impact or other loadings. The system has a negative temperature feedback coefficient so that the power level will automatically follow a variable load without the need for continuous adjustment of control elements. Waste heat is removed by an air-cooled heat exchanger using cold Martian air. The amount of radioactivity in the reactor at launch is very small (less than a Curie, and about equal to a truckload of uranium ore). The system will need to be engineered so that criticality can not occur for any launch accident. This system is also adaptable for electric propulsion or life-support during transit to and from Mars. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

Lipinski, R.J.; Wright, S.A.; Lenard, R.X.; Harms, G.A. [Sandia National Laboratories, MS-1146, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

1999-01-01

357

A gas-cooled reactor surface power system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A human outpost on Mars requires plentiful power to assure survival of the astronauts. Anywhere from 50 to 500 kW of electric power (kWe) will be needed, depending on the number of astronauts, level of scientific activity, and life-cycle closure desired. This paper describes a 250-kWe power system based on a gas-cooled nuclear reactor with a recuperated closed Brayton cycle conversion system. The design draws upon the extensive data and engineering experience developed under the various high-temperature gas cooled reactor programs and under the SP-100 program. The reactor core is similar in power and size to the research reactors found on numerous university campuses. The fuel is uranium nitride clad in Nb1%Zr, which has been extensively tested under the SP-100 program. The fuel rods are arranged in a hexagonal array within a BeO block. The BeO softens the spectrum, allowing better use of the fuel and stabilizing the geometry against deformation during impact or other loadings. The system has a negative temperature feedback coefficient so that the power level will automatically follow a variable load without the need for continuous adjustment of control elements. Waste heat is removed by an air-cooled heat exchanger using cold Martian air. The amount of radioactivity in the reactor at launch is very small (less than a Curie, and about equal to a truckload of uranium ore). The system will need to be engineered so that criticality can not occur for any launch accident. This system is also adaptable for electric propulsion or life-support during transit to and from Mars.

Lipinski, Ronald J.; Wright, Steven A.; Lenard, Roger X.; Harms, Gary A.

1999-01-01

358

A Gas-Cooled Reactor Surface Power System  

SciTech Connect

A human outpost on Mars requires plentiful power to assure survival of the astronauts. Anywhere from 50 to 500 kW of electric power (kWe) will be needed, depending on the number of astronauts, level of scientific activity, and life- cycle closure desired. This paper describes a 250-kWe power system based on a gas-cooled nuclear reactor with a recuperated closed Brayton cycle conversion system. The design draws upon the extensive data and engineering experience developed under the various high-temperature gas cooled reactor programs and under the SP-100 program. The reactor core is similar in power and size to the research reactors found on numerous university campuses. The fuel is uranium nitide clad in Nb 1 %Zr, which has been extensively tested under the SP-I 00 program The fiel rods are arranged in a hexagonal array within a BeO block. The BeO softens the spectrum, allowing better use of the fbel and stabilizing the geometty against deformation during impact or other loadings. The system has a negative temperature feedback coefficient so that the power level will automatically follow a variable load without the need for continuous adjustment of control elements. Waste heat is removed by an air-cooled heat exchanger using cold Martian air. The amount of radioactivity in the reactor at launch is very small (less than a Curie, and about equal to a truckload of uranium ore). The system will need to be engineered so that criticality cannot occur for any launch accident. This system is also adaptable for electric propulsion or life-support during transit to and from Mars.

Harms, G.A.; Lenard, R.X.; Lipinski, R.J.; Wright, S.A.

1998-11-09

359

A gas-cooled reactor surface power system  

SciTech Connect

A human outpost on Mars requires plentiful power to assure survival of the astronauts. Anywhere from 50 to 500 kW of electric power (kWe) will be needed, depending on the number of astronauts, level of scientific activity, and life-cycle closure desired. This paper describes a 250-kWe power system based on a gas-cooled nuclear reactor with a recuperated closed Brayton cycle conversion system. The design draws upon the extensive data and engineering experience developed under the various high-temperature gas cooled reactor programs and under the SP-100 program. The reactor core is similar in power and size to the research reactors found on numerous university campuses. The fuel is uranium nitride clad in Nb1%Zr, which has been extensively tested under the SP-100 program. The fuel rods are arranged in a hexagonal array within a BeO block. The BeO softens the spectrum, allowing better use of the fuel and stabilizing the geometry against deformation during impact or other loadings. The system has a negative temperature feedback coefficient so that the power level will automatically follow a variable load without the need for continuous adjustment of control elements. Waste heat is removed by an air-cooled heat exchanger using cold Martian air. The amount of radioactivity in the reactor at launch is very small (less than a Curie, and about equal to a truckload of uranium ore). The system will need to be engineered so that criticality can not occur for any launch accident. This system is also adaptable for electric propulsion or life-support during transit to and from Mars.

Lipinski, Ronald J.; Wright, Steven A.; Lenard, Roger X.; Harms, Gary A. [Sandia National Laboratories, MS-1146, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

1999-01-22

360

Preliminary study of a radiantly heated fluidized bed for the production of high purity silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The preparation of very pure silicon from silane (SIH4) using radiant heating of the hot silicon particles of a fluidized bed is discussed. The fraction of electrical energy supplied to the heater which is actually absorbed by the particles and the heat transfer coefficient between the hot bed and the cool distributor plate were investigated. The experimental design is presented and the results of the study are summarized.

Levenspiel, O.; Larson, M.; Zhang, G. T.; Ouyang, F.

1983-08-01

361

A transient heat and mass transfer model of residential attics used to simulate radiant barrier retrofits. Part 1: Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a transient heat and mass transfer model of residential attics. The model is used to predict hourly ceiling heat gain\\/loss in residences with the purpose of estimating reductions in cooling and heating loads produced by radiant barriers. The model accounts for transient conduction, convection, and radiation and incorporates moisture and air transport across the attic. Environmental variables,

Mario A. Medina; W. D. Turner

1998-01-01

362

Cryogenic system with the sub-cooled liquid nitrogen for cooling HTS power cable  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 10m long, three-phase AC high-temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable had been fabricated and tested in China August 2003. The sub-cooled liquid nitrogen (LN2) was used to cool the HTS cable. The sub-cooled LN2 circulation was built by means of a centrifugal pump through a heat exchanger in the sub-cooler, the three-phase HTS cable cryostats and a LN2 gas–liquid separator.

Y. F. Fan; L. H. Gong; X. D. Xu; L. F. Li; L. Zhang; L. Y. Xiao

2005-01-01

363

Analysis of super-radiant Smith-Purcell emission  

SciTech Connect

Smith-Purcell emission is studied for a system with no incident field or electromagnetic feedback mechanism other than what is provided by the grating itself. A model is developed that analyzes the interaction between the electron beam and the grating electromagnetic modes. The system of equations is solved numerically, demonstrating linear emitted power versus current at low current levels and super-radiant power emission at higher currents. These results are compared to the previously published experimental data, and the model is used to gain some understanding of the physical mechanisms at work.

Flory, Curt A. [Agilent Laboratories, Palo Alto, California 94304 (United States)

2006-03-01

364

Cost benefit analysis of a cooling energy storage system  

SciTech Connect

Since the air conditioner (A/C) load contribute 30% of the peak demand of Taiwan Power Company (Taipower) system during the summer season, load management by clipping A/C load has become one of the most important topics in Taipower system. Since the eutectic salt is a complete inorganic compound with freezing point at 47 F and latent heat 41 Btu/lb, it is a good medium for the energy storage system. It this paper, an A/C system with 1,800 RT-HR eutectic salt energy storage tank was built on the campus of National Sun Yat-Sen University (NSYSU) for the demonstration of the cooling energy storage (CES) system. Six operation modes of the CES-system are designed to meet different cooling load requirements. By computer simulation, it is found that 41.1% of the electric peak demand has been reduced and 56% of the energy consumption has been shifted from peak hours to off-peak hours by the CES-system. In this paper, the mathematical model of an eutectic salt CES-system has been developed for the computer simulation of the energy storage system. It is found that the optimal capacity of the storage tank is determined by the off-peak time period and the largest annual electricity charge saving could be obtained by applying the smallest nominal chiller size under the optimal operating conditions. According to the results of the computer simulation and the field test, the payback period of the test system is estimated to be 3.6 years by considering the additional investment cost and the electricity charge saving of the CES-system.

Chen, C.S.; Sheen, J.N. (National Sun Yat-Sen Univ., Kaohsiung (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

1993-11-01

365

Engineering and cost comparison of three different all-dry cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of a detailed engineering and cost study of three different all-dry cooling systems to assess the potential for reducing the cost of all-dry cooling for steam electric power plants are described. The three types of cooling systems considered were: state-of-the-art (SOA) dry cooling system; with a conventional surface condenser, and water used to condense the steam is passed through

B. C. Fryer; D. J. Braun; D. W. Faletti; L. E. Wiles

1976-01-01

366

Radiant Energy Measurements from a Scaled Jet Engine Axisymmetric Exhaust Nozzle for a Baseline Code Validation Case.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A non-flowing, electrically heated test rig was developed to verify computer codes that calculate radiant energy propagation from nozzle geometries that represent aircraft propulsion nozzle systems. Since there are a variety of analysis tools used to eval...

J. F. Baumeister

1994-01-01

367

Advanced heat pump cycle for district heating and cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

A bread board heat pump was designed and built to test the performance of a vapor compression heat pump with two stage ammonia-water solution circuits. The design was updated based on the experience gained with the single stage version of this heat pump. A major improvement was obtained by eliminating the rectifier. The new scheme was first investigated by computer simulation and then incorporated in the experimental setup. Water balance in the high and low temperature circuits is now maintained by bleeding up to 2.5% of the weak solution flow from one solution circuit to the other. The advantages of this scheme are reduced first cost, simplified design and control, 20--30% improvement in cooling coefficient of performance and 10--15% increase in cooling capacity as compared to the cycle with a rectifier. Coefficients of performance in the range of 0.84 to 1.03 were obtained experimentally for a temperature lift of 100-K. The pressure ratios encountered were in the range of 7.6 to 9.9, which are 35 to 50% of the pressure ratio expected for a conventional heat pump. Thus the results demonstrate that high temperature lifts can be achieved at pressure ratios which are less than half as large as for conventional systems. The cooling capacities were in the range of 2.79 to 4.21 kW. 13 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Radermacher, R.

