Sample records for radiant cooling systems

  1. Radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Germer, John H. (San Jose, CA)

    1987-01-01

    In a modular liquid-metal pool breeder reactor, a radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system is disclosed for removing the residual heat resulting from the shutdown of a reactor by a completely passive heat transfer system. A shell surrounds the reactor and containment vessel, separated from the containment vessel by an air passage. Natural circulation of air is provided by air vents at the lower and upper ends of the shell. Longitudinal, radial and inwardly extending fins extend from the shell into the air passage. The fins are heated by radiation from the containment vessel and convect the heat to the circulating air. Residual heat from the primary reactor vessel is transmitted from the reactor vessel through an inert gas plenum to a guard or containment vessel designed to contain any leaking coolant. The containment vessel is conventional and is surrounded by the shell.

  2. Radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Germer, J.H.

    1987-07-07

    This patent describes an improved radiant vessel passive cooling system for liquid-metal poor-type modular nuclear reactors having a reactor vessel and a surrounding containment vessel spaced apart from the reactor vessel to form a first interstitial region containing an inert gas, the improvement comprising: a shell spaced apart from and surrounding the containment vessel to form a second interstitial region comprising a circulatory air passage. The circulatory air passage has an air inlet at a first position and an air outlet at a second position which is vertically higher than the first position. The second interstitial region lies between the shell and the containment vessel; and surface area extension means in the shell is longitudinally disposed from the shell into the second interstitial region towards the containment vessel to receive thermal radiation from the containment vessel. The surface area extension means is spaced apart from the external surface of the containment vessel where heat radiated form the containment vessel is received at the surface extension means for convection, conduction and radiation to air in the circulatory passage.

  3. DOAS, Radiant Cooling Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Hastbacka, Mildred; Dieckmann, John; Bouza, Antonio

    2012-12-01

    The article discusses dedicated outdoor air systems (DOAS) and radiant cooling technologies. Both of these topics were covered in previous ASHRAE Journal columns. This article reviews the technologies and their increasing acceptance. The two steps that ASHRAE is taking to disseminate DOAS information to the design community, available energy savings and the market potential of radiant cooling systems are addressed as well.

  4. Performance evaluation of a radiant floor cooling system integrated with dehumidified ventilation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Doosam Song; Taeyeon Kim; Suwon Song; Suckho Hwang; Seung-Bok Leigh

    2008-01-01

    The radiant floor cooling system can be used as an alternative to all-air cooling systems, using the existing Ondol system (a radiant floor heating system) in Korea to save energy and maintain indoor thermal comfort. Unfortunately, a radiant floor cooling system may cause condensation on the floor surface under hot and humid conditions during the cooling season. In addition, the

  5. Effect of a Radiant Panel Cooling System on Indoor Air Quality of a Conditioned Space

    E-print Network

    Mohamed, E.; Abdalla, K. N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the effect of a radiant cooling panel system on an indoor air quality (IAQ) of a conditioned space. In this study, ceiling radiant cooling panel, mechanical ventilation with fan coil unit (FCU) and 100% fresh air are used...

  6. Experimental Study of the Floor Radiant Cooling System Combined with Displacement Ventilation 

    E-print Network

    Ren, Y.; Li, D.; Zhang, Y.

    2006-01-01

    ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China HVAC Technologies for Energy Efficiency, Vol. IV-11-4 Experimental Study of the Floor Radiant Cooling System Combined with Displacement Ventilation Yanli Ren1, Deying Li2, Yufeng Zhang1 1...

  7. Indoor Humidity Analysis of an Integrated Radiant Cooling and Desiccant Ventilation System 

    E-print Network

    Gong, X.; Claridge, D. E.

    2006-01-01

    Radiant cooling is credited with improving energy efficiency and enhancing the comfort level as an alternative method of space cooling in mild and dry climates, according to recent research. Since radiant cooling panels lack the capability to remove...

  8. Performance Evaluation of Radiant Cooling System Integrated with Air System under Different Operational Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Khare, Vaibhav [Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT), Jaipur, India; Khan, Yasin [Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT), Jaipur, India; Mathur, Jyotirmay [Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT), Jaipur, India; Bhandari, Mahabir S [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes a parametric study developed to estimate the energy savings potential of a radiant cooling system installed in a commercial building in India. The study is based on numerical modeling of a radiant cooling system installed in an Information Technology (IT) office building sited in the composite climate of Hyderabad. To evaluate thermal performance and energy consumption, simulations were carried out using the ANSYS FLUENT and EnergyPlus softwares, respectively. The building model was calibrated using the measured data for the installed radiant system. Then this calibrated model was used to simulate the energy consumption of a building using a conventional all-air system to determine the proportional energy savings. For proper handling of the latent load, a dedicated outside air system (DOAS) was used as an alternative to Fan Coil Unit (FCU). A comparison of energy consumption calculated that the radiant system was 17.5 % more efficient than a conventional all-air system and that a 30% savings was achieved by using a DOAS system compared with a conventional system. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation was performed to evaluate indoor air quality and thermal comfort. It was found that a radiant system offers more uniform temperatures, as well as a better mean air temperature range, than a conventional system. To further enhance the energy savings in the radiant system, different operational strategies were analyzed based on thermal analysis using EnergyPlus. The energy savings achieved in this parametric run were more than 10% compared with a conventional all-air system.

  9. Comprehensive evaluation of radiant cooling system integrated with ice storage system

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, Yukio; Miyanaga, Toshiyuki; Oka, Tatsuo

    2000-07-01

    Of the electricity consumption in office buildings in Japan, air conditioning accounts for some 50% and is a primary factor in the increase of the peak in power demand, particularly in summer. Aiming to level the load, both the power industry and the government are making efforts to promote thermal storage systems for air conditioning. This paper concerns a radiant cooling system for producing a better thermal environment, integrated with ice storage for load leveling. A model office building (in Tokyo, with a total floor area of 3,300 m{sup 2}) equipped with an ice storage and radiant cooling system is investigated. The simulation of the load-leveling effect, energy-saving possibility, and operating cost and an estimation of the construction cost of the building were carried out in order to comprehensively evaluate the system.

  10. Effect of a Radiant Panel Cooling System on Indoor Air Quality of a Conditioned Space 

    E-print Network

    Mohamed, E.; Abdalla, K. N.

    2010-01-01

    1 EFFECT OF A RADIANT PANEL COOLING SYSTEM ON INDOOR AIR QUALITY OF A CONDITIONED SPACE Dr. E T. Mohamed* and Prof. K. N. Abdalla** *Mechanical Engineering Dept, Faculty of Engineering and Technical Studies, University of El... inside the conditioned space were explained in Figure 5 and Table 3. Figure 5a. Plan view Figure 5b. Elevation view Figure 5c. Isometric view Figure 5. Conditioned space with sensor...

  11. Radiant ceiling panel heating–cooling systems: experimental and simulated study of the performances, thermal comfort and energy consumptions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Miriel; L Serres; A Trombe

    2002-01-01

    Well known in the North of Europe, the water ceiling panel systems are mainly used to provide cooling. However, as well as for a radiant floor, this system can be used for heating in winter and cooling in summer. In order to get a better knowledge of the energy performances of such devices, the Gaz de France Research Centre funded

  12. CFD Simulation and Analysis of the Combined Evaporative Cooling and Radiant Ceiling Air-conditioning System

    E-print Network

    Xiang, H.; Yinming, L.; Junmei, W.

    2006-01-01

    Due to such disadvantages as large air duct and high energy consumption of the current all- outdoor air evaporative cooling systems used in the dry region of Northwest China, as well as the superiority of the ceiling cooling system in improving...

  13. Design of energy efficient building with radiant slab cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Zhen

    2007-12-01

    Air-conditioning comprises a substantial fraction of commercial building energy use because of compressor-driven refrigeration and fan-driven air circulation. Core regions of large buildings require year-round cooling due to heat gains from people, lights and equipment. Negative environmental impacts include CO2 emissions from electric generation and leakage of ozone-depleting refrigerants. Some argue that radiant cooling simultaneously improves building efficiency and occupant thermal comfort, and that current thermal comfort models fail to reflect occupant experience with radiant thermal control systems. There is little field evidence to test these claims. The University of Calgary's Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Building, is a pioneering radiant slab cooling installation in North America. Thermal comfort and energy performance were evaluated. Measurements included: (1) heating and cooling energy use, (2) electrical energy use for lighting and equipment, and (3) indoor temperatures. Accuracy of a whole building energy simulation model was evaluated with these data. Simulation was then used to compare the radiant slab design with a conventional (variable air volume) system. The radiant system energy performance was found to be poorer mainly due to: (1) simultaneous cooling by the slab and heating by other systems, (2) omission of low-exergy (e.g., groundwater) cooling possible with the high cooling water temperatures possible with radiant slabs and (3) excessive solar gain and conductive heat loss due to the wall and fenestration design. Occupant thermal comfort was evaluated through questionnaires and concurrent measurement of workstation comfort parameters. Analysis of 116 sets of data from 82 occupants showed that occupant assessment was consistent with estimates based on current thermal comfort models. The main thermal comfort improvements were reductions in (1) local discomfort from draft and (2) vertical air temperature stratification. The analysis showed that integrated architectural and mechanical design is required to achieve the potential benefits of radiant slab cooling, including: (1) reduction of peak solar gain via windows through (a) avoiding large window-to-wall ratios and/or (b) exterior shading of windows, (2) use of low-quality cooling sources such as cooling towers and ground water, especially in cold, dry climates, and (3) coordination of system control to avoid simultaneous heating and cooling.

  14. Cooling Energy Measurements of Houses with Attics Containing Radiant Barriers 

    E-print Network

    Levins, W. P.; Karnitz, M. A.; Knight, D. K.

    1986-01-01

    with two reflective aluminum surfaces on a kraft paper base. The radiant barrier has the potential to reduce the radiant heat transfer component impinging on the fiberglass attic insulation. Working as a system in conjunction with an air space, the radiant...

  15. Radiant cooling in US office buildings: Towards eliminating the perception of climate-imposed barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Stetiu, C.

    1998-01-01

    Much attention is being given to improving the efficiency of air-conditioning systems through the promotion of more efficient cooling technologies. One such alternative, radiant cooling, is the subject of this thesis. Performance information from Western European buildings equipped with radiant cooling systems indicates that these systems not only reduce the building energy consumption but also provide additional economic and comfort-related benefits. Their potential in other markets such as the US has been largely overlooked due to lack of practical demonstration, and to the absence of simulation tools capable of predicting system performance in different climates. This thesis describes the development of RADCOOL, a simulation tool that models thermal and moisture-related effects in spaces equipped with radiant cooling systems. The thesis then conducts the first in-depth investigation of the climate-related aspects of the performance of radiant cooling systems in office buildings. The results of the investigation show that a building equipped with a radiant cooling system can be operated in any US climate with small risk of condensation. For the office space examined in the thesis, employing a radiant cooling system instead of a traditional all-air system can save on average 30% of the energy consumption and 27% of the peak power demand due to space conditioning. The savings potential is climate-dependent, and is larger in retrofitted buildings than in new construction. This thesis demonstrates the high performance potential of radiant cooling systems across a broad range of US climates. It further discusses the economics governing the US air-conditioning market and identifies the type of policy interventions and other measures that could encourage the adoption of radiant cooling in this market.

  16. Thermal Distribution Program Plan: Part 1, Forced-air distribution systems in residential and small commercial buildings and Part 2, Hydronic and radiant heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    This document is intended to serve as a basis for the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) multilayer plan for research on thermal distribution and utilization (TDU). In this document, the areas of research included under the heading of thermal distribution and utilization are defined, their benefits are shown, and a ten-year program of research is recommended. Part I of the Plan concentrates on forced-air thermal distribution systems in residences and small commercial buildings. Part II covers hydronic and radiant systems. TDU research refers to the study of the phenomena associated with the transport of heat and cooling effect from the central heating or cooling equipment via pipes or ductwork to the building spaces to be comfort conditioned. The intent of the research is to maximize the thermal performance of buildings, where thermal performance is defined as the ratio of person-hours of thermal comfort provided, divided by the energy required to provide that comfort. TDU research will improve thermal performance by reducing the thermal losses occurring in ductwork, and by prviding acceptable means of zoned heating and cooling of building spaces. 18 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Effect of humidity and small air movement on thermal comfort under a radiant cooling ceiling by subjective experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koichi Kitagawa; Noriko Komoda; Hiroko Hayano; Shin-ichi Tanabe

    1999-01-01

    Radiant air-conditioning systems are expected to be more comfortable and superior energy-saving systems than convective air conditioning ones generally used. There are some studies on radiant cooling systems. However, they were seldom put to practical use because of dew point problem in Japan. The objective of this study is to investigate the thermal comfort of local parts of the body

  18. ???????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????? ?????????????????????? Application of Solar Regenerated Desiccant Dehumidification and Radiant Cooling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prapapong Vangtook; Surapong Chirarattananon

    this paper reports the results of experiments on the application of solar regenerated desiccant packs for dehumidification of the ventilation air associated with the radiant cooling application for thermal comfort. A set of solid desiccant (silica gel) pack beds were exposed to solar radiation during daytime. The packed beds were connected to the inlet ventilation duct of an experimental room

  19. Application of Solar Regenerated Desiccant Dehumidification and Radiant Cooling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Chirarattananon; Klong Luang; P. Vangtook

    This paper reports results of experiments on the application of solar regenerated desiccant for dehumidification of the ventilation air together with application of radiant cooling for thermal comfort. A set of solid desiccant (silica gel) packed beds were exposed to solar radiation during daytime. The packed beds were attached to the inlet of the ventilation duct of an experimental room

  20. Radiant energy to electrical power conversion system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brunson

    1980-01-01

    A radiant energy to electrical power thermionic conversion system is disclosed that uses a transducer structure with very closely spaced cathode and anode elements in a vacuum to minimize space charge buildup and to optimize cross transfer of electrons from cathode to anode. The materials chosen are for a high work function high melt temperature cathode, tungsten for example with

  1. Development of a simulation tool to evaluate the performance of radiant cooling ceilings

    SciTech Connect

    Stetiu, C.; Feustel, H.E.; Winkelmann, F.C.

    1995-06-01

    Considerable electrical energy used to cool nonresidential buildings equipped with All-Air Systems is drawn by the fans that transport the cool air through the thermal distribution system. Hydropic Cooling Systems have the potential to reduce the amount of air transported through the building by separating the tasks of ventilation and thermal conditioning. Due to the physical properties of water, Hydropic Cooling Systems can transport a given amount of thermal energy using less than 5% of the otherwise necessary fan energy. They are suited to the dry climates that are typical of California and been used for more than 30 years in hospital rooms. However, energy savings and peak-load characteristics have not yet been analyzed. Adequate guidelines for their design and control systems has prevented lack of their widespread application to other building types. Evaluation of theoretical performance of Hydropic Systems could be made by computer models. Energy analysis programs such as DOE-2 do not yet have the capacity to simulate Hydropic Cooling Systems. Scope of this project is developing a model that can accurately simulate the dynamic performance of Hydropic Radiant Cooling Systems. The model can calculate loads, heat extraction rates, room air temperature and room surface temperature distributions, and can be used to evaluate issues such as thermal comfort, controls, system sizing, system configuration and dynamic response. The model was created with the LBL Simulation Problem Analysis and Research Kernel (SPARK), which provides a methodology for describing and solving the dynamic, non-linear equations that correspond to complex physical systems. Potential for Hydropic Radiant Cooling Systems applications can be determined by running this model for a variety of construction types in different California climates.

  2. Predictive pre-cooling control for low lift radiant cooling using building thermal mass

    E-print Network

    Gayeski, Nicholas (Nicholas Thomas)

    2010-01-01

    Low lift cooling systems (LLCS) hold the potential for significant energy savings relative to conventional cooling systems. An LLCS is a cooling system which leverages existing HVAC technologies to provide low energy cooling ...

  3. Mean Radiant Cooling in a Hot-Humid Climate 

    E-print Network

    Garrison, M.

    1996-01-01

    Shaded interior mass walls in a hot-humid climate can be thermally grounded to an earth heat sink under an insulated structure. The mean radiant temperature (MRT) of the shaded and thermally grounded interior mass walls will be cooler in summer than...

  4. Flightweight radiantly and actively cooled panel: thermal and structural performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. P. Shore; R. J. Nowak; H. N. Kelly

    1982-01-01

    A 2- by 4-ft flightweight panel was subjected to thermal\\/structural tests representative of design flight conditions for a Mach 6.7 transport and to off-design conditions simulating flight maneuvers and cooling system failures. The panel utilized Rene 41 heat shields backed by a thin layer of insulation to radiate away most of the 12 Btu\\/ft²-sec incident heating. A solution of ethylene

  5. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument is one of five instruments that will be flown aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) observatory. Data from the CERES instrument will be used to study the energy exchanged between the Sun and the Earth's atmosphere, surface and clouds, and space. This webpage describes the TRMM mission, the CERES insrument, and how Earth's daily weather and climate are controlled by the balance between the amount of solar energy received by the Earth (both by its surface and its atmosphere and clouds) and the amount of energy emitted by Earth into space. School children worldwide will be involved in the CERES program, enabling them to be part of a scientific project. As a CERES instrument passes over, students will make local observations to determine the types of clouds over their school, the clouds' altitudes and how much of the sky they cover. Via the Internet, the students will then place their data in the NASA Langley Distributed Active Archive Center where the data will be stored for further analysis by the CERES science team.

  6. Study of the Applications of the Radiant Cooling Panel in Museum Showcases 

    E-print Network

    Yu, L.; Hou, H.; Wan, X.; Chen, H.

    2006-01-01

    huabohou@163.com xiongfengwan@gmail.com hxchen@mail.csu.edu.cn Abstract: The radiant cooling panel was proposed to control the temperature in the showcases to supply a steadier environment for cultural relic preservation. The new showcase... Master Master Professor Institute of Energy and Power, Huazhong University of Science and Technology School of Energy Science and Engineering, Central South University Wuhan P. R. China, 430074 Changsha P. R. China, 410083 yulikui@sina.com...

  7. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES): algorithm overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce A. Wielicki; Bruce R. Barkstrom; Bryan A. Baum; Thomas P. Charlock; Richard N. Green; David P. Kratz; Robert B. Lee; Patrick Minnis; G. Louis Smith; Takmeng Wong; David F. Young; Robert D. Cess; James A. Coakley; Dominique A. H. Crommelynck; Leo Donner; Robert Kandel; Michael D. King; Alvin J. Miller; Veerabhadran Ramanathan; David A. Randall; Larry L. Stowe; Ronald M. Welch

    1998-01-01

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS), CERES objectives include the following. (1) For climate change analysis, provide a continuation of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) record of radiative fluxes at the top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA), analyzed using the same techniques as the existing ERBE data. (2) Double the accuracy of

  8. Design and Experiments of a Solar Low-temperature Hot Water Floor Radiant Heating System 

    E-print Network

    Wu, Z.; Li, D.

    2006-01-01

    The solar low-temperature hot water floor radiant heating system combines solar energy heating with floor radiant heating. This kind of environmental heating way not only saves fossil resources and reduces pollution, but also makes people feel more...

  9. Infiltration Investigation of a Radiantly Heated or Cooled Office 

    E-print Network

    Archer, D. H.; Gong, X.; Claridge, D. E.

    2007-01-01

    dehumidification system. Earlier infiltration measurements using the tracer gas procedure showed infiltration levels of 0.78 - 1.12 ACH, while CO2 concentration measurements gave values from 0.1 - 0.2 ACH. This paper reports the results of infiltration levels...

  10. Advanced radiant combustion system. Final report, September 1989--September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, J.D.; Carswell, M.G.; Long, F.S.

    1996-09-01

    Results of the Advanced Radiant Combustion System (ARCS) project are presented in this report. This work was performed by Alzeta Corporation as prime contractor under a contract to the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technologies as part of a larger DOE program entitled Research Program for Advanced Combustion Systems. The goals of the Alzeta ARCS project were to (a) Improve the high temperature performance characteristics of porous surface ceramic fiber burners, (b) Develop an Advanced Radiant Combustion System (ARCS) that combines combustion controls with an advanced radiant burner, and (c) Demonstrate the advanced burner and controls in an industrial application. Prior to the start of this project, Alzeta had developed and commercialized a porous surface radiant burner, the Pyrocore{trademark} burner. The product had been commercially available for approximately 5 years and had achieved commercial success in a number of applications ranging from small burners for commercial cooking equipment to large burners for low temperature industrial fluid heating applications. The burner was not recommended for use in applications with process temperatures above 1000{degrees}F, which prevented the burner from being used in intermediate to high temperature processes in the chemical and petroleum refining industries. The interest in increasing the maximum use temperature of the burner was motivated in part by a desire to expand the number of applications that could use the Pyrocore product, but also because many of the fluid sensitive heating applications of interest would benefit from the distributed flux characteristic of porous surface burners. Background information on porous surface radiant burners, and a discussion of advantages that would be provided by an improved product, are presented in Section 2.

  11. Radiant floors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1982-01-01

    Radiant floors are discussed as a means of recovering heat from solar spaces without resorting to rockbeds or other thermal mass storage schemes. Radiant floors may be applied to active, passive or hybrid solar space heating systems. They are described as relatively easy to build and to cost less than other means of thermal mass storage. Five ways of constructing

  12. Measured space-cooling electricity savings from standard energy conservation measures, radiant barriers, and high-efficiency window air conditioners

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. P. Ternes; W. P. Levins

    1990-01-01

    A cooperative field test was performed in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to determine the space-cooling electricity consumption of low-income homes equipped with window air conditioners, the reduction in consumption due to energy conservation measures (ECMs) installed under Oklahoma's Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP), and the additional reduction due to two ECMs designed to reduce space-cooling electricity consumption: attic radiant barriers and replacement of

  13. RADIANT Research

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    R24 and Development in Advanced Network Technology (RADIANT) is a computer research division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The first Web site offers many publications from the five research focus groups within RADIANT: High-Performance Networking, Monitoring and Measurement, Cyber Security, Network Architecture, and Robust Systems and Networks. This material is mostly beneficial to professionals and research students specializing in these areas. The site also has links to information about job opportunities available at RADIANT, as well as the Advanced Summer Curriculum for Emerging Network Technologies (ASCENT). ASCENT is a summer internship program that accepts both undergraduate and graduate students interested in networking research.

  14. Numerical Analysis of a Radiant Heat Flux Calibration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Shanjuan; Horn, Thomas J.; Dhir, V. K.

    1998-01-01

    A radiant heat flux gage calibration system exists in the Flight Loads Laboratory at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. This calibration system must be well understood if the heat flux gages calibrated in it are to provide useful data during radiant heating ground tests or flight tests of high speed aerospace vehicles. A part of the calibration system characterization process is to develop a numerical model of the flat plate heater element and heat flux gage, which will help identify errors due to convection, heater element erosion, and other factors. A 2-dimensional mathematical model of the gage-plate system has been developed to simulate the combined problem involving convection, radiation and mass loss by chemical reaction. A fourth order finite difference scheme is used to solve the steady state governing equations and determine the temperature distribution in the gage and plate, incident heat flux on the gage face, and flat plate erosion. Initial gage heat flux predictions from the model are found to be within 17% of experimental results.

  15. Cooling water system design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin-Kuk Kim; Robin Smith

    2001-01-01

    Research on cooling systems to date has focussed on the individual components of cooling systems, not the system as a whole. Cooling water systems should be designed and operated with consideration of all the cooling system components because of the interactions between cooling water networks and the cooling tower performance. In re-circulating cooling water systems, cooling water from the cooling

  16. Preliminary Study of a Vented Attic Radiant Barrier System in Hot, Humid Climates Using Side-by-Side, Full-Scale Test Houses 

    E-print Network

    Lear, W. E.; Barrup, T. E.; Davis, K. E.

    1987-01-01

    A series of side-by-side tests was performed using two full scale test houses to determine the effectiveness of a Vented Radiant Barrier System (VRBS) in reducing the ceiling heat flux during the summer cooling season in North Florida. Another...

  17. Preliminary Study of a Vented Attic Radiant Barrier System in Hot, Humid Climates Using Side-by-Side, Full-Scale Test Houses

    E-print Network

    Lear, W. E.; Barrup, T. E.; Davis, K. E.

    1987-01-01

    A series of side-by-side tests was performed using two full scale test houses to determine the effectiveness of a Vented Radiant Barrier System (VRBS) in reducing the ceiling heat flux during the summer cooling season in North Florida. Another...

  18. Economic Evaluation of Insulation/Radiant Barrier Systems for the State of Texas 

    E-print Network

    Medina, M. A.; Turner, W. D.; O'Neal, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents simulated performance of insulation/radiant barrier systems under different Texas climates. A transient heat and mass transfer model which predicts thermal performance of residential attics (Medina, 1992) was coupled...

  19. Combined Operation of Solar Energy Source Heat Pump, Low-vale Electricity and Floor Radiant System 

    E-print Network

    Liu, G.; Guo, Z.; Hu, S.

    2006-01-01

    ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Re newable Energy Resources and a Greener Future Vol.VIII-2-1 Combined Operation of Solar Energy Source Heat Pump, Low-vale Electricity and Floor Radiant System Guodan liu Zhanjun Guo Songtao Hu...

  20. Radiant{trademark} Liquid Radioisotope Intravascular Radiation Therapy System

    SciTech Connect

    Eigler, N.; Whiting, J.; Chernomorsky, A.; Jackson, J.; Knapp, F.F., Jr.; Litvack, F.

    1998-01-16

    RADIANT{trademark} is manufactured by United States Surgical Corporation, Vascular Therapies Division, (formerly Progressive Angioplasty Systems). The system comprises a liquid {beta}-radiation source, a shielded isolation/transfer device (ISAT), modified over-the-wire or rapid exchange delivery balloons, and accessory kits. The liquid {beta}-source is Rhenium-188 in the form of sodium perrhenate (NaReO{sub 4}), Rhenium-188 is primarily a {beta}-emitter with a physical half-life of 17.0 hours. The maximum energy of the {beta}-particles is 2.1 MeV. The source is produced daily in the nuclear pharmacy hot lab by eluting a Tungsten-188/Rhenium-188 generator manufactured by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Using anion exchange columns and Millipore filters the effluent is concentrated to approximately 100 mCi/ml, calibrated, and loaded into the (ISAT) which is subsequently transported to the cardiac catheterization laboratory. The delivery catheters are modified Champion{trademark} over-the-wire, and TNT{trademark} rapid exchange stent delivery balloons. These balloons have thickened polyethylene walls to augment puncture resistance; dual radio-opaque markers and specially configured connectors.

  1. Improved thermal performance of a hydronic radiant panel heating system by the optimization of tube shapes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young T. Chae; Kwang Ho Lee; Jae Sung Park

    2011-01-01

    The thermal performance enhancement of the hydronic radiant floor heating system by tube shape refinements is investigated\\u000a in this paper. Both analytical and detailed numerical modelings are carried out to predict the performance of the radiant\\u000a system. While the simple analytical model briefly investigates the possibility of the effect of the tube shape improvement\\u000a with the parametric analysis, the commercial

  2. Effects of Radiant Barrier Systems on Ventilated Attics in a Hot and Humid Climate

    E-print Network

    Medina, M. A.; O'Neal, D. L.; Turner, W. D.

    Barriers on their Effectiveness in Reducing Heat Transfer in Attics." Proceedings, Third Annual Symposium on Improving Building Energy Efficiency in HOI and Humid Climates, Arlington, TX. pp. 68-77. 8. Levins W.P. and Karnitz M.A., 1986, "Cooling... Energy Measurements of Unoccupied Single-Family Houses with Attics Containing Radiant Barriers," ORNLICON-200, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN. 9. Levins W.P. and Karnitz M.A., and Knight D.K., 1986, "Cooling Energy Measurements...

  3. Analysis of Attic Radiant Barrier Systems Using Mathematical Models 

    E-print Network

    Fairey, P.; Swami, M.

    1988-01-01

    . Effect of attic ventilation rate 2. Effect of radiant barrier surface emit tance 3. Effect of vent air inlet temperature (ambient temperature) 4. Effect of solar radiation (sol-air temperature) 5. Effect of room set-point temperature 6. Effect... on the ceiling insulation. Predicted: Measured: V,. - 1 05'~ 0 V, - 105'~ V,. - 95*F A V, 95'~ ....... V, - 85'~ V, = 85'~ Model input: 1 T-; a.-;.75 150*F, R- -1.0 1 To, = 75'~ rr 0.1 1 Am - 8.2 0 0.5 1 1.5 VENT AIRFLOW RATE (ctm/tt8.ceilin() Figure...

  4. Analysis of Attic Radiant Barrier Systems Using Mathematical Models

    E-print Network

    Fairey, P.; Swami, M.

    1988-01-01

    . Effect of attic ventilation rate 2. Effect of radiant barrier surface emit tance 3. Effect of vent air inlet temperature (ambient temperature) 4. Effect of solar radiation (sol-air temperature) 5. Effect of room set-point temperature 6. Effect... 8. Predicted effect of sol-air temperature for attics with R-19 ceilings and 85OF vent air inlet temperature. - .~- oof RBS (c-0.1) ' 0 1 I I 0 0.5 1 1.5 VENT AIRFLOW RAlE (ctm/ttl.coiling) Figure 9. Predicted effect of room thermostat...

  5. Experimental Performance Analysis on Solar-Water Compound Source Heat Pump for Radiant Floor Heating System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qu Shilin; Ma Fei

    2010-01-01

    In order to solve the instability and intermittence of solar heating system, a experiment system of indirect expansion solar assisted water source heat pump radiant floor heating is proposed in the paper. The mathematics model of coefficient of performance for the system is presented after analyzing the operation principle in different conditions. The influence of the inlet and outlet temperatures

  6. Effects of Radiant Barrier Systems on Ventilated Attics in a Hot and Humid Climate 

    E-print Network

    Medina, M. A.; O'Neal, D. L.; Turner, W. D.

    1992-01-01

    Effects of Radiant Barrier Systems on VenLilated Allies in a Hot and Humid Climate Mario A. Medina, Dennis L. O'Neal Ph.D., and W. Dan Turner Ph.D. Energy Systems Laboratory Texas Engineering Experiment Station Texas A&M University System...

  7. An evaluation of thermal comfort and energy consumption for a surface-mounted ceiling radiant panel heating system

    SciTech Connect

    Yost, P.A.; Barbour, C.E. [NAHB Research Center, Inc., Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Watson, R.

    1995-08-01

    A review of literature revealed little relevant empirical evidence for energy savings and thermal comfort associated with ceiling, surface-mounted radiant heating systems. Empirical studies used to discuss the energy and thermal comfort performance of radiant heating systems made little or no distinction among the various types of radiant heating systems. Since ceiling, surface-mounted radiant panels-in contrast to other radiant systems-are fast-acting and deliver a much higher proportion of their output as radiant heat, they can have a substantial impact on both energy and thermal comfort performance. Testing the energy and thermal comfort performance in an occupied home could serve to expand the base of information on which discussions of various heating strategies are based. A surface-mounted, ceiling radiant heating system, an air-to-air heat pump system, and a monitoring data-acquisition system were installed in an occupied research home. Information on thermal comfort and energy consumption for alternating operation of the two heating systems was collected for approximately half of a heating season. This allowed a comparison of the radiant system and the more conventional air-to-air heat pump system. Also, data on energy consumption from a zoned electric baseboard heating system previously installed in the same house were available for comparison. Fast-acting radiant heating systems that can recover quickly from setback and target the delivery of heat to objects and occupants have a significantly reduced installed capacity in comparison to more conventional heating systems. In this study, for the same outdoor design conditions, the installed capacity of the radiant system was 2.5 times less than the electric baseboard system and two times less than that of the heat pump system.

  8. Monte Carlo simulation of the radiant field produced by a multiple-lamp quartz heating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L.

    1991-01-01

    A method is developed for predicting the radiant heat flux distribution produced by a reflected bank of tungsten-filament tubular-quartz radiant heaters. The method is correlated with experimental results from two cases, one consisting of a single lamp and a flat reflector and the other consisting of a single lamp and a parabolic reflector. The simulation methodology, computer implementation, and experimental procedures are discussed. Analytical refinements necessary for comparison with experiment are discussed and applied to a multilamp, common reflector heating system.

  9. The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Elevation Bearing Assembly Life Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Phillip L.; Miller, James B.; Jones, William R., Jr.; Rasmussen, Kent; Wheeler, Donald R.; Rana, Mauro; Peri, Frank

    1999-01-01

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) elevation scan bearings lubricated with Pennzane SHF X2000 and 2% lead naphthenate (PbNp) were life tested for a seven-year equivalent Low Earth Orbit (LEO) operation. The bearing life assembly was tested continuously at an accelerated and normal rate using the scanning patterns developed for the CERES Earth Observing System AM-1 mission. A post-life-test analysis was performed on the collected data, bearing wear, and lubricant behavior.

  10. Application of ground-source heat pump in capillary plane radiant air-conditioning system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Du Fangli; Wei Zhaohui

    2011-01-01

    Ground-source heat pump technology is for the refrigerating, heating, and hot water supply of air-conditioner. The article makes a detailed introduction to the working principle of ground-source heat pump and its application in capillary plane radiant air-conditioning system, and points out a new direction for the development of energy saving and environmental protection of air-conditioning system through the effective combination

  11. Investigation of a radiantly heated and cooled office with an integrated desiccant ventilation unit 

    E-print Network

    Gong, Xiangyang

    2009-05-15

    of Simulated Results with Measured Data................................................19 2.5 Heating Capacity of Mullion Radiators.........................................................................27 2.6 Cooling Capacity of Mullion Radiators... for Four Different Hot Water Conditions.................. 30 2.21 Inner Surface Temperature Distributions at the Midpoint of the Window Height .... 31 2.22 Heating Capacity of Mullions at Four Different Values of Tube Wall Thermal Resistance...

  12. Case study: Seven-system analysis of thermal comfort and energy use for a fast-acting radiant heating system

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, R.D. [SSHC, Inc., Old Saybrook, CT (United States); Chapman, K.S.; DeGreef, J.M. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States)

    1998-10-01

    The Radiant Demonstration Program (RDP) was developed for the management association of a large retirement single-family housing community in the Northeast for the purpose of providing comparative data for heating system retrofit selection. Control and pre- and post-retrofit energy consumption data were monitored for two to four years in approximately 100 occupied units of 19 designs. The heating systems involved encompassed electric concealed ceiling radiant panels; fast-acting, ceiling surface mounted radiant panels; baseboard heaters; forced air furnaces; standard air, high-efficiency air, and geothermal heat pumps; and gas forced air high-efficiency furnaces. All units had a separate air-conditioning system. Significantly lower retrofit installed and maintenance costs were demonstrated for the fast-acting radiant panels. Comparative energy use of fast-acting radiant panels was less for the systems involved, with the range of savings apparently varying in relation to previous relative comfort and interest in practicing occupancy-based room temperature control.

  13. Study of the Heating Load of a Manufactured Space with a Gas-fired Radiant Heating System

    E-print Network

    Zheng, X.; Dong, Z.

    2006-01-01

    A thermal balance mathematics model of a manufactured space with a gas-fired radiant heating system is established to calculate the heating load. Computer programs are used to solve the model. Envelope internal surface temperatures under different...

  14. Study of the Heating Load of a Manufactured Space with a Gas-fired Radiant Heating System 

    E-print Network

    Zheng, X.; Dong, Z.

    2006-01-01

    to simulate the temperature field and the envelope's internal surface temperature of the manufacture space with hot-air heating system. Comparison and analysis of heating loads are done between the manufactured spaces with convection heating and radiant...

  15. Cost optimization of a hybrid HVAC system with composite radiant wall panels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Birol I. Kilkis

    2006-01-01

    A composite radiant wall panel was developed, which collectively performs heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning tasks at moderate temperatures such that low-enthalpy energy resources can be directly utilized. This technology eliminates the need for costly equipment over sizing and supply temperature conditioning, which are all associated with conventional heating and air-conditioning systems if low-enthalpy energy resources are to be used. An

  16. Cooling Water System Optimization 

    E-print Network

    Aegerter, R.

    2005-01-01

    During summer months, many manufacturing plants have to cut back in rates because the cooling water system is not providing sufficient cooling to support higher production rates. There are many low/no-cost techniques available to improve tower...

  17. Cooling water distribution system

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Richard (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

  18. Passive containment cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Conway, Lawrence E. (Robinson Township, Allegheny County, PA); Stewart, William A. (Penn Hills Township, Allegheny County, PA)

    1991-01-01

    A containment cooling system utilizes a naturally induced air flow and a gravity flow of water over the containment shell which encloses a reactor core to cool reactor core decay heat in two stages. When core decay heat is greatest, the water and air flow combine to provide adequate evaporative cooling as heat from within the containment is transferred to the water flowing over the same. The water is heated by heat transfer and then evaporated and removed by the air flow. After an initial period of about three to four days when core decay heat is greatest, air flow alone is sufficient to cool the containment.

  19. Rotary engine cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, C.

    1988-07-26

    A rotary internal combustion engine is described comprising: a rotor housing forming a trochoidal cavity therein; an insert of refractory material received in the recess, an element of a fuel injection and ignition system extending through the housing and insert bores, and the housing having cooling passages extending therethrough. The cooling passages are comprised of drilled holes.

  20. Influence of dust on the emissivity of radiant barriers

    E-print Network

    Noboa, Homero Luis

    1991-01-01

    . Therefore, a radiant barrier will be less beneficial in winter than in summer. Levins and Karnitz (1988) reported only 3. 5 % reduction of heating loads with a radiant barrier in combination with R-30 attic insulation and a 9. 3 % of heating load... about the impact of dust on the radiant bamer performance. Levins, Karnitz and Knight (1986) made cooling energy measurements of houses with attics containing radiant barriers. Three houses were tested to compare their performance when radiant...

  1. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES): An Earth Observing System Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Harrison, Edwin F.; Lee, Robert B., III; Smith, G. Louis; Cooper, John E.

    1996-01-01

    Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is an investigation to examine the role of cloud/radiation feedback in the Earth's climate system. The CERES broadband scanning radiometers are an improved version of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) radiometers. The CERES instruments will fly on several National Aeronautics and Space Administration Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites starting in 1998 and extending over at least 15 years. The CERES science investigations will provide data to extend the ERBE climate record of top-of-atmosphere shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiative fluxes CERES will also combine simultaneous cloud property data derived using EOS narrowband imagers to provide a consistent set of cloud/radiation data, including SW and LW radiative fluxes at the surface and at several selected levels within the atmosphere. CERES data are expected to provide top-of-atmosphere radiative fluxes with a factor of 2 to 3 less error than the ERBE data Estimates of radiative fluxes at the surface and especially within the atmosphere will be a much greater challenge but should also show significant improvements over current capabilities.

  2. Ground Water Cooling System 

    E-print Network

    Greaves, K.; Chave, G. H.

    1984-01-01

    GROUND WATER COOLING SYSTEM Keith Greaves/George H. Chave Westinghouse Canada Inc. Hamilton, Ontario ABSTRACT Based on a thorough study of products and anticipated growth, the Turbine and Generator Division of Westinghouse Canada Inc...

  3. Modeling of Residential Attics with Radiant Barriers

    E-print Network

    Wilkes, K. E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper gives a summary of the efforts at ORNL in modeling residential attics with radiant barriers. Analytical models based on a system of macroscopic heat balances have been developed. Separate models have been developed for horizontal radiant...

  4. Bi-radiant oven: a low-energy oven system. Volume I. Development and assessment

    SciTech Connect

    DeWitt, D.P.; Peart, M.V.

    1980-04-01

    The Bi-Radiant Oven system has three important features which provide improved performance. First, the cavity walls are highly reflective rather than absorptive thereby allowing these surfaces to operate at cooler temperatures. Second, the heating elements, similar in construction to those in a conventional oven, but operating at much lower temperatures, provide a prescribed, balanced radiant flux to the top and bottom surfaces of the food product. And third, the baking and roasting utensil has a highly absorptive finish. Instrumentation and methods of measurements have been developed for obtaining the important oven and food parameters during baking: wall, oven air, food and element temperatures; food mass loss rate; irradiance distribution; and convection heat flux. Observations on an experimental oven are presented and discussed. Thermal models relating the irradiance distribution to oven parameters have been compared with measurements using a new heat flux gage developed for the project. Using the DOE recommended test procedures, oven efficiencies of 20 to 23% have been measured. The heating requirements have been determined for seven food types: biscuits, meat loaf, baked foods, apple crisp, cornbread, macaroni and cheese casserole, and cheese souffle. Comparison of energy use with a conventional electric oven shows that energy savings greater than 50% can be realized. Detailed energy balances have been performed on two foods - beef roasts and yellow cake. Consideration of consumer acceptability of this new oven concept have been addressed.

  5. Influence of Attic Radiant Barrier Systems on Air Conditioning Demand in an Utility Pilot Project

    E-print Network

    Parker, D. S.; Sherwin, J. R.

    2002-01-01

    conditioning loads. An RBS consists of a layer of aluminum foil fastened to roof decking or roof trusses to block radiant heat transfer between the hot roof surface and the attic below. The radiant barrier can significantly lower summer heat transfer...

  6. Passive containment cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Billig, P.F.; Cooke, F.E.; Fitch, J.R.

    1994-01-25

    A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA. 1 figure.

  7. Passive containment cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Billig, Paul F. (San Jose, CA); Cooke, Franklin E. (San Jose, CA); Fitch, James R. (San Jose, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA.

  8. Rotary engine cooling system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ch. Jones; E. J. Blum; R. M. Gigon

    1985-01-01

    A rotary engine has a substantially trochoidal-shaped housing cavity in which a rotor planetates. A cooling system for the engine directs coolant along a single series path consisting of series connected groups of passages. Coolant enters near the intake port, passes downwardly and axially through the cooler regions of the engine, then passes upwardly and axially through the hotter regions.

  9. Influence of Attic Radiant Barrier Systems on Air Conditioning Demand in an Utility Pilot Project 

    E-print Network

    Parker, D. S.; Sherwin, J. R.

    2002-01-01

    to the attic insulation and to the cooling duct system. Both of these mechanisms have strong potential impacts on cooling energy use as illustrated in Figures 1 and 2. The pilot project involved installation of RBS in nine homes that had been extensively...

  10. Numerical and experimental analyses of the radiant heat flux produced by quartz heating systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L.; Ash, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    A method is developed for predicting the radiant heat flux distribution produced by tungsten filament, tubular fused-quartz envelope heating systems with reflectors. The method is an application of Monte Carlo simulation, which takes the form of a random walk or ray tracing scheme. The method is applied to four systems of increasing complexity, including a single lamp without a reflector, a single lamp with a Hat reflector, a single lamp with a parabolic reflector, and up to six lamps in a six-lamp contoured-reflector heating unit. The application of the Monte Carlo method to the simulation of the thermal radiation generated by these systems is discussed. The procedures for numerical implementation are also presented. Experiments were conducted to study these quartz heating systems and to acquire measurements of the corresponding empirical heat flux distributions for correlation with analysis. The experiments were conducted such that several complicating factors could be isolated and studied sequentially. Comparisons of the experimental results with analysis are presented and discussed. Good agreement between the experimental and simulated results was obtained in all cases. This study shows that this method can be used to analyze very complicated quartz heating systems and can account for factors such as spectral properties, specular reflection from curved surfaces, source enhancement due to reflectors and/or adjacent sources, and interaction with a participating medium in a straightforward manner.

  11. Transient temperature responses of hydronic radiant floor heating system by different pipe embedding depth and water supply condition.

