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1

20. Ruhm, W. et al. The dosimetry system DS86 and the neutron discrepancy in Hiroshima--historical review, present status, and future options. Radiat. Environ. Biophys. 37, 293310 (1998).  

E-print Network

20. Ru¨hm, W. et al. The dosimetry system DS86 and the neutron discrepancy in Hiroshima of Atomic Bomb Radiation Dosimetry in Hiroshima And Nagasaki-Final Report Vol. 2 (ed. Roesch, W. C.) 283 analytical capability may provide solution to the neutron dosimetry problem in Hiroshima. Radiat. Prot. Dosim

Losos, Jonathan B.

2

SWISS-PROT  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

SWISS-PROT, provided by the Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, is a "curated protein sequence database" that provides, with minimal redundancy and "a high level of integration with other databases," descriptions of "the function of a protein, its domains structure, post-translational modifications" and variants, as well as a host of other information. Access to the SWISS-PROT database is available via "description or identification (any word in the DE, OS, OG, GN and ID lines)," by accession number (AC line), author (RA line), citation (RL line), or full text search. Lengthy returns offer information in several dozen fields, including taxonomic hierarchy, journal references, and sequence information.

1998-01-01

3

UniProtJAPI: a remote API for accessing UniProt data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Programmatic access to the UniProt Knowledgebase (UniProtKB) is essential for many bioinformatics applications dealing with protein data. We have created a Java library named UniProtJAPI, which facilitates the integration of UniProt data into Java-based software applications. The library supports queries and similarity searches that return UniProtKB entries in the form of Java objects. These objects contain functional annotations or

Samuel Patient; Daniela Wieser; Michael Kleen; Ernst Kretschmann; Maria Jesus Martin; Rolf Apweiler

2008-01-01

4

The Universal Protein Resource (UniProt).  

PubMed

The Universal Protein Resource (UniProt) provides the scientific community with a single, centralized, authoritative resource for protein sequences and functional information. Formed by uniting the Swiss-Prot, TrEMBL and PIR protein database activities, the UniProt consortium produces three layers of protein sequence databases: the UniProt Archive (UniParc), the UniProt Knowledgebase (UniProt) and the UniProt Reference (UniRef) databases. The UniProt Knowledgebase is a comprehensive, fully classified, richly and accurately annotated protein sequence knowledgebase with extensive cross-references. This centrepiece consists of two sections: UniProt/Swiss-Prot, with fully, manually curated entries; and UniProt/TrEMBL, enriched with automated classification and annotation. During 2004, tens of thousands of Knowledgebase records got manually annotated or updated; we introduced a new comment line topic: TOXIC DOSE to store information on the acute toxicity of a toxin; the UniProt keyword list got augmented by additional keywords; we improved the documentation of the keywords and are continuously overhauling and standardizing the annotation of post-translational modifications. Furthermore, we introduced a new documentation file of the strains and their synonyms. Many new database cross-references were introduced and we started to make use of Digital Object Identifiers. We also achieved in collaboration with the Macromolecular Structure Database group at EBI an improved integration with structural databases by residue level mapping of sequences from the Protein Data Bank entries onto corresponding UniProt entries. For convenient sequence searches we provide the UniRef non-redundant sequence databases. The comprehensive UniParc database stores the complete body of publicly available protein sequence data. The UniProt databases can be accessed online (http://www.uniprot.org) or downloaded in several formats (ftp://ftp.uniprot.org/pub). New releases are published every two weeks. PMID:15608167

Bairoch, Amos; Apweiler, Rolf; Wu, Cathy H; Barker, Winona C; Boeckmann, Brigitte; Ferro, Serenella; Gasteiger, Elisabeth; Huang, Hongzhan; Lopez, Rodrigo; Magrane, Michele; Martin, Maria J; Natale, Darren A; O'Donovan, Claire; Redaschi, Nicole; Yeh, Lai-Su L

2005-01-01

5

EBI/SIB/PIR: UniProt  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Universal Protein Resource, UniProt, "is the world's most comprehensive catalog of information on proteins." The Getting Started, Searches/Tools, and Databases sections are the true gems of the site. After getting acquainted with the trove of information and data offered by UniProt, users can then begin to search for various protein sequences and data collection via a well-organized searchable database organized by Classification, Function, Property and more. Also available for visitors is the ability to download some or all of the UniProt database. Other resources include a documents section that provides visitors with a user's manual and various technical information guides regarding the databases.

6

Economic Fundamentals, Risk, and Momentum Prots  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study empirically the changes in fundamentals for rms with price momentum. Recent winners have temporarily higher, and recent losers have temporarily lower, future growth rates on average, and the duration of the average future growth rate dispersion roughly matches that of momentum prots. Past returns are strong, positive predictors of future growth rates, and factor-mimicking portfolios on expected growth

Laura X. L. Liu; Jerold B. Warner; Lu Zhang

2004-01-01

7

Genetic variations and diseases in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: the ins and outs of expert manual curation.  

PubMed

During the last few years, next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have accelerated the detection of genetic variants resulting in the rapid discovery of new disease-associated genes. However, the wealth of variation data made available by NGS alone is not sufficient to understand the mechanisms underlying disease pathogenesis and manifestation. Multidisciplinary approaches combining sequence and clinical data with prior biological knowledge are needed to unravel the role of genetic variants in human health and disease. In this context, it is crucial that these data are linked, organized, and made readily available through reliable online resources. The Swiss-Prot section of the Universal Protein Knowledgebase (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot) provides the scientific community with a collection of information on protein functions, interactions, biological pathways, as well as human genetic diseases and variants, all manually reviewed by experts. In this article, we present an overview of the information content of UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot to show how this knowledgebase can support researchers in the elucidation of the mechanisms leading from a molecular defect to a disease phenotype. PMID:24848695

Famiglietti, Maria Livia; Estreicher, Anne; Gos, Arnaud; Bolleman, Jerven; Géhant, Sébastien; Breuza, Lionel; Bridge, Alan; Poux, Sylvain; Redaschi, Nicole; Bougueleret, Lydie; Xenarios, Ioannis

2014-08-01

8

Radiation  

Cancer.gov

DCEG researchers carry out a broad-based research program designed to identify, understand, and quantify the risk of cancer in populations exposed to medical, occupational, or environmental radiation. They study ionizing radiation exposures (e.g., x-rays,

9

DisProt: the Database of Disordered Proteins  

PubMed Central

The Database of Protein Disorder (DisProt) links structure and function information for intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). Intrinsically disordered proteins do not form a fixed three-dimensional structure under physiological conditions, either in their entireties or in segments or regions. We define IDP as a protein that contains at least one experimentally determined disordered region. Although lacking fixed structure, IDPs and regions carry out important biological functions, being typically involved in regulation, signaling and control. Such functions can involve high-specificity low-affinity interactions, the multiple binding of one protein to many partners and the multiple binding of many proteins to one partner. These three features are all enabled and enhanced by protein intrinsic disorder. One of the major hindrances in the study of IDPs has been the lack of organized information. DisProt was developed to enable IDP research by collecting and organizing knowledge regarding the experimental characterization and the functional associations of IDPs. In addition to being a unique source of biological information, DisProt opens doors for a plethora of bioinformatics studies. DisProt is openly available at . PMID:17145717

Sickmeier, Megan; Hamilton, Justin A.; LeGall, Tanguy; Vacic, Vladimir; Cortese, Marc S.; Tantos, Agnes; Szabo, Beata; Tompa, Peter; Chen, Jake; Uversky, Vladimir N.; Obradovic, Zoran; Dunker, A. Keith

2007-01-01

10

Radiators  

SciTech Connect

A heat-exchange radiator is connected to a fluid flow circuit by a connector which provides one member of an interengageable spigot and socket pair for push-fit, fluid-tight, engagement between the connector and the radiator, with latching formations at least one of which is resilient. Preferably the connector carries the spigot which tapers and engages with a socket of corresponding shape, the spigot carrying an O-ring seal and either latching fingers or a resilient latching circlip.

Webster, D. M.

1985-07-30

11

Dosimetric properties and stability of thermoluminescent foils made from LiF:Mg,Cu,P or CaSO4:Dy during long-term use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A few dosimetric systems based on thermoluminescence [TL] foils were developed in recent years (Nariyama et al. 2006, Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 120, 213-218; Olko et al. 2006 Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 118, 213-218) (Czopyk et al. 2008, Radiat. Meas., 43, 977-980; K?osowski et al. 2010, Radiat. Meas., 45, 719-721; Kope? et al. 2013, Radiat.Meas., 56, 380-383). Major application of these systems is mapping of 2D dose distribution for medical treatment plan verification, similarly to photochromic or radiochromic films. The advantage of TL foils compared to other films is their re-usability. In this work we present dosimetric properties as dose linearity and fadding of the foils made from LiF:Mg,Cu,P or CaSO4:Dy phosphors and high temperature polymers. Both types of the foils have good linearity in the range 1-20 Gy for LiF:Mg,Cu,P and 0.1-2 Gy for CaSO4:Dy. Their long term fading does not exceed 3.7% and 9% respectively. We additionally investigated effects of sensitivity loss and emission spectra for both types of the foils. One shortcoming of TL foils is that every heat process may have negative influence on their properties, causing changes of their sensitivity. Register signal of the foils after 15 readouts may be reduced by 16% of the initial. We consider that the main reason of these changes is oxidation of organic contamination on the surface and degradation of a polymer which is one of the components of the foils. Effect of sensitivity decreasing may be slowed down by proper use and cleaning detectors by solvent.

K?osowski, M.; Liszka, M.; Kope?, R.; Bilski, P.; K?dzierska, D.

2014-11-01

12

Automated annotation of microbial proteomes in SWISS-PROT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-scale sequencing of prokaryotic genomes demands the automation of certain annotation tasks currently manually performed in the production of the SWISS-PROT protein knowledgebase. The HAMAP project, or 'High-quality Automated and Manual Annotation of microbial Proteomes', aims to integrate manual and automatic annotation methods in order to enhance the speed of the curation process while preserving the quality of the database

Alexandre Gattiker; Karine Michoud; Catherine Rivoire; Andrea H. Auchincloss; Elisabeth Coudert; Tania Lima; Paul Kersey; Marco Pagni; Christian J. A. Sigrist; Corinne Lachaize; Anne-lise Veuthey; Elisabeth Gasteiger; Amos Bairoch

2003-01-01

13

DERECHOS DEL EMPLEADO LEy PARA LA PROtECCin  

E-print Network

DERECHOS DEL EMPLEADO LEy PARA LA PROtECCión DEL EMPLEADO COntRA LA PRuEbA DEL POLígRAfO PROHIBICIONES ExENCIONES DERECHOS DE LOS ExAMINADOS CUMPLIMIENTO Generalmente se le prohíbe al empleador que le aspirante a un trabajo por haberse negado a someterse a la prueba o por haberse acogido a otros derechos

Rock, Chris

14

newDNA-Prot: Prediction of DNA-binding proteins by employing support vector machine and a comprehensive sequence representation.  

PubMed

Identification of DNA-binding proteins is essential in studying cellular activities as the DNA-binding proteins play a pivotal role in gene regulation. In this study, we propose newDNA-Prot, a DNA-binding protein predictor that employs support vector machine classifier and a comprehensive feature representation. The sequence representation are categorized into 6 groups: primary sequence based, evolutionary profile based, predicted secondary structure based, predicted relative solvent accessibility based, physicochemical property based and biological function based features. The mRMR, wrapper and two-stage feature selection methods are employed for removing irrelevant features and reducing redundant features. Experiments demonstrate that the two-stage method performs better than the mRMR and wrapper methods. We also perform a statistical analysis on the selected features and results show that more than 95% of the selected features are statistically significant and they cover all 6 feature groups. The newDNA-Prot method is compared with several state of the art algorithms, including iDNA-Prot, DNAbinder and DNA-Prot. The results demonstrate that newDNA-Prot method outperforms the iDNA-Prot, DNAbinder and DNA-Prot methods. More specific, newDNA-Prot improves the runner-up method, DNA-Prot for around 10% on several evaluation measures. The proposed newDNA-Prot method is available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/newdnaprot/ PMID:25240115

Zhang, Yanping; Xu, Jun; Zheng, Wei; Zhang, Chen; Qiu, Xingye; Chen, Ke; Ruan, Jishou

2014-10-01

15

A fast Peptide Match service for UniProt Knowledgebase  

PubMed Central

Summary: We have developed a new web application for peptide matching using Apache Lucene-based search engine. The Peptide Match service is designed to quickly retrieve all occurrences of a given query peptide from UniProt Knowledgebase (UniProtKB) with isoforms. The matched proteins are shown in summary tables with rich annotations, including matched sequence region(s) and links to corresponding proteins in a number of proteomic/peptide spectral databases. The results are grouped by taxonomy and can be browsed by organism, taxonomic group or taxonomy tree. The service supports queries where isobaric leucine and isoleucine are treated equivalent, and an option for searching UniRef100 representative sequences, as well as dynamic queries to major proteomic databases. In addition to the web interface, we also provide RESTful web services. The underlying data are updated every 4 weeks in accordance with the UniProt releases. Availability: http://proteininformationresource.org/peptide.shtml Contact: chenc@udel.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:23958731

Chen, Chuming; Li, Zhiwen; Huang, Hongzhan; Suzek, Baris E.; Wu, Cathy H.

2013-01-01

16

enDNA-Prot: Identification of DNA-Binding Proteins by Applying Ensemble Learning  

PubMed Central

DNA-binding proteins are crucial for various cellular processes, such as recognition of specific nucleotide, regulation of transcription, and regulation of gene expression. Developing an effective model for identifying DNA-binding proteins is an urgent research problem. Up to now, many methods have been proposed, but most of them focus on only one classifier and cannot make full use of the large number of negative samples to improve predicting performance. This study proposed a predictor called enDNA-Prot for DNA-binding protein identification by employing the ensemble learning technique. Experiential results showed that enDNA-Prot was comparable with DNA-Prot and outperformed DNAbinder and iDNA-Prot with performance improvement in the range of 3.97–9.52% in ACC and 0.08–0.19 in MCC. Furthermore, when the benchmark dataset was expanded with negative samples, the performance of enDNA-Prot outperformed the three existing methods by 2.83–16.63% in terms of ACC and 0.02–0.16 in terms of MCC. It indicated that enDNA-Prot is an effective method for DNA-binding protein identification and expanding training dataset with negative samples can improve its performance. For the convenience of the vast majority of experimental scientists, we developed a user-friendly web-server for enDNA-Prot which is freely accessible to the public. PMID:24977146

Xu, Ruifeng; Zhou, Jiyun; Liu, Bin; Yao, Lin; He, Yulan; Zou, Quan; Wang, Xiaolong

2014-01-01

17

DeltaProt: a software toolbox for comparative genomics  

PubMed Central

Background Statistical bioinformatics is the study of biological data sets obtained by new micro-technologies by means of proper statistical methods. For a better understanding of environmental adaptations of proteins, orthologous sequences from different habitats may be explored and compared. The main goal of the DeltaProt Toolbox is to provide users with important functionality that is needed for comparative screening and studies of extremophile proteins and protein classes. Visualization of the data sets is also the focus of this article, since visualizations can play a key role in making the various relationships transparent. This application paper is intended to inform the reader of the existence, functionality, and applicability of the toolbox. Results We present the DeltaProt Toolbox, a software toolbox that may be useful in importing, analyzing and visualizing data from multiple alignments of proteins. The toolbox has been written in MATLAB™ to provide an easy and user-friendly platform, including a graphical user interface, while ensuring good numerical performance. Problems in genome biology may be easily stated thanks to a compact input format. The toolbox also offers the possibility of utilizing structural information from the SABLE or other structure predictors. Different sequence plots can then be viewed and compared in order to find their similarities and differences. Detailed statistics are also calculated during the procedure. Conclusions The DeltaProt package is open source and freely available for academic, non-commercial use. The latest version of DeltaProt can be obtained from http://services.cbu.uib.no/software/deltaprot/. The website also contains documentation, and the toolbox comes with real data sets that are intended for training in applying the models to carry out bioinformatical and statistical analyses of protein sequences. Equipped with the new algorithms proposed here, DeltaProt serves as an auxiliary analysis tool capable of visualizing and comparing orthologus protein sequences. The framework of the algorithms also enables easy incorporation of extra information on structure, if such data is available. PMID:21092291

2010-01-01

18

The SWISS-PROT protein knowledgebase and its supplement TrEMBL in 2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SWISS-PROT protein knowledgebase (http:\\/\\/ www.expasy.org\\/sprot\\/ and http:\\/\\/www.ebi.ac.uk\\/ swissprot\\/) connects amino acid sequences with the current knowledge in the Life Sciences. Each protein entry provides an interdisciplinary overview of relevant information by bringing together experi- mental results, computed features and sometimes even contradictory conclusions. Detailed expertise that goes beyond the scope of SWISS-PROT is made available via direct links to

Brigitte Boeckmann; Amos Bairoch; Rolf Apweiler; Marie-claude Blatter; Anne Estreicher; Elisabeth Gasteiger; Maria Jesus Martin; Karine Michoud; Claire O'donovan; Isabelle Phan; Sandrine Pilbout; Michel Schneider

2003-01-01

19

CluSTr: a database of clusters of SWISS-PROT+TrEMBL proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CluSTr (Clusters of SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL proteins) database offers an automatic classification of SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL proteins into groups of related proteins. The clustering is based on analysis of all pairwise comparisons between protein sequences. Analysis has been carried out for different levels of protein similarity, yielding a hierarchical organisation of clusters. The database provides links to InterPro, which

Evgenia V. Kriventseva; Wolfgang Fleischmann; Evgeni M. Zdobnov; Rolf Apweiler

2001-01-01

20

Some elements for a revision of the americium reference biokinetic model.  

PubMed

The interpretation of individual activity measurement after a contamination by 241Am or its parent nuclide 241Pu is based on the reference americium (Am) biokinetic model published by the International Commission on Radiological Protection in 1993 [International Commission on Radiological Protection. Age-dependent doses to members of the public from intake of radionuclides: Part 2 Ingestion dose coefficients. ICRP Publication 67. Ann. ICRP 23(3/4) (1993)]. The authors analysed the new data about Am biokinetics reported afterwards to propose an update of the current model. The most interesting results, from the United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries post-mortem measurement database [Filipy, R. E. and Russel, J. J. The United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries as sources for actinide dosimetry and bioeffects. Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 105(1-4), 185-187 (2003)] and the long-term follow-up of cases of inhalation intake [Malátová, I., Foltánová, S., Becková, V., Filgas, R., Pospísilová, H. and Hölgye, Z. Assessment of occupational doses from internal contamination with 241Am. Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 105(1-4), 325-328 (2003)], seemed to show that the current model underestimates the retention in the massive soft tissues and overestimates the retention in the skeleton and the late urinary excretion. However, a critical review of the data demonstrated that all were not equally reliable and suggested that only a slight revision of the model, possibly involving a change in the balance of activity between massive soft tissues, cortical and trabecular bone surfaces, may be required. PMID:17561524

Blanchardon, E; Leggett, R W; Eckerman, K F

2007-01-01

21

UniProtKB amid the turmoil of plant proteomics research.  

PubMed

The UniProt KnowledgeBase (UniProtKB) provides a single, centralized, authoritative resource for protein sequences and functional information. The majority of its records is based on automatic translation of coding sequences (CDS) provided by submitters at the time of initial deposition to the nucleotide sequence databases (INSDC). This article will give a general overview of the current situation, with some specific illustrations extracted from our annotation of Arabidopsis and rice proteomes. More and more frequently, only the raw sequence of a complete genome is deposited to the nucleotide sequence databases and the gene model predictions and annotations are kept in separate, specialized model organism databases (MODs). In order to be able to provide the complete proteome of model organisms, UniProtKB had to implement pipelines for import of protein sequences from Ensembl and EnsemblGenomes. A single genome can be the target of several unrelated sequencing projects and the final assembly and gene model predictions may diverge quite significantly. In addition, several cultivars of the same species are often sequenced - 1001 Arabidopsis cultivars are currently under way - and the resulting proteomes are far from being identical. Therefore, one challenge for UniProtKB is to store and organize these data in a convenient way and to clearly defined reference proteomes that should be made available to users. Manual annotation is one of the landmarks of the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB. Besides adding functional annotation, curators are checking, and often correcting, gene model predictions. For plants, this task is limited to Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa subsp. japonica. Proteomics data providing experimental evidences confirming the existence of proteins or identifying sequence features such as post-translational modifications are also imported into UniProtKB records and the knowledgebase is cross-referenced to numerous proteomics resource. PMID:23230445

Schneider, Michel; Poux, Sylvain

2012-01-01

22

iDNA-Prot: Identification of DNA Binding Proteins Using Random Forest with Grey Model  

PubMed Central

DNA-binding proteins play crucial roles in various cellular processes. Developing high throughput tools for rapidly and effectively identifying DNA-binding proteins is one of the major challenges in the field of genome annotation. Although many efforts have been made in this regard, further effort is needed to enhance the prediction power. By incorporating the features into the general form of pseudo amino acid composition that were extracted from protein sequences via the “grey model” and by adopting the random forest operation engine, we proposed a new predictor, called iDNA-Prot, for identifying uncharacterized proteins as DNA-binding proteins or non-DNA binding proteins based on their amino acid sequences information alone. The overall success rate by iDNA-Prot was 83.96% that was obtained via jackknife tests on a newly constructed stringent benchmark dataset in which none of the proteins included has pairwise sequence identity to any other in a same subset. In addition to achieving high success rate, the computational time for iDNA-Prot is remarkably shorter in comparison with the relevant existing predictors. Hence it is anticipated that iDNA-Prot may become a useful high throughput tool for large-scale analysis of DNA-binding proteins. As a user-friendly web-server, iDNA-Prot is freely accessible to the public at the web-site on http://icpr.jci.edu.cn/bioinfo/iDNA-Prot or http://www.jci-bioinfo.cn/iDNA-Prot. Moreover, for the convenience of the vast majority of experimental scientists, a step-by-step guide is provided on how to use the web-server to get the desired results. PMID:21935457

Lin, Wei-Zhong; Fang, Jian-An; Xiao, Xuan; Chou, Kuo-Chen

2011-01-01

23

Expert curation in UniProtKB: a case study on dealing with conflicting and erroneous data.  

PubMed

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot provides expert curation with information extracted from literature and curator-evaluated computational analysis. As knowledgebases continue to play an increasingly important role in scientific research, a number of studies have evaluated their accuracy and revealed various errors. While some are curation errors, others are the result of incorrect information published in the scientific literature. By taking the example of sirtuin-5, a complex annotation case, we will describe the curation procedure of UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and detail how we report conflicting information in the database. We will demonstrate the importance of collaboration between resources to ensure curation consistency and the value of contributions from the user community in helping maintain error-free resources. Database URL: www.uniprot.org. PMID:24622611

Poux, Sylvain; Magrane, Michele; Arighi, Cecilia N; Bridge, Alan; O'Donovan, Claire; Laiho, Kati

2014-01-01

24

Prot-Prop: J-tool to predict the subcellular location of proteins based on physiochemical characterization.  

PubMed

PROT-PROP is a computational tool to characterize 27 physicochemical properties of a protein along with its subcellular location (intra or extra) in a single-window application. Other significant features of this software include calculation of numerical values for hydrophobicity, hydrophilicity; composition of small and large amino acids; net hydrophobic content in terms of low/high; and Navie's algorithm to calculate theoretical pI. PROT-PROP is an easy-to-install platform independent implementation of JAVA under a user-friendly interface. It is a standalone version as a virtual appliance and source code for platforms supporting Java 1.5.0 and higher versions, and downloadable from the web http://www.mzu.edu.in/schools/biotechnology.html . PROT-PROP can run under Windows and Macintosh Operating Systems. PROT-PROP is distributed with its source code so that it may be adapted or customized, if desired. PMID:23354819

Senthilkumar, Brindha; Sailo, Sangzuala; Guruswami, Gurusubramanian; Nachimuthu, Senthilkumar

2012-12-01

25

ProtCV: A Tool for Extracting, Visualizing and Validating Protein Clusters Using Mass Spectra Peak-Lists  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present ProtCV (protein clustering and visualization) a new software tool for grouping samples (mass spectra peak-lists) emanating from a high throughput proteomics analysis based on their spectral similarities, and summarizing effectively for the user the clustering results using advanced visualization methods. A unique feature of ProtCV is that it can compare clustering methods applied to the same data set

Stavroula Ventoura; Eugenia G. Giannopoulou; Elias S. Manolakos

2008-01-01

26

The SWISS-PROT protein sequence data bank and its new supplement TREMBL  

Microsoft Academic Search

SWISS-PROT is a curated protein sequence database which strives to provide a high level of annotation (such as the description of the function of a protein, its domain structure, post-translational modifications, variants, etc), a minimal level of redundancy and a high level of integration with other databases. Recent developments of the database include: an increase in the number and scope

Amos Bairoch; Rolf Apweiler

1996-01-01

27

The SWISS-PROT protein sequence data bank and its supplement TrEMBL  

Microsoft Academic Search

SWISS-PROT is a curated protein sequence database which strives to provide a high level of annotations (such as the description of the function of a protein, structure of its domains, post-translational modifica- tions, variants, etc.), a minimal level of redundancy and high level of integration with other databases. Recent developments of the database include: an increase in the number and

Amos Bairoch; Rolf Apweiler

1997-01-01

28

ProtEx: a toolkit for the analysis of distributed real-time systems  

E-print Network

and queuing policies present in a system. In this thesis we present a methodology to extend the traditional RMA approach by allowing general characterization of workload and flexible modeling of resources. We realize our approaches within ProtEx, a toolkit...

Meylan, Yves Damien Meylan

2012-06-07

29

Combining NLP and probabilistic categorisation for document and term selection for Swiss-Prot medical annotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation: Searching relevant publications for manual database annotation is a tedious task. In this paper, we apply a combination of Natural Language Processing (NLP) and probabilistic classification to re-rank documents returned by PubMed according to their relevance to Swiss- Prot annotation, and to identify significant terms in the documents. Results: With a Probabilistic Latent Categoriser (PLC) we obtained 69% recall

Pavel B. Dobrokhotov; Cyril Goutte; Anne-lise Veuthey; Éric Gaussier

2003-01-01

30

The SWISS-PROT protein sequence data bank and its supplement TrEMBL in 1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

SWISS-PROT is a curated protein sequence database which strives to provide a high level of annotation (such as the description of the function of a protein, its domain structure, post-translational modifications, variants, etc.), a minimal level of redundancy and high level of integration with other databases. Recent developments of the database include: cross-refer- ences to additional databases; a variety of

Amos Bairoch; Rolf Apweiler

1999-01-01

31

The SWISS-PROT protein sequence data bank and its supplement TrEMBL in 1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

SWISS-PROT (http:\\/\\/www.expasy.ch\\/ ) is a curated protein sequence database which strives to provide a high level of annotations (such as the description of the function of a protein, its domains structure, post- translational modifications, variants, etc.), a minimal level of redundancy and high level of integration with other databases. Recent developments of the database include: an increase in the number

Amos Bairoch; Rolf Apweiler

1998-01-01

32

Improvements to CluSTr: the database of SWISS-PROT+TrEMBL protein clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CluSTr database (http:\\/\\/www.ebi.ac.uk\\/clustr\\/) offers an automatic classification of SWISS- PROT þ TrEMBL proteins into groups of related proteins. The clustering is based on analysis of all pair-wise sequence comparisons between proteins using the Smith-Waterman algorithm. The analysis, carried out on different levels of protein similarity, yields a hierarchical organization of clusters. Information about domain content of the clustered proteins

Evgenia V. Kriventseva; Florence Servant; Rolf Apweiler

2003-01-01

33

ChemProt-2.0: visual navigation in a disease chemical biology database  

PubMed Central

ChemProt-2.0 (http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/ChemProt-2.0) is a public available compilation of multiple chemical–protein annotation resources integrated with diseases and clinical outcomes information. The database has been updated to >1.15 million compounds with 5.32 millions bioactivity measurements for 15 290 proteins. Each protein is linked to quality-scored human protein–protein interactions data based on more than half a million interactions, for studying diseases and biological outcomes (diseases, pathways and GO terms) through protein complexes. In ChemProt-2.0, therapeutic effects as well as adverse drug reactions have been integrated allowing for suggesting proteins associated to clinical outcomes. New chemical structure fingerprints were computed based on the similarity ensemble approach. Protein sequence similarity search was also integrated to evaluate the promiscuity of proteins, which can help in the prediction of off-target effects. Finally, the database was integrated into a visual interface that enables navigation of the pharmacological space for small molecules. Filtering options were included in order to facilitate and to guide dynamic search of specific queries. PMID:23185041

Kim Kjærulff, Sonny; Wich, Louis; Kringelum, Jens; Jacobsen, Ulrik P.; Kouskoumvekaki, Irene; Audouze, Karine; Lund, Ole; Brunak, Søren; Oprea, Tudor I.; Taboureau, Olivier

2013-01-01

34

The annotation of both human and mouse kinomes in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: one small step in manual annotation, one giant leap for full comprehension of genomes.  

PubMed

Biomolecule phosphorylation by protein kinases is a fundamental cell signaling process in all living cells. Following the comprehensive cataloguing of the protein kinase complement of the human genome (Manning, G., Whyte, D. B., Martinez, R., Hunter, T., and Sudarsanam, S. (2002) The protein kinase complement of the human genome. Science 298, 1912-1934), this review will detail the state-of-the-art human and mouse kinase proteomes as provided in the UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot protein knowledgebase. The sequences of the 480 classical and up to 24 atypical protein kinases now believed to exist in the human genome and 484 classical and up to 24 atypical kinases within the mouse genome have been reviewed and, where necessary, revised. Extensive annotation has been added to each entry. In an era when a wealth of new databases is emerging on the Internet, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot makes available to the scientific community the most up-to-date and in-depth annotation of these proteins with access to additional external resources linked from within each entry. Incorrect sequence annotations resulting from errors and artifacts have been eliminated. Each entry will be constantly reviewed and updated as new information becomes available with the orthologous enzymes in related species being annotated in a parallel effort and complete kinomes being completed as sequences become available. This ensures that the mammalian kinomes available from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot are of a consistently high standard with each separate entry acting both as a valuable information resource and a central portal to a wealth of further detail via extensive cross-referencing. PMID:18436524

Braconi Quintaje, Silvia; Orchard, Sandra

2008-08-01

35

Characterisation of OSL and OSLN droplets for dosimetry.  

PubMed

In spite of considerable progress in neutron dosimetry, there is no dosemeter that is capable of measuring neutron doses independently of the neutron spectrum with good accuracy. Carbon-doped aluminium oxide (Al2O3:C) is a sensitive material for ionising radiation (beta-ray, X ray and electron) and has been used for applications in personal and medical dosimetry as an optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosemeter. Al2O3:C has a low sensitivity to neutron radiation; this prevents its application to neutron fields, representing a disadvantage of Al2O3:C-OSL when compared with LiF, which is used as a thermoluminescent detector. Recently an improvement for neutron dosimetry (Passmore and Kirr. Neutron response characterisation of an OSL neutron dosemeter. Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 2011; 144: 155-60) uses Al2O3:C coated with (6)Li2CO3 (OSLN),which gives the high-sensitive response as known for Al2O3:C with the advantage of being also sensitive to thermal neutrons. In this article, the authors compare small-size detectors (droplets) of Al2O3:C (OSL) and of Al2O3:C+(6)Li2CO3 (OSLN) and discuss the advantages and drawbacks of both materials, regarding size vs. response. PMID:24381203

Nascimento, L F; D'Agostino, E; Vaniqui, A C S; Saldarriaga, C; Vanhavere, F; De Deene, Y

2014-10-01

36

Spherical polar co-ordinate calculations of induced fields in the retina and head for applied magnetic fields at 50 Hz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper sets out to explore the effects of voxel resolution, from 2 mm down to 0.1 mm for Cartesian co-ordinates and the differences between Cartesian and spherical polar co-ordinates for a standardized test-bed model of the eye. This model was taken from the work of Yoriyaz et al (2005 Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 115 316-9) who have developed a detailed geometric description of the eye including choroid, retina, sclera, lens, cornea, anterior chamber, vitreous humour and optic nerve for ophthalmic brachytherapy. The spherical co-ordinate model has radial and angular steplengths of 0.1 mm and 0.25°, respectively. The current density averaged over 1 cm2 and the 99th percentile value of the induced electric field have been calculated in the retina and central nervous system for uniform magnetic fields. The Cartesian co-ordinate calculations proceed in a sequence of grids at 2, 1, 0.5, 0.2 and 0.1 mm resolution with the potentials from the previous calculation at a coarser grid providing the boundary conditions on the finer grid. The 0.2 mm grid provides the boundary conditions for the spherical polar calculations. Comparisons are made with the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection reference levels.

Dimbylow, Peter

2011-07-01

37

Development, implementation and evaluation of a peer review of teaching (PRoT) initiative in nursing education.  

PubMed

For many years, an area of research in higher education has been emerging around the development and implementation of fair and effective peer evaluation programs. Recently, a new body of knowledge has developed regarding the development and implementation of fair and effective peer evaluation programs resulting in formative and summative evaluations. The purpose of this article is to describe the development, implementation, and evaluation of a peer review of teaching (PRoT) program for nursing faculty, initiated at one small comprehensive university in the northeastern United States. Pairs of nursing faculty evaluated each other's teaching, syllabi, and course materials after collaborating in a pre-evaluation conference to discuss goals of the classroom visit. Qualitative data gathered in post project focus groups revealed that faculty found their modified PRoT process to be a mutually beneficial experience that was more useful, flexible and collegial, and less stressful than their previous evaluation process. PMID:24893326

Mager, Diana R; Kazer, Meredith W; Conelius, Jaclyn; Shea, Joyce; Lippman, Doris T; Torosyan, Roben; Nantz, Kathryn

2014-01-01

38

Radiation enteritis  

MedlinePLUS

Radiation enteropathy; Radiation-induced small bowel injury; Post-radiation enteritis ... Radiation therapy uses high-powered x-rays, particles, or radioactive seeds to kill cancer cells. The therapy ...

39

Radiative cooler. [spacecraft radiators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method and radiative cooling device for use in passively cooling spaces is described. It is applicable to any level of thermal radiation in vacuum and to high-intensity thermal radiation in non-vacuum environments. The device includes an enclosure nested in a multiplicity of thin, low-emittance, highly-reflective shields. The shields are suspended in a casing in mutual angular relation and having V-shaped spaces defined therebetween for redirecting, by reflection, toward the large openings of the V-shaped spaces, thermal radiation entering the sides of the shields, and emitted to the spaces, whereby successively reduced quantities of thermal radiation are reflected by the surfaces along substantially parallel paths extended through the V-shaped spaces to a common heat sink such as the cold thermal background of space.