1991-07-01

368

The Helium Cooling System and Cold Mass Support System for theMICE Coupling Solenoid  

SciTech Connect

The MICE cooling channel consists of alternating threeabsorber focus coil module (AFC) and two RF coupling coil module (RFCC)where the process of muon cooling and reacceleration occurs. The RFCCmodule comprises a superconducting coupling solenoid mounted around fourconventional conducting 201.25 MHz closed RF cavities and producing up to2.2T magnetic field on the centerline. The coupling coil magnetic fieldis to produce a low muon beam beta function in order to keep the beamwithin the RF cavities. The magnet is to be built using commercialniobium titanium MRI conductors and cooled by pulse tube coolers thatproduce 1.5 W of cooling capacity at 4.2 K each. A self-centering supportsystem is applied for the coupling magnet cold mass support, which isdesigned to carry a longitudinal force up to 500 kN. This report willdescribe the updated design for the MICE coupling magnet. The cold masssupport system and helium cooling system are discussed indetail.

Wang, L.; Wu, H.; Li, L.K.; Green, M.A.; Liu, C.S.; Li, L.Y.; Jia, L.X.; Virostek, S.P.

2007-08-27

369

Pilot-scale cooling tower to evaluate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control strategies for cooling system makeup water.  

PubMed

Pilot-scale cooling towers can be used to evaluate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control strategies when using particular cooling system makeup water and particular operating conditions. To study the potential for using a number of different impaired waters as makeup water, a pilot-scale system capable of generating 27,000 kJ?h heat load and maintaining recirculating water flow with a Reynolds number of 1.92 × 10(4) was designed to study these critical processes under conditions that are similar to full-scale systems. The pilot-scale cooling tower was equipped with an automatic makeup water control system, automatic blowdown control system, semi-automatic biocide feeding system, and corrosion, scaling, and biofouling monitoring systems. Observed operational data revealed that the major operating parameters, including temperature change (6.6 °C), cycles of concentration (N = 4.6), water flow velocity (0.66 m?s), and air mass velocity (3660 kg?h m(2)), were controlled quite well for an extended period of time (up to 2 months). Overall, the performance of the pilot-scale cooling towers using treated municipal wastewater was shown to be suitable to study critical processes (corrosion, scaling, biofouling) and evaluate cooling water management strategies for makeup waters of complex quality. PMID:22380105

Chien, S H; Hsieh, M K; Li, H; Monnell, J; Dzombak, D; Vidic, R

2012-02-01

370

Rheological control on the radiant density of active lava flows and domes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During an effusive-extrusive eruption, the capability of an active lava body (flow or dome) to radiate thermal energy depends on how the lava discharge rate is accommodated by the expansion of the magma body and by the cooling of its surface. This feature can be described by a single empirical parameter, defined "radiant density" (crad; in J m- 3) that, for a given discharge rate, expresses the efficiency of the lava body to change its area and/or to insulate its inner core, thus modulating the heat radiated from the active surface. By comparing the Volcanic Radiative Energy (VRE; in J), detected by MODIS during 28 eruptions at 18 active volcanoes, with their erupted lava volumes (Vol; in m3), we show that the radiant density (crad = VRE/Vol) is inversely proportional to the silica content of the erupted lava. Basic lavas (45-52 wt.% SiO2) have the highest observed radiant density (1 to 4 × 108 J m- 3) while intermediate (52-63 wt.% SiO2) and acidic (> 63 wt.% SiO2) lavas show a gradually lower radiant densities (1.5 to 9 × 107 J m- 3 and 0.2 to 1 × 107 J m- 3 for intermediate and acidic composition, respectively). We regard this correlation as the result of the control that the rheology of lavas exerts on cooling and spreading processes of related bodies. In particular, we found that for any given compositional group the radiant density is essentially related to a "characteristic thickness" of active lavas, at the time of a satellite acquisition.We suggest that the radiant density of effusive/extrusive lava bodies can be predicted (± 50%) by means of an empirical relationship based on the SiO2 content of the erupted lava. This makes this parameter very useful in observing volcanic activity, especially in remote regions where access may not be possible. By measuring the energy radiated during an eruption and by assuming a lava composition (based on the tectonic setting or magmatic province), we suggest that the radiant density can be used to estimate lava discharge rates and erupted volumes for volcanoes characterised by effusive or extrusive activity.

Coppola, D.; Laiolo, M.; Piscopo, D.; Cigolini, C.

2013-01-01

371

Modification of the Core Cooling System of TRIGA 2000 Reactor  

SciTech Connect

To accomplish safety requirements, a set of actions has to be performed following the recommendations of the IAEA safety series 35 applied to research reactor. Such actions are considered in modernization of the old system, improving the core cooling system and safety evaluations. Due to the complexity of the process and the difficulty in putting the apparatus in the reactor core, analytical and experimental study on the determination of flow and temperature distribution in the whole coolant channel are difficult to be done. In the present work, a numerical study of flow and temperature distribution in the coolant channel of TRIGA 2000 has been carried out using CFD package. For this study, simulations were carried out on 3-D tested model. The model consists of the reactor tank, thermal and thermalizing column, reflector, rotary specimen rack, chimney, fuel element, primary pipe, diffuser, beam tube and a part of the core are constructed by 1.50 million unstructured tetrahedral cell elements. The results show that for the initial condition (116 fuel elements in the core) and for the inlet temperature of 24 deg. C and the primary velocity of 5.6 m/s, there no boiling phenomena occur in the coolant channel. Due to this result, it is now possible to improve the core cooling system of TRIGA 2000 reactor. Meanwhile, forced flow from the diffuser system only affected the flow pattern in the outside of chimney and put on a small effect to the fluid flow's velocity in the inside of chimney.

Umar, Efrizon; Fiantini, Rosalina [National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia, Jalan Tamansari 71, Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia)

2010-06-22

372

Modification of the Core Cooling System of TRIGA 2000 Reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To accomplish safety requirements, a set of actions has to be performed following the recommendations of the IAEA safety series 35 applied to research reactor. Such actions are considered in modernization of the old system, improving the core cooling system and safety evaluations. Due to the complexity of the process and the difficulty in putting the apparatus in the reactor core, analytical and experimental study on the determination of flow and temperature distribution in the whole coolant channel are difficult to be done. In the present work, a numerical study of flow and temperature distribution in the coolant channel of TRIGA 2000 has been carried out using CFD package. For this study, simulations were carried out on 3-D tested model. The model consists of the reactor tank, thermal and thermalizing column, reflector, rotary specimen rack, chimney, fuel element, primary pipe, diffuser, beam tube and a part of the core are constructed by 1.50 million unstructured tetrahedral cell elements. The results show that for the initial condition (116 fuel elements in the core) and for the inlet temperature of 24°C and the primary velocity of 5.6 m/s, there no boiling phenomena occur in the coolant channel. Due to this result, it is now possible to improve the core cooling system of TRIGA 2000 reactor. Meanwhile, forced flow from the diffuser system only affected the flow pattern in the outside of chimney and put on a small effect to the fluid flow's velocity in the inside of chimney.

Umar, Efrizon; Fiantini, Rosalina

2010-06-01

373

Economic assessment of backfitting power plants with closed-cycle cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for assessing the economic consequences of backfitting electric power plants with conventional closed cycle cooling systems is stipulated. Four types of closed cycle systems were investigated: mechanical and natural draft crossflow wet cooling towers, cooling ponds, and spray canals. To estimate operational penalties associated with backfitting, thermodynamic models were used to reproduce the operating characteristics of different types

A. R. Giaquinta; T. E. Croley II; V. C. Patel; J. G. Melville; M. S. Cheng

1976-01-01

374

Heat transfer performance of a cooling system using vibrating piezoelectric beams  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prototype of a miniature cooling system for microelectronics using vibrating piezoelectric beam was proposed and constructed. The flow patterns and cooling effects of the system were investigated experimentally. The vibration characteristics of the piezoelectric beam were simulated by the finite element method. Cooling effects were measured in terms of the temperature drop of the heat source above the vibrating

Tao Wu; Paul I. Ro

2005-01-01

375

Economy of replacing a refrigerant in a cooling system for preparing chilled water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the negative impact of refrigerants containing Cl and Br on the ozone layer, these refrigerants are being replaced with refrigerants containing fluorine. The article describes the replacing of refrigerant R22 in a cooling system for preparing chilled water, used for cooling reactors producing phenol–formaldehyde resins. After analyzing the existing state and the capabilities of the cooling system, the

B. Kulcar; D. Goricanec; J. Krope

2010-01-01

376

Operational optimization of air conditioning cooling water system with UF–RO desalination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrafiltration (UF) pretreatment and reverse osmosis (RO) were used to treat the blowdown water from circulating cooling water system. The UF product water meets the requirements as RO feed water. To optimize the operation of cooling water system with UF–RO and to ensure a satisfactory cooling water quality within the JRA (Japan Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Industry Association) water standard,

Han Yan; Lifen Liu; Fenglin Yang; Daizo Takaoka; Chanchan Wang

2010-01-01

377

Drainable evacuated tubular solar cooling system at Frenchman's Reef Hotel  

SciTech Connect

The Frenchman's Reef Hotel in the Virgin Islands operates its own total energy plant which has the capacity to satisfy the entire requirements of the 510-room hotel for electricity, desalinated drinking water and sewage treatment. The solar energy system consists of a 13,384 square foot array of drainable evacuated tube collectors arranged on three wings of the hotel. Solar heated water is supplied to a 200 ton absorption chiller which cools public rooms in the hotel. A programmable microprocessor controller oversees all functions of the solar energy system and monitors and records data which can be subsequently recovered locally or over the telephone, either as hard copy printout or on tape. The construction and startup of the array and system operating results are discussed. System heat losses are assessed. (LEW)

Platt, D.M.

1981-05-01

378

Floating Loop System for Cooling Integrated Motors and Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A floating loop vehicle component cooling and air-conditioning system having at least one compressor for compressing cool vapor refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one condenser for condensing the hot vapor refrigerant into hot liquid refrige...

J. S. Hsu C. W. Ayers C. Coomer L. D. Marlino

2004-01-01

379

Design of Dehumidifiers for Use in Desiccant Cooling and Dehumidification Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of rotary dehumidifiers in open cycle desiccant cooling systems is investigated by analyzing the performance of the rotary heat exchanger-rotary dehumidifier subsystem. For a given cooling load, the required regeneration heat supply can be minimiz...

E. Van den Bulck J. W. Mitchell S. A. Klein

1984-01-01

380

40 CFR 749.68 - Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems...CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT WATER TREATMENT CHEMICALS Air Conditioning...749.68 Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling...

2013-07-01

381

Options for thermal energy storage in solar-cooling systems. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The current effort concentrates on design requirements of thermal storage subsystems for active solar cooling systems. The use of thermal storage with respect to absorption, Rankine, and desiccant cooling technologies is examined.

Curran, H.M.; DeVries, J.

1981-05-01

382

An ultrasensitive fouling monitoring system for cooling towers  

SciTech Connect

Fouling in industrial water has been a serious problem for many years. For example, the deterioration of the efficiency of heat exchangers and the occurrence of corrosion can cause cooling water leakage into the process streams. Biocides, dispersants, and filtration systems typically are used to prevent these problems. However, if these treatment programs are started too late, the early stages of fouling can occur. Here, a simple method for assessing fouling and chemical treatment efficiency is described. An ultrasensitive fouling sensor that uses piezoelectric quartz crystals was developed which detects fouling in the early stages.