    PubMed

    Chung, K S; Sohn, J Y; Baik, Y K; Kang, J S

    1993-07-01

    "Ondol" is a Korean unique heating system. It is a specific radiant floor heating system using combustion heat of briquette or timber in Korea. Such traditional "Ondol" is changed to radiant heating system with pipe-coil embedded in the floor or slab. This study has contributed to the understandings of the transient behaviours of Ondol-heated floor panels and enclosure exposed to this type of heating system. The result is that the water supply temperature had a large effect on the rate of increase in floor surface and room air temperature. But, in spite of a higher water supply temperature, the heat flow rate was not increased considerably. The shallow pipe embedding depths, of course, result in a low heat flow rate. PMID:8373479

  12. Flame characterization in a single ended recuperative radiant tube combustion system

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S.N.; Singh, S.S.; Briselden, T.D. (WB Combustion, Inc., Milwaukee, WI (US))

    1987-01-01

    The metal heat process industry utilizes a variety of furnaces in which the heat is supplied via direct or indirect firing, depending upon the type of process being considered. These furnaces operate at less than 24 to 40% thermal efficiency and as a result, the furnace wall temperature and flue gas temperature are higher than desired. Many equipments have been developed to reduce furnace wall temperature by utilizing better insulating materials and recuperating heat from the hot flue gas. Often these heat losses are related to the effectiveness of the combustion process which also effects the flame geometry and its impact over the heat transfer in a thermal system. Flame geometry also plays a vital role in the maintenance of a uniform temperature, flame temperature and the formation of combustion species such as CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, OH{sup -}, H{sup +}, NO{sub x}, etc., when natural gas is used as a fuel. In this paper the indirect fired furnaces in which the radiant tube combustion systems are used as a means of heat transfer equipment, are considered.

  13. Impact of the Position of a Radiator to Energy Consumption and Thermal Comfort in a Mixed Radiant and Convective Heating System 

    E-print Network

    Gong, X.; Claridge, D. E.

    2005-01-01

    ESL-IC-10/05-35 1 Impact of the Position of the Radiator on Energy Consumption and Thermal Comfort in a Mixed Radiant and Convective Heating System Xiangyang Gong David E... requires careful consideration of the energy balance on each room surface and the comfort level in the space. A radiant heating system heats the room surfaces first; then the warm surfaces heat room air. The higher surface temperatures will increase...

  14. Examination of operational dynamics of radiant ceiling panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudkiewicz, Edyta; Jadwiszczak, Piotr; Je?owiecki, Janusz

    2011-06-01

    Radiant ceiling panels can be used in large-volume halls, e.g. vehicle repair shops and markets, to heat the entire or specific zones of the enclosed space. The system with radiant panels may be of small water capacity when just one or several units are installed over selected zones to provide additional heating. Depending on dimensions of radiant ceiling panel, its mounting mode and the temperature of its feeding medium, various thermal conditions are created under such panel. Thermal effects are also affected by the mode of thermal or cooling power control and dynamics of such control for an individual radiant panel or a set of panels. The dynamics of attainable radiant ceiling panel capacity was investigated and used as the grounds to determine general requirements for time-domain automatic control programs and those for operation of the controllers. The results presented from the examinations carried out for water radiators are not intended to delineate the requirements for all automatic control loops for water radiators; they are aimed at attracting attention to issues to be considered when preparing the algorithm of automatic control in particular situations.

  15. Lamination cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Rippel, Wally E.; Kobayashi, Daryl M.

    2005-10-11

    An electric motor, transformer or inductor having a lamination cooling system including a stack of laminations, each defining a plurality of apertures at least partially coincident with apertures of adjacent laminations. The apertures define a plurality of cooling-fluid passageways through the lamination stack, and gaps between the adjacent laminations are sealed to prevent a liquid cooling fluid in the passageways from escaping between the laminations. The gaps are sealed by injecting a heat-cured sealant into the passageways, expelling excess sealant, and heat-curing the lamination stack. The apertures of each lamination can be coincident with the same-sized apertures of adjacent laminations to form straight passageways, or they can vary in size, shape and/or position to form non-axial passageways, angled passageways, bidirectional passageways, and manifold sections of passageways that connect a plurality of different passageway sections. Manifold members adjoin opposite ends of the lamination stack, and each is configured with one or more cavities to act as a manifold to adjacent passageway ends. Complex manifold arrangements can create bidirectional flow in a variety of patterns.

  16. Stirling cycle solar cooling system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. I. Pedroso

    1978-01-01

    The Stirling cycle engine is considered for application to solar powered cooling systems. Two approaches are possible. First, the use of a Stirling engine transmitting mechanical power to any type of cooling unit, and the integral design of a Stirling engine and cooling system. The first approach offers more flexibility in the design of the engine and allows for a

  17. Cryo Utilities Room Cooling System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. S. Ball

    1989-01-01

    Many of the mechanical equipment failures at the Laboratory are due to the loss of cooling water. In order to insure the proper operating temperatures and to increase the reliability of the mechanical equipment in the D0 Cryo Utilities Room it is necessary to provide an independent liquid cooling system. To this end, an enclosed glycoVwater cooling system which transfers

  18. Radiant heating for thermal comfort

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, R.D. [SSHC Inc., Old Saybrook, CT (United States); Chapman, K.S. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

    1996-07-01

    This article presents the results of a study comparing fast-acting electric radiant panel heating with conventional electric air heat pump and baseboard heating. A comprehensive literature search confirmed the need to develop data from actual dynamic field experiences to demonstrate the performance characteristics of a fast-acting radiant panel system. The data provides performance profiles for comparison with related output generated by the Building Comfort Analysis Program.

  19. Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors with passive cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Fanning, Alan W. (San Jose, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of cooling medium flow circuits which cooperate to remove and carry heat away from the fuel core upon loss of the normal cooling flow circuit to areas external thereto.

  20. The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Sensors and Preflight Calibration Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Robert B., III; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Smith, G. Louis; Cooper, John E.; Kopia, Leonard P.; Lawrence, R. Wes; Thomas, Susan; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Crommelynck, Dominique A. H.

    1996-01-01

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) spacecraft sensors are designed to measure broadband earth-reflected solar shortwave (0.3-5 microns) and earth-emitted longwave (5- > 100 microns) radiances at the top of the atmosphere as part of the Mission to Planet Earth program. The scanning thermistor bolometer sensors respond to radiances in the broadband shortwave (0.3-5 microns) and total-wave (0.3- > 100 microns) spectral regions, as well as to radiances in the narrowband water vapor window (8-12 microns) region. 'ne sensors are designed to operate for a minimum of 5 years aboard the NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission and Earth Observing System AM-1 spacecraft platforms that are scheduled for launches in 1997 and 1998, respectively. The flight sensors and the in-flight calibration systems will be calibrated in a vacuum ground facility using reference radiance sources, tied to the international temperature scale of 1990. The calibrations will be used to derive sensor gains, offsets, spectral responses, and point spread functions within and outside of the field of view. The shortwave, total-wave, and window ground calibration accuracy requirements (1 sigma) are +/-0.8, +/-0.6, and +/-0.3 W /sq m/sr, respectively, while the corresponding measurement precisions are +/-O.5% and +/-1.0% for the broadband longwave and shortwave radiances, respectively. The CERES sensors, in-flight calibration systems, and ground calibration instrumentation are described along with outlines of the preflight and in-flight calibration approaches.

  1. Rotary engine cooling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Charles (Inventor); Gigon, Richard M. (Inventor); Blum, Edward J. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A rotary engine has a substantially trochoidal-shaped housing cavity in which a rotor planetates. A cooling system for the engine directs coolant along a single series path consisting of series connected groups of passages. Coolant enters near the intake port, passes downwardly and axially through the cooler regions of the engine, then passes upwardly and axially through the hotter regions. By first flowing through the coolest regions, coolant pressure is reduced, thus reducing the saturation temperature of the coolant and thereby enhancing the nucleate boiling heat transfer mechanism which predominates in the high heat flux region of the engine during high power level operation.

  2. Emergency core cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Schenewerk, William E. (Sherman Oaks, CA); Glasgow, Lyle E. (Westlake Village, CA)

    1983-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor provided with an emergency core cooling system includes a reactor vessel which contains a reactor core comprising an array of fuel assemblies and a plurality of blanket assemblies. The reactor core is immersed in a pool of liquid metal coolant. The reactor also includes a primary coolant system comprising a pump and conduits for circulating liquid metal coolant to the reactor core and through the fuel and blanket assemblies of the core. A converging-diverging venturi nozzle with an intermediate throat section is provided in between the assemblies and the pump. The intermediate throat section of the nozzle is provided with at least one opening which is in fluid communication with the pool of liquid sodium. In normal operation, coolant flows from the pump through the nozzle to the assemblies with very little fluid flowing through the opening in the throat. However, when the pump is not running, residual heat in the core causes fluid from the pool to flow through the opening in the throat of the nozzle and outwardly through the nozzle to the assemblies, thus providing a means of removing decay heat.

  3. Improvements in Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Products Based on Instrument Calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, N. M.; Priestley, K.; Loeb, N. G.; Thomas, S.; Shankar, M.; Walikainen, D.

    2014-12-01

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) mission is instrumental in providing highly accurate radiance measurements that are critical for monitoring the Earth's radiation budget. Two identical CERES instruments are deployed aboard NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites Terra and Aqua. Each CERES instrument consists of scanning thermistor bolometer sensors that measure broadband radiances in the shortwave (0.3 to 5 micron), total (0.3 to < 100 micron) and water vapor window (8 to 12 micron) regions. CERES instruments have the capability of scanning in either the cross-track or rotating azimuth plane (RAP) scan mode. Cross-track scanning, the primary mode of CERES operation, allows for the geographical mapping of the radiation fields while RAP scanning enables the acquisition of data over a more extensive combination of viewing configurations, needed for developing vastly improved angular distribution models used in radiance to flux conversion. To evaluate, achieve and maintain radiometric stability, a rigorous and comprehensive radiometric calibration and validation protocol is implemented. Calibrations and validation studies have indicated spectral changes in the reflected solar spectral regions of the shortwave and total sensors. Spectral darkening is detected in the shortwave channel optics, which is more prominent while the instrument operates in RAP mode. In the absence of a climatological explanation for this darkening, this likely occurs during part of the RAP scan cycle when the scan plane is aligned with the direction of motion, making the optics more susceptible to increased UV exposure and molecular contamination. Additionally, systematic daytime-nighttime longwave top-of-atmosphere (TOA) flux inconsistency was also detected during validation, which highlights the changes in the shortwave region of the total sensor. This paper briefly describes the strategy to correct for the sensor response changes and presents the improvements in CERES Edition 4 data products, which incorporates these sensor response changes in the computation of radiances.

  4. New Energy-Saving Cooling System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Fukuchi; K. Kobayashi; H. Yamamoto

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes an energy-saving cooling system for the cooling of computer rooms that does not require the operation of existing cooling systems but carries out cooling utilizing the cold outdoor air of the winter season. Instead of using conventional refrigerants as the cooling medium, the new cooling system utilizes cold water. Water cooled by the low temperature outdoor air

  5. Nonimaging radiant energy device

    DOEpatents

    Winston, Roland (Chicago, IL); Ning, Xiaohui (North Providence, RI)

    1993-01-01

    A nonimaging radiant energy device may include a hyperbolically shaped reflective element with a radiant energy inlet and a radiant energy outlet. A convex lens is provided at the radiant energy inlet and a concave lens is provided at the radiant energy outlet. Due to the provision of the lenses and the shape of the walls of the reflective element, the radiant energy incident at the radiant energy inlet within a predetermined angle of acceptance is emitted from the radiant energy outlet exclusively within an acute exit angle. In another embodiment, the radiant energy device may include two interconnected hyperbolically shaped reflective elements with a respective convex lens being provided at each aperture of the device.

  6. S'COOL Brochure

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This brochure describes and promotes the S'COOL program. S'COOL, the Students' Cloud Observations On Line, is a component of NASA's Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project. Participants make ground truth measurements for the CERES experiment to compare with satellite data for the purpose of improving the satellite results.

  7. Performance analysis of an integrated UFAD and radiant hydronic slab system

    E-print Network

    Raftery, Paul; Ho Lee, Kwang; Webster, Tom; Bauman, Fred

    2011-01-01

    boiler performance that is dependent on return temperature cannot be simulated in the current model.models the real sys- tem. Two identical, staged, forced-draft gas boilersmodel parameters: HVAC system and plant. Chilled water temperature set- point Cooling tower Boilers

  8. Numerical Simulation of Thermal Performance of Floor Radiant Heating System with Enclosed Phase Change Material

    E-print Network

    Qiu, L.; Wu, X.

    2006-01-01

    flows, distances between water wipe in the floor construction, floor covers and insulation conditions. Key words: radiant floor heating? energy storage? PCM? enthalpy ?thermal storage time 1.INTRODUCTION Phase change heat stored floor... is an advanced heating technology which uses PCM absorbing latent heat and keeping its temperature nearly invariable when phase changes and it has high heat stored density. This technology well resolves energy supply-demand disagreement and thanks to its use...

  9. Photosynthetically active radiation from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Wenying; Charlock, Thomas P.; Rose, Fred G.; Rutan, David

    2007-06-01

    We describe a method that retrieves surface photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and its direct and diffuse components from the Surface and Atmospheric Radiation Budget (SARB) product of Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES). The shortwave spectrum in the SARB Edition 2 is calculated in 15 bands, 4 of which are used to develop the PAR, in conjunction with the look-up tables described in this paper. We apply these look-up tables to existing CERES Terra Edition 2 products. The new retrieved surface PAR is validated with LI-COR PAR measurements at seven Surface Radiation Budget Network (SURFRAD) sites using data from March 2000 to June 2005. The relative bias of retrieved all-sky PAR at the SURFRAD sites is 4.6% (positive sign indicating retrieval exceeds measurement), and 54% of the all-sky samples are within the ±10% uncertainty of the LI-COR PAR measurements. The satellite field-of-view (FOV) is more representative of the ground instrument FOV under clear conditions, so 89% of clear-sky retrievals are within the uncertainty of the LI-COR PAR measurements at SURFRAD sites with positive biases at most sites. The retrieved PAR is also validated at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains Central Facility (CF) site using data from October 2003 to June 2004 for those FOVs having both LI-COR and Rotating Shadowband Spectroradiometer (RSS) ground measurements; for this small domain, all-sky relative biases are again positive (1.9%) for LI-COR but negative (-4.2%) for RSS. The direct-to-diffuse ratio derived from CERES is smaller than that from RSS for both clear and cloudy conditions. CERES also retrieves the broadband shortwave insolation, and the relative biases for the broadband retrievals are much less than those for PAR at the above sites. It appears that some of the ground-based measurements of PAR do not have the fidelity of those for broadband shortwave insolation.

  10. Meteor radiant mapping with MU radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watanabe, Jun-Ichi; Nakamura, Tsuko; Tsuda, T.; Tsutsumi, M.; Miyashita, A.; Yoshikawa, M.

    1992-01-01

    The radiant point mapping of meteor showers with the MU radar by using a modified mapping method originally proposed by Morton and Jones (1982) was carried out. The modification is that each meteor echo was weighted by using the beam pattern of the radar system. A preliminary result of the radiant point mapping of the Geminids meteor shower in 1989 is presented.

  11. Conversion of radiant light energy in photobioreactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Cornet; C. G. Dussap; J. B. Gros

    1994-01-01

    The conversion of radiant light energy into chemical affinity by microorganisms in photobioreactors is examined. The kinetics of entropy production in the system is theoretically established from entropy and energy balances for the material and photonic phases in the reactor. A negative chemical affinity term compensated for by a radiant energy term at a higher level of energy characterizes photosynthetic

  12. Combustor liner cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Berkman, Mert Enis

    2013-08-06

    A combustor liner is disclosed. The combustor liner includes an upstream portion, a downstream end portion extending from the upstream portion along a generally longitudinal axis, and a cover layer associated with an inner surface of the downstream end portion. The downstream end portion includes the inner surface and an outer surface, the inner surface defining a plurality of microchannels. The downstream end portion further defines a plurality of passages extending between the inner surface and the outer surface. The plurality of microchannels are fluidly connected to the plurality of passages, and are configured to flow a cooling medium therethrough, cooling the combustor liner.

  13. 46 CFR 153.432 - Cooling systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Cooling systems. 153.432 Section...DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID...Temperature Control Systems § 153.432 Cooling...contains: (1) A piping diagram for the cooling system; and (2)...

  14. 46 CFR 153.432 - Cooling systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Cooling systems. 153.432 Section...DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID...Temperature Control Systems § 153.432 Cooling...contains: (1) A piping diagram for the cooling system; and (2)...

  15. 46 CFR 153.432 - Cooling systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Cooling systems. 153.432 Section...DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID...Temperature Control Systems § 153.432 Cooling...contains: (1) A piping diagram for the cooling system; and (2)...

  16. 46 CFR 153.432 - Cooling systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Cooling systems. 153.432 Section...DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID...Temperature Control Systems § 153.432 Cooling...contains: (1) A piping diagram for the cooling system; and (2)...

  17. Automatic cassette to cassette radiant impulse processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheets, Ronald E.

    1985-01-01

    Single wafer rapid annealing using high temperature isothermal processing has become increasingly popular in recent years. In addition to annealing, this process is also being investigated for suicide formation, passivation, glass reflow and alloying. Regardless of the application, there is a strong necessity to automate in order to maintain process control, repeatability, cleanliness and throughput. These requirements have been carefully addressed during the design and development of the Model 180 Radiant Impulse Processor which is a totally automatic cassette to cassette wafer processing system. Process control and repeatability are maintained by a closed loop optical pyrometer system which maintains the wafer at the programmed temperature-time conditions. Programmed recipes containing up to 10 steps may be easily entered on the computer keyboard or loaded in from a recipe library stored on a standard 5 {1}/{4?} floppy disk. Cold wall heating chamber construction, controlled environment (N 2, A, forming gas) and quartz wafer carriers prevent contamination of the wafer during high temperature processing. Throughputs of 150-240 wafers per hour are achieved by quickly heating the wafer to temperature (450-1400°C) in 3-6 s with a high intensity, uniform (± 1%) radiant flux of 100 {W}/{cm 2}, parallel wafer handling system and a wafer cool down stage.

  18. A STUDY ON THE APPLICABILITY OF THE TIME-DIVISION HOT-WATER SUPPLY HEATING FOR ONDOL - THE RADIANT FLOOR HEATING SYSTEM IN KOREA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong-Yee Kim; Ho-Tae Seok; Jeong-Min Choi; Hyun-Woo Lee; Kwang-Woo Kim

    The typical Korean residential buildings, especially apartment buildings, are furnished with ONDOL - the Korean traditional radiant floor heating system. The buildings are getting more insulated and air tight for heating in hard winter. O NDOL floors and walls are heavy enough to take up large thermal capacities for the better efficiency of the heating system. The developed computer simulation

  19. Effect of radiant barriers and attic ventilation on residential attics and attic duct systems: New tools for measuring and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Petrie, T.W.; Childs, P.W.; Christian, J.E.; Wilkes, K.E.

    1998-07-01

    A simple duct system was installed in an attic test module for a large scale climate simulator at a US national laboratory. The goal of the tests and subsequent modeling was to develop an accurate method of assessing duct system performance in the laboratory, enabling limiting conditions to be imposed at will and results to be applied to residential attics with attic duct systems. Steady-state tests were done at a severe summer and a mild winter condition. In all tests the roof surface was heated above ambient air temperatures by infrared lights. The attic test module first included then did not include the duct system. Attic ventilation from eave vents to a ridge vent was varied from none to values achievable by a high level of power ventilation. A radiant barrier was attached to the underside of the roof deck, both with and without the duct system in place. Tests were also done without the radiant barrier, both with and without the duct system. When installed, the insulated ducts ran along the floor of the attic, just above the attic insulation and along the edge of the attic near the eaves and one gable. These tests in a climate simulator achieved careful control and reproducibility of conditions. This elucidated dependencies that would otherwise be hidden by variations in uncontrolled variables. Based on the comparisons with the results of the tests at the mild winter condition and the severe summer condition, model predictions for attic air and insulation temperatures should be accurate within {+-} 10 F ({+-} 6 C). This is judged adequate for design purposes and could be better when exploring the effect of changes in attic and duct parameters at fixed climatic conditions.

  20. Radiant Barrier Performance during the Heating Season

    E-print Network

    Medina, M. A.; O'Neal, D. L.; Turner, W. D.

    Symposium on Improving Building Energy Efficieru:y in Hor and Humid ClimQres, Arlington, TX. pp. 68-77. 7. Levins W.P. and Kamitz M.A., 1986, "Cooling Energy Measurements of Unoccupied Single-Family Houses with Attics Containing Radiant Barriers...," ORNLICON-200, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN. 8. Levins W.P. and Kamitz M.A., and Knight D. K., 1986, "Cooling Energy Measurements of Unoccupied Single-Family Houses with Attics Containing Radiant Barriers." Proceedings, Third Annual...

  1. Non-intrusive cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Morrison, Edward F. (Burnt Hills, NY); Bergman, John W. (Barrington, NH)

    2001-05-22

    A readily replaceable heat exchange cooling jacket for applying fluid to a system conduit pipe. The cooling jacket comprises at least two members, separable into upper and lower portions. A chamber is formed between the conduit pipe and cooling jacket once the members are positioned about the pipe. The upper portion includes a fluid spray means positioned above the pipe and the bottom portion includes a fluid removal means. The heat exchange cooling jacket is adaptable with a drain tank, a heat exchanger, a pump and other standard equipment to provide a system for removing heat from a pipe. A method to remove heat from a pipe, includes the steps of enclosing a portion of the pipe with a jacket to form a chamber between an outside surface of the pipe and the cooling jacket; spraying cooling fluid at low pressure from an upper portion of the cooling jacket, allowing the fluid to flow downwardly by gravity along the surface of the pipe toward a bottom portion of the chamber; and removing the fluid at the bottom portion of the chamber.

  2. Furnace with radiant burndown tube

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. Thekdi; K. H. Hemsath; J. G. Conybear; F. J. Vereecke; S. H. Verhoff

    1980-01-01

    Past attempts to capture the heat energy of combustible gases in the furnace chamber involved drastic structural changes in the furnace design; however, the incorporation of a radiant burndown tube that uses the combustible exhaust gas to provide additional heat to the furnace requires neither major structural modifications nor a cumbersome venting system. The tube has three functional ares -

  3. Experiences in solar cooling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D. S.; Oberoi, H. S.

    Six of the nine solar cooling systems discussed in this paper had negative energy savings. In several cases the solar cooling system used substantially more energy than a conventional system could have been expected to use. Two systems, however, had significant energy savings. These systems (1 residential and 1 commercial) obtained system thermal efficiencies of 12.0 to 12.4 percent. Their system overall efficiences averaged 11.2 and 5.2 percent respectively. The residential-sized system achieved an annual energy savings of about 16.8 GJ/year, or approximately .34 GJ/year.m2 of collector. The commercial system had equivalent values of 137 GJ/year or about .22 GJ/year/sq m of collector. It should be noted that these efficiencies re much lower than those of well-designed and properly controlled cooling systems in commercial sizes. However, with realistic system modifications and subsequent improvements in performance these solar cooling systems can be expected to achieve savings in nonrenewable energy sources of approximately 1.2 GJ/year/sq m of collector. These savings can be compared to those associated with solar space and domestic hot water heating systems of 2.2 and 2.5 GJ/year/sq m of collector, respectively.

  4. Experimental Study on Operating Characteristic of the System of Ground Source Heat Pump Combined with Floor Radiant Heating of Capillary Tube

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yunzhun Fu; Cai Yingling; Jing Li; Yeyu Wang

    2009-01-01

    At first, the article presented particularly the working theory of the system of ground source heat pump combined with floor radiant heating of capillary tube, the characteristic of soil layers and the arrangement form of capillary tube mat and the floor structure. And then, the specific experimental method was employed to study the ground heat exchanger performance of three wells

  5. Using Lunar Observations to Validate In-Flight Calibrations of Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, Janet L.; Smith, G. Louis; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The validation of in-orbit instrument performance requires stability in both instrument and calibration source. This paper describes a method of validation using lunar observations scanning near full moon by the Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments. Unlike internal calibrations, the Moon offers an external source whose signal variance is predictable and non-degrading. From 2006 to present, in-orbit observations have become standardized and compiled for the Flight Models-1 and -2 aboard the Terra satellite, for Flight Models-3 and -4 aboard the Aqua satellite, and beginning 2012, for Flight Model-5 aboard Suomi-NPP. Instrument performance parameters which can be gleaned are detector gain, pointing accuracy and static detector point response function validation. Lunar observations are used to examine the stability of all three detectors on each of these instruments from 2006 to present. This validation method has yielded results showing trends per CERES data channel of 1.2% per decade or less.

  6. Solar-powered cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Farmer, Joseph C

    2013-12-24

    A solar-powered adsorption-desorption refrigeration and air conditioning system uses nanostructural materials made of high specific surface area adsorption aerogel as the adsorptive media. Refrigerant molecules are adsorbed on the high surface area of the nanostructural material. A circulation system circulates refrigerant from the nanostructural material to a cooling unit.

  7. Passive cooling safety system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA); Hui, Marvin M. (Sunnyvale, CA); Berglund, Robert C. (Saratoga, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel. The passive cooling system includes a closed primary fluid circuit through the partitions surrounding the reactor vessel and a partially adjoining secondary open fluid circuit for carrying transferred heat out into the atmosphere.

  8. Indirect passive cooling system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

    1990-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel. The passive cooling system includes a closed primary fluid circuit through the partitions surrounding the reactor vessel and a partially adjoining secondary open fluid circuit for carrying transferred heat out into the atmosphere.

  9. Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis of an Experimental Reactor Cavity Cooling System with Air

    SciTech Connect

    Corradin, Michael; Hassan, Yassin; Tokuhiro, Akira

    2014-10-15

    This experimental study investigates the thermal hydraulic behavior and the heat removal performance for a scaled Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) with air. A quarter-scale RCCS facility was designed and built based on a full-scale General Atomics (GA) RCCS design concept for the Modular High Temperature Gas Reactor (MHTGR). The GA RCCS is a passive cooling system that draws in air to use as the cooling fluid to remove heat radiated from the reactor pressure vessel to the air-cooled riser tubes and discharged the heated air into the atmosphere. Scaling laws were used to preserve key aspects and to maintain similarity. The scaled air RCCS facility at UW-Madison is a quarter-scale reduced length experiment housing six riser ducts that represent a 9.5° sector slice of the full-scale GA air RCCS concept. Radiant heaters were used to simulate the heat radiation from the reactor pressure vessel. The maximum power that can be achieved with the radiant heaters is 40 kW with a peak heat flux of 25 kW per meter squared. The quarter-scale RCCS was run under different heat loading cases and operated successfully. Instabilities were observed in some experiments in which one of the two exhaust ducts experienced a flow reversal for a period of time. The data and analysis presented show that the RCCS has promising potential to be a decay heat removal system during an accident scenario.

  10. Lamination cooling system formation method

    DOEpatents

    Rippel, Wally E [Altadena, CA; Kobayashi, Daryl M [Monrovia, CA

    2009-05-12

    An electric motor, transformer or inductor having a cooling system. A stack of laminations have apertures at least partially coincident with apertures of adjacent laminations. The apertures define straight or angled cooling-fluid passageways through the lamination stack. Gaps between the adjacent laminations are sealed by injecting a heat-cured sealant into the passageways, expelling excess sealant, and heat-curing the lamination stack. Manifold members adjoin opposite ends of the lamination stack, and each is configured with one or more cavities to act as a manifold to adjacent passageway ends. Complex manifold arrangements can create bidirectional flow in a variety of patterns.

  11. Lamination cooling system formation method

    SciTech Connect

    Rippel, Wally E. (Altadena, CA); Kobayashi, Daryl M. (Monrovia, CA)

    2012-06-19

    An electric motor, transformer or inductor having a cooling system. A stack of laminations have apertures at least partially coincident with apertures of adjacent laminations. The apertures define straight or angled cooling-fluid passageways through the lamination stack. Gaps between the adjacent laminations are sealed by injecting a heat-cured sealant into the passageways, expelling excess sealant, and heat-curing the lamination stack. Manifold members adjoin opposite ends of the lamination stack, and each is configured with one or more cavities to act as a manifold to adjacent passageway ends. Complex manifold arrangements can create bidirectional flow in a variety of patterns.

  12. Cloud radiative forcing at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility: 2. Vertical redistribution of radiant energy by clouds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald G. Mace; Sally Benson; Seiji Kato

    2006-01-01

    Documentation of the effects of clouds on the radiant energy balance of the surface and atmosphere represents a shortcoming in the set of observations that are needed to ascertain the validity of climate model simulations. While clouds are known to cool the climate system from top of atmosphere (TOA) radiation budget studies, the redistribution of energy between the surface and

  13. Techniques for computing regional radiant emittances of the earth-atmosphere system from observations by wide-angle satellite radiometers, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pina, J. F.; House, F. B.

    1975-01-01

    Radiometers on earth orbiting satellites measure the exchange of radiant energy between the earth-atmosphere (E-A) system and space at observation points in space external to the E-A system. Observations by wideangle, spherical and flat radiometers are analyzed and interpreted with regard to the general problem of the earth energy budget (EEB) and to the problem of determining the energy budget of regions smaller than the field of view (FOV) of these radiometers.

  14. Cooling systems for satellite remote sensing instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, R. J.; Oren, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    The characteristics of a cryogenic cooling system for the Pollution Monitoring Satellite (PMS) are discussed. Studies were conducted to make the following determinations: (1) the characteristics and use of proven and state-of-the-art cryogenic cooling systems for six specified ranges of performance, (2) the system most applicable for each of the six cooling categories, and (3) conceptual designs for candidate system for each of the six representative cooling categories. The six cooling categories of electrical loads are defined. The desired mission life for the cooling system is two years with both continuous and intermittent operating conditions.

  15. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) algorithm theoretical basis document. Volume 1; Overviews (subsystem 0)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator); Barkstrom, Bruce R. (Principal Investigator); Baum, Bryan A.; Cess, Robert D.; Charlock, Thomas P.; Coakley, James A.; Green, Richard N.; Lee, Robert B., III; Minnis, Patrick; Smith, G. Louis

    1995-01-01

    The theoretical bases for the Release 1 algorithms that will be used to process satellite data for investigation of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) are described. The architecture for software implementation of the methodologies is outlined. Volume 1 provides both summarized and detailed overviews of the CERES Release 1 data analysis system. CERES will produce global top-of-the-atmosphere shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere, at the surface, and within the atmosphere by using the combination of a large variety of measurements and models. The CERES processing system includes radiance observations from CERES scanning radiometers, cloud properties derived from coincident satellite imaging radiometers, temperature and humidity fields from meteorological analysis models, and high-temporal-resolution geostationary satellite radiances to account for unobserved times. CERES will provide a continuation of the ERBE record and the lowest error climatology of consistent cloud properties and radiation fields. CERES will also substantially improve our knowledge of the Earth's surface radiation budget.

  16. Heat transfer in slagging MHD radiant boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Im, K.H.; Ahluwalia, R.K.; Berry, G.

    1981-01-01

    A combined convection-radiation model is formulated to study heat-transfer characteristics of slagging MHD radiant boilers. The model includes the contributions of carbon dioxide, water vapor, potassium atoms, and slag particles to gas radiation. The model also accounts for the presence of slag layer on the wall of the radiant boiler. In order to determine the slag layer dynamics, the mechanism of slag-particle deposition by thermophoresis and by fluid turbulence is also investigated. The role of a slag layer in moderating the influence of refractory thickness on heat transfer is illustrated. From the viewpoint of NO/sub x/ decomposition, the calculations indicate that an adequately slow cooling rate of the combustion gas can be realized in the radiant boiler.

  17. Relationship Between the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Measurements and Surface Temperatures of Selected Ocean Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandey, Dhirendra, K.; Lee, Robert B., III; Brown, Shannon B.; Paden, Jack; Spence, Peter L.; Thomas, Susan; Wilson, Robert S.; Al-Hajjah, Aiman

    2001-01-01

    Clear sky longwave radiances and fluxes are compared with the sea surface temperatures for three oceanic regions: Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific. The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) measurements were obtained by the three thermistor bolometers: total channel which measures the radiation arising from the earth-atmosphere system between 0.3 - greater than 100 micrometers; the window channel which measures the radiation from 8-12 micrometers; and the shortwave channel which measures the reflected energy from 0.3 - less than 5.0 micrometers. These instruments have demonstrated measurement precisions of approximately 0.3% on the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) between ground and on-orbit sensor calibrations. In this work we have used eight months of clear sky earth-nadir-view radiance data starting from January 1998 through August 1998. We have found a very strong correlation of 0.97 between the CERES window channel's weekly averaged unfiltered spectral radiance values at satellite altitude (350 km) and the corresponding weekly averaged sea surface temperature (SST) data covering all the oceanic regions. Such correlation can be used in predicting the sea surface temperatures using the present CERES Terra's window channel radiances at satellite altitude very easily.

  18. Cryo Utilities Room Cooling System

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, G.S.; /Fermilab

    1989-01-26

    Many of the mechanical equipment failures at the Laboratory are due to the loss of cooling water. In order to insure the proper operating temperatures and to increase the reliability of the mechanical equipment in the D0 Cryo Utilities Room it is necessary to provide an independent liquid cooling system. To this end, an enclosed glycoVwater cooling system which transfers heat from two vane-type vacuum pumps and an air compressor to the outside air has been installed in the Cryo Utilities Room. From the appended list it can be seen that only the Thermal Precision PFC-121-D and Ingersoll-Rand WAC 16 deserve closer investigation based on price. The disadvantages of the WAC 16 are that: it runs a little warmer, it requires more valving to properly install a backup pump, inlet and outlet piping are not included, and temperature and pressure indicators are not included. Its only advantage is that it is $818 cheaper than the PFC-121-D. The advantages of the PFC-121-D are that: it has automatic pump switching during shutdown, it has a temperature regulator on one fan control, it has a switch which indicates proper operation, has a sight glass on the expansion tank, and comes with an ASME approved expansion tank and relief valve. For these reasons the Thermal Precision PFC-121-D was chosen. In the past, we have always found the pond water to be muddy and to sometimes contain rocks of greater than 1/2 inch diameter. Thus a system completely dependent on the pond water from the accelerator was deemed unacceptable. A closed system was selected based on its ability to greatly improve reliability, while remaining economical. It is charged with a 50/50 glycol/water mixture capable of withstanding outside temperatures down to -33 F. The fluid will be circulated by a totally enclosed air cooled Thermal Precision PFC-121-D pump. The system will be on emergency power and an automatically controlled backup pump, identical to the primary, is available should the main pump fail. The fan unit is used as a primary cooler and the trim cooler cools the fluid further on extremely hot days. The trim cooler has also been sized to cool the system in the event of a total shutdown provided that the pond water supply has adequate pressure. Due to a broken filter, we found it necessary to install a strainer in the pond water supply line. The expansion tank separates air bubbles, ensures a net positive suction head, protects against surges and over pressurization of the system, and allows for the filling of the system without shutting it off. All piping has been installed, flushed, charged with the glycol/water mix, and hydrostatically tested to 55 psi. The condition of all pumps and flow conditions will be recorded at the PLC. It has been decided not to include the regulator valve in the pond water return line. This valve was designated by the manufacturer to reduce the amount of water flowing through the trim cooler. This is not necessary in our application. There is some concern that the cooling fluid may cool the mechanical eqUipment too much when they are not operating or during very cold days. This issue will be addressed and the conclusion appended to this engineering note.

  19. Furnace with radiant burndown tube

    SciTech Connect

    Thekdi, A.C.; Hemsath, K.H.; Conybear, J.G.; Vereecke, F.J.; Verhoff, S.H.

    1980-07-29

    Past attempts to capture the heat energy of combustible gases in the furnace chamber involved drastic structural changes in the furnace design; however, the incorporation of a radiant burndown tube that uses the combustible exhaust gas to provide additional heat to the furnace requires neither major structural modifications nor a cumbersome venting system. The tube has three functional ares - the burner leg, the exhaust leg, and a tube portion located within the furnace chamber. The combustible gas passes through an inlet into the tube, where it is mixed with air and ignited; the combustion products exit via the exhaust leg. A typcial application for this radiant burndown tube is in a carburizing furnace; the endothermic gas that is normally burned off could supply over 250,000 Btu/hr.

  20. Commissioning Lessons from Study of the Advanced Systems at the CMU Intelligent Workplace

    E-print Network

    Claridge, D. E.; Gong, X.

    in a radiantly cooled office with a solid desiccant ventilation unit, and an energy consumption comparison of the sensible heating and cooling systems with a single duct VAV system. This report summarizes the conclusions and observations relevant...

  1. Ground Calibrations of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Spacecraft Thermistor Bolometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Robert B., III; Smith, G. Lou; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Direndra K.; Thornhill, K. Lee; Bolden, William C.; Wilson, Robert S.

    1997-01-01

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) spacecraft scanning thermistor bolometers will measure earth-reflected solar and earth-emmitted,longwave radiances, at the top-of-the-atmosphere. The measurements are performed in the broadband shortwave (0.3-5.0 micron) and longwave (5.0 - >100 micron) spectral regions as well as in the 8 -12 micron water vapor window over geographical footprints as small as 10 kilometers at the nadir. The CERES measurements are designed to improve our knowledge of the earth's natural climate processes, in particular those related to clouds, and man's impact upon climate as indicated by atmospheric temperature. November 1997, the first set of CERES bolometers is scheduled for launch on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Spacecraft. The CERES bolometers were calibrated radiometrically in a vacuum ground facility using absolute reference sources, tied to the International Temperature Scale of 1990. Accurate bolometer calibrations are dependent upon the derivations of the radiances from the spectral properties [reflectance, transmittance, emittance, etc.] of both the sources and bolometers. In this paper, the overall calibration approaches are discussed for the longwave and shortwave calibrations. The spectral responses for the TRMM bolometer units are presented and applied to the bolometer ground calibrations in order to determine pre-launch calibration gains.

  2. Global, Multi-Year Analysis of Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System Terra Observations and Radiative Transfer Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charlock, T. P.; Rose, F. G.; Rutan, D. A.; Coleman, L. H.; Caldwell, T.; Zentz, S.

    2005-01-01

    An extended record of the Terra Surface and Atmosphere Radiation Budget (SARB) computed by CERES (Clouds and Earth s Radiant Energy System) is produced in gridded form, facilitating an investigation of global scale direct aerosol forcing. The new gridded version (dubbed FSW) has a spacing of 1 at the Equator. A companion document (Rutan et al. 2005) focuses on advances to (and validation of) the ungridded, footprint scale calculations (dubbed CRS), primarily in clear-sky conditions. While mainly intended to provide observations of fluxes at the top of atmosphere (TOA), CERES (Wielicki et al. 1996) includes a program to also compute the fluxes at TOA, within the atmosphere and at the surface, and also to validate the results with independent ground based measurements (Charlock and Alberta 1996). ARM surface data has been a focus for this component of CERES. To permit the user to infer cloud forcing and direct aerosol forcing with the computed SARB, CERES includes surface and TOA fluxes that have been computed for cloud-free (clear) and aerosol free (pristine) footprints; this accounts for aerosol effects (SW scattering and absorption, and LW scattering, absorption and emission) to both clear and cloudy skies.

  3. CFD Simulation and Analysis of the Combined Evaporative Cooling and Radiant Ceiling Air-conditioning System 

    E-print Network

    Xiang, H.; Yinming, L.; Junmei, W.

    2006-01-01

    consumption analysis of the building is carried out using the energy consumption code. Velocity and temperature distribution in the air-conditioned zone is computed using CFD. According to the results, the energy consumption and indoor human thermal comfort...

  4. On-orbit solar calibrations using the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) in-flight calibration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Robert S.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Hess, Phillip

    2010-09-01

    The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) scanning thermistor bolometers measure earth-reflected solar and earth-emitted longwaveradiances, at the top- of-the-atmosphere. The bolometers measure the earthradiances in the broadband shortwave solar (0.3-5.0 microns) and total (0.3->100 microns) spectral bands as well as in the 8->12 microns water vapor window spectral band over geographical footprints as small as 10 kilometers at nadir. December 1999, the second and third set of CERES bolometers was launchedon the Earth Observing Mission Terra Spacecraft. May 2003, the fourth and fifth set of bolometers was launched on the Earth Observing Mission Aqua Spacecraft. Ground vacuum calibrations define the initial count conversion coefficients that are used to convert the bolometer output voltages into filtered earth radiances. The mirror attenuator mosaic (MAM), a solar diffuser plate, was built into the CERES instrument package calibration system in order to define in-orbit shifts or drifts in the sensor responses. The shortwave and shortwave part of total sensors are calibrated using the solar radiances reflected from the MAM's. Each MAM consists of baffle-solar diffuser plate systems, which guide incoming solar radiances into the instrument fields of view of the shortwave and total wave sensor units. The MAM diffuser reflecting type surface consists of an array of spherical aluminum mirror segments, which are separated by a Merck Black A absorbing surface, overcoated with SIOx. Thermistors are located in each MAM plate and the total channel baffle. The CERES MAM is designed to yield calibration precisions approaching .5 percent for the total and shortwave detectors. However, in their first year of operation the Terra and Aqua MAMs showed shifts in their calibrations larger than expected. Shifts of this nature have been seen in other Solar viewing instruments in the past. A possible explanation has attributed the changes to pre-orbit or on-orbit contamination combined with solar ultraviolet/atomic oxygen induced chemical changes to the contaminant during solar exposure. In the subsequent year of operation all instruments begin to stabilize within the .5 percent precision range. In this presentation, the MAM solar calibration procedures will be presented along with on-orbit measurements for the nine years the CERES instruments have been on-orbit. A switch to an azimuth rotation raster scan of the Sun rather than an elevation scan will be discussed. The implementation of a thermal correction to the shortwave channel will also be discussed. Comparisons are also made between the Terra CERES instruments and the Aqua instruments during their MAM solar calibrations and total solar irradiance experimental results to determine how precise the CERES solar calibration facilities are at tracking the sun's irradiance.

  5. Performance of a solar desiccant cooling system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. O. G. Lof; G. Cler; T. Brisbane

    1988-01-01

    A solar desiccant cooling system was operated at the Solar Energy Applications Laboratory, Colordado State University, throughout the 1986 summer. The system comprises an American Solar King fresh air heating\\/desiccant evaporative cooling unit, a Sunmaster evacuated tube solar collector, hot water solar storage tank, auxiliary electric boiler, controls, and accessories. The cooling unit is operated in the ventilation mode, fresh

  6. Mining Gold from your Cooling Water System

    E-print Network

    Mendez, T.

    Mining Gold from your Cooling Water System Tino Mendez Director Energy Engineering The Benham Companies, LLC Oklahoma City, Oklahoma ABSTRACT You may be missing on a fabulous opportunity to save on operating costs in your cooling water...

  7. Technical evaluation of a solar heating system having conventional hydronic solar collectors and a radiant panel slab. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, R.J.

    1984-04-01

    A simple innovative solar heating design (Solar Option One) using conventional hydronic solar collectors and a radiant panel slab was constructed. An objective of hybrid solar design is to combine the relative advantages of active and passive design approaches while minimizing their respective disadvantages. A test house using the Solar Option One heating system was experimentally monitored to determine its energy based performance during the 1982-83 heating season. The test residence is located in Lyndonville, Vermont, an area which has a characteristically cold and cloudy climate. The two story residence has a floor area of about 1400 square feet and is constructed on a 720 square foot 5.5 inch thick floor slab. A 24 inch packed gravel bed is located beneath the slab and the slab-gravel bed is insulated by two inches of polystyrene insulation. The test building is of frame construction and uses insulation levels which have become commonplace throughout the country. The structure would not fall into the superinsulated category but was tightly constructed so as to have a low infiltration level. The building is sun-tempered in that windows were concentrated somewhat on the South side and all but avoided on the North. A solar greenhouse on the South side of the building was closed off from the structure permanently throughout the testing so as to better observe the solar heating invention without confounding variables. The monitoring equipment generated an internal gain of about 17,000 BTUs per day, roughly the equivalent of occupancy by two persons. A full description of the experimental testing program is given. System efficiency and performance are reported.