Petrick, S. W.; Garcia, R. D. (inventors)

1984-01-01

40

An approach to describing and analysing bulk biological annotation quality: a case study using UniProtKB  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Annotations are a key feature of many biological databases, used to convey our knowledge of a sequence to the reader. Ideally, annotations are curated manually, however manual curation is costly, time consuming and requires expert knowledge and training. Given these issues and the exponential increase of data, many databases implement automated annotation pipelines in an attempt to avoid un-annotated entries. Both manual and automated annotations vary in quality between databases and annotators, making assessment of annotation reliability problematic for users. The community lacks a generic measure for determining annotation quality and correctness, which we look at addressing within this article. Specifically we investigate word reuse within bulk textual annotations and relate this to Zipf's Principle of Least Effort. We use the UniProt Knowledgebase (UniProtKB) as a case study to demonstrate this approach since it allows us to compare annotation change, both over time and between automated and manually curated annotations. Results: By applying power-law distributions to word reuse in annotation, we show clear trends in UniProtKB over time, which are consistent with existing studies of quality on free text English. Further, we show a clear distinction between manual and automated analysis and investigate cohorts of protein records as they mature. These results suggest that this approach holds distinct promise as a mechanism for judging annotation quality. Availability: Source code is available at the authors website: http://homepages.cs.ncl.ac.uk/m.j.bell1/annotation. Contact: phillip.lord@newcastle.ac.uk PMID:22962482

Bell, Michael J.; Gillespie, Colin S.; Swan, Daniel; Lord, Phillip

2012-01-01

41

Radiation therapy  

MedlinePLUS

... Because radiation is most harmful to quickly growing cells, radiation therapy damages cancer cells more than normal cells. This ... cells from growing and dividing, and leads to cell death. Radiation therapy is used to fight many types of cancer . ...

42

Ionizing radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The penetrating ionizing space radiations are found to be extremely diverse in the energy range of both their particulate and their electromagnetic components. Radiation terms and measures and ionizing radiation classes and sources are presented. Whole body radiation effects are examined, including radiation intensity and rate effectiveness factors. Radiation effects on specific body systems, such as blood, skin, visual, and reproductive systems are also discussed.

Warren, S.; Grahn, D.

1973-01-01

43

A. E. K. Ris Ris-M-QzE Title and author(s)  

E-print Network

in relation to chemical dosimetry and pulse radiolysis of aqueous solutions connected with fundamental behaviour of the Fe /Cu chemical dosimeter under process conditions, including the influence of solute bacteriology research, chemical dosim- etry and radiation chemistry, physical dosimetry and irradiation

44

Radiation Laws  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site lists physical laws that describe radiation. Topics covered include the Plank Radiation Law, and the Wien and Stefan-Boltzmann Laws. The site also features a table summarizing the blackbody temperatures necessary to give a peak for emitted radiation in various regions of the spectrum, and three Java applets illustrating important properties of blackbody radiation.

Astronomy, Department O.; Knoxville, University O.

45

Radiation Emergencies  

MedlinePLUS

Radiation is a type of energy. People are exposed to small amounts of radiation every day from sources such as sunlight. A radiation emergency would involve larger amounts of radiation and could be caused by Dirty bombs - a mix of explosives with ...

46

Radiation Enterocolitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter is focused on review of the diagnostic tests and management of radiation enterocolitis. Radiation enterocolitis\\u000a can occur after radiation therapy for urological, gynecological, and gastrointestinal cancer. Diarrhea, which is often a dominant\\u000a symptom, can develop from a few weeks to many years after radiation treatment depending on the severity and the extent of\\u000a the injury. Radiation enterocolitis can

Einar G. Lurix; Jorge A. Zapatier; Andrew Ukleja

47

Radiation Protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation protection is a very important aspect for the application of particle detectors in many different fields, like high energy physics, medicine, materials science, oil and mineral exploration, and arts, to name a few. The knowledge of radiation units, the experience with shielding, and information on biological effects of radiation are vital for scientists handling radioactive sources or operating accelerators or X-ray equipment. This article describes the modern radiation units and their conversions to older units which are still in use in many countries. Typical radiation sources and detectors used in the field of radiation protection are presented. The legal regulations in nearly all countries follow closely the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Tables and diagrams with relevant information on the handling of radiation sources provide useful data for the researcher working in this field.

Grupen, Claus

48

Radiation Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionizing radiation causes chemical changes in the molecules of the interacting medium. The initial molecules change to new molecules, resulting in changes of the physical, chemical, and eventually biological properties of the material. For instance, water decomposes to its elements H2 and O2. In polymers, degradation and crosslinking take place. In biopolymers, e.g., DNS strand breaks and other alterations occur. Such changes are to be avoided in some cases (radiation protection), however, in other cases they are used for technological purposes (radiation processing). This chapter introduces radiation chemistry by discussing the sources of ionizing radiation (radionuclide sources, machine sources), absorption of radiation energy, techniques used in radiation chemistry research, and methods of absorbed energy (absorbed dose) measurements. Radiation chemistry of different classes of inorganic (water and aqueous solutions, inorganic solids, ionic liquids (ILs)) and organic substances (hydrocarbons, halogenated compounds, polymers, and biomolecules) is discussed in concise form together with theoretical and experimental backgrounds. An essential part of the chapter is the introduction of radiation processing technologies in the fields of polymer chemistry, food processing, and sterilization. The application of radiation chemistry to nuclear technology and to protection of environment (flue gas treatment, wastewater treatment) is also discussed.

Wojnárovits, L.

49

Radiation Oncogenesis  

PubMed Central

Two patients who were treated with therapeutic doses of ionizing radiation for primary carcinoma of the thyroid and cervix developed a second malignancy in the organs included in the field of radiation 10 and 14 years later, respectively. These two patients, whose second malignancies meet all of the criteria to be classified as radiation induced cancer, are presented. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7 PMID:7392087

Kumar, P.P.; Newland, J.R.

1980-01-01

50

Indoor inhalation dose estimates due to radon and thoron in some areas of South-Western Punjab, India.  

PubMed

LR-115 (type II)-based radon-thoron discriminating twin-chamber dosemeters have been used for estimating radon ((222)Rn) and thoron ((220)Rn) concentrations in dwellings of south-western Punjab, India. The present study region has shown pronounced cases of cancer incidents in the public [Thakur, Rao, Rajwanshi, Parwana and Kumar (Epidemiological study of high cancer among rural agricultural community of Punjab in Northern India. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2008; 5(5):399-407) and Kumar et al. (Risk assessment for natural uranium in subsurface water of Punjab state, India. Hum Ecol Risk Assess 2011;17:381-93)]. Radon being a carcinogen has been monitored in some dwellings selected randomly in the study area. Results show that the values of radon ((222)Rn)  varied from 21 to 79 Bq m(-3), with a geometric mean of 45 Bq m(-3) [geometric standard deviation (GSD 1.39)], and those of thoron ((220)Rn)  from minimum detection level to 58 Bq m(-3) with a geometric mean of 19 Bq m(-3) (GSD 1.88). Bare card data are used for computing the progeny concentration by deriving the equilibrium factor (F) using a root finding method [Mayya, Eappen and Nambi (Methodology for mixed field inhalation dosimetry in monazite areas using a twin-cup dosemeter with three track detectors. Radiat Prot Dosim 1998;77(3):177-84)]. Inhalation doses have been calculated and compared using UNSCEAR equilibrium factors and by using the calculated F-values. The results show satisfactory comparison between the values. PMID:22267272

Kumar, Sanjeev; Singh, Surinder; Bajwa, Bikramjit Singh; Singh, Bhupinder; Sabharwal, Arvind D; Eappen, K P

2012-08-01

51

Radiation Therapy  

MedlinePLUS

... the radiation treatment, he or she marks it with ink. This "tattoo" should not be wiped off because these spots ... throat can get sore, which can be treated with a type of mouthwash prescribed ... wear off. For a kid getting radiation therapy, it's normal to feel a ...

52

Ionizing radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The biological effects of ionizing radiation encountered in space are considered. Biological experiments conducted in space and some experiences of astronauts during space flight are described. The effects of various levels of radiation exposure and the determination of permissible dosages are discussed.

Tobias, C. A.; Grigoryev, Y. G.

1975-01-01

53

Radiation Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most radiation related to nuclear properties is outside the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum or involves submicroscopic particles, hence is invisible. Detectors - devices to sense the radiation, and perhaps measure its properties - are essential. The emphasis in research has moved from the characterization of radioactivity, through simple nuclear reactions, to explorations of the extremes of nuclear matter,

H. C. Griffin

2011-01-01

54

Radiation Exposure  

MedlinePLUS

... particles. It occurs naturally in sunlight. Man-made radiation is used in X-rays, nuclear weapons, nuclear power plants and cancer treatment. If you are exposed to small amounts of radiation over a long time, it raises your risk ...

55

Understanding Radiation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Radiation is a natural energy force that has been a part of the environment since the Earth was formed. It takes various forms, none of which can be smelled, tasted, seen, heard, or felt. Nevertheless, scientists know what it is, where it comes from, how to measure and detect it, and how it affects people. Cosmic radiation from outer space and…

Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

56

Radiation detector  

DOEpatents

Apparatus is provided for detecting radiation such as gamma rays and X-rays generated in backscatter Mossbauer effect spectroscopy and X-ray spectrometry, which has a large "window" for detecting radiation emanating over a wide solid angle from a specimen and which generates substantially the same output pulse height for monoenergetic radiation that passes through any portion of the detection chamber. The apparatus includes a substantially toroidal chamber with conductive walls forming a cathode, and a wire anode extending in a circle within the chamber with the anode lying closer to the inner side of the toroid which has the least diameter than to the outer side. The placement of the anode produces an electric field, in a region close to the anode, which has substantially the same gradient in all directions extending radially from the anode, so that the number of avalanche electrons generated by ionizing radiation is independent of the path of the radiation through the chamber.

Fultz, Brent T. (Berkeley, CA)

1983-01-01

57

Radiation detector  

DOEpatents

Apparatus is provided for detecting radiation such as gamma rays and x-rays generated in backscatter Moessbauer effect spectroscopy and x-ray spectrometry, which has a large window for detecting radiation emanating over a wide solid angle from a specimen and which generates substantially the same output pulse height for monoenergetic radiation that passes through any portion of the detection chamber. The apparatus includes a substantially toroidal chamber with conductive walls forming a cathode, and a wire anode extending in a circle within the chamber with the anode lying closer to the inner side of the toroid which has the least diameter than to the outer side. The placement of the anode produces an electric field, in a region close to the anode, which has substantially the same gradient in all directions extending radially from the anode, so that the number of avalanche electrons generated by ionizing radiation is independent of the path of the radiation through the chamber.

Fultz, B.T.

1980-12-05

58

Hoja para Aves sin Anillar MoSI Localidad Tamao de anillo U Temporada (p.ej. 2009-10) Pgina # CDIGO SEXO EDAD COMO DETERMINAR LA EDAD Y EL SEXO CRNEO PROT. CLOAC. PARCH. DE INC. GRASA MUDA CUERP. MUDA PL. VUEL. DESGAS. VUEL. LIM. DE MUDA Y PL. TENDENCIA  

E-print Network

# C�DIGO SEXO EDAD COMO DETERMINAR LA EDAD Y EL SEXO CRÁNEO PROT. CLOAC. PARCH. DE INC. GRASA MUDA CUERP SEXO ALFA DELA ESPECIE ANILLOS DE COLORES Lesión vieja, cicatrizad. Herida o enfermedad INICIALESDEL

DeSante, David F.

59

Synchrotron Radiation  

SciTech Connect

This book covers the physical aspects of synchrotron radiation generation and is designed as a textbook and reference for graduate students, teachers and scientists utilizing synchrotron radiation. It is my hope that this text may help especially students and young researchers entering this exciting field to gain insight into the characteristics of synchrotron radiation. Discovered in 1945, synchrotron radiation has become the source of photons from the infrared to hard x-rays for a large community of researchers in basic and applied sciences. This process was particularly supported by the development of electron accelerators for basic research in high energy physics. Specifically, the development of the store ring and associated technologies resulted in the availability of high brightness photon beams far exceeding other sources. In this text, the physics of synchrotron radiation for a variety of magnets is derived from first principles resulting in useful formulas for the practitioner. Since the characteristics and quality of synchrotron radiation are intimately connected with the accelerator and electron beam producing this radiation, a short overview of relevant accelerator physics is included.

Wiedemann, Helmut

2003-08-11

60

Radiation dosimeter  

DOEpatents

A radiation detector readout circuit is provided which produces a radiation dose-rate readout from a detector even though the detector output may be highly energy dependent. A linear charge amplifier including an output charge pump circuit amplifies the charge signal pulses from the detector and pumps the charge into a charge storage capacitor. The discharge rate of the capacitor through a resistor is controlled to provide a time-dependent voltage which when integrated provides an output proportional to the dose-rate of radiation detected by the detector. This output may be converted to digital form for readout on a digital display.

Fox, Richard J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1983-01-01

61

Radiation dosimeter  

DOEpatents

A radiation detector readout circuit is provided which produces a radiation dose-rate readout from a detector even through the detector output may be highly energy dependent. A linear charge amplifier including an output charge pump circuit amplifies the charge signal pulses from the detector and pumps the charge into a charge storage capacitor. The discharge rate of the capacitor through a resistor is controlled to provide a time-dependent voltage which when integrated provides an output proportional to the dose-rate of radiation detected by the detector. This output may be converted to digital form for readout on a digital display.

Fox, R.J.

1981-09-01

62

Radiation damage  

E-print Network

a) Radiation damage in organic materials. This series of lectures will give an overview of radiation effects on materials and components frequently used in accelerator engineering and experiments. Basic degradation phenomena will be presented for organic materials with comprehensive damage threshold doses for commonly used rubbers, thermoplastics, thermosets and composite materials. Some indications will be given for glass, scintillators and optical fibres. b) Radiation effects in semiconductor materials and devices. The major part of the time will be devoted to treat radiation effects in semiconductor sensors and the associated electronics, in particular displacement damage, interface and single event phenomena. Evaluation methods and practical aspects will be shown. Strategies will be developed for the survival of the materials under the expected environmental conditions of the LHC machine and detectors. I will describe profound revolution in our understanding of black holes and their relation to quantum me...

Heijne, Erik H M; CERN. Geneva

1998-01-01

63

Radiation Therapy  

MedlinePLUS

Donate Donate One Time Monthly Event Tribute For brain tumor information and support Call: 800-886-ABTA (2282) ... Donate Now Menu Treatment & Care Continuum of Care Brain Tumor Treatments Steroids Surgery Chemotherapy Radiation Stereotactic Radiosurgery Proton ...

64

Blackbody Radiation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, from the University of Winnipeg, offers an explanation of blackbody radiation. The page also provides a brief history, describing its discovery and its implications in modern physics. Several graphs and images are included to aid in the explanation.

2008-09-10

65

Radiation Doses in Perspective  

MedlinePLUS

... Health Effects Ionizing & Non-Ionizing Radiation Understanding Radiation: Radiation Doses in Perspective Health Effects Main Page Exposure ... Sources Doses from Common Radiation Sources Average U.S. Radiation Doses and Sources All of us are exposed ...

66

Radiation enteritis and radiation scoliosis  

SciTech Connect

Any patient with radiation scoliosis should be suspected of having a visceral lesion as well. Chronic radiation enteritis may be manifested by intestinal obstruction, fistulas, perforation, and hemorrhage. Intestinal obstruction is the most common complication, and must be differentiated from postoperative cast or from spinal-traction syndrome. Obstruction that does not respond promptly to conservative measures must be treated surgically. Irradiated bowel is ischemic, and necrosis with spontaneous perforation can only be avoided with early diagnosis and surgical intervention.

Shah, M.; Eng, K.; Engler, G.L.

1980-09-01

67

Radiation Detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most radiation related to nuclear properties is outside the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum or involves submicroscopic particles, hence is invisible. Detectors - devices to sense the radiation, and perhaps measure its properties - are essential. The emphasis in research has moved from the characterization of radioactivity, through simple nuclear reactions, to explorations of the extremes of nuclear matter, but the central importance of suitable radiation detectors has persisted. This chapter emphasizes detectors associated with measurements of radioactivity, as opposed to nuclear reactions. Thus, much of the current creative work is excluded, but otherwise the scope of these volumes would at least double. Detectors are classified broadly as based on ionization of gases, conduction in semiconductors, or scintillation. The concluding section is an introduction to systems based on two or more components of one of these basic types.

Griffin, H. C.

68

Radiation Fog  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module presents the physical processes and life cycle of radiation fog, including its preconditioning environment, initiation, growth, and dissipation. The processes include radiation (both solar and longwave), soil-atmosphere thermal interactions, turbulent mixing, the roles of condensation nuclei, and droplet settling. Each section includes a set of interactive questions based on the learning content presented. Tom Dulong of the National Weather Service Center Weather Service Unit (CWSU) in Longmont, Colorado is the Principal Science Advisor for this module, and Dr. Paul Croft, Meteorology Program Coordinator for Jackson State University, provided additional scientific review and guidance. The module's format was updated and republished on May 20, 2009.

Comet

1999-12-10

69

Appendix G. Radiation Appendix G. Radiation  

E-print Network

-made sources. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantly. For example, cosmic radiationAppendix G. Radiation #12;#12;Appendix G. Radiation This appendix presents basic facts about radiation. The information is intended to be a basis for un- derstanding the potential doses associated

Pennycook, Steve

70

Radiation Insulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation insulation technology from Apollo and subsequent spacecraft was used to develop superinsulators, used by makers of cold weather apparel, to make parkas, jackets, boots and outdoor gear such as sleeping bags. The radiant barrier technology offers warmth retention at minimal weight and bulk.

1987-01-01

71

Radiation Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page presents activities related to radiation from the Science & Engineering in the Lives of Students project. Activities include Roof Albedo, Speed Melting, and Tricks with a TV Remote. Each activity includes a detailed description, list of the materials needed, science concepts covered, and reflection questions.

2013-07-17

72

Radiation damage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The radiation damage workshop considered a variety of topics among which were the need for equivalent electron fluences in gallium arsenide, the possibility of 15 percent end-of-life efficiencies for silicon, increasing radiation resistance in gallium arsenide, annealing of radiation damage and the need for radiation damage studies in cascade cells. The workshop members agreed that a high priority should be assigned to obtaining equivalent electron fluences for gallium arsenide cells. It was suggested that 1 MeV would be a reasonable electron energy for this purpose. Special care should be given to proton irradiations particularly for energies below 1 MeV. In addition, omnidirectional rather than normal incidence protons should be used. It was also agreed that there was a need for obtaining damage coefficients in gallium arsenide. In silicon, there is a requirement for additional flight data, especially in proton dominated orbits. These data are needed to further check the accuracy of the 1 MeV equivalence fluences.

Weinberg, I.

1982-01-01

73

Radiation Oncology Treatment Team  

MedlinePLUS

... Prostate Skin Upper GI Latest Research Find a Radiation Oncologist Last Name: Facility: City: State: Zip Code: ... who specializes in using radiation to treat cancer . Radiation Oncologists Radiation oncologists are the doctors who will ...

74

Acute Radiation Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... Tools CDC Response, Japan 2011 Specific Hazards Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS): A Fact Sheet for the Public ... is called the radiation dose. People exposed to radiation will get ARS only if: The radiation dose ...

75

Radiation Belts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The inner radiation belt, discovered by Van Allen, consists of very energetic protons, a by-product of collisions of cosmic ray ions with atoms in the atmosphere. This site provides information on the behavior and relative energies of the particles in the belts. Historic information about the discoveries made in 1958 by a University of Iowa team, headed by James Van Allen, is cited as well.

Stern, David

76

Fundamental Radiation Concepts  

E-print Network

Fundamental Radiation Concepts Alyson Cieply University of Florida Environmental Health and Safety Radiation Control #12;What is radiation? Radiation is energy that travels through space or matter in the form of a particle or wave The effect radiation has on matter depends on the type of radiation and how

Slatton, Clint

77

RADIATION SAFETY TRAINING MANUAL Radiation Safety Office  

E-print Network

RADIATION SAFETY TRAINING MANUAL Radiation Safety Office 130 DeSoto Street G-7 Parran@pitt.edu Internet: www.radsafe.pitt.edu Trainman911.wpd Revised 9/11 #12;FOREWORD All personnel who are working protection and the potential risks of ionizing radiation. Radiation Safety Office personnel provide

Sibille, Etienne

78

Shortwave Radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accurate shortwave radiation data is critical to evapotranspiration (ET) models used for developing irrigation schedules to optimize crop production while saving water, minimizing fertilizer, herbicide, and pesticide applications, reducing soil erosion, and protecting surface and ground water quality. Low cost silicon cell pyranometers have proven to be sufficiently accurate and robust for widespread use in agricultural applications under unobstructed daylight conditions. More expensive thermopile pyranometers are required for use as calibration standards and measurements under light with unique spectral properties (electric lights, under vegetation, in greenhouses and growth chambers). Routine cleaning, leveling, and annual calibration checks will help to ensure the integrity of long-term data.

Klassen, Steve; Bugbee, Bruce

2005-01-01

79

Radiation Insulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An aluminized polymer film is a highly effective radiation barrier for both manned and unmanned spacecraft. Variations of this space-devised material are also used as an energy conservation technique for homes and offices. One commercial company, Tech 2000 (formerly Buckeye Radiant Barrier), markets 'Super R' Radiant Barrier, which finds its origins in the Apollo Mission programs. The material is placed between wall studs and exterior facing before siding or in new roof installation, between roof support and roof sheathing. Successful retrofit installations have included schools and shrink wrap ovens. The radiant barrier blocks 95 percent of radiant energy, thus retaining summer heat and blocking winter cold. Suppliers claim utility bill reductions of 20 percent or more.

1993-01-01

80

Radiation Insulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo and subsequent spacecraft have had highly effective radiation barriers; made of aluminized polymer film, they bar or let in heat to maintain consistent temperatures inside. Tech 2000, formerly Quantum International Corporation used the NASA technology in its insulating materials, Super "Q" Radiant Barrier, for home, industry and mobile applications. The insulation combines industrial aluminum foil overlaid around a core of another material, usually propylene or mylar. The outer layer reflects up to 97 percent of heat; the central layer creates a thermal break in the structure and thus allows low radiant energy emission. The Quantum Cool Wall, used in cars and trucks, takes up little space while providing superior insulation, thus reducing spoilage and costs. The panels can also dampen sound and engine, exhaust and solar heat.

1995-01-01

81

Radiation dosimeters  

DOEpatents

Radiation dosimeters and dosimeter badges. The dosimeter badges include first and second parts which are connected to join using a securement to produce a sealed area in which at least one dosimeter is held and protected. The badge parts are separated to expose the dosimeters to a stimulating laser beam used to read dose exposure information therefrom. The badge is constructed to allow automated disassembly and reassembly in a uniquely fitting relationship. An electronic memory is included to provide calibration and identification information used during reading of the dosimeter. Dosimeter mounts which reduce thermal heating requirements are shown. Dosimeter constructions and production methods using thin substrates and phosphor binder-layers applied thereto are also taught.

Hoelsher, James W. (Pullman, WA); Hegland, Joel E. (Pullman, WA); Braunlich, Peter F. (Pullman, WA); Tetzlaff, Wolfgang (Pullman, WA)

1992-01-01

82

Radiation Safety September 2013  

E-print Network

Radiation Safety Manual September 2013 Office of Environment, Health & Safety #12;RADIATION SAFETY of ionizing radiation as a valuable tool to extend fundamental knowledge. These activities are an important of radiation-producing machines and radioactive materials attests to the success of its radiation safety

California at Irvine, University of

83

RADIATION SAFETY OFFICE UNIVERSITYOF MARYLAND  

E-print Network

RADIATION SAFETY OFFICE UNIVERSITYOF MARYLAND RADIATION SAFETY MANUAL UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2. Radiation Safety Committee (RSC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.4. Radiation Safety Office (RSO

Rubloff, Gary W.

84

Dosimetry of space radiations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Harmful effects of space radiation are discussed. Radiation dosimetry methods are given. Dosimetry monitoring is investigated. Methods for measuring space radiation by ionization, thermoluminescence, and nuclear photographic emulsions are described.

Arkhangelskiy, V. V.; Markelov, V. V.; Skvortsov, S. S.; Smirennyy, L. N.; Turkin, V. N.; Chernykh, I. V.

1973-01-01

85

Radiation Contamination Versus Exposure  

MedlinePLUS

RADIATION CONTAMINATION VERSUS EXPOSURE EXTERNAL CONTAMINATION External contamination occurs when radioactive material comes into contact with a ... radioactive materials can accumulate in different body organs. RADIATION EXPOSURE Another word for radiation exposure is irradiation. ...

86

Radiation monitoring system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A radiation monitoring system which continuously detects and measures ; low levels of radiation and radioactive materials in the surrounding atmosphere ; comprises a large volume multiple scintillation beta radiation detector wiih an ; alpha particulate radiation scintillation detector, and with backgrtound ; reduction being achieved by the use of an anti-coincidence cosmic ray and high ; energy photon shield.

Battist

1973-01-01

87

Radiation and People  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the development of radiation as a tool of medicine. Includes topics on history of radiation, electromagnetic spectrum, X-ray tubes, high energy machines, radioactive sources, artificial radioactivity, radioactive scanning, units, present radiation background, and effect of radiation on living tissue. (DS)

Freilich, Florence G.

1970-01-01

88

Radiation Critical Readiness Review  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the radiation preparedness and radiation monitors on the International Space Station (ISS). It includes information on the Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC), Radiation Area Monitors, Extra-Vehicular Charged Particle Directional Spectrometer (EV-CPDS), and the space radiation analysis group.

Misek, William

2010-01-01

89

Radiation transport calculations for cosmic radiation.  

PubMed

The radiation environment inside and near spacecraft consists of various components of primary radiation in space and secondary radiation produced by the interaction of the primary radiation with the walls and equipment of the spacecraft. Radiation fields inside astronauts are different from those outside them, because of the body's self-shielding as well as the nuclear fragmentation reactions occurring in the human body. Several computer codes have been developed to simulate the physical processes of the coupled transport of protons, high-charge and high-energy nuclei, and the secondary radiation produced in atomic and nuclear collision processes in matter. These computer codes have been used in various space radiation protection applications: shielding design for spacecraft and planetary habitats, simulation of instrument and detector responses, analysis of absorbed doses and quality factors in organs and tissues, and study of biological effects. This paper focuses on the methods and computer codes used for radiation transport calculations on cosmic radiation, and their application to the analysis of radiation fields inside spacecraft, evaluation of organ doses in the human body, and calculation of dose conversion coefficients using the reference phantoms defined in ICRP Publication 110. PMID:23089013

Endo, A; Sato, T

2012-01-01

90

Management of radiation maculopathy.  

PubMed

Radiation maculopathy is a delayed onset complication of radiation exposure. Various host and radiation parameters determine the risk of developing radiation maculopathy, which may be progressive. Total radiation dose delivered to the macula is the most important modifiable factor. Radiation maculopathy is not a singular entity as clinical manifestations reflect combined effects of all damaged tissues. Current treatment using anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents offers only a short-term, temporary, and modest visual improvement. Avoidance or prevention of radiation maculopathy may be the best option. Use of periocular steroid during plaque brachytherapy may prevent radiation maculopathy over the short term. Newer designs and techniques of delivering radiation to the eye need to be explored. PMID:22907147

Singh, Arun D; Pabon, Sheila; Aronow, Mary E

2012-01-01

91

Fiber optic radiation sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A survey of fiber-optic sensors for the measurement of ionizing radiation is given. The interactions between ionizing radiation and fiber material, which are of significance for the fiber-optic detection of ionizing radiation, as well as the changes in the properties of the optical fibers induced by such interactions are discussed. Measurement and evaluation techniques for reading out the optical properties induced by ionizing radiation are described. A survey of possible applications for fiber-optic radiation sensors is given. The properties and application possibilities of fiber-optic dosimeters based on radiation-induced losses are specified. In particular, the requirements to be met by fiber-optic dosimeters for applications in radiation therapy are discussed. A fiber-optic dosimeter measuring system for radiation therapy based on radiation-induced losses is presented.

Bueker, Harald; Haesing, Friedrich W.

1994-12-01

92

Low Dose Radiation Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Department of Energy's Low Dose Radiation Research Program supports research that investigates the health risks from exposure to radiation at low levels. This Web site provides an overview of radiation biology, up-to-date information and archived results from program-related research, and other resources for the benefit of researchers and the general public alike. Some research projects include comparing low dose radiation to endogenous oxidative damage, determining thresholds for radiation exposure, determining genetics factors that make some individuals more susceptible to radiation-induced damage, and more.

93

Plutonium radiation surrogate  

DOEpatents

A self-contained source of gamma-ray and neutron radiation suitable for use as a radiation surrogate for weapons-grade plutonium is described. The source generates a radiation spectrum similar to that of weapons-grade plutonium at 5% energy resolution between 59 and 2614 keV, but contains no special nuclear material and emits little .alpha.-particle radiation. The weapons-grade plutonium radiation surrogate also emits neutrons having fluxes commensurate with the gamma-radiation intensities employed.

Frank, Michael I. (Dublin, CA)

2010-02-02

94

What Is Radiation Shielding?  

NASA Video Gallery

Kerry Lee, NASA Orion radiation system manager, explains how radiation shielding is used to block harmful particles coming into the spacecraft without producing secondary particles that can cause e...

95

Radiation effects in space  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses the radiation environment in space that astronauts are likely to be exposed to. Emphasis is on proton and HZE particle effects. Recommendations for radiation protection guidelines are presented. (ACR)

Fry, R.J.M.

1986-01-01

96

Dangers of Radiation Exposure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about radiation and the various sources of radiation that a spacecraft may encounter in its journey. Learners will calculate their annual exposure to high-energy radiation, identify sources of high-energy radiation, and explain why the near-Mercury environment is a concern for the Mercury MESSENGER mission. This is lesson 2 of 4 in the high school track of a module, titled Staying Cool. Note: the student guide starts on p. 17 of the PDF.

97

An Improved Radiation Pyrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In designing a new radiation pyrometer for industrial use above the lower limit of visible radiation, consideration of ambient temperature effects, which is of much importance in modern industrial practice, was carried out by aid of mathematical analysis. In one hypothetical case, with a very sensitive type of thermopile losing heat from its hot junction by radiation alone, it is

Thos. R. Harrison; Wm. H. Wannamaker

1941-01-01

98

JPL Radiation Effects Facilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation Effects Group investigates the effects of space radiation on present and future microelectronic and optoelectronic technologies, evaluate the risk of using them in specific space missions, and recommend component and design techniques for JPL and NASA programs to reduce reliability risk from space radiation.

Thorbourn, Dennis

2013-01-01

99

Spacecraft radiator systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A spacecraft radiator system designed to provide structural support to the spacecraft. Structural support is provided by the geometric "crescent" form of the panels of the spacecraft radiator. This integration of radiator and structural support provides spacecraft with a semi-monocoque design.

Anderson, Grant A. (Inventor)

2012-01-01

100

Radiation Research Program (RRP)  

Cancer.gov

The RRP is responsible for NCI’s clinically-related extramural radiation research program. The RRP establishes priorities, allocates resources, and evaluates the effectiveness of such radiation research being conducted by NCI grantees. RRP staff represent the program at NCI management and scientific meetings and provide scientific support to leadership on matters related to radiation research.

101

Notes on synchrotron radiation  

E-print Network

I comment on a number of theoretical issues related to magnetobremsstrahlung, and especially on synchrotron radiation and Unruh (temperature) radiation, that I consider of importance for the current progress towards a better understanding of the stationary features of such fundamental radiation patterns both in an accelerator context and, more generally, in the physical world

H. C. Rosu

1994-12-11

102

astroph/9507030 Gravitational Radiation  

E-print Network

astro­ph/9507030 10 Jul 95 Gravitational Radiation and Very Long Baseline Interferometry Ted Pyne of gravitational radiation on astrometric observations. We derive an equation for the time delay measured by two antennae observing the same source in an Einstein­de Sitter spacetime containing gravitational radiation

Fygenson, Deborah Kuchnir

103

Cancer-causing radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation causes cancer. That simple fact was known by the early 1900s. Further, radiation can induce cancer in almost any tissue in animals and humans. But the cancer-causing dose may vary by 20-fold for different tissues in animals. Such variation is also seen in people who are exposed, typically, to low radiation doses. Hence, the minimum dose that causes human

R. L. Ullrich; J. M. Holland; J. B. Storer

1977-01-01

104

Ionizing Radiation: The issue of radiation quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Types of Ionising radiations are differentiated from each other by fundamental characteristics of their energy deposition patterns when they interact with biological materials. At the level of the DNA these non-random patterns drive differences in the yields and distributions of DNA damage patterns and specifically the production of clustered damage or complex lesions. The complex radiation fields found in space bring significant challenges for developing a mechanistic understanding of radiation effects from the perspective of radiation quality as these consist of a diverse range of particle and energy types unique to the space environment. Linear energy transfer, energy deposited per unit track length in units of keV per micron, has long been used as a comparator for different types of radiation but has limitations in that it is an average value. Difference in primary core ionizations relative to secondary delta ray ranges vary significantly with particle mass and energy leading to complex interrelationships with damage production at the cellular level. At the cellular level a greater mechanistic understanding is necessary, linking energy deposition patterns to DNA damage patterns and cellular response, to build appropriate biophysical models that are predictive for different radiation qualities and mixed field exposures. Defined studies using monoenergetic beams delivered under controlled conditions are building quantitative data sets of both initial and long term changes in cells as a basis for a great mechanistic understanding of radiation quality effects of relevance to not only space exposures but clinical application of ion-beams.

Prise, Kevin; Schettino, Giuseppe

105

Appendix F: Radiation Appendix F: Radiation F-3  

E-print Network

to naturally occurring radiation constantly. For example, cosmic radiation; radon in air; potassium in foodAppendix F: Radiation #12;#12;Appendix F: Radiation F-3 Fig. F.1. The hydrogen atom and its isotopes. Appendix F: Radiation This appendix presents basic facts about radiation. The information

Pennycook, Steve

106

Appendix F: Radiation Appendix F: Radiation F-3  

E-print Network

. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantly. For example, cosmic radiation; radonAppendix F: Radiation #12;#12;Appendix F: Radiation F-3 P P P E E E N NN HYDROGEN ATOM DEUTERIUM. The hydrogen atom and its isotopes. Appendix F: Radiation This appendix presents basic facts about radiation

Pennycook, Steve

107

Radiative Corrections to Bremsstrahlung in Radiative Return  

E-print Network

Radiating a photon from the initial state provides a useful tool for studying a range of low energy physics using a high-energy e+ e- accelerator. Accurate results require careful calculation of the first order virtual photon corrections. We compare exact results for initial state radiative corrections, finding agreement to an order of 10^{-5} or better as a fraction of the Born cross-section for most of the range of photon energies, at CMS energies relevant in both high-energy collision and radiative return experiments.