Nohata, Y. [Hakuto Co. Ltd., Yokkaichi (Japan); Taguchi, H. [Mie Univ., Tsu (Japan)

1995-03-01

383

System and method for cooling a superconducting rotary machine  

SciTech Connect

A system for cooling a superconducting rotary machine includes a plurality of sealed siphon tubes disposed in balanced locations around a rotor adjacent to a superconducting coil. Each of the sealed siphon tubes includes a tubular body and a heat transfer medium disposed in the tubular body that undergoes a phase change during operation of the machine to extract heat from the superconducting coil. A siphon heat exchanger is thermally coupled to the siphon tubes for extracting heat from the siphon tubes during operation of the machine.

Ackermann, Robert Adolf (Schenectady, NY); Laskaris, Evangelos Trifon (Schenectady, NY); Huang, Xianrui (Clifton Park, NY); Bray, James William (Niskayuna, NY)

2011-08-09

384

Testing and design of solar cooling systems employing liquid dessicants  

SciTech Connect

An open cycle liquid desiccant cooling system with cooling capacity of 3 tons (10.5 kW) a subject of research at Colorado State University. The system comprises two main units: the dehumidifier and the regenerator. Lithium bromide is the desiccant solution that dehumidifies the air stream during a counter-current, liquid-gas contacting in the packed tower. The regenerator concentrates the lithium bromide solution during a similar gas-liquid contacting using solar heated air with the only difference being that the direction of heat and mass transfer are reversed in this unit. The earlier studies conducted on the dehumidifier revealed significant departures from an energy balance closure. An attempt has been made to provide a realistic energy balance closure to the dehumidifier side. This has resulted in substantial re-calibration of the major instruments involved. Performance data of the entire system with the regenerator and dehumidifier operated in coupled mode have been presented. An optimization scheme to predict operating conditions suited for best performance of the two units, for varying ambient temperature and humidity to the dehumidifier, has been devised. 15 refs., 20 figs., 8 tabs.

Lenz, T.; Loef, G.O.G.; Flaherty, M.; Misra, S.; Patnaik, S.

1989-05-01

385

A water-cooled mirror system for synchrotron radiation  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the design and performance of a directly-cooled soft x-ray mirror system which has been developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for synchrotron radiation beam lines in which mirror thermal distortion must be minimized for acceptable optical performance. Two similar mirror systems are being built: the first mirror has been installed and operated at the National Synchrotron Light Source on the X-17T mini-undulator beam line and will be moved to the permanent X-1 beam line when a new, more powerful undulator is installed there. The second system is being built for installation at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory on Beam Line VI, where the total absorbed power on the mirror may be as high as 2400 W with peak absorbed power density of 520 W/cm/sup 2/. Direct cooling by convection is achieved using internal water channels in a brazed, dispersion-strengthened copper and OFHC copper substrate with a polished electroless-nickel surface. A simple kinematic linkage and flexural pivot mounting provide for mirror positioning about two rotational axes that coincide with the optical surface. Surface figure metrology, optical configurations, and tolerancing are also discussed. 11 refs., 8 figs.

DiGennaro, R.; Gee, B.; Guigli, J.; Hogrefe, H.; Howells, M.; Rarback, H.

1987-06-01

386

Superconducting helical solenoid systems for muon cooling experiment at Fermilab  

SciTech Connect

Novel configurations of superconducting magnet system for Muon Beam Cooling Experiment is under design at Fermilab. The magnet system has to generate longitudinal and transverse dipole and quadrupole helical magnetic fields providing a muon beam motion along helical orbit. It was found that such complicated field configuration can be formed by a set of circular coils shifted in transverse directions in such a way that their centers lay on the center of the helical beam orbit. Closed beam orbit configurations were also proposed and investigated. This paper describes the magnetic and mechanical designs and parameters of such magnetic system based on a NbTi Rutherford type cable. The helical solenoid fabrication, assembly and quench protection issues are presented.

Kashikhin, Vladimir S.; Andreev, Nikolai; /Fermilab; Johnson, Rolland P.; /MUONS Inc., Batavia; Kashikhin, Vadim V.; Lamm, Michael J.; Romanov, Gennady; Yonehara, Katsuya; Zlobin, Alexander V.; /Fermilab

2007-08-01

387

Detecting and mitigating aging in component cooling water systems  

SciTech Connect

The time-dependent effects of aging on component cooling water (CCW) systems in nuclear power plants has been studied and documented as part of a research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. It was found that age related degradation leads to failures in the CCW system which can result in an increase in system unavailability, if not properly detected and mitigated. To identify effective methods of managing this degradation, information on inspection, monitoring, and maintenance practices currently available was obtained from various operating plants and reviewed. The findings were correlated with the most common aging mechanisms and failure modes and a compilation of aging detection and mitigation practices was formulated. This paper discusses the results of this work.

Lofaro, R.J.

1991-01-01

388

Detecting and mitigating aging in component cooling water systems  

SciTech Connect

The time-dependent effects of aging on component cooling water (CCW) systems in nuclear power plants has been studied and documented as part of a research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. It was found that age related degradation leads to failures in the CCW system which can result in an increase in system unavailability, if not properly detected and mitigated. To identify effective methods of managing this degradation, information on inspection, monitoring, and maintenance practices currently available was obtained from various operating plants and reviewed. The findings were correlated with the most common aging mechanisms and failure modes and a compilation of aging detection and mitigation practices was formulated. This paper discusses the results of this work.

Lofaro, R.J.

1991-12-31

389

Developing, testing, evaluating and optimizing solar heating and cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

The objective is to develop and test various integrated solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water systems, and to evaluate their performance. Systems composed of new, as well as previously tested, components are carefully integrated so that effects of new components on system performance can be clearly delineated. The program for 1989--90 is separated into seven tasks. There are tasks for each of the three solar houses, a project to build and test several generic solar water heaters, a task involving development of an improved evacuated tube collector, a management task, and a task under which an international workshop will test IEA Task VI models. The objectives and progress in each task are described in this report.

Not Available

1990-03-05

390

Chromate substitutes for corrosion inhibitors in cooling systems: Final report  

SciTech Connect

Chromate chemistry has historically been the corrosion inhibitor for use in nuclear plant component cooling water systems (CCWS). The potential, inadvertent release of chromates has led many utilities into a search for an adequate substitute corrosion inhibiting system for the CCWS. To be sure the inhibitor satisfies all necessary criteria, a qualification program for its use should be established. This report presents a qualification program for chromate-alternatives, including corrosion inhibiting effectiveness, compatibility with the environment, and compatibility with other plant systems. Several utilities have already replaced chromates as CCWS corrosion inhibitors. Available information on three of these alternatives has been extracted from technical literature and from use-experience, relative to the recommended qualification program. Summaries of this information is also included in this report.

Brobst, G.E.

1987-12-01

391

Optimized readout system for cooled optically stimulated luminescence  

SciTech Connect

Cooled Optically Stimulated Luminescence (COSL) in CaF{sub 2}:Mn is an ionizing radiation dosimetry method recently developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). In this method CaF{sub 2}:Mn crystals irradiated by gamma radiation at room temperature are cooled to liquid nitrogen temperature (77K), stimulated by ultraviolet laser light at 326 nm, and allowed to warm to room temperature. Light emission proportional to the gamma exposure occurs as the TLD warms from liquid nitrogen temperature to room temperature. The new method is an example of a highly sensitive phototransfer technique which could form the basis for future radiation dosimetry applications. Measurements to date have shown high potential for measuring gamma exposures in the range of 10 {mu}R. The high sensitivity of the COSL technique is due in part to the larger quantum efficiency of radiative recombination at low temperatures and to the complete absence of the incandescent background associated with conventional thermoluminescent readout methods. Along with the potential for a system which is more sensitive than thermoluminescent readers, multiple COSL readouts can be performed with minimal reduction in the COSL intensity. The multiple readout capability can serve as a possible permanent dosimetry record, thus allowing the reanalysis of a questionable reading. In an attempt to optimize the sensitivity of the COSL method, a new readout system is being developed. 8 refs., 7 figs.

Miller, S.D.; Eschbach, P.A.

1990-09-01

392

Cooling a quantum circuit via coupling to a multiqubit system  

SciTech Connect

The cooling effects of a quantum LC circuit coupled inductively with an ensemble of artificial qubits are investigated. The particles may decay independently or collectively through their interaction with the environmental vacuum electromagnetic field reservoir. For appropriate bath temperatures and the resonator's quality factors, we demonstrate an effective cooling well below the thermal background. In particular, we found that for larger samples the cooling efficiency is better for independent qubits. However, the cooling process can be faster for collectively interacting particles.

Macovei, Mihai A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

2010-04-15

393

Performance of active solar space-cooling systems: The 1980 cooling season  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar cooling by an absorption chiller is not a cost effective method to use solar heat. This statement is substantiated by careful analysis of each subsystem and equipment component. Good designs and operating procedures are identified. The problems which reduce cost effectiveness are pointed out. There are specific suggestions for improvements. Finally, there is a comparison of solar cooling by absorption chilling and using photovoltaic cells.

Blum, D.; Frock, S.; Logee, T.; Missal, D.; Wetzel, P.

1980-12-01

394

Thermoelectric generator cooling system and method of control  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is provided that includes a thermoelectric generator and an exhaust gas system operatively connected to the thermoelectric generator to heat a portion of the thermoelectric generator with exhaust gas flow through the thermoelectric generator. A coolant system is operatively connected to the thermoelectric generator to cool another portion of the thermoelectric generator with coolant flow through the thermoelectric generator. At least one valve is controllable to cause the coolant flow through the thermoelectric generator in a direction that opposes a direction of the exhaust gas flow under a first set of operating conditions and to cause the coolant flow through the thermoelectric generator in the direction of exhaust gas flow under a second set of operating conditions.

Prior, Gregory P; Meisner, Gregory P; Glassford, Daniel B

2012-10-16

395

COOLING SYSTEM FOR THE MERIT HIGH-POWER TARGET EXPERIMENT  

SciTech Connect

MERIT is a proof-of-principle experiment of a target station suitable as source for future muon colliders or neutrino factories. When installed at the CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) PS (Proton Synchrotron) complex fast-extracted high-intensity proton beams intercepted a free mercury jet inside a normal-conducting, pulsed 15-T capture solenoid magnet cooled with liquid nitrogen. Up to 25 MJ of Joule heat was dissipated in the magnet during a pulse. The fully automated, remotely controlled cryogenic system of novel design permitted the transfer of nitrogen by the sole means of differential pressures inside the vessels. This fast cycling system permitted several hundred tests in less than three weeks during the 2007 data taking campaign.