  8. A Study of the Advanced Systems at the CMU Intelligent Workplace with an Evaluation of Potential Applications to Texas A&M International University

    E-print Network

    Claridge, D. E.; Gong, X.; Verdict, M.; Clingenpeel, K.

    in a radiantly cooled office with a solid desiccant ventilation unit, and an energy consumption comparison of the sensible heating and cooling systems with a single duct VAV system. Transferability of the advanced building technologies that are being...

  9. A Study of the Advanced Systems at the CMU Intelligent Workplace with an Evaluation of Potential Applications to Texas A&M International University 

    E-print Network

    Claridge, D. E.; Gong, X.; Verdict, M.; Clingenpeel, K.

    2008-01-01

    in a radiantly cooled office with a solid desiccant ventilation unit, and an energy consumption comparison of the sensible heating and cooling systems with a single duct VAV system. Transferability of the advanced building technologies that are being...

  10. Heat exchanger with auxiliary cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Coleman, John H. (Salem Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

    1980-01-01

    A heat exchanger with an auxiliary cooling system capable of cooling a nuclear reactor should the normal cooling mechanism become inoperable. A cooling coil is disposed around vertical heat transfer tubes that carry secondary coolant therethrough and is located in a downward flow of primary coolant that passes in heat transfer relationship with both the cooling coil and the vertical heat transfer tubes. A third coolant is pumped through the cooling coil which absorbs heat from the primary coolant which increases the downward flow of the primary coolant thereby increasing the natural circulation of the primary coolant through the nuclear reactor.

  11. Spectral Characterizations of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Thermistor Bolometers using Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornhill, K. Lee; Bitting, Herbert; Lee, Robert B., III; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Wilson, Robert S.

    1998-01-01

    Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) techniques are being used to characterize the relative spectral response, or sensitivity, of scanning thermistor bolometers in the infrared (IR) region (2 - >= 100-micrometers). The bolometers are being used in the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) program. The CERES measurements are designed to provide precise, long term monitoring of the Earth's atmospheric radiation energy budget. The CERES instrument houses three bolometric radiometers, a total wavelength (0.3- >= 150-micrometers) sensor, a shortwave (0.3-5-micrometers) sensor, and an atmospheric window (8-12-micrometers) sensor. Accurate spectral characterization is necessary for determining filtered radiances for longwave radiometric calibrations. The CERES bolometers spectral response's are measured in the TRW FTS Vacuum Chamber Facility (FTS - VCF), which uses a FTS as the source and a cavity pyroelectric trap detector as the reference. The CERES bolometers and the cavity detector are contained in a vacuum chamber, while the FTS source is housed in a GN2 purged chamber. Due to the thermal time constant of the CERES bolometers, the FTS must be operated in a step mode. Data are acquired in 6 IR spectral bands covering the entire longwave IR region. In this paper, the TRW spectral calibration facility design and data measurement techniques are described. Two approaches are presented which convert the total channel FTS data into the final CERES spectral characterizations, producing the same calibration coefficients (within 0.1 percent). The resulting spectral response curves are shown, along with error sources in the two procedures. Finally, the impact of each spectral response curve on CERES data validation will be examined through analysis of filtered radiance values from various typical scene types.

  12. Modeling and performance of the MHTGR (Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor) reactor cavity cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Conklin, J.C. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-04-01

    The Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) of the Modular High- Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) proposed by the U.S. Department of Energy is designed to remove the nuclear afterheat passively in the event that neither the heat transport system nor the shutdown cooling circulator subsystem is available. A computer dynamic simulation for the physical and mathematical modeling of and RCCS is described here. Two conclusions can be made form computations performed under the assumption of a uniform reactor vessel temperature. First, the heat transferred across the annulus from the reactor vessel and then to ambient conditions is very dependent on the surface emissivities of the reactor vessel and RCCS panels. These emissivities should be periodically checked to ensure the safety function of the RCCS. Second, the heat transfer from the reactor vessel is reduced by a maximum of 10% by the presence of steam at 1 atm in the reactor cavity annulus for an assumed constant in the transmission of radiant energy across the annulus can be expected to result in an increase in the reactor vessel temperature for the MHTGR. Further investigation of participating radiation media, including small particles, in the reactor cavity annulus is warranted. 26 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Practical solar energy heating and cooling system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. ONeill; A. J. McDanal; W. H. Sims

    1973-01-01

    A practical solar energy heating and cooling system technically and economically feasible for residential application, according to a NASA study by Lockheed Missiles and Space Co., would include a flat-plate solar collector, a thermal energy storage system, an absorption-cycle heat pump for both heating and cooling, and a hot water system that uses heat from the thermal energy storage system.

  14. A new cylinder cooling system using oil

    SciTech Connect

    Harashina, Kenichi; Murata, Katsuhiro; Satoh, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Yasuo; Hamamura, Masahiro

    1995-12-31

    The design of engine cylinders must satisfy two conflicting requirements, good cooling performance and ease of manufacture. A cooling system was designed to permit the circulation of engine lubricating oil as a coolant at high speed through grooves provided on the external periphery of the cylinder liner. Testing in an actual operating engine confirmed that this cooling system design not only provides better heat transfer and higher cooling performance but also simplifies the manufacturing of the cylinder since external cooling fins are not required. In this paper, the authors will discuss the cylinder cooling effect of the new cylinder cooling system, referring mainly to the test results of a single-cylinder motorcycle engine with lubricating oil from the crankcase used as the coolant.

  15. Internal convective cooling systems for hypersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anthony, F. M.; Dukes, W. H.; Helenbrook, R. G.

    1975-01-01

    Parametric studies were conducted to investigate the relative merits of construction materials, coolants, and cooled panel concepts for internal convective cooling systems applied to airframe structures of hydrogen-fueled hypersonic aircraft. These parametric studies were then used as a means of comparing various cooled structural arrangements for a hypersonic transport and a hypersonic research airplane. The cooled airplane studies emphasized weight aspects as related to the choice of materials, structural arrangements, structural temperatures, and matching of the cooling system heat load to the available hydrogen fuel-flow heat sink. Consideration was given to reliability and to fatigue and fracture aspects, as well. Even when auxiliary thermal protection system items such as heat shielding, insulation, and excess hydrogen for cooling are considered the more attractive actively cooled airframe concepts indicated potential payload increases of from 40 percent to over 100 percent for the hypersonic transport as compared to the results of previous studies of the same vehicle configuration with an uncooled airframe.

  16. Reactor core isolation cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, F.E.

    1992-12-08

    A reactor core isolation cooling system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core, a drywell vessel, a containment vessel, and an isolation pool containing an isolation condenser. A turbine is operatively joined to the pressure vessel outlet steamline and powers a pump operatively joined to the pressure vessel feedwater line. In operation, steam from the pressure vessel powers the turbine which in turn powers the pump to pump makeup water from a pool to the feedwater line into the pressure vessel for maintaining water level over the reactor core. Steam discharged from the turbine is channeled to the isolation condenser and is condensed therein. The resulting heat is discharged into the isolation pool and vented to the atmosphere outside the containment vessel for removing heat therefrom. 1 figure.

  17. Emergency cooling system and method

    DOEpatents

    Oosterkamp, W.J.; Cheung, Y.K.

    1994-01-04

    An improved emergency cooling system and method are disclosed that may be adapted for incorporation into or use with a nuclear BWR wherein a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) containing a nuclear core and a heat transfer fluid for circulation in a heat transfer relationship with the core is housed within an annular sealed drywell and is fluid communicable therewith for passage thereto in an emergency situation the heat transfer fluid in a gaseous phase and any noncondensibles present in the RPV, an annular sealed wetwell houses the drywell, and a pressure suppression pool of liquid is disposed in the wetwell and is connected to the drywell by submerged vents. The improved emergency cooling system and method has a containment condenser for receiving condensible heat transfer fluid in a gaseous phase and noncondensibles for condensing at least a portion of the heat transfer fluid. The containment condenser has an inlet in fluid communication with the drywell for receiving heat transfer fluid and noncondensibles, a first outlet in fluid communication with the RPV for the return to the RPV of the condensed portion of the heat transfer fluid and a second outlet in fluid communication with the drywell for passage of the noncondensed balance of the heat transfer fluid and the noncondensibles. The noncondensed balance of the heat transfer fluid and the noncondensibles passed to the drywell from the containment condenser are mixed with the heat transfer fluid and the noncondensibles from the RPV for passage into the containment condenser. A water pool is provided in heat transfer relationship with the containment condenser and is thermally communicable in an emergency situation with an environment outside of the drywell and the wetwell for conducting heat transferred from the containment condenser away from the wetwell and the drywell. 5 figs.

  18. Dynamic Thermal Modeling of a Radiant Panels System and its Environment for Commissioning: Application to Case Study 

    E-print Network

    Diaz, N. F.; Bertagnolio, S.; Andre, P.

    2009-01-01

    ceiling performance. It was found that even if the radiant ceiling is operating according to the manufacturer data, the comfort of the occupants is not always reached. Due to the extended glazing surface of the building, overheating is noticed... in capillary tube mats installed on top of perforated metal panels with upward insulation. The internal walls are made in security glazing and isolated metallic panels. The floor and ceiling slab are made in 130 mm concrete layer. The floor is composed...

  19. Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor plant system

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

    1993-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting for fuel decay during reactor shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. The reactor system is enhanced with sealing means for excluding external air from contact with the liquid metal coolant leaking from the reactor vessel during an accident. The invention also includes a silo structure which resists attack by leaking liquid metal coolant, and an added unique cooling means.

  20. Radiant Barrier Performance during the Heating Season 

    E-print Network

    Medina, M. A.; O'Neal, D. L.; Turner, W. D.

    1992-01-01

    Radiant Barrier Perfonnance during the Heating Season Mario A. Medina, Dennis L. O'Neal Ph.D., and W. Dan Turner Ph.D. Energy Systems Laboratory Texas Engineering Experiment Station Texas A&M University System College Station, Texas...

  1. Atmospheric impacts of evaporative cooling systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1976-01-01

    The report summarizes available information on the effects of various power plant cooling systems on the atmosphere. While evaporative cooling systems sharply reduce the biological impacts of thermal discharges in water bodies, they create (at least, for heat-release rates comparable to those of two-unit nuclear generating stations) atmospheric changes. For an isolated site such as required for a nuclear power

  2. Feasibility of cool storage systems in refrigeration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmahgary, Yehia; Kekkonen, Veikko; Laitinen, Ari; Pihala, Hannu

    1989-05-01

    In the present report, the economic viability and technical feasibility of selected cool storage systems are considered. Cool storage has clear potential for several applications: in connection with air-conditioning systems, domestic refrigerating and freezing systems; commercially e.g., in the dairy and vegetable industries; and in deep freezing, as in the meat industry. Air-conditioning has limited significance in Finland. For this reason it was not investigated in this study. In domestic refrigeration and freezing two systems were investigated; a controlled cooling/heating system and a simple built-in system in individual refrigerators and freezers. The central cooling/heating system in houses was found to be economically unattractive. It also has several technical drawbacks. The simple built-in system appeared to be promising. The amount of savings is rationally a function of the difference between day and night tariffs and the costs of installing an automatic switch and storage media. In the vegetable and dairy industries cool storage also has considerable potential. Several systems were investigated in this respect and compared to the conventional system. The cool storage system using Cristopia balls, one of the most common commercial systems available in Europe, was not economical at a tariff difference of 10 p/k Wh or more. Cool storage for freezing in meat plants was also investigated.

  3. Project Radiant Outlaw

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chyau N. Shen; Bruce Waeber; Lesley Girata; Alex Lovett

    1994-01-01

    In 1992, the U.S. Navy initiated Project Radiant Outlaw, an advanced technology demonstration (ATD) project to demonstrate long range non-cooperative identification (NCID) of airborne and surface targets. The concept utilizes a ruggedized, compact airborne sensor package containing a stable laser radar (LADAR) operating in low probability of intercept mode and a shared aperture starring focal plane array mid-wave (3.8 to

  4. Project Radiant Outlaw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Chyau N.; Waeber, Bruce; Girata, Lesley; Lovett, Alex R.

    1994-10-01

    In 1992, the U.S. Navy initiated Project Radiant Outlaw, an advanced technology demonstration (ATD) project to demonstrate long range non-cooperative identification (NCID) of airborne and surface targets. The concept utilizes a ruggedized, compact airborne sensor package containing a stable laser radar (LADAR) operating in low probability of intercept mode and a shared aperture starring focal plane array mid-wave (3.8 to 4.5 micrometers ) infrared sensor. This sensor package is capable of multiple modes of identification. The processor utilizes adaptive ASW (anti-submarine warfare) acoustic processor technology developed by the Navy. The radiant outlaw sensor package, along with its processor, is capable of various methods of identification as follows: (1) target skin vibration or (mu) -Doppler signature, (2) range profiling, (3) high resolution infrared, and (4) pixel registered passive infrared and active 3-D LADAR imaging. This paper describes the radiant outlaw concept along with its various modes of identification. The risks associated with long range NCID demonstration are discussed and the risk reduction program described. Accomplishments to date including the aspect independent automatic target recognition (ATR) demonstration are described. Finally, various concepts for transition are discussed.

  5. Forward-scatter radiant mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, James; Webster, A. R.

    1992-01-01

    Forward-scatter systems have been much neglected for the study of meteors and meteor streams. A great deal of this neglect stems from the complicated geometry which has made the interpretation of results difficult in the past. This no longer presents a problem because of the computer power now available. There are practical advantages in using forward-scatter in that low-power transmitters are much easier to handle than the high-power ones used in pulsed back-scatter radars. The data reduction of the CW signals is also significantly simpler. Because the forward-scatter reflection geometry increases the duration of the echoes relative to the back-scatter case, the problem of the underdense ceiling is partially alleviated. We have built a 'short hop' forward-scatter system between Ottawa and London (Ont) for which the transmitter and receiver are separated by about 500 km. With it, we are able to measure unambiguously the directions of arrival of the echoes using a 5-antenna interferometer. Morton and Jones (1982, MN, 198, 737) have shown how the echo direction distribution can be deconvolved to yield the meteor radiant distribution for back-scatter data. We have extended the technique to the forward-scatter case and present some preliminary meteor radiant distribution maps.

  6. Hot gas path component cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Bunker, Ronald Scott; Itzel, Gary Michael

    2014-02-18

    A cooling system for a hot gas path component is disclosed. The cooling system may include a component layer and a cover layer. The component layer may include a first inner surface and a second outer surface. The second outer surface may define a plurality of channels. The component layer may further define a plurality of passages extending generally between the first inner surface and the second outer surface. Each of the plurality of channels may be fluidly connected to at least one of the plurality of passages. The cover layer may be situated adjacent the second outer surface of the component layer. The plurality of passages may be configured to flow a cooling medium to the plurality of channels and provide impingement cooling to the cover layer. The plurality of channels may be configured to flow cooling medium therethrough, cooling the cover layer.

  7. Emittance and absorptance of NASA ceramic thermal barrier coating system. [for turbine cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, C. H.

    1978-01-01

    Spectral emittance measurements were made on a two-layer ceramic thermal barrier coating system consisting of a metal substrate, a NiCrAly bond coating and a yttria-stabilized zirconia ceramic coating. Spectral emittance data were obtained for the coating system at temperatures of 300 to 1590 K, ceramic thickness of zero to 0.076 centimeter, and wavelengths of 0.4 to 14.6 micrometers. The data were transformed into total hemispherical emittance values and correlated with respect to ceramic coating thickness and temperature using multiple regression curve fitting techniques. The results show that the ceramic thermal barrier coating system is highly reflective and significantly reduces radiation heat loads on cooled gas turbine engine components. Calculation of the radiant heat transfer within the nonisothermal, translucent ceramic coating material shows that the gas-side ceramic coating surface temperature can be used in heat transfer analysis of radiation heat loads on the coating system.

  8. COOL ROOF COATINGS INCORPORATING GLASS HOLLOW MICROSPHERES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solar Gain is in part responsible for up to 56% of energy consumed by cooling systems in residential buildings. By reflecting and scattering radiant energy from the sun, the surface temperature of exterior walls and roofs can be greatly reduced. Previous studies have indicated...

  9. Biomedical Application of Aerospace Personal Cooling Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Yu-Tsuan E.; Lee, Hank C.; Montgomery, Leslie D.; Webbon, Bruce W.; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Personal thermoregulatory systems which are used by astronauts to alleviate thermal stress during extravehicular activity have been applied to the therapeutic management of multiple sclerosis. However, little information is available regarding the physiologic and circulatory changes produced by routine operation of these systems. The objectives of this study were to compare the effectiveness of two passive and two active cooling vests and to measure the body temperature and circulatory changes produced by each cooling vest configuration. The MicroClimate Systems and the Life Enhancement Tech(LET) lightweight liquid cooling vests, the Steele Vest and LET's Zipper Front Garment were used to cool the chest region of 10 male and female subjects (25 to 55 yr.) in this study. Calf, forearm and finger blood flows were measured using a tetrapolar impedance rheograph. The subjects, seated in an upright position at normal room temperature (approx.22C), were tested for 60 min. with the cooling system operated at its maximum cooling capacity. Blood flows were recorded continuously using a computer data acquisition system with a sampling frequency of 250 Hz. Oral, right and left ear temperatures and cooling system parameters were logged manually every 5 min. Arm, leg, chest and rectal temperatures; heart rate; respiration; and an activity index were recorded continuously on a U.F.I., Inc. Biolog ambulatory monitor. In general, the male and female subjects' oral and ear temperature responses to cooling were similar for all vest configurations tested. Oral temperatures during the recovery period were significantly (P<0.05) lower than during the control period, approx. 0.2 - 0.5C, for both men and women wearing any of the four different garments. The corresponding ear temperatures were significantly (P<0.05) decreased approx.0.2 - 0.4C by the end of the recovery period. Compared to the control period, no significant differences were found in rectal temperatures during cooling and recovery periods.

  10. Passive cooling system for top entry liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA); Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Hui, Marvin M. (Cupertino, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear fission reactor plant having a top entry loop joined satellite assembly with a passive auxiliary safety cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. This satellite type reactor plant is enhanced by a backup or secondary passive safety cooling system which augments the primary passive auxiliary cooling system when in operation, and replaces the primary cooling system when rendered inoperative.

  11. Vented Cavity Radiant Barrier Assembly And Method

    DOEpatents

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L. (Piedmont, CA); Jackaway, Adam D. (Berkeley, CA)

    2000-05-16

    A vented cavity radiant barrier assembly (2) includes a barrier (12), typically a PV module, having inner and outer surfaces (18, 22). A support assembly (14) is secured to the barrier and extends inwardly from the inner surface of the barrier to a building surface (14) creating a vented cavity (24) between the building surface and the barrier inner surface. A low emissivity element (20) is mounted at or between the building surface and the barrier inner surface. At least part of the cavity exit (30) is higher than the cavity entrance (28) to promote cooling air flow through the cavity.

  12. Study on a mean radiant temperature measure tool based on an almost spherical array of radiometric sensors.

    PubMed

    Fontana, L

    2012-11-01

    Mean radiant temperature has significant influence on indoor thermal comfort conditions. It has gained greater importance with the wider application of heating and cooling systems based on the use of large surfaces with a temperature slightly higher or lower than the indoor temperature (hot/cold floors or ceilings), because these systems operate through the radiant temperature control. The most used tool to measure radiant temperature, the globe thermometer, still has large margins of error, most of all due to the uncertainty in the evaluation of the convection heat exchanges between the globe surface and the indoor air. The feasibility of a device to measure mean radiant temperature in indoor condition, alternative to the globe-thermometer (obtained placing radiometric sensors (thermopiles) on the sides of different geometric regular solids), is proposed. The behavior has been investigated for different regular solids, such as the residual error and its dependence on walls average temperature, non-uniformity magnitude, orientation and position of the solid in the enclosure, room shape, non-uniformity temperature distribution. Icosahedron shape shows an excellent behavior, with errors lower than 0.1 K in all the examined conditions. PMID:23206088

  13. Residential solar-heating/cooling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Report documents progress of residential solar-heating and cooling system development program at 5-month mark of anticipated 17-month program. System design has been completed, and development and component testing has been initiated. Report includes diagrams, operation overview, optimization studies of subcomponents, and marketing plans for system.

  14. Prototype solar heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A collection of monthly status reports are given on the development of eight prototype solar heating and cooling systems. This effort calls for the development, manufacturing, test, system installation, maintenance, problem resolution, and performance evaluation. The systems are 3-, 25-, and 75-ton size units.

  15. Dual-purpose chamber-cooling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraze, R. E.

    1968-01-01

    Inexpensive, portable system was designed for cooling small environmental test chambers with a temperature-controlled gas stream evaporated from a cryogenic liquid. The system reduces the temperature of a chamber to any desired point in a fraction of the time required by previous systems.

  16. S'COOL Teacher Bookmark

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This bookmark provides basic information about the importance of ground truth measurements for investigative science and the formation of clouds. It also provides information about an opportunity for students to participate in a real-time collaborative scientific experiment with NASA scientists: the Student Cloud Observations On Line (S'COOL) project. S'COOL is a component of NASA's Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project. S'COOL project participants make ground truth measurements for the CERES experiment. Ground truth measurements are land-based observations to compare with satellite data for the purpose of improving the satellite results.

  17. Evaluation of three commercial microclimate cooling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadarette, Bruce S.; Decristofano, Barry S.; Speckman, Karen N.; Sawka, Michael N.

    1988-11-01

    Three commercially available microclimate cooling systems were evaluated for their ability to reduce heat stress in men exercising in a hot environment while wearing high insulative, low permeability clothing. The cooling systems were: (1) ILC Dover Model 19 Coolvest (ILC) (2) LSSI Coolhead(LSSI), and (3) Thermacor Cooling vest (THERM). Endurance Time (ET), Heart Rate (HR), rectal temperature (Tre), mean skin temperature (TSK), Sweating Rate (SR), Rated Perceived Exertion (RPE) and Thermal Sensation (TS) were measured. The subjects self-terminated on all LSSI tests because of headaches. Statistical analyses were performed on data collected at 60 minutes to have values on all subjects. There were no differences in HR, Tre, SR or TS values among the cooling vests. The subjects' TSK was lower (P less than 0.05) for the LSSI than THERM: and RPE values were higher (P less than 0.05) for LSSI than the other two vests. These data suggest an improved physiological response to exercise heat stress with all three commercial systems with the greatest benefit in performance time provided by the ILC cooling system.

  18. Passive Cooling System for a Vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, T. J.; Thoensen, T.

    2005-11-15

    A passive cooling system for a vehicle (114) transfers heat from an overheated internal component, for example, an instrument panel (100), to an external portion (116) of the vehicle (114), for example, a side body panel (126). The passive cooling system includes one or more heat pipes (112) having an evaporator section (118) embedded in the overheated internal component and a condenser section (120) at the external portion (116) of the vehicle (114). The evaporator (118) and condenser (120) sections are in fluid communication. The passive cooling system may also include a thermally conductive film (140) for thermally connecting the evaporator sections (118) of the heat pipes (112) to each other and to the instrument panel (100).

  19. Passive cooling system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors with backup coolant flow path

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

    1993-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear fission reactor plant having a passive auxiliary safety cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. This reactor plant is enhanced by a backup or secondary passive safety cooling system which augments the primary passive auxiliary cooling system when in operation, and replaces the primary system when rendered inoperable.

  20. Process Cooling Pumping Systems Analysis

    E-print Network

    Sherman, C.

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of the mill water pumping systems at a North American manufacturing facility was conducted late las year and the following issues were observed: 1. Overpumping – Both systems were overpumped to a significant degree against...

  1. Topic 14. Retrofit and optimal operation of the building energy systems Performances of Low Temperature Radiant Heating Systems

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    costs, and uses boiler of the lowest power. The worst system by all these parameters is the classical of new calculation methods. However, in terms of heat transfer modelling, there are several analytical studies on thermal characteristics of panel systems. The earliest model by Kollmar and Liese (1957) showed

  2. Radiant panel perimeter heating options: Effectiveness and thermal comfort

    SciTech Connect

    Freestone, M.D.; Worek, W.M. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1996-11-01

    Analysis of perimeter heating in a room by a radiant ceiling panel supplementing a central air-heating system is performed numerically. Located above the window in a suspended ceiling, the heated panel thermally affects both the room and the plenum above the panel. In multistory office buildings the thermal comfort of a room is influenced not only by the outdoor temperature and the radiant panel within the room but also by the enclosures above and beneath the room. Thermal comfort and energy efficiency in the room were investigated as functions of various parameters, including (1) effect of insulation, or lack of it, on top (plenum side) of the radiant panel; (2) effect of adding a partition in the plenum to determine if the heat lost form the top of the panel can be directed to the floor located directly above the panel; and (3) radiant panel surface temperature.

  3. Helium 2 cooling systems for long term missions in space: phase separation and hybrid cooling systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Klipping; I. Klipping; U. Schmidtchen

    1980-01-01

    The suitability of helium 2 (superfluid helium) phase separation and hybrid cooling systems for astronomical and aeronomical observations in space, e.g., infrared radiation, was studied. The different aspects of phase separation under conditions of weightlessness are treated and the active phase separator for a liquid helium cooled infrared observatory for Spacelab, German Infrared Laboratory (GIRL) is described. For long-term (more

  4. Process Cooling Pumping Systems Analysis 

    E-print Network

    Sherman, C.

    2008-01-01

    rejection while operating three pumps each. 2. Check Valve induced Pump Failure – While attempting to take readings, both systems exhibited check valve failure to hold. This failure causes significant short-circuiting of water to the cold well, causing...

  5. Method for passive cooling liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors, and system thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Busboom, Herbert J. (San Jose, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel.

  6. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document. Volume 3; Cloud Analyses and Determination of Improved Top of Atmosphere Fluxes (Subsystem 4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The theoretical bases for the Release 1 algorithms that will be used to process satellite data for investigation of the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) are described. The architecture for software implementation of the methodologies is outlined. Volume 3 details the advanced CERES methods for performing scene identification and inverting each CERES scanner radiance to a top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) flux. CERES determines cloud fraction, height, phase, effective particle size, layering, and thickness from high-resolution, multispectral imager data. CERES derives cloud properties for each pixel of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) visible and infrared scanner and the Earth Observing System (EOS) moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer. Cloud properties for each imager pixel are convolved with the CERES footprint point spread function to produce average cloud properties for each CERES scanner radiance. The mean cloud properties are used to determine an angular distribution model (ADM) to convert each CERES radiance to a TOA flux. The TOA fluxes are used in simple parameterization to derive surface radiative fluxes. This state-of-the-art cloud-radiation product will be used to substantially improve our understanding of the complex relationship between clouds and the radiation budget of the Earth-atmosphere system.

  7. Narcissus analysis for cooled staring IR system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Feng-Yun; Cui, Ji-Cheng; Feng, Shu-Long; Zhang, Xin

    2007-12-01

    Narcissus can have a deleterious effect on image quality for cooled infrared imaging systems. Therefore, analysis of narcissus is important for designing both scanning and staring optics. Narcissus is generally assumed to be negligible in staring IR optical designs because the shading effects can be removed by calibration of the detector array data. However, the calibration usually decreases sensitiveness of the system and Narcissus variation may be noticeable for sensors when the conditions changes as follows: 1. warming and cooling the optical housing, 2. zooming optical elements, 3. movement of lenses for focus. In that case, it will result in shading and other image defects even after calibration. To minimize these effects, narcissus should be assessed and controlled during the design of staring array IR system. We provided a direct and fast method for analyzing the narcissus variation in the presence of software such as LightTools, TracePro and ASAP, and proposed the principles in optical design of staring IR systems to reduce narcissus. A cooled staring IR system with serious narcissus was estimated and reoptimized. Narcissus analysis of this IR system confirmed the efficiency of the analysis method.

  8. Solar Assisted Adsorptive Desiccant Cooling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohkura, Masashi; Kodama, Akio

    Solar assisted desiccant coo1ing process is an effective means to reduce a latent heat load of the ventilation air. This paper describes the influences of ambient humidity and sensible heat factor (SHF) of the indoor room on the performance and scale of the desiccant cooling system. Two process configurations termed “ambient air mode” and “mixed air mode” were assumed. At “ambient air mode”, only ambient air is dehumidified and cooled in the desiccant process. The dehumidified air stream is mixed with return air and further cooled in the cooling coil. At “mixed air mode”, ambient air is mixed with return air and this mixed air stream is dehumidified in the desiccant process and cooled at the cooling coil. At “ambient air mode”, ambient air humidity had a significant impact on required amount of dehumidification since humid ambient air entered the desiccant process directly. In this case, higher temperature level and quantity, which is impossible to be supplied from commonly commercialized flat panel solar collectors, was required. At “mixed air mode”, the influence of increase of ambient humidity was not significant since humidity of the air entering the desiccant process became low by mixing with return air. At this mode, it was expected that 70°C of the circulating water and 37m2 of surface area of solar collector could produce a sufficient dehumidifying performance even in high latent heat condition. The contributing ratio of the desiccant wheel was also estimated. The ratio increased in higher latent heat condition due to increase of required amount of dehumidification. The contributing ratio of the thermal wheel became lower due to increase of saturated air temperature in the evaporative cooler.

  9. Coloration Determination of Spectral Darkening Occurring on a Broadband Earth Observing Radiometer: Application to Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Grant; Priestley, Kory; Loeb, Norman G.; Loukachine, Konstantin; Thomas, Susan; Walikainen, Dale; Wielicki, Bruce A.

    2006-01-01

    It is estimated that in order to best detect real changes in the Earth s climate system, space based instrumentation measuring the Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) must remain calibrated with a stability of 0.3% per decade. Such stability is beyond the specified accuracy of existing ERB programs such as the Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES, using three broadband radiometric scanning channels: the shortwave 0.3 - 5microns, total 0.3. > 100microns, and window 8 - 12microns). It has been shown that when in low earth orbit, optical response to blue/UV radiance can be reduced significantly due to UV hardened contaminants deposited on the surface of the optics. Since typical onboard calibration lamps do not emit sufficient energy in the blue/UV region, this darkening is not directly measurable using standard internal calibration techniques. This paper describes a study using a model of contaminant deposition and darkening, in conjunction with in-flight vicarious calibration techniques, to derive the spectral shape of darkening to which a broadband instrument is subjected. Ultimately the model uses the reflectivity of Deep Convective Clouds as a stability metric. The results of the model when applied to the CERES instruments on board the EOS Terra satellite are shown. Given comprehensive validation of the model, these results will allow the CERES spectral responses to be updated accordingly prior to any forthcoming data release in an attempt to reach the optimum stability target that the climate community requires.

  10. Preliminary design package for solar heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Summarized preliminary design information on activities associated with the development, delivery and support of solar heating and cooling systems is given. These systems are for single family dwellings and commercial applications. The heating/cooling system use a reversible vapor compression heat pump that is driven in the cooling mode by a Rankine power loop, and in the heating mode by a variable speed electric motor. The heating/cooling systems differ from the heating-only systems in the arrangement of the heat pump subsystem and the addition of a cooling tower to provide the heat sink for cooling mode operation.

  11. Low pressure cooling seal system for a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Marra, John J

    2014-04-01

    A low pressure cooling system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids at low pressure, such as at ambient pressure, through at least one cooling fluid supply channel and into a cooling fluid mixing chamber positioned immediately downstream from a row of turbine blades extending radially outward from a rotor assembly to prevent ingestion of hot gases into internal aspects of the rotor assembly. The low pressure cooling system may also include at least one bleed channel that may extend through the rotor assembly and exhaust cooling fluids into the cooling fluid mixing chamber to seal a gap between rotational turbine blades and a downstream, stationary turbine component. Use of ambient pressure cooling fluids by the low pressure cooling system results in tremendous efficiencies by eliminating the need for pressurized cooling fluids for sealing this gap.

  12. OPTIMIZATION OF DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS FOR LARGE DRY COOLING SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents a methodology for optimizing design specifications of large, mechanical-draft, dry cooling systems. A multivariate, nonlinear, constrained optimization technique searches for the combination of design variables to determine the cooling system with the lowest a...

  13. Evaluation of a Direct Evaporative Roof-Spray Cooling System

    E-print Network

    Carrasco, A.; Pittard, R.; Kondepudi, S. N.; Somasundaram, S.

    1987-01-01

    EVALUATION OF A DIRECT EVAPORATIVE ROOF-SPRAY COOLING SYSTEM Carrasco, A., Pittard, R., Kondepudi, S. N., and Somasundaram, S. Mechanical Engineering Department, Texas A&M University, College Station. ABSTRACT Roof-Spray cooling systems...

  14. Survey and Alignment of the Fermilab Electron Cooling System

    SciTech Connect

    Oshinowo, Babatunde O'Sheg; Leibfritz, Jerry

    2006-09-01

    The goal of achieving the Tevatron luminosity of 3 x 10{sup 32} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} requires Electron Cooling in the Recycler Ring to provide an increased flux of antiprotons. The Fermilab Electron Cooling system has been designed to assist accumulation of antiprotons for the Tevatron collider operations. The installation along with the survey and alignment of the Electron Cooling system in the Recycler Ring were completed in November 2004. The Electron Cooling system was fully commissioned in May 2005 and the first cooling of antiprotons was achieved in July 2005. This paper discusses the alignment methodology employed to survey and align the Electron Cooling system.

  15. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) algorithm theoretical basis document. volume 2; Geolocation, calibration, and ERBE-like analyses (subsystems 1-3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, B. A. (Principal Investigator); Barkstrom, B. R. (Principal Investigator); Charlock, T. P.; Baum, B. A.; Green, R. N.; Minnis, P.; Smith, G. L.; Coakley, J. A.; Randall, D. R.; Lee, R. B., III

    1995-01-01

    The theoretical bases for the Release 1 algorithms that will be used to process satellite data for investigation of the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) are described. The architecture for software implementation of the methodologies is outlined. Volume 2 details the techniques used to geolocate and calibrate the CERES scanning radiometer measurements of shortwave and longwave radiance to invert the radiances to top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) and surface fluxes following the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) approach, and to average the fluxes over various time and spatial scales to produce an ERBE-like product. Spacecraft ephemeris and sensor telemetry are used with calibration coefficients to produce a chronologically ordered data product called bidirectional scan (BDS) radiances. A spatially organized instrument Earth scan product is developed for the cloud-processing subsystem. The ERBE-like inversion subsystem converts BDS radiances to unfiltered instantaneous TOA and surface fluxes. The TOA fluxes are determined by using established ERBE techniques. Hourly TOA fluxes are computed from the instantaneous values by using ERBE methods. Hourly surface fluxes are estimated from TOA fluxes by using simple parameterizations based on recent research. The averaging process produces daily, monthly-hourly, and monthly means of TOA and surface fluxes at various scales. This product provides a continuation of the ERBE record.

  16. Cooling system for high speed aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawing, P. L.; Pagel, L. L. (inventors)

    1981-01-01

    The system eliminates the necessity of shielding an aircraft airframe constructed of material such as aluminum. Cooling is accomplished by passing a coolant through the aircraft airframe, the coolant acting as a carrier to remove heat from the airframe. The coolant is circulated through a heat pump and a heat exchanger which together extract essentially all of the added heat from the coolant. The heat is transferred to the aircraft fuel system via the heat exchanger and the heat pump. The heat extracted from the coolant is utilized to power the heat pump. The heat pump has associated therewith power turbine mechanism which is also driven by the extracted heat. The power turbines are utilized to drive various aircraft subsystems, the compressor of the heat pump, and provide engine cooling.

  17. Hybrid optomechanical cooling by atomic ? systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bariani, F.; Singh, S.; Buchmann, L. F.; Vengalattore, M.; Meystre, P.

    2014-09-01

    We investigate a hybrid quantum system consisting of a cavity optomechanical device optically coupled to an ultracold quantum gas. We show that the dispersive properties of the ultracold gas can be used to dramatically modify the optomechanical response of the mechanical resonator. We examine hybrid schemes wherein the mechanical resonator is coupled either to the motional or the spin degrees of freedom of the ultracold gas. In either case, we find an enhancement of more than two orders of magnitude in optomechanical cooling due to this hybrid interaction. Significantly, based on demonstrated parameters for the cavity optomechanical device, we identify regimes that enable the ground-state cooling of the resonator from room temperature. In addition, the hybrid system considered here represents a powerful interface for the use of an ultracold quantum gas for state preparation, sensing, and quantum manipulation of a mesoscopic mechanical resonator.

  18. Hybrid optomechanical cooling by atomic $\\Lambda$ systems

    E-print Network

    Bariani, F; Buchmann, L F; Vengalattore, M; Meystre, P

    2014-01-01

    We investigate a hybrid quantum system consisting of a cavity optomechanical device optically coupled to an ultracold quantum gas. We show that the dispersive properties of the ultracold gas can be used to dramatically modify the optomechanical response of the mechanical resonator. We examine hybrid schemes wherein the mechanical resonator is coupled either to the motional or the spin degrees of freedom of the ultracold gas. In either case, we find an enhancement of more than two orders of magnitude in optomechanical cooling due to this hybrid interaction. Significantly, based on demonstrated parameters for the cavity optomechanical device, we identify regimes that enable the ground state cooling of the resonator from room temperature. In addition, the hybrid system considered here represents a powerful interface for the use of an ultracold quantum gas for state preparation, sensing and quantum manipulation of a mesoscopic mechanical resonator.

  19. A fuselage/tank structure study for actively cooled hypersonic cruise vehicles: Active cooling system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of fuselage cross section and structural arrangement on the performance of actively cooled hypersonic cruise vehicles are investigated. An active cooling system which maintains the aircraft's entire surface area at temperatures below 394 K at Mach 6 is developed along with a hydrogen fuel tankage thermal protection system. Thermodynamic characteristics of the actively cooled thermal protection systems established are summarized. Design heat loads and coolant flowrate requirements are defined for each major structural section and for the total system. Cooling system weights are summarized at the major component level. Conclusions and recommendations are included.

  20. Subsurface ground temperature: Implications for a district cooling system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. McCabe; J. J. Bender; K. R. Potter

    1995-01-01

    Elevated ground temperatures represent an undesirable source of heat gain for uninsulated buried piping found in many district cooling systems. It has been customary for the owners of district cooling systems in northern climates not to insulate their buried chilled water piping. Utility engineers for a large district cooling system at one northern US university have relied on published subsurface

  1. Performance of the dark energy camera liquid nitrogen cooling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cease, H.; Alvarez, M.; Alvarez, R.; Bonati, M.; Derylo, G.; Estrada, J.; Flaugher, B.; Flores, R.; Lathrop, A.; Munoz, F.; Schmidt, R.; Schmitt, R. L.; Schultz, K.; Kuhlmann, S.; Zhao, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Dark Energy Camera, the Imager and its cooling system was installed onto the Blanco 4m telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile in September 2012. The imager cooling system is a LN2 two-phase closed loop cryogenic cooling system. The cryogenic circulation processing is located off the telescope. Liquid nitrogen vacuum jacketed transfer lines are run up the outside of the telescope truss tubes to the imager inside the prime focus cage. The design of the cooling system along with commissioning experiences and initial cooling system performance is described. The LN2 cooling system with the DES imager was initially operated at Fermilab for testing, then shipped and tested in the Blanco Coudé room. Now the imager is operating inside the prime focus cage. It is shown that the cooling performance sufficiently cools the imager in a closed loop mode, which can operate for extended time periods without maintenance or LN2 fills.

  2. Experimental measurement on characteristics of cool storage air conditioning system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guiyin Fang; Fan Yang; Man Zhang; Shuangmao Wu

    2008-01-01

    The experimental apparatus of cool storage air conditioning system is designed and constructed. The characteristics of cool storage air-conditioning system are experimentally measured. The temperature variation of coolant in the evaporator is presented by experiments. The refrigerant temperature in the evaporator and the compressor discharge temperature are also shown. The cool storage experiments are carried out to measure the refrigeration

  3. A passive evaporative cooling system by natural ventilation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zahra Giabaklou; John A. Ballinger

    1996-01-01

    Evaporative cooling is used extensively for cooling in climates with medium to low humidity. In residential buildings the conventional mechanical systems tend to be both noisy and unsightly protuberances on buildings, whilst traditional cooling systems incorporated into the building structure which employ chimneys and the like tend to be designed for the specific building and so may not have wide

  4. The feasibility and economics of slush ice district cooling systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Metz; P. Margen

    1987-01-01

    District cooling systems offer advantages over individual building systems by allowing the selection of central sites close to rivers or other low summer temperature heat sinks, sites close to open spaces for cool storage, and the advantage of reducing specific chiller and cool storage costs by economy of scale. These advantages are obtained at the penalty of the cost of

  5. On-orbit stability and performance of the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument sensors onboard the Aqua and Terra Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankar, Mohan; Priestley, Kory; Smith, Nitchie; Thomas, Susan; Walikainen, Dale

    2014-09-01

    The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments onboard the Terra and Aqua spacecraft are part of the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) constellation to make long-term observations of the earth. CERES measures the earth-reflected shortwave energy as well as the earth-emitted thermal energy, which are two components of the earth's radiation energy budget. These measurements are made by five instruments- Flight Models (FM) 1 and 2 onboard Terra, FMs 3 and 4 onboard Aqua and FM5 onboard Suomi NPP. Each instrument comprises three sensors that measure the radiances in different wavelength bands- a shortwave sensor that measures in the 0.3 to 5 micron band, a total sensor that measures all the incident energy (0.3-200 microns) and a window sensor that measures the water-vapor window region of 8 to 12 microns. The stability of the sensors is monitored through on-orbit calibration and validation activities. On-orbit calibration is carried out using the Internal Calibration Module (ICM) that consists of a tungsten lamp, blackbodies, and a solar diffuser known as the Mirror Attenuator Mosaic (MAM). The ICM calibration provides information about the stability of the sensors' broadband radiometric gains on-orbit. Several validation studies are conducted in order to monitor the behavior of the instruments in various spectral bands. The CERES Edition-4 data products for FM1-FM4 incorporate the latest corrections to the sensor responses using the calibration techniques. In this paper, we present the on-orbit performance stability as well as some validation studies used in deriving the CERES Edition-4 data products from all four instruments.

  6. Analyses of On-orbit Determinations of the Clouds and the Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) Thermistor Bolometer Sensor Zero-radiance Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Robert B., III; Thomas, Susan; Priestley, Kory J.; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Smith, G. Louis; Al-hajjah, Aiman; Wilson, Robert S.

    1999-01-01

    The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) missions were designed to measure broadband earth-reflected shortwave solar (0.3 micrometers to less than 5.0 micrometers) and earth-emitted longwave (5.0 micrometers to greater than 100 micrometers) radiances as well as earth-emitted narrow-band radiances in the water vapor window region between 8 micrometers and 12 micrometers. However, the CERES scanning thermistor bolometer sensor zero-radiance offsets were found to vary as much as 1.0 Wm (exp -2) sr (exp -1) with the scan angle measurement geometry due to gravitational forces and systematic electronic noise. To minimize the gravitational effects, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Spacecraft CERES sensors' offsets were derived on-orbit as functions of scan elevation and azimuth angles from the January 7-8, 1998 radiometric observations of deep cold space, representative of a 3 K blackbody. In this paper, the TRMM/CERES six orbit data base of on-orbit derived offsets is presented and analyzed to define the sampling requirements for the CERES sensors located on the Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) Terra Spacecraft and on the Earth Observing System (EOS) Afternoon (PM-1) Spacecraft, scheduled for launches in 1999 and 2000, respectively. Analyses of the TRMM/CERES shortwave sensor earth radiance measurements indicate that offsets can be determined on-orbit at the plus or minus 0.02 Wm (exp -2) sr (exp -1) precision level. Offset measuring techniques and sampling requirements are discussed for the TRMM and ESE missions. Ground, pre-launch Terra CERES cross-track scan offsets are presented and described which were measured as a function of scan angle.