Scott A. Yost; S. Jadach; B. F. L. Ward

2005-05-09

108

Radiation Safety Program Annual Review  

E-print Network

1 Radiation Safety Program Annual Review Calendar Year 2010 Prepared by: Karen Janiga, MS Radiation.................................................................................................3 MANAGEMENT OVERSIGHT OF THE RADIATION SAFETY/LASER SAFETY PROGRAMS .............3 LICENSE RENEWAL /AMENDMENTS/UPDATES .........................................................................4 RADIATION

Lyubomirsky, Ilya

109

Radiation Shielding and Radiological Protection  

E-print Network

Radiation Shielding and Radiological Protection J. Kenneth Shultis Richard E. Faw Department@triad.rr.com Radiation Fields and Sources ................................................ . Radiation Field Variables........................................................... .. Direction and Solid Angle Conventions ......................................... .. Radiation Fluence

Shultis, J. Kenneth

110

Solar cell radiation handbook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is presented for predicting the degradation of a solar array in a space radiation environment. Solar cell technology which emphasizes the cell parameters that degrade in a radiation environment, is discussed along with the experimental techniques used in the evaluation of radiation effects. Other topics discussed include: theoretical aspects of radiation damage, methods for developing relative damage coefficients, nature of the space radiation environment, method of calculating equivalent fluence from electron and proton energy spectrums and relative damage coefficients, and comparison of flight data with estimated degradation.

Carter, J. R., Jr.; Tada, H. Y.

1973-01-01

111

Nuclear Energy: Radiation Exposure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides an overview of the sources and potential effects of radiation exposure. Topics include the history of the United States' domestic nuclear power program, the concept of ionizing radiation, and how radiation dosage is measured. There is also discussion of what constitutes a lethal dose of radiation and potential sources of exposure. The lesson includes an activity in which students measure their individual yearly exposures to radiation by making an inventory of lifestyle factors that affect their potential dosage and using an online calculator to sum up the contributions from the various sources.

Pratte, John

112

Radiation protection and instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation was found not to be an operational problem during the Apollo program. Doses received by the crewmen of Apollo missions 7 through 17 were small because no major solar-particle events occurred during those missions. One small event was detected by a radiation sensor outside the Apollo 12 spacecraft, but no increase in radiation dose to the crewmen inside the spacecraft was detected. Radiation protection for the Apollo program was focused on both the peculiarities of the natural space radiation environment and the increased prevalence of manmade radiation sources on the ground and onboard the spacecraft. Radiation-exposure risks to crewmen were assessed and balanced against mission gain to determine mission constraints. Operational radiation evaluation required specially designed radiation detection systems onboard the spacecraft in addition to the use of satellite data, solar observatory support, and other liaison. Control and management of radioactive sources and radiation-generating equipment was important in minimizing radiation exposure of ground-support personnel, researchers, and the Apollo flight and backup crewmen.

Bailey, J. V.

1975-01-01

113

RF radiation from lightning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation from lightning in the RF band from 3-300 MHz were monitored. Radiation in this frequency range is of interest as a potential vehicle for monitoring severe storms and for studying the lightning itself. Simultaneous measurements were made of RF radiation and fast and slow field changes. Continuous analogue recordings with a system having 300 kHz of bandwidth were made together with digital records of selected events (principally return strokes) at greater temporal resolution. The data reveal patterns in the RF radiation for the entire flash which are characteristic of flash type and independent of the frequency of observation. Individual events within the flash also have characteristic RF patterns. Strong radiation occurs during the first return strokes, but delayed about 20 micron sec with respect to the begining of the return stroke; whereas, RF radiation from subsequent return strokes tends to be associated with cloud processes preceding the flash with comparatively little radiation occurring during the return stroke itself.

Levine, D. M.

1978-01-01

114

Americans' Average Radiation Exposure  

SciTech Connect

We live with radiation every day. We receive radiation exposures from cosmic rays, from outer space, from radon gas, and from other naturally radioactive elements in the earth. This is called natural background radiation. It includes the radiation we get from plants, animals, and from our own bodies. We also are exposed to man-made sources of radiation, including medical and dental treatments, television sets and emission from coal-fired power plants. Generally, radiation exposures from man-made sources are only a fraction of those received from natural sources. One exception is high exposures used by doctors to treat cancer patients. Each year in the United States, the average dose to people from natural and man-made radiation sources is about 360 millirem. A millirem is an extremely tiny amount of energy absorbed by tissues in the body.

NA

2000-08-11

115

Radiation Related Terms Basic Terms  

E-print Network

Radiation Related Terms Basic Terms Radiation Radiation is energy in transit in the form of high not carry enough energy to separate molecules or remove electrons from atoms. Ionizing radiation Ionizing radiation is radiation with enough energy so that during an interaction with an atom, it can remove tightly

Vallino, Joseph J.

116

High-power radiating plasma  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The physical principles underlying the use of radiating plasmas for the optical pumping of lasers are described. Particular consideration is given to the properties of radiating plasmas; radiation selectivity; the dynamics, equilibrium, and stability of radiating plasmas; the radiative Reynolds number; and experimental results on radiating discharges.

Rozanov, V. B.; Rukhadze, A. A.

1984-01-01

117

Jet radiation radius  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jet radiation patterns are indispensable for the purpose of discriminating partons with different quantum numbers. However, they are also vulnerable to various contaminations from the underlying event, pileup, and radiation of adjacent jets. In order to maximize the discrimination power, it is essential to optimize the jet radius used when analyzing the radiation patterns. We introduce the concept of jet radiation radius, which quantifies how the jet radiation is distributed around the jet axis. We study the color and momentum dependence of the jet radiation radius and discuss two applications: quark-gluon discrimination and W -jet tagging. In both cases, smaller (sub)jet radii are preferred for jets with higher pT's, albeit due to different mechanisms: the running of the QCD coupling constant and the boost to a color-singlet system. A shrinking cone W -jet tagging algorithm is proposed to achieve better discrimination than previous methods.

Han, Zhenyu

2014-10-01

118

The flying radiation case  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos foil implosion program has the goal of producing an intense, high-energy density x-ray source by converting the energy of a magnetically imploded plasma into radiation and material energy. One of the methods for converting the plasma energy into thermal energy and radiation and utilizing it for experiments is called the flying radiation case (FRC). In this paper the authors shall model the FRC and provide a physical description of the processes involved. An analytic model of a planar FRC in the hydrodynamic approximation is used to describe the assembly and shock heating of a central cushion by a conducting liner driver. The results are also used to benchmark a hydrodynamics code for modeling an FRC. They then use a radiation-hydrodynamics computational model to explore the effects of radiation production and transport when a gold plasma assembles on a CH cushion. Results are presented for the structure and evolution of the radiation hohlraum.

Brownell, J.H.; Bowers, R.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Applied Theoretical and Computational Physics Div.

1997-04-01

119

Radiation exposure and pregnancy.  

PubMed

Radiological exposure from nuclear power reactor accidents, transportation of nuclear waste accidents, industrial accidents, or terrorist activity may be a remote possibility, but it could happen. Nurses must be prepared to evaluate and treat pregnant women and infants who have been exposed to radiation, and to have an understanding of the health consequences of a nuclear or radiological incident. Pregnant women and infants are a special group of patients who need consideration when exposed to radiation. Initial care requires thorough assessment and decisions regarding immediate care needs. Ongoing care is based on type and extent of radiation exposure. With accurate, comprehensive information and education, nurses will be better prepared to help mitigate the effects of radiation exposure to pregnant women and infants following a radiological incident. Information about radiation, health effects of prenatal radiation exposure, assessment, patient care, and treatment of pregnant women and infants are presented. PMID:25333800

Labant, Amy; Silva, Christina

2014-01-01

120

Jet Radiation Radius  

E-print Network

Jet radiation patterns are indispensable for the purpose of discriminating partons' with different quantum numbers. However, they are also vulnerable to various contaminations from the underlying event, pileup, and radiation of adjacent jets. In order to maximize the discrimination power, it is essential to optimize the jet radius used when analyzing the radiation patterns. We introduce the concept of jet radiation radius which quantifies how the jet radiation is distributed around the jet axes. We study the color and momentum dependence of the jet radiation radius, and discuss two applications: quark-gluon discrimination and $W$ jet tagging. In both cases, smaller (sub)jet radii are preferred for jets with higher PTs, albeit due to different mechanisms: the running of the QCD coupling constant and the boost to a color singlet system. A shrinking cone W jet tagging algorithm is proposed to achieve better discrimination than previous methods.

Zhenyu Han

2014-02-06

121

Earth Radiation Measurement Science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document is the final report for NASA Grant NAG1-1959, 'Earth Radiation Measurement Science'. The purpose of this grant was to perform research in this area for the needs of the Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) project and for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), which are bing conducted by the Radiation and Aerosols Branch of the Atmospheric Sciences Division of Langley Research Center. Earth Radiation Measurement Science investigates the processes by which measurements are converted into data products. Under this grant, research was to be conducted for five tasks: (1) Point Response Function Measurements; (2) Temporal Sampling of Outgoing Longwave Radiation; (3) Spatial Averaging of Radiation Budget Data; (4) CERES Data Validation and Applications; and (5) ScaRaB Data Validation and Application.

Smith, G. Louis

2000-01-01

122

Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Technological advancements in imaging and radiation planning and delivery have made it possible for cranial stereotactic radiosurgery\\u000a techniques to be applied to tumors outside of the brain. Although high-dose radiation therapy may be delivered in a single\\u000a fraction, referred to as extracranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), more often, high-precision radiation is delivered in\\u000a more than one fraction, leading to the field

Laura A. Dawson

123

BlackBody Radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hot objects give off light and heat in the form of electromagnetic radiation whose character changes with temperature. Black-body\\u000a radiation is such electromagnetic radiation in equilibrium with its material surroundings. By the late 1800s, it was a lively\\u000a research topic for both theoretical and experimental physicists. Samuel Pierpont Langley (1834–1906) in the United States,\\u000a and a group of experimental physicists

Clayton Gearhart; O. Lummer; Annalen der Physik; E. Pringsheim; C. Annalen der Physik

124

Intracranial interstitial radiation  

SciTech Connect

Primary malignant brain tumors are fatal, with 90% of patients having these tumors dying within two years following diagnosis. Cranial interstitial radiation therapy, a technique under investigation to control these tumors, involves implantation of radioactive iodine 125 seeds into the tumor bed by stereotaxic technique. The interstitial radiation technique, monitoring of radiation, and nursing care of patients are discussed. Case histories are presented, along with discussion of results attained using this therapy, and its future.

Willis, D.; Rittenmeyer, H.; Hitchon, P.

1986-06-01

125

US EPA Radiation Protection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website is from the US Environmental Protection Agency on Radiation Protection. It gives an overview of the basics including: Exposure to Gamma Radiation, Health Effects, and Protecting People from Gamma Radiation A gamma ray is a packet of electromagnetic energy--a photon. Gamma photons are the most energetic photons in the electromagnetic spectrum. Gamma rays (gamma photons) are emitted from the nucleus of some unstable (radioactive) atoms.

2010-04-05

126

Environmental Radiation Protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The environmental distribution of radionuclides, released from nuclear facilities and other sources, and the principles of the emergency countermeasures for radiation protection of the public and workers are discussed in this chapter. The concentration levels of radionuclides in various aquatic and terrestrial environments and the exposure levels of the population due to the various sources of radiation (natural and artificial radionuclides, cosmic radiation, diagnostic medical examinations, atmospheric nuclear tests, etc.) are presented.

Maeda, Y.; Osaki, S.; Vincze, A.

127

Interstitial photon radiation.  

PubMed

Most minimally invasive ablative techniques utilize thermal energies for tissue destruction. However, the heat-sink phenomenon may limit the efficacy of radiofrequency ablation and cryotherapy of tissue near blood vessels. One alternative non-temperature-dependent ablative technique is photon radiation. This radiation is dependent on energy and intensity, and its effects are influenced only by the density of the surrounding tissue. Photon radiation therapy may offer a unique alternative for ablating tissue surrounding vascular structures. PMID:14622484

Chan, David Y; Solomon, Stephen B; Kavoussi, Louis R

2003-10-01

128

RHOBOT: Radiation hardened robotics  

SciTech Connect

A survey of robotic applications in radioactive environments has been conducted, and analysis of robotic system components and their response to the varying types and strengths of radiation has been completed. Two specific robotic systems for accident recovery and nuclear fuel movement have been analyzed in detail for radiation hardness. Finally, a general design approach for radiation-hardened robotics systems has been developed and is presented. This report completes this project which was funded under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program.

Bennett, P.C.; Posey, L.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-10-01

129

Radiation coloration resistant glass  

DOEpatents

A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10.sup.7 rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency.

Tomozawa, Minoru (Troy, NY); Watson, E. Bruce (Troy, NY); Acocella, John (Troy, NY)

1986-01-01

130

Radiation coloration resistant glass  

DOEpatents

A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10[sup 7] rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency. 3 figs.

Tomozawa, M.; Watson, E.B.; Acocella, J.

1986-11-04

131

Flexible radiator system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The soft tube radiator subsystem is described including applicable system requirements, the design and limitations of the subsystem components, and the panel manufacturing method. The soft tube radiator subsystem is applicable to payloads requiring 1 to 12 kW of heat rejection for orbital lifetimes per mission of 30 days or less. The flexible radiator stowage volume required is about 60% and the system weight is about 40% of an equivalent heat rejection rigid panel. The cost should also be considerably less. The flexible radiator is particularly suited to shuttle orbiter sortie payloads and also whose mission lengths do not exceed the 30 day design life.

Oren, J. A.

1982-01-01

132

Appendix F. Radiation Appendix F. Radiation F-3  

E-print Network

. For example, cosmic radiation; radon in air; potassium in food and water; and uranium, thorium, and radiumAppendix F. Radiation #12;#12;Appendix F. Radiation F-3 Appendix F. Radiation This appendix presents basic facts about radiation. The information is intended to be a basis for understanding

Pennycook, Steve

133

Appendix G. Radiation Appendix G. Radiation G-3  

E-print Network

. For example, cosmic radiation; radon in air; potassium in food and water; and ura- nium, thorium, and radiumAppendix G. Radiation #12;#12;Appendix G. Radiation G-3 Appendix G. Radiation This appendix presents basic facts about radiation. The information is intended to be a basis for un- derstanding

Pennycook, Steve

134

Appendix F. Radiation Appendix F. Radiation F-3  

E-print Network

. For example, cosmic radiation; radon in air; potassium in food and water; and ura- nium, thorium, and radiumAppendix F. Radiation #12;#12;Appendix F. Radiation F-3 Appendix F. Radiation This appendix presents basic facts about radiation. The information is intended to be a basis for un- derstanding

Pennycook, Steve

135

An Introduction to Radiation General Definition of Radiation  

E-print Network

Module 1 An Introduction to Radiation #12;General Definition of Radiation · Ionizing radiation, for example, X-rays, gamma-rays, particles · Ionizing radiation is capable of removing an electron from the atom with which it interacts (ionization). · Non-ionizing radiation, for example, visible light

Massey, Thomas N.

136

[Radiobiology and radiation hygiene].  

PubMed

From the analysis of clinical, epidemiological and radiobiological data the radiation effect levels have been determined at which nonstochastic and stochastic effects are or are not displayed during the average life of a human being. The most "noneffective" radiation does have been used in calculating the major dose thresholds of "non-harmful" exposures. PMID:1947029

Buldakov, L A

1991-01-01

137

Synchrotron Radiation II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Synchrotron radiation is a unique form of radiation that spans the electro-magnetic spectrum from X-rays through the ultraviolet and visible into the infrared. Tunable monochromators enable scientists to select a narrow band of wavelengths at any point in the spectrum. (Author/BB)

MOSAIC, 1978

1978-01-01

138

Treatment of Radiation Injury  

PubMed Central

Significance: Radiation exposure as a result of radiation treatment, accident, or terrorism may cause serious problems such as deficiency due to necrosis or loss of function, fibrosis, or intractable ulcers in the tissues and organs. When the skin, bone, oral mucous membrane, guts, or salivary glands are damaged by ionizing radiation, the management and treatment are very lengthy and difficult. Critical Issues: In severe and irreversible injuries, surgery remains the mainstay of treatment. Several surgical procedures, such as debridement, skin grafting, and local and free-vascularized flaps, are widely used. Recent Advances: In specific cases of major morbidity or in high-risk patients, a newly developed therapy using a patient's own stem cells is safe and effective. Adipose tissue, normally a rich source of mesenchymal stem cells, which are similar to those from the bone marrow, can be harvested, since the procedure is easy, and abundant tissue can be obtained with minimal invasiveness. Future Directions: Based on the molecular basis of radiation injuries, several prospective treatments are under development. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms focus on an individual's sensitivity to radiation in radiogenomics, and the pathology of radiation fibrosis or the effect of radiation on wound healing is being studied and will lead to new insight into the treatment of radiation injuries. Protectors and mitigators are being actively investigated in terms of the timing of administration or dose. PMID:24761339

Akita, Sadanori

2014-01-01

139

Global radiation oncology waybill  

PubMed Central

Background/aim Radiation oncology covers many different fields of knowledge and skills. Indeed, this medical specialty links physics, biology, research, and formation as well as surgical and clinical procedures and even rehabilitation and aesthetics. The current socio-economic situation and professional competences affect the development and future or this specialty. The aim of this article was to analyze and highlight the underlying pillars and foundations of radiation oncology, indicating the steps implicated in the future developments or competences of each. Methods This study has collected data from the literature and includes highlights from discussions carried out during the XVII Congress of the Spanish Society of Radiation Oncology (SEOR) held in Vigo in June, 2013. Most of the aspects and domains of radiation oncology were analyzed, achieving recommendations for the many skills and knowledge related to physics, biology, research, and formation as well as surgical and clinical procedures and even supportive care and management. Results Considering the data from the literature and the discussions of the XVII SEOR Meeting, the “waybill” for the forthcoming years has been described in this article including all the aspects related to the needs of radiation oncology. Conclusions Professional competences affect the development and future of this specialty. All the types of radio-modulation are competences of radiation oncologists. On the other hand, the pillars of Radiation Oncology are based on experience and research in every area of Radiation Oncology. PMID:24416572

Munoz-Garzon, Victor; Rovirosa, Angeles; Ramos, Alfredo

2013-01-01

140

Peculiarities of Meteor Radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article the characteristics of radiation of meteors are investigated: the character of a radiating spectrum depends first of all on a speed of a meteor, and also on a chemical and mechanical structure of meteoroid's; the spectrum of a meteor changes along the path of a meteor in an atmosphere according to the law of Wien; for the

V. A. Smirnov

2004-01-01

141

ON THE JITTER RADIATION  

SciTech Connect

In a small-scale turbulent medium, when the nonrelativistic Larmor radius R{sub L} = mc {sup 2}/eB exceeds the correlation length {lambda} of the magnetic field, the magnetic Bremsstrahlung radiation of charged relativistic particles unavoidably proceeds to the so-called jitter radiation regime. The cooling timescale of parent particles is identical to the synchrotron cooling time, thus this radiation regime can be produced with very high efficiency in different astrophysical sources characterized by high turbulence. The jitter radiation has distinct spectral features shifted toward high energies, compared to synchrotron radiation. This effect makes the jitter mechanism an attractive broad-band gamma-ray production channel, which, in highly magnetized and turbulent environments, can compete or even dominate over other high-energy radiation mechanisms. In this paper, we present a novel study of the spectral properties of the jitter radiation performed within the framework of perturbation theory. The derived general expression for the spectral power of radiation is presented in a compact and convenient form for numerical calculations.

Kelner, S. R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-6917 Heidelberg (Germany); Aharonian, F. A. [Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Khangulyan, D., E-mail: skelner@rambler.ru, E-mail: Felix.Aharonian@mpi-hd.mpg.de, E-mail: khangul@astro.isas.jaxa.jp [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science/JAXA, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)

2013-09-01

142

Plastic plasticizer and radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examination concerning the possibilities of decomposition of ; plasticizers such as phthalic acid esters and phosphoric acid esters or toxicity ; reduction thereof by the radiation has been made. (1) Radiation effects: Sham ; polluted solution having various kinds of concentrations of said ester was ; irradiated with ⁶°Co gamma -ray to 0.3 Mrad\\/hr. The results show that ; with

Sunada

1973-01-01

143

Ultraviolet radiation changes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A major consequence of ozone depletion is an increase in solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation received at the Earth's surface. This chapter discusses advances that were made since the previous assessment (World Meteorological Organization (WMO)) to our understanding of UV radiation. The impacts of these changes in UV on the biosphere are not included, because they are discussed in the effects assessment.

Mckenzie, Richard L.; Frederick, John E.; Ilyas, Mohammad; Filyushkin, V.; Wahner, Andreas; Stamnes, K.; Muthusubramanian, P.; Blumthaler, M.; Roy, Colin E.; Madronich, Sasha

1991-01-01

144

Radiation-induced pneumothorax  

SciTech Connect

Pneumothorax is an uncommon complication of radiation therapy to the chest. The proposed pathogenesis is radiation-induced fibrosis promoting subpleural bleb formation that ruptures resulting in pneumothorax. We report on two young patients with primary sarcomas without pulmonary metastases who developed spontaneous pneumothorax after irradiation. Neither patient had antecedent radiographic evidence of pulmonary fibrosis.

Epstein, D.M.; Littman, P.; Gefter, W.B.; Miller, W.T.; Raney, R.B. Jr.

1983-01-01

145

Radiation Processing -an overview  

E-print Network

1 Radiation Processing - an overview Arne Miller Risø High Dose Reference Laboratory Risø DTU DK irradiation · Material modification #12;3 Content ­ Part 2 · Environmental applications · Other applications ­ radiation hardness testing ­ semiconductors ­ microlitography ­ gem stones · Dosimetry · Quality assurance

146

Radiative forcing by contrails  

Microsoft Academic Search

A parametric study of the instantaneous radiative impact of contrails is presented using three diÄerent radiative transfer models for a series of model atmospheres and cloud parameters. Contrails are treat- ed as geometrically and optically thin plane parallel homogeneous cirrus layers in a static atmosphere. The ice water content is varied as a function of ambient temperature. The model atmospheres

R. Meerkotter; U. Schumann; D. R. Doelling; P. Minnis; T. Nakajima; Y. Tsushima

1999-01-01

147

Radiation Exposure Compensation Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the Justice Department's Radiation Exposure Compensation Program homepage. This site features information about the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act, including claimant categories, claim forms, and the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act. This site also provides a table illustrating a summary of all claims received and compensation paid to date.

Program, U. S.

148

Radiation therapy simulation workbook  

SciTech Connect

This book presents format simulation procedures for all major areas. For each site it discusses clinical setting, technique, procedure and dosimetry, and provides measurement worksheets and set-up diagram sheets. Of interest to radiation oncologists, radiation therapy technologists, residents, and students.

Mizer, S.; Scheller, R.R.; Deye, J.A.

1986-01-01

149

Radiation detection system  

DOEpatents

A radiation detection system including a radiation-to-light converter and fiber optic wave guides to transmit the light to a remote location for processing. The system utilizes fluors particularly developed for use with optical fibers emitting at wavelengths greater than about 500 nm and having decay times less than about 10 ns.

Franks, Larry A. (Santa Barbara, CA); Lutz, Stephen S. (Santa Barbara, CA); Lyons, Peter B. (Los Alamos, NM)

1981-01-01

150

Radiatively inefficient accretion disks  

E-print Network

Radiatively inefficient (or advection dominated) disks are discussed at an introductory level. Ion supported and radiation supported flows are discussed, the different consequences of advection dominated flows onto black holes vs. solid surfaces (neutron stars, white dwarfs), hydrodynamics, the role of the ratio of specific heats, and the possible connection between ADAFs and outflows.

H. C. Spruit

2000-03-10

151

Gallbladder Cancer: Radiation Therapy  

MedlinePLUS

... reducing side effects. Three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT): 3D-CRT is a type of external beam radiation ... therapy (IMRT) : IMRT is an advanced form of 3D therapy. It uses a computer-driven machine that ...

152

Forecasting Radiation Fog  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the second module in the Mesoscale Meteorology Primer series. This module starts with a forecast scenario that occurs during a winter radiation fog event in the Central Valley of California. After that, a conceptual section covers the physical processes of radiation fog through its life cycle. Operational sections addressing fog detection and forecasting conclude the module

Comet

2002-02-04

153

Chronic Radiation Enteritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic radiation enteritis is an increasing problem, as more patients receive radiotherapy as part of their cancer therapy and as the long-term survival of these patients improves. This review addresses the causes, investigation, treatment and prevention of this disease. A review of published studies was carried out using a variety of search terms, including radiation enteritis, investigation, treatment and prevention.

V. S. Theis; R. Sripadam; V. Ramani; S. Lal

2010-01-01

154

Ultrasensitive Human Radiation Dosimetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem we are addressing concerns the astronauts, and their exposure to radiation during spaceflight. The amount of this radiation is a variable depending on solar events and orbital characteristics. Our goal is to measure the total integrated quantity of radiation damage to the cell nucleus in astronauts or other people exposed to radiation. In my lab, we are turning up the microscope from the level of the chromosome, about eight orders of magnitude, to the molecular level. It is well known that radiation causes DNA and chromosome damage. We are developing methods to measure a specific molecular lesion. The lesion that we have selected to measure is thymidine diol, which is created by hydroxyl radicals adding across the 5.6 double bond of thymidine in DNA.

Hammen, Richard

1985-01-01

155

Radiative relativistic shock adiabate  

SciTech Connect

The influences of thermal radiation on the state equation of shock waves, derived in the previous paper [L. N. Tsintsadze, Phys. Plasmas {bold 2}, 4462 (1995)], are studied and a series of relations of thermodynamic quantities that hold for shock waves are derived. It is shown that the presence of radiation can strongly change the compressibility of the plasma. It is well known that for polytropic gases the compressibility cannot change more than four times the initial value in the case of nonrelativistic temperatures. The numerical calculations show that there are no such restrictions, when the radiation energy exceeds the kinetic energy of the plasma. The ultrarelativistic temperature range is also covered in our numerical calculations. Also studied are the influences of the radiation on the PT and the TV diagrams. A significant modification due to radiation is found in every case studied. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Tsintsadze, L.N.; Nishikawa, K. [Faculty of Science, Hiroshima University, Higashihiroshima-City 1739 (Japan)] [Faculty of Science, Hiroshima University, Higashihiroshima-City 1739 (Japan)

1997-03-01

156

Broadband optical radiation detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method and apparatus for detecting optical radiation by optically monitoring temperature changes in a microvolume caused by absorption of the optical radiation to be detected is described. More specifically, a thermal lens forming material is provided which has first and second opposite, substantially parallel surfaces. A reflective coating is formed on the first surface, and a radiation absorbing coating is formed on the reflective coating. Chopped, incoming optical radiation to be detected is directed to irradiate a small portion of the radiation absorbing coating. Heat generated in this small area is conducted to the lens forming material through the reflective coating, thereby raising the temperature of a small portion of the lens forming material and causing a thermal lens to be formed therein.

Gupta, A.; Hong, S. D.; Moacanin, J. (inventors)

1981-01-01

157

Radiation Induced Genomic Instability  

PubMed Central

Radiation induced genomic instability can be observed in the progeny of irradiated cells multiple generations after irradiation of parental cells. The phenotype is well established both in vivo (Morgan 2003) and in vitro (Morgan 2003), and may be critical in radiation carcinogenesis (Little 2000, Huang et al. 2003). Instability can be induced by both the deposition of energy in irradiated cells as well as by signals transmitted by irradiated (targeted) cells to non-irradiated (non-targeted) cells (Kadhim et al. 1992, Lorimore et al. 1998). Thus both targeted and non-targeted cells can pass on the legacy of radiation to their progeny. However the radiation induced events and cellular processes that respond to both targeted and non-targeted radiation effects that lead to the unstable phenotype remain elusive. PMID:21556289

Morgan, William F.

2011-01-01

158

Dangers of Radiation Exposure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the first part of the lesson, students calculate their yearly exposure rate to harmful high-energy radiation and cumulative effects over time. They then use the information to evaluate the various sources of radiation that are of greatest concern for them. In the second part of the lesson, students learn that spacecraft and other objects in space must be concerned with the same kinds of radiation to which humans are exposed. The MESSENGER spacecraft will orbit Mercury and be subjected to much more intense solar radiation than it would near Earth. Students discuss the notion that even though some of the radiation is needed to study the properties of the planet, too much of it can be quite damaging.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)

2005-03-15

159

Deployable Heat Pipe Radiator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 1.2- by 1.8-m variable conductance heat pipe radiator was designed, built, and tested. The radiator has deployment capability and can passively control Freon-21 fluid loop temperatures under varying loads and environments. It consists of six grooved variable conductance heat pipes attached to a 0.032-in. aluminum panel. Heat is supplied to the radiator via a fluid header or a single-fluid flexible heat pipe header. The heat pipe header is an artery design that has a flexible section capable of bending up to 90 degrees. Radiator loads as high as 850 watts were successfully tested. Over a load variation of 200 watts, the outlet temperature of the Freon-21 fluid varied by 7 F. An alternate control system was also investigated which used a variable conductance heat pipe header attached to the heat pipe radiator panel.

Edelstein, F.

1975-01-01

160

Hoja de Recapturas MoSI Localidad Tamao de anillo R Temporada (p.ej 2009-10) Pgina # CODE SEXO EDAD COMO DETERMINAR LA EDAD Y EL SEXO CRNEO PROT. CLOAC. PARCH. DE INC. GRASA MUDA CUERP. MUDA PL. VUEL. DESGAS. VUEL. LIM. DE MUDA Y PL. TENDENCIA  

E-print Network

Hoja de Recapturas MoSI Localidad Tamaño de anillo R Temporada (p.ej 2009-10) Página # CODE SEXO EDAD COMO DETERMINAR LA EDAD Y EL SEXO CRÁNEO PROT. CLOAC. PARCH. DE INC. GRASA MUDA CUERP. MUDA PL SEXO Lesión vieja, cicatrizad. Herida o enfermedad PARCH.DEINC. GRASA MUDACUERPO MUDAPL.VUEL. ANILLOS

DeSante, David F.

161

Hoja de Anillamiento MoSI Localidad Tamao de anillo Temporada (p.ej. 2009-10) Pgina # CDIGO SEXO EDAD COMO DETERMINAR LA EDAD Y EL SEXO CRNEO PROT. CLOAC. PARCH. DE INC. GRASA MUDA CUERP. MUDA PL. VUEL. DESGAS. VUEL. LIM. DE MUDA Y PL. TENDENCIA  

E-print Network

Hoja de Anillamiento MoSI Localidad Tamaño de anillo Temporada (p.ej. 2009-10) Página # C�DIGO SEXO EDAD COMO DETERMINAR LA EDAD Y EL SEXO CRÁNEO PROT. CLOAC. PARCH. DE INC. GRASA MUDA CUERP. MUDA PL SEXO COMODET. ELSEXO Lesión vieja, cicatrizad. Herida o enfermedad MUDAPL.VUEL. DESGAS.VUEL. PLUMAJEJUV

DeSante, David F.

162

RADIATION SAFETY MANUAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES  

E-print Network

RADIATION SAFETY MANUAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR RADIATION PROTECTION AT TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY................................................................................................................I-1 B. Radiation Protection Program...............................................................................I-3 D. Radiation Safety Management

Zhang, Yuanlin

163

[Remote radiation planning support system].  

PubMed

We constructed a remote radiation planning support system between Kyushu University Hospital (KUH) in Fukuoka and Kyushu University Beppu Hospital (KBH) in Oita. Between two institutions, radiology information system for radiotherapy division (RT-RIS) and radiation planning system (RTPS) were connected by virtual private network (VPN). This system enables the radiation oncologists at KUH to perform radiotherapy planning for the patients at KBH. The detail of the remote radiation planning support system in our institutions is as follows: The radiation oncologist at KBH performs radiotherapy planning and the data of the patients are sent anonymously to the radiation oncologists at KUH. The radiation oncologists at KUH receive the patient's data, access to RTPS at KBH, verify or change the radiation planning at KBH: Radiation therapy is performed at KBH according to the confirmed plan by the radiation oncologists at KUH. Our remote radiation planning system is useful for providing radiation therapy with safety and accuracy. PMID:23157128

Atsumi, Kazushige; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Yoshidome, Satoshi; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Sasaki, Tomonari; Ohga, Saiji; Yoshitake, Tadamasa; Shinoto, Makoto; Asai, Kaori; Sakamoto, Katsumi; Hirakawa, Masakazu; Honda, Hiroshi

2012-08-01

164

Microenvironment and Radiation Therapy  

PubMed Central

Dependency on tumor oxygenation is one of the major features of radiation therapy and this has led many radiation biologists and oncologists to focus on tumor hypoxia. The first approach to overcome tumor hypoxia was to improve tumor oxygenation by increasing oxygen delivery and a subsequent approach was the use of radiosensitizers in combination with radiation therapy. Clinical use of some of these approaches was promising, but they are not widely used due to several limitations. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that is activated by hypoxia and induces the expression of various genes related to the adaptation of cellular metabolism to hypoxia, invasion and metastasis of cancer cells and angiogenesis, and so forth. HIF-1 is a potent target to enhance the therapeutic effects of radiation therapy. Another approach is antiangiogenic therapy. The combination with radiation therapy is promising, but several factors including surrogate markers, timing and duration, and so forth have to be optimized before introducing it into clinics. In this review, we examined how the tumor microenvironment influences the effects of radiation and how we can enhance the antitumor effects of radiation therapy by modifying the tumor microenvironment. PMID:23509762

Yoshimura, Michio; Itasaka, Satoshi; Harada, Hiroshi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

2013-01-01

165

Radiative Processes in Astrophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiative Processes in Astrophysics: This clear, straightforward, and fundamental introduction is designed to present-from a physicist's point of view-radiation processes and their applications to astrophysical phenomena and space science. It covers such topics as radiative transfer theory, relativistic covariance and kinematics, bremsstrahlung radiation, synchrotron radiation, Compton scattering, some plasma effects, and radiative transitions in atoms. Discussion begins with first principles, physically motivating and deriving all results rather than merely presenting finished formulae. However, a reasonably good physics background (introductory quantum mechanics, intermediate electromagnetic theory, special relativity, and some statistical mechanics) is required. Much of this prerequisite material is provided by brief reviews, making the book a self-contained reference for workers in the field as well as the ideal text for senior or first-year graduate students of astronomy, astrophysics, and related physics courses. Radiative Processes in Astrophysics also contains about 75 problems, with solutions, illustrating applications of the material and methods for calculating results. This important and integral section emphasizes physical intuition by presenting important results that are used throughout the main text; it is here that most of the practical astrophysical applications become apparent.