Haug, F.; Pereira, H.; Silva, P.; Pezzetti, M.; Pavlov, O.; Pirotte, O.; Metselaar, J.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fabich, A.; Lettry, J. [CERN, CH-1211, Geneva, 23 (Switzerland); Kirk, H. G. [BNL, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); McDonald, K. T. [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Titus, P. [NW22-225 MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, 185 Albany Street, Cambridge MA 02139 (United States); Bennett, J. R. J. [CCLRC, RAL, Chilton, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

2010-04-09

396

High power rapidly tunable system for laser cooling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser cooling experiments require light sources that can be rapidly tuned in frequency and power. Keeping as much power as possible increases the number of trapped atoms. We present a configuration that combines the capabilities of rapid frequency tuning with power amplification in a robust system. A double pass acousto-optic modulator (AOM) changes the frequency of the laser beam while keeping the alignment approximately constant. We decouple the modulation and amplification sections using an optical fiber and we keep the power out of the fiber constant by feed-forward on the amplitude modulation of the AOM. The tapered amplifier is in a double pass configuration and requires an input of only 1 mW to obtain 1 W out. A second modulator controls the intensity after the amplifier and generates additional beams that we use, for example, to do absorption imaging. We demonstrate the transfer of atoms to a dipole trap using the system.

Gomez, Eduardo; Valenzuela Jimenez, Victor Manuel; Hernandez Diaz, Lorenzo

2012-06-01

397

THE SNS RESONANCE CONTROL COOLING SYSTEM CONTROL VALVE UPGRADE PERFORMANCE  

SciTech Connect

The normal-conducting linac of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) uses 10 separate Resonance Control Cooling System (RCCS) water skids to control the resonance of 6 Drift Tube Linac (DTL) and 4 Coupled Cavity Linac (CCL) accelerating structures. The RCCS water skids use 2 control valves; one to regulate the chilled water flow and the other to bypass water to a chilled water heat exchanger. These valves have hydraulic actuators that provide position and feedback to the control system. Frequency oscillations occur using these hydraulic actuators due to their coarse movement and control of the valves. New pneumatic actuator and control positioners have been installed on the DTL3 RCCS water skid to give finer control and regulation of DTL3 cavity temperature. This paper shows a comparison of resonance control performance for the two valve configurations.

Williams, Derrick C [ORNL; Schubert, James Phillip [ORNL; Tang, Johnny Y [ORNL

2008-01-01

398

Optimization of water-cooled chiller system with load-based speed control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the energy performance of chiller and cooling tower systems integrated with variable condenser water flow and optimal speed control for tower fans and condenser water pumps. Thermodynamic-behaviour chiller and cooling tower models were developed to assess how different control methods of cooling towers and condenser water pumps influence the trade-off between the chiller power, pump power, fan

F. W. Yu; K. T. Chan

2008-01-01

399

Thermomechanical life prediction for material lifetime improvement of an internal cooling system in a combustion liner  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with heat transfer analysis and life prediction in the after shell section of a gas turbine combustion liner with internal cooling passage. The method in the present study is the process to design cooling systems which enhance the material lifetime as well as the cooling performance. Using this method, we found the major causes of lifetime-affecting

Kyung Min Kim; Yun Heung Jeon; Namgeon Yun; Dong Hyun Lee; Hyung Hee Cho

2011-01-01

400

Heat removal performance of auxiliary cooling system for the high temperature engineering test reactor during scrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The auxiliary cooling system of the high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) is employed for heat removal as an engineered safety feature when the reactor scrams in an accident when forced circulation can cool the core. The HTTR is the first high temperature gas-cooled reactor in Japan with reactor outlet gas temperature of 950 °C and thermal power of 30 MW.

Takeshi Takeda; Yukio Tachibana; Tatsuo Iyoku; Satsuki Takenaka

2003-01-01

401

Floating Loop System For Cooling Integrated Motors And Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A floating loop vehicle component cooling and air-conditioning system having at least one compressor for compressing cool vapor refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one condenser for condensing the hot vapor refrigerant into hot liquid refrigerant by exchanging heat with outdoor air; at least one floating loop component cooling device for evaporating the hot liquid refrigerant into hot vapor

John S. Hsu; Curtis W. Ayers; Chester Coomer; Laura D. Marlino

2006-01-01

402

Expanding the limits on engines and vehicles imposed by circulating liquid engine cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operational limits of the cooling system for a liquid cooled internal combustion engine are also limits on the engine's power, fuel economy and air quality possibilities. When coolant temperatures in a traditional liquid cooled engine approach the saturation temperature of water, optimum engine settings must be degraded to prevent detonation. This paper discusses the nature of the limits imposed

J. W. Evans; J. T. Light

1986-01-01

403

The cryogenic helium cooling system for the Tokamak physics experiment  

SciTech Connect

The Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) will use supercritical helium to cool all the magnets and supply helium to the Vacuum cryopumping subsystem. The heat loads will come from the standard steady state conduction and thermal radiation sources and from the pulsed loads of the nuclear and eddy currents caused by the Central Solenoid Coils and the plasma positioning coils. The operations of the TPX will begin with pulses of up to 1000 seconds in duration every 75 minutes. The helium system utilizes a pulse load leveling scheme to buffer out the effects of the pulse load and maintain a constant cryogenic plant operation. The pulse load leveling scheme utilizes the thermal mass of liquid and gaseous helium stored in a remote dewar to absorb the pulses of the tokamak loads. The mass of the stored helium will buffer out the temperature pulses allowing 5 K helium to be delivered to the magnets throughout the length of the pulse. The temperature of the dewar will remain below 5 K with all the energy of the pulse absorbed. This paper will present the details of the heat load sources, of the pulse load leveling scheme operations, a partial helium schematic, dewar temperature as a function of time, the heat load sources as a function of time and the helium temperature as a function of length along the various components that will be cooled.

Felker, B.; Slack, D.S.; Wendland, C.R.

1995-09-29

404

Absorption chiller crystallization control strategies for integrated cooling heating and power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of an air-cooled absorption chiller system is attractive because the cooling tower and the associated installation and maintenance issues can be avoided. However, crystallization of the LiBr–H2O solution then becomes the main challenge in the operation of the chiller, since the air-cooled absorber tends to operate at a higher temperature and concentration level than the water-cooled absorber due

Xiaohong Liao; Reinhard Radermacher

2007-01-01

405

Fluid heating attachment for automobile engine cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a fluid heating attachment for automobile engines cooling systems with a device for warming the engine and prewarming the washer fluid when the engine is not running, and for also warming the washer fluid when the engine is running. The attachment consists of: a housing having a heating chamber and having an inlet and an outlet connected in communication with the chamber, the housing inlet and outlet being connected in communication with the radiator outlet hose and space heater supply hose, respectively, thus to connect the chamber in the cooling system as part of the flow path of coolant circulated through the system and thereby fill the chamber with the circulated coolant; a tubular conduit means for windshield washer fluid, supported within the chamber in position to be substantially wholly immersed in the coolant filling the chamber; the conduit means including inflow and outflow ends projecting exteriorly of the chamber and respectively connected to the inlet and outlet end portions of the windshield washer fluid supply line to provide a heated supply of washer fluid for the spray head; and heating means within the chamber for elevating the temperature of the coolant and the washer fluid therein, the heating means comprising an electrical heating element wholly immersed in the coolant within the chamber in laterally spaced relation to the conduit means and adapted for connection to a supply of house current, from the housing to the space heater supply hose and into the upper end of the block, and thereafter downwardly through the block to the lower end thereof to displace and force upwardly coolant that is of a lower temperature.

Linker, R.E.; Linker, M.P.

1986-03-11

406

Chaotic dynamics of a classical radiant cavity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The statistical properties of a classical electromagnetic field in interaction with matter are numerically investigated on a one-dimensional model of a radiant cavity, conservative and with finite total energy. Our results suggest a trend towards equipartition of energy, with the relaxation times of the normal modes of the cavity increasing with the mode frequency according to a law, the form of which depends on the shape of the charge distribution.

Benenti, G.; Casati, G.; Guarneri, I.

1999-05-01

407

Cryogenic cooling with cryocooler on a rotating system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a system that continuously maintains a cryocooler for long periods on a rotating table. A cryostat that holds the cryocooler is set on the table. A compressor is located on the ground and supplies high-purity (>99.999%) and high-pressure (1.7 MPa) helium gas and electricity to the cryocooler. The operation of the cryocooler and other instruments requires the development of interface components between the ground and rotating table. A combination of access holes at the center of the table and two rotary joints allows simultaneous circulation of electricity and helium gas. The developed system provides two innovative functions under the rotating condition, cooling from room temperature and the maintenance of a cold condition for long periods. We have confirmed these abilities as well as temperature stability under a condition of continuous rotation at 20 rpm. The developed system can be applied in various fields, e.g., in tests of Lorentz invariance, searches for axion, radio astronomy, and cosmology, and application of radar systems. In particular, there is a plan to use this system for a radio telescope observing cosmic microwave background radiation.

Oguri, S.; Choi, J.; Kawai, M.; Tajima, O.

2013-05-01

408

Optimization of a solar cooling system with interior energy storage  

SciTech Connect

This paper focuses on the optimization of the performance of a solar absorption cooling system composed by four units with interior energy storage. A full dynamic simulation model that includes the solar collector field, the absorption heat pump system and the building load calculation has been developed. It has been applied to optimize the coupling of a system based on this new technology of solar powered absorption heat pump, to a bioclimatic building recently constructed in the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA) in Spain. The absorption heat pump system considered is composed by four heat pumps that store energy in the form of crystallized salts so that no external storage capacity is required. Each heat pump is composed of two separate barrels that can charge (store energy from the solar field) and discharge (deliver heat or cold to the building) independently. Different configurations of the four units have been analysed taking into account the storage possibilities of the system and its capacity to respond to the building loads. It has been shown how strong the influence of the control strategies in the overall performance is, and the importance of using hourly simulations models when looking for highly efficient buildings. (author)

Sanjuan, C.; Soutullo, S.; Heras, M.R. [Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency in Buildings Unit, CIEMAT, Madrid E-28040 (Spain)

2010-07-15

409

Sealed Battery Block Provided With A Cooling System  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to a sealed battery block operating at a pressure of at least 1 bar relative, the battery including a container made of a plastics material and made up of a lid and of a case subdivided into wells by at least one partition, said battery being provided with a cooling system including two cheek plates made of a plastics material and co-operating with the outside faces of respective ones of two opposite walls of said case, each cheek plate co-operating with the corresponding wall to define a compartment provided with a plurality of ribs forming baffles for fluid flow purposes, and with an inlet orifice and an outlet orifice for the fluid, said battery being characterized in that each of said ribs extends in a direction that forms an angle relative to the plane of said partition lying in the range 60.degree. to 90.degree..