  7. Radiative effects of African dust and smoke observed from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yorks, John E.; McGill, Matt; Rodier, Sharon; Vaughan, Mark; Hu, Yongxiang; Hlavka, Dennis

    2009-09-01

    Cloud and aerosol effects have a significant impact on the atmospheric radiation budget in the tropical Atlantic because of the spatial and temporal extent of desert dust and smoke from biomass burning in the atmosphere. The influences of African dust and smoke aerosols on cloud radiative properties over the tropical Atlantic Ocean were analyzed for the month of July for 3 years (2006-2008) using colocated data collected by the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments on the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) and Aqua satellites. Aerosol layer height and type can be accurately determined using CALIOP data through directly measured parameters such as optical depth, volume depolarization ratio, attenuated backscatter, and color ratio. On average, clouds below 5 km had a daytime instantaneous shortwave (SW) radiative flux of 270.2 ± 16.9 W/m2 and thin cirrus clouds had a SW radiative flux of 208.0 ± 12.7 W/m2. When dust aerosols interacted with clouds below 5 km, as determined from CALIPSO, the SW radiative flux decreased to 205.4 ± 13.0 W/m2. Similarly, smoke aerosols decreased the SW radiative flux of low clouds to a value of 240.0 ± 16.6 W/m2. These decreases in SW radiative flux were likely attributed to the aerosol layer height and changes in cloud microphysics. CALIOP lidar observations, which more accurately identify aerosol layer height than passive instruments, appear essential for better understanding of cloud-aerosol interactions, a major uncertainty in predicting the climate system.

  8. CCHP System with Interconnecting Cooling and Heating Network 

    E-print Network

    Fu, L.; Geng, K.; Zheng, Z.; Jiang, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The consistency between building heating load, cooling load and power load are analyzed in this paper. The problem of energy waste and low equipment usage in a traditional CCHP (combined cooling, heating and power) system with generated electricity...

  9. Solar heating and cooling systems design and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The development and delivery of eight prototype solar heating and cooling systems for installation and operational test was reported. Two heating and six heating and cooling units will be delivered for single family residences, multiple family residences and commercial applications.

  10. A Free Cooling Based Chilled Water System at Kingston 

    E-print Network

    Jansen, P. R.

    1984-01-01

    In efforts to reduce operating costs, the IBM site at Kingston, New York incorporated the energy saving concept of 'free cooling' (direct cooling of chilled water with condenser water) with the expansion of the site chilled water system. Free...

  11. Integrated exhaust gas recirculation and charge cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2013-12-10

    An intake system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger configured to deliver compressed intake charge, comprising exhaust gas from the exhaust system and ambient air, through an intake charge conduit and to cylinders of the internal combustion engine. An intake charge cooler is in fluid communication with the intake charge conduit. A cooling system, independent of the cooling system for the internal combustion engine, is in fluid communication with the intake charge cooler through a cooling system conduit. A coolant pump delivers a low temperature cooling medium from the cooling system to and through the intake charge cooler for the transfer of heat from the compressed intake charge thereto. A low temperature cooler receives the heated cooling medium through the cooling system conduit for the transfer or heat therefrom.

  12. Appendix D Eligibility Criteria for Radiant Barriers Page D-1 2013 Residential Compliance Manual January 2014

    E-print Network

    . The emittance of the radiant barrier shall be less than or equal to 0.05 as tested in accordance with ASTM C-1371 or ASTM E-408. Installation shall conform to ASTM C-1158 [Standard Practice For Use and Installation Of Radiant Barrier Systems (RBS) In Building Construction.], ASTM C-727 (Standard Practice

  13. Polk power station syngas cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, S.D.

    1995-01-01

    Tampa Electric Company (TEC) is in the site development and construction phase of the new Polk Power Station Unit No. 1. This will be the first unit at a new site and will use Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Technology. The unit will utilize Texaco`s oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasification, along with combined cycle power generation, to produce nominal 260MW. Integral to the gasification process is the syngas cooling system. The design, integration, fabrication, transportation, and erection of this equipment have provided and continue to provide major challenges for this project.

  14. S'COOL Tutorial

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-01-01

    This tutorial provides detailed information about the importance of ground truth measurements for investigative science and various cloud properties. CERES measurements contribute to our understanding of the interaction between clouds and solar energy, the most significant factor controlling our climate. Students’ Cloud Observations On-Line (S'COOL) is a K-12 educational outreach effort of Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), a NASA instrument that observes Earth from space. S'COOL involves students in making ground truth observations of clouds for comparison with satellite data. S'COOL involves four basic steps, which are explained in the tutorial: determining satellite overpass time, observing cloud properties, transmitting results to NASA, and comparing results with satellite-retrieved properties.

  15. HVAC Equipment Design Options for Near-Zero-Energy Homes - Scoping Assessment of Radiant Panel Distribution System Options

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Van Baxter; Van David

    2007-01-01

    Although the energy efficiency of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment has increased substantially in recent years, new approaches are needed to continue this trend. Conventional unitary equipment and system designs have matured to a point where cost-effective, dramatic efficiency improvements that meet near-zero-energy housing (NZEH) goals require a radical rethinking of opportunities to improve system performance. The large reductions

  16. New Directions for Evaporative Cooling Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robison, Rita

    1981-01-01

    New energy saving technology can be applied to older cooling towers; in addition, evaporative chilling, a process that links a cooling tower to the chilling equipment, can reduce energy use by 80 percent. (Author/MLF)

  17. Magnet system for helical muon cooling channels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Kahn; M. Alsharo'a; R. P. Johnson; Vladimir Kashikhin; K. Yonehara; A. V. Zlobin

    2007-01-01

    A helical cooling channel (HCC) consisting of a pressurized gas absorber imbedded in a magnetic channel that provides superimposed solenoidal, helical dipole, and helical quadrupole fields has shown considerable promise in providing six-dimensional cooling of muon beams. The analysis of this muon cooling technique with both analytic and simulation studies has shown significant reduction of muon phase space emittance. A

  18. Influence of curvature in regenerative cooling system of rocket engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Y.; Stefanini, L.; Suslov, D.

    2009-09-01

    Thermomechanical loads in rocket engines can be drastically reduced by a reliable cooling system. The regenerative cooling system uses propellants as coolant which flows through milled cooling channels in the chamber walls. Due to centrifugal forces, dynamic secondary motions appear in cooling-channel curvatures, which strongly modify heat transfer. Three-dimensional (3D) numerical calculations have been performed in order to compare this heat flux modification with empirical correlations. Different turbulence models and wall treatments have been tested to develop a complete numerical data base about asymmetrical (concave side) heat transfer in curved cooling channels of rocket engine.

  19. Intelligent Engine Systems: Thermal Management and Advanced Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergholz, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the Advanced Turbine Cooling and Thermal Management program is to develop intelligent control and distribution methods for turbine cooling, while achieving a reduction in total cooling flow and assuring acceptable turbine component safety and reliability. The program also will develop embedded sensor technologies and cooling system models for real-time engine diagnostics and health management. Both active and passive control strategies will be investigated that include the capability of intelligent modulation of flow quantities, pressures, and temperatures both within the supply system and at the turbine component level. Thermal management system concepts were studied, with a goal of reducing HPT blade cooling air supply temperature. An assessment will be made of the use of this air by the active clearance control system as well. Turbine component cooling designs incorporating advanced, high-effectiveness cooling features, will be evaluated. Turbine cooling flow control concepts will be studied at the cooling system level and the component level. Specific cooling features or sub-elements of an advanced HPT blade cooling design will be downselected for core fabrication and casting demonstrations.

  20. New baseline for the magnet cooling system Yury Ivanyushenkov

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    for the system · Specify instrumentation and a control system and select a platform (LabView ?) · Specify safety1 New baseline for the magnet cooling system Yury Ivanyushenkov Engineering and Instrumentation;4 Liquid nitrogen cooling system: Instrumentation and Control Instrumentation: Inside the magnet

  1. Passive cooling system for nuclear reactor containment structure

    DOEpatents

    Gou, Perng-Fei (Saratoga, CA); Wade, Gentry E. (Saratoga, CA)

    1989-01-01

    A passive cooling system for the contaminant structure of a nuclear reactor plant providing protection against overpressure within the containment attributable to inadvertent leakage or rupture of the system components. The cooling system utilizes natural convection for transferring heat imbalances and enables the discharge of irradiation free thermal energy to the atmosphere for heat disposal from the system.

  2. Natural circulating passive cooling system for nuclear reactor containment structure

    DOEpatents

    Gou, Perng-Fei (Saratoga, CA); Wade, Gentry E. (Saratoga, CA)

    1990-01-01

    A passive cooling system for the contaminant structure of a nuclear reactor plant providing protection against overpressure within the containment attributable to inadvertent leakage or rupture of the system components. The cooling system utilizes natural convection for transferring heat imbalances and enables the discharge of irradiation free thermal energy to the atmosphere for heat disposal from the system.

  3. Fuel cell cooling and recirculation system

    SciTech Connect

    Dighe, S.V.

    1982-12-07

    Method and apparatus for cooling and recirculating oxidant to the cathode of a fuel cell stack. Heat energy is removed from the fuel cell stack through utilization of excess air or other oxidant relative to the stoichiometric amount for reaction with a hydrogen-containing fuel. Reaction products, including excess air and water, flow to a nozzle upstream of a flow constricting venturi. A coolant, such as liquid water in a fine spray form, is injected through the venturi and draws the reaction products through the venturi. The mixing of the coolant and the reaction products results in a condensation of the high temperature reaction product water vapor and further dehumidification of the reaction products takes place in a passive separator such as a demister. Coolant is injected into the venturi in sufficient quantity to develop the pressure head necessary to recirculate the cooled and dehumidified air through a conduit system and back to the fuel cell stack. A supply of makeup air is also provided. Coolant and water collected in the passive separator can also be recirculated for injection through the venturi.

  4. Semen quality in welders exposed to radiant heat.

    PubMed Central

    Bonde, J P

    1992-01-01

    Several studies suggest that welding is detrimental to the male reproductive system. Welding fume and radiant heat are of interest as possible causal factors. This study investigates semen quality and sex hormone concentrations among 17 manual metal arc alloyed steel welders with a moderate exposure to radiant heat (globe temperature ranging from 31.1 degrees to 44.8 degrees C), but without substantial exposure to welding fume toxicants. During exposure to heat the skin temperature in the groin increased on average by 1.4 degrees C (SE +/- 0.72 degrees C). Sperm count and motile sperm count were non-significantly reduced among welders in comparison with two different reference groups. Within the group of welders the proportion of sperm with normal shape declined significantly after six weeks of exposure to heat and increased after a break in exposure. Sperm count and sperm concentration had the same pattern of intraindividual change in relation to exposure to radiant heat, but the changes were not statistically significant. No consistent changes in concentrations of sex hormones were found. The welders investigated were more exposed to radiant heat than welders in general. The results suggest that the study group of welders experienced a reversible decrease in semen quality, most likely caused by a moderate exposure to radiant heat (about five hours a day through several weeks). It remains to be established if even lower levels of exposure to radiant heat in the general population of welders has any impact on semen quality and fertility. Images PMID:1733456

  5. An objective method for screening and selecting personal cooling systems based on cooling properties.

    PubMed

    Elson, John; Eckels, Steve

    2015-05-01

    A method is proposed for evaluation and selection of a personal cooling system (PCS) incorporating PCS, subject, and equipment weights; PCS run time; user task time; PCS cooling power; and average metabolic rate. The cooling effectiveness method presented is derived from first principles and allows those who select PCSs for specific applications to compare systems based on their projected use. This can lower testing costs by screening for the most applicable system. Methods to predict cooling power of PCSs are presented and are compared to data taken through standard manikin testing. The cooling effectiveness ranking is presented and validated against human subject test data. The proposed method provides significant insight into the application of PCS on humans. However, the interaction a humans with a PCS is complex, especially considering the range of clothing ensembles, physiological issues, and end use scenarios, and requires additional analysis. PMID:25683529

  6. Design of Transpiration Cooled Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callens, E. Eugene, Jr.; Vinet, Robert F.

    1999-01-01

    This study explored three approaches for the utilization of transpiration cooling in thermal protection systems. One model uses an impermeable wall with boiling water heat transfer at the backface (Model I). A second model uses a permeable wall with a boiling water backface and additional heat transfer to the water vapor as it flows in channels toward the exposed surface (Model II). The third model also uses a permeable wall, but maintains a boiling condition at the exposed surface of the material (Model III). The governing equations for the models were developed in non-dimensional form and a comprehensive parametric investigation of the effects of the independent variables on the important dependent variables was performed. In addition, detailed analyses were performed for selected materials to evaluate the practical limitations of the results of the parametric study.

  7. One layer porous radiant burners : experimental and numerical study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Gauthier; E. Lebas; D. Baillis

    2007-01-01

    Porous radiant burners show numerous advantages over traditional systems such as improved efficiency and low pollutants emissions. Combustion is stabilized within a solid matrix but depending on operating conditions, can move outside. The results depend on the solid matrix characteristics. In order to inquire into the solid matrix properties effects, experimental tests have been performed on an opened burner made

  8. Prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Eight prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems are being developed. The effort includes development, manufacture, test, installation, maintenance, problem resolution, and performance evaluation.

  9. Results from a scaled reactor cavity cooling system with water at steady state

    SciTech Connect

    Lisowski, D. D. [Univ. of Wisconsin - Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Albiston, S. M.; Tokuhiro, A. [Univ. of Idaho - Moscow, Moscow, ID 83843 (United States); Anderson, M. H.; Corradini, M. L. [Univ. of Wisconsin - Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    We present a summary of steady-state experiments performed with a scaled, water-cooled Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) at the Univ. of Wisconsin - Madison. The RCCS concept is used for passive decay heat removal in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) design and was based on open literature of the GA-MHTGR, HTR-10 and AVR reactor. The RCCS is a 1/4 scale model of the full scale prototype system, with a 7.6 m structure housing, a 5 m tall test section, and 1,200 liter water storage tank. Radiant heaters impose a heat flux onto a three riser tube test section, representing a 5 deg. radial sector of the actual 360 deg. RCCS design. The maximum heat flux and power levels are 25 kW/m{sup 2} and 42.5 kW, and can be configured for variable, axial, or radial power profiles to simulate prototypic conditions. Experimental results yielded measurements of local surface temperatures, internal water temperatures, volumetric flow rates, and pressure drop along the test section and into the water storage tank. The majority of the tests achieved a steady state condition while remaining single-phase. A selected number of experiments were allowed to reach saturation and subsequently two-phase flow. RELAP5 simulations with the experimental data have been refined during test facility development and separate effects validation of the experimental facility. This test series represents the completion of our steady-state testing, with future experiments investigating normal and off-normal accident scenarios with two-phase flow effects. The ultimate goal of the project is to combine experimental data from UW - Madison, UI, ANL, and Texas A and M, with system model simulations to ascertain the feasibility of the RCCS as a successful long-term heat removal system during accident scenarios for the NGNP. (authors)

  10. Development of a solar-powered passive ejector cooling system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. M Nguyen; S. B Riffat; P. S Doherty

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an ejector refrigeration system that is powered by solar thermal energy. The cooling system contains no active parts and is therefore deemed passive. Water is used as the refrigerant though other natural refrigerants could be used for lower temperature operation. A prototype system was built with a nominal cooling capacity of 7 kW. This

  11. Redesigning Process Cooling Systems in the Plastics Industry 

    E-print Network

    Anderson, G. R.

    2006-01-01

    , undersized cooling towers, and poorly sequenced operations. Lifetime decided to step back and evaluate their entire cooling system for opportunities to reduce energy use after they recognized the potential for “free cooling” from the chiller’s cooling... Recip 147 0.63 3 AEC Recip 147 0.63 4 Trane centrifugal 230 0.497 Table 1 Summary of Original Chillers Pumps # hp kW VFD CHW Process 3 75 38 Y CHW Recirc 2 25 19 N TW Process 1 75 27 Y Chiller condens er 2 30 23 N Free Cooling 2 25 24.2 Y Total 273...

  12. Solar space heating and cooling by selective use of the components of a desiccant cooling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbud, Ihsan Aladdin

    The economic advantages of by-passing various components of a desiccant cooling system under conditions not requiring their use are estimated by evaluating the annual costs of heating and cooling a commercial building in three representative U.S. cities. Life-cycle costs of systems employing solar heat for space heating and desiccant regeneration are compared with those using electric heat. The costs of purchasing and operating heating and desiccant cooling systems, with and without solar heat supply, are compared with those employing conventional heating and vapor compression cooling. The conditions under which commercial buildings can be cooled with desiccant systems at costs competitive with conventional systems are identified. A commercially available vapor compression air conditioner is used as a standard of comparison for energy consumption and room comfort. Heating and cooling requirements of the building are determined by use of the BLAST computer model in a simulation of long term system operation. Performance of the desiccant cooling system and life cycle savings obtained by its use are determined by simulation employing the TRNSYS computer model. TRNSYS compatible subroutines are developed to simulate operation of the desiccant equipment, the building, and the controllers that operate and monitor the system components. The results are presented in tabular and graphical form. This study shows that in the widely different climates represented in Los Angeles, New York, and Miami, by-passing various components in the desiccant cooling system when they are not needed is economically advantageous. Operation cost of the complete system decreased by 47.3% in Los Angeles, by 30.9% in New York City, and by 23.9% in Miami by not operating the desiccant wheel and other elements. The ventilation desiccant cooling system has major economic advantage over conventional systems under conditions of moderate humidity, as in Los Angeles and New York City. In Miami, however, the thermal energy needed for desiccant cooling is three to four times greater than that for Los Angeles and New York, so the desiccant system is not a competitive option in hot, humid climates. Life cycle savings in the three locations show that operation of the desiccant cooling and heating system with solar energy is more costly than with conventional energy at 1996 prices. Solar energy would become competitive, however, if annual electric energy inflation rates exceed 10 percent.

  13. Cooling Water Systems - Energy Savings/Lower Costs By Reusing Cooling Tower Blowdown 

    E-print Network

    Puckorius, P. R.

    1981-01-01

    down for reuse into the cooling tower system. Several plants have been built and operated with considerable difficulty regarding effective operation of the softener due to improper chemical selection. However, other plants have utilized the proper...

  14. Preliminary design activities for solar heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Information on the development of solar heating and cooling systems is presented. The major emphasis is placed on program organization, system size definition, site identification, system approaches, heat pump and equipment design, collector procurement, and other preliminary design activities.

  15. Optimized Design of a Furnace Cooling System

    E-print Network

    Morelli, F.; Bretschneider, R.; Dauzat, J.; Guymon, M.; Studebaker, J.; Rasmussen, B. P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of manufacturing furnace optimized re-design. The bottleneck in the production process is the cooling of heat treatment furnaces. These ovens are on an approximate 24-hour cycle, heating for 12 hours and cooling...

  16. Optimized Design of a Furnace Cooling System 

    E-print Network

    Morelli, F.; Bretschneider, R.; Dauzat, J.; Guymon, M.; Studebaker, J.; Rasmussen, B. P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of manufacturing furnace optimized re-design. The bottleneck in the production process is the cooling of heat treatment furnaces. These ovens are on an approximate 24-hour cycle, heating for 12 hours and cooling...

  17. Nuclear reactor cooling system decontamination reagent regeneration

    DOEpatents

    Anstine, Larry D. (San Jose, CA); James, Dean B. (Saratoga, CA); Melaika, Edward A. (Berkeley, CA); Peterson, Jr., John P. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01

    An improved method for decontaminating the coolant system of water-cooled nuclear power reactors and for regenerating the decontamination solution. A small amount of one or more weak-acid organic complexing agents is added to the reactor coolant, and the pH is adjusted to form a decontamination solution which is circulated throughout the coolant system to dissolve metal oxides from the interior surfaces and complex the resulting metal ions and radionuclide ions. The coolant containing the complexed metal ions and radionuclide ions is passed through a strong-base anion exchange resin bed which has been presaturated with a solution containing the complexing agents in the same ratio and having the same pH as the decontamination solution. As the decontamination solution passes through the resin bed, metal-complexed anions are exchanged for the metal-ion-free anions on the bed, while metal-ion-free anions in the solution pass through the bed, thus removing the metal ions and regenerating the decontamination solution.

  18. Solar heating and cooling systems design and development. [prototype development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The development of twelve prototype solar heating/cooling systems, six heating and six heating and cooling systems, two each for single family, multi-family, and commercial applications, is reported. Schedules and technical discussions, along with illustrations on the progress made from April 1, 1977 through June 30, 1977 are detailed.

  19. Laboratory research on combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP) systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Fu; X. L. Zhao; S. G. Zhang; Y. Jiang; H. Li; W. W. Yang

    2009-01-01

    Combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP) systems offer the potential for a significant increase in fuel use efficiency by generating electricity onsite and recycling the exhaust gas for heating, cooling, or dehumidifying. A challenge for CCHP system is the efficient integration of distributed generation (DG) equipment with thermally-activated (TA) technologies. The China Ministry of Science and Technology and Tsinghua University

  20. Current status of cooled IR detectors at i3system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Sooho; Kim, Young-Ho; Kim, Byung-Hyuk; Lee, Ho-Joon; Jung, Han

    2014-06-01

    This paper shows the current status of cooled IR detector technologies at i3system, South Korea. Mass production technology of i3system has successfully supplied lots of QVGA cooled IR detectors to camera customers. i3system has also developed small pitch cooled IR detectors with 320×256 and 640×512 formats for several different applications such as thermal sights and 24-hour operation observation units. In 2013, i3system's cooled IR detector has been launched in STSAT(Science and Technology SATellite)-2C through Naro-1 program which was South Korea's first successful launch vehicle for satellite. Owing to i3system's robust, intensive design and test programs, IR detector technologies have been space qualified without any further efforts by the space program. Currently, development programs for SXGA(1280×1024) with small pitch cooled detector are being progressed and its status is addressed.

  1. Meteor shower radiant positions and structures as determined from single station video observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molau, S.; Arlt, R.

    1997-07-01

    Single station video observations of meteors can be used for the precise determination of radiant positions of major and minor meteor showers. Video systems combine large quantities of recorded events with high accuracies, and are therefore applied in the investigation of fine structures within the radiant. In the past four years, amateurs from the Archenhold-Observatory Berlin have been operating the wide angle video system MOVIE. The maxima of several major meteor showers could be recorded. The video tapes were digitized and analysed on PCs. Using the Radiant software developed within the International Meteor Organization, the position was determined of the Quadrantid (? = 229.4° ± 1.5°, ? = +49.7° ± 1.5°), Lyrid (? = 271.6° ± 1.5°, ? = +32.9° ± 1°), Perseid (? = 46.0° ± 2°, ? = +57.7° ± 2°), Orionid (? = 93.6° ± 1°, ? = +14.9° ± 1°) and Leonid (? = 154.5° ± 2°, ? = +21.4° ± 1°) meteor shower radiants and possible radiant fine structures searched for. The obtained radiant positions are in good agreement with the common values in the literature; no significant fine structures could be found. From the video records of the 1995 ?-Monocerotid outburst, a radiant at ? = 117° ± 3° and ? = +1° ± 2° was derived, which proves older results to be in error by several degrees.

  2. Cooling systems for ultra-high temperature turbines.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, T

    2001-05-01

    This paper describes an introduction of research and development activities on steam cooling in gas turbines at elevated temperature of 1500 C and 1700 C level, partially including those on water cooling. Descriptions of a new cooling system that employs heat pipes are also made. From the view point of heat transfer, its promising applicability is shown with experimental data and engine performance numerical evaluation. PMID:11460628

  3. Design Studies of Magnet Systems for Muon Helical Cooling Channels

    SciTech Connect

    Kashikhin, V.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Lamm, M.J.; Lopes, M.L.; Zlobin, A.V.; /Fermilab; Alsharo'a, M.; Johnson, R.P.; Kahn, Stephen A.; /MUONS Inc., Batavia

    2008-06-25

    Helical cooling channels with superimposed solenoid and helical dipole and quadrupole coils, and a pressurized gas absorber in the aperture offer high efficiency of 6D muon beam cooling. In this paper, we continue design studies and comparison of two basic concepts of magnet system proposed for a helical cooling channel focusing on the high field sections. The results of magnetic analysis and Lorentz force calculations as well as the superconductor choice are presented and discussed.

  4. A portable personal cooling system for mine rescue operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webbon, B.; Williams, B.; Kirk, P.; Elkins, W.; Stein, R.

    1977-01-01

    Design of a portable personal cooling system to reduce physiological stress in high-temperature, high-humidity conditions is discussed. The system, based on technology used in the thermal controls of space suits, employs a combination of head and thoracic insulation and cooling through a heat sink unit. Average metabolic rates, heart rates, rectal temperature increase and sweat loss were monitored for test subjects wearing various configurations of the cooling system, as well as for a control group. The various arrangements of the cooling garment were found to provide significant physiological benefits; however, increases in heat transfer rate of the cooling unit and more effective insulation are suggested to improve the system's function.

  5. Cryogenic cooling systems for thermal imaging equipment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. K. Andrews

    1984-01-01

    For maximum sensitivity in the 8-12 micron waveband, thermal imaging devices which employ cadmium mercury telluride detectors for conversion of the thermal signal to electrical form (for further amplification, conditioning, and display) must be cooled and maintained at a steady 80-85 K. Commonly employed cooling engines are the Stirling cycle and the Joule-Thomson effect types. The former use pressurized He

  6. Cooling system early-stage design tool for naval applications

    E-print Network

    Fiedel, Ethan R

    2011-01-01

    This thesis utilizes concepts taken from the NAVSEA Design Practices and Criteria Manualfor Surface Ship Freshwater Systems and other references to create a Cooling System Design Tool (CSDT). With the development of new ...

  7. Solar heating and cooling technical data and systems analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, D. L.

    1977-01-01

    The research activities described herein were concentrated on the areas of economics, heating and cooling systems, architectural design, materials characteristics, climatic conditions, educational information packages, and evaluation of solar energy systems and components.

  8. Development of a Transient Heat and Mass Transfer Model of Residential Attics to Predict Energy Savings Produced by the Use of Radiant Barriers 

    E-print Network

    Medina, M. A.

    1992-01-01

    A transient heat and mass transfer model was developed to predict ceiling heat gain/loss through the attic space in residences and to accurately estimate savings in cooling and heating loads produced by the use of radiant ...

  9. Closed loop air cooling system for combustion turbines

    DOEpatents

    Huber, David John (North Canton, OH); Briesch, Michael Scot (Orlando, FL)

    1998-01-01

    Convective cooling of turbine hot parts using a closed loop system is disclosed. Preferably, the present invention is applied to cooling the hot parts of combustion turbine power plants, and the cooling provided permits an increase in the inlet temperature and the concomitant benefits of increased efficiency and output. In preferred embodiments, methods and apparatus are disclosed wherein air is removed from the combustion turbine compressor and delivered to passages internal to one or more of a combustor and turbine hot parts. The air cools the combustor and turbine hot parts via convection and heat is transferred through the surfaces of the combustor and turbine hot parts.

  10. S'COOL: Cloud Identification Chart and The Cloud Cookery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This resource provides detailed information about cloud identification, observing, and reporting. It also provides an activity on how to make a cloud in a bottle. French and Spanish versions of the chart are also available. This resource was developed for the Student Cloud Observations On Line (S'COOL) project. S'COOL is a component of NASA's Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project. S'COOL project participants make ground truth measurements for the CERES experiment. Ground truth measurements are land-based observations to compare with satellite data for the purpose of improving the satellite results.

  11. Prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Schedules and technical progress in the development of eight prototype solar heating and combined solar heating and cooling systems are reported. Particular emphasis is given to the analysis and preliminary design for the cooling subsystem, and the setup and testing of a horizontal thermal energy storage tank configuration and collector shroud evaluation.

  12. Hydraulic actuated automotive cooling systems—Nonlinear control and test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Salah; P. M. Frick; J. R. Wagner; D. M. Dawson

    2009-01-01

    The replacement of traditional automotive mechanical cooling system components with computer controlled servo-motor driven actuators can improve temperature tracking and reduce parasitic losses. The integration of hydraulic actuators in the engine cooling circuit offers greater power density in a smaller package space when compared with electric actuators. In this paper, a comprehensive nonlinear backstepping robust control technique is developed to

  13. Reuse of waste water for industrial cooling systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Rebhun; G. Engel

    1988-01-01

    Reuse of municipal effluent for cooling systems in a large refinery and petrochemical complex is described. Quality criteria for the cooling water were related to scale formers, corrosion, and biogrowth. After tertiary lime treatment using sludge blanket precipitator-clarifier was applied, phosphate removal, high reductions in alkalinity, calcium, COD, and suspended solids were obtained. A stripping tower reduced ammonia concentrations by

  14. Prototype solar heating and cooling systems, including potable hot water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomquist, D.; Oonk, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    Progress made in the development, delivery, and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water is reported. The system consists of the following subsystems: collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition. A comparison of the proposed Solaron Heat Pump and Solar Desiccant Heating and Cooling Systems, installation drawings, data on the Akron House at Akron, Ohio, and other program activities are included.

  15. Modeling and performance of the MHTGR (Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor) reactor cavity cooling system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Conklin

    1990-01-01

    The Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) of the Modular High- Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) proposed by the U.S. Department of Energy is designed to remove the nuclear afterheat passively in the event that neither the heat transport system nor the shutdown cooling circulator subsystem is available. A computer dynamic simulation for the physical and mathematical modeling of and RCCS is

  16. Preoperational test report, primary ventilation condenser cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-10-29

    This represents the preoperational test report for the Primary Ventilation Condenser Cooling System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system uses a closed chilled water piping loop to provide offgas effluent cooling for tanks AY101, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102; the offgas is cooled from a nominal 100 F to 40 F. Resulting condensation removes tritiated vapor from the exhaust stack stream. The piping system includes a package outdoor air-cooled water chiller with parallel redundant circulating pumps; the condenser coil is located inside a shielded ventilation equipment cell. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  17. Development test on 2 K cooling systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshiaki Okudaira; Genshirou Fujii

    1993-01-01

    Topics discussed include: the detail of proposal; configuration of the laboratory dilution refrigerator; the adiabatic vacuum section of the dilution refrigerator; the relationship between refrigerating capability and cooling temperature; phase diagram and vapor pressure curves of the He-3 and He-4; the fractionation chamber and dilution chamber; separation control by electric field of He-3 rich and He-4 rich phases; mixer utilizing

  18. Air conditioning system with supplemental ice storing and cooling capacity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kuo-Lianq Weng; Kuo-Liang Weng

    1998-01-01

    The present air conditioning system with ice storing and cooling capacity can generate and store ice in its pipe assembly or in an ice storage tank particularly equipped for the system, depending on the type of the air conditioning system. The system is characterized in particular in that ice can be produced and stored in the air conditioning system whereby

  19. A MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR DIRECT EVAPORATIVE COOLING AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Camargo; C. D. Ebinuma; S. Cardoso

    Air conditioning systems are responsible for increasing men's work efficiency as well for his comfort, mainly in the warm periods of the year. Currently, the most used system is the mechanical vapor compression system. However, in many cases, evaporative cooling system can be an economical alternative to replace the conventional system, under several conditions, or as a pre-cooler in the

  20. Performance analysis of a compressor driven metal hydride cooling system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S. Bedbak; M. Ram Gopal

    2005-01-01

    A compressor-driven metal hydride cooling system is analyzed in terms of its energetic and exergetic efficiencies. Applying the first and second laws of thermodynamics, the system COP, contribution of individual irreversibilities and the second law efficiency of the system are obtained. Effects of important design and operating parameters on system performance are presented. Performance comparison is made between systems working

  1. Indirect evaporative cooling potential in air–water systems in temperate climates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben Costelloe; Donal Finn

    2003-01-01

    Recent developments have prompted a review of evaporative cooling technology as an effective means of cooling modern deep plan buildings. Prominent among these developments is the success of high temperature sensible cooling systems, particularly, chilled ceilings, which require a supply of cooling water at 14–18°C. Crucial to the success of evaporative cooling technology, as a significant means of cooling in

  2. Carbon-free hydrogen and electricity from coal: options for syngas cooling in systems using a hydrogen separation membrane reactor - article no. 031401

    SciTech Connect

    De Lorenzo, L.; Kreutz, T.G.; Chiesa, P.; Williams, R.H. [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States). Princeton Environmental Institute

    2008-05-15

    Conversion of coal to carbon-free energy carriers, H-2 and electricity, with CO{sub 2} capture and storage may have the potential to satisfy at a comparatively low cost much of the energy requirements in a carbon-constrained world. This study focuses on the synergy between H{sub 2} separation membrane reactors (HSMRs) and syngas cooling with radiant and convective heat exchanges; such 'syngas coolers' invariably boost system efficiency over that obtained with quench-cooled gasification. Conventional H{sub 2} separation requires a relatively high steam-to-carbon ratio (SIC) to achieve a high level of H{sub 2} production, and thus is well matched to relatively inefficient quench cooling. In contrast, HSMRs shift the WGS equilibrium by continuously extracting reaction product H{sub 2}, thereby allowing a much lower SIC ratio and consequently a higher degree of heat recovery and (potentially) system efficiency. We first present a parametric analysis illuminating the interaction between the syngas coolers, high temperature WGS reactor and HSMR. We then compare the performance and cost of six different plant configurations, highlighting (1) the relative merits of the two syngas cooling methods in membrane-based systems, and (2) the comparative performance of conventional versus HSMR-based H{sub 2} separation in, plants with syngas coolers.

  3. A Semi-Passive Containment Cooling System Conceptual Design

    E-print Network

    Liu, H.

    The objective of this project was to investigate a passive containment cooling system (PCCS) for the double concrete containment of the Korean Next Generation Reactor (KNGR). Two conceptual PCCS designs: the thermosyphon ...

  4. Detail exterior view looking southwest of gas cooling system. Engine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail exterior view looking southwest of gas cooling system. Engine house is shown in right background. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  5. 2. VIEW SOUTH OF WIND TUNNEL 138 AND COOLING SYSTEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTH OF WIND TUNNEL 138 AND COOLING SYSTEM 140, NORTH ELEVATION - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Subsonic Wind Tunnel Building, Bounded by Clara Barton Parkway & McArthur Boulevard, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  6. Superconducting shield for solenoid of electron cooling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agapov, N. N.; Donets, D. E.; Drobin, V. M.; Kulikov, E. A.; Malinovski, H.; Pivin, R. V.; Smirnov, A. V.; Prokofichev, Yu. V.; Trubnikov, G. V.; Dorofeev, G. L.

    2012-07-01

    Ensuring the high homogeneity of a magnetic field in the straight solenoid of an electron cooling system is a very important task. In the electron cooling system of the collider in the NICA project, it is planned to use superconducting solenoids for the generation of a longitudinal magnetic field. Using of the superconducting shield is proposed to achieve the required homogeneity of the magnetic field in the cooling section. This article discusses the design of the superconducting shield and presents experimental and numerical studies into the homogeneity of the magnetic field in solenoids with the superconducting shield.

  7. Preliminary design package for prototype solar heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A summary is given of the preliminary analysis and design activity on solar heating and cooling systems. The analysis was made without site specific data other than weather; therefore, the results indicate performance expected under these special conditions. Major items include a market analysis, design approaches, trade studies and other special data required to evaluate the preliminary analysis and design. The program calls for the development and delivery of eight prototype solar heating and cooling systems for installation and operational test. Two heating and six heating and cooling units will be delivered for Single Family Residences, Multiple-family Residences and commercial applications.

  8. Cooling Tests of an Airplane Equipped with an NACA Cowling and a Wing-duct Cooling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, L I , Jr; Bierman, David; Boothy, W B

    1941-01-01

    Cooling tests were made of a Northrop A-17A attack airplane successively equipped with a conventional.NACA cowling and with a wing-duct cooling system. The method of cooling the engine by admitting air from the propeller slipstream into wing ducts, passing it first through the accessory compartment and then over the engine from rear to front, appeared to offer possibilities for improved engine cooling, increased cooling of the accessories, and better fairing of the power-plant installation. The results showed that ground cooling for the wing duct system without cowl flap was better than for the NACA cowling with flap; ground cooling was appreciably improved by installing a cowl flap. Satisfactory temperatures were maintained in both climb and high-speed flight, but, with the use of conventional baffles, a greater quantity of cooling air appeared to be required for the wing duct system.

  9. Electric and Gas Fired Radiant Tubes 'ERT' 

    E-print Network

    Nilsen, E. K.

    1981-01-01

    The paper covers a unique development by the Surface Division of Midland Ross of a radiant tube heating element which will heat an industrial furnace with either gas or electric without any down time or physical conversion required...

  10. Modeling of Residential Attics with Radiant Barriers 

    E-print Network

    Wilkes, K. E.

    1988-01-01

    barriers laid on top of the insulation, and for radiant barriers attached to the bottom of the top chords of the attic trusses. The models include features such as a radiation interchange analysis within the attic space, convective coupling...

  11. Solar heating and cooling system design and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The design and development of marketable solar heating and cooling systems for single family and commercial applications is described. The delivery, installation, and monitoring of the prototype systems are discussed. Seven operational test sites are discussed in terms of system performance. Problems encountered with equipment and installation were usually due to lack of skills required for solar system installation.

  12. Overview of Helium Cooled System Applications with RELAP at ENEA

    SciTech Connect

    Meloni, Paride; Casamirra, Maddalena [ENEA, Ente per le Nuove Tecnologie, l'Energia e l'Ambiente, Via Martiri di Monte Sole, 4, 40129, Bologna (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    Some years ago, within the framework of the study for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), ENEA assessed the RELAP5 code capability to simulate Helium cooled systems on the experimental data provided by the helium facility HEFUS3 (Brasimone, Italy). This activity allowed acquiring a certain experience on the limits and capabilities of the code that, in the following years, was used for a wide range of applications concerning transient and accident analysis of helium cooled systems. At first the paper summarizes the results of the assessment activity, then describes the accident analyses performed for the conceptual study of the Fusion Power Reactor with Helium-Cooled Pebble Bed Blanket (HCPBB) and the studies to support the safety design of the gas cooled Accelerator Driven System (ADS) concept. The paper concludes highlighting the RELAP adaptations to realize within the framework of the feasibility studies for a combined cycle concept of the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). (authors)

  13. NONWATER QUALITY IMPACTS OF CLOSED-CYCLE COOLING SYSTEMS AND THE INTERACTION OF STACK GAS AND COOLING TOWER PLUMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a literature survey of the nonwater quality impacts of closed-cycle cooling systems. Following discussions of cooling tower and stack gas plumes, interactions of these plumes are considered. For cooling tower plumes, plume types, behavior, salt drift g...

  14. Base load fuel comsumption with radiant boiler simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Shwehdi, M.H. (Pennsylvania State Univ., Wilkes-Barre, Lehman, PA (United States)); Hughes, C.M. (Naval Aviation Depot, NAS Jacksonville, Jacksonville, FL (United States)); Quasem, M.A. (Howard Univ. School of Business, Washington, DC (United States))

    1992-12-01

    The operating point of an oil fired radiant boiler, 580 Megawatt capacity, is critical in maximizing the availability, performance, reliability, and maintainability of a power producing system. Operating the unit above the design operating point causes outages to occur sooner than scheduled. When the boiler is operated below the design operating point, fuel is wasted because the quantity of fuel required to operate a radiant boiler is the same, whether the design setpoint is maintained or not. This paper demonstrates by means of simulation software that the boiler design setpoints is critical to fuel consumption and optimum output megawatts. A boiler with this capacity is used to provide a portion of the base load of an electric utility in order to sustain revenues and maintain reliable generation.

  15. Desiccant dehumidification and cooling systems assessment and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Collier, R.K. Jr. [Collier Engineering, Reno, NV (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a preliminary analysis of the principles, sensitivities, and potential for national energy savings of desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems. The report is divided into four sections. Section I deals with the maximum theoretical performance of ideal desiccant cooling systems. Section II looks at the performance effects of non-ideal behavior of system components. Section III examines the effects of outdoor air properties on desiccant cooling system performance. Section IV analyzes the applicability of desiccant cooling systems to reduce primary energy requirements for providing space conditioning in buildings. A basic desiccation process performs no useful work (cooling). That is, a desiccant material drying air is close to an isenthalpic process. Latent energy is merely converted to sensible energy. Only when heat exchange is applied to the desiccated air is any cooling accomplished. This characteristic is generic to all desiccant cycles and critical to understanding their operation. The analyses of Section I show that desiccant cooling cycles can theoretically achieve extremely high thermal CoP`s (>2). The general conclusion from Section II is that ventilation air processing is the most viable application for the solid desiccant equipment analyzed. The results from the seasonal simulations performed in Section III indicate that, generally, the seasonal performance of the desiccant system does not change significantly from that predicted for outdoor conditions. Results from Section IV show that all of the candidate desiccant systems can save energy relative to standard vapor-compression systems. The largest energy savings are achieved by the enthalpy exchange devise.

  16. Development test on 2 K cooling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okudaira, Toshiaki; Fujii, Genshirou

    1993-03-01

    Topics discussed include: the detail of proposal; configuration of the laboratory dilution refrigerator; the adiabatic vacuum section of the dilution refrigerator; the relationship between refrigerating capability and cooling temperature; phase diagram and vapor pressure curves of the He-3 and He-4; the fractionation chamber and dilution chamber; separation control by electric field of He-3 rich and He-4 rich phases; mixer utilizing electric field; restriction of liquid; the mixture cell; and continuous operation type dilution type refrigerator. This presentation is represented by viewgraphs only.

  17. Rotary engine cooling system with flow balancing

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, C.

    1987-05-12

    This patent describes a rotary internal combustion engine having a trochoid rotor housing section and having a group of cooling passages extending through a top-dead-center (TDC) region. The engine is characterized by: at least one passage of the group following a curved path which extends through a first hotter portion of the TDC region, by at least one further passage of the group following a substantially uncurved path through a second cooler portion of the TDC region, and by a fluid restriction for restricting fluid flow through the at least one further passage to balance coolant flow between the passages.

  18. Evaluation of two cooling systems under a firefighter coverall.

    PubMed

    Teunissen, Lennart P J; Wang, Li-Chu; Chou, Shih-Nung; Huang, Chin-Hsien; Jou, Gwo-Tsuen; Daanen, Hein A M

    2014-11-01

    Firemen often suffer from heat strain. This study investigated two chest cooling systems for use under a firefighting suit. In nine male subjects, a vest with water soaked cooling pads and a vest with water perfused tubes were compared to a control condition. Subjects performed 30 min walking and 10 min recovery in hot conditions, while physiological and perceptual parameters were measured. No differences were observed in heart rate and rectal temperature, but scapular skin temperature and fluid loss were lower using the perfused vest. Thermal sensation was cooler for the perfused vest than for the other conditions, while the cool pad vest felt initially cooler than control. However, comfort and RPE scores were similar. We conclude that the cooling effect of both tested systems, mainly providing a (temporally) cooler thermal sensation, was limited and did not meet the expectations. PMID:24798511

  19. Application of Hastelloy X in gas-cooled reactor systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. R. Brinkman; P. L. Rittenhouse; W. R. Corwin; J. P. Strizak; A. Lystrup; J. R. DiStefano

    1976-01-01

    Hastelloy X, an Ni--Cr--Fe--Mo alloy, may be an important structural alloy for components of gas-cooled reactor systems. Expected applications of this alloy in the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) are discussed, and the development of interim mechanical properties and supporting data are reported. Properties of concern include tensile, creep, creep-rupture, fatigue, creep-fatigue interaction, subcritical crack growth, thermal stability, and the influence

  20. System and method for cooling a combustion gas charge

    DOEpatents

    Massey, Mary Cecelia; Boberg, Thomas Earl

    2010-05-25

    The present invention relates to a system and method for cooling a combustion gas charge prior. The combustion gas charge may include compressed intake air, exhaust gas, or a mixture thereof. An evaporator is provided that may then receive a relatively high temperature combustion gas charge and discharge at a relatively lower temperature. The evaporator may be configured to operate with refrigeration cycle components and/or to receive a fluid below atmospheric pressure as the phase-change cooling medium.