Rybicki, George B.; Lightman, Alan P.

1986-06-01

166

Blackbody Radiation Spectrum Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Blackbody Radiation Spectrum model shows six fixed-temperature curves between Tmin and Tmax and a red variable-temperature curve that can be adjusted using a slider. The wavelength is measured in nm (nanometer) and the intensity is measured in W.e-5 / (m2.nm). Users can adjust Tmin and Tmax to change the temperature range that is displayed. The Blackbody Radiation Spectrum was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double click the ejs_ntnu_BlackbodyRadiationSpectrum.jar file to run the program if Java is installed.

Hwang, Fu-Kwun

2009-08-22

167

Radiative forcing of climate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An update of the scientific discussions presented in Chapter 2 of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report is presented. The update discusses the atmospheric radiative and chemical species of significance for climate change. There are two major objectives of the present update. The first is an extension of the discussion on the Global Warming Potentials (GWP's), including a reevaluation in view of the updates in the lifetimes of the radiatively active species. The second important objective is to underscore major developments in the radiative forcing of climate due to the observed stratospheric ozone losses occurring between 1979 and 1990.

Ramanswamy, V.; Shine, Keith; Leovy, Conway; Wang, Wei-Chyung; Rodhe, Henning; Wuebbles, Donald J.; Ding, M.; Lelieveld, Joseph; Edmonds, Jae A.; Mccormick, M. Patrick

1991-01-01

168

The Intense Radiation Gas  

E-print Network

We present a new dispersion relation for photons that are nonlinearly interacting with a radiation gas of arbitrary intensity due to photon-photon scattering. It is found that the photon phase velocity decreases with increasing radiation intensity, it and attains a minimum value in the limit of super-intense fields. By using Hamilton's ray equations, a self-consistent kinetic theory for interacting photons is formulated. The interaction between an electromagnetic pulse and the radiation gas is shown to produce pulse self-compression and nonlinear saturation. Implications of our new results are discussed.

M. Marklund; P. K. Shukla; B. Eliasson

2004-10-14

169

Diffuse Background Radiation  

E-print Network

A new determination of the upper limit to the cosmic diffuse background radiation, at ~110 nm, of 300 photons s-1 cm-2 sr-1 nm-1, is placed in the context of diffuse background measurements across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, including new optical, infrared, visible, and gamma-ray background measurements. The possibility that observed excess diffuse visible radiation is due to redshifted cosmological Lyman alpha recomination radiation is explored. Also, a new standard of units for the display of spectra is advocated.

Richard C. Henry

1999-03-18

170

Composition for radiation shielding  

DOEpatents

A composition for use as a radiation shield. The shield has a depleted urum core for absorbing gamma rays and a bismuth coating for preventing chemical corrosion and absorbing gamma rays. Alternatively, a sheet of gadolinium may be positioned between the uranium core and the bismuth coating for absorbing neutrons. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing materials that emit radiation such as gamma rays and neutrons. The container is preferably formed by casting bismuth around a pre-formed uranium container having a gadolinium sheeting, and allowing the bismuth to cool. The resulting container is a structurally sound, corrosion-resistant, radiation-absorbing container.

Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

1994-01-01

171

Radiation and Society  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a discussion of the risks, to society, from radiation-associated technologies and urges that science teachers help the public understand the decision-making process relative to nuclear power as well as the problems and alternatives. (PEB)

Shaw, Edward I.

1974-01-01

172

Tin Can Radiation Detector.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides instructions for making tin can radiation detectors from empty aluminum cans, aluminum foil, clear plastic, copper wire, silica gel, and fine, unwaxed dental floss put together with tape or glue. Also provides suggestions for activities using the detectors. (JN)

Crull, John L.

1986-01-01

173

Calculate Your Radiation Dose  

MedlinePLUS

... Do you live within 50 miles of a nuclear power plant? Do you live within 50 miles of a coal fired power plant? TOTAL YEARLY DOSE (in mrem) ... the American Nuclear Society's brochure, "Personal Radiation Dose Chart". The primary ...

174

Pregnancy and Radiation Exposure  

MedlinePLUS

... Exposure to the Embryo or Fetus from Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine Pregnant women may be administered radioactive materials ... determination be obtained from the health physicist, a nuclear medicine physician, or a radiation oncologist associated with ...

175

Nanotechnology in radiation oncology.  

PubMed

Nanotechnology, the manipulation of matter on atomic and molecular scales, is a relatively new branch of science. It has already made a significant impact on clinical medicine, especially in oncology. Nanomaterial has several characteristics that are ideal for oncology applications, including preferential accumulation in tumors, low distribution in normal tissues, biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and clearance, that differ from those of small molecules. Because these properties are also well suited for applications in radiation oncology, nanomaterials have been used in many different areas of radiation oncology for imaging and treatment planning, as well as for radiosensitization to improve the therapeutic ratio. In this article, we review the unique properties of nanomaterials that are favorable for oncology applications and examine the various applications of nanotechnology in radiation oncology. We also discuss the future directions of nanotechnology within the context of radiation oncology. PMID:25113769

Wang, Andrew Z; Tepper, Joel E

2014-09-10

176

Radiation Physics with Diamonds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some salient features and examples of the numerous results obtained during the last decade in close collaboration with Friedel Sellschop in a Bonn/Darmstadt/Erlangen/Kharkov/ Munich/Rossendorf/Wits Collaboration at the superconducting Darmstadt electron linear accelerator (S-DALINAC) on the interaction of relativistic electrons with diamonds are presented. These studies started with investigations of channeling radiation (CR) and were later on extended into the field of parametric X radiation (PXR), with the main aim to possibly develop a tunable radiation source with a small bandwidth. But also basic properties of these types of radiations, like e.g. coherence and occupation lengths, linewidths, polarization and interference with coherent bremsstrahlung have been investigated as well as special properties of diamonds. An example for such a measurement is the susceptibility of diamond through PXR. Lately CR has also been explored in the context of a new acceleration mechanism.

Richter, A.

2001-09-01

177

External Radiation Therapy  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

Narrator: When the cancer is not completely contained in the prostate or when the patient is older the treatment that is frequently used ... There are different forms of radiation for prostate cancer. They really boil down to two different types. ...

178

Photochemistry Radiation and Photolysiss  

E-print Network

Photochemistry Radiation and Photolysiss Objectives · Review the electromagnetic spectrum · Review #12;The Electromagnetic Spectrum For more information on the electromagnetic spectrum, see this website. #12;Essentials of Electromagnetic Energy The "unit" of electromagnetic energy is the photon

Toohey, Darin W.

179

Radiation therapy - skin care  

MedlinePLUS

... not swim in pools, salt water, lakes, or ponds. Keep the treatment area out of direct sun ... Czito BG, Willett CG. Radiation injury. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, ... Liver Disease . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2010: ...

180

Nonionizing Radiation 583.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lesson plans are provided for a specialty course designed to be used as an introduction to nonionizing radiation including sources, attendant hazards to personnel, and the basic principles of control. Special attention is given to evaluation and control o...

1983-01-01

181

Radiation Tolerant Antifuse FPGA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The total dose performance of the antifuse FPGA for space applications is summarized. Optimization of the radiation tolerance in the fabless model is the main theme. Mechanisms to explain the variation in different products are discussed.

Wang, Jih-Jong; Cronquist, Brian; McCollum, John; Parker, Wanida; Katz, Rich; Kleyner, Igor; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

182

EM Radiation Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EM Radiation program displays the electric field vectors (in the x-y plane) and magnetic field contours (for the field in the z direction) calculated from the Lienard-Wiechert potentials for a charged particle. The default scenario shows the resulting radiation from a charged particle in simple harmonic motion. Additional particle trajectories can be specified using the Display | Switch GUI menu item. EM Radiation is an Open Source Physics program written for the teaching of electromagnetism. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the em_radiation.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Other electromagnetism programs are also available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or electromagnetism.

Christian, Wolfgang

2008-05-20

183

SOLAR RADIATION, VA  

EPA Science Inventory

Sterling, Virginia Integrated Surface Irradiance Study (ISIS) solar radiation data files from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), zipped from ftp://ftp.atdd.noaa.gov/pub/projects/isis/ste/monthly...

184

Space radiation studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instrument design and data analysis expertise was provided in support of several space radiation monitoring programs. The Verification of Flight Instrumentation (VFI) program at NASA included both the Active Radiation Detector (ARD) and the Nuclear Radiation Monitor (NRM). Design, partial fabrication, calibration and partial data analysis capability to the ARD program was provided, as well as detector head design and fabrication, software development and partial data analysis capability to the NRM program. The ARD flew on Spacelab-1 in 1983, performed flawlessly and was returned to MSFC after flight with unchanged calibration factors. The NRM, flown on Spacelab-2 in 1985, also performed without fault, not only recording the ambient gamma ray background on the Spacelab, but also recording radiation events of astrophysical significance.

Gregory, J. C.

1986-01-01

185

Adaptive multigroup radiation diffusion  

E-print Network

This thesis describes the development and implementation of an algorithm for dramatically increasing the accuracy and reliability of multigroup radiation diffusion simulations at low group counts. This is achieved by ...

Williams, Richard B., Sc. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2005-01-01

186

Ionizing radiation detector  

DOEpatents

An ionizing radiation detector is provided which is based on the principle of analog electronic integration of radiation sensor currents in the sub-pico to nano ampere range between fixed voltage switching thresholds with automatic voltage reversal each time the appropriate threshold is reached. The thresholds are provided by a first NAND gate Schmitt trigger which is coupled with a second NAND gate Schmitt trigger operating in an alternate switching state from the first gate to turn either a visible or audible indicating device on and off in response to the gate switching rate which is indicative of the level of radiation being sensed. The detector can be configured as a small, personal radiation dosimeter which is simple to operate and responsive over a dynamic range of at least 0.01 to 1000 R/hr.

Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

1990-01-01

187

Environmental Radiation Exposures  

Cancer.gov

Atomic Bomb Survivors Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site, Kazakhstan Study of Radiation Doses and Cancer Risks Resulting from the 1945 "Trinity" Atomic Weapon Test Thyroid Disease in Young Persons Near Chernobyl Techa River Print This Page Environmental

188

Occupational Radiation Exposures  

Cancer.gov

DCEG researchers are studying cancer risks among populations who are occupationally exposed to radiation. Chernobyl Clean-up Workers Mayak Nuclear Facility Workers U.S. Radiologic Technologists Interventional Fluoroscopists Print This Page Occupational

189

Radiation Dose Chart  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an illustration of the ionizing radiation dose a person can absorb from various sources. It provides a visual comparison of doses ranging from 0.1 microsieverts (from eating a banana) to a fatal dose of 8 sieverts.

Munroe, Randall

190

Radiation-Induced Bioradicals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter represents the second part of a review in which the production and application of radiation-induced radicals in biological matter are discussed. In part one the general aspects of the four stages (physical, physicochemical, chemical and biological) of interaction of radiation with matter in general and biological matter in particular, were discussed. Here an overview is presented of modem technologies and theoretical methods available for studying these radiation effects. The relevance is highlighted of electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations with respect to obtaining structural information on bioradicals, and a survey is given of the research studies in this field. We also discuss some basic aspects of modem accelerator technologies which can be used for creating radicals and we conclude with an overview of applications of radiation processing in biology and related fields such as biomedical and environmental engineering, food technology, medicine and pharmacy.

Lahorte, Philippe; Mondelaers, Wim

191

Effect of radiation dose on radiation creep of polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In investigations of radiation creep and service life of polymers the question arises: Are these radiation effects not determined by increasing doses of ionizing radiation? The effect of a radiation dose may be manifested, in particular, in rupture of the chemical bonds responsible for the strength of the polymer, as loading might cause supplemental deformation; and, when irradiation takes place

V. F. Stepanov; S. É. Vaisberg; V. L. Karpov

1974-01-01

192

Method of enhancing radiation response of radiation detection materials  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a method of increasing radiation response of a radiation detection material for a given radiation signal by first pressurizing the radiation detection material. Pressurization may be accomplished by any means including mechanical and/or hydraulic. In this application, the term "pressure" includes fluid pressure and/or mechanical stress.

Miller, Steven D. (Richland, WA)

1997-01-01

193

Radiation Safety Manual Dec 2012 Page 1 RADIATION SAFETY  

E-print Network

Radiation Safety Manual ­ Dec 2012 Page 1 RADIATION SAFETY MANUAL For Columbia University NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital New York State Psychiatric Institute Barnard College December 2012 #12;Radiation Safety Manual ­ Dec 2012 Page 1 Table of Contents Introduction Chapter I: Radiation Safety Program A. Program

Grishok, Alla

194

The NCI Radiation Research Program: Grant portfolio and radiation  

E-print Network

The NCI Radiation Research Program: Grant portfolio and radiation dosimetry as applied and R37s). Of those that utilize radiation: · 6 use tissue culture models only · 110 utilize animal radiation (excepting those with human subjects or physics grants) mention dosimetry in the proposals (4

195

Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for  

E-print Network

Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for X-ray Users for Physics 461 & 462 Protocol Title: Basic Radiation Safety Training for X-ray Users Drafted By: Chris Millsaps, RSS Reviewers: ZB, TU, GS Purpose: To provide basic radiation safety training to the users of x-ray producing

Dai, Pengcheng

196

Pelvic Radiation in Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Pelvic radiation represents a major therapeutic strategy, either as adjuvant or primary treatment in the management of cancer\\u000a in women. This mainly concerns women with gynaecological malignancies: endometrial, cervical, vaginal, and vulva cancer; intestinal\\u000a malignancies: rectal and anal cancer, and bladder cancer. Further, long-term breast cancer survivors may experience similar\\u000a adverse effects after ovarian ablation accomplished by pelvic radiation. Finally,

Pernille T. Jensen

197

Net Radiation and Temperature  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students analyze actual net radiation data from their professor's field site in Northern Manitoba, Canada. They use this data to assess when the site has a radiation surplus and when it has a deficit. They use this data to estimate the time of the temperature minimum. They then think about what they've learned about seasonal cycles in insolation to predict how these patterns would shift at a different time of year.

Dunn, Allison

198

Radiation-induced sarcoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Radiation-induced sarcomas can originate in either the irradiated bone or soft tissues. Most of these tumors are high-grade.\\u000a The most common histologic subtypes are malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) and osteosarcoma, although other histologies\\u000a (eg, angiosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma) can occur. Tumor size and grade are the two most important prognostic factors for soft tissue\\u000a sarcomas, including those associated with radiation therapy.

Shreyaskumar R. Patel

2000-01-01

199

Radiation associated tumors following therapeutic cranial radiation  

PubMed Central

Background: A serious, albeit rare, sequel of therapeutic ionizing radiotherapy is delayed development of a new, histologically distinct neoplasm within the radiation field. Methods: We identified 27 cases, from a 10-year period, of intracranial tumors arising after cranial irradiation. The original lesions for which cranial radiation was used for treatment included: tinea capitis (1), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; 5), sarcoma (1), scalp hemangioma (1), cranial nerve schwannoma (1) and primary (13) and metastatic (1) brain tumors, pituitary tumor (1), germinoma (1), pinealoma (1), and unknown histology (1). Dose of cranial irradiation ranged from 1800 to 6500 cGy, with a mean of 4596 cGy. Age at cranial irradiation ranged from 1 month to 43 years, with a mean of 13.4 years. Results: Latency between radiotherapy and diagnosis of a radiation-induced neoplasm ranged from 4 to 47 years (mean 18.8 years). Radiation-induced tumors included: meningiomas (14), sarcomas (7), malignant astrocytomas (4), and medulloblastomas (2). Data were analyzed to evaluate possible correlations between gender, age at irradiation, dose of irradiation, latency, use of chemotherapy, and radiation-induced neoplasm histology. Significant correlations existed between age at cranial irradiation and development of either a benign neoplasm (mean age 8.5 years) versus a malignant neoplasm (mean age 20.3; P = 0.012), and development of either a meningioma (mean age 7.0 years) or a sarcoma (mean age 27.4 years; P = 0.0001). There was also a significant positive correlation between latency and development of either a meningioma (mean latency 21.8 years) or a sarcoma (mean latency 7.7 years; P = 0.001). The correlation between dose of cranial irradiation and development of either a meningioma (mean dose 4128 cGy) or a sarcoma (mean dose 5631 cGy) approached significance (P = 0.059). Conclusions: Our study is the first to show that younger patients had a longer latency period and were more likely to have lower-grade lesions (e.g. meningiomas) as a secondary neoplasm, while older patients had a shorter latency period and were more likely to have higher-grade lesions (e.g. sarcomas). PMID:22629485

Chowdhary, Abhineet; Spence, Alex M.; Sales, Lindsay; Rostomily, Robert C.; Rockhill, Jason K.; Silbergeld, Daniel L.

2012-01-01

200

Numerical Radiative Transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; Introduction; Part I. Operator Perturbation: 1. Survey of operator perturbation methods W. Kalkofen; 2. Line formation in expanding atmospheres: multilevel calculations using approximate lambda operators W. R. Hamann; 3. Stellar atmospheres in non-LTE: model construction and line formation calculations using approximate lambda operators K. Werner; 4. Acceleration of convergence L. H. Auer; 5. Line formation in a time-dependent atmosphere W. Kalkofen; 6. Iterative solution of multilevel transfer problems Eugene H. Avrett and Rudolf Loeser; 7. An algorithm for the simultaneous solution of thousands of transfer equations under global constraints Lawrence S. Anderson; 8. Operator perturbation for differential equations W. Kalkofen; Part II. Polarised Radiation: 9. A gentle introduction to polarised radiative transfer David E. Rees; 10. Non-LTE polarised radiative transfer in special lines David E. Rees and Graham A. Murphy; 11. Transfer of polarised radiation using 4x4 matrices E. Landi Degli'Innocenti; 12. Radiative transfer in the presence of strong magnetic fields A. A. van Ballegooijen; 13. An integral operator technique of radiative transfer in spherical symmetry A. Peraiah; 14. Discrete ordinate matrix method M. Schmidt and R. Wehrse.

Kalkofen, Wolfgang

2009-07-01

201

Packet personal radiation monitor  

DOEpatents

A personal radiation monitor of the chirper type is provided for detecting ionizing radiation. A battery powered high voltage power supply is used to generate and apply a high voltage bias to a G-M tube radiation sensor. The high voltage is monitored by a low-loss sensing network which generates a feedback signal to control the high voltage power supply such that the high voltage bias is recharged to +500 VDC when the current pulses of the sensor, generated by the detection of ionizing radiation events, discharges the high voltage bias to +450 VDC. During the high voltage recharge period an audio transducer is activated to produce an audible "chirp". The rate of the "chirps" is controlled by the rate at which the high voltage bias is recharged, which is proportional to the radiation field intensity to which the sensor is exposed. The chirp rate sensitivity is set to be approximately 1.5 (chirps/min/MR/hr.). The G-M tube sensor is used in a current sensing mode so that the device does not paralyze in a high radiation field.

Phelps, James E. (Knoxville, TN)

1989-01-01

202

Space radiation dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

Dosimetry is the measurement of the energy deposited in matter by various forms of radiation. In space the radiation is primarily energetic electrons, protons and heavier ions from planetary radiation belts, solar flares, and interstellar cosmic rays. Experimentally, dose is frequently obtained by summing the individual energy deposits in a solid state detector. If the detector is calibrated and the sensitive mass is known, the energy sum can be converted directly to accumulated radiation dose in Gy (J/kg). Such detectors can also be used to provide an approximate separation of dose into the components due to electrons, protons, and heavier ions, which is useful if it is desired to convert the measured dose into a biological effective dose (Sv) for manned spaceflight purposes. The output can also be used to provide an essentially instantaneous dose rate for use as warning devices. This is the primary type of space radiation dosimeter to be discussed here. The MOS-type dosimeter is another solid state sensor which can be of small size and low power. These devices integrate the total dose once through, can not separate particle types, and are not suitable for instantaneous dose rate measurement at low levels. There are several additional methods of measuring space radiation dose using scintillators, etc., but are not discussed in detail. In this paper emphasis is given to descriptions of active solid state detector instruments which have successfully worked in space. Some results of in-orbit dose measurements are presented.

Hanser, F.A.; Dichter, B.K. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States); [DLR Inst. of Aerospace Medicine, Cologne (Germany); [NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

1993-12-31

203

ISO radiation sterilization standards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation provides an overview of the current status of the ISO radiation sterilization standards. The ISO standards are voluntary standards which detail both the validation and routine control of the sterilization process. ISO 11137 was approved in 1994 and published in 1995. When reviewing the standard you will note that less than 20% of the standard is devoted to requirements and the remainder is guidance on how to comply with the requirements. Future standards developments in radiation sterilization are being focused on providing additional guidance. The guidance that is currently provided in informative annexes of ISO 11137 includes: device/packaging materials, dose setting methods, and dosimeters and dose measurement, currently, there are four Technical Reports being developed to provide additional guidance: 1. AAMI Draft TIR, "Radiation Sterilization Material Qualification" 2. ISO TR 13409-1996, "Sterilization of health care products — Radiation sterilization — Substantiation of 25 kGy as a sterilization dose for small or infrequent production batches" 3. ISO Draft TR, "Sterilization of health care products — Radiation sterilization Selection of a sterilization dose for a single production batch" li]4. ISO Draft TR, "Sterilization of health care products — Radiation sterilization-Product Families, Plans for Sampling and Frequency of Dose Audits."

Lambert, Byron J.; Hansen, Joyce M.

1998-06-01

204

Appendix A: Radiation HYDROGEN ATOM  

E-print Network

. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantly. For example, cosmic radiation; radonAppendix A: Radiation #12;P P P E E E N NN HYDROGEN ATOM DEUTERIUM ATOM TRITIUM ATOM HYDROGEN DEUTERIUM TRITIUM PROTONS NEUTRONS 1 1 1 0 1 2 ORNL-DWG 94M-5236 Appendix A: Radiation A-3 Fig. A.1

Pennycook, Steve

205

Appendix G: Radiation HYDROGEN ATOM  

E-print Network

. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantly. For example, cosmic radiation; radonAppendix G: Radiation #12;#12;P P P E E E N NN HYDROGEN ATOM DEUTERIUM ATOM TRITIUM ATOM HYDROGEN DEUTERIUM TRITIUM PROTONS NEUTRONS 1 1 1 0 1 2 ORNL-DWG 94M-5236 Appendix G: Radiation G-3 Fig. G.1

Pennycook, Steve

206

Radiation Sensitization in Cancer Therapy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses various aspects of radiation damage to biological material, including free radical mechanisms, radiation sensitization and protection, tumor hypoxia, mechanism of hypoxic cell radiosensitization, redox model for radiation modification, sensitizer probes of cellular radiation targets, pulse radiolysis studies of free radical kinetics,…

Greenstock, Clive L.

1981-01-01

207

ADAPTIVE RADIATION ROSEMARY G. GILLESPIE  

E-print Network

1 A ADAPTIVE RADIATION ROSEMARY G. GILLESPIE University of California, Berkeley Adaptive radiation- tions and convergence of species groups on different land masses. Since then, adaptive radiation has diversity within a rapidly multiplying lineage." There are radiations that are not adaptive

Gillespie, Rosemary

208

The Radiation Chemistry Data Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Radiation Chemistry Data Center is an information resource provided by the Notre Dame Radiation Laboratory that is "dedicated to the collection, evaluation, and dissemination of data characterizing the reactions of transient intermediates produced by radiation chemical and photochemical methods." The main page offers links to Compilations of Chemical Property Data, Kinetics Databases, a Bibliographic Database, and Recent Papers in Radiation Chemistry and Photochemistry.

Madden, K. P.

2007-05-15

209

The Radiation Chemistry Data Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Radiation Chemistry Data Center is an information resource provided by the Notre Dame Radiation Laboratory that is "dedicated to the collection, evaluation, and dissemination of data characterizing the reactions of transient intermediates produced by radiation chemical and photochemical methods." The main page offers links to Compilations of Chemical Property Data, Kinetics Databases, a Bibliographic Database, and Recent Papers in Radiation Chemistry and Photochemistry.

2002-01-01

210

Precaution and Solar Radiation Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar radiation management is a form of geoengineering that involves the intentional manipulation of solar radiation with the aim of reducing global average temperature. This paper explores what precaution implies about the status of solar radiation management. It is argued that any form of solar radiation management that poses threats of catastrophe cannot constitute an appropriate precautionary measure against another

Lauren Hartzell-Nichols

2012-01-01

211

Radiation health research, 1986 - 1990  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A collection of 225 abstracts of radiation research sponsored by NASA during the period 1986 through 1990 is reported. Each abstract was categorized within one of four discipline areas: physics, biology, risk assessment, and microgravity. Topic areas within each discipline were assigned as follows: Physics - atomic physics, nuclear science, space radiation, radiation transport and shielding, and instrumentation; Biology - molecular biology, cellular radiation biology, tissue, organs and organisms, radioprotectants, and plants; Risk assessment - radiation health and epidemiology, space flight radiation health physics, inter- and intraspecies extrapolation, and radiation limits and standards; and Microgravity. When applicable subareas were assigned for selected topic areas. Keywords and author indices are provided.

1991-01-01

212

Radiation in particle simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hot dense radiative (HDR) plasmas common to Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and stellar interiors have high temperature (a few hundred eV to tens of keV), high density (tens to hundreds of g/cc) and high pressure (hundreds of megabars to thousands of gigabars). Typically, such plasmas undergo collisional, radiative, atomic and possibly thermonuclear processes. In order to describe HDR plasmas, computational physicists in ICF and astrophysics use atomic-scale microphysical models implemented in various simulation codes. Experimental validation of the models used to describe HDR plasmas are difficult to perform. Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of the many-body interactions of plasmas is a promising approach to model validation but, previous work either relies on the collisionless approximation or ignores radiation. We present four methods that attempt a new numerical simulation technique to address a currently unsolved problem: the extension of molecular dynamics to collisional plasmas including emission and absorption of radiation. The first method applies the Lienard-Weichert solution of Maxwell's equations for a classical particle whose motion is assumed to be known. The second method expands the electromagnetic field in normal modes (plane-waves in a box with periodic boundary conditions) and solves the equation for wave amplitudes coupled to the particle motion. The third method is a hybrid molecular dynamics/Monte Carlo (MD/MC) method which calculates radiation emitted or absorbed by electron-ion pairs during close collisions. The fourth method is a generalization of the third method to include small clusters of particles emitting radiation during close encounters: one electron simultaneously hitting two ions, two electrons simultaneously hitting one ion, etc. This approach is inspired by the virial expansion method of equilibrium statistical mechanics. Using a combination of these methods we believe it is possible to do atomic-scale particle simulations of fusion ignition plasmas including the important effects of radiation emission and absorption.

More, Richard; Graziani, Frank; Glosli, Jim; Surh, Michael

2010-01-01

213

Radiation in Particle Simulations  

SciTech Connect

Hot dense radiative (HDR) plasmas common to Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and stellar interiors have high temperature (a few hundred eV to tens of keV), high density (tens to hundreds of g/cc) and high pressure (hundreds of megabars to thousands of gigabars). Typically, such plasmas undergo collisional, radiative, atomic and possibly thermonuclear processes. In order to describe HDR plasmas, computational physicists in ICF and astrophysics use atomic-scale microphysical models implemented in various simulation codes. Experimental validation of the models used to describe HDR plasmas are difficult to perform. Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of the many-body interactions of plasmas is a promising approach to model validation but, previous work either relies on the collisionless approximation or ignores radiation. We present four methods that attempt a new numerical simulation technique to address a currently unsolved problem: the extension of molecular dynamics to collisional plasmas including emission and absorption of radiation. The first method applies the Lienard-Weichert solution of Maxwell's equations for a classical particle whose motion is assumed to be known. The second method expands the electromagnetic field in normal modes (planewaves in a box with periodic boundary-conditions) and solves the equation for wave amplitudes coupled to the particle motion. The third method is a hybrid molecular dynamics/Monte Carlo (MD/MC) method which calculates radiation emitted or absorbed by electron-ion pairs during close collisions. The fourth method is a generalization of the third method to include small clusters of particles emitting radiation during close encounters: one electron simultaneously hitting two ions, two electrons simultaneously hitting one ion, etc. This approach is inspired by the virial expansion method of equilibrium statistical mechanics. Using a combination of these methods we believe it is possible to do atomic-scale particle simulations of fusion ignition plasmas including the important effects of radiation emission and absorption.

More, R; Graziani, F; Glosli, J; Surh, M

2010-11-19

214

Radiation delivery system and method  

DOEpatents

A radiation delivery system and method are described. The system includes a treatment configuration such as a stent, balloon catheter, wire, ribbon, or the like, a portion of which is covered with a gold layer. Chemisorbed to the gold layer is a radiation-emitting self-assembled monolayer or a radiation-emitting polymer. The radiation delivery system is compatible with medical catheter-based technologies to provide a therapeutic dose of radiation to a lesion following an angioplasty procedure.

Sorensen, Scott A. (Overland Park, KS); Robison, Thomas W. (Los Alamos, NM); Taylor, Craig M. V. (Jemez Springs, NM)

2002-01-01

215

Status of LDEF radiation modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current status of model prediction and comparison with LDEF radiation dosimetry measurements is summarized with emphasis on major results obtained in evaluating the uncertainties of present radiation environment model. The consistency of results and conclusions obtained from model comparison with different sets of LDEF radiation data (dose, activation, fluence, LET spectra) is discussed. Examples where LDEF radiation data and modeling results can be utilized to provide improved radiation assessments for planned LEO missions (e.g., Space Station) are given.

Watts, John W.; Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.

1995-01-01

216

Lunar radiator shade  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus for rejecting waste heat from a system located on or near the lunar equator is presented. The system utilizes a reflective catenary shaped trough deployed about a vertical radiator to shade the radiator from heat emitted by the hot lunar surface. The catenary shaped trough is constructed from a film material and is aligned relative to the sun so that incoming solar energy is focused to a line just above the vertical radiator and can thereby isolate the radiator from the effects of direct sunlight. The film is in a collapsed position between side by side support rods, all of which are in a transport case. To deploy the film and support rods, a set of parallel tracks running perpendicular to length of the support rods are extended out from the transport case. After the support tracks are deployed, the support rods are positioned equidistant from each other along the length of the support tracks so that the flexible film shade between adjacent support rods is unfolded and hangs in a catenary shaped trough. A heat radiator is supported between each pair of support rods above each hanging reflective trough.

Ewert, Michael K. (inventor)

1992-01-01

217

Packet personal radiation monitor  

DOEpatents

A personal radiation monitor of the chirper type is provided for detecting ionizing radiation. A battery powered high voltage power supply is used to generate and apply a high voltage bias to a G-M tube radiation sensor. The high voltage is monitored by a low-loss sensing network which generates a feedback signal to control the high voltage power supply such that the high voltage bias is recharged to +500 VDC when the current pulses of the sensor, generated by the detection of ionizing radiatonevents, discharges the high voltage bias to +450 VDC. During the high voltage recharge period an audio transducer is activated to produce an audible ''chirp''. The rate of the ''chirps'' is controlled by the rate at which the high voltage bias is recharged, which is proportional to the radiation field intensity to which the sensor is exposed. The chirp rate sensitivity is set to be approximately 1.5 (chirps/min/MR/hr.). The G-M tube sensor is used in a current sensing mode so that the device does not paralyze in a high radiation field. 2 figs.

Phelps, J.E.

1988-03-31

218

Remote radiation dosimetry  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are methods and apparatus for remotely measuring radiation levels. Such are particularly useful for measuring relatively high levels or dosages of radiation being administered in radiation therapy. They are also useful for more general radiation level measurements where remote sensing from the remaining portions of the apparatus is desirable. The apparatus uses a beam generator, such as a laser beam, to provide a stimulating beam. The stimulating beam is preferably of wavelengths shorter than 6 microns, or more advantageously less than 2 microns. The stimulating beam is used to stimulate a remote luminescent sensor mounted in a probe which emits stored luminescent energy resulting from exposure of the sensor to ionizing radiation. The stimulating beam is communicated to the remote luminescent sensor via a transmissive fiber which also preferably serves to return the emission from the luminescent sensor. The stimulating beam is advantageously split by a beam splitter to create a detector beam which is measured for power during a reading period during which the luminescent phosphor is read. The detected power is preferably used to control the beam generator to thus produce desired beam power during the reading period. The luminescent emission from the remote sensor is communicated to a suitable emission detector, preferably after filtering or other selective treatment to better isolate the luminescent emission. 8 figures.

Braunlich, P.F.; Tetzlaff, W.; Hegland, J.E.; Jones, S.C.

1991-03-12

219

Remote radiation dosimetry  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are methods and apparatus for remotely measuring radiation levels. Such are particularly useful for measuring relatively high levels or dosages of radiation being administered in radiation therapy. They are also useful for more general radiation level measurements where remote sensing from the remaining portions of the apparatus is desirable. The apparatus uses a beam generator, such as a laser beam, to provide a stimulating beam. The stimulating beam is preferably of wavelengths shorter than 6 microns, or more advantageously less than 2 microns. The stimulating beam is used to stimulate a remote luminescent sensor mounted in a probe which emits stored luminescent energy resulting from exposure of the sensor to ionizing radiation. The stimulating beam is communicated to the remote luminescent sensor via transmissive fiber which also preferably serves to return the emission from the luminescent sensor. The stimulating beam is advantageously split by a beam splitter to create a detector beam which is measured for power during a reading period during which the luminescent phosphor is read. The detected power is preferably used to control the beam generator to thus produce desired beam power during the reading period. The luminescent emission from the remote sensor is communicated to a suitable emission detector, preferably after filtering or other selective treatment to better isolate the luminescent emission.