Verhoog, Roelof (Bordeaux, FR); Barbotin, Jean-Loup (Pompignac, FR)

1999-11-16

410

Thermochemically recuperated and steam cooled gas turbine system  

DOEpatents

A gas turbine system in which the expanded gas from the turbine section is used to generate the steam in a heat recovery steam generator and to heat a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel and the steam in a reformer. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon gas to hydrogen and carbon monoxide for combustion in a combustor. A portion of the steam from the heat recovery steam generator is used to cool components, such as the stationary vanes, in the turbine section, thereby superheating the steam. The superheated steam is mixed into the hydrocarbon gas upstream of the reformer, thereby eliminating the need to raise the temperature of the expanded gas discharged from the turbine section in order to achieve effective conversion of the hydrocarbon gas.

Viscovich, Paul W. (Longwood, FL); Bannister, Ronald L. (Winter Springs, FL)

1995-01-01

411

How to measure thermal effects of personal cooling systems: human, thermal manikin and human simulator study.  

PubMed

Thermal effects, such as cooling power and thermophysiological responses initiated upon application of a personal cooling system, can be assessed with (i) humans, (ii) a thermal manikin and (iii) a thermophysiological human simulator. In order to compare these methods, a cooling shirt (mild cooling) and an ice vest (strong cooling) were measured using human participants and a thermal manikin. Under all conditions, cooling was provided for 45 min, while resting at a room temperature of 24.6-25.0 degrees C and a relative humidity of 22-24%. Subsequently, the thermophysiological human simulator was used under the same conditions to provide data on thermophysiological responses such as skin and rectal temperatures. The cooling power determined using the thermal manikin was 2 times higher for the cooling shirt and 1.5 times higher for the ice vest compared to the cooling power determined using human participants. For the thermophysiological human simulator, the cooling power of the cooling shirt was similar to that obtained using human participants. However, it was 2 times lower for the ice vest when using the thermophysiological human simulator. The thermophysiological human simulator is shown to be a useful tool to predict thermophysiological responses, especially upon application of mild cooling intensity. However, the thermophysiological human simulator needs to be further improved for strong cooling intensities under heterogeneous conditions. PMID:20664163

Bogerd, N; Psikuta, A; Daanen, H A M; Rossi, R M

2010-07-28

412

Legionnaires' disease bacteria in power plant cooling systems: Phase 2  

SciTech Connect

Legionnaires' Disease Bacteria (Legionella) are a normal component of the aquatic community. The study investigated various environmental factors that affect Legionella profiles in power plant cooling waters. The results indicate that each of the four factors investigated (incubation temperature, water quality, the presence and type of associated biota, and the nature of the indigenous Legionella population) is important in determining the Legionella profile of these waters. Simple predictive relationships were not found. At incubation temperatures of 32/sup 0/ and 37/sup 0/C, waters from a power plant where infectious Legionella were not observed stimulated the growth of stock Legionella cultures more than did waters from plants where infectious Legionella were prevalent. This observation is consistent with Phase I results, which showed that densities of Legionella were frequently reduced in closed-cycle cooling systems despite the often higher infectivity of Legionella in closed-cycle waters. In contrast, water from power plants where infectious Legionella were prevalent supported the growth of indigenous Legionella pneumophila at 42/sup 0/C, while water from a power plant where infectious Legionella were absent did not support growth of indigenous Legionella. Some Legionella are able to withstand a water temperature of 85/sup 0/C for several hours, thus proving more tolerant than was previously realized. Finally, the observation that water from two power plants where infectious Legionella were prevalent usually supported the growth of Group A Legionella at 45/sup 0/C indicates the presence, of soluble Legionella growth promoters in these waters. This test system could allow for future identification and control of these growth promoters and, hence, of Legionella. 25 refs., 23 figs., 10 tabs.

Tyndall, R.L.; Christensen, S.W.; Solomon, J.A.

1985-04-01

413

SOLERAS - Saudi University Solar Cooling Laboratories Project: King Abdulaziz University. Solar cooling systems design report. Phase 1 report  

SciTech Connect

An assessment of the performance and adaptability of solar cooling systems to the Saudi Arabian environment was studied at King Abdulaziz University. Development of a solar research laboratory and the hardware and software available for installation are considered. The university's facilities for solar energy research are briefly described. A budget for the research project is proposed. (BCS)

Not Available

1986-01-01

414

SOLERAS - Saudi University Solar Cooling Laboratories Project: University of Petroleum and Minerals. Solar cooling system. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report provides details of the proposed solar cooling laboratory, including descriptions of the building and design conditions; the collector/storage subsystem; the Rankine cycle engine subsystem; instrumentation and data acquisition; and an implementation plan. Appendices of relevant data including computer programs for building load and engine system calculations and descriptions of equipment are included.

Not Available

1986-01-01

415

Colorado State University program for developing, testing, evaluating and optimizing solar heating and cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper is a progress report for the period of July 1, 1990 to 31 August 1990 on activities at Colorado State University in a program for developing, testing, evaluating and optimizing solar heating and cooling systems. Topics covered are: solar heating with isothermal collectors; solid cooling with solid desiccant; liquid desiccant cooling systems; solar heating systems; solar water heaters; fields tests; and program management. 6 figs., 2 tabs. (FSD)

Not Available

1990-09-07

416

Analysis of an improved solar-powered cooling system utilizing open-cycle absorbent regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar-powered cooling system which promises high system C.O.P.'s and low collector costs is analyzed. It consists of a desiccant and an absorption cooling system operating in series to both dry and cool the air. A common solution of lithium chloride is used as the absorbant. The lithium chloride solution is regenerated by evaporating the excess water to the atmosphere

1978-01-01

417

A Microjet Array Cooling System for Thermal Management of High-Brightness LEDs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a microjet-based cooling system is proposed for the thermal management of high-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Preliminary experimental investigation and numerical simulation on such an active cooling system are conducted. In the experiment investigation, thermocouples are packaged with LED chips to measure the temperature and evaluate the cooling performance of the proposed system. The experimental results demonstrate that

Xiaobing Luo; Sheng Liu

2007-01-01

418

Beam Based Measurements for Stochastic Cooling Systems at Fermilab  

SciTech Connect

Improvement of antiproton stacking rates has been pursued for the last twenty years at Fermilab. The last twelve months have been dedicated to improving the computer model of the Stacktail system. The production of antiprotons encompasses the use of the entire accelerator chain with the exception of the Tevatron. In the Antiproton Source two storage rings, the Debuncher and Accumulator are responsible for the accumulation of antiprotons in quantities that can exceed 2 x 10{sup 12}, but more routinely, stacks of 5 x 10{sup 11} antiprotons are accumulated before being transferred to the Recycler ring. Since the beginning of this recent enterprise, peak accumulation rates have increased from 2 x 10{sup 11} to greater than 2.3 x 10{sup 11} antiprotons per hour. A goal of 3 x 10{sup 11} per hour has been established. Improvements to the stochastic cooling systems are but a part of this current effort. This paper will discuss Stacktail system measurements and experienced system limitations.

Lebedev, V.A.; Pasquinelli, R.J.; Werkema, S.J.; /Fermilab

2007-09-13

419

Comparison of simulated solar cooling systems in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar-powered space cooling of buildings in the Gulf region of Saudi Arabia is simulated by digital computer. The cooling is achieved by a lithium bromide-water absorption air conditioner powered by hot water supplied by flat-plate solar collectors. The Gulf region has a cooling season which combines high temperature and high relative humidity. This extreme climate provides a rigorous test of

R. L. Jenks; A. Kremheller; R. W. Jones

1978-01-01

420

Thermal stress calculations for heatpipe-cooled reactor power systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A heatpipe-cooled fast reactor concept has been under development at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the past several years, to be used as a power source for nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) or as a planetary surface power system. The reactor core consists of an array of modules that are held together by a core lateral restraint system. Each module comprises a single heatpipe surrounded by 3-6 clad fuel pins. As part of the design development and performance assessment activities for these reactors, specialized methods and models have been developed to perform thermal and stress analyses of the core modules. The methods have been automated so that trade studies can be readily performed, looking at design options such as module size, heatpipe and clad thickness, use of sleeves to contain the fuel, material type, etc. This paper describes the methods and models that have been developed, and presents thermal and stress analysis results for a Mars surface power system and a NEP power source. .

Kapernick, Richard J.; Guffee, Ray M.

2002-01-01

421

Gas-cooled reactor for space power systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reactor characteristics based on extensive development work on the 500 MWt reactor for the Pluto nuclear ramjet are described for space power systems useful in the range of 2 to 20 MWe for operating time of 1 yr. The modest pressure drop through the prismatic ceramic core is supported at the outlet end by a ceramic dome which also serves as a neutron reflector. Three core materials are considered which are useful at temperatures up to about 2000 K. Most of the calculations are based on a beryllium oxide with uranium dioxide core. Reactor control is accomplished by use of a burnable poison, a variable leakage reflector, and internal control rods. Reactivity swings of 20 percent are obtained with 12 internal boron-10 rods for the size cores studied. Criticality calculations were performed using the ALICE Monte Carlo code. The inherent high temperature capability of the reactor design removes the reactor as a limiting condition on system performance. The low fuel inventories required, particularly for beryllium oxide reactors, make space power systems based on gas cooled near thermal reactors a lesser safeguard risk than those based on fast reactors.

Walter, C. E.; Pearson, J. S.

1987-05-01

422

Photovoltaic-electrodialysis regeneration method for liquid desiccant cooling system  

SciTech Connect

Liquid desiccant cooling system (LDCS) is an (a novel) air-conditioning system with good energy saving potential. Regenerator is the power centre for LDCS. Currently, the regeneration process is always fuelled by thermal energy. Nevertheless, this regeneration pattern has some disadvantages in that its performance will become poor when the surrounding atmosphere is of high humidity, and the heat provided for regeneration will be unfavourable to the following dehumidification process. To ameliorate that, a new regeneration method is proposed in this paper: a membrane regenerator is employed to regenerate the liquid desiccant in an electrodialysis way; while solar photovoltaic generator is adopted to supply electric power for this process. Analysis has been made about this new regeneration method and the result reveals: this new manner achieves good stability with the immunity against the adverse impact from the outside high humidity; its performance is much higher than that of the thermal regeneration manner while putting aside the low efficiency of the photovoltaic system. Besides, purified water can be obtained in company with the regeneration process. (author)

Li, Xiu-Wei [College of Power Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Zhang, Xiao-Song [School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

2009-12-15

423

Power module and cooling system thermal performance evaluation for HEV application  

Microsoft Academic Search

To further reduce system costs and package volumes of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), it is important to optimize the power module and associated cooling system. This paper reports the thermal performance evaluation and analysis of three commercial power modules with different cooling systems. Experiments and simulations were conducted to help further optimization of design. Results show that power electronics can

Puqi Ning; Zhenxian Liang; Fred Wang; Laura Marlino

2012-01-01

424

Simulation of an Air-Cooled Solar-Assisted Absorption Air Conditioning System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the technical feasibility of using a compact, air-cooled, solar-assisted, absorption air conditioning system in Puerto Rico and similar regions. Computer simulations were conducted to evaluate the system's performance when subjected to dynamic cooling loads. Within the computer model, heat and mass balances are conducted on each component of the system, including the solar collectors, thermal storage tank,

Luis H. Alva; Jorge E. González

2002-01-01

425

Heat exchange and hydraulic resistance of laser mirror cooling systems from corrugations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrodynamics and heat exchange of cooling systems based on corrugated inserts have been investigated analytically and experimentally. On the basis of the generalization of the data obtained, the fields of reasonable use of such systems for cooling laser mirrors have been determined. Recommendations for improving the characteristics of the above systems have been worked out.