  1. Heating and cooling load prediction using a neural network system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norihito Kashiwagi; Toshikazu Tobi

    1993-01-01

    Many models have been proposed to identify and predict system behavior, but the modeling is generally difficult, especially in the case that the system is complex and has the characteristics of nonlinearity. An artificial neural network has the capability of learning the system behavior, so the authors applied it to heating and cooling load prediction. Kohonen's feature map was chosen

  2. Inhibitor analysis for a solar heating and cooling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabony, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    A study of potential corrosion inhibitors for the NASA solar heating and cooling system which uses aluminum solar panels is provided. Research consisted of testing using a dynamic corrosion system, along with an economic analysis of proposed corrosion inhibitors. Very good progress was made in finding a suitable inhibitor for the system.

  3. Solar heating and cooling system design and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The progress of the program during the sixth program quarter is reported. The program calls for the development and delivery of eight prototype solar heating and cooling systems for installation and operational test. The William O'Brien single-family heating system was installed and is operational. The New Castle single-family heating residence is under construction. The Kansas University (KU) system is in the final design stages. The 25 ton cooling subsystem for KU is the debugging stage. Pressure drops that were greater than anticipated were encountered. The 3 ton simulation work is being finalized and the design parameters for the Rankine system were determined from simulation output.

  4. Environmental impacts of cooling system on Abou Qir Bay.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Manal A; Abd-Elaty, Magda M; El-Shall, Wafaa I; Ramadan, Abou Bakr; Tawfik, Mohamed S

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the impacts of cooling water on cooling system of Abou Qir Power Plant and on the receiving Abou Qir Bay. Abou Qir Power Plant is a conventional steam electric power plant located in Alexandria Governorate, Egypt. Water and biota samples were collected monthly from cooling water and Abou Qir Bay over a year. Heavy metals, radionuclide, anions and total hydrocarbons were analyzed in the samples using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), Gamma-ray Spectrometry (GS), Ion Selective Electrodes (ISE) and Gas Chromatography (GC). The results revealed that the characteristics of inlet cooling water had a tendency to be corrosive to the cooling system. The outlet cooling water complied with Environmental Law 4/1994 in all measured parameters except phosphate, ammonia and total petroleum hydrocarbons. On the other hand, samples from all sites had the lowest annual total count of algae in winter and highest count during summer. There are -ve correlations between algae and heavy metals, hydrocarbons, and radioactivity. Algae correlated highly significantly (p<0.01) with Pb, Cu, Ni, total petroleum hydrocarbons, dissolved petroleum hydrocarbon and uranium. Anabaena Sp. (blue green algae) and Euglina Sp.(flagellate) had highly significant (p<0.01) -ve correlation with heavy metals and natural radioactivity. The accumulation percentage of heavy metals by algae ranged from 22% to 37%, and the highest percent was for uranium and the lowest was for chromium. It is recommended to optimize the addition of polyphosphate inhibitor at inlet cooling water to inhibit corrosion in the cooling system and to avoid increase of Anabaena Sp. in the outlet, and to avoid enhancing algae growth that has a great tendency to accumulate heavy metals, and good housekeeping to avoid oil spills containing hydrocarbons from the power plant to sea water. PMID:17187744

  5. Use of a temperature-initiated passive cooling system (TIPACS) for the modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS)

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.; Conklin, J.; Reich, W.J.

    1994-04-01

    A new type of passive cooling system has been invented (Forsberg 1993): the Temperature-Initiated Passive Cooling System (TIPACS). The characteristics of the TIPACS potentially match requirements for an improved reactor-cavity-cooling system (RCCS) for the modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR). This report is an initial evaluation of the TIPACS for the MHTGR with a Rankines (steam) power conversion cycle. Limited evaluations were made of applying the TIPACS to MHTGRs with reactor pressure vessel temperatures up to 450 C. These temperatures may occur in designs of Brayton cycle (gas turbine) and process heat MHTGRs. The report is structured as follows. Section 2 describes the containment cooling issues associated with the MHTGR and the requirements for such a cooling system. Section 3 describes TIPACS in nonmathematical terms. Section 4 describes TIPACS`s heat-removal capabilities. Section 5 analyzes the operation of the temperature-control mechanism that determines under what conditions the TIPACS rejects heat to the environment. Section 6 addresses other design and operational issues. Section 7 identifies uncertainties, and Section 8 provides conclusions. The appendixes provide the detailed data and models used in the analysis.

  6. Use of Plant Toom Logbook Data to Establish Performance of a Cooling Production System

    E-print Network

    Hajiah, A. E.; Maheshwari, G. P.; ElSherbini, A. I.

    2006-01-01

    for cooling production and a network of chilled water piping for cooling distribution to the individual Air- Handling Units (AHUs) or Fan Coil Units (FCUs). Cooling production system is designed to meet the maximum cooling load during worst design... conditions to ensure comfort for building occupants. Thus, for most of the time, the cooling system operates under part load conditions and/or favorable weather conditions. In the case of cooling production system with a centrifugal compressor, part...

  7. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT IV, MAINTAINING THE COOLING SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE PURPOSE OF THE COOLING SYSTEM, CARE MAINTENANCE OF THE COOLING SYSTEM, COOLING SYSTEM COMPONENTS, AND TROUBLESHOOTING TIPS. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING…

  8. Thermal Hydraulic Analysis of an Experimental Reactor Cavity Cooling System with Water: Performance and Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisowski, Darius D.

    This experimental study investigated the thermal hydraulic behavior and boiling mechanisms present in a scaled reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS). The experimental facility reflects a ¼ scale model of one conceptual design for decay heat removal in advanced GenIV nuclear reactors. Radiant heaters supply up to 25 kW/m2 onto a three parallel riser tube and cooling panel test section assembly, representative of a 5° sector model of the full scale concept. Derived similarity relations have preserved the thermal hydraulic flow patterns and integral system response, ensuring relevant data and similarity among scales. Attention will first be given to the characterization of design features, form and heat losses, nominal behavior, repeatability, and data uncertainty. Then, tests performed in single-phase have evaluated the steady-state behavior. Following, the transition to saturation and subsequent boiling allowed investigations onto four parametric effects at two-phase flow and will be the primary focus area of remaining analysis. Baseline conditions at two-phase flow were defined by 15.19 kW of heated power and 80% coolant inventory, and resulted in semi-periodic system oscillations by the mechanism of hydrostatic head fluctuations. Void generation was the result of adiabatic expansion of the fluid due to a reduction in hydrostatic head pressure, a phenomena similar to flashing. At higher powers of 17.84 and 20.49 kW, this effect was augmented, creating large flow excursions that followed a smooth and sinusoidal shaped path. Stabilization can occur if the steam outflow condition incorporates a nominal restriction, as it will serve to buffer the short time scale excursions of the gas space pressure and dampen oscillations. The influences of an inlet restriction, imposed by an orifice plate, introduced subcooling boiling within the heated core and resulted in chaotic interactions among the parallel risers. The penultimate parametric examined effects of boil-off and inventory loss, where five different stages of natural circulation flow were identified: single-phase heating, transitional nucleate boiling, hydrostatic head fluctuations, stable two-phase flow, and geysering. Finally, the implementation of the model RCCS to a full scale plant was investigated by a multivariate test simulating an hypothetical accident scenario.

  9. Gas-cooled reactor power systems for space

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper the characteristics of six designs for power levels of 2, 10, and 20 MWe for operating times of 1 and 7 y are described. The operating conditions for these arbitrary designs were chosen to minimize system specific mass. The designs are based on recent work which benefits from earlier analyses of nuclear space power systems conducted at our Laboratory. Both gas- and liquid-cooled reactors had been considered. Pitts and Walter (1970) reported on the results of a detailed study of a 10-MWe lithium-cooled reactor in a potassium Rankine system. Unpublished results (1966) of a computer analysis provide details of an argon-cooled reactor in an argon Brayton system. The gas-cooled reactor design was based on extensive development work on the 500-MWth reactor for the nuclear ramjet (Pluto) as described by Walter (1964). The designs discussed here draw heavily on the Pluto project experience, which culminated in a successful full-power ground test as reported by Reynolds (1964). At higher power levels gas-cooled reactors coupled with Brayton systems with advanced radiator designs become attractive.

  10. District cooling: Phase 2, Direct freeze ice slurry system testing

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, P.J.

    1991-01-02

    The objectives of this research are to: extend the range of pressure drop data for ice-water slurry flows, and design and build a prototypical ice slurry distribution system which demonstrates ice slurry handling at an end user's heat exchanger, without sending ice slurry directly through the heat exchanger. The results of Phase 1 work demonstrated a 40% reduction in pump power required to move an ice-water slurry versus the same mass flow of water only. In addition to lower pressure drop, pumping ice slurries is advantageous because of the large latent and sensible heat cooling capacity stored in the ice compared to only sensible heat in chilled water. For example, an ice-water slurry with a 20% ice fraction (by mass) has a mass flow rate that is 70% less than the mass flow rate required for a chilled water system cooling and equivalent load. The greatly reduced mass flow combined with the friction reducing effects of ice-water slurries results in a total savings of 83% in pumping power. Therefore, a substantial savings potential exists for capital costs and system operating costs in ice-water slurry district cooling systems. One potential disadvantage of an ice-slurry district cooling system is the introduction of ice into equipment not so designed, such as air handlers at end user locations. A prototypic ice slurry distribution loop will demonstrate a cooling network which will provide ice slurry to an end user but sends ice free water into the actual heat transfer.

  11. Integrating externally developed systems for SNS Linac cooling and vacuum.

    SciTech Connect

    Marroquin, P. S. (Pilar S.)

    2001-01-01

    External contractors are developing the local cooling and vacuum control systems for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) linac. Soon these systems will be integrated into the facility-wide controls system. Allen-Bradley Logix5000 series programmable controllers, populated with appropriate input/output modules, were selected as the local controllers. These controllers will be interfaced to the facility-wide control system via VME systems with PowerPC processors running the Wind River VxWorks operating system and Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) front-end controller software. This paper describes the interface and integration issues driven by project, cooling system and vacuum system requirements and hardware selections.

  12. Research on the Compatibility of the Cooling Unit in an Automotive Exhaust-based Thermoelectric Generator and Engine Cooling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Y. D.; Liu, X.; Chen, S.; Xing, H. B.; Su, C. Q.

    2014-06-01

    The temperature difference between the hot and cold sides of thermoelectric modules is a key factor affecting the conversion efficiency of an automotive exhaust-based thermoelectric generator (TEG). In the work discussed in this paper the compatibility of TEG cooling unit and engine cooling system was studied on the basis of the heat transfer characteristics of the TEG. A new engine-cooling system in which a TEG cooling unit was inserted was simulated at high power and high vehicle speed, and at high power and low vehicle speed, to obtain temperatures and flow rates of critical inlets and outlets. The results show that coolant temperature exceeds its boiling point at high power and low vehicle speed, so the new system cannot meet cooling requirements under these conditions. Measures for improvement to optimize the cooling system are proposed, and provide a basis for future research.

  13. Radiative recombination of ions and nuclei in electron cooling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, A. B.; Meshkov, I. N.; Philippov, A. V.

    2012-07-01

    Experimental data on rates for the radiative recombination of nuclei (from helium to uranium) and various ions in interaction with an electron beam in electron cooling systems are reviewed. An analysis of the experimental data has yielded the dependence of the radiative recombination rate on the relative electron energy appreciably differently than the theoretical models obtained earlier by H. Kramers and R. Schuch. In addition, it is shown that the radiative recombination rate of nuclei in the experiment depends on the transverse electron energy as T {?/-0.82},which is also different from the results of the calculations by the theoretical model proposed by M. Bell and J. Bell. Experimental data on the cooling of ions in intermediate charge states are analyzed and the dependence of the radiative recombination rate on the charge state of the ion (electron-shell configuration) is shown. For some ion charge states, the rate of the process is of a resonance character. Loss to radiative recombination in the electron cooling system of the NICA Booster is evaluated for the Au32+, Au33+, Au50+, and Au51+ ion beams. Limitations imposed on the Au79+ beam lifetime by radiative recombination in the electron cooling system of the NICA Collider are analyzed. Possible ways to decrease the radiative recombination rate of nuclei by selecting the parameters of the electron cooling system for the NICA Collider are proposed.

  14. Prelaunch Calibrations of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission and Earth Observing System Morning (EOS-AM1) Spacecraft Thermistor Bolometer Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Robert B., III; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Bitting, Herbert C.; Crommelynck, Dominique A. H.; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Priestley, Kory J.; Smith, G. Louis; Thomas, Susan; Thornhill, K. Lee; Wilson, Robert S.

    1998-01-01

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) spacecraft scanning thermistor bolometer sensors measure earth radiances in the broadband shortwave solar (O.3 - 5.0 micron and total (0.3 to 100 microns) spectral bands as well as in the 8-12 microns water vapor window spectral band. On November 27, 1997, the launch of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft placed the first set of CERES sensors into orbit, and 30 days later, the sensors initiated operational measurements of the earth radiance fields. In 1998, the Earth Observing System morning (EOS-AM1) spacecraft will place the second and third sensor sets into orbit. The prelaunch CERES sensors' count conversion coefficients (gains and zero-radiance offsets) were determined in vacuum ground facilities. The gains were tied radiometrically to the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90). The gain determinations included the spectral properties (reflectance, transmittance, emittance, etc.) of both the sources and sensors as well as the in-field-of-view (FOV) and out-of-FOV sensor responses. The resulting prelaunch coefficients for the TRMM and EOS-AM1 sensors are presented. Inflight calibration systems and on-orbit calibration approaches are described, which are being used to determine the temporal stabilities of the sensors' gains and offsets from prelaunch calibrations through on-orbit measurements. Analyses of the TRMM prelaunch and on-orbit calibration results indicate that the sensors have retained their ties to ITS-90 at accuracy levels better than /- 0.3% between the 1995 prelaunch and 1997 on-orbit calibrations.

  15. Risk-informed design changes for a passive cooling system

    E-print Network

    Patalano, Giovanbattista

    2007-01-01

    The failure probability of a passive decay heat removal system after a LOCA is evaluated as part of a risk-informed design process for a helium-cooled fast reactor. The system was modeled using RELAP5-3D. The epistemic ...

  16. Prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    These combined quarterly reports summarize the activities from November 1977 through September 1978, and over the progress made in the development, delivery and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water. The system consists of the following subsystems: solar collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition.

  17. POOL WATER TREATMENT AND COOLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. King

    2000-01-01

    The Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System is located in the Waste Handling Building (WHB), and is comprised of various process subsystems designed to support waste handling operations. This system maintains the pool water temperature within an acceptable range, maintains water quality standards that support remote underwater operations and prevent corrosion, detects leakage from the pool liner, provides the capability

  18. A Peltier cooling system for SiPM temperature stabilization

    E-print Network

    Hebbeker, Thomas

    A Peltier cooling system for SiPM temperature stabilization von Simon Nieswand Bachelorarbeit außen thermisch isolierten Kupferblockes einzulassen, an welchen ein Peltier-Element angebracht wird. Um das System zu automatisieren, werden der Temperatursensor und die Stromquelle des Peltier- Elements

  19. Prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reviewed in the development, delivery, and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water. The system consisted of the following subsystems: collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition.

  20. The evaporative cooling system for the ATLAS inner detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Attree; B. Anderson; E. C. Anderssen; V. Akhnazarov; R. J. Apsimon; P. Barclay; L. E. Batchelor; R. L. Bates; M. Battistin; J. Bendotti; S. Berry; A. Bitadze; J. P. Bizzel; P. Bonneau; M. Bosteels; J. M. Butterworth; S. Butterworth; A. A. Carter; J. R. Carter; A. Catinaccio; F. Corbaz; H. O. Danielsson; E. Danilevich; N. Dixon; S. D. Dixon; F. Doherty; O. Dorholt; M. Doubrava; K. Egorov; K. Einsweiler; A. C. Falou; P. Feraudet; P. Ferrari; K. Fowler; J. T. Fraser; R. S. French; M. Galuska; F. Gannaway; G. Gariano; M. D. Gibson; M. Gilchriese; D. Giugni; J. Godlewski; I. Gousakov; B. Gorski; G. D. Hallewell; N. Hartman; R. J. Hawkings; S. J. Haywood; N. P. Hessey; I. Ilyashenko; S. Infante; J. N. Jackson; T. J. Jones; J. Kaplon; S. Katunin; S. Lindsay; L. Luisa; N. Massol; F. Mc Ewan; S. J. Mc Mahon; C. Menot; J. Mistry; J. Morris; D. M. Muskett; K. Nagai; A. Nichols; R. Nicholson; R. B. Nickerson; S. L. Nielsen; P. E. Nordahl; M. Olcese; M. Parodi; F. Perez-Gomez; H. Pernegger; E. Perrin; L. P. Rossi; A. Rovani; E. Ruscino; H. Sandaker; A. Smith; V. Sopko; S. Stapnes; M. Stodulski; J. Tarrant; J. Thadome; D. Tovey; M. Turala; M. Tyndel; V. Vacek; E. van der Kraaij; G. H. A. Viehhauser; E. Vigeolas; P. S. Wells; S. Wenig; P. Werneke

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the evaporative system used to cool the silicon detector structures of the inner detector sub-detectors of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The motivation for an evaporative system, its design and construction are discussed. In detail the particular requirements of the ATLAS inner detector, technical choices and the qualification and manufacture of final components

  1. Traveling Wave RF Systems for Helical Cooling Channels

    SciTech Connect

    Yonehara, K.; Lunin, A.; Moretti, A.; Popovic, M.; Romanov, G.; /Fermilab; Neubauer, M.; Johnson, R.P.; /Muons Inc., Batavia; Thorndahl, L.; /CERN

    2009-05-01

    The great advantage of the helical ionization cooling channel (HCC) is its compact structure that enables the fast cooling of muon beam 6-dimensional phase space. This compact aspect requires a high average RF gradient, with few places that do not have cavities. Also, the muon beam is diffuse and requires an RF system with large transverse and longitudinal acceptance. A traveling wave system can address these requirements. First, the number of RF power coupling ports can be significantly reduced compared with our previous pillbox concept. Secondly, by adding a nose on the cell iris, the presence of thin metal foils traversed by the muons can possibly be avoided. We show simulations of the cooling performance of a traveling wave RF system in a HCC, including cavity geometries with inter-cell RF power couplers needed for power propagation.

  2. The Golden Canopies (Infant Radiant Warmer)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The cradle warmer is based on technology in heated transparent materials developed by Sierracin Corporation, Sylmar, California he original application was in heated faceplates for the pressure suit heated faceplates worn by pilots of an Air Force/NASA reconnaissance and weather research plane. Later, Sierracin advanced the technology for other applications, among them the cockpit windows of the NASA X-15 supersonic research vehicle and the helmet faceplates of Apollo astronauts. Adapting the technology to hospital needs, Sierracin teamed with Cavitron Corporation, Anaheim, California, which produces the cradle warmer and two other systems employing Sierracin's electrically-heated transparencies. Working to combat the infant mortality rate, hospitals are continually upgrading delivery room and nursery care techniques. Many have special procedures and equipment to protect infants during the "period of apprehension," the critical six to 12 hours after delivery. One such item of equipment is an aerospace spinoff called the Infant Radiant Warmer, a "golden canopy" which provides uniform, controlled warmth to the infant's cradle. Warmth is vitally important to all newborns, particularly premature babies; they lose heat more rapidly than adults because they have greater surface area in comparison with body mass.

  3. Power plant cooling system water consumption and nonwater impact reports. Executive summary August 1979-April 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, M.C.; Pavlenco, G.F.; Englesson, G.A.

    1981-07-01

    Water evaporation and consumption of power plant cooling systems were studied and six simple generic evaporation prediction models were evaluated, one for cooling towers and five for cooling ponds/lakes using field data provided by twelve utilities. Also evaluated in the study is a regional comparison of evaporation rates of cooling towers and cooling ponds/lakes with the objective of determining which of the two cooling system types is more water consumptive in terms of evaporation only.

  4. The development of a solar residential heating and cooling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The MSFC solar heating and cooling facility was assembled to demonstrate the engineering feasibility of utilizing solar energy for heating and cooling buildings, to provide an engineering evaluation of the total system and the key subsystems, and to investigate areas of possible improvement in design and efficiency. The basic solar heating and cooling system utilizes a flat plate solar energy collector, a large water tank for thermal energy storage, heat exchangers for space heating, and an absorption cycle air conditioner for space cooling. A complete description of all systems is given. Development activities for this test system included assembly, checkout, operation, modification, and data analysis, all of which are discussed. Selected data analyses for the first 15 weeks of testing are included, findings associated with energy storage and the energy storage system are outlined, and conclusions resulting from test findings are provided. An evaluation of the data for summer operation indicates that the current system is capable of supplying an average of 50 percent of the thermal energy required to drive the air conditioner. Preliminary evaluation of data collected for operation in the heating mode during the winter indicates that nearly 100 percent of the thermal energy required for heating can be supplied by the system.

  5. Thermal Storage with Conventional Cooling Systems 

    E-print Network

    McGee, E. E.

    1990-01-01

    demand which results in lower electrical costs. The effectiveness of this 'Thermal Retention System" is determined by its design characteristics, its operational efficiency and comparative system analysis. Today's computer technology has provided...

  6. Cooling of a Magmatic System Under Thermal Chaotic Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Omari, Kamal; Le Guer, Yves; Perugini, Diego; Petrelli, Maurizio

    2015-02-01

    The cooling of a basaltic melt undergoing chaotic advection is studied numerically for a magma with a temperature-dependent viscosity in a two-dimensional (2D) cavity with moving boundary. Different statistical mixing and energy indicators are used to characterize the efficiency of cooling by thermal chaotic mixing. We show that different cooling rates can be obtained during the thermal mixing of a single basaltic magmatic batch undergoing chaotic advection. This process can induce complex temperature patterns inside the magma chamber. The emergence of chaotic dynamics strongly modulates the temperature fields over time and greatly increases the cooling rates. This mechanism has implications for the thermal lifetime of the magmatic body and may favor the appearance of chemical heterogeneities in the igneous system as a result of different crystallization rates. Results from this study also highlight that even a single magma batch can develop, under chaotic thermal advection, complex thermal and therefore compositional patterns resulting from different cooling rates, which can account for some natural features that, to date, have received unsatisfactory explanations, including the production of magmatic enclaves showing completely different cooling histories compared with the host magma, compositional zoning in mineral phases, and the generation of large-scale compositional zoning observed in many plutons worldwide.

  7. Cooling of a Magmatic System Under Thermal Chaotic Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Omari, Kamal; Le Guer, Yves; Perugini, Diego; Petrelli, Maurizio

    2015-07-01

    The cooling of a basaltic melt undergoing chaotic advection is studied numerically for a magma with a temperature-dependent viscosity in a two-dimensional (2D) cavity with moving boundary. Different statistical mixing and energy indicators are used to characterize the efficiency of cooling by thermal chaotic mixing. We show that different cooling rates can be obtained during the thermal mixing of a single basaltic magmatic batch undergoing chaotic advection. This process can induce complex temperature patterns inside the magma chamber. The emergence of chaotic dynamics strongly modulates the temperature fields over time and greatly increases the cooling rates. This mechanism has implications for the thermal lifetime of the magmatic body and may favor the appearance of chemical heterogeneities in the igneous system as a result of different crystallization rates. Results from this study also highlight that even a single magma batch can develop, under chaotic thermal advection, complex thermal and therefore compositional patterns resulting from different cooling rates, which can account for some natural features that, to date, have received unsatisfactory explanations, including the production of magmatic enclaves showing completely different cooling histories compared with the host magma, compositional zoning in mineral phases, and the generation of large-scale compositional zoning observed in many plutons worldwide.

  8. Cooling of a magmatic system under thermal chaotic mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrelli, Maurizio; El Omari, Kamal; Le Guer, Yves; Perugini, Diego

    2015-04-01

    The cooling of a melt undergoing chaotic advection is studied numerically for a magma with a temperature-dependent viscosity in a 2D cavity with moving boundary. Different statistical mixing and energy indicators are used to characterize the efficiency of cooling by thermal chaotic mixing. We show that different cooling rates can be obtained during the thermal mixing even of a single basaltic magmatic batch undergoing chaotic advection. This process can induce complex temperature patterns inside the magma chamber. The emergence of chaotic dynamics strongly affects the temperature field during time and greatly increases the cooling rates. This mechanism has implications for the lifetime of a magmatic body and may favor the appearance of chemical heterogeneities in igneous systems as a result of different crystallization rates. Results from this study also highlight that even a single magma batch can develop, under chaotic thermal advection, complex thermal and therefore compositional patterns resulting from different cooling rates, which can account for some natural features that, to date, have received unsatisfactory explanations. Among them, the production of magmatic enclaves showing completely different cooling histories compared with the host magma, compositional zoning in mineral phases, and the generation of large-scale compositionally zoning observed in many plutons worldwide.

  9. Thermotunneling Based Cooling Systems for High Efficiency Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Aimi, Marco; Arik, Mehmet; Bray, James; Gorczyca, Thomas; Michael, Darryl; Weaver, Stan

    2007-09-30

    GE Global Research's overall objective was to develop a novel thermotunneling-cooling device. The end use for these devices is the replacement of vapor cycle compression (VCC) units in residential and commercial cooling and refrigeration systems. Thermotunneling devices offer many advantages over vapor cycle compression cooling units. These include quiet, reliable, non-moving parts operation without refrigerant gases. Additionally theoretical calculations suggest that the efficiency of thermotunneling devices can be 1.5-2x that of VCC units. Given these attributes it can be seen that thermotunneling devices have the potential for dramatic energy savings and are environmentally friendly. A thermotunneling device consists of two low work function electrodes separated by a sub 10 nanometer-sized gap. Cooling by thermotunneling refers to the transport of hot electrons across the gap, from the object to be cooled (cathode) to the heat rejection electrode (anode), by an applied potential. GE Global Research's goal was to model, design, fabricate devices and demonstrate cooling base on the thermotunneling technology.

  10. Construction and initial operation of a seasonal solar cooling system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harkness; J. B. L

    1985-01-01

    A solar ice-making system based on an Argonne National Laboratory design is considered for home cooling. The water-based storage system, which is a plain concrete tank, was integrated into the foundation of the house. Freon-12 is the working fluid used in the ice-making system. Several modifications were made in the system and brief discussions about these changes are presented. An

  11. Tests and procedures for optimizing EMIR cooling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Izquierdo, Patricia; Lizon, Jean Louis; Núñez Cagigal, Miguel Á.; Patrón Recio, Jesús; Barreto Cabrera, Maria; Garzón López, Francisco

    2014-07-01

    EMIR is a wide-field camera and a multi-object, intermediate resolution near-infrared spectrograph for the GTC telescope. EMIR is a cryogenic instrument whose cooling system is based on four two-stage CCCs' Leybold Coolpower 5/100 whose cooling capacity is 100W@80K, in the 1st stage, and 5W@20K, in the 2nd stage, operated directly by two compressors in dual mode (two cold heads for each compressor). During the verification phase some phenomena affecting the cooling system efficiency have been observed. In consequence, the possible influences of the temperature of the water in the cooling unit the compressor, the compressor input power and the quality of the insulating vacuum in the instrument have been studied. Contamination in the Closed Helium Cycle is another possible cause that has been evaluated. The methods used in the tests and the cleaning procedures are described. The results allow us to reach some conclusions regarding the use and maintenance of this type of cooling systems.

  12. Cavity Cooling of A Mechanical Resonator in Amorphous Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Lin

    2011-03-01

    The quantum backaction force generated by a cavity coupled with a mechanical resonator can be exploited to achieve sideband cooling of the mechanical mode. By applying a red-detuned driving, the quantum ground state of the mechanical mode can be reached in the resolved-sideband regime, which has recently be demonstrated in experiments. However, in many of these materials, surface defects or adsorbates can couple with the mechanical mode and impair the cavity cooling. These defects can be treated as quantum two-level system (TLS). The mechanical vibration changes the local strain tensor and generates coupling with the TLS via the deformation potential. In this work, we study the cavity cooling of the mechanical mode in the presence of a TLS. By applying the adiabatic elimination technique widely used in quantum optics, we derive the cooling master equation for the resonator-TLS system in the eigenbasis of this system. Our results show that the stationary phonon number depends non- monotonically on the energy of the TLS. We also show that the cooling depends strongly on the decoherence rate of the TLS. This work is supported by the DARPA/MTO ORCHID program through AFOSR, NSF-DMR-0956064, NSF-CCF-0916303, and NSF COINS program.

  13. Radiation detector system having heat pipe based cooling

    DOEpatents

    Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Saveliev, Valeri D.; Barkan, Shaul

    2006-10-31

    A radiation detector system having a heat pipe based cooling. The radiation detector system includes a radiation detector thermally coupled to a thermo electric cooler (TEC). The TEC cools down the radiation detector, whereby heat is generated by the TEC. A heat removal device dissipates the heat generated by the TEC to surrounding environment. A heat pipe has a first end thermally coupled to the TEC to receive the heat generated by the TEC, and a second end thermally coupled to the heat removal device. The heat pipe transfers the heat generated by the TEC from the first end to the second end to be removed by the heat removal device.

  14. 21 CFR 880.5130 - Infant radiant warmer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...radiant warmer is a device consisting of an infrared heating element intended to be placed...infant's body temperature by means of radiant heat. The device may also contain a temperature monitoring sensor, a heat output control mechanism, and...

  15. System design package for a solar heating and cooling system installed at Akron, Ohio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Information used to evaluate the design of a solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system is given. A conventional heat pump provides summer cooling items as the design data brochure, system performance specification, system hazard analysis, spare parts list, and detailed design drawings. A solar system is installed in a single-family dwelling at Akron, Ohio, and at Duffield, Virginia.

  16. EVA space suit Evaporative Cooling/Heating Glove System (ECHGS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coss, F. A.

    1976-01-01

    A new astronaut glove, the Evaporative Cooling/Heating Glove System (ECHGS), was designed and developed to allow the handling of objects between -200 F and +200 F. Active heating elements, positioned at each finger pad, provide additional heat to the finger pads from the rest of the finger. A water evaporative cooling system provides cooling by the injection of water to the finger areas and the subsequent direct evaporation to space. Thin, flexible insulation has been developed for the finger areas to limit thermal conductivity. Component and full glove tests have shown that the glove meets and exceeds the requirements to hold a 11/2 inch diameter bar at + or - 200 F for three minutes within comfort limits. The ECHGS is flexible, lightweight and comfortable. Tactility is reasonable and small objects can be identified especially by the fingertips beyond the one half width active elements.

  17. High intensity heat-pulse source operates without cooling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, L. D.

    1970-01-01

    Tungsten-iodine quartz lamp with on-off control is mounted at focus of ellipsoidal reflector and shutter is mounted at conjugate focus. Flux sensor monitors lamp and actuates shutter which emits a heat pulse when the radiant flux builds up to requisite level.

  18. Heat transfer in slagging MHD radiant boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Im, K.H.; Ahluwalia, R.K.; Berry, G.F.

    1981-01-01

    A combined convection-radiation model is formulated to study heat transfer characteristics of slagging magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) radiant boilers. The model includes the contributions of carbon dioxide, water vapor, potassium atoms, and slag particles to gas radiation. The model also accounts for the presence of slag layer on the wall of the radiant boiler. In order to determine the slag layer dynamics, the mechanism of slag particle deposition by thermophoresis and by fluid turbulence is also investigated. The role of a slag layer in moderating the influence of refractory thickness on heat transfer is illustrated. 14 refs.

  19. Optimization of multistage Peltier cooling systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Gabrielli

    1978-01-01

    An improved parameterization by seven constants of a Peltier thermoelectric unit is proposed and applied to multistage tower or pyramidal Peltier systems. A thermal balance equation incorporating interstage junction temperatures is obtained. A least squares program allows optimization of the system, wherein minimum temperature corresponding to a given power pumped by the colder stage is obtained.

  20. Turbine airfoil with an internal cooling system having vortex forming turbulators

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Ching-Pang

    2014-12-30

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and having at least one cooling system is disclosed. At least a portion of the cooling system may include one or more cooling channels having a plurality of turbulators protruding from an inner surface and positioned generally nonorthogonal and nonparallel to a longitudinal axis of the airfoil cooling channel. The configuration of turbulators may create a higher internal convective cooling potential for the blade cooling passage, thereby generating a high rate of internal convective heat transfer and attendant improvement in overall cooling performance. This translates into a reduction in cooling fluid demand and better turbine performance.

  1. Corrosion inhibitors for solar heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, T. S.; Deramus, G. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Problems dealing with corrosion and corrosion protection of solar heating and cooling systems are discussed. A test program was conducted to find suitable and effective corrosion inhibitors for systems employing either water or antifreeze solutions for heat transfer and storage. Aluminum-mild-steel-copper-stainless steel assemblies in electrical contact were used to simulate a multimetallic system which is the type most likely to be employed. Several inhibitors show promise for this application.

  2. BETTER DUCT SYSTEMS FOR HOME HEATING AND COOLING.

    SciTech Connect

    ANDREWS,J.

    2001-01-01

    This is a series of six guides intended to provide a working knowledge of residential heating and cooling duct systems, an understanding of the major issues concerning efficiency, comfort, health, and safety, and practical tips on installation and repair of duct systems. These guides are intended for use by contractors, system designers, advanced technicians, and other HVAC professionals. The first two guides are also intended to be accessible to the general reader.

  3. A COOLING SYSTEM FOR BUIDINGS USING WIND ENERGY

    E-print Network

    A COOLING SYSTEM FOR BUIDINGS USING WIND ENERGY Hamid Daiyan Islamic Azad University - Semnan in dray land, and only uses wind energy for conditioning. It technologies date back over 1000 years. Wind Branch, Iran hamid.daiyan@semnaniau.ac.ir Abstract In Iranian historical architecture wind tower is used

  4. Solar Heating and Cooling of Residential Buildings: Design of Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins. Solar Energy Applications Lab.

    This is the second of two training courses designed to develop the capability of practitioners in the home building industry to design solar heating and cooling systems. The course is organized in 23 modules to separate selected topics and to facilitate learning. Although a compact schedule of one week is shown, a variety of formats can be…

  5. Radiant energy receiver having improved coolant flow control means

    DOEpatents

    Hinterberger, H.

    1980-10-29

    An improved coolant flow control for use in radiant energy receivers of the type having parallel flow paths is disclosed. A coolant performs as a temperature dependent valve means, increasing flow in the warmer flow paths of the receiver, and impeding flow in the cooler paths of the receiver. The coolant has a negative temperature coefficient of viscosity which is high enough such that only an insignificant flow through the receiver is experienced at the minimum operating temperature of the receiver, and such that a maximum flow is experienced at the maximum operating temperature of the receiver. The valving is accomplished by changes in viscosity of the coolant in response to the coolant being heated and cooled. No remotely operated valves, comparators or the like are needed.

  6. Analysis of super-radiant Smith-Purcell emission

    SciTech Connect

    Flory, Curt A. [Agilent Laboratories, Palo Alto, California 94304 (United States)

    2006-03-01

    Smith-Purcell emission is studied for a system with no incident field or electromagnetic feedback mechanism other than what is provided by the grating itself. A model is developed that analyzes the interaction between the electron beam and the grating electromagnetic modes. The system of equations is solved numerically, demonstrating linear emitted power versus current at low current levels and super-radiant power emission at higher currents. These results are compared to the previously published experimental data, and the model is used to gain some understanding of the physical mechanisms at work.

  7. Preliminary study of a radiantly heated fluidized bed for the production of high purity silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levenspiel, O.; Larson, M.; Zhang, G. T.; Ouyang, F.

    1983-01-01

    The preparation of very pure silicon from silane (SIH4) using radiant heating of the hot silicon particles of a fluidized bed is discussed. The fraction of electrical energy supplied to the heater which is actually absorbed by the particles and the heat transfer coefficient between the hot bed and the cool distributor plate were investigated. The experimental design is presented and the results of the study are summarized.

  8. Energy Integrated Lighting-Heating-Cooling System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meckler, Gershon; And Others

    1964-01-01

    Energy balance problems in the design of office buildings are analyzed. Through the use of integrated systems utilizing dual purpose products, a controlled environment with minimum expenditure of energy, equipment and space can be provided. Contents include--(1) office building occupancy loads, (2) office building heating load analysis, (3) office…

  9. Concerning the improvement of solar heating and cooling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashidov, Iu. K.

    It is suggested that systems of solar heating and cooling can be simplified by the use of 'organized hydrothermal processes' (OHP) in the elements (e.g., circulation systems and heat storage units) of such systems. This paper defines and classifies such processes. Design diagrams are presented for two types of systems: (1) a heating, hot-water, and storage system with one-phase OHPs; and (2) a gravity-assisted heat pipe and an adsorption-type solar refrigeration system with two-phase OHPs.

  10. Developing, testing, evaluating and optimizing solar heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    The objective is to develop and test various integrated solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water systems, and to evaluate their performance. Systems composed of new, as well a previously tested, components are carefully integrated so that effects of new components on system performance can be clearly delineated. The SEAL-DOE program includes six tasks which have received funding for the 1991--1992 fifteen-month period. These include: (1) a project employing isothermal operation of air and liquid solar space hearing systems, (2) a project to build and test several generic solar water heaters, (3) a project that will evaluate advanced solar domestic hot water components and concepts and integrate them into solar domestic hot water systems, (4) a liquid desiccant cooling system development project, (5) a project that will perform system modeling and analysis work on solid desiccant cooling systems research, and (6) a management task. The objectives and progress in each task are described in this report. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Experimental Studies of NGNP Reactor Cavity Cooling System With Water

    SciTech Connect

    Corradini, Michael; Anderson, Mark; Hassan, Yassin; Tokuhiro, Akira

    2013-01-16

    This project will investigate the flow behavior that can occur in the reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) with water coolant under the passive cooling-mode of operation. The team will conduct separate-effects tests and develop associated scaling analyses, and provide system-level phenomenological and computational models that describe key flow phenomena during RCCS operation, from forced to natural circulation, single-phase flow and two-phase flow and flashing. The project consists of the following tasks: Task 1. Conduct separate-effects, single-phase flow experiments and develop scaling analyses for comparison to system-level computational modeling for the RCCS standpipe design. A transition from forced to natural convection cooling occurs in the standpipe under accident conditions. These tests will measure global flow behavior and local flow velocities, as well as develop instrumentation for use in larger scale tests, thereby providing proper flow distribution among standpipes for decay heat removal. Task 2. Conduct separate-effects experiments for the RCCS standpipe design as two-phase flashing occurs and flow develops. As natural circulation cooling continues without an ultimate heat sink, water within the system will heat to temperatures approaching saturation , at which point two-phase flashing and flow will begin. The focus is to develop a phenomenological model from these tests that will describe the flashing and flow stability phenomena. In addition, one could determine the efficiency of phase separation in the RCCS storage tank as the two-phase flashing phenomena ensues and the storage tank vents the steam produced. Task 3. Develop a system-level computational model that will describe the overall RCCS behavior as it transitions from forced flow to natural circulation and eventual two-phase flow in the passive cooling-mode of operation. This modeling can then be used to test the phenomenological models developed as a function of scale.

  12. Next-Generation Evaporative Cooling Systems for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit Portable Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makinen, Janice V.; Anchondo, Ian; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Colunga, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    The development of the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) is currently underway at NASA Johnson Space Center. The AEMU PLSS features two new evaporative cooling systems, the Reduced Volume Prototype Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (RVP SWME), and the Auxiliary Cooling Loop (ACL). The RVP SWME is the third generation of hollow fiber SWME hardware, and like its predecessors, RVP SWME provides nominal crewmember and electronics cooling by flowing water through porous hollow fibers. Water vapor escapes through the hollow fiber pores, thereby cooling the liquid water that remains inside of the fibers. This cooled water is then recirculated to remove heat from the crewmember and PLSS electronics. Major design improvements, including a 36% reduction in volume, reduced weight, and more flight like back-pressure valve, facilitate the packaging of RVP SWME in the AEMU PLSS envelope. In addition to the RVP SWME, the Auxiliary Cooling Loop (ACL), was developed for contingency crewmember cooling. The ACL is a completely redundant, independent cooling system that consists of a small evaporative cooler--the Mini Membrane Evaporator (Mini-ME), independent pump, independent feed-water assembly and independent Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG). The Mini-ME utilizes the same hollow fiber technology featured in the RVP SWME, but is only 25% of the size of RVP SWME, providing only the necessary crewmember cooling in a contingency situation. The ACL provides a number of benefits when compared with the current EMU PLSS contingency cooling technology; contingency crewmember cooling can be provided for a longer period of time, more contingency situations can be accounted for, no reliance on a Secondary Oxygen Vessel (SOV) for contingency cooling--thereby allowing a SOV reduction in size and pressure, and the ACL can be recharged-allowing the AEMU PLSS to be reused, even after a contingency event. The development of these evaporative cooling systems will contribute to a more robust and comprehensive AEMU PLSS.

  13. Performance of Upgraded Cooling System for Lhd Helical Coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaguchi, S.; Imagawa, S.; Obana, T.; Yanagi, N.; Moriuchi, S.; Sekiguchi, H.; Oba, K.; Mito, T.; Motojima, O.; Okamura, T.; Semba, T.; Yoshinaga, S.; Wakisaka, H.

    2008-03-01

    Helical coils of the Large Helical Device (LHD) are large scale superconducting magnets for heliotron plasma experiments. The helical coils had been cooled by saturated helium at 4.4 K, 120 kPa until 2005. An upgrade of the cooling system was carried out in 2006 in order to improve the cryogenic stability of the helical coils and then it has been possible to supply the coils with subcooled helium at 3.2 K, 120 kPa. A designed mass flow of the supplied subcooled helium is 50 g/s. The subcooled helium is generated at a heat exchanger in a saturated helium bath. A series of two centrifugal cold compressors with gas foil bearing is utilized to lower the helium pressure in the bath. The supplied helium temperature is regulated by rotational speed of the cold compressors and power of a heater in the bath. The mass flow of the supplied helium is also controlled manually by a supply valve and its surplus is evaporated by ten heaters at the outlet above the coils. In the present study, the performance of the cooling system has been investigated and a stable operating method has also developed. As the result, it was confirmed that the performance of the upgraded cooling system satisfies the requirements.

  14. Hydraulic tests of emergency cooling system: L-Area

    SciTech Connect

    Hinton, J H

    1988-01-01

    The delay in L-Area startup provided an opportunity to obtain valuable data on the Emergency Cooling System (ECS) which will permit reactor operation at the highest safe power level. ECS flow is a major input to the FLOOD code which calculates reactor ECS power limits. The FLOOD code assesses the effectiveness of the ECS cooling capacity by modeling the core and plenum hydraulics under accident conditions. Presently, reactor power is not limited by the ECS cooling capacity (power limit). However, the manual calculations of ECS flows had been recently updated to include piping changes (debris strainer, valve changes, pressure release systems) and update fitting losses. Both updates resulted in reduced calculated ECS flows. Upon completion of the current program to update, validate, and document, reactor power may be limited under certain situations by ECS cooling capacity for some present reactor charge designs. A series of special hydraulic tests (Reference 1, 3) were conducted in L-Area using all sources of emergency coolant including the ECS pumps (Reference 2). The tests provided empirical hydraulic data on the ECS piping. These data will be used in computer models of the system as well as manual calculations of ECS flows. The improved modeling and accuracy of the flow calculations will permit reactor operation at the highest safe power level with respect to an ECS power limit.