Braunlich, Peter F. (Pullman, WA); Tetzlaff, Wolfgang (Pullman, WA); Hegland, Joel E. (Pullman, WA); Jones, Scott C. (Pullman, WA)

1991-01-01

220

Radiation from Relativistic Jets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nonthermal radiation observed from astrophysical systems containing relativistic jets and shocks, e.g., gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and Galactic microquasar systems usually have power-law emission spectra. Recent PIC simulations of relativistic electron-ion (electron-positron) jets injected into a stationary medium show that particle acceleration occurs within the downstream jet. In the presence of relativistic jets, instabilities such as the Buneman instability, other two-streaming instability, and the Weibel (filamentation) instability create collisionless shocks, which are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. The simulation results show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the jet head. The 'jitter' radiation from deflected electrons in small-scale magnetic fields has different properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation, a case of diffusive synchrotron radiation, may be important to understand the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants.

Nishikawa, K.-I.; Mizuno, Y.; Hardee, P.; Sol, H.; Medvedev, M.; Zhang, B.; Nordlund, A.; Frederiksen, J. T.; Fishman, G. J.; Preece, R.

2008-01-01

221

LDEF Satellite Radiation Analyses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report covers work performed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) under contract NAS8-39386 from the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center entitled LDEF Satellite Radiation Analyses. The basic objective of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of present models and computational methods for defining the ionizing radiation environment for spacecraft in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) by making comparisons with radiation measurements made on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) satellite, which was recovered after almost six years in space. The emphasis of the work here is on predictions and comparisons with LDEF measurements of induced radioactivity and Linear Energy Transfer (LET) measurements. These model/data comparisons have been used to evaluate the accuracy of current models for predicting the flux and directionality of trapped protons for LEO missions.

Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.

1996-01-01

222

Semiconductor radiation detector  

DOEpatents

A semiconductor detector for ionizing electromagnetic radiation, neutrons, and energetic charged particles. The detecting element is comprised of a compound having the composition I-III-VI.sub.2 or II-IV-V.sub.2 where the "I" component is from column 1A or 1B of the periodic table, the "II" component is from column 2B, the "III" component is from column 3A, the "IV" component is from column 4A, the "V" component is from column 5A, and the "VI" component is from column 6A. The detecting element detects ionizing radiation by generating a signal proportional to the energy deposited in the element, and detects neutrons by virtue of the ionizing radiation emitted by one or more of the constituent materials subsequent to capture. The detector may contain more than one neutron-sensitive component.

Bell, Zane W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Burger, Arnold (Knoxville, TN)

2010-03-30

223

Radiation oncology (Vol. 2)  

SciTech Connect

This volume of the Radiation Oncology series features update reports on the current status of primary therapy for lung cancer and the role of radiation therapy in the treatment of hepatomas. Other articles describe the use of stereotaxic interstitial implantation in the treatment of malignant brain tumors and discuss the indications for and results of radiation as the primary or adjuvant treatment of large bowel cancer. Reports on new technological developments examine the biological basis and clinical potential of local-regional hyperthermia and photodynamic therapy. Included are reviews of the role of magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnostic evaluation of cancer and of three-dimensional treatment planning for high energy external beam radiotherapy.

Phillips, T.L.; Wara, W.

1987-01-01

224

Audible radiation monitor  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for monitoring ionizing radiation comprising radiation detectors in electrical connection with an isotopic analyzer and a device for producing chords to which each isotope is mapped so that the device produces a unique chord for each isotope. Preferably the chords are pleasing to the ear, except for chords representing unexpected isotopes, and are louder or softer depending on the level of radioactivity produced by each isotope, and musical instrument voices may be simulated in producing the chords as an aid to distinguishing similar-sounding chords. Because of the representation by chords, information regarding the level and composition of the radiation in an area can be conveyed to workers in that area more effectively and yet without distracting them.

Odell, Daniel M. C. (11 Russellwood Ct., Aiken, SC 29803)

1993-01-01

225

Aerothermodynamic radiation studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have built and made operational a 6 in. electric arc driven shock tube which alloys us to study the non-equilibrium radiation and kinetics of low pressure (0.1 to 1 torr) gases processed by 6 to 12 km/s shock waves. The diagnostic system allows simultaneous monitoring of shock radiation temporal histories by a bank of up to six radiometers, and spectral histories with two optical multi-channel analyzers. A data set of eight shots was assembled, comprising shocks in N2 and air at pressures between 0.1 and 1 torr and velocities of 6 to 12 km/s. Spectrally resolved data was taken in both the non-equilibrium and equilibrium shock regions on all shots. The present data appear to be the first spectrally resolved shock radiation measurements in N2 performed at 12 km/s. The data base was partially analyzed with salient features identified.

Donohue, K.; Reinecke, W. G.; Rossi, D.; Marinelli, W. J.; Krech, R. H.; Caledonia, G. E.

1991-01-01

226

Solar cell radiation handbook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The handbook to predict the degradation of solar cell electrical performance in any given space radiation environment is presented. Solar cell theory, cell manufacturing and how they are modeled mathematically are described. The interaction of energetic charged particles radiation with solar cells is discussed and the concept of 1 MeV equivalent electron fluence is introduced. The space radiation environment is described and methods of calculating equivalent fluences for the space environment are developed. A computer program was written to perform the equivalent fluence calculations and a FORTRAN listing of the program is included. Data detailing the degradation of solar cell electrical parameters as a function of 1 MeV electron fluence are presented.

Tada, H. Y.; Carter, J. R., Jr.; Anspaugh, B. E.; Downing, R. G.

1982-01-01

227

Dosimetry for radiation processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past few years significant advances have taken place in the different areas of dosimetry for radiation processing, mainly stimulated by the increased interest in radiation for food preservation, plastic processing and sterilization of medical products. Reference services both by international organizations (IAEA) and national laboratories have helped to improve the reliability of dose measurements. Several dosimeter systems like calorimetry, perspex, and radiochromic dye films are being improved and new systems have emerged, e.g. spectrophotometry of dichromate solution for reference and sterilization dosimetry, optichromic dosimeters in the shape of small tubes for food processing, and ESR spectroscopy of alanine for reference dosimetry. In this paper the special features of radiation processing dosimetry are discussed, several commonly used dosimeters are reviewed, and factors leading to traceable and reliable dosimetry are discussed.

Miller, Arne

228

SODA: Solar Radiation Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Solar Database, or SoDa, is described as an integration and exploitation of networked Solar radiation Databases for environment monitoring and as a project that aims to integrate European-wide solar radiation resources (i.e. databases, processing chains and educational resources) into one, thematically organized, Web site. The search tool allows users to search for data from a variety of sources including Long Term Time Series Data, Climatological Data, Simulation of Radiation Under Clear Skies Data, Solar Energy Systems Data, and much more. Once a particular set is located, the user can view a description of the source and contents of the data, as well as click on the provided links to access them.

229

Audible radiation monitor  

SciTech Connect

This invention consists of a method and apparatus for monitoring ionizing radiation comprising radiation detectors in electrical connection with an isotopic analyzer and a device for producing chords to which each isotope is mapped so that the device produces a unique chord for each isotope. Preferably the chords are pleasing to the ear, except for chords representing unexpected isotopes, and are louder or softer depending on the level of radioactivity produced by each isotope, and musical instrument voices may be simulated in producing the chords as an aid to distinguishing similar-sounding chords. Because of the representation by chords, information regarding the level and composition of the radiation in an area can be conveyed to workers in that area more effectively and yet without distracting them.

Odell, D.M.C.

1992-12-31

230

String radiative backreaction  

SciTech Connect

We discuss radiative backreaction for global strings described by the Kalb-Ramond action with an analogous derivation to that for the point electron in classical electrodynamics. We show how local corrections to the equations of motion allow one to separate the self-field of the string from that of the radiation field. Modifications to this {open_quote}{open_quote}local backreaction approximation{close_quote}{close_quote} circumvent the runaway solutions, allowing these corrections to be used to evolve string trajectories numerically. Comparisons are made with analytic and numerical radiation calculations from previous work and the merits and limitations of this approach are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1995 The American Physical Society.}

Battye, R.A.; Shellard, E.P. [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Silver Street, Cambridge, CB3 9EW (United Kingdom)] [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Silver Street, Cambridge, CB3 9EW (United Kingdom); [Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Clarkson Road, Cambridge CB3 0EH (United Kingdom)

1995-12-01

231

Nanofocusing of electromagnetic radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanofocusing of electromagnetic radiation, that is, reducing the cross sections of propagating optical modes far beyond the diffraction limit in dielectric media, can be achieved in tapered metal-dielectric waveguides that support surface plasmon-polariton modes. Although the main principles of nanofocusing were formulated over a decade ago, a deep theoretical understanding and conclusive experimental verification were achieved only a few years ago. These advances have spawned a variety of new important technological possibilities for the efficient delivery, control and manipulation of optical radiation on the nanoscale. Here, we present the underlying physical principles of radiation nanofocusing in metallic nanostructures, overview recent progress and major developments, and consider future directions and potential applications of this subfield of nano-optics.

Gramotnev, Dmitri K.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

2014-01-01

232

Radiation-associated thyrotoxicosis  

SciTech Connect

We studied 154 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis seen at Roswell Park Memorial Institute from 1963 to 1982. The retrospective review of the clinical materials revealed that 23 (15%) had a previous history of therapeutic radiation for various diseases. The radiation dose ranged from several to 3600 rads to the thyroid with a mean latency of 14.2 +/- 3.0 years. In 11 out of 16 patients who were tested for antithyroglobulin and antimicrosomal showed positive titers of either or both antibodies (69%). In a small number of patients, thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins were studied; long-acting thyroid stimulators (LATS) were positive in one of six tested and thyrotrophin binding inhibitory immunoglobulins (TBII) in five of eight. The radiation-associated thyroidal dysfunction appears to be associated with the organ-specific autoimmune processes and could manifest as either hypo- or hyperfunction of the gland.

Katayama, S.; Shimaoka, K.; Osman, G.

1986-10-01

233

Radiation in Particle Simulations  

SciTech Connect

Hot dense radiative (HDR) plasmas common to Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and stellar interiors have high temperature (a few hundred eV to tens of keV), high density (tens to hundreds of g/cc) and high pressure (hundreds of Megabars to thousands of Gigabars). Typically, such plasmas undergo collisional, radiative, atomic and possibly thermonuclear processes. In order to describe HDR plasmas, computational physicists in ICF and astrophysics use atomic-scale microphysical models implemented in various simulation codes. Experimental validation of the models used to describe HDR plasmas are difficult to perform. Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of the many-body interactions of plasmas is a promising approach to model validation but, previous work either relies on the collisionless approximation or ignores radiation. We present four methods that attempt a new numerical simulation technique to address a currently unsolved problem: the extension of molecular dynamics to collisional plasmas including emission and absorption of radiation. The first method applies the Lienard-Weichert solution of Maxwell's equations for a classical particle whose motion is assumed to be known (section 3). The second method expands the electromagnetic field in normal modes (plane-waves in a box with periodic boundary-conditions) and solves the equation for wave amplitudes coupled to the particle motion (section 4). The third method is a hybrid MD/MC (molecular dynamics/Monte Carlo) method which calculates radiation emitted or absorbed by electron-ion pairs during close collisions (section 5). The fourth method is a generalization of the third method to include small clusters of particles emitting radiation during close encounters: one electron simultaneously hitting two ions, two electrons simultaneously hitting one ion, etc.(section 6). This approach is inspired by the Virial expansion method of equilibrium statistical mechanics.

More, R M; Graziani, F R; Glosli, J; Surh, M

2009-06-15

234

LDEF Satellite Radiation Analyses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Model calculations and analyses have been carried out to compare with several sets of data (dose, induced radioactivity in various experiment samples and spacecraft components, fission foil measurements, and LET spectra) from passive radiation dosimetry on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) satellite, which was recovered after almost six years in space. The calculations and data comparisons are used to estimate the accuracy of current models and methods for predicting the ionizing radiation environment in low earth orbit. The emphasis is on checking the accuracy of trapped proton flux and anisotropy models.

Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.

1996-01-01

235

Radiation monitor for liquids  

DOEpatents

A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans.

Koster, James E. (Los Alamos, NM); Bolton, Richard D. (Los Alamos, NM)

1999-01-01

236

Radiation monitor for liquids  

DOEpatents

A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans. 4 figs.

Koster, J.E.; Bolton, R.D.

1999-03-02

237

Radiation Detectors and Art  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of radiation detectors in the analysis of art objects represents a very special application in a true interdisciplinary field. Radiation detectors employed in this field detect, e.g., x-rays, ?-rays, ? particles, and protons. Analyzed materials range from stones, metals, over porcelain to paintings. The available nondestructive and noninvasive analytical methods cover a broad range of techniques. Hence, for the sake of brevity, this chapter will concentrate on few techniques: Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Proton Induced ?-ray Emission (PIGE).

Denker, Andrea

238

Modification of radiation response  

SciTech Connect

There has been a substantial and intense interest by laboratory and clinical investigators in the development of agents which modify the response of tissue to radiation differentially so as to increase the effect on tumor relative to normal tissue. These have included efforts to increase the response of tumor or to decrease response of normal tissue. The plan of this presentation is to: define radiation response modifiers; consider the impact of response modifiers on dose response curves; comment on problems inherent in assessment of results of clinical trials of response modifiers; and review briefly results of several trials of: sensitizers of hypoxic cells (hyperbaric oxygen, chemical sensitizer), pyrimidine analogs, and protectors.

Suit, H.D.

1984-01-01

239

Problems in astrophysical radiation hydrodynamics  

SciTech Connect

The basic equations of radiation hydrodynamics are discussed in the regime that the radiation is dynamically as well as thermally important. Particular attention is paid to the question of what constitutes an acceptable approximate non-relativistic system of dynamical equations for matter and radiation in this regime. Further discussion is devoted to two classes of application of these ideas. The first class consists of problems dominated by line radiation, which is sensitive to the velocity field through the Doppler effect. The second class is of problems in which the advection of radiation by moving matter dominates radiation diffusion.

Castor, J.I.

1983-09-14

240

Unruh radiation and Interference effect  

E-print Network

A uniformly accelerated charged particle feels the vacuum as thermally excited and fluctuates around the classical trajectory. Then we may expect additional radiation besides the Larmor radiation. It is called Unruh radiation. In this report, we review the calculation of the Unruh radiation with an emphasis on the interference effect between the vacuum fluctuation and the radiation from the fluctuating motion. Our calculation is based on a stochastic treatment of the particle under a uniform acceleration. The basics of the stochastic equation are reviewed in another report in the same proceeding. In this report, we mainly discuss the radiation and the interference effect.

Satoshi Iso; Yasuhiro Yamamoto; Sen Zhang

2011-02-23

241

Paradoxes of Thermal Radiation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents an analysis of the thermal behaviour of objects exposed to a solar-type flux of thermal radiation. It aims to clarify certain apparent inconsistencies between theory and observation, and to give a detailed exposition of some critical points that physics textbooks usually treat in an insufficient or incorrect way. In particular,…

Besson, U.

2009-01-01

242

SSC environmental radiation shielding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental radiation shielding requirements of the SSC have been evaluated using currently available computational tools that incorporate the well known processes of energy loss and degradation of high energy particles into Monte Carlo computer codes. These tools permit determination of isodose contours in the matter surrounding a source point and therefore the specification of minimum thicknesses or extents of

1987-01-01

243

Photovoltaic radiation detector element  

DOEpatents

A radiation detector element is formed of a body of semiconductor material, a coating on the body which forms a photovoltaic junction therewith, and a current collector consisting of narrow metallic strips, the aforesaid coating having an opening therein in the edge of which closely approaches but is spaced from the current collector strips.

Agouridis, D.C.

1980-12-17

244

Radiation tolerant SMART electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given, as follows. SMART transmitters contain a microprocessor and other digital electronic circuits that are used to enhance accuracy, provide communications, reduce maintenance, and otherwise facilitate use. SMART transmitters are used extensively in factories, refineries, and elsewhere, but they are not used in nuclear power plants, in part because they have low tolerance to ionizing radiation. A

D. H. Loescher; J. M. Weiss

1991-01-01

245

CCTV for radiation environments  

SciTech Connect

The use of closed circuit television (CCTV) within radiation environments requires the system designer to have a thorough knowledge of the application environment and the electronic and optical components expected to survive within the environment. Of all the many ambient conditions to which CCTV components are exposed, from an air-conditioned office complex to 1,000 feet under the ocean, none is as demanding as the radiation encountered in the nuclear industrial field. Unhardened CCTV equipment can fail or degrade to the point of being useless when exposed to ionizing radiation doses of as little as 10/sup 3/ rads (Si) or to a neutron fluence of as little as 10/sup 11/ neutrons per square centimeter. (Rads (Si) stands for roentgens absorbed dose in silicon, while a fluence is defined as the time integral of neutron flux.) The applications for CCTV systems may require that each component within the system withstand a total ionizing radiation dose of 10/sup 8/ rads or greater.

Shaufl, R.A.

1985-01-01

246

Manifolds and Radiation Protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past 40 years humans have travelled beyond Earth's atmosphere, orbiting the planets for extended periods of time and landing on the Moon. Humans have survived this overwhelming challenge but to assure future exploration of space further expertise in the long term survival in space must be obtained. The International Space Station (ISS) provides this opportunity and allows space scientist to fine-tune their knowledge and prepare for even bolder human space missions. In this work we focus on the aspect of radiation, perhaps the most complex one from a physical and physiological perspective. Travel beyond the Earth's atmosphere and especially to Moon and Mars requires a precise consideration of the radiation environment as radiation exposure could be a show-stopper. At the moment scientists have not yet developed complete and reliable systems for radiation protection. Most likely an adequate level of protection will be reached through an integrated countermeasure system which could include: shields, monitoring of the environment, drugs to protect from damage, etc.

Rossitto, Franco; Petrov, Vladislav M.; Ongaro, Filippo

247

Atmospheric Processes--Radiation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity begins with an explanation of the heat transfer processes in general and then focuses on radiation. In the activity, students investigate how different surfaces absorb heat and apply their experience with the surfaces to interpret real-world situations.

2010-01-01

248

Air radiator cooling tower  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention discloses an air radiator cooling tower comprising a piping system for the supply and removal of water circulating in cooled tubular elements joined into groups by means of tubular girders, an exhaust tower for the circulation of cooling air, and a device for the excitation of oscillations transmitted through direct contact over the surface of the tubular elements

B. B. Kazanovich; G. R. Santurian; P. A. Fischenko

1979-01-01

249

RADIATION SHIELDING MATERIALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A shielding material is described which has a high shielding ; effectiveness per unit volume and a high capacity for absorbing radiations. The ; material comprises a chemical complex of trivalent cobalt or chromium, such as ; the perrhenates and hexamino trihalides, in combination with a structural ; material such as iron, stainless steel, etc. The complex may be melted

Borst

1962-01-01

250

Radiation Curable Conductive Ink  

Microsoft Academic Search

A radiation curable, screen printable conductive ink has been developed for use on thermoplastic circuit boards. The fast application and cure of this solventless material allow mass production of low cost circuits suitable for use with systems that can tolerate higher resistance. In one application, a photoflash array, Flipflash, utilizes a piezoelectric crystal to provide the high voltage necessary to

D. A. Bolon; G. M. Lucas; S. H. Schroeter

1978-01-01

251

Materials for Radiation Detection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report surveys the available information (complete through 1971) on detectors for the electromagnetic radiation spectrum in the wavelength range 10 to the minus 10th power to 1 cm. The detectors are divided according to wavelength range into four grou...

1974-01-01

252

Psoriasis and ultraviolet radiation  

SciTech Connect

Prevention and detection screening programs as a public health service in curtailing the ever-increasing incidence of all forms of skin cancer are reviewed. The effect of solar and artificial ultraviolet radiation on the general population and persons with psoriasis is examined. 54 refs.

Farber, E.M.; Nall, L. (Psoriasis Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States))

1993-09-01

253

Radiation belts of Jupiter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pioneer 10 courted relativistic electrons throughout the magnetosphere ; of Jupiter, with the greatest fluxes being inside 20 Jupiter radii. The peak ; flux of electrons with energy greater than 50 MeV was 1.3 x 107 per square ; centimeter per second at the innermost penetration of the radiation belts. ; (auth);

R. W. Fillius; C. E. McIlwain

1974-01-01

254

Surface Radiation Budget  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) data sets contain global 3-hourly, daily and monthly averages of surface longwave and shortwave radiative properties, cloud amount, and meteorological properties computed using models. The main input data for these models include cloud information, top-of-atmosphere radiances and profiles of atmospheric water vapor and temperature. Some of the input data include Earth Radiation Budget Energy (ERBE) top-of-atmosphere clear-sky albedo and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) radiances and cloud amount. SRB parameters derived for the renewable energy community are also available from the Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) data set. Other SRB data are available from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) and Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). [Mission Objectives] The objective of the SRB Project is to produce and archive a global data set of shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) surface and top of the atmosphere parameters. The data generated in the SRB project may be used in conjunction with other data sets to facilitate the development of renewable energy resources and increase understanding of radiative properties within the meteorological community. [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1983-07-01; Stop_Date=2005-06-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180].

Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)

255

Radiation detector spectrum simulator  

DOEpatents

A small battery operated nuclear spectrum simulator having a noise source generates pulses with a Gaussian distribution of amplitudes. A switched dc bias circuit cooperating therewith to generate several nominal amplitudes of such pulses and a spectral distribution of pulses that closely simulates the spectrum produced by a radiation source such as Americium 241.

Wolf, M.A.; Crowell, J.M.

1985-04-09

256

Radiation Protection Basics  

MedlinePLUS

... have been contaminated or used for disposal of radioactive material. We also account for the shielding provided by buildings for a person working or living at a site that has been cleaned up. Health Effects This page describes the effects of radiation exposure.

257

Local microwave background radiation  

E-print Network

An inquiry on a possible local origin for the Microwave Background Radiation is made. Thermal MBR photons are contained in a system called {\\it magnetic bottle} which is due to Earth magnetic field and solar wind particles, mostly electrons. Observational tests are anticipated.

Domingos S. L. Soares

2006-07-11

258

Foundations of radiation hydrodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is the result of an attempt, over the past few years, to gather the basic tools required to do research on radiating flows in astrophysics. The microphysics of gases is discussed, taking into account the equation of state of a perfect gas, the first and second law of thermodynamics, the thermal properties of a perfect gas, the distribution

D. Mihalas; B. W. Mihalas

1984-01-01

259

Radiation injury of bone  

SciTech Connect

This monograph is devoted to the characteristics of radiation injuries arising in hitherto unaffected parts of the skeleton during the treatment of neoplasms by radiotherapy. These changes frequently accompany the beneficial effects of radiotherapy, and can easily be misunderstood in the absence of any clear idea of their character. An understanding of the mechanism and conditions of appearance of radiation injuries of the skeleton and a knowledge of their clinical and radiological features are essential for physicians and surgeons caring for patients who have been treated by using radiotherapy and for experimental scientists whose work involves such methods. The effect of irradiation is determined by the topographical relations within the irradiated object, the character of distribution of the dose, and the size of the dose. The radiation injuries of the skeleton described in the book were observed during the treatment of carcinoma of the breast, lung, esophagus, and uterus, of malignant tumors in the mouth, certain pituitary tumors, and hemangiomas of the skin in children, by means of ionizing radiation obtained from various sources. A few observations relate to patients treated for certain other diseases. The text is illustrated by roentgenograms on the basis of which the diagnoses were made and the course of the lesion was subsequently confirmed, and also by operative and histological specimens. The book also contains many schemes drawn from roentgenograms.

Shimanovskaya, K.; Shiman, A.D.

1983-01-01

260

ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION MEASUREMENT PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) is the largest global change research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). ARM scientists focus on obtaining field measurements and developing models to better understand the processes that control solar and...

261

and Black Hole Radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compute the eect of quantum mechanical backreaction on the spectrum of radiation in a dynamical moving mirror model, mimicing the eect of a gravitational collapse geometry. Our method is based on the use of a combined WKB and saddle-point approximation to implement energy conservation in the calculation of the Bogolyubov coecients, in which we assume that the mirror particle

Niels Tuning; Herman Verlinde

262

Radiation Safety and Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation is a term that encompasses a broad category of energy-containing emissions that have no mass and travel at the speed of light. The electromagnetic (EM) spectrum is made up of subcategories of these forms of energy, the properties and effects of which are dependent upon the wavelength and frequency of the emitted energy. Unlike sound waves (and ultrasound), electromagnetic

Howard C. Snider; FACS Montgomery

263

VDT Emissions Radiate Debate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the possible health effects of electromagnetic fields of radiation that are emitted from video display terminals (VDTs). Responses from vendors in the computer industry are related, steps to reduce possible risks are suggested, and additional sources of information on VDTs are listed. (LRW)

Morgan, Bill

1990-01-01

264

Future Synchrotron Radiation Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sources of synchrotron radiation (also called synchrotron light) and their associated research facilities have experienced a spectacular growth in number, performance, and breadth of application in the past two to three decades. In 1978 there were eleven electron storage rings used as light sources. Three of these were small rings, all below 500 mega-electron volts (MeV), dedicated to this purpose;

Winick

2003-01-01

265

Rhabdomyosarcoma: Radiation Therapy  

MedlinePLUS

... they are available. Three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT): 3D-CRT uses special computers to precisely map the ... therapy (IMRT): IMRT is an advanced form of 3D therapy. Along with shaping the beams and aiming ...

266

Dynamics of radiating fluids  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the role of radiation in the transport of energy and momentum in a combined matter-radiation fluid. The transport equation for a moving radiating fluid is presented in both a fully Eulerian and a fully Lagrangian formulation, along with conservation equations describing the dynamics of the fluid. Special attention is paid to the problem of deriving equations that are mutually consistent in each frame, and between frames, to 0(v/c). A detailed analysis is made to show that in situations of broad interest, terms that are formally of 0(v/c) actually dominate the solution, demonstrating that it is essential (1) to pay scrupulous attention to the question of the frame dependence in formulating the equations, and (2) to solve the equations to 0(v/c) in quite general circumstances. These points are illustrated in the context of the nonequilibrium radiation diffusion limit, and a sketch of how the Lagrangian equations are to be solved is presented.

Mihalas, D.; Weaver, R.

1982-01-01

267

Hawking Radiation As Tunneling  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a short and direct derivation of Hawking radiation as a tunneling process, based on particles in a dynamical geometry. The imaginary part of the action for the classically forbidden process is related to the Boltzmann factor for emission at the Hawking temperature. Because the derivation respects conservation laws, the exact spectrum is not precisely thermal. We compare and

Maulik K. Parikh; Frank Wilczek

2000-01-01

268

Radiation Therapy (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... may have some restrictions. The radiation in the implant may send high-energy rays outside the patient's body, so visitors must be protected from exposure. The child will be in a private room, and nurses and visitors can enter only for short periods of time. The child will have all ...

269

Nuclear Radiation Damages Minds!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Professors Ernest Sternglass (University of Pittsburgh) and Steven Bell (Berry College) have assembled cogent, conclusive evidence indicating that nuclear radiation is associated with impaired cognition. They suggest that Scholastic Aptitude Scores (SATs), which have declined steadily for 19 years, will begin to rise. Their prediction is based on…

Blai, Boris, Jr.

270

Cambridge Cosmology: Relic Radiation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This section of Cambridge Cosmology discusses cosmic background radiation present in our Universe. Also covered are topics such as the present temperature of the Universe as taken by the COBE satellite, fluctuations seen at the 'edge' of the Universe, and possible causes of these fluctuations.

Shellard, Paul

271

Radiation Dose Estimates from  

E-print Network

Summary: Radiation Dose Estimates from Hanford Radioactive Material Releases to the Air and the Columbia River April 21,1994 TheTechnid Steering Panel of the Hanford - Environmental Dose Reconstruction than 40years, the U.S. Government made plutonium for nuclear weapons at the Hanford

272

Radiation proteomics: a brief overview.  

PubMed

Acute biological effects caused by the exposure to high doses of radiation, either ionizing or nonionizing, are relatively well-known but the delayed effects, occurring decades after exposure, are difficult to predict. The knowledge of the acute and delayed effects of the low doses of ionizing radiation (e.g. bystander effect) or nonionizing radiation (e.g. radiation emitted by wireless communication devices) is not yet reliably established. Often the acute effects of low doses are small and difficult to discover and replicate in scientific studies. Chronic effects of prolonged exposures to low-dose radiation for decades are virtually unknown and often not possible to predict on the basis of the knowledge gained from acute exposures to high doses of radiation. Physiological significance of the biological effects induced by low doses of radiation is not known. The same lack of predictability of outcomes applies to the delayed effects of high-dose radiation exposures. Proteomics, supplemented with other "omics" techniques, might be the best way forward to find out the target molecules of radiation, the biomarkers of radiation exposure and the physiological and health significance of the acute and delayed biological effects caused by the exposures to high- and low-dose radiation. However, the currently available database of radiation effects on proteomes is far too small to be useful in formulation of new hypotheses concerning health consequences of radiation exposures. PMID:24376023

Leszczynski, Dariusz

2014-03-01

273

Computer Based Radiation Safety Training for Hospital Radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conducting a hospital -based radiation safety training class may lead to temporary technologist staffing shortages resulting in a reduction of patient services or even the cessation of all routine patient services. Use of an interactive computer-based radiation safety' training software program may provide a prac tical alternative for hospital diagnostic and therapeutic radiation departments, as well as other hospital departments

Daniel S. Hamilton; Matthew M. Peck; Hao Yu; Kimberlee J. Kearfott

274

ACS WFC CCD Radiation Test: The Radiation Environment  

E-print Network

1 ACS WFC CCD Radiation Test: The Radiation Environment Michael R. Jones Space Telescope Science of external surfaces by naturally occurring atomic oxygen. CCD detectors are particularly vulnerable to damage) Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) detector. 1. Introduction Radiation damage effects in CCD imagers have been

Sirianni, Marco

275

The regression of net radiation upon solar radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of studies have sought to relate net radiation over natural surfaces to incoming global radiation. Several deficiencies are noted in interpretation of the simple regression models used for this purpose in the past. A modification proposed for correction of these deficiencies introduces a new longwave exchange coefficient, ?, that relates the change in net longwave radiation to the

Lloyd W. Gay

1971-01-01

276

Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for  

E-print Network

Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for Sealed Source Users for Physics 461 Protocol Title: Training for Sealed Source Users Drafted By: Chris Millsaps, RSS Reviewers: ZB, TU, GS Purpose: To provide basic radiation safety training to the users of sealed sources located

Dai, Pengcheng

277

Drug Information Related to Radiation Emergencies  

MedlinePLUS

... Radiation Emergencies (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Radiation Emergencies Drug Information Related to Radiation Emergencies Potassium Iodide ("KI") Information . Potassium Iodide (KI) ...

278

Radiation Therapy for Testicular Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... testicular cancer Next Topic Chemotherapy for testicular cancer Radiation therapy for testicular cancer This treatment uses high- ... cells or slow their growth. In testicular cancer, radiation is mainly used to kill cancer cells that ...

279

Conical electromagnetic radiation flux concentrator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Concentrator provides method of concentrating a beam of electromagnetic radiation into a smaller beam, presenting a higher flux density. Smaller beam may be made larger by sending radiation through the device in the reverse direction.

Miller, E. R.

1972-01-01

280

Acceleration and Classical Electromagnetic Radiation  

E-print Network

Classical radiation from an accelerated charge is reviewed along with the reciprocal topic of accelerated observers detecting radiation from a static charge. This review commemerates Bahram Mashhoon's 60th birthday.

E. N. Glass

2008-01-09

281

Hemoglobin, radiation, morbidity and survival  

SciTech Connect

Analyses concerned with a group of patients treated by radiotherapy for carcinoma of the bronchus give evidence to support the view that oxygen tension at the time of radiation therapy is important both in determining tumor control and radiation morbidity.

Dische, S.; Saunders, M.I.; Warburton, M.F.

1986-08-01

282

RADIATION ENVIRONMENT OF GROWTH CHAMBERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Radiation measurements with different types of meters in several controlled environment facilities have been compiled to demonstrate the problems associated with insuring uniform radiation levels in separate facilities. Data are provided for a quantum meter, three photometers, a ...

283

Radiation from Cardiac Imaging Tests  

MedlinePLUS

... Key Words: cardiac imaging techniques computed tomography imaging nuclear medicine radiation Next Section Introduction Many patients are referred by ... by heart disease, appropriate use criteria classify a nuclear stress test as ... radiation exposure. The appropriate use criteria cover dozens of ...

284

Nuclear Radiation and the Thyroid  

MedlinePLUS

... American Thyroid Association website at www.thyroid.org . Nuclear Radiation and the Thyroid Color Brochure for Saving and Printing (PDF File, 732KB) Nuclear Radiation and the Thyroid Black and White Brochure for ...

285

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOEpatents

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

Thacker, L.H.

1994-08-16

286

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOEpatents

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

Thacker, L.H.

1995-10-17

287

Stromal Mediation of Radiation Carcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

Ionizing radiation is a well-established carcinogen in human breast and rodent mammary gland. This review addresses evidence that radiation elicits the critical stromal context for cancer, affecting not only frequency but the type of cancer. Recent data from the breast tumors of women treated with radiation therapy and the cellular mechanisms evident in experimental models suggest that radiation effects on stromal-epithelial interactions and tissue composition are a major determinant of cancer development. PMID:21181431

2011-01-01

288

Stromal Mediation of Radiation Carcinogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ionizing radiation is a well-established carcinogen in human breast and rodent mammary gland. This review addresses evidence\\u000a that radiation elicits the critical stromal context for cancer, affecting not only frequency but the type of cancer. Recent\\u000a data from the breast tumors of women treated with radiation therapy and the cellular mechanisms evident in experimental models\\u000a suggest that radiation effects on

Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff

2010-01-01

289

Multiscale Modeling of Radiation ResponseMultiscale Modeling of Radiation ResponseMultiscale Modeling of Radiation ResponseMultiscale Modeling of Radiation Response Effects of Radiation Quality and HypoxiaEffects of Radiation Quality and Hypoxia  

E-print Network

Multiscale Modeling of Radiation ResponseMultiscale Modeling of Radiation ResponseMultiscale Modeling of Radiation ResponseMultiscale Modeling of Radiation Response Effects of Radiation Quality and HypoxiaEffects of Radiation Quality and Hypoxia Robert D. Stewart, Ph.D.Robert D. Stewart, Ph

Stewart, Robert D.