Shanin, Yu. I.; Shanin, O. I.

2013-07-01

426

Water Recycle/Reuse Possibilities: Power Plant Boiler and Cooling Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains the methodology to evaluate, in economic terms, potential power plant boiler and cooling system water recycle/reuse programs. Drum type boiler systems and closed cycle cooling systems are used as the basis for the programs' water requi...

G. R. Nelson

1974-01-01

427

APPLICATION OF TURBOMACHINERY IN SOLAR-ASSISTED RANKINE COOLING SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results of a preliminary study concerning the use of high speed turbomachinery in a solar-assisted Rankine cooling cycle. The use of Rankine cycles in solar powered cooling of buildings involves a solar collector to provide energy to heat and vaporize a working fluid. Energy is extracted from this vapor in an expansion engine that is used

Leech

1976-01-01

428

Cooling system of outdoor cabinet using underground heat pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently the energy-saving strategy is one of the top priorities of Telecom Operators and Governments. In particular, the area of cooling has a heavy impact on the total electrical energy consumption, and needs to be optimized in order to increase overall performances, reducing both CAPEX\\/OPEX and the environmental impact. The present paper describes a new cooling solution for FTTC outdoor

Hong Yuping; Ji Shengqin; Zhai liqian; Chen Qiao; C. Bianco

2008-01-01

429

Design of Hot Stamping Tools with Cooling System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hot stamping with high strength steel is becoming more popular in automotive industry. In hot stamping, blanks are hot formed and press hardened in a water-cooled tool to achieve high strength. Hence, design of the tool with necessary cooling significantly influences the final properties of the blank and the process time. In this paper a new method based on systematic

H. Hoffmann; H. So; H. Steinbeiss

2007-01-01

430

Cooling system for automotive engine or the like  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described of cooling an internal combustion engine comprising the steps of: introducing liquid coolant into a cooling circuit which includes a coolant jacket formed about structure of the engine subject to high heat flux; permitting the coolant in the coolant jacket to boil and produce coolant vapor; transferring the coolant vapor to a radiator which defines a

Y. Hirano; T. Kubozuka

1986-01-01

431

Stochastic Cooling  

SciTech Connect

Stochastic Cooling was invented by Simon van der Meer and was demonstrated at the CERN ISR and ICE (Initial Cooling Experiment). Operational systems were developed at Fermilab and CERN. A complete theory of cooling of unbunched beams was developed, and was applied at CERN and Fermilab. Several new and existing rings employ coasting beam cooling. Bunched beam cooling was demonstrated in ICE and has been observed in several rings designed for coasting beam cooling. High energy bunched beams have proven more difficult. Signal suppression was achieved in the Tevatron, though operational cooling was not pursued at Fermilab. Longitudinal cooling was achieved in the RHIC collider. More recently a vertical cooling system in RHIC cooled both transverse dimensions via betatron coupling.

Blaskiewicz, M.

2011-01-01

432

Role of bacterial adhesion in the microbial ecology of biofilms in cooling tower systems  

PubMed Central

The fate of the three heterotrophic biofilm forming bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Flavobacterium sp. in pilot scale cooling towers was evaluated both by observing the persistence of each species in the recirculating water and the formation of biofilms on steel coupons placed in each cooling tower water reservoir. Two different cooling tower experiments were performed: a short-term study (6 days) to observe the initial bacterial colonization of the cooling tower, and a long-term study (3 months) to observe the ecological dynamics with repeated introduction of the test strains. An additional set of batch experiments (6 days) was carried out to evaluate the adhesion of each strain to steel surfaces under similar conditions to those found in the cooling tower experiments. Substantial differences were observed in the microbial communities that developed in the batch systems and cooling towers. P. aeruginosa showed a low degree of adherence to steel surfaces both in batch and in the cooling towers, but grew much faster than K. pneumoniae and Flavobacterium in mixed-species biofilms and ultimately became the dominant organism in the closed batch systems. However, the low degree of adherence caused P. aeruginosa to be rapidly washed out of the open cooling tower systems, and Flavobacterium became the dominant microorganism in the cooling towers in both the short-term and long-term experiments. These results indicate that adhesion, retention and growth on solid surfaces play important roles in the bacterial community that develops in cooling tower systems.

Liu, Yang; Zhang, Wei; Sileika, Tadas; Warta, Richard; Cianciotto, Nicholas P.; Packman, Aaron

2009-01-01

433

Performance analysis of an innovative small-scale trigeneration plant with liquid desiccant cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with an innovative natural gas combined heat, cooling and power (CHCP) system with electrical, heating and cooling capacities of 126\\/220\\/210kW, respectively. The trigeneration plant is composed of a cogenerator which uses an automotive derived gas fired internal combustion engine (ICE), coupled to a liquid LiCl–water desiccant cooling system which recovers heat from the flue gases and from

M. Badami; A. Portoraro

2009-01-01

434

Air cooled turbine component having an internal filtration system  

SciTech Connect

A centrifugal particle separator is provided for removing particles such as microscopic dirt or dust particles from the compressed cooling air prior to reaching and cooling the turbine blades or turbine vanes of a turbine engine. The centrifugal particle separator structure has a substantially cylindrical body with an inlet arranged on a periphery of the substantially cylindrical body. Cooling air enters centrifugal particle separator through the separator inlet port having a linear velocity. When the cooling air impinges the substantially cylindrical body, the linear velocity is transformed into a rotational velocity, separating microscopic particles from the cooling air. Microscopic dust particles exit the centrifugal particle separator through a conical outlet and returned to a working medium.

Beeck, Alexander R. (Orlando, FL)

2012-05-15

435

Science Data Processing and Distribution of Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CERES project at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) provides critical cloud and Earth radiation budget climate data records (CDRs) to support global climate change research. CERES has produced over 30 Instrument years of data from TRMM, Terra, and Aqua, and is preparing to collect, calibrate, process and distribute data from CERES Flight Model 5 on the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP). A complex system of algorithm development, data collection, processing, archive and distribution is being developed to manage science data from CERES on NPP. A new state-of-the-art data archival and distribution system called Archive - Next Generation (ANGe) has also been developed at the Langley Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) and now supports efficient data ingest, archive, and distribution for CERES. The CERES data system integrates data from multiple sources to produce an extensive set of high quality climate data records. For NPP, CERES data will be fused with clouds and aerosol information obtained using VIIRS radiance and geolocation data, making accurate and stable calibration of VIIRS radiances critical to maintaining high quality CERES CDRs. New science processing algorithms will provide improved clouds and aerosol information that feed flux calculations and time and space averaging, and will be applied to processing CERES NPP data. A more robust ground calibration campaign has also been developed for the CERES sensors. The addition of CERES data from NPP will extend Earth radiation budget climate data records well into the next decade. This paper will describe the data flow, science data processing, and distribution of CERES data from NPP.

Closs, J. W.; Robbins, J. L.; Miller, W. F.

2009-12-01

436

COOLING FAN AND SYSTEM PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENTS  

SciTech Connect

Upcoming emissions regulations (Tiers 3, 4a and 4b) are imposing significantly higher heat loads on the cooling system than lesser regulated machines. This work was a suite of tasks aimed at reducing the parasitic losses of the cooling system, or improving the design process through six distinct tasks: 1. Develop an axial fan that will provide more airflow, with less input power and less noise. The initial plan was to use Genetic Algorithms to do an automated fan design, incorporating forward sweep for low noise. First and second generation concepts could not meet either performance or sound goals. An experienced turbomachinery designer, using a specialized CFD analysis program has taken over the design and has been able to demonstrate a 5% flow improvement (vs 10% goal) and 10% efficiency improvement (vs 10% goal) using blade twist only. 2. Fan shroud developments, using an 'aeroshroud' concept developed at Michigan State University. Performance testing at Michigan State University showed the design is capable of meeting the goal of a 10% increase in flow, but over a very narrow operating range of fan performance. The goal of 10% increase in fan efficiency was not met. Fan noise was reduced from 0 to 2dB, vs. a goal of 5dB at constant airflow. The narrow range of fan operating conditions affected by the aeroshroud makes this concept unattractive for further development at this time 3. Improved axial fan system modeling is needed to accommodate the numbers of cooling systems to be redesigned to meet lower emissions requirements. A CFD fan system modeling guide has been completed and transferred to design engineers. Current, uncontrolled modeling practices produce flow estimates in some cases within 5% of measured values, and in some cases within 25% of measured values. The techniques in the modeling guide reduced variability to the goal of + 5% for the case under study. 4. Demonstrate the performance and design versatility of a high performance fan. A 'swept blade mixed flow' fan was rapid prototyped from cast aluminum for a performance demonstration on a small construction machine. The fan was mounted directly in place of the conventional fan (relatively close to the engine). The goal was to provide equal airflow at constant fan speed, with 75% of the input power and 5 dB quieter than the conventional fan. The result was a significant loss in flow with the prototype due to its sensitivity to downstream blockage. This sensitivity to downstream blockage affects flow, efficiency, and noise all negatively, and further development was terminated. 5. Develop a high efficiency variable speed fan drive to replace existing slipping clutch style fan drives. The goal for this task was to provide a continuously variable speed fan drive with an efficiency of 95%+ at max speed, and losses no greater than at max speed as the fan speed would vary throughout its entire speed range. The process developed to quantify the fuel savings potential of a variable speed fan drive has produced a simple tool to predict the fuel savings of a variable speed drive, and has sparked significant interest in the use of variable speed fan drive for Tier 3 emissions compliant machines. The proposed dual ratio slipping clutch variable speed fan drive can provide a more efficient system than a conventional single ratio slipping clutch fan drive, but could not meet the established performance goals of this task, so this task was halted in a gate review prior to the start of detailed design. 6. Develop a cooling system air filtration device to allow the use of automotive style high performance heat exchangers currently in off road machines. The goal of this task was to provide a radiator air filtration system that could allow high fin density, louvered radiators to operate in a find dust application with the same resistance to fouling as a current production off-road radiator design. Initial sensitivity testing demonstrated that fan speed has a significant impact on the fouling of radiator cores due to fine dusts, so machines equipped with continuously variabl