  15. He-3 cooling systems for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kittel, P.

    1984-01-01

    The development of a space-compatible He(3) refrigerator would provide a significant improvement in several areas of research in the 0.3 to 1 K temperature range. There are several methods of achieving these temperatures on Earth: He(3) refrigeration, dilution refrigeration, and adiabatic demagnetization refrigeration. The progress of adapting He(3) refrigeration for use in space is described. Various cycles and possible embodiments of He(3) refrigerators are described. Also included is an analysis of the liquid confinement and liquid-vapor phase-separation system. A possible configuration is then analyzed. Finally, the results of ground-based experiments will be discussed.

  16. Correcting Aberrations in Complex Magnet Systems for Muon Cooling Channels

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Maloney, B. Erdelyi, A. Afanaciev, R.P. Johnson, Y.S. Derbenev, V.S. Morozov

    2011-03-01

    Designing and simulating complex magnet systems needed for cooling channels in both neutrino factories and muon colliders requires innovative techniques to correct for both chromatic and spherical aberrations. Optimizing complex systems, such as helical magnets for example, is also difficult but essential. By using COSY INFINITY, a differential algebra based code, the transfer and aberration maps can be examined to discover what critical terms have the greatest influence on these aberrations.

  17. A diode laser system for sideband cooling of Sr^+

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth Brown; Jaroslaw Labaziewicz; Philip Richerme; Isaac Chuang

    2007-01-01

    Sideband cooling is performed on the 5S1\\/2 to 4D5\\/2 line of Sr^+ in an RF Paul trap using a diode laser system in which the linewidth is reduced by optical feedback and the frequency is stabilized to the ion. The diode laser system uses optical feedback from a filter cavity to narrow the linewidth of an external cavity diode laser

  18. Heat pipe cooling system with sensible heat sink

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverstein, Calvin C.

    1988-01-01

    A heat pipe cooling system which employs a sensible heat sink is discussed. With this type of system, incident aerodynamic heat is transported via a heat pipe from the stagnation region to the heat sink and absorbed by raising the temperature of the heat sink material. The use of a sensible heat sink can be advantageous for situations where the total mission heat load is limited, as it is during re-entry, and a suitable radiation sink is not available.

  19. Method and system for powering and cooling semiconductor lasers

    DOEpatents

    Telford, Steven J; Ladran, Anthony S

    2014-02-25

    A semiconductor laser system includes a diode laser tile. The diode laser tile includes a mounting fixture having a first side and a second side opposing the first side and an array of semiconductor laser pumps coupled to the first side of the mounting fixture. The semiconductor laser system also includes an electrical pulse generator thermally coupled to the diode bar and a cooling member thermally coupled to the diode bar and the electrical pulse generator.

  20. Analysis of advanced solar hybrid desiccant cooling systems for buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Schlepp, D.; Schultz, K.

    1984-10-01

    This report describes an assessment of the energy savings possible from developing hybrid desiccant/vapor-compression air conditioning systems. Recent advances in dehumidifier design for solar desiccant cooling systems have resulted in a dehumidifier with a low pressure drop and high efficiency in heat and mass transfer. A recent study on hybrid desiccant/vapor compression systems showed a 30%-80% savings in resource energy when compared with the best conventional systems with vapor compression. A system consisting of a dehumidifier with vapor compression subsystems in series was found to be the simplest and best overall performer.

  1. Open air–vapor compression refrigeration system for air conditioning and hot water cooled by cool water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaobo Hou; Huacong Li; Hefei Zhang

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an open air–vapor compression refrigeration system for air conditioning and hot water cooled by cool water and proves its feasibility through performance simulation. Pinch technology is used in analysis of heat exchange in the surface heat exchanger, and the temperature difference at the pinch point is selected as 6°C. Its refrigeration depends mainly on both air and

  2. What is Success? Evaluating S'COOL, an Educational Outreach Project Focused on NASA's CERES Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, Lin H.; Costulis, P. Kay; Young, David F.; Green, Carolyn J.; Stoddard, Douglas B.; Haberer, Susan J.

    2000-01-01

    The Students' Cloud Observations On-Line (S'COOL) Project involved students in K-16 as ground truth observers for a NASA Earth-Observing satellite instrument. The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument allows scientists to study the Earth's energy budget and how clouds affect it. Student reports of cloud conditions help scientists verify their algorithms and allow students to be involved in obtaining and analyzing real scientific data. The presentation contains 23 slides.

  3. CARMENES ultra-stable cooling system: very promising results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirabet, E.; Carvas, P.; Lizon, J.-L.; Becerril, S.; Rodríguez, E.; Abril, M.; Cárdenas, M. C.; Morales, R.; Pérez, D.; Sánchez Carrasco, M. A.; Amado, P. J.; Seifert, W.; Quirrenbach, A.; Caballero, J. A.; Ribas, I.; Reiners, A.; Dreizler, S.

    2014-07-01

    CARMENES is a high resolution spectrograph to detect planets through the variation of radial velocity, destined for the Calar Alto Observatory in Almeria, Spain. The optical bench has a working temperature of 140K with a 24 hours stability of ±0,1K; goal ±0,01K. It is enclosed with a radiation shield actively cooled with thermalized nitrogen gas that flows through strategically positioned heat exchangers to remove its radiative load. The cooling system has an external preparation unit (N2GPU), which provides the nitrogen gas through actively vaporizing liquid nitrogen with heating resistances and a three stage circuit flow, each one controlled by an independent PID. Since CARMENES is still in the construction phase, a dedicated test facility has been built in order to simulate the instrument and correctly establish the N2GPU parameters. Furthermore, the test facility allows a wide range of configurations set-ups, which enables a full characterization of the N2GPU and the cooling system. The N2GPU has been designed to offer a wide temperature range of thermally stabilized nitrogen gas flow, which apart from CARMENES could also be used to provide ultra-high thermal stability in other cryogenic instruments. The present paper shows the testing of the cooling performance, the hardware used and the very promising results obtained.

  4. The Super-Radiant Mechanism, Doorway States, and Nuclear Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Auerbach, Naftali [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, 69978 (Israel)

    2010-11-24

    In 1954 the possibility of forming a 'super-radiant' (SR) state in a gas of atoms confined to a volume of a size smaller than the wave length of radiation was suggested by Dicke. The atoms, with two levels, are coupled through their common radiation field. This indirect coupling leads to a redistribution of decay widths among unstable intrinsic states. A strongly decaying SR state is created at the expense of the rest of the states of the system. The connection of this mechanism to the notion of doorway states in low-energy nuclear reactions is discussed and applications to well known nuclear physics phenomena are presented.

  5. Water-cooled air-conditioning systems for energy and power saving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. K. Suri; A. M. R. Al-Marafie; G. P. Maheshwari

    1989-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an experimental investigation to compare the performance of water-cooled and air-cooled air-conditioning systems. Two identical chilled water air-conditioning systems, incorporating air-cooled and water-cooled condensers, were used independently to supply the cooling demand of a space. All other components of the two chillers were identical and of the same make. The chillers were operated on

  6. Comparative Study Between Air-Cooled and Water-Cooled Condensers of the Air-Conditioning Systems 

    E-print Network

    Maheshwari, G. P.; Mulla Ali, A. A.

    2004-01-01

    Flowmeter Temperature Sensor Figure 1. Schematic of the A/C system used for performance assessment. Table 1. Technical Specifications of WC and AC Chillers Parameters WC AC Type of compressor Centrifugal Centrifugal Ambient design... and the ambient DBT. Also, in the case of a centrifugal, it is a strong function of the system cooling demand (SCD), which controls the loading of the compressor. The PRcf in an AC system is regulated automatically to achieve the optimum PR for the cooling...

  7. Cryogenically Cooled Field Effect Transistors for Low-Noise Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollack, Edward J.

    2002-01-01

    Recent tends in the design, fabrication and use of High-Electron-Mobility-Transistors (HEMT) in low noise amplifiers are reviewed. Systems employing these devices have achieved the lowest system noise for wavelengths greater than three millimeters with relatively modest cryogenic cooling requirements in a variety of ground and space based applications. System requirements which arise in employing such devices in imaging applications are contrasted with other leading coherent detector candidates at microwave wavelengths. Fundamental and practical limitations which arise in the context of microwave application of field effect devices at cryogenic temperatures will be discussed from a component and systems point of view.

  8. Cryogenetically Cooled Field Effect Transistors for Low-Noise Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollack, Edward J.; Rabin, Douglas M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Recent tends in the design, fabrication and use of High-Electron-Mobility-Transistors (HEMT) in low noise amplifiers are reviewed. Systems employing these devices have achieved the lowest system noise for wavelengths greater than three millimeters with relatively modest cryogenic cooling requirements in a variety of ground and space based applications. System requirements which arise in employing such devices in imaging applications are contrasted with other leading coherent detector candidates at microwave wavelengths. Fundamental and practical limitations which arise in the context of microwave application of field effect devices at cryogenic temperatures will be discussed from a component and systems point of view.

  9. Gas-cooled reactor power systems for space

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    Efficiency and mass characteristics for four gas-cooled reactor power system configurations in the 2- to 20-MWe power range are modeled. The configurations use direct and indirect Brayton cycles with and without regeneration in the power conversion loop. The prismatic ceramic core of the reactor consists of several thousand pencil-shaped tubes made from a homogeneous mixture of moderator and fuel. The heat rejection system is found to be the major contributor to system mass, particularly at high power levels. A direct, regenerated Brayton cycle with helium working fluid permits high efficiency and low specific mass for a 10-MWe system.

  10. Floating Loop System For Cooling Integrated Motors And Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W [Kingston, TN; Coomer, Chester [Knoxville, TN; Marlino, Laura D [Oak Ridge, TN

    2006-02-07

    A floating loop vehicle component cooling and air-conditioning system having at least one compressor for compressing cool vapor refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one condenser for condensing the hot vapor refrigerant into hot liquid refrigerant by exchanging heat with outdoor air; at least one floating loop component cooling device for evaporating the hot liquid refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one expansion device for expanding the hot liquid refrigerant into cool liquid refrigerant; at least one air conditioning evaporator for evaporating the cool liquid refrigerant into cool vapor refrigerant by exchanging heat with indoor air; and piping for interconnecting components of the cooling and air conditioning system.

  11. Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Spring 2011 BAE Systems Discrete Thermoelectric Cooling

    E-print Network

    Demirel, Melik C.

    (FADEC) units. The proposed TECs would use the Peltier cooling effect to draw heat away from ICs was conducted to provide more in-depth information on the problem Patents related to Peltier cooling devices Thermoelectric Cooling Overview BAE Systems is investigating the use of thermoelectric cooling devices (TECs

  12. Feasibility Studies on Commercialized Fast Breeder Reactor System (2) Gas Cooled High Temperature FBR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshihiro Kiso; Jun Kobayashi; Masanori Kid; Masashi Nomura; Masakazu Ichimiya

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) and Electric Utilities have been conducting Feasibility Studies on Commercialized FBR Systems since July 1999 under the cooperation Agreement. In that studies the preliminary concepts of various types of fast breeder reactors such as sodium cooled, heavy metal cooled and gas cooled reactors etc. have been designed and evaluated. For the gas cooled reactors,

  13. Optimal Scheduling for Biocide and Heat Exchangers Maintenance Towards Environmentally Friendly Seawater Cooling Systems 

    E-print Network

    Binmahfouz, Abdullah

    2012-10-19

    Using seawater in cooling systems is a common practice in many parts of the world where there is a shortage of freshwater. However, biofouling is one of the major operational problems associated with the usage of seawater in cooling systems...

  14. DEVELOP A CONCENTRATED SOLAR POWER-BASED THERMAL COOLING SYSTEM VIA SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A small scale CSP-based cooling system prototype (300W cooling capacity) and the system performance simulation tool will be developed as a proof of concept. Practical issues will be identified to improve our design. ...

  15. Oil cooling system for a gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffinberry, G. A.; Kast, H. B. (inventors)

    1977-01-01

    A gas turbine engine fuel delivery and control system is provided with means to recirculate all fuel in excess of fuel control requirements back to aircraft fuel tank, thereby increasing the fuel pump heat sink and decreasing the pump temperature rise without the addition of valving other than that normally employed. A fuel/oil heat exchanger and associated circuitry is provided to maintain the hot engine oil in heat exchange relationship with the cool engine fuel. Where anti-icing of the fuel filter is required, means are provided to maintain the fuel temperature entering the filter at or above a minimum level to prevent freezing thereof. Fluid circuitry is provided to route hot engine oil through a plurality of heat exchangers disposed within the system to provide for selective cooling of the oil.

  16. CCHP System with Interconnecting Cooling and Heating Network

    E-print Network

    Fu, L.; Geng, K.; Zheng, Z.; Jiang, Y.

    2006-01-01

    ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Building Commissioning for Energy Efficiency and Comfort, Vol.VI-6-3 CCHP System with Interconnecting Cooling and Heating Network Lin Fu Kecheng Geng Zhonghai Zheng Yi Jiang Associate Professor Master... between one office building (about 0.1 million square meters) and one hotel building in a typical climate day of Beijing. The hourly heat load is simulated by load simulation software DeST and the hourly power load is calculated according...

  17. Peltier cooling system utilizing liquid heat exchanger combined with pump

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Nishihata; O. Kido; T. Ueno

    2002-01-01

    Peltier cooling systems utilizing liquid heat transfer directly with thermoelectric modules are adopted in fridges for hotel-use, home-bar and so forth. This paper reports the development of a highly efficient, high capacity liquid heat exchanger in which a thermoelectric module is installed to minimize electric power consumption and reduce cost. In the heat exchanger, a highly efficient 62-mm diameter round

  18. Incremental cooling load determination for passive direct gain heating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, P. W.; Mahone, D.; Fuller, W.; Gruber, J.; Kammerud, R.; Place, W.; Anderson, B.

    1981-05-01

    The applicability of the National Association of Home Builders (NAHB) full load compressor hour method for predicting the cooling load increase in a residence attributable to direct gain passive heating systems is examined. The NAHB method predictions are compared with the results of 200 hour-by-hour simulations using BLAST, and the two methods show reasonable agreement. The degree of agreement and the limitations of the NAHB method are discussed.

  19. Solar heating and cooling technical data and systems analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, D. L.

    1976-01-01

    The acquisition and processing of selected parametric data for inclusion in a computerized Data Base using the Marshall Information Retrieval and Data System (MIRADS) developed by NASA-MSFC is discussed. This data base provides extensive technical and socioeconomic information related to solar energy heating and cooling on a national scale. A broadly based research approach was used to assist in the support of program management and the application of a cost-effective program for solar energy development and demonstration.

  20. Solar heating and cooling system installed at Columbus, Ohio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Energy System was installed as a part of a new construction of a college building. The building will house classrooms and laboratories, administrative offices and three lecture halls. The Solar Energy System consists of 4,096 square feet (128 panels) Owens/Illinois Evacuated Glass Tube Collector Subsystem, and a 5,000 gallon steel tank below ground storage system. Hot water is circulated between the collectors and storage tank, passing through a water/lithium bromide absorption chiller to cool the building.

  1. Modeling and energy simulation of the variable refrigerant flow air conditioning system with water-cooled condenser under cooling conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yueming Li; Jingyi Wu; Sumio Shiochi

    2009-01-01

    As a new system, variable refrigerant flow system with water-cooled condenser (water-cooled VRF) can offer several interesting characteristics for potential users. However, at present, its dynamic simulation simultaneously in association with building and other equipments is not yet included in the energy simulation programs. Based on the EnergyPlus's codes, and using manufacturer's performance parameters and data, the special simulation module

  2. Performance enhancement of a thermally activated cooling system using microchannel heat exchangers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hailei Wang; Richard B. Peterson

    2011-01-01

    In the current study a thermally activated cooling system that combines an ORC system with a vapor compression cooling cycle was developed and tested under laboratory conditions. This combined system can utilize waste heat or other thermal sources such as solar and geothermal to generate power and cooling. Hot oil with temperature up to 200 °C was used as the simulated

  3. Improving the Efficiency of Your Process Cooling System 

    E-print Network

    Baker, R.

    2005-01-01

    Many industries require process cooling to achieve desired outcomes of specific processes. This cooling may come from cooling towers, once-through water, mechanical refrigeration, or cryogenic sources such as liquid nitrogen or dry ice. This paper...

  4. Experimental investigation of two-stage indirect\\/direct evaporative cooling system in various climatic conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ghassem Heidarinejad; Mojtaba Bozorgmehr; Shahram Delfani; Jafar Esmaeelian

    2009-01-01

    Cooling performance of two-stage indirect\\/direct evaporative cooling system is experimentally investigated in the various simulated climatic conditions. For this purpose, a two-stage evaporative cooling experimental setup consisting of an indirect evaporative cooling stage (IEC) followed by a direct evaporative cooling stage (DEC) was designed, constructed and tested. Due to the wide variety of climatic conditions in Iran, two air simulators

  5. Cooling Energy Measurements of Houses with Attics Containing Radiant Barriers

    E-print Network

    Levins, W. P.; Karnitz, M. A.; Knight, D. K.

    1986-01-01

    W. P. Levins M. A. Karnitz D. K. Knight Research Engineer Research Bngineer Project Supervisor Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge National Laboratory Tennessee Valley Authority Oak Ridge, Tennessee Oak Ridge, Tennessee Chattanooga...

  6. POOL WATER TREATMENT AND COOLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    V. King

    2000-06-19

    The Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System is located in the Waste Handling Building (WHB), and is comprised of various process subsystems designed to support waste handling operations. This system maintains the pool water temperature within an acceptable range, maintains water quality standards that support remote underwater operations and prevent corrosion, detects leakage from the pool liner, provides the capability to remove debris from the pool, controls the pool water level, and helps limit radiological exposure to personnel. The pool structure and liner, pool lighting, and the fuel staging racks in the pool are not within the scope of the Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System. Pool water temperature control is accomplished by circulating the pool water through heat exchangers. Adequate circulation and mixing of the pool water is provided to prevent localized thermal hotspots in the pool. Treatment of the pool water is accomplished by a water treatment system that circulates the pool water through filters, and ion exchange units. These water treatment units remove radioactive and non-radioactive particulate and dissolved solids from the water, thereby providing the water clarity needed to conduct waste handling operations. The system also controls pool water chemistry to prevent advanced corrosion of the pool liner, pool components, and fuel assemblies. Removal of radioactivity from the pool water contributes to the project ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) goals. A leak detection system is provided to detect and alarm leaks through the pool liner. The pool level control system monitors the water level to ensure that the minimum water level required for adequate radiological shielding is maintained. Through interface with a demineralized water system, adequate makeup is provided to compensate for loss of water inventory through evaporation and waste handling operations. Interface with the Site Radiological Monitoring System provides continuous radiological monitoring of the pool water. The Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System, Site-Generated Radiological Waste Handling System, Site Radiological Monitoring System, Waste Handling Building Electrical System, Site Water System, and the Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System.

  7. Quality control on radiant heaters manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Daniel A.; Madruga, Francisco J.; Ibarra-Castanedo, Clemente; Conde, Olga; López-Higuera, Jose M.

    2006-04-01

    An inspection process of radiant heaters is presented in this paper. The proposed non destructive testing and evaluation (NDT and E) technique for defect assessment of radiant heaters is based on infrared thermography images properly acquired and processed. The technique can be used in on-line fabrication quality control radiant heaters manufacturing processes. By exciting the heater with a very short electrical pulse, a sequence of thermographic images is captured by an infrared camera and then analyzed. Regardless of the electrical excitation applied to the heating element of the heater, the electrical power supplied will dissipate at the resistor. Provided enough spatial resolution, the heaters could be tested with an infrared camera capturing the radiated heat. The analysis of the heating wire during the heating flank shows differences among pixels corresponding to defective points and pixels belonging to non-defective areas of the wire. The automation is provided by the development of an algorithm that looks for the slope of the heating evolution of each pixel. A Radon Transform based algorithm is here proposed to reduce human intervention providing just one image where an operator could quickly locate possible defects.

  8. Radiant heat and thermal comfort in vehicles.

    PubMed

    Devonshire, Joel M; Sayer, James R

    2005-01-01

    Infrared-reflective (IRR) treatment of automotive glass has been shown to reduce air temperature in vehicle cabins, thereby increasing fuel economy and occupant comfort. Its effect on radiant heat, however, may augment these benefits. In this study, the hypothesis that radiant heat affects subjective comfort ratings in a vehicle was tested. IRR films were systematically applied to the driver-side window of an outdoor stationary vehicle. In Phase 1, cabin air temperature was controlled while participants rated their thermal comfort. In Phase 2, air temperature was adjusted according to participants' responses. Results in Phase 1 showed that the IRR treatment improved thermal comfort on the left forearm, which was exposed to direct solar irradiance, but not whole-body thermal comfort. In Phase 2, participants indicated that they were comfortable at a higher air temperature (mean of 2.5 degrees F [1.4 degrees C]) with the IRR treatment than in the untreated condition. The results indicate that reducing radiant heat via IRR treatment affects subjective assessments of thermal comfort and allows occupants to maintain the same level of comfort in a warmer vehicle cabin. Applications of this research include future implementations of IRR treatment on automotive glass that may lead to greater fuel economy savings and occupant comfort than have previously been estimated. PMID:16553069

  9. CFD analyses of natural circulation in the air-cooled reactor cavity cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, R. [Nuclear Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL (United States); Pointer, W. D. [Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Natural Convection Shutdown Heat Removal Test Facility (NSTF) is currently being built at Argonne National Laboratory, to evaluate the feasibility of the passive Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) for Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). CFD simulations have been applied to evaluate the NSTF and NGNP RCCS designs. However, previous simulations found that convergence was very difficult to achieve in simulating the complex natural circulation. To resolve the convergence issue and increase the confidence of the CFD simulation results, additional CFD simulations were conducted using a more detailed mesh and a different solution scheme. It is found that, with the use of coupled flow and coupled energy models, the convergence can be greatly improved. Furthermore, the effects of convection in the cavity and the effects of the uncertainty in solid surface emissivity are also investigated. (authors)

  10. High performance liquid desiccant cooling system simulation at standard ARI conditions 

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Brian Francis

    1991-01-01

    106 109 112 VITA 144 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1 Standard Vapor Compression System 2 Basic Liquid Desiccant Cooling System 3 Typical Liquid Desiccant Air Cycle Psychometrics 4 Solar Space Conditioning System Proposed by Gandhidasan Page 5... for Outlet CELD Temperature 13 Regression Model for Outlet CELD Concentration 14 Open Flow Regenerator 15 Cooling Tower Thermodynamic Diagram 16 IEC and EC Psychometrics 17 PPHE Configuration 18 Cooling Cycle Configuration 1 19 Cooling Cycle...

  11. Active cooling for downhole instrumentation: Preliminary analysis and system selection

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, G.A.

    1988-03-01

    A feasibility study and a series of preliminary designs and analyses were done to identify candidate processes or cycles for use in active cooling systems for downhole electronic instruments. A matrix of energy types and their possible combinations was developed and the energy conversion process for each pari was identified. The feasibility study revealed conventional as well as unconventional processes and possible refrigerants and identified parameters needing further clarifications. A conceptual design or series od oesigns for each system was formulated and a preliminary analysis of each design was completed. The resulting coefficient of performance for each system was compared with the Carnot COP and all systems were ranked by decreasing COP. The system showing the best combination of COP, exchangeability to other operating conditions, failure mode, and system serviceability is chosen for use as a downhole refrigerator. 85 refs., 48 figs., 33 tabs.

  12. Passive-solar directional-radiating cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Schertz, William W. (Batavia, IL)

    1986-01-01

    A radiative cooling system for use with an ice-making system having a radiating surface aimed at the sky for radiating energy at one or more wavelength bands for which the atmosphere is transparent and a cover thermally isolated from the radiating surface and transparent at least to the selected wavelength or wavelengths, the thermal isolation reducing the formation of condensation on the radiating surface and/or cover and permitting the radiation to continue when the radiating surface is below the dewpoint of the atmosphere, and a housing supporting the radiating surface, cover and heat transfer means to an ice storage reservoir.

  13. System Study: Reactor Core Isolation Cooling 1998–2012

    SciTech Connect

    T. E. Wierman

    2013-10-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) system at 31 U.S. commercial boiling water reactors. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2012 for selected components were obtained from the Equipment Performance and Information Exchange (EPIX). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing trend was identified in the HPCI results. Statistically significant decreasing trends were identified for RCIC start-only and 8-hour trends.

  14. Thermal comfort analysis using BCAP for retrofitting a radiantly heated residence

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, K.S.; DeGreef, J.M. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Watson, R.D. [SSHC, Old Saybrook, CT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the use of a thermal comfort design methodology to analyze the thermal comfort distribution in a radiantly heated room. The rooms chosen for the analysis are part of a house in a retirement community in the northeastern United States. The algorithm used to calculate the thermal comfort distribution was developed under ASHRAE RP-657. This algorithm computes heat transfer within a radiantly heated or cooled room, the mass-averaged room air temperature, and the wall surface temperature distributions. The radiation formulation used in the model accommodates arbitrary placement of walls and objects within the room. The results are corroborated by comparing the calculated mass-averaged dry-bulb air temperature to the observed room air temperature. The work reported here was funded under ASHRAE RP-907.

  15. System design package for the solar heating and cooling central data processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The central data processing system provides the resources required to assess the performance of solar heating and cooling systems installed at remote sites. These sites consist of residential, commercial, government, and educational types of buildings, and the solar heating and cooling systems can be hot-water, space heating, cooling, and combinations of these. The instrumentation data associated with these systems will vary according to the application and must be collected, processed, and presented in a form which supports continuity of performance evaluation across all applications. Overall software system requirements were established for use in the central integration facility which transforms raw data collected at remote sites into performance evaluation information for assessing the performance of solar heating and cooling systems.

  16. A gas-cooled reactor surface power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipinski, Ronald J.; Wright, Steven A.; Lenard, Roger X.; Harms, Gary A.

    1999-01-01

    A human outpost on Mars requires plentiful power to assure survival of the astronauts. Anywhere from 50 to 500 kW of electric power (kWe) will be needed, depending on the number of astronauts, level of scientific activity, and life-cycle closure desired. This paper describes a 250-kWe power system based on a gas-cooled nuclear reactor with a recuperated closed Brayton cycle conversion system. The design draws upon the extensive data and engineering experience developed under the various high-temperature gas cooled reactor programs and under the SP-100 program. The reactor core is similar in power and size to the research reactors found on numerous university campuses. The fuel is uranium nitride clad in Nb1%Zr, which has been extensively tested under the SP-100 program. The fuel rods are arranged in a hexagonal array within a BeO block. The BeO softens the spectrum, allowing better use of the fuel and stabilizing the geometry against deformation during impact or other loadings. The system has a negative temperature feedback coefficient so that the power level will automatically follow a variable load without the need for continuous adjustment of control elements. Waste heat is removed by an air-cooled heat exchanger using cold Martian air. The amount of radioactivity in the reactor at launch is very small (less than a Curie, and about equal to a truckload of uranium ore). The system will need to be engineered so that criticality can not occur for any launch accident. This system is also adaptable for electric propulsion or life-support during transit to and from Mars.

  17. Absorption heat pump in heating and cooling systems of buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aho, I.

    This report focuses on the operation and applicability of absorption heat pumps (AHP) in building heating and cooling systems. Examples are presented on heating systems of residential buildings and a heating/cooling system of an office building. Despite the limitations of present AHP technology the examples assume AHPs which produce heat at an appropriate temperature level for each application. According to the calculations the primary energy saving potential of AHPs in building specific heat production is 20 to 40 percent. For AHPs coupled with district heating systems the primary energy saving potential can not be unambiguously defined because it is influenced by the production form of district heat, the influence of district heat demand on power generation etc. For the time being economical aspects limit the application potential of AHPs. The profitability of AHP investments is quite poor because of present energy prices, the price ratio of different energy forms and the high investment cost of AHP-systems. The environmental impact of AHPs depend on the fuel used in the generator. Using fuel oil or gas will decrease sulphur and particle emissions but might increase the emissions of NO(x) and hydrocarbons because of the smaller size of combustion units. CFC-emissions will be decreased because AHPs apply alternative refrigerants.

  18. Pilot-scale cooling tower to evaluate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control strategies for cooling system makeup water.

    PubMed

    Chien, S H; Hsieh, M K; Li, H; Monnell, J; Dzombak, D; Vidic, R

    2012-02-01

    Pilot-scale cooling towers can be used to evaluate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control strategies when using particular cooling system makeup water and particular operating conditions. To study the potential for using a number of different impaired waters as makeup water, a pilot-scale system capable of generating 27,000 kJ?h heat load and maintaining recirculating water flow with a Reynolds number of 1.92 × 10(4) was designed to study these critical processes under conditions that are similar to full-scale systems. The pilot-scale cooling tower was equipped with an automatic makeup water control system, automatic blowdown control system, semi-automatic biocide feeding system, and corrosion, scaling, and biofouling monitoring systems. Observed operational data revealed that the major operating parameters, including temperature change (6.6 °C), cycles of concentration (N = 4.6), water flow velocity (0.66 m?s), and air mass velocity (3660 kg?h m(2)), were controlled quite well for an extended period of time (up to 2 months). Overall, the performance of the pilot-scale cooling towers using treated municipal wastewater was shown to be suitable to study critical processes (corrosion, scaling, biofouling) and evaluate cooling water management strategies for makeup waters of complex quality. PMID:22380105

  19. Pilot-scale cooling tower to evaluate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control strategies for cooling system makeup water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, S. H.; Hsieh, M. K.; Li, H.; Monnell, J.; Dzombak, D.; Vidic, R.

    2012-02-01

    Pilot-scale cooling towers can be used to evaluate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control strategies when using particular cooling system makeup water and particular operating conditions. To study the potential for using a number of different impaired waters as makeup water, a pilot-scale system capable of generating 27 000 kJ/h heat load and maintaining recirculating water flow with a Reynolds number of 1.92 × 104 was designed to study these critical processes under conditions that are similar to full-scale systems. The pilot-scale cooling tower was equipped with an automatic makeup water control system, automatic blowdown control system, semi-automatic biocide feeding system, and corrosion, scaling, and biofouling monitoring systems. Observed operational data revealed that the major operating parameters, including temperature change (6.6 °C), cycles of concentration (N = 4.6), water flow velocity (0.66 m/s), and air mass velocity (3660 kg/h m2), were controlled quite well for an extended period of time (up to 2 months). Overall, the performance of the pilot-scale cooling towers using treated municipal wastewater was shown to be suitable to study critical processes (corrosion, scaling, biofouling) and evaluate cooling water management strategies for makeup waters of complex quality.

  20. Toward an Earth Clouds, Aerosols and Radiation Explore (EarthCARE) thermal flux determination: Evaluation using Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) true along-track data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domenech, C.; Wehr, T.; Fischer, J.

    2011-03-01

    The Earth Clouds, Aerosols and Radiation Explorer (EarthCARE) mission developed by the European Space Agency and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency addresses the need to improve the understanding of the interactions between cloud, aerosol, and radiation processes. The broadband radiometer (BBR) instrument on board the EarthCARE spacecraft provides measurements of broadband reflected solar and emitted thermal radiances at the top of atmosphere (TOA) over the along-track satellite path at three fixed viewing zenith angles. The multiangular information provided by the BBR, combined with the spectral information from the EarthCARE's multispectral imager (MSI) can be exploited to construct accurate thermal radiance-to-flux conversion algorithms on the basis of radiative transfer modeling. In this study, the methodology to derive longwave (LW) fluxes from BBR and MSI data is described, and the performance of the LW BBR angular models is compared with the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Terra flux retrievals in order to evaluate the reliability of the BBR synthetic models when applied to satellite-based radiances. For this purpose, the BBR methodology proposed in this work is adapted to the CERES and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument specifications, and new LW angular models for CERES are developed. According to plane-parallel simulations, the BBR LW flux uncertainty caused by flux inversion could be reduced up to 0.4 W m-2. The intercomparison between CERES BBR-like adapted and CERES original angular models is performed over a BBR-like database of CERES true along track, and the averaged instantaneous retrievals agree to within 2 W m-2.

  1. A Simple and Intuitive Graphical Approach to the Design of Thermoelectric Cooling Systems

    E-print Network

    out. Active cooling can be realized by applying a thermoelectric (Peltier) cooler (TEC) and a heatsinkA Simple and Intuitive Graphical Approach to the Design of Thermoelectric Cooling Systems Simon, thermoelectric active cooling systems can help maintain electronic devices at a desired temperature condition

  2. A new approach to analysis and optimization of evaporative cooling system I: Theory

    E-print Network

    Pan, Ning

    A new approach to analysis and optimization of evaporative cooling system I: Theory Qun Chen a in revised form 18 February 2010 Accepted 21 February 2010 Available online xxx Keywords: Evaporative cooling and optimize the performance of evaporative cooling systems. We first introduce a few new concepts including

  3. 40 CFR 749.68 - Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems...CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT WATER TREATMENT CHEMICALS Air Conditioning...749.68 Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling...

  4. 40 CFR 749.68 - Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems...CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT WATER TREATMENT CHEMICALS Air Conditioning...749.68 Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling...

  5. 40 CFR 749.68 - Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems...CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT WATER TREATMENT CHEMICALS Air Conditioning...749.68 Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling...

  6. 40 CFR 749.68 - Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems...CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT WATER TREATMENT CHEMICALS Air Conditioning...749.68 Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling...

  7. 40 CFR 749.68 - Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems...CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT WATER TREATMENT CHEMICALS Air Conditioning...749.68 Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling...

  8. S`COOL: Leveraging Information Technology Advances to Present K-12 Students with Specifically Relevant Satellite Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. H. Chambers; T. M. Rogerson; J. D. Fischer; S. W. Moore

    2007-01-01

    The Students` Cloud Observations On-Line (S`COOL) Project began in 1997 as a way to connect K-12 classrooms directly with ongoing NASA Earth Science research. Through the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project, students as young as kindergarten have been involved for more than 10 years in providing ground truth observations of cloud cover and type. NASA scientists

  9. Potential of Evaporative Cooling Systems for Buildings in India

    E-print Network

    Maiya, M. P.; Vijay, S.

    2010-01-01

    ) where, M = metabolic heat production, W/m2 W = external work accomplished, W/m2 fcl = clothing area factor, dimensionless tcl = clothing surface temperature, ?C trm = mean radiant temperature, ?C pa = water vapour pressure in air, k... normal healthy sedentary person is called the basal metabolic rate and is of the order of 58 W/m2 (1 met). The maximum value may be as much as 8 times of this for a person engaged in sustained hard work. For our model a value of 65 W/m2 is assumed...

  10. Modification of the Core Cooling System of TRIGA 2000 Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Umar, Efrizon; Fiantini, Rosalina [National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia, Jalan Tamansari 71, Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia)

    2010-06-22

    To accomplish safety requirements, a set of actions has to be performed following the recommendations of the IAEA safety series 35 applied to research reactor. Such actions are considered in modernization of the old system, improving the core cooling system and safety evaluations. Due to the complexity of the process and the difficulty in putting the apparatus in the reactor core, analytical and experimental study on the determination of flow and temperature distribution in the whole coolant channel are difficult to be done. In the present work, a numerical study of flow and temperature distribution in the coolant channel of TRIGA 2000 has been carried out using CFD package. For this study, simulations were carried out on 3-D tested model. The model consists of the reactor tank, thermal and thermalizing column, reflector, rotary specimen rack, chimney, fuel element, primary pipe, diffuser, beam tube and a part of the core are constructed by 1.50 million unstructured tetrahedral cell elements. The results show that for the initial condition (116 fuel elements in the core) and for the inlet temperature of 24 deg. C and the primary velocity of 5.6 m/s, there no boiling phenomena occur in the coolant channel. Due to this result, it is now possible to improve the core cooling system of TRIGA 2000 reactor. Meanwhile, forced flow from the diffuser system only affected the flow pattern in the outside of chimney and put on a small effect to the fluid flow's velocity in the inside of chimney.

  11. Modification of the Core Cooling System of TRIGA 2000 Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umar, Efrizon; Fiantini, Rosalina

    2010-06-01

    To accomplish safety requirements, a set of actions has to be performed following the recommendations of the IAEA safety series 35 applied to research reactor. Such actions are considered in modernization of the old system, improving the core cooling system and safety evaluations. Due to the complexity of the process and the difficulty in putting the apparatus in the reactor core, analytical and experimental study on the determination of flow and temperature distribution in the whole coolant channel are difficult to be done. In the present work, a numerical study of flow and temperature distribution in the coolant channel of TRIGA 2000 has been carried out using CFD package. For this study, simulations were carried out on 3-D tested model. The model consists of the reactor tank, thermal and thermalizing column, reflector, rotary specimen rack, chimney, fuel element, primary pipe, diffuser, beam tube and a part of the core are constructed by 1.50 million unstructured tetrahedral cell elements. The results show that for the initial condition (116 fuel elements in the core) and for the inlet temperature of 24°C and the primary velocity of 5.6 m/s, there no boiling phenomena occur in the coolant channel. Due to this result, it is now possible to improve the core cooling system of TRIGA 2000 reactor. Meanwhile, forced flow from the diffuser system only affected the flow pattern in the outside of chimney and put on a small effect to the fluid flow's velocity in the inside of chimney.

  12. Critical Factors in Adopting Cooling Media for Central Air-Conditioning Systems in Hong Kong

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kwok Hung Chan

    2010-01-01

    There has been a dilemma about whether to adopt water-cooled or air-cooled air-conditioning systems at various times for different developments in Hong Kong, strongly influenced by the local government. Fresh water has been a scarce resource as a cooling medium; however, in recent years, the local government has advocated water-cooled air-conditioning systems, using fresh water or sea water as a

  13. Model Predictive Control for the Operation of Building Cooling Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Yudong; Borrelli, Francesco; Hencey, Brandon; Coffey, Brian; Bengea, Sorin; Haves, Philip

    2010-06-29

    A model-based predictive control (MPC) is designed for optimal thermal energy storage in building cooling systems. We focus on buildings equipped with a water tank used for actively storing cold water produced by a series of chillers. Typically the chillers are operated at night to recharge the storage tank in order to meet the building demands on the following day. In this paper, we build on our previous work, improve the building load model, and present experimental results. The experiments show that MPC can achieve reduction in the central plant electricity cost and improvement of its efficiency.

  14. Thermal design of lithium bromide-water solution vapor absorption cooling system for indirect evaporative cooling for IT pod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawant, Digvijay Ramkrishna

    Nowadays with increase use of internet, mobile there is increase in heat which ultimately increases the efficient cooling system of server room or IT POD. Use of traditional ways of cooling system has ultimately increased CO2 emission and depletion of CFC's are serious environmental issues which led scientific people to improve cooling techniques and eliminate use of CFC's. To reduce dependency on fossil fuels and 4environmental friendly system needed to be design. For being utilizing low grade energy source such as solar collector and reducing dependency on fossil fuel vapour absorption cooling system has shown a great driving force in today's refrigeration systems. This LiBr-water aabsorption cooling consists of five heat exchanger namely: Evaporator, Absorber, Solution Heat Exchanger, Generator, Condenser. The thermal design was done for a load of 23 kW and the procedure was described in the thesis. There are 120 servers in the IT POD emitting 196 W of heat each on full load and some of the heat was generated by the computer placed inside the IT POD. A detailed procedure has been discussed. A excel spreadsheet was to prepared with varying tube sizes to see the effect on flows and ultimately overall heat transfer coefficient.

  15. Carbon-free hydrogen and electricity from coal: options for syngas cooling in systems using a hydrogen separation membrane reactor - article no. 031401

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luca De Lorenzo; Thomas G. Kreutz; Paolo Chiesa; Robert H. Williams

    2008-01-01

    Conversion of coal to carbon-free energy carriers, H-2 and electricity, with CO capture and storage may have the potential to satisfy at a comparatively low cost much of the energy requirements in a carbon-constrained world. This study focuses on the synergy between H separation membrane reactors (HSMRs) and syngas cooling with radiant and convective heat exchanges; such 'syngas coolers' invariably

  16. 16 CFR 1209.6 - Test procedures for critical radiant flux.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...chamber from the radiant energy source. The radiant heat energy source shall be a panel... (3) The radiant heat energy panel shall be mounted in...important to note that the zero reference point on the dummy specimen...

  17. 16 CFR 1209.6 - Test procedures for critical radiant flux.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...chamber from the radiant energy source. The radiant heat energy source shall be a panel... (3) The radiant heat energy panel shall be mounted in...important to note that the zero reference point on the dummy specimen...

  18. 16 CFR 1209.6 - Test procedures for critical radiant flux.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...chamber from the radiant energy source. The radiant heat energy source shall be a panel... (3) The radiant heat energy panel shall be mounted in...important to note that the zero reference point on the dummy specimen...

  19. 16 CFR 1209.6 - Test procedures for critical radiant flux.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...chamber from the radiant energy source. The radiant heat energy source shall be a panel... (3) The radiant heat energy panel shall be mounted in...important to note that the zero reference point on the dummy specimen...

  20. 16 CFR 1209.6 - Test procedures for critical radiant flux.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...chamber from the radiant energy source. The radiant heat energy source shall be a panel... (3) The radiant heat energy panel shall be mounted in...important to note that the zero reference point on the dummy specimen...

  1. Experimental and CFD Analysis of Advanced Convective Cooling Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, Yassin A; Ugaz, Victor M

    2012-06-27

    The objective of this project is to study the fundamental physical phenomena in the reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) of very high-temperature reactors (VHTRs). One of the primary design objectives is to assure that RCCS acts as an ultimate heat sink capable of maintaining thermal integrity of the fuel, vessel, and equipment within the reactor cavity for the entire spectrum of postulated accident scenarios. Since construction of full-scale experimental test facilities to study these phenomena is impractical, it is logical to expect that computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations will play a key role in the RCCS design process. An important question then arises: To what extent are conventional CFD codes able to accurately capture the most important flow phenomena, and how can they be modified to improve their quantitative predictions? Researchers are working to tackle this problem in two ways. First, in the experimental phase, the research team plans to design and construct an innovative platform that will provide a standard test setting for validating CFD codes proposed for the RCCS design. This capability will significantly advance the state of knowledge in both liquid-cooled and gas-cooled (e.g., sodium fast reactor) reactor technology. This work will also extend flow measurements to micro-scale levels not obtainable in large-scale test facilities, thereby revealing previously undetectable phenomena that will complement the existing infrastructure. Second, in the computational phase of this work, numerical simulation of the flow and temperature profiles will be performed using advanced turbulence models to simulate the complex conditions of flows in critical zones of the cavity. These models will be validated and verified so that they can be implemented into commercially available CFD codes. Ultimately, the results of these validation studies can then be used to enable a more accurate design and safety evaluation of systems in actual nuclear power applications (both during normal operation and accident scenarios).

  2. Superconducting helical solenoid systems for muon cooling experiment at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Kashikhin, Vladimir S.; Andreev, Nikolai; /Fermilab; Johnson, Rolland P.; /MUONS Inc., Batavia; Kashikhin, Vadim V.; Lamm, Michael J.; Romanov, Gennady; Yonehara, Katsuya; Zlobin, Alexander V.; /Fermilab

    2007-08-01

    Novel configurations of superconducting magnet system for Muon Beam Cooling Experiment is under design at Fermilab. The magnet system has to generate longitudinal and transverse dipole and quadrupole helical magnetic fields providing a muon beam motion along helical orbit. It was found that such complicated field configuration can be formed by a set of circular coils shifted in transverse directions in such a way that their centers lay on the center of the helical beam orbit. Closed beam orbit configurations were also proposed and investigated. This paper describes the magnetic and mechanical designs and parameters of such magnetic system based on a NbTi Rutherford type cable. The helical solenoid fabrication, assembly and quench protection issues are presented.