290

Carcinoma of the anal canal: radiation or radiation plus chemotherapy  

SciTech Connect

An editorial is presented which discusses the treatment of carcinoma of the anal canal. Following the initial report of the successful preoperative use of combined chemotherapy and radiation by Nigro in 1974, several centers have confirmed the effectiveness of such combinations either as preoperative or as definitive treatment of anal carcinomas, and many patients are now being referred for radiation therapy. The article by Cantril in this issue describe the successful treatment of anal carcinomas by radiation alone, and raises the important issue of whether radiation plus chemotherapy is more effective treatment than radiation alone for squamous or cloacogenic carcinomas arising in the anal canal or perianal area. Several studies are cited.

Cummings, B.J.

1983-09-01

291

Working With Radiation For Research  

E-print Network

Radiation Source mrem/year Cosmic rays 30 Terrestrial Radioactivity 30 Ingested Radioactivity 40 Inhaled house, one year 30 To flight crew from cosmic rays per year 150 #12;13 Wear your radiation badge when1 Working With Radiation For Research Thomas Cummings Junior Physicist Environmental Health

Jia, Songtao

292

Radiation Propulsion For Maintaining Orbits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brief report proposes radiative propulsion systems for maintaining precise orbits of spacecraft. Radiation from electrical heaters directed outward by paraboloidal reflectors to produce small forces to oppose uncontrolled drag and solar-radiative forces perturbing orbits. Minimizes or eliminates need to fire rocket thrusters to correct orbits.

Richter, Robert

1995-01-01

293

Solar radiation statistics for Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various prediction methods for calculating the mean monthly solar radiation parameters are examined. A suitable method is proposed for predicting the mean monthly values of direct, diffuse, and total solar radiation at different locations in Iran. This method is based on the assumption that the direct and diffuse components of solar radiation are primarily functions of solar zenith angle and

M DANESHYAR

1978-01-01

294

RADIATION AND CLOUD MONITORING STATIONS  

E-print Network

, engineers, and technicians in the installation of an Atmospheric Radiation and Cloud Station, or ARCS to cooling, but they also can absorb infrared radiation leaving Earth's surface and contribute to warmingRADIATION AND CLOUD MONITORING STATIONS HELP SCIENTISTS IMPROVE GLOBAL CLIMATE MODELS "I'VE LOOKED

Reeves, Geoffrey D.

295

Radiation Safety (Revised March 2010)  

E-print Network

Properties of radioactivity and units of measure 9 Electronic sources of ionizing radiation 10 Interactions of particulate radiation with matter 12 Interactions of photons with matter 13 Measurement to Workers; Inspections 27 10 CFR Part 20Standards for Protection Against Radiation 28 10 CFR Part 35

Kay, Mark A.

296

Radiation Therapy Technology Professional Curriculum  

E-print Network

Radiation Therapy Technology Professional Curriculum Fall Semester RT 3000 Concepts of Clinical Care RT 3010 Introductory Radiation Physics RT 3310 Clinical Practicum I RT 3110 Clinical Aspects of Radiation Therapy Semester Total Credits 12 Winter Semester RT 5650 Pathophysiology for Health Sciences RT

Berdichevsky, Victor

297

Radiation Protection Guidance Hospital Staff  

E-print Network

Page 1 Radiation Protection Guidance For Hospital Staff Prepared for Stanford The privilege to use ionizing radiation at Stanford University, Stanford Hospital and Clinics, Lucile Packard with radioactive materials or radiation devices are responsible for knowing and adhering to applicable requirements

Kay, Mark A.

298

Radiation and Health Thormod Henriksen  

E-print Network

Radiation and Health by Thormod Henriksen and Biophysics group at UiO #12;Preface The present book. The address is: http://www.mn.uio.no/fysikk/tjenester/kunnskap/straling/ III. Radiation and Health Written of ionizing radiation. Efforts were made to describe the background ra- diation as well as the release

Johansen, Tom Henning

299

Spectroscopy Interaction of electromagnetic radiation  

E-print Network

Spectroscopy 691 Interaction of electromagnetic radiation with atoms or molecules #12;Bacteriorhodopsin: a light-driven proton pump 486 #12;Electromagnetic Radiation 692 harmonic wave (Maxwell): y;Spectroscopy 691 Interaction of electromagnetic radiation with atoms or molecules two processes: emission

Gerwert, Klaus

300

Lunar radiation environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the goals of the CRaTER investigation is to characterize the radiation environment near the Moon in order to enable exploration. The state-of-the-art understanding developed thus far during the LRO mission is documented in a special issue of the Spaceweather Journal entitled “Space Weather: Building the observational foundation to deduce biological effects of space radiation” (Schwadron et al., 2013a). This recently published CRaTER work probes deeper into the physics of the radiation environment at the Moon. It motivates and provides the scientific basis for new investigations in the next phase of the LRO mission. The effects of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) and Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) range from chemical modification of the regolith, the generation of a radiation albedo that is increasingly illuminating chemical properties of the regolith, causing charging of the regolith and hazards to human explorers and robotic missions. Low-lunar orbit provides a platform for measuring SEP anisotropy over timescales of 2 hours both parallel and perpendicular to the ecliptic plane, and so far we have observed more than 18 SEP events with time-variable anisotropies during the LRO mission. Albedo proton maps of the Moon from CRaTER indicate that the flux of lunar albedo protons is correlated with elemental abundances at the lunar surface. The yield of albedo protons from the maria is 1% higher than the yield from the highlands, and there are localized peaks with even higher contrast (that may be co-located with peaks in trace elemental abundances as measured by the Lunar Prospector Gamma Ray Spectrometer). The Moon’s radiation environment both charges and affects the chemistry in the Moon’s polar regions, particularly in PSRs. This makes these regions a prime target for new CRaTER observations, since CRaTER measures GCRs and SEPs that penetrate the regolith down to 10s of cm. Thus, we review emerging discoveries from LRO/CRaTER’s remarkable exploration of moon’s radiation environment, its implications for human exploration, and its interaction with lunar regolith.

Schwadron, Nathan; Spence, Harlan; Wilson, Jody

301

Pregnancy and Radiation Protection  

SciTech Connect

Several modalities are currently utilized for diagnosis and therapy, by appropriate application of x-rays. In diagnostic radiology, interventional radiology, radiotherapy, interventional cardiology, nuclear medicine and other specialties radiation protection of a pregnant woman as a patient, as well as a member of the operating personnel, is of outmost importance. Based on radiation risk, the termination of pregnancy is not justified if foetal doses are below 100 mGy. For foetal doses between 100 and 500 mGy, a decision is reached on a case by case basis. In Diagnostic Radiology, when a pregnant patient takes an abdomen CT, then an estimation of the foetus' dose is necessary. However, it is extremely rare for the dose to be high enough to justify an abortion. Radiographs of the chest and extremities can be done at any period of pregnancy, provided that the equipment is functioning properly. Usually, the radiation risk is lower than the risk of not undergoing a radiological examination. Radiation exposure in uterus from diagnostic radiological examinations is unlikely to result in any deleterious effect on the child, but the possibility of a radiation-induced effect can not be entirely ruled out. The effects of exposure to radiation on the foetus depend on the time of exposure, the date of conception and the absorbed dose. Finally, a pregnant worker can continue working in an x-ray department, as long as there is reasonable assurance that the foetal dose can be kept below 1 mGy during the pregnancy. Nuclear Medicine diagnostic examinations using short-lived radionuclides can be used for pregnant patient. Irradiation of the foetus results from placental transfer and distribution of radiopharmaceuticals in the foetal tissues, as well as from external irradiation from radioactivity in the mother's organ and tissues. As a rule, a pregnant patient should not undergo therapy with radionuclide, unless it is crucial for her life. In Radiotherapy, the patient, treating oncologist, other team and family members should carefully discuss for the decision of abortion. Important factors must be considered such as the stage and aggressiveness of the tumour, the location of the tumour, the stage of pregnancy, various therapies etc.

Gerogiannis, J. [Nicosia General Hospital, Nicosia (Cyprus); Stefanoyiannis, A. P. [University General Hospital of Athens 'Attikon', Athens (Greece)

2010-01-21

302

Space Radiation Cancer Risks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space radiation presents major challenges to astronauts on the International Space Station and for future missions to the Earth s moon or Mars. Methods used to project risks on Earth need to be modified because of the large uncertainties in projecting cancer risks from space radiation, and thus impact safety factors. We describe NASA s unique approach to radiation safety that applies uncertainty based criteria within the occupational health program for astronauts: The two terrestrial criteria of a point estimate of maximum acceptable level of risk and application of the principle of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) are supplemented by a third requirement that protects against risk projection uncertainties using the upper 95% confidence level (CL) in the radiation cancer projection model. NASA s acceptable level of risk for ISS and their new lunar program have been set at the point-estimate of a 3-percent risk of exposure induced death (REID). Tissue-averaged organ dose-equivalents are combined with age at exposure and gender-dependent risk coefficients to project the cumulative occupational radiation risks incurred by astronauts. The 95% CL criteria in practice is a stronger criterion than ALARA, but not an absolute cut-off as is applied to a point projection of a 3% REID. We describe the most recent astronaut dose limits, and present a historical review of astronaut organ doses estimates from the Mercury through the current ISS program, and future projections for lunar and Mars missions. NASA s 95% CL criteria is linked to a vibrant ground based radiobiology program investigating the radiobiology of high-energy protons and heavy ions. The near-term goal of research is new knowledge leading to the reduction of uncertainties in projection models. Risk projections involve a product of many biological and physical factors, each of which has a differential range of uncertainty due to lack of data and knowledge. The current model for projecting space radiation cancer risk relies on the three assumptions of linearity, additivity, and scaling along with the use of population averages. We describe uncertainty estimates for this model, and new experimental data that sheds light on the accuracy of the underlying assumptions. These methods make it possible to express risk management objectives in terms of quantitative metrics, i.e., the number of days in space without exceeding a given risk level within well defined confidence limits. The resulting methodology is applied to several human space exploration mission scenarios including lunar station, deep space outpost, and a Mars mission. Factors that dominate risk projection uncertainties and application of this approach to assess candidate mitigation approaches are described.

Cucinotta, Francis A.

2007-01-01

303

Radiation Effects: Core Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The risks to personnel in space from the naturally occurring radiations are generally considered to be one of the most serious limitations to human space missions, as noted in two recent reports of the National Research Council/National Academy of Sciences. The Core Project of the Radiation Effects Team for the National Space Biomedical Research Institute is the consequences of radiations in space in order to develop countermeasure, both physical and pharmaceutical, to reduce the risks of cancer and other diseases associated with such exposures. During interplanetary missions, personnel in space will be exposed to galactic cosmic rays, including high-energy protons and energetic ions with atomic masses of iron or higher. In addition, solar events will produce radiation fields of high intensity for short but irregular durations. The level of intensity of these radiations is considerably higher than that on Earth's surface, and the biological risks to astronauts is consequently increased, including increased risks of carcinogenesis and other diseases. This group is examining the risk of cancers resulting from low-dose, low-dose rate exposures of model systems to photons, protons, and iron by using ground-based accelerators which are capable of producing beams of protons, iron, and other heavy ions at energies comparable to those encountered in space. They have begun the first series of experiments using a 1-GeV iron beam at the Brookhaven National Laboratory and 250-MeV protons at Loma Linda University Medical Center's proton synchrotron facility. As part of these studies, this group will be investigating the potential for the pharmaceutical, Tamoxifen, to reduce the risk of breast cancer in astronauts exposed to the level of doses and particle types expected in space. Theoretical studies are being carried out in a collaboration between scientists at NASA's Johnson Space Center and Johns Hopkins University in parallel with the experimental program have provided methods and predictions which are being used to assess the levels of risks to be encountered and to evaluate appropriate strategies for countermeasures. Although the work in this project is primarily directed toward problems associated with space travel, the problem of protracted exposures to low-levels of radiation is one of national interest in our energy and defense programs, and the results may suggest new paradigms for addressing such risks.

Dicello, John F.

1999-01-01

304

Acute Cerebrovascular Radiation Syndrome: Radiation Neurotoxicity , mechanisms of CNS radiation injury, advanced countermeasures for Radiation Protection of Central Nervous System.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Key words: Cerebrovascular Acute Radiation Syndrome (Cv ARS), Radiation Neurotoxins (RNT), Neurotransmitters, Radiation Countermeasures, Antiradiation Vaccine (ArV), Antiradiation Blocking Antibodies, Antiradiation Antidote. Psychoneuroimmunology, Neurotoxicity. ABSTRACT: To review the role of Radiation Neurotoxins in triggering, developing of radiation induced central nervous system injury. Radiation Neurotoxins - rapidly acting blood toxic lethal agent, which activated after irradiation and concentrated, circulated in interstitial fluid, lymph, blood with interactions with cell membranes, receptors and cell compartments. Radiation Neurotoxins - biological molecules with high enzymatic activity and/or specific lipids and activated or modified after irradiation. The Radiation Neurotoxins induce increased permeability of blood vessels, disruption of the blood-brain barrier, blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier and developing severe disorder of blood macro- and micro-circulation. Principles of Radiation Psychoneuro-immunology and Psychoneuro-allergology were applied for determination of pathological processes developed after irradiation or selective administration of Radiation Neurotoxins to radiation naïve mammals. Effects of radiation and exposure to radiation can develop severe irreversible abnormalities of Central Nervous System, brain structures and functions. Antiradiation Vaccine - most effective, advanced methods of protection, prevention, mitigation and treatment and was used for of Acute Radiation Syndromes and elaboration of new technology for immune-prophylaxis and immune-protection against ?, Heavy Ion, Neutron irradiation. Results of experiments suggested that blocking, antitoxic, antiradiation antibodies can significantly reduce toxicity of Radiation Toxins. New advanced technology include active immune-prophylaxis with Antiradiation Vaccine and Antiradiation therapy that included specific blocking antibodies to Radiation Neurotoxins. Antiradiation Vaccine and Antiradiation IgG preparations - prospective effective antidote/countermeasure for ?-irradiation, heavy ions irradiation, neutron irradiation. Recommendations for treatment and immune-prophylaxis of CNS injury, induced by radiation, were proposed. Specific immune therapy and specific immune prophylaxis reduce symptoms of ACvRS. This manuscript summarizes the results of experiments and considering possibility for blocking toxicological mechanisms of action of Radiation and Radiation Neurotoxins and prevention or diminishing clinical signs of injury of CNS. Experimental data suggest that Antiradiation vaccine and Antiradiation IgG with specific antibodies to Radiation Neurotoxins, Cytotoxins protect CNS against high doses of radiation.

Popov, Dmitri; Jones, Jeffrey; Maliev, Slava

305

Radiation dosimetry and biophysical models of space radiation effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Estimating the biological risks from space radiation remains a difficult problem because of the many radiation types including protons, heavy ions, and secondary neutrons, and the absence of epidemiology data for these radiation types. Developing useful biophysical parameters or models that relate energy deposition by space particles to the probabilities of biological outcomes is a complex problem. Physical measurements of space radiation include the absorbed dose, dose equivalent, and linear energy transfer (LET) spectra. In contrast to conventional dosimetric methods, models of radiation track structure provide descriptions of energy deposition events in biomolecules, cells, or tissues, which can be used to develop biophysical models of radiation risks. In this paper, we address the biophysical description of heavy particle tracks in the context of the interpretation of both space radiation dosimetry and radiobiology data, which may provide insights into new approaches to these problems.

Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wu, Honglu; Shavers, Mark R.; George, Kerry

2003-01-01

306

[Solar cosmic radiation and the radiation hazard of space flight].  

PubMed

Present-day data on the spectrum of solar radiation in the source and near the Earth are discussed as applied to the radiation safety of crewmembers and electronics onboard manned and unmanned spacecraft. It is shown that the slope of the solar radiation spectrum changes (flattens) in the low energy range. Quantitative information about absolute solar radiation fluxes near the Earth is summarized in relation to the most significant flares of 1956--1978. The time-related evolution of the solar radiation spectrum in the interplanetary space is described in quantitative terms (as illustrated by the solar flare of 28 September 1961). It is indicated that the nonmonotonic energy dependence of the transport path of solar radiation in the interplanetary space should be taken into consideration. It is demonstrated that the diffusion model of propagation can be verified using solar radiation measurements in space flights. PMID:6308342

Miroshnichenko, L I

1983-01-01

307

Radiation Environment Inside Spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dr. Patrick O'Neill, NASA Johnson Space Center, will present a detailed description of the radiation environment inside spacecraft. The free space (outside) solar and galactic cosmic ray and trapped Van Allen belt proton spectra are significantly modified as these ions propagate through various thicknesses of spacecraft structure and shielding material. In addition to energy loss, secondary ions are created as the ions interact with the structure materials. Nuclear interaction codes (FLUKA, GEANT4, HZTRAN, MCNPX, CEM03, and PHITS) transport free space spectra through different thicknesses of various materials. These "inside" energy spectra are then converted to Linear Energy Transfer (LET) spectra and dose rate - that's what's needed by electronics systems designers. Model predictions are compared to radiation measurements made by instruments such as the Intra-Vehicular Charged Particle Directional Spectrometer (IV-CPDS) used inside the Space Station, Orion, and Space Shuttle.

O'Neill, Patrick

2015-01-01

308

Innovations in radiation oncology  

SciTech Connect

The book contains reports of areas of growth in radiation oncology written for the practising radiation oncologist. Early chapters review conservative treatments that preserve the function and maintain or improve tumor control rates in breast, rectum, anus, head and neck, soft tissues and bones, and the eye. This is followed by a section dealing with extended field therapy encompassing total body irradiation, half body irradiation and systemic therapy with radionuclide-labelled antibodies. The potential roles of three new diagnostic imaging technologies (CT, MRI and PET) in radiotherapy are considered. Various modifications of treatment are reviewed, including hyperfractionation, accelerated treatment, accelerated hyperfractionation and neutron therapy. Also discussed is the clinical use of adjuvants to radiotherapy, such as radiosensitizers, cytotoxic drugs, interstitial and external hyperthermia and bone fixation in metastatic disease.

Withers, H.R.; Peters, L.J.

1988-01-01

309

Aharonov-Bohm Radiation  

E-print Network

A solenoid oscillating in vacuum will pair produce charged particles due to the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) interaction. We calculate the radiation pattern and power emitted for charged scalar particles. We extend the solenoid analysis to cosmic strings, and find enhanced radiation from cusps and kinks on loops. We argue by analogy with the electromagnetic AB interaction that cosmic strings should emit photons due to the gravitational AB interaction of fields in the conical spacetime of a cosmic string. We calculate the emission from a kink and find that it is of similar order as emission from a cusp, but kinks are vastly more numerous than cusps and may provide a more interesting observational signature.

Katherine Jones-Smith; Harsh Mathur; Tanmay Vachaspati

2009-11-03

310

TOPEX orbital radiation study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space radiation environment of the TOPEX spacecraft is investigated. A single trajectory was considered. The external (surface incident) charged particle radiation, predicted for the satellite, is determined by orbital flux integration for the specified trajectory. The latest standard models of the environment are used in the calculations. The evaluation is performed for solar maximum conditions. The spacecraft exposure to cosmic rays of galactic origin is evaluated over its flight path through the magnetosphere in terms of geomagnetic shielding effects, both for surface incident heavy ions and for particles emerging behind different material thickness. Limited shielding and dose evaluations are performed for simple infinite slab and spherical geometries. Results, given in graphical and tabular form, are analyzed, explained, and discussed. Conclusions are presented and commented on.

Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Barth, J. M.

1984-01-01

311

Radiation Induced Genomic Instability  

SciTech Connect

Radiation induced genomic instability can be observed in the progeny of irradiated cells multiple generations after irradiation of parental cells. The phenotype is well established both in vivo (Morgan 2003) and in vitro (Morgan 2003), and may be critical in radiation carcinogenesis (Little 2000, Huang et al. 2003). Instability can be induced by both the deposition of energy in irradiated cells as well as by signals transmitted by irradiated (targeted) cells to non-irradiated (non-targeted) cells (Kadhim et al. 1992, Lorimore et al. 1998). Thus both targeted and non-targeted cells can pass on the legacy of radiation to their progeny. However the radiation induced events and cellular processes that respond to both targeted and non-targeted radiation effects that lead to the unstable phenotype remain elusive. The cell system we have used to study radiation induced genomic instability utilizes human hamster GM10115 cells. These cells have a single copy of human chromosome 4 in a background of hamster chromosomes. Instability is evaluated in the clonal progeny of irradiated cells and a clone is considered unstable if it contains three or more metaphase sub-populations involving unique rearrangements of the human chromosome (Marder and Morgan 1993). Many of these unstable clones have been maintained in culture for many years and have been extensively characterized. As initially described by Clutton et al., (Clutton et al. 1996) many of our unstable clones exhibit persistently elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (Limoli et al. 2003), which appear to be due dysfunctional mitochondria (Kim et al. 2006, Kim et al. 2006). Interestingly, but perhaps not surprisingly, our unstable clones do not demonstrate a “mutator phenotype” (Limoli et al. 1997), but they do continue to rearrange their genomes for many years. The limiting factor with this system is the target – the human chromosome. While some clones demonstrate amplification of this chromosome and thus lend themselves to prolonged study, many tend to eliminate or rearrange the target chromosome until it is too small for further rearrangement. The observed frequency of induced instability by low and high linear-energy-transfer radiations greatly exceeds that observed for nuclear gene mutations at similar doses; hence, mutation of a gene or gene family is unlikely to be the initiating mechanism. Once initiated however, there is evidence in the GM10115 model system that it can be perpetuated over time by dicentric chromosome formation followed by bridge breakage fusion cycles (Marder and Morgan 1993), as well as recombinational events involving interstitial telomere like repeat sequences (Day et al. 1998). There is also increasing evidence that inflammatory type reactions (Lorimore et al. 2001, Lorimore and Wright 2003), presumably involving reactive oxygen and nitrogen species as well as cytokines and chemokines might be involved in driving the ustable phenotype (Liaikis et al. 2007, Hei et al. 2008). To this end there is very convincing evidence for such reactions being involved in another non-targeted effect associated with ionizing radiation, the bystander effect (Hei et al. 2008). Clearly the link between induced instability and bystander effects suggests common processes and inflammatory type reactions will likely be the subject of future investigation.

Morgan, William F.

2011-03-01

312

On source radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The power output from given sources is usually ascertained via an energy flux integral over the normal directions to a remote (far field) surface; an alternative procedure, which utilizes an integral that specifies the direct rate of working by the source on the resultant field, is described and illustrated for both point and continuous source distribution. A comparison between the respective procedures is made in the analysis of sound radiated from a periodic dipole source whose axis performs a periodic plane angular movement about a fixed direction. Thus, adopting a conventional approach, Sretenskii (1956) characterizes the rotating dipole in terms of an infinite number of stationary ones along a pari of orthogonal directions in the plane, and through the far field representation of the latter, arrives at a series development for the instantaneous radiated power, whereas the local manner of power calculation dispenses with the equivalent infinite aggregate of sources and yields a compact analytical result.

Levine, H.

1980-01-01

313

Biochemistry of ionizing radiation  

SciTech Connect

This volume examines the biochemical changes occurring in normal tissue after irradiation. A review of radiation chemistry is followed by an analysis of factors affecting biochemical responses and a timely discussion of radiobiology in space flight. The authors then describe the effects of radiation on lipid peroxidation, amino acids, peptides, proteins, polysaccharides, DNA, thiols, and body fluids. Close attention is given to alterations in biological mediators such as eicosanoids, cyclic nucleotides, angiotensin, histamine, polyamines, catecholamines, and serotonin and in hormones such as adrenocorticotropic hormone, testosterone, estrogens, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, thyroid hormones, insulin and glucagon, gastrin, and melatonin. Other chapters focus on changes in carbohydrate metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, protein synthesis, and serum proteins. A chapter on biological dosimeters discusses prodromal syndrome, hematological dosimeters, serum composition, urine, chromosomal aberrations, and fluorometric and immunoassays.

Walden, T.L.; Nushin, F.K.

1990-01-01

314

Radiation Therapy: Preventing and Managing Side Effects  

MedlinePLUS

... effects of radiation therapy Preventing and managing side effects of radiation therapy When the radiation damages nearby ... radiation therapy ” section for more on this. Side effects can vary. Your doctor and nurse are the ...

315

The radiation hazard during space flights  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Galactic cosmic radiation is described. Distinctive features of radiation effects in space flights are discussed and space radiation hazards are estimated. Measures to provide radiation safety during space flights are given. The need for safety standards is emphasized.

Kovalev, Y. Y.; Kolomenskiy, A. V.; Smirennyy, L. N.; Petrov, V. M.

1973-01-01

316

RADIATION PERMIT APPLICATION Western Human Resources  

E-print Network

1 RADIATION PERMIT APPLICATION Western Human Resources Occupational Health & Safety Please complete the information and send to: Hoa Ly Radiation Safety Coordinator Occupational Health and Safety Room 4190, Support: ________________________ Fax: ___________________________________ Radiation Safety Training and Radiation Work Experience 1

Sinnamon, Gordon J.

317

Provisional standards of radiation safety during flights  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation effects during space flights are discussed in the context of the sources and dangers of such radiation and the radiobiological prerequisites for establishing safe levels of radiation dosage. Standard safe levels of radiation during space flight are established.

1977-01-01

318

Solar Radiation Resource Information  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the Solar Radiation Resource Information page for the RReDC which provides information on several types of renewable energy resources in the United States, in the form of publications, data, and maps. An extensive dictionary of renewable energy related terms is also provided. This page has links to: -Archived Data -NREL Data Collection Activities -Solar Spectra -Solar Codes & Algorithms -Solar Models -Solar Calculators -Publications. Keyword: Photovoltaic, cell, PV.

2012-10-15

319

Radiation in Yolo County  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In today's post-nuclear age, there are many man-made sources of radioactivity, in addition to the natural background we expect from cosmic and terrestrial origins. While all atoms possess unstable isotopes, there are few that are abundant enough, energetic enough, and have long enough half-lives to pose a signicant risk of ionizing radiation exposure. We hypothesize a decreasing relative radiation measurement (in detected counts per minute [CPM]) at nine locations that might pose occupational or environmental hazard: 1. A supermarket produce aisle (living tissue has high concentration of 40K) 2. A hospital (medical imaging uses X-rays and radioactive dyes) 3. The electronics section of a superstore (high voltage electronics have the potential to produce ionizing radiation) 4. An electrical transformer (similar reasons) 5. An antique store (some ceramics and glazes use radioisotopes that are now outlawed) 6. A gasoline pump (processing and terrestrial isotope contamination might leave a radioactive residue) 7. A fertilized eld (phosphate rock contains uranium and thorium, in addition to potassium) 8. A house (hopefully mild background, but potential radon contamination) 9. A school (should be radiologically neutral) We tested the hypothesis by measuring 100 minutes of counts on a self-assembled MightyOhmTM Geiger counter at each location. Our results show that contrary to the hypothesized ordering, the house was the most radiologically active. We present possible explanations for the observed radiation levels, as well as possible sources of measurement error, possible consequences of prolonged exposure to the measured levels, and suggestions for decreasing exposure and environmental impact.

Dickie, H.; Colwell, K.

2013-12-01

320

Radiation-driven inflation  

SciTech Connect

A novel, scalar-field-free approach to cosmic inflation is presented. The inflationary Universe and the radiation-dominated Universe are shown, within the framework of unified brane cosmology, to be two different phases governed by one and the same energy density. The phase transition of second order (the Hubble constant exhibits a finite jump) appears naturally and serves as the exit mechanism. No re-heating is needed. The required number of e-folds is achieved without fine tuning.

Davidson, Aharon; Gurwich, Ilya, E-mail: davidson@bgu.ac.il, E-mail: gurwichphys@gmail.com, E-mail: ilyagur@gmail.com [Physics Department, Ben-Gurion University, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)] [Physics Department, Ben-Gurion University, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

2008-06-15

321

Caenorhabditis elegans Radiation Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Over the past 10 years a number of laboratories have started to focus on Caenorhabditis elegans radiation responses, taking advantage of a multi-cellular experimental model system that enables studying DNA damage responses\\u000a at the organismal level. Here we provide a comprehensive review of C. elegans DNA damage responses, largely focusing on recombinational repair, DNA damage signalling and DNA damage-induced apoptosis

Aymeric Bailly; Anton Gartner

322

Regolith Radiative Transfer Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing an improved regolith radiative transfer model (RRT) for multiple applications in planetary systems. Our immediate motivation for developing this particular RRT model is new data from Cassini at long IR wavelengths (100-500 microns). The first application will be to simulate the emissivity of the ring's grainy regoliths at far infrared wavelengths. The behavior of the emissivity at far IR is an important probe for determining the composition of the non-icy components of ring material.

Vahidinia, Sanaz

2006-09-01

323

Radiation-induced schwannomas  

SciTech Connect

The histopathology and clinical course of three patients with schwannomas of the brain and high cervical cord after therapeutic irradiation for intracranial malignancy and for ringworm of the scalp are described. Earlier reports in the literature indicated that radiation of the scalp may induce tumors in the head and neck. It is therefore suggested that therapeutic irradiation in these instances was a causative factor in the genesis of these tumors.

Rubinstein, A.B.; Reichenthal, E.; Borohov, H.

1989-06-01

324

Radiative interactions in nonequilibrium flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The influence of vibrational and chemical nonequilibrium upon infrared radiative energy transfer in nonisothermal gases is investigated. Essential information is provided on rate equations, relaxation times, transfer equations, band absorption, and radiative flux equations. The methodology developed is applied to three specific cases. These are, absorbing-emitting species between isothermal parallel plates, radiating gases in the earth's atmosphere, and supersonic flow of premixed hydrogen and air in an expanding nozzle. The results obtained for different cases reveal that the extent of radiative interactions is reduced significantly under nonequilibrium conditions. The method developed can be easily extended to investigate radiative interactions in complex nonequilibrium flows.

Tiwari, S. N.; Chandrasekhar, R.

1992-01-01

325

Photon Clusters in Thermal Radiation  

E-print Network

Within the framework of Bose-Einstein statistics, it is shown that the blackbody radiation, in addition to single photons, contains photon clusters, or coalescent photons. The probability to find a k-photon cluster versus radiation frequency and temperature is found, as well as the statistics of clusters. Spectra of photon-cluster radiation are calculated as functions of blackbody temperature. The Planck's radiation law is derived based on the existence of photon clusters. The possibility of experimental observation of photon clusters in thermal radiation is discussed.

Aleksey Ilyin

2014-10-30

326

Uninformed Hawking Radiation  

E-print Network

We show in detail that the Parikh-Wilczek tunneling method (PWTM), which was designed for resolving the information loss problem in Hawking radiation (HR)fails whenever the radiation occurs from an isothermal process. The PWTM aims to produce a non-thermal HR which adumbrates the resolution of the problem of unitarity in quantum mechanics (QM), and consequently the entropy (or information) conservation problem. The effectiveness of the method has been satisfactorily tested on numerous black holes (BHs). However, it has been shown that the isothermal HR, which results from the emission of the uncharged particles of the linear dilaton BH (LDBH) described in the Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton (EMD) theory, the PWTM has vulnerability in having non-thermal radiation. In particular, we consider Painlev\\'{e}-Gullstrand coordinates (PGCs) and isotropic coordinates (ICs) in order to prove the aformentioned failure in the PWTM. While carrying out calculations in the ICs, we also highlight the effect of the refractive index on the null geodesics.

I. Sakalli; A. Ovgun

2014-09-19

327

Uninformed Hawking Radiation  

E-print Network

We show in detail that the Parikh-Wilczek tunneling method (PWTM), which was designed for resolving the information loss problem in Hawking radiation (HR)fails whenever the radiation occurs from an isothermal process. The PWTM aims to produce a non-thermal HR which adumbrates the resolution of the problem of unitarity in quantum mechanics (QM), and consequently the entropy (or information) conservation problem. The effectiveness of the method has been satisfactorily tested on numerous black holes (BHs). However, it has been shown that the isothermal HR, which results from the emission of the uncharged particles of the linear dilaton BH (LDBH) described in the Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton (EMD) theory, the PWTM has vulnerability in having non-thermal radiation. In particular, we consider Painlev\\'{e}-Gullstrand coordinates (PGCs) and isotropic coordinates (ICs) in order to prove the aformentioned failure in the PWTM. While carrying out calculations in the ICs, we also highlight the effect of the refractive index o...

Sakalli, I

2014-01-01

328

[Problems after radiation therapy].  

PubMed

The rate of severe late adverse effects has decreased with the highly accurate administration of radiation therapy; however, the total number of patients who suffer from late effects has not decreased because of the increased total number of patients and better survival rates. Late adverse effects, occurring more than a few months after irradiation, include the extension and collapse of capillaries, thickening of the basement membrane, and scarring of tissue due to loss of peripheral vessels. The main causes of these late effects are the loss of stromal cells and vascular injury. This is in contrast to early reactions, which occur mainly due to the reorganization of slow-growing non-stem cell renewal systems such as the lung, kidney, heart, and central nervous system. In addition, the patient's quality of life is impaired if acute reactions such as mouth or skin dryness are not alleviated. Most adverse effects are radiation dose dependent, and the thresholds differ according to the radiosensitivity of each organ. These reactions occur with a latency period of a few months to more than 10 years. Understanding the clinical and pathological status, through discussion with radiation oncologists, is the essential first step. Some of the late effects have no effective treatment, but others can be treated by steroids or hyperbaric oxygen therapy. An appropriate decision is important. PMID:24423950

Karasawa, Kumiko

2014-01-01

329

Fundamentals of Atmospheric Radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This textbook fills a gap in the literature for teaching material suitable for students of atmospheric science and courses on atmospheric radiation. It covers the fundamentals of emission, absorption, and scattering of electromagnetic radiation from ultraviolet to infrared and beyond. Much of the book applies to planetary atmosphere. The authors are physicists and teach at the largest meteorology department of the US at Penn State. Craig T. Bohren has taught the atmospheric radiation course there for the past 20 years with no book. Eugene Clothiaux has taken over and added to the course notes. Problems given in the text come from students, colleagues, and correspondents. The design of the figures especially for this book is meant to ease comprehension. Discussions have a graded approach with a thorough treatment of subjects, such as single scattering by particles, at different levels of complexity. The discussion of the multiple scattering theory begins with piles of plates. This simple theory introduces concepts in more advanced theories, i.e. optical thickness, single-scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter. The more complicated theory, the two-stream theory, then takes the reader beyond the pile-of-plates theory. Ideal for advanced undergraduate and graduate students of atmospheric science.

Bohren, Craig F.; Clothiaux, Eugene E.