Ronald Dupree

2005-07-31

437

Design and implementation of an eutectic salt cooling energy storage system for load management  

Microsoft Academic Search

An air conditioner system with 1800 RT-HR eutectic salt energy storage tank was built for the demonstration of the cooling energy storage (CES) system. Six operation modes are designed to meet different cooling load requirements. By computer simulation, it was found that 38.7% of the electric peak demand has been reduced and 37% of the energy consumption has been shifted

C. S. Chen; J. N. Sheen

1991-01-01

438

Construction and initial operation of the combined solar thermal and electric desiccant cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the constructed combined solar thermal and electric desiccant cooling system – its initial operation and operational procedures. The system, as designed, can be operated during nighttime and daytime. The nighttime operation is for thermal energy storage using the auxiliary electric heater, while the daytime operation is for solar energy collection and desiccant cooling. Ongoing experimental evaluation is

Napoleon Enteria; Hiroshi Yoshino; Akashi Mochida; Rie Takaki; Akira Satake; Ryuichiro Yoshie; Teruaki Mitamura; Seizo Baba

2009-01-01

439

Design Considerations for Residential Solar Heating and Cooling Systems Utilizing Evacuated Tube Solar Collectors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As solar heating systems become a commercial reality, greater efforts are now being employed to incorporate solar cooling components in order to obtain a complete solar heating and cooling system, and thus take advantage of the cost-effectiveness of year-...

D. S. Ward J. C. Ward

1977-01-01

440

Design of a cooling system for the ITER Ion Source and Neutral Beam test facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the requirements, operational modes and design of the cooling system for the ITER Neutral Beam test experiments. Different operating conditions of the experiments have been considered in order to identify the maximum heat loads that constitute, with the inlet temperature and pressure at each component, the design requirements for the cooling system.The test facility components will

M. Dalla Palma; S. Dal Bello; F. Fellin; P. Zaccaria

2009-01-01

441

Feasibility of using various kinds of cooling systems in a multi-climates country  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are few countries in the world where they have special characteristics including weather conditions, wind direction, and topography. In other words, some countries have multi-climate regions, and needed to be investigated more precisely. Based on these conditions, several cooling systems can be used for each region. In this study, the potential of the direct evaporative cooling (DEC) systems, indirect

Ghassem Heidarinejad; Mohammad Heidarinejad; Shahram Delfani; Jafar Esmaeelian

2008-01-01

442

Solar Heating and Cooling of Residential Buildings: Sizing, Installation and Operation of Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This training course and a companion course titled "Design of Systems for Solar Heating and Cooling of Residential Buildings," are designed to train home designers and builders in the fundamentals of solar hydronic and air systems for space heating and cooling and domestic hot water heating for residential buildings. Each course, organized in 22…

Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins. Solar Energy Applications Lab.

443

Colorado State University program for developing, testing, evaluating and optimizing solar heating and cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

This is a progress report from Colorado State University on activities under a DOE contract to test, evaluate and optimize solar heating and cooling systems for the period of May and June 1990. Tasks include development of integrated heating, cooling, and hot water systems; advanced controls strategy; development of liquid solar collectors; and field monitoring. 2 figs., 1 tab., (FSD)

Not Available

1990-07-06

444

SAFETY ADVANTAGES OF HEAVY METAL VERSUS GAS COOLED ACCELERATOR-DRIVEN SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some investigations of severe safety aspects of Pb\\/Bi-cooled Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) have been made during last few years and have been generally favourable with regard to accident prevention and accident mitigation. With the new proposal of a fast helium- cooled ADS, it is interesting to compare the two systems with regard to severe safety aspects although no detailed calculations

H. U. Wider; H. Wilkening; W. Maschek

445

Stream cleaning for specific foulants in open recirculating cooling water systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Together with corrosion, fouling is the most predominant problem in open recirculating cooling water systems. There are basically 5 different types of fouling deposits which form in cooling water systems, as follows: (1) inorganic scale deposits arising from the mineral content of the makeup water; (2) iron salts and oxides consisting of corrosion products from active corrosion sites in the

D. R. Sexsmith; E. Q. Petrey

1971-01-01

446

Development of a perfusion suit incorporating auxiliary heating and cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based upon numerous assertions that a garment should be developed to maximise athletes' muscle performance while maintaining freedom of movement, this paper initially discusses the development of a perfusion suit that utilises a flexible single layer cooling system, with a view to the development of a cooling garment that does not employ a conventional tubing system which can restrict movement.

J. E. Ruckman; S. G. Hayes; J. H. Cho

2002-01-01

447

Laboratory Comparison of Portable Cooling Systems for Workers Exposed to Two Levels of Heat Stress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two commercially available liquid cooling systems (LCSs) were tested on subjects wearing the current USAF groundcrew chemical defense ensemble and working in the heat. Each cooling system consisted of an ice-water heat sink, a pump, and a vest or vest-and...

D. M. Terrian S. A. Nunneley

1983-01-01

448

Cryogenic system for the infrared space telescope SPICA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SPICA mission has been proposed to JAXA as the second Japanese IR space telescope to be launched in 2017. The SPICA spacecraft, launched with an H-IIA launch vehicle, is to be transferred into a halo orbit around the Sun-Earth L2, where effective radiant cooling is feasible owing to solar rays and radiant heat fluxes from the Earth constantly coming from the same direction. That optimal thermal environment enables this IR space telescope to use a large 3.5-mdiameter- single-aperture primary mirror cooled to 4.5 K with advanced mechanical cryocoolers and effective radiant cooling instead of a massive and short-lived cryogen. As a result of thermal and structural analyses, the thermal design of cryogenic system was obtained. Then, mechanical cryocoolers have been developed to meet cooling requirement at 1.7 K, 4.5 K and 20 K. The latest results of upgrading of the 20 K-class two-stage Stirling cooler, the 4K-class JT cooler, and the 1K-class JT cooler indicate that all cryocoolers gain a sufficient margin of cooling capacity with unprecedentedly low power consumption for the cooling requirement. It is concluded that the feasibility of the SPICA mission was confirmed for the critical cryogenic system design, while some attempts to achieve higher reliability, higher cooling capacity and less vibration have been continued for stable operations throughout the entire mission period.

Sugita, Hiroyuki; Sato, Yoichi; Nakagawa, Takao; Murakami, Hiroshi; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Enya, Keigo; Murakami, Masahide; Tsunematsu, Shoji; Hirabayashi, Masayuki

2008-08-01

449

Modeling oscillatory fouling in enhanced tubes in cooling tower systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is concerned with the development of a new approach to model the fluctuation of fouling in general. The proposed modeling concept is to split a property into a mean variable and a fluctuating variable. The goal is to investigate the oscillatory characteristic of fluctuating fouling resistance. Long-term fouling data collected from seven 15.54 mm ID copper, helically ribbed tubes with water velocity at 1.07 m/s in a cooling tower system were used to present oscillatory behaviors. An uncertainty analysis indicates that a minimum water temperature difference of 3.0°C between inlet and outlet of each test tube is needed to observe the oscillatory behavior of fouling data. The frequency of fluctuation is independent of tube interior geometries on which fouling deposit develops; the amplitude of fluctuation is related to tube interior geometries and is a function of the ratio of rib pitch to rib height. There are two ranges of amplitude of fluctuation of fouling characteristics based on internal dimensions: linear range and non-linear range. A series of semi-theoretical amplitude correlations as a function of the ratio of rib pitch to rib height were developed. They were applicable to different internally ribbed geometries within the dimensional range in the study.

Wu, Jie; Zhang, Zhengjiang; Cheng, Lin; Li, Wei; Xu, Zhiming

2011-05-01

450

Hybrid Cooling Systems for Low-Temperature Geothermal Power Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the identification and evaluation of methods by which the net power output of an air-cooled geothermal power plant can be enhanced during hot ambient conditions with a minimal amount of water use.

A. Ashwood; D. Bharathan

2011-01-01

451

Hybrid Cooling Systems for Low-Temperature Geothermal Power Production  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the identification and evaluation of methods by which the net power output of an air-cooled geothermal power plant can be enhanced during hot ambient conditions with a minimal amount of water use.

Ashwood, A.; Bharathan, D.

2011-03-01

452

POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF SOLAR HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report discusses potential environmental consequences of solar energy utilization for heating and cooling buildings. It identifies the areas in which both positive and negative impacts are possible, summarizes the national research and development program directed toward sol...

453

Legionnaires' Disease Bacteria in Power Plant Cooling Systems: Phase 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Legionnaires' Disease Bacteria (Legionella) are a normal component of the aquatic community. The study investigated various environmental factors that affect Legionella profiles in power plant cooling waters. The results indicate that each of the four fac...

R. L. Tyndall S. W. Christensen J. A. Solomon

1985-01-01

454

Performance Assessment of a Desiccant Cooling System in a CHP Application with an IC Engine  

SciTech Connect

Performance of a desiccant cooling system was evaluated in the context of combined heat and power (CHP). The baseline system incorporated a desiccant dehumidifier, a heat exchanger, an indirect evaporative cooler, and a direct evaporative cooler. The desiccant unit was regenerated through heat recovery from a gas-fired reciprocating internal combustion engine. The system offered sufficient sensible and latent cooling capacities for a wide range of climatic conditions, while allowing influx of outside air in excess of what is typically required for commercial buildings. Energy and water efficiencies of the desiccant cooling system were also evaluated and compared with those of a conventional system. The results of parametric assessments revealed the importance of using a heat exchanger for concurrent desiccant post cooling and regeneration air preheating. These functions resulted in enhancement of both the cooling performance and the thermal efficiency, which are essential for fuel utilization improvement. Two approaches for mixing of the return air and outside air were examined, and their impact on the system cooling performance and thermal efficiency was demonstrated. The scope of the parametric analyses also encompassed the impact of improving the indirect evaporative cooling effectiveness on the overall cooling system performance.

Jalalzadeh-Azar, A. A.; Slayzak, S.; Judkoff, R.; Schaffhauser, T.; DeBlasio, R.

2005-04-01

455

RF system concepts for a muon cooling experiment  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of muon colliders for high energy physics experiments has been under intensive study for the past few years and recent activity has focused on defining an R and D program that would answer the critical issues. An especially critical issue is developing practical means of cooling the phase space of the muons once they have been produced and captured in a solenoidal magnetic transport channel. Concepts for the rf accelerating cavities of a muon cooling experiment are discussed.