  3. THERMAL DESIGN OF THE ITER VACUUM VESSEL COOLING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Carbajo, Juan J [ORNL] [ORNL; Yoder Jr, Graydon L [ORNL] [ORNL; Kim, Seokho H [ORNL] [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    RELAP5-3D models of the ITER Vacuum Vessel (VV) Primary Heat Transfer System (PHTS) have been developed. The design of the cooling system is described in detail, and RELAP5 results are presented. Two parallel pump/heat exchanger trains comprise the design one train is for full-power operation and the other is for emergency operation or operation at decay heat levels. All the components are located inside the Tokamak building (a significant change from the original configurations). The results presented include operation at full power, decay heat operation, and baking operation. The RELAP5-3D results confirm that the design can operate satisfactorily during both normal pulsed power operation and decay heat operation. All the temperatures in the coolant and in the different system components are maintained within acceptable operating limits.

  4. Completion of high-efficiency water pipe cooling system for underground transmission line

    SciTech Connect

    Kumai, W.; Hashimoto, I. (Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Osaka (Japan)); Ohsawa, S.; Mitani, M.; Matsuda, Y. (Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1994-01-01

    An advanced, high-efficient, forced cooling system was developed and employed for a bulk power underground transmission cable line called Nankou-Karyoku Line. A principal feature of this system is an efficient computer-controlled operation method of cooling equipment to reduce the running cost of the equipment by optimizing the cooling rate according to load changes of the cable line. This paper introduces an actual performance of the cooling operation measured and evaluated on the cable line, as well as the outline of the cooling system.

  5. Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Doellner, O.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report beings with a historical overview on the origin and early beginnings of Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft. The report reviews the work done in Phase I (Grant DE-FG01-82CE-15144) and then gives a discussion of Phase II (Grant DE-FG01-86CE-15301). Included is a reasonably detailed discussion of photovoltaic cells and the research and development needed in this area. The report closes with a historical perspective and summary related to situations historically encountered on projects of this nature. 15 refs.

  6. Luminosity of the NICA Collider in working mode with using electron cooling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, A. B.; Meshkov, I. N.; Tuzikov, A. V.; Philippov, A. V.

    2014-09-01

    The paper investigates the problem of balance between the intrabeam scattering, electron cooling and radiative recombination processes in the NICA Collider working mode with using of electron cooling system. The reducing methods of radiative recombination influence due to electron cooling are discussed.

  7. Optimization of water-cooled chiller system with load-based speed control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. W. Yu; K. T. Chan

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the energy performance of chiller and cooling tower systems integrated with variable condenser water flow and optimal speed control for tower fans and condenser water pumps. Thermodynamic-behaviour chiller and cooling tower models were developed to assess how different control methods of cooling towers and condenser water pumps influence the trade-off between the chiller power, pump power, fan

  8. Hybrid vapor compression refrigeration system with an integrated ejector cooling cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yinhai Zhu; Peixue Jiang

    A refrigeration system was developed which combines a basic vapor compression refrigeration cycle with an ejector cooling cycle. The ejector cooling cycle is driven by the waste heat from the condenser in the vapor compression refrigeration cycle. The additional cooling capacity from the ejector cycle is directly input into the evaporator of the vapor compression refrigeration cycle. The governing equations

  9. Review and Projections of Integrated Cooling Systems for Three-Dimensional

    E-print Network

    Kandlikar, Satish

    D IC, review, single-phase cooling, electronics cooling, flow boiling, microchannels 1 Introduction single-phase flow, and two-phase flow (flow boiling). The interrelations between the heat transfer rateReview and Projections of Integrated Cooling Systems for Three-Dimensional Integrated Circuits

  10. Survival of zooplankton entrained into the cooling water system and supplemental cooling towers of a steam-electric generating station located on Galveston Bay, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Chase, Cathleen Louise

    1977-01-01

    S1:RVIVAL OF ZOOPLANKTON ENTRAINED INTO THE COOLING WATER SYSTEM AND SUPPLEMENTAL COOLING TOWERS OF A STEAM-ELECTRIC GENERATING STATION LOCATED ON GALVESTON BAY, TEXAS A Thesis by CATHLEEN LOUISE CHASE Submitted to the Graduate College... of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of ?1ASTER OF SCIENCE May 1977 Major Subject: Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences SURVIVAL OF ZOOPLANKTON ENTRAINED INTO THE COOLING WATER SYSTEM AND SUPPLEMENTAL COOLING...

  11. COOLING SYSTEM FOR THE MERIT HIGH-POWER TARGET EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Haug, F.; Pereira, H.; Silva, P.; Pezzetti, M.; Pavlov, O.; Pirotte, O.; Metselaar, J.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fabich, A.; Lettry, J. [CERN, CH-1211, Geneva, 23 (Switzerland); Kirk, H. G. [BNL, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); McDonald, K. T. [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Titus, P. [NW22-225 MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, 185 Albany Street, Cambridge MA 02139 (United States); Bennett, J. R. J. [CCLRC, RAL, Chilton, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-09

    MERIT is a proof-of-principle experiment of a target station suitable as source for future muon colliders or neutrino factories. When installed at the CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) PS (Proton Synchrotron) complex fast-extracted high-intensity proton beams intercepted a free mercury jet inside a normal-conducting, pulsed 15-T capture solenoid magnet cooled with liquid nitrogen. Up to 25 MJ of Joule heat was dissipated in the magnet during a pulse. The fully automated, remotely controlled cryogenic system of novel design permitted the transfer of nitrogen by the sole means of differential pressures inside the vessels. This fast cycling system permitted several hundred tests in less than three weeks during the 2007 data taking campaign.

  12. Thermoelectric generator cooling system and method of control

    SciTech Connect

    Prior, Gregory P; Meisner, Gregory P; Glassford, Daniel B

    2012-10-16

    An apparatus is provided that includes a thermoelectric generator and an exhaust gas system operatively connected to the thermoelectric generator to heat a portion of the thermoelectric generator with exhaust gas flow through the thermoelectric generator. A coolant system is operatively connected to the thermoelectric generator to cool another portion of the thermoelectric generator with coolant flow through the thermoelectric generator. At least one valve is controllable to cause the coolant flow through the thermoelectric generator in a direction that opposes a direction of the exhaust gas flow under a first set of operating conditions and to cause the coolant flow through the thermoelectric generator in the direction of exhaust gas flow under a second set of operating conditions.

  13. High power rapidly tunable system for laser cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Eduardo; Valenzuela Jimenez, Victor Manuel; Hernandez Diaz, Lorenzo

    2012-06-01

    Laser cooling experiments require light sources that can be rapidly tuned in frequency and power. Keeping as much power as possible increases the number of trapped atoms. We present a configuration that combines the capabilities of rapid frequency tuning with power amplification in a robust system. A double pass acousto-optic modulator (AOM) changes the frequency of the laser beam while keeping the alignment approximately constant. We decouple the modulation and amplification sections using an optical fiber and we keep the power out of the fiber constant by feed-forward on the amplitude modulation of the AOM. The tapered amplifier is in a double pass configuration and requires an input of only 1 mW to obtain 1 W out. A second modulator controls the intensity after the amplifier and generates additional beams that we use, for example, to do absorption imaging. We demonstrate the transfer of atoms to a dipole trap using the system.

  14. Solar heating and cooling: Technical data and systems analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    The solar energy research is reported including climatic data, architectural data, heating and cooling equipment, thermal loads, and economic data. Lists of data sources presented include: selected data sources for solar energy heating and cooling; bibliography of solar energy, and other energy sources; sources for manufacturing and sales, solar energy collectors; and solar energy heating and cooling projects.

  15. Impact of Surface Characteristics on Radiant Panel Output

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Calvin Lindstrom; Daniel E. Fisher; Curtis O. Pedersen

    This paper presents the experimental results of a research project conducted to determine the impact of surface charac- teristics on radiant panel output. The hemispherical and angu- lar emittance and radiant panel output were measured for various modern building materials. The surfaces were found to have uniformly high hemispherical emittances and could be considered diffuse emitters. An office-sized environmental chamber

  16. Experimental study on cool storage air-conditioning system with spherical capsules packed bed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guiyin Fang; Shuangmao Wu; Xu Liu

    2010-01-01

    An experimental investigation on operation characteristics of cool storage air-conditioning system with spherical capsules packed bed was performed in this paper. The experimental system of cool storage air-conditioning system with spherical capsules packed bed was set up. The performance parameters such as the evaporation pressure and the condensation pressure of refrigeration system, the refrigeration capacity and the coefficient of performance

  17. A new combined cooling, heating and power system driven by solar energy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiangfeng Wang; Yiping Dai; Lin Gao; Shaolin Ma

    2009-01-01

    A new combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP) system is proposed. This system is driven by solar energy, which is different from the current CCHP systems with gas turbine or engine as prime movers. This system combines a Rankine cycle and an ejector refrigeration cycle, which could produce cooling output, heating output and power output simultaneously. The effects of hour

  18. A New Principle for Electronic Cooling of Mesoscopic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rego, Luis G. C.

    2000-03-01

    In many semiconductor heterostructures the electrons behave like a low-dimensional system and develop new properties susceptible to control by an external parameter. Mesoscopic transport and optical properties have been studied extensively in this way, but low-dimensional thermal properties have to date received much less attention. In this work(Luis G.C. Rego and George Kirczenow, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75) (15), 2262 (99) we present the concepts of a new form of cooling of semiconductor mesoscopic samples which could be used in low temperature experiments. The cooling is the result of a quasi-static expansion of the electrons occupying the quasi-2D subbands of a quantum well (QW) or a multiple-quantum-well array, induced by an external electric field applied perpendicularly to the QW plane. Under ideal conditions the final temperature is half of the original and the dynamics of the process is universal and reversible. The feasibility of the process is investigated by self-consistent calculations at temperatures below 1K.

  19. Heating and cooling system. [for fatigue test specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imig, L. A.; Gardner, M. R. (inventors)

    1982-01-01

    A heating and cooling apparatus capable of cyclic heating and cooling of a test specimen undergoing fatigue testing is discussed. Cryogenic fluid is passed through a block clamped to the speciment to cool the block and the specimen. Heating cartridges penetrate the block to heat the block and the specimen to very hot temperaures. Control apparatus is provided to alternatively activate the cooling and heating modes to effect cyclic heating and cooling between very hot and very cold temperatures. The block is constructed of minimal mass to facilitate the rapid temperature changes.

  20. Cryogenic system for the infrared space telescope SPICA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugita, Hiroyuki; Sato, Yoichi; Nakagawa, Takao; Murakami, Hiroshi; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Enya, Keigo; Murakami, Masahide; Tsunematsu, Shoji; Hirabayashi, Masayuki

    2008-07-01

    The SPICA mission has been proposed to JAXA as the second Japanese IR space telescope to be launched in 2017. The SPICA spacecraft, launched with an H-IIA launch vehicle, is to be transferred into a halo orbit around the Sun-Earth L2, where effective radiant cooling is feasible owing to solar rays and radiant heat fluxes from the Earth constantly coming from the same direction. That optimal thermal environment enables this IR space telescope to use a large 3.5-mdiameter- single-aperture primary mirror cooled to 4.5 K with advanced mechanical cryocoolers and effective radiant cooling instead of a massive and short-lived cryogen. As a result of thermal and structural analyses, the thermal design of cryogenic system was obtained. Then, mechanical cryocoolers have been developed to meet cooling requirement at 1.7 K, 4.5 K and 20 K. The latest results of upgrading of the 20 K-class two-stage Stirling cooler, the 4K-class JT cooler, and the 1K-class JT cooler indicate that all cryocoolers gain a sufficient margin of cooling capacity with unprecedentedly low power consumption for the cooling requirement. It is concluded that the feasibility of the SPICA mission was confirmed for the critical cryogenic system design, while some attempts to achieve higher reliability, higher cooling capacity and less vibration have been continued for stable operations throughout the entire mission period.

  1. Modeling and performance comparison of some non-conventional cooling and dehumidification options with a conventional cooling coil system

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, A.Y.; Gonzalez, P.; Quinones, R. [UPR, Mayaguez (Puerto Rico). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1995-12-31

    The use of a packed-type liquid desiccant absorber (PLDA) or an internally cooled liquid desiccant absorber (ICLDA) for air cooling and dehumidification show some promises over a water cooled cooling coil (WCCC) in terms of coolant temperature requirements and renewable energy applications. The purpose of this paper is to compare the performance of a PLDA, an ICLDA, and a WCCC with each other. For this purpose models to predict the performance of each system are developed and load removal characteristic plots are generated and presented in this work. As a case study, for two different sets of air inlet conditions depicting a high and a low latent and sensible load on each system, their cooling and dehumidification performance is reported as a function of coolant temperature and mass flow rate. Finally, for a given coolant temperature and mass flow rate, it was found that a PLDA and an ICLDA have better latent load removal characteristics while a WCCC showed better sensible load removal characteristics.

  2. Intelligent Engine Systems: Thermal Management and Advanced Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergholz, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The objective is to provide turbine-cooling technologies to meet Propulsion 21 goals related to engine fuel burn, emissions, safety, and reliability. Specifically, the GE Aviation (GEA) Advanced Turbine Cooling and Thermal Management program seeks to develop advanced cooling and flow distribution methods for HP turbines, while achieving a substantial reduction in total cooling flow and assuring acceptable turbine component safety and reliability. Enhanced cooling techniques, such as fluidic devices, controlled-vortex cooling, and directed impingement jets, offer the opportunity to incorporate both active and passive schemes. Coolant heat transfer enhancement also can be achieved from advanced designs that incorporate multi-disciplinary optimization of external film and internal cooling passage geometry.

  3. Consideration of sub-cooled LN2 circulation system for HTS power machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Shigeru; Hirai, Hirokazu; Nara, N.; Nagasaka, T.; Hirokawa, M.; Okamoto, H.; Hayashi, H.; Shiohara, Y.

    2012-06-01

    We consider a sub-cooled liquid nitrogen (LN) circulation system for HTS power equipment. The planned circulation system consists of a sub-cool heat exchanger (subcooler) and a circulation pump. The sub-cooler will be connected to a neon turbo- Brayton cycle refrigerator with a cooling power of 2 kW at 65 K. Sub-cooled LN will be delivered into the sub-cooler by the pump and cooled within it. Sub-cooled LN is adequate fluid for cooling HTS power equipment, because its dielectric strength is high and it supports a large critical current. However, a possibility of LN solidification in the sub-cooler is a considerable issue. The refrigerator will produce cold neon gas of about 60 K, which is lower than the nitrogen freezing temperature of 63 K. Therefore, we designed two-stage heat exchangers which are based on a plate-fin type and a tube-intube type. Process simulations of those heat exchangers indicate that sub-cooled LN is not frozen in either sub-cooler. The plate-fin type sub-cooler is consequently adopted for its reliability and compactness. Furthermore, we found that a cooling system with a Brayton refrigerator has the same total cooling efficiency as a cooling system with a Stirling refrigerator.

  4. Investigation of emission characteristics affected by new cooling system in a diesel engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyung-Wook Choi; Ki-Bum Kim; Ki-Hyung Lee

    2009-01-01

    In a typical cooling system of automotive engine, a mechanical water pump is used to control the flow rate of coolant. However,\\u000a this traditional cooling system is not suitable for a high efficiency performance in terms of fuel economy and exhaust emission.\\u000a Therefore, it is necessary to develop a new technology for engine cooling systems. These days, the electronic water

  5. Cryogenic cooling with cryocooler on a rotating system.

    PubMed

    Oguri, S; Choi, J; Kawai, M; Tajima, O

    2013-05-01

    We developed a system that continuously maintains a cryocooler for long periods on a rotating table. A cryostat that holds the cryocooler is set on the table. A compressor is located on the ground and supplies high-purity (>99.999%) and high-pressure (1.7 MPa) helium gas and electricity to the cryocooler. The operation of the cryocooler and other instruments requires the development of interface components between the ground and rotating table. A combination of access holes at the center of the table and two rotary joints allows simultaneous circulation of electricity and helium gas. The developed system provides two innovative functions under the rotating condition, cooling from room temperature and the maintenance of a cold condition for long periods. We have confirmed these abilities as well as temperature stability under a condition of continuous rotation at 20 rpm. The developed system can be applied in various fields, e.g., in tests of Lorentz invariance, searches for axion, radio astronomy, and cosmology, and application of radar systems. In particular, there is a plan to use this system for a radio telescope observing cosmic microwave background radiation. PMID:23742598

  6. Optimization of a solar cooling system with interior energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Sanjuan, C.; Soutullo, S.; Heras, M.R. [Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency in Buildings Unit, CIEMAT, Madrid E-28040 (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    This paper focuses on the optimization of the performance of a solar absorption cooling system composed by four units with interior energy storage. A full dynamic simulation model that includes the solar collector field, the absorption heat pump system and the building load calculation has been developed. It has been applied to optimize the coupling of a system based on this new technology of solar powered absorption heat pump, to a bioclimatic building recently constructed in the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA) in Spain. The absorption heat pump system considered is composed by four heat pumps that store energy in the form of crystallized salts so that no external storage capacity is required. Each heat pump is composed of two separate barrels that can charge (store energy from the solar field) and discharge (deliver heat or cold to the building) independently. Different configurations of the four units have been analysed taking into account the storage possibilities of the system and its capacity to respond to the building loads. It has been shown how strong the influence of the control strategies in the overall performance is, and the importance of using hourly simulations models when looking for highly efficient buildings. (author)

  7. SIMULATION OF A SOLAR ABSORPTION COOLING SYSTEM J.P. Praene*, D. Morau, F. Lucas, F. Garde, H. Boyer

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    SIMULATION OF A SOLAR ABSORPTION COOLING SYSTEM J.P. Praene*, D. Morau, F. Lucas, F. Garde, H and optimization of a solar absorption cooling system using evacuated tube collectors. CLIMA 2007, 2007; Steady for a cooling system has led to several studies of available cooling technologies that use solar energy

  8. Sealed Battery Block Provided With A Cooling System

    DOEpatents

    Verhoog, Roelof (Bordeaux, FR); Barbotin, Jean-Loup (Pompignac, FR)

    1999-11-16

    The present invention relates to a sealed battery block operating at a pressure of at least 1 bar relative, the battery including a container made of a plastics material and made up of a lid and of a case subdivided into wells by at least one partition, said battery being provided with a cooling system including two cheek plates made of a plastics material and co-operating with the outside faces of respective ones of two opposite walls of said case, each cheek plate co-operating with the corresponding wall to define a compartment provided with a plurality of ribs forming baffles for fluid flow purposes, and with an inlet orifice and an outlet orifice for the fluid, said battery being characterized in that each of said ribs extends in a direction that forms an angle relative to the plane of said partition lying in the range 60.degree. to 90.degree..

  9. Preliminary description of the ground test accelerator cryogenic cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Edeskuty, F.J.; Stewart, W.F.

    1988-01-01

    The Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) under construction at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is part of the Neutral Particle Beam Program supported by the Strategic Defense Initiative Office. The GTA is a full-sized test facility to evaluate the feasibility of using a negative ion accelerator to produce a neutral particle beam (NPB). The NPB would ultimately be used outside the earth's atmosphere as a target discriminator or as a directed energy weapon. The operation of the GTA at cryogenic temperature is advantageous for two reasons: first, the decrease of temperature caused a corresponding decrease in the rf heating of the copper in the various units of the accelerator, and second, at the lower temperature the decrease in the thermal expansion coefficient also provides greater thermal stability and consequently, better operating stability for the accelerator. This paper discusses the cryogenic cooling system needed to achieve these advantages. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Thermochemically recuperated and steam cooled gas turbine system

    DOEpatents

    Viscovich, P.W.; Bannister, R.L.

    1995-07-11

    A gas turbine system is described in which the expanded gas from the turbine section is used to generate the steam in a heat recovery steam generator and to heat a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel and the steam in a reformer. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon gas to hydrogen and carbon monoxide for combustion in a combustor. A portion of the steam from the heat recovery steam generator is used to cool components, such as the stationary vanes, in the turbine section, thereby superheating the steam. The superheated steam is mixed into the hydrocarbon gas upstream of the reformer, thereby eliminating the need to raise the temperature of the expanded gas discharged from the turbine section in order to achieve effective conversion of the hydrocarbon gas. 4 figs.

  11. Oil cooling system for a gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffinberry, G. A.; Kast, H. B. (inventors)

    1977-01-01

    A gas turbine engine fuel delivery and control system is provided with means to recirculate all fuel in excess fuel control requirements back to the aircraft fuel tank. This increases the fuel pump heat sink and decreases the pump temperature rise without the addition of valving other than normally employed. A fuel/oil heat exchanger and associated circuitry is provided to maintain the hot engine oil in heat exchange relationship with the cool engine fuel. Where anti-icing of the fuel filter is required, means are provided to maintain the fuel temperature entering the filter at or above a minimum level to prevent freezing thereof. In one embodiment, a divider valve is provided to take all excess fuel from either upstream or downstream of the fuel filter and route it back to the tanks, the ratio of upstream to downstream extraction being a function of fuel pump discharge pressure.

  12. Thermochemically recuperated and steam cooled gas turbine system

    DOEpatents

    Viscovich, Paul W. (Longwood, FL); Bannister, Ronald L. (Winter Springs, FL)

    1995-01-01

    A gas turbine system in which the expanded gas from the turbine section is used to generate the steam in a heat recovery steam generator and to heat a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel and the steam in a reformer. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon gas to hydrogen and carbon monoxide for combustion in a combustor. A portion of the steam from the heat recovery steam generator is used to cool components, such as the stationary vanes, in the turbine section, thereby superheating the steam. The superheated steam is mixed into the hydrocarbon gas upstream of the reformer, thereby eliminating the need to raise the temperature of the expanded gas discharged from the turbine section in order to achieve effective conversion of the hydrocarbon gas.

  13. Shuttle active thermal control system development testing. Volume 5: Integrated radiator/expendable cooling system tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheps, P. B.

    1974-01-01

    Tests were conducted to gather data on a space shuttle active control system (ATCS) incorporating both radiators and an expendable cooling device to provide vehicle heat removal. Two systems were tested and design information was provided for both nominal and limit conditions. The tests verified the concept that an integrated radiator/expendable cooling system can adequately maintain desired water quantities while responding to variations in heat loads and environments. In addition, the need for duct heating was demonstrated, while exhaust nozzle heating was also shown to be unnecessary.

  14. Influence of volumetric-flow rate in the crystallizer on the gas-hydrate cool-storage process in a new gas-hydrate cool-storage system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuehong Bi; Tingwei Guo; Tingying Zhu; Shuanshi Fan; Deqing Liang; Liang Zhang

    2004-01-01

    Experimental results of the gas-hydrate R141b cool-storage process are used to study the performance of a new type gas-hydrate cool-storage system. The relations among the cooling rate of the cool-storage medium, the degree of subcooling of crystallization, the formation rate of gas-hydrate, the cold energy stored and the volumetric flow rate in the crystallizer are provided. The experimental results indicate

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF SUPERVISORY CONTROL STRATEGY FOR ONLINE CONTROL OF CENTRAL COOLING WATER SYSTEMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shengwei Wang; Zhenjun Ma; Xinhua Xu

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a model-based supervisory control strategy for online control of building central cooling water systems to enhance their energy efficiency. Simplified chiller and cooling tower models are developed and used to predict the system energy performance, environment quality as well as the system response to the changes of control settings. A novel and simple optimization technique, named as

  16. Design of a solar absorption cooling system in a Greek hospital

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Tsoutsos; E. Aloumpi; Z. Gkouskos; M. Karagiorgas

    2010-01-01

    Air conditioning of buildings is responsible for a large percentage of the greenhouse and ozone depletion effect, as refrigerant harmful gases are released into the atmosphere from conventional cooling systems. The need to implement advanced new concepts in building air conditioning systems is more crucial than ever today.Solar cooling systems (SCS) have the advantage of using absolutely harmless working fluids

  17. Simulation of an Air-Cooled Solar-Assisted Absorption Air Conditioning System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis H. Alva; Jorge E. González

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the technical feasibility of using a compact, air-cooled, solar-assisted, absorption air conditioning system in Puerto Rico and similar regions. Computer simulations were conducted to evaluate the system's performance when subjected to dynamic cooling loads. Within the computer model, heat and mass balances are conducted on each component of the system, including the solar collectors, thermal storage tank,

  18. Two-phase cooling system with a jet pump for spacecraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuri V. Fairuzov; Victor V. Bredikhin

    1995-01-01

    A two-phase cooling system with a jet pump is proposed for the thermal control of spacecraft. The system does not require an external source of energy, the pumping of the working fluid is performed by the work that is produced in a thermodynamic cycle being carried out in the heat transport loop. The cooling system has no moving parts or

  19. Cooling system for a bearing of a turbine rotor

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Mark Christopher (Niskayuna, NY)

    2002-01-01

    In a gas turbine, a bore tube assembly radially inwardly of an aft bearing conveys cooling steam to the buckets of the turbine and returns the cooling steam to a return. To cool the bearing and thermally insulate the bearing from the cooling steam paths, a radiation shield is spaced from the bore tube assembly by a dead air gap. Additionally, an air passageway is provided between the radiation shield and the inner surface of an aft shaft forming part of the rotor. Air is supplied from an inlet for flow along the passage and radially outwardly through bores in the aft shaft disk to cool the bearing and insulate it from transfer of heat from the cooling steam.

  20. Radiant source tracker independent of nonconstant irradiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, F. D. (inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A tracker of a radiant source is disclosed. The tracker is composed of a sectored matrix of detectors whose output voltages correspond to their respective levels of irradiance. The voltages are each sampled during a variable length period and the resulting samples are shaped into triangular samples by an integration process. They are supplied to a demodulator which provides an output corresponding to the difference of the time-voltage product of appropriate combinations of the samples. This output, after filtering, represents the angle of incidence on the detectors with respect to a central axis. The triangular samples are also supplied to a demodulator whose output is an AGC voltage which is a function of the sum of the time-voltage integrals of the triangular samples.

  1. Alzeta porous radiant burner. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    An Alzeta Pyrocore porous radiant burner was tested for the first time at elevated pressures and mass flows. Mapping of the burner`s stability limits (flashback, blowoff, and lean extinction limits) in an outward fired configuration and hot wall environment was carried out at pressures up to 18 atm, firing rates up to 180 kW, and excess air rates up to 100%. A central composite experimental design for parametric testing within the stability limits produced statistically sound correlations of dimensionless burner temperature and NO{sub x} emissions as functions of equivalence ratio, dimensionless firing rate, and reciprocal Reynolds number. The NO{sub x} emissions were below 4 ppmvd at 15% O{sub 2} for all conditions tested, and the CO and unburned hydrocarbon levels were simultaneously low. As a direct result of this cooperative research effort between METC and Alzeta, Solar Turbines has already expressed a strong interest in this novel technology.

  2. Gas-cooled reactor for space power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, C.E.; Pearson, J.S.

    1987-05-01

    Reactor characteristics based on extensive development work on the 500-MWt reactor for the Pluto nuclear ramjet are described for space power systems useful in the range of 2 to 20 MWe for operating times of 1 y. The modest pressure drop through the prismatic ceramic core is supported at the outlet end by a ceramic dome which also serves as a neutron reflector. Three core materials are considered which are useful at temperatures up to about 2000 K. Most of the calculations are based on a beryllium oxide with uranium dioxide core. Reactor control is accomplished by use of a burnable poison, a variable-leakage reflector, and internal control rods. Reactivity swings of 20% are obtained with a dozen internal boron-10 rods for the size cores studied. Criticality calculations were performed using the ALICE Monte Carlo code. The inherent high-temperature capability of the reactor design removes the reactor as a limiting condition on system performance. The low fuel inventories required, particularly for beryllium oxide reactors, make space power systems based on gas-cooled near-thermal reactors a lesser safeguard risk than those based on fast reactors.

  3. Role of bacterial adhesion in the microbial ecology of biofilms in cooling tower systems

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Wei; Sileika, Tadas; Warta, Richard; Cianciotto, Nicholas P.; Packman, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    The fate of the three heterotrophic biofilm forming bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Flavobacterium sp. in pilot scale cooling towers was evaluated both by observing the persistence of each species in the recirculating water and the formation of biofilms on steel coupons placed in each cooling tower water reservoir. Two different cooling tower experiments were performed: a short-term study (6 days) to observe the initial bacterial colonization of the cooling tower, and a long-term study (3 months) to observe the ecological dynamics with repeated introduction of the test strains. An additional set of batch experiments (6 days) was carried out to evaluate the adhesion of each strain to steel surfaces under similar conditions to those found in the cooling tower experiments. Substantial differences were observed in the microbial communities that developed in the batch systems and cooling towers. P. aeruginosa showed a low degree of adherence to steel surfaces both in batch and in the cooling towers, but grew much faster than K. pneumoniae and Flavobacterium in mixed-species biofilms and ultimately became the dominant organism in the closed batch systems. However, the low degree of adherence caused P. aeruginosa to be rapidly washed out of the open cooling tower systems, and Flavobacterium became the dominant microorganism in the cooling towers in both the short-term and long-term experiments. These results indicate that adhesion, retention and growth on solid surfaces play important roles in the bacterial community that develops in cooling tower systems. PMID:19177226

  4. Role of bacterial adhesion in the microbial ecology of biofilms in cooling tower systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Wei; Sileika, Tadas; Warta, Richard; Cianciotto, Nicholas P; Packman, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    The fate of the three heterotrophic biofilm forming bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Flavobacterium sp. in pilot scale cooling towers was evaluated both by observing the persistence of each species in the recirculating water and the formation of biofilms on steel coupons placed in each cooling tower water reservoir. Two different cooling tower experiments were performed: a short-term study (6 days) to observe the initial bacterial colonization of the cooling tower, and a long-term study (3 months) to observe the ecological dynamics with repeated introduction of the test strains. An additional set of batch experiments (6 days) was carried out to evaluate the adhesion of each strain to steel surfaces under similar conditions to those found in the cooling tower experiments. Substantial differences were observed in the microbial communities that developed in the batch systems and cooling towers. P. aeruginosa showed a low degree of adherence to steel surfaces both in batch and in the cooling towers, but grew much faster than K. pneumoniae and Flavobacterium in mixed-species biofilms and ultimately became the dominant organism in the closed batch systems. However, the low degree of adherence caused P. aeruginosa to be rapidly washed out of the open cooling tower systems, and Flavobacterium became the dominant microorganism in the cooling towers in both the short-term and long-term experiments. These results indicate that adhesion, retention and growth on solid surfaces play important roles in the bacterial community that develops in cooling tower systems. PMID:19177226

  5. Completion of high-efficiency water pipe cooling system for underground transmission line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Kumai; I. Hashimoto; S. Ohsawa; M. Mitani; Y. Matsuda

    1994-01-01

    An advanced, high-efficient, forced cooling system was developed and employed for a bulk power underground transmission cable line called Nankou-Karyoku Line. A principal feature of this system is an efficient computer-controlled operation method of cooling equipment to reduce the running cost of the equipment by optimizing the cooling rate according to load changes of the cable line. This paper introduces

  6. Optimal control and performance test of solar-assisted cooling system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. J. Huang; C. W. Yen; J. H. Wu; J. H. Liu; H. Y. Hsu; V. O. Petrenko; J. M. Chang; C. W. Lu

    2010-01-01

    The solar-assisted cooling system (SACH) was developed in the present study. The ejector cooling system (ECS) is driven by solar heat and connected in parallel with an inverter-type air conditioner (A\\/C). The cooling load can be supplied by the ECS when solar energy is available and the input power of the A\\/C can be reduced. In variable weather, the ECS

  7. Methods to reduce bacterial contamination of recycling cooling systems of a CHPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chichirova, N. D.; Chichirov, A. A.; Vlasov, S. M.; Vlasova, A. Yu.

    2015-07-01

    Bacterial contamination of circulating and make-up water of the nonconjugated recycling cooling system with evaporative cooling towers of thermal power plants is studied. The nonconjugated recycling cooling system of Naberezhnochelninskaya CHP Plant was selected as the object of study. It was found that circulating water of recycling cooling is highly contaminated with aerobic heterotrophic bacteria. At the same time, make-up water for the cooling system from the Kama River is moderately polluted with anaerobic bacteria. Measurements of biological contamination in different parts of the recycling cooling system showed that populations of colonies of microorganisms abruptly decreases in turbine condensers, which is probably indicative of their death and deposition on the heat transfer surface of the condenser. Calculation using a special program showed that biological contamination of the recycling cooling system poses the greatest risks for clogging of the equipment (seven points on a nine-point scale), its corrosion (two points), and damage to the health of personnel (two points). Rapid development of aerobic bacteria apparently occurs under elevated temperature and intense aeration of water in the cooling tower. It is suggested to periodically monitor the recycling cooling system for biological pollution and to set a timetable for bactericidal treatment of circulating water depending on the level of its bacterial contamination.

  8. Design of Hot Stamping Tools with Cooling System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Hoffmann; H. So; H. Steinbeiss

    2007-01-01

    Hot stamping with high strength steel is becoming more popular in automotive industry. In hot stamping, blanks are hot formed and press hardened in a water-cooled tool to achieve high strength. Hence, design of the tool with necessary cooling significantly influences the final properties of the blank and the process time. In this paper a new method based on systematic

  9. FULLY INTEGRATED ONE PHASE LIQUID COOLING SYSTEM FOR ORGANIC BOARDS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    into the environment and a pump and pipes to drive and contain the working fluid (most often water). Most presented in designing liquid cooling solu- tions are performance, reliability and price. To that end a one-phase liquid cooling concept is pro- posed, where all pumps, valves and piping are fully integrated on board level

  10. Non-Cooled Power System for Venus Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salazar, Denise; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Colozza, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    The Planetary Science Decadal Survey of 2013-2022 stated that the exploration of Venus is of significant interest. Studying the seismic activity of the planet is of particular importance because the findings can be compared to the seismic activity of Earth. Further, the geological and atmospheric properties of Venus will shed light into the past and future of Earth. This paper presents a radioisotope power system (RPS) design for a small low-power Venus lander. The feasibility of the new power system is then compared to that of primary batteries. A requirement for the power source system is to avoid moving parts in order to not interfere with the primary objective of the mission - to collect data about the seismic activity of Venus using a seismometer. The target mission duration of the lander is 117 days, a significant leap from Venera 13, the longest-lived lander on the surface of Venus, which survived for 2 hours. One major assumption for this mission design is that the power source system will not provide cooling to the other components of the lander. This assumption is based on high-temperature electronics technology that will enable the electronics and components of the lander to operate at Venus surface temperature. For the proposed RPS, a customized General Purpose Heat Source Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (GPHSRTG) is designed and analyzed. The GPHS-RTG is chosen primarily because it has no moving parts and it is capable of operating for long duration missions on the order of years. This power system is modeled as a spherical structure for a fundamental thermal analysis. The total mass and electrical output of the system are calculated to be 24 kilograms and 26 Watts, respectively. An alternative design for a battery-based power system uses Sodium Sulfur batteries. To deliver a similar electrical output for 117 days, the battery mass is calculated to be 234 kilograms. Reducing mission duration or power required will reduce the required battery mass. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of both power systems with regard to science return, risk, and cost are briefly compared. The design of the radioisotope power system is considerably riskier because it is novel and would require additional years of further refinement, manufacturing, safety analysis, and testing that the primary batteries do not need. However, the lifetime of the radioisotope power system makes its science return more promising.

  11. Air cooled turbine component having an internal filtration system

    DOEpatents

    Beeck, Alexander R. (Orlando, FL)

    2012-05-15

    A centrifugal particle separator is provided for removing particles such as microscopic dirt or dust particles from the compressed cooling air prior to reaching and cooling the turbine blades or turbine vanes of a turbine engine. The centrifugal particle separator structure has a substantially cylindrical body with an inlet arranged on a periphery of the substantially cylindrical body. Cooling air enters centrifugal particle separator through the separator inlet port having a linear velocity. When the cooling air impinges the substantially cylindrical body, the linear velocity is transformed into a rotational velocity, separating microscopic particles from the cooling air. Microscopic dust particles exit the centrifugal particle separator through a conical outlet and returned to a working medium.

  12. Nuclear reactor cooling system decontamination reagent regeneration. [PWR; BWR

    DOEpatents

    Anstine, L.D.; James, D.B.; Melaika, E.A.; Peterson, J.P. Jr.

    1980-06-06

    An improved method for decontaminating the coolant system of water-cooled nuclear power reactors and for regenerating the decontamination solution is described. A small amount of one or more weak-acid organic complexing agents is added to the reactor coolant, and the pH is adjusted to form a decontamination solution which is circulated throughout the coolant system to dissolve metal oxides from the interior surfaces and complex the resulting metal ions and radionuclide ions. The coolant containing the complexed metal ions and radionuclide ions is passed through a strong-base anion exchange resin bed which has been presaturated with a solution containing the complexing agents in the same ratio and having the same pH as the decontamination solution. As the decontamination solution passes through the resin bed, metal-complexed anions are exchanged for the metal-ion-free anions on the bed, while metal-ion-free anions in the solution pass through the bed, thus removing the metal ions and regenerating the decontamination solution.

  13. COOLING FAN AND SYSTEM PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Dupree

    2005-07-31

    Upcoming emissions regulations (Tiers 3, 4a and 4b) are imposing significantly higher heat loads on the cooling system than lesser regulated machines. This work was a suite of tasks aimed at reducing the parasitic losses of the cooling system, or improving the design process through six distinct tasks: 1. Develop an axial fan that will provide more airflow, with less input power and less noise. The initial plan was to use Genetic Algorithms to do an automated fan design, incorporating forward sweep for low noise. First and second generation concepts could not meet either performance or sound goals. An experienced turbomachinery designer, using a specialized CFD analysis program has taken over the design and has been able to demonstrate a 5% flow improvement (vs 10% goal) and 10% efficiency improvement (vs 10% goal) using blade twist only. 2. Fan shroud developments, using an 'aeroshroud' concept developed at Michigan State University. Performance testing at Michigan State University showed the design is capable of meeting the goal of a 10% increase in flow, but over a very narrow operating range of fan performance. The goal of 10% increase in fan efficiency was not met. Fan noise was reduced from 0 to 2dB, vs. a goal of 5dB at constant airflow. The narrow range of fan operating conditions affected by the aeroshroud makes this concept unattractive for further development at this time 3. Improved axial fan system modeling is needed to accommodate the numbers of cooling systems to be redesigned to meet lower emissions requirements. A CFD fan system modeling guide has been completed and transferred to design engineers. Current, uncontrolled modeling practices produce flow estimates in some cases within 5% of measured values, and in some cases within 25% of measured values. The techniques in the modeling guide reduced variability to the goal of + 5% for the case under study. 4. Demonstrate the performance and design versatility of a high performance fan. A 'swept blade mixed flow' fan was rapid prototyped from cast aluminum for a performance demonstration on a small construction machine. The fan was mounted directly in place of the conventional fan (relatively close to the engine). The goal was to provide equal airflow at constant fan speed, with 75% of the input power and 5 dB quieter than the conventional fan. The result was a significant loss in flow with the prototype due to its sensitivity to downstream blockage. This sensitivity to downstream blockage affects flow, efficiency, and noise all negatively, and further development was terminated. 5. Develop a high efficiency variable speed fan drive to replace existing slipping clutch style fan drives. The goal for this task was to provide a continuously variable speed fan drive with an efficiency of 95%+ at max speed, and losses no greater than at max speed as the fan speed would vary throughout its entire speed range. The process developed to quantify the fuel savings potential of a variable speed fan drive has produced a simple tool to predict the fuel savings of a variable speed drive, and has sparked significant interest in the use of variable speed fan drive for Tier 3 emissions compliant machines. The proposed dual ratio slipping clutch variable speed fan drive can provide a more efficient system than a conventional single ratio slipping clutch fan drive, but could not meet the established performance goals of this task, so this task was halted in a gate review prior to the start of detailed design. 6. Develop a cooling system air filtration device to allow the use of automotive style high performance heat exchangers currently in off road machines. The goal of this task was to provide a radiator air filtration system that could allow high fin density, louvered radiators to operate in a find dust application with the same resistance to fouling as a current production off-road radiator design. Initial sensitivity testing demonstrated that fan speed has a significant impact on the fouling of radiator cores due to fine dusts, so machines equipped with continuously variabl

  14. Construction and initial operation of the combined solar thermal and electric desiccant cooling system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Napoleon Enteria; Hiroshi Yoshino; Akashi Mochida; Rie Takaki; Akira Satake; Ryuichiro Yoshie; Teruaki Mitamura; Seizo Baba

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the constructed combined solar thermal and electric desiccant cooling system – its initial operation and operational procedures. The system, as designed, can be operated during nighttime and daytime. The nighttime operation is for thermal energy storage using the auxiliary electric heater, while the daytime operation is for solar energy collection and desiccant cooling. Ongoing experimental evaluation is

  15. Performance estimation of an adsorption cooling system for automobile waste heat recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Zhi Zhang; Ling Wang

    1997-01-01

    This article presents a numerical study of the dynamic performance of an adsorption cooling system for automobile waste heat recovery. A new lumped parameter non-equilibrium model is developed and used to investigate and optimize the waste heat cooling system, which is estimated to be operated in quicker cycles when compared with the time needed to reach equilibrium. The effects of

  16. ASSESSMENT OF CORROSION PRODUCTS FROM ONCE-THROUGH COOLING SYSTEMS WITH MECHANICAL ANTIFOULING DEVICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an assessment of corrosion products from steam-electric power plant once-through cooling systems equipped with mechanical antifouling devices. (About 67% of the currently operating plants in the U.S. use once-through cooling systems. Various cleaning m...

  17. Study of Operating Control Strategies for Hybrid Ground Source Heat Pump System with Supplemental Cooling Tower

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinggang Wang; Xiaoxia Gao; Zhenjiang Yin; Fang Li

    2009-01-01

    Ground source heat pump for cooling-dominated commercial buildings may utilize supplemental cooling towers to reduce system first cost and to improve system performance. The use of hybrid ground source heat pump (HGSP) can reduce the size of the ground-loop heat exchanger. Degradation of the heat pump performance due to the excess heat in the ground can be avoided by offsetting

  18. Aspects of CFD modeling of fan and pad evaporative cooling system in green- houses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Bartzanas; C. Kittas

    2007-01-01

    A methodology approach in order to simulate numeri- cally (CFD) a greenhouse equipped with fan and pad evaporative cooling system is presented. Using the main aspects of evaporative cooling systems in terms of heat and mass transfer, the flow and boundary conditions of the simulation model are identified integrating both the external and internal climatic conditions. The crop (to- mato)

  19. Energy consumption and comfort analysis for different low-energy cooling systems in a mild climate

    E-print Network

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    1 Energy consumption and comfort analysis for different low- energy cooling systems in a mild a building on a more detailed level and predict annual building energy usage and indoor Chen's telephone. "Energy consumption and comfort analysis for different low-energy cooling systems in a mild climate

  20. Investigation into the cooling of multi-junction concentrator photovoltaic systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbora Dej

    There is relatively little research done on the long-term studies of the cooling of single cell multi-junction concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) systems. It is becoming an increasingly important aspect as system concentration levels continue to increase to a point at which overheating becomes a barrier to improving photovoltaic eciencies. This literature review presents current research available on cooling options for these

  1. Cryogenic cooling system of HTS transformers by natural convection of subcooled liquid nitrogen

    E-print Network

    Chang, Ho-Myung

    Cryogenic cooling system of HTS transformers by natural convection of subcooled liquid nitrogen Ho-793, South Korea Abstract Heat transfer analysis on a newly proposed cryogenic cooling system is performed, and over-load operation. One of the key techniques to realize these advantages in practice is the cryogenic

  2. Solar Heating and Cooling of Residential Buildings: Sizing, Installation and Operation of Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins. Solar Energy Applications Lab.