2006-02-01

330

Radiation belt probes launched  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Storms on Earth delayed by only a few days the launch of NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP), which blasted off on 30 August for a 2-year tour to explore the Van Allen radiation belts. The two satellites will help scientists learn about the processes that affect electrons and ions in the donut-shaped belts and how the belts change in the context of geomagnetic storms. “The information collected from these probes will benefit the public by allowing us to better protect our satellites and understand how space weather affects communications and technology on Earth,” said John Grunsfeld, associate administrator for NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Each probe carries an identical suite of instruments, including an Energetic Particle, Composition, and Thermal Plasma Suite; Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science; Electric Field and Waves Suite; Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment; and Relativistic Proton Spectrometer. RBSP is part of NASA's Living With a Star program and is managed for NASA by the Johns Hopkins University's Applied Physics Laboratory. For more information, see http://rbsp.jhuapl.edu.

Showstack, Randy

2012-09-01

331

Radiative Corrections to DIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early deep inelastic scattering (DIS) experiments at SLAC discovered partons, identified them as quarks and gluons, and restricted the set of the candidate theories for strong interactions to those exhibiting the asymptotic freedom property. The next generation DIS experiments at FNAL and CERN confirmed the predictions of QCD for the size of the scaling violation effects in the nucleon structure functions. The QCD fits to their data resulted in determining the momentum distributions of the point-like constituents of nucleons. Interpretation of data coming from all these experiments and, in the case of the SLAC experiments, even an elaboration of the running strategies, would not have been possible without a precise understanding of the electromagnetic radiative corrections. In this note I present my personal recollection of the important milestones, achieved in the period preceding the HERA era, in the high precision calculations of the radiative corrections to DIS, and in the development of the methods of their experimental control. I present subsequently the measurement strategies and discuss the advanced radiative correction tools used in the initial phase of the HERA experimental program, with an emphasis on their role in the first, model independent, measurement of the partonic densities in the small-xBj region.

Krasny, M. W.

2008-07-01

332

Global aspects of radiation memory  

E-print Network

Gravitational radiation has a memory effect represented by a net change in the relative positions of test particles. Both the linear and nonlinear sources proposed for this radiation memory are of the "electric" type, or E mode, as characterized by the even parity of the polarization pattern. Although "magnetic" type, or B mode, radiation memory is mathematically possible, no physically realistic source has been identified. There is an electromagnetic counterpart to radiation memory in which the velocity of charged particles obtain a net "kick". Again, the physically realistic sources of electromagnetic radiation memory that have been identified are of the electric type. In this paper, a global null cone description of the electromagnetic field is applied to establish the non-existence of B mode radiation memory and the non-existence of E mode radiation memory due to a bound charge distribution.

Winicour, J

2014-01-01

333

Global aspects of radiation memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravitational radiation has a memory effect represented by a net change in the relative positions of test particles. Both the linear and nonlinear sources proposed for this radiation memory are of the ‘electric’ type, or E mode, as characterized by the even parity of the polarization pattern. Although ‘magnetic’ type, or B mode, radiation memory is mathematically possible, no physically realistic source has been identified. There is an electromagnetic counterpart to radiation memory in which the velocity of charged test particles obtain a net ‘kick’. Again, the physically realistic sources of electromagnetic radiation memory that have been identified are of the electric type. In this paper, a global null cone description of the electromagnetic field is applied to establish the non-existence of B-mode radiation memory and the non-existence of E-mode radiation memory due to a bound charge distribution.

Winicour, J.

2014-10-01

334

Global aspects of radiation memory  

E-print Network

Gravitational radiation has a memory effect represented by a net change in the relative positions of test particles. Both the linear and nonlinear sources proposed for this radiation memory are of the "electric" type, or E mode, as characterized by the even parity of the polarization pattern. Although "magnetic" type, or B mode, radiation memory is mathematically possible, no physically realistic source has been identified. There is an electromagnetic counterpart to radiation memory in which the velocity of charged particles obtain a net "kick". Again, the physically realistic sources of electromagnetic radiation memory that have been identified are of the electric type. In this paper, a global null cone description of the electromagnetic field is applied to establish the non-existence of B mode radiation memory and the non-existence of E mode radiation memory due to a bound charge distribution.

J. Winicour

2014-07-01

335

Cooperative quasi-Cherenkov radiation  

E-print Network

We study the features of cooperative parametric (quasi-Cherenkov) radiation arising when initially unmodulated electron (positron) bunches pass through a crystal (natural or artificial) under the conditions of dynamical diffraction of electromagnetic waves in the presence of shot noise. A detailed numerical analysis is given for cooperative THz radiation in artificial crystals. The radiation intensity above 200~MW$/$cm$^2$ is obtained in simulations. In two- and three-wave diffraction cases, the peak intensity of cooperative radiation emitted at small and large angles to particle velocity is investigated as a function of the particle number in an electron bunch. The peak radiation intensity appeared to increase monotonically until saturation is achieved. At saturation, the shot noise causes strong fluctuations in the intensity of cooperative parametric radiation. It is shown that the duration of radiation pulses can be much longer than the particle flight time through the crystal. This enables a thorough expe...

Anishchenko, S V

2014-01-01

336

Influence of Extraterrestrial Radiation on Radiation Portal Monitors  

SciTech Connect

Cosmic radiation and solar flares can be a major source of background radiation at the Earth’s surface. This paper examines the relationship between extraterrestrial radiation and the detectable background in radiation portal monitors used for homeland security applications. Background radiation data from 13 radiation portal monitor facilities are examined and compared against external sources of data related to extraterrestrial radiation, including measurements at neutron monitors located at 53 cosmic-ray observatories around the Earth, four polar orbiting satellites, three geostationary satellites, ground-based geomagnetic field data from observatories around the Earth, a solar magnetic index, solar radio flux data, and sunspot activity data. Four-years (January 2003 through December 2006) of data are used in this study, which include the latter part of Solar Cycle 23 as solar activity was on the decline. The analysis shows a significant relationship between some extraterrestrial radiation and the background detected in the radiation portal monitors. A demonstrable decline is shown in the average gamma ray and neutron background at the radiation portal monitors as solar activity declined over the period of the study.

Keller, Paul E.; Kouzes, Richard T.

2009-06-01

337

DNA fragmentation pattern in human fibroblasts after irradiation with iron ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we studied the fragmentation pattern produced by the double stand breaks (DSB) induced in AG1522 primary human fibroblasts by two different iron beams, one of energy 414 MeV/u, and the other of energy 115 MeV/u (with dose-average LET in water equal to 202 keV/µm and 442 keV/µm, respectively). Irradiation with several doses up to 200 Gy was performed at the HIMAC facility of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, Japan. Experimental data, first obtained for fragments belonging to the size ranges 23-1000 kbp and 1000-5700 kbp (Belli et al., 2006), have successively been obtained also for fragments belonging to the size ranges 1-9 kbp and 9-23 kbp; the experimental analysis was performed with pulsed and constant field electrophoresis. The RBE for DSB production was evaluated in two different fragment size ranges (i.e., 23-5700 kbp and 1-5700 kbp), and it was found larger for the wider size range, especially for the beam with the higher LET. The experimental results have been compared to those computed on the basis of the Monte Carlo PARTRAC simulation code, following the line of research started in Campa et al. (2005), and exploiting the recent update of the PARTRAC code to ions heavier than helium (Friedland et al., 2006). Because the agreement has been found satisfactory for both radiation qualities, the spectra outside the experimentally observable fragment size range were also computed in order to evaluate the overall fragmentation pattern. The marked increases of the RBEs for DSB production, obtained when also the very small fragments (< 1 kbp) are included, makes them closer to the RBE values observed for the late cellular effects. This finding is a further indication for the biological significance of the spatial correlation of DSB at short distances. This work was partially supported by ASI (Italian Space Agency, "Mo-Ma/COUNT" project). References M. Belli, A. Campa, V. Dini, G. Esposito, Y. Furusawa, G. Simone, E. Sorrentino and M. A. Tabocchini. DNA fragmentation induced in human fibroblasts by accelerated 56 Fe ions of differing energies. Radiat. Res. 165, 713-720 (2006). A. Campa, F. Ballarini, M. Belli, R. Cherubini, V. Dini, G. Esposito, W. Friedland, S. Gerardi, S. Molinelli, A. Ottolenghi, H. G. Paretzke, G. Simone and M. A. Tabocchini. DNA DSB induced in human cells by charged particles and gamma rays: experimental results and theoretical approaches. Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 81, 841-854 (2005). W. Friedland, P. Jacob, H. G. Paretzke, A. Ottolenghi, F. Ballarini and M. Liotta. Simulation of light ion induced DNA damge patterns. Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 122, 116-120 (2006).

Campa, Alessandro

338

Identification of missing proteins in the neXtProt database and unregistered phosphopeptides in the PhosphoSitePlus database as part of the Chromosome-centric Human Proteome Project.  

PubMed

The Chromosome-Centric Human Proteome Project (C-HPP) is an international effort for creating an annotated proteomic catalog for each chromosome. The first step of the C-HPP project is to find evidence of expression of all proteins encoded on each chromosome. C-HPP also prioritizes particular protein subsets, such as those with post-translational modifications (PTMs) and those found in low abundance. As participants in C-HPP, we integrated proteomic and phosphoproteomic analysis results from chromosome-independent biomarker discovery research to create a chromosome-based list of proteins and phosphorylation sites. Data were integrated from five independent colorectal cancer (CRC) samples (three types of clinical tissue and two types of cell lines) and lead to the identification of 11,278 proteins, including 8,305 phosphoproteins and 28,205 phosphorylation sites; all of these were categorized on a chromosome-by-chromosome basis. In total, 3,033 "missing proteins", i.e., proteins that currently lack evidence by mass spectrometry, in the neXtProt database and 12,852 unknown phosphorylation sites not registered in the PhosphoSitePlus database were identified. Our in-depth phosphoproteomic study represents a significant contribution to C-HPP. The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium with the data set identifier PXD000089. PMID:23312004

Shiromizu, Takashi; Adachi, Jun; Watanabe, Shio; Murakami, Tatsuo; Kuga, Takahisa; Muraoka, Satoshi; Tomonaga, Takeshi

2013-06-01

339

Baryogenesis from Hawking radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that in the presence of a chemical potential, black hole evaporation generates baryon number. If the inflaton or Ricci scalar is derivatively coupled to the B -L current, the expansion of the Universe acts as a chemical potential and splits the energy levels of particles and their antiparticles. The asymmetric Hawking radiation of primordial black holes can thus be used to generate a B -L asymmetry. If dark matter is produced by the same mechanism, the coincidence between the mass density of visible and dark matter can be naturally explained.

Hook, Anson

2014-10-01

340

Radiation imaging apparatus  

DOEpatents

A radiation imaging system using a charge multiplier and a position sensitive anode in the form of periodically arranged sets of interconnected anode regions for detecting the position of the centroid of a charge cloud arriving thereat from the charge multiplier. Various forms of improved position sensitive anodes having single plane electrode connections are disclosed. Various analog and digital signal processing systems are disclosed, including systems which use the fast response of microchannel plates, anodes and preamps to perform scintillation pulse height analysis digitally. 15 figs.

Anger, H.O.; Martin, D.C.; Lampton, M.L.

1983-07-26

341

Radiation imaging apparatus  

DOEpatents

A radiation imaging system using a charge multiplier and a position sensitive anode in the form of periodically arranged sets of interconnected anode regions for detecting the position of the centroid of a charge cloud arriving thereat from the charge multiplier. Various forms of improved position sensitive anodes having single plane electrode connections are disclosed. Various analog and digital signal processing systems are disclosed, including systems which use the fast response of microchannel plates, anodes and preamps to perform scintillation pulse height analysis digitally.

Anger, Hal O. (Berkeley, CA); Martin, Donn C. (Berkeley, CA); Lampton, Michael L. (Berkeley, CA)

1983-01-01

342

Radiation-induced Fibrosarcoma  

PubMed Central

Six cases of fibrosarcoma arising in previously irradiated tissues are reported, out of a total of 220 cases of fibrosarcoma treated at Mount Vernon Hospital during the last 23 years. This rare occurrence may follow at any interval from 3 to 38 years after irradiation, usually after high dosage. Four of our six cases are known to have died of the disease. The literature regarding radiation-induced fibrosarcoma is reviewed and it is suggested that adequate excision or amputation may be curative, if undertaken early enough. ImagesFig. 5Figs. 6-8Figs. 9-11Figs. 1-4 PMID:5503597

Gane, N. F. C.; Lindup, Rhona; Strickland, P.; Bennett, M. H.

1970-01-01

343

Radiation of Ni65  

E-print Network

? -29 investigatire. Radioactive isotope Xi s wbiab has a balf life of 2. 64 brs has boon studied by shsorbticn methods end by bets rsy epos trosoopy. Tbe gama ensrgiea found sere 0. 28, 0. 65, and 0 93 msv. 9 gai Siegbabn end kua1 Gboeb, studied...LP of sbsorptdcn essence nsnte of the beta radiaticnc fonnd beta radiation oi' Saxon energies Xe9f-"OeX3 nero Thd beta garne ooi1?lidenod stndies by ths sane investit t gatoxe indioatsd ths pzsssnos of 4 second group of bets rays ccitb scc eppsr energy Xi...

Salaita, George N

2012-06-07

344

Radiation Field on Superspace  

E-print Network

We study the dynamics of multiwormhole configurations within the framework of the Euclidean Polyakov approach to string theory, incorporating a modification to the Hamiltonian which makes it impossible to interpret the Coleman Alpha parameters of the effective interactions as a quantum field on superspace, reducible to an infinite tower of fields on space-time. We obtain a Planckian probability measure for the Alphas that allows $\\frac{1}{2}\\alpha^{2}$ to be interpreted as the energy of the quanta of a radiation field on superspace whose values may still fix the coupling constants.

P. F. Gonzalez-Diaz

1994-03-18

345

Management of radiation proctitis.  

PubMed

The optimal management of radiation proctitis is ill defined. A variety of alternatives are available and include topical agents (ie, sucralfate enemas, formalin), oral agents (ie, pentoxyfylline, vitamin A), hyperbaric oxygen, and endoscopic interventions (ie, argon plasma coagulation). It is prudent to manage patients conservatively and to intervene only when necessary with the option least likely to exacerbate the proctitis. Rectal biopsies should be avoided as they may precipitate a complication. More aggressive measures, such as argon laser coagulation, should be employed only when more conservative approaches fail. PMID:23241500

Mendenhall, William M; McKibben, Brian T; Hoppe, Bradford S; Nichols, Romaine C; Henderson, Randal H; Mendenhall, Nancy P

2014-10-01

346

Carbon-Carbon Radiator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbon-Carbon (C-C) Radiator was a success and proved that the technology can work to reduce Spacecraft weight. C-C has a niche, especially for high temperatures. C-C still needs further development: reduction in fabrication time and cost - high conductivity "traditional" composites are more competitive, and CTE interface issues with heat pipes. Redundancy a good idea - we flew the spare panel. CSRP was a success -informal inter-agency partnership. Possible follow-on: C-C foam for low CTE mirrors/optical benches.

Butler, Dan; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

347

Children, CT Scan and Radiation.  

PubMed

Children are more sensitive to radiation than adults. Computerized tomography (CT) consists of 25 % of all medical imaging. It was estimated that more than 2% of all carcinomas in the USA are due to CT scans. There is an ongoing focus on the reduction of CT scan radiation dose. Awareness about risk-benefits of CT has increased. Reduction of radiological exam is an important issue because the accumulation effects of radiation can be hazardous. In addition, proper protocol should be followed for diagnostic procedures of ionization radiation and computerized tomography. Effective radiation dose should range from 0.8 to 10.5 millisievert. The same protocol should be followed in different hospitals as well. Basic principles of radiation protection should be monitored. As much as possible, both technician and radiologist must be present during computerized tomography for children, and MRI and ultrasound should be replaced if possible. PMID:21566776

Bajoghli, Morteza; Bajoghli, Farshad; Tayari, Nazila; Rouzbahani, Reza

2010-01-01

348

RADIATIVE RAYLEIGH-TAYLOR INSTABILITIES  

SciTech Connect

We perform analytic linear stability analyses of an interface separating two stratified media threaded by a radiation flux, a configuration relevant in several astrophysical contexts. We develop a general framework for analyzing such systems and obtain exact stability conditions in several limiting cases. In the optically thin, isothermal regime, where the discontinuity is chemical in nature (e.g., at the boundary of a radiation pressure-driven H II region), radiation acts as part of an effective gravitational field, and instability arises if the effective gravity per unit volume toward the interface overcomes that away from it. In the optically thick 'adiabatic' regime where the total (gas plus radiation) specific entropy of a Lagrangian fluid element is conserved, for example at the edge of radiation pressure-driven bubble around a young massive star, we show that radiation acts like a modified equation of state and derive a generalized version of the classical Rayleigh-Taylor stability condition.

Jacquet, Emmanuel [Laboratoire de Mineralogie et Cosmochimie de Museum (LMCM), CNRS and Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, UMR 7202, 57 rue Cuvier, 75005 Paris (France); Krumholz, Mark R., E-mail: ejacquet@mnhn.fr, E-mail: krumholz@ucolick.org [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

2011-04-01

349

Gravitational scattering of electromagnetic radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The scattering of electromagnetic radiation by linearized gravitational fields is studied to second order in a perturbation expansion. The incoming electromagnetic radiation can be of arbitrary multipole structure, and the gravitational fields are also taken to be advanced fields of arbitrary multipole structure. All electromagnetic multipole radiation is found to be scattered by gravitational monopole and time-varying dipole fields. No case has been found, however, in which any electromagnetic multipole radiation is scattered by gravitational fields of quadrupole or higher-order multipole structure. This lack of scattering is established for infinite classes of special cases, and is conjectured to hold in general. The results of the scattering analysis are applied to the case of electromagnetic radiation scattered by a moving mass. It is shown how the mass and velocity may be determined by a knowledge of the incident and scattered radiation.

Brooker, J. T.; Janis, A. I.

1980-01-01

350

Management of radiation ulcers  

SciTech Connect

Despite more efficient and safer technics of radiation therapy, the problem of radiation-induced injury to the skin and soft tissue persists. The problem of adequate coverage of these painful, ischemic, and fibrotic ulcers remains challenging. Split-thickness skin grafts are seldom sufficient coverage, as the graft almost always has areas that do not take. Although these areas may eventually heal by epithelialization, the result is never ideal. Most often flap coverage is required, but elevation of local flaps is jeopardized because the tissue surrounding the ulcer crater frequently has been sufficiently compromised to cause loss of at least part of the flap. In the past, this necessitated use of pedicled flaps, tubed and transposed from a distance. With the development of axial-pattern musculocutaneous and muscle flaps, as well as microvascular free flaps, the difficulty in dealing with these ulcers has been decreased. Surgeons can now recommend earlier use of adequate debridement, many times of the entire irradiated area, and immediate coverage with a well vascularized axial-pattern musculocutaneous flap or revascularized free flap.

Shack, R.B.

1982-12-01

351

Split supersymmetry radiates flavor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiative flavor models where the hierarchies of Standard Model (SM) fermion masses and mixings are explained via loop corrections are elegant ways to solve the SM flavor puzzle. Here we build such a model in the context of mini-split supersymmetry (SUSY) where both flavor and SUSY breaking occur at a scale of 1000 TeV. This model is consistent with the observed Higgs mass, unification, and dark matter as a weakly interacting massive particle. The high scale allows large flavor mixing among the sfermions, which provides part of the mechanism for radiative flavor generation. In the deep UV, all flavors are treated democratically, but at the SUSY-breaking scale, the third, second, and first generation Yukawa couplings are generated at tree level, one loop, and two loops, respectively. Save for one, all the dimensionless parameters in the theory are O(1), with the exception being a modest and technically natural tuning that explains both the smallness of the bottom Yukawa coupling and the largeness of the Cabibbo angle.

Baumgart, Matthew; Stolarski, Daniel; Zorawski, Thomas

2014-09-01

352

Biologically efficient solar radiation  

PubMed Central

Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the main source of vitamin D production and is also the most important environmental risk factor for cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) development. In the present study the relationships between daily or seasonal UV radiation doses and vitamin D status, dietary vitamin D intake and CMM incidence rates at different geographical latitudes were investigated. North-South gradients of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) generation and CMM induction were calculated, based on known action spectra, and compared with measured vitamin D levels and incidence rates of CMM. The relative roles of UVA and UVB in CMM induction are discussed. Latitudinal dependencies of serum 25(OH)D levels and CMM incidence rates can only partly be explained by ambient UV doses. The UV sensitivity is different among populations with different skin color. This is well known for CMM, but seems also to be true for vitamin D status. The fact that UV-induced vitamin D may reduce the risk of CMM complicates the discussion. To some extent high dietary vitamin D intake seems to compensate low UV doses. PMID:24494048

Grigalavicius, Mantas; Juzeniene, Asta; Baturaite, Zivile; Dahlback, Arne; Moan, Johan

2013-01-01

353

Solar Radiation Storm  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This past week has offered much excitement for space weather scientists and enthusiasts, alike. On Friday July 14, a major flare shot off the surface of the sun, pummeling Earth with a massive solar-radiation storm that interfered with satellite and radio communications and delayed a Russian space launch. The flare was one of the most powerful of the current eleven-year solar cycle (and the biggest solar radiation event since 1989) and was followed by a coronal mass ejection -- "a blast of billions of tons of electrically charged atomic particles and magnetic energy hurled in the Earth's direction at 3 million miles an hour" (1). When a very powerful coronal mass ejection hits the Earth's magnetosphere, a shock wave can compress the magnetosphere and unleash a geomagnetic storm -- causing interference with electric power transmission and triggering beautiful aurorae. Friday's flare was one of three storms last week, and the biggest since a small solar storm made the news in June (see the June 9, 2000 Scout Report for additional resources). Although this weekend's storms have diminished, more activity is anticipated as the sunspot group that is producing flares (region 9077) will continue to face the earth for another week.

Payne, Laura X.

354

Radiation-induced myelomatosis.  

PubMed

It is well known that radiation can cause myeloid leukemia. However, no excess of chronic lymphocytic leukemia has been observed. Myelomatosis, like chronic lymphocytic leukemia, is a tumor of B lymphocytes. To determine whether this disease has a radiogenic origin, we surveyed all cohorts of persons exposed to radiation for which data on cancer-related mortality are available. An excess of myeloma was found in most cohorts. However, a striking deficit was found in two groups irradiated intensely for uterine neoplasms (three cases observed, 10.71 expected; P = 0.012). All other groups combined had a highly significant excess (50 observed, 22.21 expected; P = 2 X 10(-7)). The largest relative risk appeared among persons receiving internal doses of alpha-particles (14 observed, 3.24 expected; P = 2 X 10(-5)), but a significant excess (13 observed, 6.33 expected; P = 0.026) was also found in patients receiving only therapeutic or diagnostic gamma-rays or x-rays. Most cases occurred 15 to 25 years after exposure. PMID:7442744

Cuzick, J

1981-01-22

355

Split SUSY Radiates Flavor  

E-print Network

Radiative flavor models where the hierarchies of Standard Model (SM) fermion masses and mixings are explained via loop corrections are elegant ways to solve the SM flavor puzzle. Here we build such a model in the context of Mini-Split Supersymmetry (SUSY) where both flavor and SUSY breaking occur at a scale of 1000 TeV. This model is consistent with the observed Higgs mass, unification, and WIMP dark matter. The high scale allows large flavor mixing among the sfermions, which provides part of the mechanism for radiative flavor generation. In the deep UV, all flavors are treated democratically, but at the SUSY breaking scale, the third, second, and first generation Yukawa couplings are generated at tree level, one loop, and two loops, respectively. Save for one, all the dimensionless parameters in the theory are O(1), with the exception being a modest and technically natural tuning that explains both the smallness of the bottom Yukawa coupling and the largeness of the Cabibbo angle.

Baumgart, Matthew; Zorawski, Thomas

2014-01-01

356

Radiation Embrittlement Archive Project  

SciTech Connect

The Radiation Embrittlement Archive Project (REAP), which is being conducted by the Probabilistic Integrity Safety Assessment (PISA) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under funding from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission s (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, aims to provide an archival source of information about the effect of neutron radiation on the properties of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels. Specifically, this project is an effort to create an Internet-accessible RPV steel embrittlement database. The project s website, https://reap.ornl.gov, provides information in two forms: (1) a document archive with surveillance capsule(s) reports and related technical reports, in PDF format, for the 104 commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States, with similar reports from other countries; and (2) a relational database archive with detailed information extracted from the reports. The REAP project focuses on data collected from surveillance capsule programs for light-water moderated, nuclear power reactor vessels operated in the United States, including data on Charpy V-notch energy testing results, tensile properties, composition, exposure temperatures, neutron flux (rate of irradiation damage), and fluence, (Fast Neutron Fluence a cumulative measure of irradiation for E>1 MeV). Additionally, REAP contains data from surveillance programs conducted in other countries. REAP is presently being extended to focus on embrittlement data analysis, as well. This paper summarizes the current status of the REAP database and highlights opportunities to access the data and to participate in the project.

Klasky, Hilda B [ORNL] [ORNL; Bass, Bennett Richard [ORNL] [ORNL; Williams, Paul T [ORNL] [ORNL; Phillips, Rick [ORNL] [ORNL; Erickson, Marjorie A [ORNL] [ORNL; Kirk, Mark T [ORNL] [ORNL; Stevens, Gary L [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01

357

Space radiation studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two Active Radiation Dosimeters (ARD's) flown on Spacelab 1, performed without fault and were returned to Space Science Laboratory, MSFC for recalibration. During the flight, performance was monitored at the Huntsville Operations Center (HOSC). Despite some problems with the Shuttle data system handling the verification flight instrumentation (VFI), it was established that the ARD's were operating normally. Postflight calibrations of both units determined that sensitivities were essentially unchanged from preflight values. Flight tapes were received for approx. 60 percent of the flight and it appears that this is the total available. The data was analyzed in collaboration with Space Science Laboratory, MSFC. Also, the Nuclear Radiation Monitor (NRM) was assembled and tested at MSFC. Support was rendered in the areas of materials control and parts were supplied for the supplementary heaters, dome gas-venting device and photomultiplier tube housing. Performance characteristics of some flight-space photomultipliers were measured. The NRM was flown on a balloon-borne test flight and subsequently performed without fault on Spacelab-2. This data was analyzed and published.

1989-01-01

358

Chandra Radiation Environment Modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CRMFLX (Chandra Radiation Model of ion FluX) is a radiation environment risk mitigation tool for use as a decision aid in planning the operations times for Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) detector. The accurate prediction of the proton flux environment with energies of 100 - 200 keV is needed in order to protect the ACIS detector against proton degradation. Unfortunately, protons of this energy are abundant in the region of space Chandra must operate, and on-board particle detectors do not measure proton flux levels of the required energy range. This presentation will describe the plasma environment data analysis and modeling basis of the CRMFLX engineering environment model developed to predict the proton flux in the solar wind, magnetosheath, and magnetosphere phenomenological regions of geospace. The recently released CRMFLX Version 2 implementation includes an algorithm that propagates flux from an observation location to other regions of the magnetosphere based on convective ExB and VB-curvature particle drift motions. This technique has the advantage of more completely filling out the database and makes maximum use of limited data obtained during high Kp periods or in areas of the magnetosphere with poor satellite flux measurement coverage.

Minow, Joseph I.; Blackwell, W. C.

2003-01-01

359

Radiation effects in nanoelectronic elements  

SciTech Connect

Radiation defects induced in planar nanosized structures by steady and pulsed ionizing radiation have been analyzed. Characteristics of test samples with a planar nanosized structure fabricated by deposition of an ultrathin titanium film onto a semi-insulating GaAs substrate and of field-effect transistor structures based on bundles of carbon nanotubes have been studied. Physical mechanisms responsible for the radiation-induced changes in characteristics of the nanoelectronic elements under consideration have been established.

Gromov, D. V.; Elesin, V. V.; Petrov, G. V. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (National Research Nuclear University) (Russian Federation); Bobrinetskii, I. I.; Nevolin, V. K., E-mail: vkn@miee.ru [Moscow Institute of Electronic Technology (Technical University) (Russian Federation)

2010-12-15

360

The Nature of Electromagnetic Radiation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site is a reference page on electromagnetic radiation. It discusses the spectrum of light and both the wave and quantum nature of radiation. Also included are descriptions of the physics and applications of the different frequency bands, from gamma rays through radio waves, plus links to interactive Java simulations on the topic. See Related Materials on this page for a simpler student tutorial by the same authors on the topic of electromagnetic radiation.

Davidson, Michael; Abramowitz, Mortimer; Fellers, Thomas J.

2008-08-21

361

Radiation Environments for Lunar Programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Developing reliable space systems for lunar exploration and infrastructure for extended duration operations on the lunar surface requires analysis and mitigation of potential system vulnerabilities to radiation effects on materials and systems. This paper reviews the characteristics of space radiation environments relevant to lunar programs including the trans-Earth and trans-lunar injection trajectories through the Earth's radiation belts, solar wind surface dose environments, energetic solar particle events, and galactic cosmic rays and discusses the radiation design environments being developed for lunar program requirements to assure that systems operate successfully in the space environment.

Minow, Joseph I.; Altstatt, Richard L.; Blackwell, Willliam C.; Harine, Katherine J.

2007-01-01

362

Glass fibers as radiation detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The applicability of fiber-optic systems as dosimeters for ionizing radiation is discussed. The radiation sensitivities of different types of fibers show that lead-glass fibers should be used, if a small-sized dosimeter based on attenuation is required. On the other hand, Ge-doped fibers may be applied if a great length of fiber is needed. A distributed radiation sensor based on the OTDR (optical time-domain reflectometry) method is proposed for the radiation surveillance of nuclear facilities. For applications in radiotherapy, a small-sized lead-glass .dosimeter was developed.

Hille, R.; Bueker, H.; Haesing, F. W.

1990-12-01

363

Epidemiology of accidental radiation exposures.  

PubMed Central

Much of the information on the health effects of radiation exposure available to date comes from long-term studies of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Accidental exposures, such as those resulting from the Chernobyl and Kyshtym accidents, have as yet provided little information concerning health effects of ionizing radiation. This paper will present the current state of our knowledge concerning radiation effects, review major large-scale accidental radiation exposures, and discuss information that could be obtained from studies of accidental exposures and the types of studies that are needed. PMID:8781398

Cardis, E

1996-01-01

364

Special issue: space radiation biology.  

PubMed

This special issue about the biological effects of space radiation on human health is concerned with cell death, mutations, chromosomal aberrations, developmental abnormalities, carcinogenesis, and senescence. Articles examine the effects of space radiation consisting of heavy charged particles with a low dose and low dose-rate and their possible dependence on microbeams, clustered DNA damage, bystander effects, and radioadaptive responses, which are important factors in radiation sensitivity. Topics also include the effects of microgravity on the relative biological effectiveness of space radiation and the effects of solar ultraviolet particles. PMID:15887353

2004-12-01

365

Cardiac imaging: does radiation matter?  

PubMed Central

The use of ionizing radiation in cardiovascular imaging has generated considerable discussion. Radiation should not be considered in isolation, but rather in the context of a careful examination of the benefits, risks, and costs of cardiovascular imaging. Such consideration requires an understanding of some fundamental aspects of the biology, physics, epidemiology, and terminology germane to radiation, as well as principles of radiological protection. This paper offers a concise, contemporary perspective on these areas by addressing pertinent questions relating to radiation and its application to cardiac imaging. PMID:21828062

Einstein, Andrew J.; Knuuti, Juhani

2012-01-01

366

Space Radiation and Bone Loss  

PubMed Central

Exposure to ionizing radiation may negatively impact skeletal integrity during extended spaceflight missions to the moon, Mars, or near-Earth asteroids. However, our understanding of the effects of radiation on bone is limited when compared to the effects of weightlessness. In addition to microgravity, astronauts will be exposed to space radiation from solar and cosmic sources. Historically, radiation exposure has been shown to damage both osteoblast precursors and local vasculature within the irradiated volume. The resulting suppression of bone formation and a general state of low bone-turnover is thought to be the primary contributor to bone loss and eventual fracture. Recent investigations using mouse models have identified a rapid, but transient, increase in osteoclast activity immediately after irradiation with both spaceflight and clinically-relevant radiation qualities and doses. Together with a chronic suppression of bone formation after radiation exposure, this acute skeletal damage may contribute to long-term deterioration of bone quality, potentially increasing fracture risk. Direct evidence for the damaging effects of radiation on human bone are primarily demonstrated by the increased incidence of fractures at sites that absorb high doses of radiation during cancer therapy: exposures are considerably higher than what could be expected during spaceflight. However, both the rapidity of bone damage and the chronic nature of the changes appear similar between exposure scenarios. This review will outline our current knowledge of space and clinical exploration exposure to ionizing radiation on skeletal health. PMID:22826632

Willey, Jeffrey S.; Lloyd, Shane A.J.; Nelson, Gregory A.; Bateman, Ted A.

2011-01-01

367

Scintillator Waveguide For Sensing Radiation  

DOEpatents

The present invention is an apparatus for detecting ionizing radiation, having: a waveguide having a first end and a second end, the waveguide formed of a scintillator material wherein the therapeutic ionizing radiation isotropically generates scintillation light signals within the waveguide. This apparatus provides a measure of radiation dose. The apparatus may be modified to permit making a measure of location of radiation dose. Specifically, the scintillation material is segmented into a plurality of segments; and a connecting cable for each of the plurality of segments is used for conducting scintillation signals to a scintillation detector.

Bliss, Mary (West Richland, WA); Craig, Richard A. (West Richland, WA); Reeder; Paul L. (Richland, WA)

2003-04-22

368

Enhanced radiation resistant fiber optics  

DOEpatents

A process for producing an optical fiber having enhanced radiation resistance is provided, the process including maintaining an optical fiber within a hydrogen-containing atmosphere for sufficient time to yield a hydrogen-permeated optical fiber having an elevated internal hydrogen concentration, and irradiating the hydrogen-permeated optical fiber at a time while the optical fiber has an elevated internal hydrogen concentration with a source of ionizing radiation. The radiation source is typically a cobalt-60 source and the fiber is pre-irradiated with a dose level up to about 1000 kilorads of radiation. 4 figures.

Lyons, P.B.; Looney, L.D.

1993-11-30

369

Enhanced radiation resistant fiber optics  

DOEpatents

A process for producing an optical fiber having enhanced radiation resitance is provided, the process including maintaining an optical fiber within a hydrogen-containing atmosphere for sufficient time to yield a hydrogen-permeated optical fiber having an elevated internal hydrogen concentration, and irradiating the hydrogen-permeated optical fiber at a time while the optical fiber has an elevated internal hydrogen concentration with a source of ionizing radiation. The radiation source is typically a cobalt-60 source and the fiber is pre-irradiated with a dose level up to about 1000 kilorads of radiation.