Turner, W.C.; Corlett, J.N.; Li, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Moretti, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Kirk, H.G.; Palmer, R.B.; Zhao, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1998-06-01

456

NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Improves Cooling System Performance: Best Management Practice Case Study #10: Cooling Towers (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has a longstanding sustainability program that revolves around energy and water efficiency as well as environmental protection. MSFC identified a problematic cooling loop with six separate compressor heat exchangers and a history of poor efficiency. The facility engineering team at MSFC partnered with Flozone Services, Incorporated to implement a comprehensive water treatment platform to improve the overall efficiency of the system.

Not Available

2011-02-01

457

Portable self-contained power and cooling system  

SciTech Connect

A portable power and cooling system is described comprising: a drive unit including a combustion section, a scroll-type expander section, a scroll-type air compressor section, and a power output drive shaft, the expander and air compressor sections connected together for synchronousmovement via said power output drive shaft; said combustion section including a combustion air inlet and a combustion gas outlet, said scroll-type expander section including at least one pair of meshed axially extending involute spiral wrap members having involute centers and defining at least one expansion chamber between them that moves radially between an expander inlet zone, which is in fluid communicatino with the combustion gas outlet, and an outlet zone when one wrap member is orbited along a circular path about an orbit center relative to the other wrap member, said scroll type air compressor section including at least one pair of meshed axially extending involute spiral wrap members having involute centers and defining at least one compression chamber between them that moves radially between a compressor inlet zone and an outlet zone, which is in fluid communication with the combustion air inlet of the combustoin section, when one wrap member is orbited along a circular path relative to the other wrap member about an orbit radius, said drive connecting unit integrally connecting said one wrap member of each of said scroll-type expander and air compressor sections; means for causing combustion within said combustion chamber such that the products of combustion are expanded by said scroll-type expander section and exhausted out said expander outlet, air is drawn into said air compressor inlet zone, compressed within, expelled through said air compressor outlet zone, and delivered to said combustoin chamber and said power output shaft is rotated; a refrigeration system, a refrigerant condenser, a refrigerant expansion valve and a refrigerant evaporator, and a conduit.

McCullough, J.E.

1993-07-20

458

Satellite observations of the water vapor greenhouse effect and column longwave cooling rates: Relative roles of the continuum and vibration-rotation to pure rotation bands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument on board the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite provides, for the first time, a large-scale (40 S to 40 N) data set for the atmospheric greenhouse effect and the column-averaged longwave (LW) radiative cooling rates in the broadband (5-100 microns) and the window (8-12 microns) regions. We demonstrate here

Anand K. Inamdar; V. Ramanathan; Norman G. Loeb

2004-01-01

459

Satellite observations of the water vapor greenhouse effect and column longwave cooling rates: Relative roles of the continuum and vibration-rotation to pure rotation bands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument on board the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite provides, for the first time, a large-scale (40 S to 40 N) data set for the atmospheric greenhouse effect and the column-averaged longwave (LW) radiative cooling rates in the broadband (5–100 microns) and the window (8–12 microns) regions. We demonstrate here

Anand K. Inamdar; V. Ramanathan; Norman G. Loeb

2004-01-01

460

DEVELOPMENT OF A SIMULATION CODE FOR A COOL-DOWN PROCESS OF THE CRYOGENIC HYDROGEN SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

Supercritical hydrogen with a pressure of 1.5 MPa and a temperature of 20 K has been selected as a moderator material in an intense spallation neutron source (JSNS), which is one of main experimental facilities in J-PARC. The cryogenic hydrogen system, in which a hydrogen circulation system is cooled by a helium refrigerator with the refrigeration power of 6.45 kW at 15.5 K, has been designed to provide the supercritical hydrogen to the moderator and to remove the nuclear heating generated there. In this study, we have developed a simulation code that predicts temperature behaviors in the hydrogen circulation system during its cool-down process. Cool-down process analyses have been performed, and an operational method for the cool-down process has been studied. The analytical results indicate that the hydrogen circulation system would be able to be cooled down to 18 K within 19 hours.

Tatsumoto, H.; Aso, T.; Ohtsu, K.; Kato, T.; Futakawa, M. [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki, 319-1195 (Japan)

2010-04-09

461

Efficiency of short-term storage of equine semen in a simple-design cooling system.  

PubMed

Five experiments tested the efficiency of a simple, low-cost system (CP) for cooling and storing equine semen at 2.0 degrees C for 24 h and 48 h. Pantaneiro stallions of known fertility were used. Semen quality was evaluated for progressive motility (PM), plasma membrane integrity (PMI), and pregnancy rate. Experiment 1 showed that PM and PMI were similar between CP and the control (Equitainer) in cooled semen. In Experiment 2, the influence was evaluated of combinations (four treatments) of two volumes (50/100 ml) and two sperm concentrations (500/750x10(6)) on sperm quality of semen cooled and preserved by CP (cooling system replaced at 24 h). While PM decreased gradually from before cooling to 24 h and 48 h, PMI decreased only at the least and greatest sperm volume and concentrations. Storage time did not affect PMI. Results from Experiment 3 showed that CP maintained semen PM>or=30% in all samples 24 h after cooling and decreased to about 70% 42 h after cooling. Results from Experiments 4 and 5 confirmed semen quality after cooling and storage (24 h and 48 h, respectively), achieving a 69% pregnancy rate in the first estrous cycle when insemination occurred. Thus, the CP system is satisfactory for cooling and preserving equine semen for up to 48 h. PMID:17681679

Nunes, D B; Zorzatto, J R; Costa e Silva, E V; Zúccari, C E S N

2007-06-23

462

Advanced Desiccant Cooling System Development. Design, Features, and Applications. September 1984-March 1987.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An efficient, gas-fueled cooling system based upon the use of desiccant dehumidification principles was developed. Performance maps for the system were generated through the use of a computer simulation model. The model's predictions were then validated w...

B. Cohen R. Arora T. Chapp D. Manley P. Sarkisian

1987-01-01

463

IMPACTS OF REFRIGERANTLINE LENGTH ON SYSTEM EFFICIENCY IN RESIDENTIAL HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS USING REFRIGERANT DISTRIBUTION.  

SciTech Connect

The effects on system efficiency of excess refrigerant line length are calculated for an idealized residential heating and cooling system. By excess line length is meant refrigerant tubing in excess of the 25 R provided for in standard equipment efficiency test methods. The purpose of the calculation is to provide input for a proposed method for evaluating refrigerant distribution system efficiency. A refrigerant distribution system uses refrigerant (instead of ducts or pipes) to carry heat and/or cooling effect from the equipment to the spaces in the building in which it is used. Such systems would include so-called mini-splits as well as more conventional split systems that for one reason or another have the indoor and outdoor coils separated by more than 25 ft. This report performs first-order calculations of the effects on system efficiency, in both the heating and cooling modes, of pressure drops within the refrigerant lines and of heat transfer between the refrigerant lines and the space surrounding them.

ANDREWS, J.W.

2001-04-01

464

Radioactivity Sputtered from Cooling-Pipe Materials into Coolant in the ITER Cooling System  

SciTech Connect

The radioactivity induced by D-T neutron sputtering from piping materials to the coolant is described. The sputtering yields were calculated based on the systematics for (n,p), (n,{alpha}), (n,2n), and (n,np) reactions. Four candidate piping materials of AISI Types 316L and 304 stainless steel, Incoloy 800, and V-4 Cr-4 Ti alloy were investigated to estimate their radioactivity sputtered to the coolant. The investigation shows that radioactivity of {approx}1500 to 2000 Ci sputtered into the coolant at 1000-s plasma burn time of ITER, and after 1-day cooling, a few curies of gamma activity remain in the coolant, which will accumulate in the heat exchanger.

Ye Bangjiao [University of Science and Technology of China (China); Kasugai, Yoshimi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan); Ikeda, Yujiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan); Fan Yangmei [University of Science and Technology of China (China); Han Rongdian [University of Science and Technology of China (China)

2001-09-15

465

Comparative study of different solar cooling systems for buildings in subtropical city  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, more and more attention has been paid on the application potential of solar cooling for buildings. Due to the fact that the efficiency of solar collectors is generally low at the time being, the effectiveness of solar cooling would be closely related to the availability of solar irradiation, climatic conditions and geographical location of a place. In this paper, five types of solar cooling systems were involved in a comparative study for subtropical city, which is commonly featured with long hot and humid summer. The solar cooling systems included the solar electric compression refrigeration, solar mechanical compression refrigeration, solar absorption refrigeration, solar adsorption refrigeration and solar solid desiccant cooling. Component-based simulation models of these systems were developed, and their performances were evaluated throughout a year. The key performance indicators are solar fraction, coefficient of performance, solar thermal gain, and primary energy consumption. In addition, different installation strategies and types of solar collectors were compared for each kind of solar cooling system. Through this comparative study, it was found that solar electric compression refrigeration and solar absorption refrigeration had the highest energy saving potential in the subtropical Hong Kong. The former is to make use of the solar electric gain, while the latter is to adopt the solar thermal gain. These two solar cooling systems would have even better performances through the continual advancement of the solar collectors. It will provide a promising application potential of solar cooling for buildings in the subtropical region. (author)

Fong, K.F.; Chow, T.T.; Lee, C.K.; Lin, Z.; Chan, L.S. [Division of Building Science and Technology, College of Science and Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

2010-02-15

466

Electronic control and method for increasing efficiency of heating and cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of increasing efficiency of a cooling system having a compressor, cooling coils, an inlet where air enters the cooling system, an outlet whereby air exists the cooling system, a fan which circulates air through the cooling system and a control for turning the compressor and the fan on and off, comprising: positioning a first temperature sensing means in the outlet; measuring the time the compressor is on during normal operation of the cooling system in cooling a room from a first temperature to a second temperature; when cooling is again required, cycling the compressor on for a fractional period of the time the compressor is on during normal operation and off for a sufficient time for the head pressure of the compressor to equalize and continuing to operate the fan while the compressor is on and while the compressor is off until the room reaches a desired temperature; turning the fan off whenever the outlet reaches a third temperature before the room reaches the desired temperature, and continuing the cycling until the room reaches the desired temperature.

Rogers, C.F. III

1987-07-28

467

Method of, and apparatus for, killing marine life in and about the cooling system of a marine vehicle  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of killing marine life in the cooling system of a marine vehicle having a water-cooled internal combustion engine. It comprises: providing an enclosure about the inlet and outlet ports such that water circulated through the cooling system will be drawn from, and discharged back into, the enclosure; and operating the engine so as to cause the temperature of the water within the enclosure and the cooling system to increase to a predetermined minimum temperature; thereby to cause marine life in the enclosure and cooling system to be killed by the increased temperature of wate