    This training course and a companion course titled "Design of Systems for Solar Heating and Cooling of Residential Buildings," are designed to train home designers and builders in the fundamentals of solar hydronic and air systems for space heating and cooling and domestic hot water heating for residential buildings. Each course, organized in 22…

  3. Experimental study on active cooling systems used for thermal management of high-power multichip light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop suitable cooling systems for high-power multichip LEDs. To this end, three different active cooling systems were investigated to control the heat generated by the powering of high-power multichip LEDs in two different configurations (30 and 2 × 15 W). The following cooling systems were used in the study: an integrated multi-fin heat sink design with a fan, a cooling system with a thermoelectric cooler (TEC), and a heat pipe cooling device. According to the results, all three systems were observed to be sufficient for cooling high-power LEDs. Furthermore, it was observed that the integrated multifin heat sink design with a fan was the most efficient cooling system for a 30 W high-power multichip LED. The cooling system with a TEC and 46 W input power was the most efficient cooling system for 2 × 15 W high-power multichip LEDs. PMID:25162058

  4. Performance Assessment of a Desiccant Cooling System in a CHP Application with an IC Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Jalalzadeh-Azar, A. A.; Slayzak, S.; Judkoff, R.; Schaffhauser, T.; DeBlasio, R.

    2005-04-01

    Performance of a desiccant cooling system was evaluated in the context of combined heat and power (CHP). The baseline system incorporated a desiccant dehumidifier, a heat exchanger, an indirect evaporative cooler, and a direct evaporative cooler. The desiccant unit was regenerated through heat recovery from a gas-fired reciprocating internal combustion engine. The system offered sufficient sensible and latent cooling capacities for a wide range of climatic conditions, while allowing influx of outside air in excess of what is typically required for commercial buildings. Energy and water efficiencies of the desiccant cooling system were also evaluated and compared with those of a conventional system. The results of parametric assessments revealed the importance of using a heat exchanger for concurrent desiccant post cooling and regeneration air preheating. These functions resulted in enhancement of both the cooling performance and the thermal efficiency, which are essential for fuel utilization improvement. Two approaches for mixing of the return air and outside air were examined, and their impact on the system cooling performance and thermal efficiency was demonstrated. The scope of the parametric analyses also encompassed the impact of improving the indirect evaporative cooling effectiveness on the overall cooling system performance.

  5. Hydrogen gas generation utilizing a bromide electrolyte, an amorphous silicon semiconductor and radiant energy

    SciTech Connect

    Grantham, D.H.

    1980-12-02

    Radiant energy in conjunction with an n-type amorphous silicon semiconducting photoanode to at least partially power an electrolytic cell is used in the generation of hydrogen, utilizing a bromide, preferably hydrogen bromide, as the essential electrolyte component in the electrolytic cell to solve overvoltage and corrosion problems associated with the use of conventional electrolytes in similar environments. The use of the bromide electrolyte results in the broadening of the selection of semiconductor electrodes which can be used in the process and apparatus of the present invention enabling the amorphous silicon semiconducting electrode to be used with superior anticorrosive and radiant energy gathering results over conventional systems. To insure against corrosion, the amorphous silicon semiconductor should preferably be used with a thin layer of platinum overcoating. The hydrogen generated from such system can be used to power a fuel cell.

  6. System design and installation for RS600 programmable control system for solar heating and cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Procedures for installing, operating, and maintaining a programmable control system which utilizes a F8 microprocessor to perform all timing, control, and calculation functions in order to customize system performance to meet individual requirements for solar heating, combined heating and cooling, and/or hot water systems are described. The manual discusses user configuration and options, displays, theory of operation, trouble-shooting procedures, and warranty and assistance. Wiring lists, parts lists, drawings, and diagrams are included.

  7. Radiant heat transfer between the human body and its surroundings

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, B.W. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States)

    1998-12-31

    This paper addresses the need to include the radiation nonuniformity commonly found in indoor environments in body heat loss calculations. An approach based on representing the actual radiant environment with an equivalent nonuniform spherical enclosure about the body is presented. This equivalent enclosure maintains the radiant heterogeneity of the actual environment but simplifies the calculations with respect to body radiant heat exchange. Equations to generate the equivalent enclosure and equations describing the heat exchange between the body and this enclosure are derived. The resulting equations allow the radiant exchange between individual body segments and the environment to be determined. The equations are developed to be appropriate for computer rather than hand calculations. Applications and limitations of the method are discussed.

  8. Cost analysis of an ammonia dry cooling system with a Chicago Bridge and Iron peak shaving system

    SciTech Connect

    Drost, M.K.; Johnson, B.M.

    1980-12-01

    A study was performed to determine the potential for reducing the cost associated with dry cooling by using an ammonia dry cooling system augmented with the Chicago Bridge and Iron (CP and I) peak shaving system. The cost analysis of an all-dry ammonia cooling system operating in conjunction with a peak shaving system is documented. The peak shaving system utilizes the excess cooling capability available at night to cool water to be used for supplemental cooling during the following day. The analysis consisted of determining the incremental cost of cooling for the CB and I system and comparing this cost to the incremental cost of cooling for both dry and wet/dry systems for a consistent set of design conditions and assumptions. The wet/dry systems were analyzed over a range of water usages. The basis of the comparisons was a cooling system designed for installations with a 650 mWe (gross) coal-fired power plant. From results of the study it was concluded that: the CB and I system shows a substantial economic advantage when compared with an all-dry cooling system; the CB and I system appears to be competitive with wet/dry cooling systems using about 2 to 3% water; and the CB and I system demonstrates a clear economic advantage when compared to both dry and wet/dry concepts for a winter peaking utility where the excess generation is assumed to displace both base-loaded coal-fired power generation and oil-fired gas turbine peaking units.

  9. Comparison of solar panel cooling system by using dc brushless fan and dc water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwan, Y. M.; Leow, W. Z.; Irwanto, M.; M, Fareq; Hassan, S. I. S.; Safwati, I.; Amelia, A. R.

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss comparison of solar panel cooling system by using DC brushless fan and DC water pump. Solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation is an interesting technique to reduce non-renewable energy consumption and as a renewable energy. The temperature of PV modules increases when it absorbs solar radiation, causing a decrease in efficiency. A solar cooling system is design, construct and experimentally researched within this work. To make an effort to cool the PV module, Direct Current (DC) brushless fan and DC water pump with inlet/outlet manifold are designed for constant air movement and water flow circulation at the back side and front side of PV module representatively. Temperature sensors were installed on the PV module to detect temperature of PV. PIC microcontroller was used to control the DC brushless fan and water pump for switch ON or OFF depend on the temperature of PV module automatically. The performance with and without cooling system are shown in this experiment. The PV module with DC water pump cooling system increase 3.52%, 36.27%, 38.98%in term of output voltage, output current, output power respectively. It decrease 6.36 °C compare than to PV module without DC water pump cooling system. While DC brushless fan cooling system increase 3.47%, 29.55%, 32.23%in term of output voltage, output current, and output power respectively. It decrease 6.1 °C compare than to PV module without DC brushless fan cooling system. The efficiency of PV module with cooling system was increasing compared to PV module without cooling system; this is because the ambient temperature dropped significantly. The higher efficiency of PV cell, the payback period of the system can be shorted and the lifespan of PV module can also be longer.

  10. Monitoring system for a liquid-cooled nuclear fission reactor

    DOEpatents

    DeVolpi, Alexander (Bolingbrook, IL)

    1987-01-01

    A monitoring system for detecting changes in the liquid levels in various regions of a water-cooled nuclear power reactor, viz., in the downcomer, in the core, in the inlet and outlet plenums, at the head, and elsewhere; and also for detecting changes in the density of the liquid in these regions. A plurality of gamma radiation detectors are used, arranged vertically along the outside of the reactor vessel, and collimator means for each detector limits the gamma-radiation it receives as emitting from only isolated regions of the vessel. Excess neutrons produced by the fission reaction will be captured by the water coolant, by the steel reactor walls, or by the fuel or control structures in the vessel. Neutron capture by steel generates gamma radiation having an energy level of the order of 5-12 MeV, whereas neutron capture by water provides an energy level of approximately 2.2 MeV, and neutron capture by the fission fuel or its cladding provides an energy level of 1 MeV or less. The intensity of neutron capture thus changes significantly at any water-metal interface. Comparative analysis of adjacent gamma detectors senses changes from the normal condition with liquid coolant present to advise of changes in the presence and/or density of the coolant at these specific regions. The gamma detectors can also sense fission-product gas accumulation at the reactor head to advise of a failure of fuel-pin cladding.

  11. Primary loop heat exchanger for HTGR plant residual heat removal and auxiliary cooling system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. J. Hurn; D. P. Carosella

    1981-01-01

    For several years design studies have been under way in the US on high-temperature process heat and steam applications utilizing a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) plant. Plant designs have incorporated safety-class core auxiliary cooling systems (CACSs). Each CACS primary loop includes an auxiliary helium circulator, a shutoff valve, and a water-cooled core auxiliary heat exchanger (CAHE), which transfers heat from

  12. Narrow-line diode laser system for laser cooling of strontium atoms on the intercombination transition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Li; T. Ido; T. Eichler; H. Katori

    2004-01-01

    We report a diode laser system developed for narrow-line cooling and trapping on the 1 S 0– 3 P 1 intercombination transition of neutral strontium atoms. Doppler cooling on this spin-forbidden transition with a line width of G\\/2p=7.1 kHz enables us to achieve sub-µK temperatures in a two-step cooling process. The required reduction of the laser line width to the kHz

  13. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Improves Cooling System Performance: Best Management Practice Case Study #10: Cooling Towers (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has a longstanding sustainability program that revolves around energy and water efficiency as well as environmental protection. MSFC identified a problematic cooling loop with six separate compressor heat exchangers and a history of poor efficiency. The facility engineering team at MSFC partnered with Flozone Services, Incorporated to implement a comprehensive water treatment platform to improve the overall efficiency of the system.

  14. System identification and optimal control for mixed-mode cooling

    E-print Network

    Spindler, Henry C. (Henry Carlton), 1970-

    2004-01-01

    The majority of commercial buildings today are designed to be mechanically cooled. To make the task of air conditioning buildings simpler, and in some cases more energy efficient, windows are sealed shut, eliminating ...

  15. Efficiency of short-term storage of equine semen in a simple-design cooling system.

    PubMed

    Nunes, D B; Zorzatto, J R; Costa e Silva, E V; Zúccari, C E S N

    2008-03-01

    Five experiments tested the efficiency of a simple, low-cost system (CP) for cooling and storing equine semen at 2.0 degrees C for 24 h and 48 h. Pantaneiro stallions of known fertility were used. Semen quality was evaluated for progressive motility (PM), plasma membrane integrity (PMI), and pregnancy rate. Experiment 1 showed that PM and PMI were similar between CP and the control (Equitainer) in cooled semen. In Experiment 2, the influence was evaluated of combinations (four treatments) of two volumes (50/100 ml) and two sperm concentrations (500/750x10(6)) on sperm quality of semen cooled and preserved by CP (cooling system replaced at 24 h). While PM decreased gradually from before cooling to 24 h and 48 h, PMI decreased only at the least and greatest sperm volume and concentrations. Storage time did not affect PMI. Results from Experiment 3 showed that CP maintained semen PM>or=30% in all samples 24 h after cooling and decreased to about 70% 42 h after cooling. Results from Experiments 4 and 5 confirmed semen quality after cooling and storage (24 h and 48 h, respectively), achieving a 69% pregnancy rate in the first estrous cycle when insemination occurred. Thus, the CP system is satisfactory for cooling and preserving equine semen for up to 48 h. PMID:17681679

  16. Improving the Water Efficiency of Cooling Production System 

    E-print Network

    Maheshwari, G.; Al-Hadban, Y.; Al-Taqi, H. H.; Alasseri, R.

    2010-01-01

    :70 (Burger, 1994). In Kuwait, situation is just the opposite. For most of the time during the summer season, the DBT of the incoming ambient air is significantly higher than the incoming hot water temperature, and the air undergoes sensible cooling.... 2005. Fundamentals. American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Burger, R. 1994. Cooling Tower Technology. Third Edition, Indian Trial Liburn, Georgia, USA. Fairmount Press, Inc. Intel...

  17. RF system concepts for a muon cooling experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, W.C.; Corlett, J.N.; Li, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Moretti, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Kirk, H.G.; Palmer, R.B.; Zhao, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1998-06-01

    The feasibility of muon colliders for high energy physics experiments has been under intensive study for the past few years and recent activity has focused on defining an R and D program that would answer the critical issues. An especially critical issue is developing practical means of cooling the phase space of the muons once they have been produced and captured in a solenoidal magnetic transport channel. Concepts for the rf accelerating cavities of a muon cooling experiment are discussed.

  18. Conservation of Energy Through The Use of a Predictive Performance Simulator of Operating Cooling Water Systems

    E-print Network

    Schell, C. J.

    1981-01-01

    chemical treatment program for the prevention of corrosion, scale and deposit accumulations. Calgon has made available a computerized performance simulator of operating cooling water systems which reliably predicts system corrosion rates, percent scale...

  19. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENACE 1. UNIT XV, I--MAINTAINING THE COOLING SYSTEM, CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE, I--UNIT INSTALLATION--TRANSMISSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE FUNCTION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM AND THE PROCEDURES FOR TRANSMISSION INSTALLATION. TOPICS ARE (1) IMPORTANCE OF THE COOLING SYSTEM, (2) COOLING SYSTEM COMPONENTS, (3) EVALUATING COOLING SYSTEM FAILURES, (4) CARING FOR THE COOLING SYSTEM,…

  20. Prolonged Radiant Exposure of the Middle Ear during Transcanal Endoscopic Ear Surgery.

    PubMed

    Shah, Parth V; Kozin, Elliott D; Remenschneider, Aaron K; Dedmon, Matthew M; Nakajima, Hideko Heidi; Cohen, Michael S; Lee, Daniel J

    2015-07-01

    Transcanal endoscopic ear surgery (EES) provides a high-resolution, wide-field view of the middle ear compared with the conventional operating microscope, reducing the need for a postauricular incision or mastoidectomy. Our group has shown in cadaveric human temporal bone studies that radiant energy from the endoscope tip can quickly elevate temperatures of the tympanic cavity. Elevated temperatures of the middle ear are associated with acute auditory brainstem response shifts in animal models. In EES, proposed methods to decrease middle ear temperature include frequent removal of the endoscope and the use of suction to rapidly dissipate heat; however, the routine application of such cooling techniques remains unknown. Herein, we aim to quantify the duration that the tympanic cavity is typically exposed to the endoscope during routine endoscopic middle ear surgery. We find that the tympanic cavity is exposed to the endoscope without a cooling mechanism for a prolonged period of time. PMID:25779471

  1. Sub-cooled liquid nitrogen cryogenic system with neon turbo-refrigerator for HTS power equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, S.; Hirai, H.; Nara, N.; Ozaki, S.; Hirokawa, M.; Eguchi, T.; Hayashi, H.; Iwakuma, M.; Shiohara, Y.

    2014-01-01

    We developed a prototype sub-cooled liquid nitrogen (LN) circulation system for HTS power equipment. The system consists of a neon turbo-Brayton refrigerator with a LN sub-cooler and LN circulation pump unit. The neon refrigerator has more than 2 kW cooling power at 65 K. The LN sub-cooler is a plate-fin type heat exchanger and is installed in a refrigerator cold box. In order to carry out the system performance tests, a dummy cryostat having an electric heater was set instead of a HTS power equipment. Sub-cooled LN is delivered into the sub-cooler by the LN circulation pump and cooled within it. After the sub-cooler, sub-cooled LN goes out from the cold box to the dummy cryostat, and comes back to the pump unit. The system can control an outlet sub-cooled LN temperature by adjusting refrigerator cooling power. The refrigerator cooling power is automatically controlled by the turbo-compressor rotational speed. In the performance tests, we increased an electric heater power from 200 W to 1300 W abruptly. We confirmed the temperature fluctuation was about ±1 K. We show the cryogenic system details and performance test results in this paper.

  2. Routine Sampling and the Control of Legionella spp. inCooling Tower Water Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard H. Bentham

    2000-01-01

    Cooling water samples from 31 cooling tower systems were cultured for Legionella over a 16-week summer period. The selected systems were known to be colonized by Legionella. Mean Legionella counts and standard deviations were calculated and time series correlograms prepared for each system. The standard deviations\\u000a of Legionella counts in all the systems were very large, indicating great variability in

  3. Dehumidification Enhancement of Direct Expansion Systems Through Component Augmentation of the Cooling Coil

    E-print Network

    Kosar, D.; Swami, M.; Shirey, D.; Raustad, R.; Basarkar, M.

    2006-01-01

    Dehumidification Enhancement of Direct Expansion Systems Through Component Augmentation of the Cooling Coil Douglas Kosar Muthasamy Swami Richard Raustad Principal Research Engineer Program Director Senior Research Engineer Energy Resources.... In this evaluation, state point performance spreadsheet models for single path, mixed air packaged systems compare a conventional “off the shelf” direct expansion (DX) cooling system and its performance to systems that augment the DX coil with enhanced...

  4. A water-cooled hood system for Peirce-Smith converters and similar furnace vessels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Drummond; John Deakin

    1999-01-01

    The DTS water-cooled hood system provides a hood design that can be used on Peirce-Smith converters or similar furnace vessels\\u000a to allow converter off-gas systems to operate at higher temperatures. The system, which uses only one control valve, uses\\u000a a closed-circuit cooling water system for lowpumping costs and minimal opportunity for oxygen entrainment in the water. An\\u000a aircooled converter hood

  5. The experimental study of a novel cooling system of a power transformer in an urban underground substation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenhao Niu; Guoqiang Zhang; Yimin Jiang; Ru Lu; Xin Wang; Jianzhong Wang

    2010-01-01

    Decades of experience in underground substations indicated that the traditional cooling technologies have their own shortcomings. Therefore, a novel Oil-Evaporative liquid cooling technology is presented. This new cooling technology could be considered as a two-step cooling system, which could effectively transport heat energy from thermal sources underground to radiators on the ground by phase changing of evaporative liquid in an

  6. IMPACTS OF REFRIGERANTLINE LENGTH ON SYSTEM EFFICIENCY IN RESIDENTIAL HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS USING REFRIGERANT DISTRIBUTION.

    SciTech Connect

    ANDREWS, J.W.

    2001-04-01

    The effects on system efficiency of excess refrigerant line length are calculated for an idealized residential heating and cooling system. By excess line length is meant refrigerant tubing in excess of the 25 R provided for in standard equipment efficiency test methods. The purpose of the calculation is to provide input for a proposed method for evaluating refrigerant distribution system efficiency. A refrigerant distribution system uses refrigerant (instead of ducts or pipes) to carry heat and/or cooling effect from the equipment to the spaces in the building in which it is used. Such systems would include so-called mini-splits as well as more conventional split systems that for one reason or another have the indoor and outdoor coils separated by more than 25 ft. This report performs first-order calculations of the effects on system efficiency, in both the heating and cooling modes, of pressure drops within the refrigerant lines and of heat transfer between the refrigerant lines and the space surrounding them.

  7. Thermophotovoltaics for Combined Heat and Power Using Low NOx Gas Fired Radiant Tube Burners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraas, Lewis; Avery, James; Malfa, Enrico; Wuenning, Joachim G.; Kovacik, Gary; Astle, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Three new developments have now occurred, making economical TPV systems possible. The first development is the diffused junction GaSb cell that responds out to 1.8 microns producing over 1 W/cm2 electric, given a blackbody IR emitter temperature of 1250 C. This high power density along with a simple diffused junction cell makes an array cost of 0.50 per Watt possible. The second development is new IR emitters and filters that put 75% of the radiant energy in the cell convertible band. The third development is a set of commercially available ceramic radiant tube burners that operate at up to 1250 C. Herein, we present near term and longer term spectral control designs leading to a 1.5 kW TPV generator / furnace incorporating these new features. This TPV generator / furnace is designed to replace the residential furnace for combined heat and power for the home.

  8. Fault tree analysis and process instrumentation of S2WRS based hydrogen cooling system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gyan Ranjan Biswal; R. P. Maheshwari; M. L. Dewal

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive hydrogen cooling system (HCS) is required for cooling of the generators of 2×300 MW unit power plant at a pressure of 4 to 5 bar. The faster heat dissipation of generators depends on purity of hydrogen (H2), as it improves its ability to dissipate heat within generators. Therefore, the process involved should be reliable enough to maintain the

  9. Performances of Stirling Type Pulse Tube Cryocooler for Sub-cooled Nitrogen System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Ohtani; T. Yazawa; T. Kuriyama; M. Urata; K. Inoue

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes performances of a Stirling type pulse tube cryocooler as a nitrogen sub-cooler. The main objective of this work is a demonstration of a cooling system for High Tc Superconducting (HTS) power applications such as fault current limiters, cables and transformers. Cooling capacity necessary for these applications is more than several hundred watts at 77 K level. High

  10. Ground-Coupled Heating-Cooling Systems in Urban Areas: How Sustainable Are They?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Younger, Paul L.

    2008-01-01

    Ground-coupled heating-cooling systems (GCHCSs) exchange heat between the built environment and the subsurface using pipework buried in trenches or boreholes. If heat pumps in GCHCSs are powered by "green electricity," they offer genuine carbon-free heating-cooling; for this reason, there has been a surge in the technology in recent years.…

  11. Two-phase refrigerant flow instability analysis and active control in transient electronics cooling systems

    E-print Network

    Peles, Yoav

    -generation electronic systems, such as radar, di- rected-energy lasers, and electromagnetic weapons, will exceed 1000 WTwo-phase refrigerant flow instability analysis and active control in transient electronics cooling Accepted 26 July 2010 Available online 21 August 2010 Keywords: Electronics cooling Flow instability

  12. Solidification Characteristics Modeling of Phase Change Material in Plate Capsule of Cool Storage System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guiyin Fang; Zhi Chen

    2011-01-01

    The analytical solutions to solidification characteristics of a phase change material in the plate capsule of a cool storage system are presented. The influence of the Stefan number (the ratio of sensible heat to latent heat of a cool storage material) on phase change solidification thickness and temperature distribution in the solid region is analyzed. The phase change solidification thickness

  13. Cold air in laser therapy: First experiences with a new cooling system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Raulin; Baerbel Greve; Stefan Hammes

    2000-01-01

    Background and Objective: Analgesic cooling technologies are firmly established in dermatologic laser therapy. We present cold air as a novel method of cooling and compare it with those methods that are already in use. Study Design\\/Materials and Methods: We treated 166 patients with the diagnoses hypertrichosis, port wine stains, hemangioma, essential tel- angiectasias, and tattoos with different laser systems (long-pulsed

  14. Solar heating and cooling of residential buildings: sizing, installation and operation of systems. 1980 edition

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1980-09-01

    This manual was prepared as a text for a training course on solar heating and cooling of residential buildings. The course and text are directed toward sizing, installation, operation, and maintenance of solar systems for space heating and hot water supply, and solar cooling is treated only briefly. (MHR)

  15. 76 FR 22173 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System-Cooling Water Intake Structures at Existing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ...tower (mechanical or natural draft), a dry cooling system, variable speed pumps...water exclusively for operation of a wet or dry cooling tower(s) and that meets the...intakes located in deep water during rough weather). The proposed rule therefore...

  16. Theoretical study on separate sensible and latent cooling air-conditioning system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiazhen Ling; Yunho Hwang; Reinhard Radermacher

    2010-01-01

    The advantage of separating sensible and latent cooling (SSLC) via the use of separate cycles is saving energy by raising the evaporating temperature of the sensible cooling process. In this study, the pertinent characteristics of the SSLC system using two parallel vapor compression cycles were investigated. The requirement for high air flow rate through the sensible evaporator was the most

  17. Simulation of solar lithium bromide–water absorption cooling system with parabolic trough collector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Mazloumi; M. Naghashzadegan; K. Javaherdeh

    2008-01-01

    Ahwaz is one of the sweltering cities in Iran where an enormous amount of energy is being consumed to cool residential places in a year. The aim of this research is to simulate a solar single effect lithium bromide–water absorption cooling system in Ahwaz. The solar energy is absorbed by a horizontal N–S parabolic trough collector and stored in an

  18. Heat Removal Performance Evaluation of Several Passive Containment Cooling Systems during Loss of Coolant Accident

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hirohide OIKAWA; Hideo NAGASAKA; Jun-ichiro OTONARI; Kenji ARAI

    1991-01-01

    As a passive containment cooling system (PCCS), which is adopted in simplified BWRs, several concepts, differing in cooling location and method, such as the suppression chamber water wall, the drywell water wall, the isolation condenser (I\\/C) and the drywell cooler, have been considered. This paper summarizes the characteristics of each PCCS concept, and the analysis results of the performance for

  19. Cooling systems based on Peltier elements and heat pipes for space application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Best; U. Hingst; H. Kreeb

    1980-01-01

    Peltier elements can work as a refrigerator\\/heat pump, as a heat flux or temperature regulation system, supporting or hindering a heat flux up to 'stop cock'-function. Design definition studies of Spacelab experiments based on Peltier elements cooling units (incubators freezers for biorack) have been carried out. A breadboard cooling unit including 20 Peltier elements has been developed and tested to

  20. Thermostructural applications of heat pipes for cooling leading edges of high-speed aerospace vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camarda, Charles J.; Glass, David E.

    1992-10-01

    Heat pipes have been considered for use on wing leading edge for over 20 years. Early concepts envisioned metal heat pipes cooling a metallic leading edge. Several superalloy/sodium heat pipes were fabricated and successfully tested for wing leading edge cooling. Results of radiant heat and aerothermal testing indicate the feasibility of using heat pipes to cool the stagnation region of shuttle-type space transportation systems. The test model withstood a total seven radiant heating tests, eight aerothermal tests, and twenty-seven supplemental radiant heating tests. Cold-wall heating rates ranged from 21 to 57 Btu/sq ft-s and maximum operating temperatures ranged from 1090 to 1520 F. Follow-on studies investigated the application of heat pipes to cool the stagnation regions of single-stage-to-orbit and advanced shuttle vehicles. Results of those studies indicate that a 'D-shaped' structural design can reduce the mass of the heat-pipe concept by over 44 percent compared to a circular heat-pipe geometry. Simple analytical models for heat-pipe startup from the frozen state (working fluid initially frozen) were adequate to approximate transient, startup, and steady-state heat-pipe performance. Improvement in analysis methods has resulted in the development of a finite-element analysis technique to predict heat-pipe startup from the frozen state. However, current requirements of light-weight design and reliability suggest that metallic heat pipes embedded in a refractory composite material should be used. This concept is the concept presently being evaluated for NASP. A refractory-composite/heat-pipe-cooled wing leading edge is currently being considered for the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP). This concept uses high-temperature refractory-metal/lithium heat pipes embedded within a refractory-composite structure and is significantly lighter than an actively cooled wing leading edge because it eliminates the need for active cooling during ascent and descent. Since the NASP vehicle uses cryogenic hydrogen to cool structural components and then burns this fuel in the combustor, hydrogen necessary for descent cooling only, when the vehicle is unpowered, is considered to be a weight penalty. Details of the design of the refractory-composite/heat-pipe-cooled wing leading edge are currently being investigated. Issues such as thermal contact resistance and thermal stress are also being investigated.

  1. Thermostructural applications of heat pipes for cooling leading edges of high-speed aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camarda, Charles J.; Glass, David E.

    1992-01-01

    Heat pipes have been considered for use on wing leading edge for over 20 years. Early concepts envisioned metal heat pipes cooling a metallic leading edge. Several superalloy/sodium heat pipes were fabricated and successfully tested for wing leading edge cooling. Results of radiant heat and aerothermal testing indicate the feasibility of using heat pipes to cool the stagnation region of shuttle-type space transportation systems. The test model withstood a total seven radiant heating tests, eight aerothermal tests, and twenty-seven supplemental radiant heating tests. Cold-wall heating rates ranged from 21 to 57 Btu/sq ft-s and maximum operating temperatures ranged from 1090 to 1520 F. Follow-on studies investigated the application of heat pipes to cool the stagnation regions of single-stage-to-orbit and advanced shuttle vehicles. Results of those studies indicate that a 'D-shaped' structural design can reduce the mass of the heat-pipe concept by over 44 percent compared to a circular heat-pipe geometry. Simple analytical models for heat-pipe startup from the frozen state (working fluid initially frozen) were adequate to approximate transient, startup, and steady-state heat-pipe performance. Improvement in analysis methods has resulted in the development of a finite-element analysis technique to predict heat-pipe startup from the frozen state. However, current requirements of light-weight design and reliability suggest that metallic heat pipes embedded in a refractory composite material should be used. This concept is the concept presently being evaluated for NASP. A refractory-composite/heat-pipe-cooled wing leading edge is currently being considered for the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP). This concept uses high-temperature refractory-metal/lithium heat pipes embedded within a refractory-composite structure and is significantly lighter than an actively cooled wing leading edge because it eliminates the need for active cooling during ascent and descent. Since the NASP vehicle uses cryogenic hydrogen to cool structural components and then burns this fuel in the combustor, hydrogen necessary for descent cooling only, when the vehicle is unpowered, is considered to be a weight penalty. Details of the design of the refractory-composite/heat-pipe-cooled wing leading edge are currently being investigated. Issues such as thermal contact resistance and thermal stress are also being investigated.

  2. Final cooling of coke oven gas using a closed-loop, recirculated wash-water system

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, R.E.; Burcaw, K.R.

    1983-01-01

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation has developed a closed-loop, recirculated wash-water system for the final cooling of coke oven gas streams. The system employs physical separation of suspended solids from the cooling water, indirect cooling of the recirculating water, and injection of a small amount of a water-immiscible solvent to minimise the deposition of naphthalenic solids in the indirect heat exchanger. A process patent (US Patent 4.234.389) has been awarded to Bethlehem for the solvent-injection portion of the process. Based on the results of plant trials, the system has been proven to require less capital investment and to be more economical and more reliable to operate than the standard recirculated wash-oil systems. When compared with existing wash-water systems, the system has the advantage of eliminating the atmospheric discharges associated with open cooling towers.

  3. Fail-safe system for activity cooled supersonic and hypersonic aircraft. [using liquid hydrogen fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. A.; Braswell, D. O.; Richie, C. B.

    1975-01-01

    A fail-safe-system concept was studied as an alternative to a redundant active cooling system for supersonic and hypersonic aircraft which use the heat sink of liquid-hydrogen fuel for cooling the aircraft structure. This concept consists of an abort maneuver by the aircraft and a passive thermal protection system (TPS) for the aircraft skin. The abort manuever provides a low-heat-load descent from normal cruise speed to a lower speed at which cooling is unnecessary, and the passive TPS allows the aircraft skin to absorb the abort heat load without exceeding critical skin temperature. On the basis of results obtained, it appears that this fail-safe-system concept warrants further consideration, inasmuch as a fail-safe system could possibly replace a redundant active cooling system with no increase in weight and would offer other potential advantages.

  4. Survey and evaluation of available thermal insulation materials for use on solar heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    This is the final report of a survey and evaluation of insulation materials for use with components of solar heating and cooling systems. The survey was performed by mailing questionnaires to manufacturers of insulation materials and by conducting an extensive literature search to obtain data on relevant properties of various types of insulation materials. The study evaluated insulation materials for active and passive solar heating and cooling systems and for multifunction applications. Primary and secondary considerations for selecting insulation materials for various components of solar heating and cooling systems are presented.

  5. Passive-solar-cooling system concepts for small office buildings. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Whiddon, W.I.; Hart, G.K.

    1983-02-01

    This report summarizes the efforts of a small group of building design professionals and energy analysis experts to develop passive solar cooling concepts including first cost estimates for small office buildings. Two design teams were brought together at each of two workshops held in the fall of 1982. Each team included an architect, mechanical engineer, structural engineer, and energy analysis expert. This report presents the passive cooling system concepts resulting from the workshops. It summarizes the design problems, solutions and first-cost estimates relating to each technology considered, and documents the research needs identified by the participants in attempting to implement the various technologies in an actual building design. Each design problem presented at the workshops was based on the reference (base case) small office building analyzed as part of LBL's Cooling Assessment. Chapter II summarizes the thermal performance, physical specifications and estimated first-costs of the base case design developed for this work. Chapters III - VI describe the passive cooling system concepts developed for each technology: beam daylighting; mass with night ventilation; evaporative cooling; and integrated passive cooling systems. The final Chapters, VII and VIII present the preliminary implications for economics of passive cooling technologies (based on review of the design concepts) and recommendations of workshop participants for future research in passive cooling for commercial buildings. Appendices provide backup information on each chapter as indicated.

  6. Condensation heat transfer analysis of the passive containment cooling system of the Purdue University Multidimensional Integral Test Assembly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tauna Lea Wilmarth de Leonardi

    2000-01-01

    The development of a reliable containment cooling system is one of the key areas in advanced nuclear reactor development. There are two categories of containment cooling: active and passive. The active containment cooling consists usually of systems that require active participation in their use. The passive systems have, in the past, been reliant on the supply of electrical power. This

  7. Evaluation of the Thermal Comfort of a Thermoelectric Ceiling Cooling Panel (TE-CCP) System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lertsatitthanakorn, Charoenporn; Wiset, Lamul; Atthajariyakul, Surat

    2009-07-01

    This present work evaluates the cooling performance and thermal comfort of a thermoelectric ceiling cooling panel (TE-CCP) system composed of 36 TE modules. The cold side of the TE modules was fixed to an aluminum ceiling panel to cool a test chamber of 4.5 m3 volume, while a copper heat exchanger with circulating cooling water at the hot side of the TE modules was used for heat release. Thermal acceptability assessment was performed to find out whether the indoor environment met the ASHRAE Standard-55's 80% acceptability criteria. The standard was met with the TE-CCP system operating at 1 A of current flow with a corresponding cooling capacity of 201.6 W, which gives the COP of 0.82 with an average indoor temperature of 27°C and 0.8 m/s indoor air velocity.

  8. Development of a prototype thermoelectric space cooling system using phase change material to improve the performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dongliang

    The thermoelectric cooling system has advantages over conventional vapor compression cooling devices, including compact in size, light in weight, high reliability, no mechanical moving parts, no refrigerant, being powered by direct current, and easily switching between cooling and heating modes. However, it has been long suffering from its relatively high cost and low energy efficiency, which has restricted its usage to niche applications, such as space missions, portable cooling devices, scientific and medical equipment, where coefficient of performance (COP) is not as important as reliability, energy availability, and quiet operation environment. Enhancement of thermoelectric cooling system performance generally relies on two methods: improving thermoelectric material efficiency and through thermoelectric cooling system thermal design. This research has been focused on the latter one. A prototype thermoelectric cooling system integrated with phase change material (PCM) thermal energy storage unit for space cooling has been developed. The PCM thermal storage unit used for cold storage at night, functions as the thermoelectric cooling system's heat sink during daytime's cooling period and provides relatively lower hot side temperature for the thermoelectric cooling system. The experimental test of the prototype system in a reduced-scale chamber has realized an average cooling COP of 0.87, with the maximum value of 1.22. Another comparison test for efficacy of PCM thermal storage unit shows that 35.3% electrical energy has been saved from using PCM for the thermoelectric cooling system. In general, PCM faces difficulty of poor thermal conductivity at both solid and liquid phases. This system implemented a finned inner tube to increase heat transfer during PCM charging (melting) process that directly impacts thermoelectric system's performance. A simulation tool for the entire system has been developed including mathematical models for a single thermoelectric module, for the thermoelectric cooling unit, for the PCM thermal storage unit, and for the outdoor air-water heat exchanger. When modeling PCM thermal storage unit, the enthalpy method has been adopted. Since natural convection has been observed in experiments playing a key effect on heat transfer in PCM, a staged effective thermal conductivity (ke) concept and modified Rayleigh (Ra) number formula have been developed to better capture natural convection's variable effects during the PCM charging process. Therefore, a modeling-based design procedure for thermoelectric cooling system integrating with PCM has been proposed. A case study has been completed for a model office room to demonstrate the qualitative and quantitative evaluations to the major system components. Results of this research can be extended to other applications in relevant areas. For instance, the proposed PCM thermal storage unit can be applied to integration with water-cooled conventional air-conditioning devices. Instead of using water cooling, a case study of using the proposed PCM unit for a water-cooled air-conditioner shows a COP increase of more than 25.6%.

  9. Mechanically Cooled Large-Volume Germanium Detector Systems for Neclear Explosion Monitoring DOENA27323-2

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, E.L.

    2006-10-30

    Compact maintenance free mechanical cooling systems are being developed to operate large volume high-resolution gamma-ray detectors for field applications. To accomplish this we are utilizing a newly available generation of Stirling-cycle mechanical coolers to operate the very largest volume germanium detectors with no maintenance. The user will be able to leave these systems unplugged on the shelf until needed. The maintenance-free operating lifetime of these detector systems will exceed 5 years. Three important factors affect the operation of mechanically cooled germanium detectors: temperature, vacuum, and vibration. These factors will be studied in the laboratory at the most fundamental levels to insure a solid understanding of the physical limitations each factor places on a practical mechanically cooled germanium detector system. Using this knowledge, mechanically cooled germanium detector prototype systems will be designed and fabricated.

  10. Natural cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Fenster, L.C.; Grantier, A.J.

    1981-11-25

    With natural cooling, a process or area is cooled by outdoor air when the weather permits, and dependency on mechanical equipment is reduced. It should be used whenever conditions permit, and mechanical equipment should be brought on-line only when natural cooling cannot be employed. The results are minimized costs without lowered comfort or production levels, reduced costs for maintenance associated with higher levels of mechanical chiller system operation, and decreased dependence on expensive, nonrenewable energy sources. This article reviews several methods of natural cooling and provides a detailed computer-based economic evaluation of each. It discusses the air-side economizer, water-side natural cooling, and combination systems.

  11. Modeling phase transformations in ternary systems: Ferrite dissolution during continuous cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Vitek, J.M.; Vitek, S.A.

    1995-07-01

    The diffusion-controlled phase dissolution (or growth) in a ternary system of finite length has been modeled numerically using an implicit finite-difference method. The analysis has been applied to study the ferrite to austenite transformation in austenitic stainless steel weldments. The iron-chromium-nickel ternary system was taken as representative of this class of materials. The effect of system geometry was evaluated by considering planar, cylindrical, and spherical geometries. The numerical analysis was extended to the case of continuous cooling, for a range of cooling rates from 0.1 to 100 K/s. The results provide information on how quickly the system deviates from equilibrium during cooling, and what the final compositions and phase fractions are as a function of cooling rate. In most cases, the deviation from equilibrium, in terms of residual ferrite content and composition, increased as the cooling rate increased, as expected. However, under some conditions, it was found that the lowest cooling rates actually deviated further from equilibrium than intermediate cooling rates. This curious phenomenon was investigated in detail and was explained in terms of the indirect path toward final. Such indirect equilibration is often found during and typical of diffusion-controlled transformation behavior in multi-component systems.

  12. ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF AEROSOL DRIFT FROM A SALTWATER COOLING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The local terrestrial effects of salt aerosol drift from powered spray modules and a mechanical draft cooling tower at Turkey Point, Florida were evaluated through field and controlled exposure studies. Indigenous vegetation, soil and fresh water were sampled over a year long per...

  13. Stochastic Beam Cooling Amplifier System Front End Components Performance Characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. C. Lo

    1985-01-01

    The stochastic beam cooling amplifier front end consists of 180(0) hybrids, cables, directional couplers, power dividers\\/combiners and low noise preamplifiers. Most front ends will be operating at near liquid nitrogen (LN) temperature. Components used in the front ends should be able to operate at this temperature satisfactorily. Since the noise performance of the front end is of utmost importance to

  14. The NICMOS Cooling System: Technology in the Service of Science

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. S. Cheng; D. F. Zimbelman; D. Calzetti; L. D. Petro; T. Boeker; N. Jedritch; W. Swift; R. I. Thompson; G. Schneider

    2002-01-01

    Over the past 4 years, the Hubble Space Telescope Project has been developing an experimental mechanical cryocooler for the observatory, with the goal of providing continuous cooling for the NICMOS detectors. The effort has been a success, and has resulted in the launch and deployment of this remarkable new technology during Servicing Mission 3B (March 2002). Since then, the NICMOS

  15. March 1, 2013. Campus Wide District Heating & Cooling System

    E-print Network

    87 F ­ 93 F 15 000 gallons Propylene Glycol #12;17 Energy Loop 17 Energy Loop Geothermal Cooling tons) 15,000 Gallons Propylene Glycol Design Min - Max 24 F, 100 F (-4 C, 38 C) #12;Geothermal #12 effective energy sources. Reduce our emissions of Green House Gases. Target 2016 as the year we can

  16. Energy conservation approach for data center cooling using heat pipe based cold energy storage system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao Ping Wu; Masataka Mochizuki; Koichi Mashiko; Thang Nguyen; Vijit Wuttijumnong; Gerald Cabsao; Randeep Singh; Aliakbar Akbarzadeh

    2010-01-01

    In the present paper, design and economics of the novel type of thermal control system for data center cooling using heat pipe based cold energy storage system has been proposed and discussed. Two types of cold energy storage system namely: Ice storage system and cold water storage system are explained and sized for datacenter with heat output capacity of 8800

  17. A computer simulation appraisal of non-residential low energy cooling systems in California

    SciTech Connect

    Bourassa, Norman; Haves, Philip; Huang, Joe

    2002-05-17

    An appraisal of the potential performance of different Low Energy Cooling (LEC) systems in nonresidential buildings in California is being conducted using computer simulation. The paper presents results from the first phase of the study, which addressed the systems that can be modeled, with the DOE-2.1E simulation program. The following LEC technologies were simulated as variants of a conventional variable-air-volume system with vapor compression cooling and mixing ventilation in the occupied spaces: Air-side indirect and indirect/direct evaporative pre-cooling. Cool beams. Displacement ventilation. Results are presented for four populous climates, represented by Oakland, Sacramento, Pasadena and San Diego. The greatest energy savings are obtained from a combination of displacement ventilation and air-side indirect/direct evaporative pre-cooling. Cool beam systems have the lowest peak demand but do not reduce energy consumption significantly because the reduction in fan energy is offse t by a reduction in air-side free cooling. Overall, the results indicate significant opportunities for LEC technologies to reduce energy consumption and demand in nonresidential new construction and retrofit.

  18. Cost-Effective Gas-Fueled Cooling Systems for Commercial/Industrial Buildings and Process Applications 

    E-print Network

    Lindsay, B. B.

    1987-01-01

    Gas Research Institute initiated a program in 1985 to develop cost-effective gas engine-driven cooling systems for commercial and industrial applications. Tecogen, Inc., has designed, fabricated, and tested a nominal 150-ton engine-driven water...

  19. Optimization of Chilled Water Flow and Its Distribution in Central Cooling System

    E-print Network

    Maheshwari, G. P.; Hajiah, A. E.; ElSherbini, A. I.

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of chilled water flow and its distribution on energy efficiency and comfort quality, using the results of a field study conducted for a central cooling production system during 2006 in Kuwait. The paper identifies...

  20. Development and testing of heat transport fluids for use in active solar heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    Work on heat transport fluids for use with active solar heating and cooling systems is described. Program objectives and how they were accomplished including problems encountered during testing are discussed.