Lyons, Peter B. (Los Alamos, NM); Looney, Larry D. (Los Alamos, NM)

1993-01-01

370

Radiation reaction in fusion plasmas.  

PubMed

The effects of a radiation reaction on thermal electrons in a magnetically confined plasma, with parameters typical of planned burning plasma experiments, are studied. A fully relativistic kinetic equation that includes the radiation reaction is derived. The associated rate of phase-space contraction is computed and the relative importance of the radiation reaction in phase space is estimated. A consideration of the moments of the radiation reaction force show that its effects are typically small in reactor-grade confined plasmas, but not necessarily insignificant. PMID:15600530

Hazeltine, R D; Mahajan, S M

2004-10-01

371

Space Radiation and Bone Loss.  

PubMed

Exposure to ionizing radiation may negatively impact skeletal integrity during extended spaceflight missions to the moon, Mars, or near-Earth asteroids. However, our understanding of the effects of radiation on bone is limited when compared to the effects of weightlessness. In addition to microgravity, astronauts will be exposed to space radiation from solar and cosmic sources. Historically, radiation exposure has been shown to damage both osteoblast precursors and local vasculature within the irradiated volume. The resulting suppression of bone formation and a general state of low bone-turnover is thought to be the primary contributor to bone loss and eventual fracture. Recent investigations using mouse models have identified a rapid, but transient, increase in osteoclast activity immediately after irradiation with both spaceflight and clinically-relevant radiation qualities and doses. Together with a chronic suppression of bone formation after radiation exposure, this acute skeletal damage may contribute to long-term deterioration of bone quality, potentially increasing fracture risk. Direct evidence for the damaging effects of radiation on human bone are primarily demonstrated by the increased incidence of fractures at sites that absorb high doses of radiation during cancer therapy: exposures are considerably higher than what could be expected during spaceflight. However, both the rapidity of bone damage and the chronic nature of the changes appear similar between exposure scenarios. This review will outline our current knowledge of space and clinical exploration exposure to ionizing radiation on skeletal health. PMID:22826632

Willey, Jeffrey S; Lloyd, Shane A J; Nelson, Gregory A; Bateman, Ted A

2011-01-01

372

Electromagnetic radiation by gravitating bodies  

E-print Network

Gravitating bodies in motion, regardless of their constitution, always produce electromagnetic radiation in the form of photon pairs. This phenomenon is an analog of the radiation caused by the motion of dielectric (or magnetic) bodies. It is a member of a wide class of phenomena named dynamical Casimir effects, and it may be viewed as the squeezing of the electromagnetic vacuum. Production of photon pairs is a purely quantum-mechanical effect. Unfortunately, as we show, the emitted radiation is extremely weak as compared to radiation produced by other mechanisms.

Iwo Bialynicki-Birula; Zofia Bialynicka-Birula

2008-04-06

373

RADIATION SAFETY COMMITTEE The Radiation Safety Committee shall advise the Provost on all policy matters relating to radiation safety;  

E-print Network

RADIATION SAFETY COMMITTEE Functions The Radiation Safety Committee shall advise the Provost on all policy matters relating to radiation safety; formulate campus radiation safety policies in compliance the Risk Manager) monitor the performance of the Radiation Safety Officer as it relates to implementation

Sze, Lawrence

374

THERMAL RADIATION The type of electromagnetic radiation that is pertinentThe type of electromagnetic radiation that is pertinent  

E-print Network

THERMAL RADIATION The type of electromagnetic radiation that is pertinentThe type of electromagnetic radiation that is pertinent to heat transfer is the thermal radiation emitted as a result is above absolute zero. Everything around us constantlyy emits thermal radiation. 5 The electromagnetic

Kostic, Milivoje M.

375

Radiation hormesis: Evidence for radiation stimulation and speculation regarding mechanisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionizing radiation is generally believed to be harmful at all levels of exposure, yet, the scientific basis for this assumption is weak to non-existent. Indeed, there is a considerable body of evidence which suggests the contrary, namely, that low doses of radiation, under certain circumtances, may be beneficial. This literature is reviewed, together with some suggested mechanisms.

Sagan, Leonard A.

376

Single brain metastases: surgery plus radiation or radiation alone.  

PubMed

We reviewed the records of patients treated for single brain metastases from non-small-cell lung cancer for 1978 through 1982. Forty-three patients received surgical treatment, including 37 who had surgery plus postoperative whole-brain radiation therapy and 6 patients who had surgery after failing to respond to radiation therapy. The surgically treated patients were matched with 43 patients treated with radiation therapy alone. The combined therapy group had significantly longer survivals than those treated with radiation therapy alone (19 months versus 9 months). The rates of local recurrence and neurologically related deaths were significantly higher in the radiation therapy-alone group. Patients treated with combined therapy survived longer, and the increased survival was due to lower recurrence of brain metastases after surgery and fewer neurologically related deaths. PMID:3008025

Patchell, R A; Cirrincione, C; Thaler, H T; Galicich, J H; Kim, J H; Posner, J B

1986-04-01

377

Radiation doses during CT fluoroscopy.  

PubMed

CT fluoroscopy (CTF) is a relatively new imaging modality that is particularly useful for performing complex biopsy procedures. Despite the obvious benefits, the potential exists to deliver considerable radiation doses to both the patients and medical staff. The purpose of our study was to quantify the radiation levels based upon typical clinical procedures. To assess the potential radiation risks, the patient radiation doses via the CT dose index (CTDI) method were measured during CTF for a GE Pro-Speed CT scanner using standardized head and body phantoms and a CT ionization chamber. The measurements were performed for a variety of kVp, mA, and slice thickness settings. To determine patient radiation doses, the CT kVp, mA, and total CTF scan times were recorded for various biopsy procedures. To determine the radiation doses to the hands of the radiologists, a radiation survey meter was used to measure the scattered radiation from standard phantoms. The effectiveness of various types of leaded gloves and shields were also determined. The measured CTDI values ranged from 20.4 cGy min(-1) to 63.1 cGy min(-1) of CTF. For a group of 78 patients, the clinically utilized imaging times varied from 13.0 to 407 s with an mean time of 96.6 s +/- 78.9 s (1 standard deviation). The scattered x-ray radiation at the position of the radiologists hands performing the biopsy procedures was measured to be 0.6 to 1.5 mGy min(-1). The thin leaded gloves provided a relatively minimal reduction in the scattered radiation to the hands between 11% and 44% dependent upon the kVp and the type of glove. However, floor mounted radiation shields reduced the scattered radiation levels to the body by 94% to 99%. In comparison to standard x-ray fluoroscopy, CTF employs much higher radiation dose rates due to the higher kVp, mA, and rotating geometry. It is important to minimize the radiation dose to patients and staff by limiting the imaging times, employing lower mA settings, and using appropriate radiation protection measures. PMID:11089804

Nickoloff, E L; Khandji, A; Dutta, A

2000-12-01

378

Nanoscintillators for radiation detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the search for faster, more effective methods for detection of and protection against radiological weapons, advances in materials for radiation detection are a critical component of any successful strategy. This work focuses on producing inexpensive, but highly sensitive, nanoparticle alternatives to existing single-crystal installations. Attention is given to particular types of promising inorganic scintillators: LaF3, yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG), and SrF2, each one an inorganic host doped with additional elements that encourage luminescent decay and increase effective Z-value. I examine the possible routes to synthesize these compounds, and the difficulties and benefits of each method. After synthesizing these materials, testing was performed to determine comparative performance against each other and commercial solutions, identify structural and compositional characteristics, and explore routes for fixing the scintillators into a detector assembly. The unifying goal is to develop a scintillating material suitable for consistent dosimetry and radio-isotope identification applications.

Hall, Ryan Gregory

379

Conduction, Convection and Radiation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the help of simple, teacher-led demonstration activities, students learn the basic concepts of heat transfer by means of conduction, convection, and radiation. Students then apply these concepts as they work in teams to solve two problems. One problem requires that they maintain the warm temperature of one soda can filled with water at approximately body temperature, and the other problem is to cause an identical soda can of warm water to cool as much as possible during the same thirty-minute time interval. Students design their solutions using only common, everyday materials. They record the water temperatures in their two soda cans every five minutes, and prepare line graphs in order to visually compare their results to the temperature of an unaltered control can of water.

Engineering K-Phd Program

380

Microanalysis using synchrotron radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SRIXE (synchrotron radiation induced X-ray emission) technique has been applied for several years in different fields of science. Since it has a number of useful advantages [1] it has been applied to microanalysis of thin tissue sections in order to investigate the trace element distribution in normal and cancerous kidneys. All the samples were surgically obtained in the Clinic of Urology at the Academy of Medicine in Cracow, Poland and were investigated in Hasylab at DESY, Hamburg, Germany with the synchrotron beam of 70 ?m × 100 ?m. Although only a few samples were measured so far, the results obtained seem to be promising. Enhanced trace element concentrations in cancerous parts of kidneys have been observed.

Kwiatek, Wojciech M.; Cichocki, Tadeusz; Galka, Marek; Paluszkiewicz, Czeslawa

1992-05-01

381

Stimulated radiative laser cooling  

E-print Network

Building a refrigerator based on the conversion of heat into optical energy is an ongoing engineering challenge. Under well-defined conditions, spontaneous anti-Stokes fluorescence of a dopant material in a host matrix is capable of lowering the host temperature. The fluorescence is conveying away a part of the thermal energy stored in the vibrational oscillations of the host lattice. In particular, applying this principle to the cooling of (solid-state) lasers opens up many potential device applications, especially in the domain of high-power lasers. In this paper, an alternative optical cooling scheme is outlined, leading to radiative cooling of solid-state lasers. It is based on converting the thermal energy stored in the host, into optical energy by means of a stimulated nonlinear process, rather than a spontaneous process. This should lead to better cooling efficiencies and a higher potential of applying the principle for device applications.

Muys, Peter

2007-01-01

382

RADIATION ASSOCIATED BRAINSTEM INJURY  

PubMed Central

Publications relating brainstem radiation toxicity to quantitative dose and dose–volume measures derived from three-dimensional treatment planning were reviewed. Despite the clinical importance of brainstem toxicity, most studies reporting brainstem effects after irradiation have fewer than 100 patients. There is limited evidence relating toxicity to small volumes receiving doses above 60–64 Gy using conventional fractionation and no definitive criteria regarding more subtle dose–volume effects or effects after hypofractionated treatment. On the basis of the available data, the entire brainstem may be treated to 54 Gy using conventional fractionation using photons with limited risk of severe or permanent neurological effects. Smaller volumes of the brainstem (1–10 mL) may be irradiated to maximum doses of 59 Gy for dose fractions ?2 Gy; however, the risk appears to increase markedly at doses >64 Gy. PMID:20171516

Mayo, Charles; Yorke, Ellen; Merchant, Thomas E.

2010-01-01

383

Martian atmospheric radiation budget  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer model is used to study the radiative transfer of the martian winter-polar atmosphere. Solar heating at winter-polar latitudes is provided predominately by dust. For normal, low-dust conditions, CO2 provides almost as much heating as dust. Most heating by CO2 in the winter polar atmosphere is provided by the 2.7 micron band between 10 km and 30 km altitude, and by the 2.0 micron band below 10 km. The weak 1.3 micron band provides some significant heating near the surface. The minor CO2 bands at 1.4, 1.6, 4.8 and 5.2 micron are all optically thin, and produce negligible heating. O3 provides less than 10 percent of the total heating. Atmospheric cooling is predominantly thermal emission by dust, although CO2 15 micron band emission is important above 20 km altitude.

Lindner, Bernhard Lee

1994-01-01

384

MHTGR confinement radiation releases  

SciTech Connect

Investigations of the chemical form and transport of two fission products released during selected modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) postulated accidents have resulted in the conclusion that estimated doses are reduced by as much as 30% when aerosol deposition and chemical species effects are included. Applying chemical equilibrium principles and collision theory, aerosol removal rates were calculated with MHTGR-NAUA, a modified version of the NAUA Mod-4 light water reactor aerosol analysis computer program. The effect of input assumptions on fission product release and off-site dose was then evaluated with the SCIMCA computer program. Preliminary estimates of radiation releases from an MHTGR during credible accidents are well below existing limits. These low estimated releases provide both a safety and an economic incentive for MHTGR development. For example, it is calculated that a non-pressure-retaining building, such as the confinement design shown could adequately protect the public from radiological releases.

Maneke, J.L.; Lanning, D.D.; Lidsky, L.M.; Oddo, J.M.; Baron, J.S.; Drozd, A.

1986-01-01

385

Appendix F. Radiation Annual Site Environmental Report  

E-print Network

. For example, cosmic radiation; radon in air; potassium in food and water; and uranium, thorium, and radiumAppendix F. Radiation #12;Annual Site Environmental Report Appendix F. Radiation F-3 Appendix F. Radiation This appendix presents basic facts about radiation. The information is intended to be a basis

Pennycook, Steve

386

DCTD — Radiation Research Program (RRP)  

Cancer.gov

Synopsis of partial-body radiation diagnostic biomarkers and medical management of radiation injury workshop. Prasanna PG, Blakely WF, Bertho JM, Chute JP, Cohen EP, Goans RE, Grace MB, Lillis-Hearne PK, Lloyd DC, Lutgens LC, Meineke V, Ossetrova NI, Romanyukha A, Saba JD, Weisdorf DJ, Wojcik A, Yukihara EG, Pellmar TC.

387

Radiation for Students and Teachers  

MedlinePLUS

... how big is your dose? Tools for Teachers in the Classroom Understanding Radiation in Your World: Teacher's Kit (PDF) (52 pp, 156 ... PDF ) This kit contains the book "Understanding Radiation in Your ... on CD (for classrooms without Internet access). Top of page

388

Coefficient of Meteor Plasma Radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a historical review of the problem of obtaining the meteor plasma radiation coefficient. Meteor spectrophotometry endures to fail in determining spectral line profiles, because an existing spectrograph has to give a monochrome image of the meteors instead of a spectral line. Therefore, it is rather difficult to take the self-absorption magnitude as affecting the decrease of radiation intensity

V. A. Smirnov

2000-01-01

389

Cardiovascular complications of radiation exposure.  

PubMed

The cardiovascular sequelae of radiation exposure are an important cause of morbidity and mortality following radiation therapy for cancer, as well as after exposure to radiation after atomic bombs or nuclear accidents. In the United States, most of the data on radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD) come from patients treated with radiation therapy for Hodgkin disease and breast cancer. Additionally, people exposed to radiation from the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, and the Chernobyl, Ukraine, nuclear accident have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The total dose of radiation, as well as the fractionation of the dose, plays an important role in the development of RIHD. All parts of the heart are affected, including the pericardium, vasculature, myocardium, valves, and conduction system. The mechanism of injury is complex, but one major mechanism is injury to endothelium in both the microvasculature and coronary arteries. This likely also contributes to damage and fibrosis within the myocardium. Additionally, various inflammatory and profibrotic cytokines contribute to injury. Diagnosis and treatment are not significantly different from those for conventional cardiovascular disease; however, screening for heart disease and lifelong cardiology follow-up is essential in patients with past radiation exposure. PMID:25290729

Finch, William; Shamsa, Kamran; Lee, Michael S

2014-01-01

390

Effects Of Radiation On Insulators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report presents data on responses of electrically insulating thermosetting and thermoplastic polymers to radiation. Lowest-threshold-dose (LTD) levels and 25-percent-change levels presented for such properties as tensile strength and electrical resistivity. Data on radiation-induced outgassing also given.

Bouquet, Frank L.

1988-01-01

391

Radiation Damage In Optical Fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical fibers provide important advantages over coaxial cables for many data trans-mission applications. Some of these applications require that the fibers transmit data during a radiation pulse. Other applications utilize the fiber as a radition-to-light transducer. In either case, radiation-induced luminescence and absorption must be under-stood.

Lyons, P. B.; Looney, L. D.; Ogle, J. w.

1983-11-01

392

CHEMICAL PROTECTION AGAINST IONIZING RADIATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent work on chemical protection against radiation effects in mammals ; is reviewed, especially with respect to whole-body exposure to external radiation. ; This survey shows that many explanations are being offered to account for the ; action of radioprotective agents. In general, the proposed mechanisms are ; concerned with inactivation of radicals and other chemical intermediates, ; depletion of

R. L. Straube; H. M. Patt

1963-01-01

393

A reflux tube fabric radiator  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alternative heat rejection system is possible that will meet survivability criteria while greatly enhancing space nuclear power systems. This alternative radiator design, the reflux tube fabric radiator, uses light weight high strength fabric materials, relies on an induced artificial gravity, and builds on the long established technologies associated with reflux tubes and thermosyphons, the predecessors of the modern microgravity

Edmund P. Coomes; Joseph M. Kelly

1988-01-01

394

Radiation carcinogenesis: radioprotectors and photosensitizers  

SciTech Connect

This paper outlines 1) some of the salient features of radiation carcinogenesis that are pertinent to the questions of how the carcinogenic effects might be influenced, 2) the effects of radioprotectors on ionizing radiation-induced cancer, and 3) the effect of photosensitizers on UVR-induced skin cancer.

Fry, R.J.M.

1982-01-01

395

Radiation Protection in Interventional Radiology (*)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interventional procedures are used by a significant number of medical specialities. Radiation protection (RP) for patients and staff is one of the main issues in Interventional Radiology (IR). UNSCEAR, ICRP and IAEA have devoted significant time over the last years to improve radiation safety in IR. Several combined factors: prolonged localized fluoroscopy, multiple radiographic exposures, and repeated procedures can cause

Eliseo Vano

396

Hawking radiation and Quasinormal modes  

E-print Network

The spectrum of Hawking radiation by quantum fields in the curved spacetime is continuous, so the explanation of Hawking radiation using quasinormal modes can be suspected to be impossible. We find that quasinormal modes do not explain the relation between the state observed in a region far away from a black hole and the short distance behavior of the state on the horizon.

SangChul Yoon

2005-10-03

397

Radiation damping, noncommutativity and duality  

E-print Network

In this work, our main objective is to construct a N=2 supersymmetric extension of the nonrelativistic $(2+1)$-dimensional model describing the radiation damping on the noncommutative plane with scalar (electric) and vector (magnetic) interactions by the N=2 superfield technique. We also introduce a dual equivalent action to the radiation damping one using the Noether procedure.

E. M. C. Abreu; A. C. R. Mendes; C. Neves; W. Oliveira

2008-08-05

398

Post radiation myofibrosarcoma of hypopharynx  

PubMed Central

Malignant tumours of myofibroblasts are rare lesions. Post radiation sarcoma is a rare potential late sequel of ionizing radiation. We present the first case of myofibrosarcoma of the hypopharynx in a 67-year-old man, occurring 16 years after radiotherapy for laryngeal carcinoma. PMID:24963937

Korampalli, T.S.; Mathew, Bipin; Stafford, N.D.

2013-01-01

399

Teaching about Natural Background Radiation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ambient gamma dose rates in air were measured at different locations (indoors and outdoors) to demonstrate the ubiquitous nature of natural background radiation in the environment and to show that levels vary from one location to another, depending on the underlying geology. The effect of a lead shield on a gamma radiation field was also…

Al-Azmi, Darwish; Karunakara, N.; Mustapha, Amidu O.

2013-01-01

400

Review Article RADIATION SHIELDING TECHNOLOGY  

E-print Network

Review Article RADIATION SHIELDING TECHNOLOGY J. Kenneth Shultis and Richard E. Faw* Abstract Physics Society INTRODUCTION THIS IS a review of the technology of shielding against the effects to the review. The first treats the evolution of radiation-shielding technology from the beginning of the 20th

Shultis, J. Kenneth

401

Pacific Northwest Solar Radiation Data  

E-print Network

Pacific Northwest Solar Radiation Data UO SOLAR MONITORING LAB Physics Department -- Solar Energy Center 1274 University of Oregon Eugene, Oregon 97403-1274 April 1, 1999 #12;Hourly solar radiation data Vignola Physics Department 1274 ­ University of Oregon Eugene, OR 97403-1274 Tel: (541) 346-4745 Email

Oregon, University of

402

Surgical Reconstruction of Radiation Injuries  

PubMed Central

Significance: Patients with cancer receive benefits from radiation therapy; however, it may have adverse effects on normal tissue such as causing radiation-induced ulcer and osteoradionecrosis. The most reliable method to treat a radiation ulcer is wide excision of the affected tissue, followed by coverage with well-vascularized tissue. As usual, radiation-induced skin ulcers are due to therapeutic irradiation for residual cancer or lymph nodes; the locations of radiation ulcers are relatively limited, including the head, neck, chest wall, lumbar, groin, and sacral areas. Thus, suitable reconstructive methods vary according to functional and aesthetic conditions. I reviewed the practices and surgical results for radiation ulcers over the past 30 years, and present the recommended surgical methods for these hard-to-heal ulcers. Recent Advances: At a minimum, flaps are required to treat radiation ulcers. Surgeons can recommend earlier debridement, followed by immediate coverage with axial-pattern musculocutaneous and fasciocutaneous flaps. Free flaps are also a useful soft tissue coverage option. The choice of flap varies with the location and size of the wounds. Critical Issues: The most crucial procedure is the complete resection of the radiation-affected area, followed by coverage with well-vascularized tissue. Future Directions: Recent developments in perforator flap techniques, which are defined as flaps with a blood supply from isolated perforating vessels of a stem artery, have allowed the surgeons to successfully resurface these difficult wounds with reduced morbidity. PMID:24761342

Fujioka, Masaki

2014-01-01

403

Radiation transport in diffractive media  

E-print Network

We consider radiation transport theory applied to non-dispersive but refractive media. This setting is used to discuss Minkowski's and Abraham's electromagnetic momentum, and to derive conservation equations independent of the choice of momentum definition. Using general relativistic kinetic theory, we derive and discuss a radiation gas energy-momentum conservation equation valid in arbitrary curved spacetime with diffractive media.

Mattias Marklund

2005-03-21

404

Radiated noise of ducted fans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The differences in the radiated acoustic fields of ducted and unducted propellers of the same thrust operating under similar conditions are investigated. An FEM model is created for the generation, propagation, and radiation of steady, rotor alone noise and exit guide vane interaction noise of a ducted fan. For a specified number of blades, angular mode harmonic, and rotor angular

Walter Eversman

1992-01-01

405

Radiation trapping in coherent media  

E-print Network

We show that the effective decay rate of Zeeman coherence, generated in a Rb87 vapor by linearly polarized laser light, increases significantly with the atomic density. We explain this phenomenon as the result of radiation trapping. Our study shows that radiation trapping must be taken into account to fully understand many electromagnetically induced transparency experiments with optically thick media.

A. B. Matsko; I. Novikova; M. O. Scully; G. R. Welch

2001-01-31

406

DCTD — Radiation Research Program (RRP)  

Cancer.gov

Based in large measure on the CDRP grantees and their mentors, the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) now has a robust Cancer Disparities Committee, and the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) has incorporated a symposium on health disparities into its annual meeting so that addressing health disparities is a strong focus of radiation oncology.

407

An introduction to solar radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book was written for energy analysts, designers of thermal devices, photovoltaic engineers, architects, agronomists, and hydrologists who must calculate an amount of solar radiation incident on a surface. Includes reading lists, diagrams, a subject index and tables with useful data. Contents, abridged: Sun-earth astronomical relationship. The solar constant and its spectral distribution. Extraterrestrial solar irradiation. Solar spectral radiation under

M. Iqbal

1983-01-01

408

The Physics of Radiation Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A plane circular area of radius 500 m is uniformly contaminated by a nuclide mixture due to radioactive fallout. The mean energy of the emitted gamma radiation is 1 MeV and the surface activity is . How large is the radiation exposure of a person over flying the area, along a diameter, in a helicopter at a constant velocity of

Andy Bradley

1996-01-01

409

Abdominal radiation causes bacterial translocation  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine if a single dose of radiation to the rat abdomen leads to bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). A second issue addressed was whether translocation correlates with anatomic damage to the mucosa. The radiated group (1100 cGy) which received anesthesia also was compared with a control group and a third group which received anesthesia alone but no abdominal radiation. Abdominal radiation lead to 100% positive cultures of MLN between 12 hr and 4 days postradiation. Bacterial translocation was almost nonexistent in the control and anesthesia group. Signs of inflammation and ulceration of the intestinal mucosa were not seen until Day 3 postradiation. Mucosal damage was maximal by Day 4. Bacterial translocation onto the MLN after a single dose of abdominal radiation was not apparently dependent on anatomical, histologic damage of the mucosa.

Guzman-Stein, G.; Bonsack, M.; Liberty, J.; Delaney, J.P.

1989-02-01

410

Radiation-resistant control system  

SciTech Connect

REMOTEC has developed a {open_quotes}radiation resistance{close_quotes} control system under a U.S. Department of Energy Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contract with assistance from the University of Florida. The SBIR goal was to develop a radiation resistant mobile robot from the ANDROS family of hazardous duty mobile robots that REMOTEC manufactures. See Refs. 1 and 2 for additional SBIR results. The control system, as well as the entire ANDROS robot, was redesigned, where necessary, to withstand radiation doses in excess of 10{sup 6} rad. Those components of the robot that could not be purchased as {open_quotes}radiation hardened{close_quotes} were tested under standard operating conditions for determination of their {open_quotes}radiation resistance.{close_quotes} The entire ANDROS robot was then assembled with these new components and tested to > 10{sup 6} rad.

Cable, T.C.; Jones, S. [Remote Technology Corporation, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1995-12-31

411

Anomalous absorption of electromagnetic radiation  

SciTech Connect

Transverse structure in a plasma at the critical layer can increase the coupling between electromagnetic and electrostatic waves and lead to enhanced absorption of the radiation. Simulations show cases of nearly 90% absorption of the incident energy. A ripple across the density gradient acts to focus the incoming electromagnetic radiation in the lower density regions coupling it to electrostatic modes through the transverse density gradients. A simple model of the absorption shows good agreement with the scalings observed in the computer simulations. Part of the reflected radiation is side scattered at {plus minus}{ital nk}{sub {ital t}}, where {ital k}{sub {ital t}} is the wave number of the transverse structure. This can reduce the directly backscattered radiation to 0.6% of the incident energy. Nonlinear coupling of the electrostatic waves leads to radiation at twice the incident frequency.

Rowland, H.L. (Space Plasma Branch, Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. 20375-5000 (United States))

1992-12-01

412

Transition Radiation in QCD matter  

E-print Network

In ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions a finite size QCD medium is created. In this paper we compute radiative energy loss to zeroth order in opacity by taking into account finite size effects. Transition radiation occurs on the boundary between the finite size medium and the vacuum, and we show that it lowers the difference between medium and vacuum zeroth order radiative energy loss relative to the infinite size medium case. Further, in all previous computations of light parton radiation to zeroth order in opacity, there was a divergence caused by the fact that the energy loss is infinite in the vacuum and finite in the QCD medium. We show that this infinite discontinuity is naturally regulated by including the transition radiation.

Magdalena Djordjevic

2005-12-22

413

Radiation Reaction in Quantum Vacuum  

E-print Network

From the development of the electron theory by H. A. Lorentz in 1906, many authors have tried to reformulate this model named "radiation reaction". P. A. M. Dirac derived the relativistic-classical electron model in 1938, which is now called the Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac model. But this model has the big difficulty of the run-away solution. Recently, this equation has become important for ultra-intense laser-electron (plasma) interactions. Therefore, it is desirable to stabilize this model of the radiation reaction for estimations. Via my recent research, I found a stabilized model of radiation reaction in quantum vacuum. This leads us to an updated Fletcher-Millikan's charge to mass ratio including radiation, de/dm, derived as the 4th order tensor measure. In this paper, I will discuss the latest update of the model and the ability of the equation of motion with radiation reaction in quantum vacuum via photon-photon scatterings.

Seto, Keita

2014-01-01

414

Radiation Reaction in Quantum Vacuum  

E-print Network

From the development of the electron theory by H. A. Lorentz in 1906, many authors have tried to reformulate this model named "radiation reaction". P. A. M. Dirac derived the relativistic-classical electron model in 1938, which is now called the Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac model. But this model has the big difficulty of the run-away solution. Recently, this equation has become important for ultra-intense laser-electron (plasma) interactions. Therefore, it is desirable to stabilize this model of the radiation reaction for estimations. Via my recent research, I found a stabilized model of radiation reaction in quantum vacuum. This leads us to an updated Fletcher-Millikan's charge to mass ratio including radiation, de/dm, derived as the 4th order tensor measure. In this paper, I will discuss the latest update of the model and the ability of the equation of motion with radiation reaction in quantum vacuum via photon-photon scatterings.

Keita Seto

2014-05-26

415

Radiation Emergencies: Stay Tuned and Learn How to Evacuate  

MedlinePLUS

... Evacuation Helping Others Questions About Radiation (FAQ) Radiation Dictionary Radiation Emergencies & Your Health Possible Health Effects Contamination and Exposure Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS) Cutaneous ...

416

Radiation Protection Program Environmental Health and Safety Department  

E-print Network

Radiation Protection Program 2012 Environmental Health and Safety Department #12;Radiation ................................................................................. 7 2.2. Radiation Emergency Procedures .................................................................................................. 11 3.2. Radiation Safety Officer

417

10 CFR 835.901 - Radiation safety training.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Radiation safety training. 835...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Radiation Safety Training § 835...Before receiving occupational dose during access...of the radiation safety training...

2011-01-01

418

Sound radiation quantities arising from a resilient circular radiator.  

PubMed

Power series expansions in ka are derived for the pressure at the edge of a radiator, the reaction force on the radiator, and the total radiated power arising from a harmonically excited, resilient, flat, circular radiator of radius a in an infinite baffle. The velocity profiles on the radiator are either Stenzel functions (1-(sigma/a)2)n, with sigma the radial coordinate on the radiator, or linear combinations of Zernike functions Pn(2(sigma/a)2-1), with Pn the Legendre polynomial of degree n. Both sets of functions give rise, via King's integral for the pressure, to integrals for the quantities of interest involving the product of two Bessel functions. These integrals have a power series expansion and allow an expression in terms of Bessel functions of the first kind and Struve functions. Consequently, many of the results in [M. Greenspan, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 65, 608-621 (1979)] are generalized and treated in a unified manner. A foreseen application is for loudspeakers. The relation between the radiated power in the near-field on one hand and in the far field on the other is highlighted. PMID:19813792

Aarts, Ronald M; Janssen, Augustus J E M

2009-10-01

419

Site Map | Radiation Research Program (RRP)  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Search this site Radiation Research Program (RRP) Last Updated: 05/15/14 Site Map Home About RRP Organizational Structure Clinical Radiation Oncology Branch Medical Physics Radiotherapy Development Branch Molecular Radiation Therapeutics

420

10 CFR 39.67 - Radiation surveys.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Radiation surveys. 39.67 Section 39.67 Energy ...Safety Requirements § 39.67 Radiation surveys. (a) The licensee shall make radiation surveys, including but not limited to the...

2011-01-01

421

10 CFR 39.67 - Radiation surveys.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiation surveys. 39.67 Section 39.67 Energy ...Safety Requirements § 39.67 Radiation surveys. (a) The licensee shall make radiation surveys, including but not limited to the...

2010-01-01

422

Contact RRP | Radiation Research Program (RRP)  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Search this site Radiation Research Program (RRP) Contact RRP Radiation Research Program (RRP) primary telephones & Fax: 240-276-5690 Main telephone number for Office of the Associate Director, Molecular Radiation Therapeutics Branch

423

10 CFR 36.29 - Radiation monitors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Radiation monitors. 36.29 Section 36.29...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR IRRADIATORS...Requirements for Irradiators § 36.29 Radiation monitors. (a) Irradiators...

2011-01-01

424

10 CFR 34.49 - Radiation surveys.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Radiation surveys. 34.49 Section 34...LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements § 34.49...

2012-01-01

425

10 CFR 39.67 - Radiation surveys.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Radiation surveys. 39.67 Section 39.67 ...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Radiation Safety Requirements § 39.67...

2012-01-01

426

10 CFR 36.57 - Radiation surveys.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radiation surveys. 36.57 Section 36...REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR IRRADIATORS...Operation of Irradiators § 36.57 Radiation surveys. (a) A...

2013-01-01

427

10 CFR 36.57 - Radiation surveys.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Radiation surveys. 36.57 Section 36...REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR IRRADIATORS...Operation of Irradiators § 36.57 Radiation surveys. (a) A...

2014-01-01

428

10 CFR 39.67 - Radiation surveys.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Radiation surveys. 39.67 Section 39.67 ...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Radiation Safety Requirements § 39.67...

2014-01-01

429

10 CFR 36.57 - Radiation surveys.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Radiation surveys. 36.57 Section 36...REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR IRRADIATORS...Operation of Irradiators § 36.57 Radiation surveys. (a) A...

2012-01-01

430

10 CFR 34.49 - Radiation surveys.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Radiation surveys. 34.49 Section 34...LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements § 34.49...

2014-01-01

431

10 CFR 36.29 - Radiation monitors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Radiation monitors. 36.29 Section 36.29...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR IRRADIATORS...Requirements for Irradiators § 36.29 Radiation monitors. (a) Irradiators...

2012-01-01

432

10 CFR 39.67 - Radiation surveys.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radiation surveys. 39.67 Section 39.67 ...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Radiation Safety Requirements § 39.67...

2013-01-01

433

Radiation Safety Committee Laser Use Registration Form  

E-print Network

Radiation Safety Committee Laser Use Registration Form Pulsed Duration (sec) Average Power: Pulse operating procedures and specific approval conditions required by the Radiation Safety Committee now of Radiation Safety Committee Chair Date #12;

de Lijser, Peter

434

10 CFR 34.49 - Radiation surveys.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radiation surveys. 34.49 Section 34...LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements § 34.49...

2013-01-01

435

14 CFR 25.1023 - Oil radiators.  

...Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Oil radiators. 25.1023 Section 25.1023 Aeronautics...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1023 Oil radiators. (a) Each oil radiator must be...

2014-01-01

436

14 CFR 23.1023 - Oil radiators.  

...Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Oil radiators. 23.1023 Section 23.1023 Aeronautics...ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 23.1023 Oil radiators. Each oil radiator and its...

2014-01-01

437

14 CFR 29.1023 - Oil radiators.  

...Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Oil radiators. 29.1023 Section 29.1023 Aeronautics...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1023 Oil radiators. (a) Each oil radiator must be...

2014-01-01

438

14 CFR 25.1023 - Oil radiators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil radiators. 25.1023 Section 25.1023 Aeronautics...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1023 Oil radiators. (a) Each oil radiator must be...

2010-01-01

439

PLASMA PHYSICS & RADIATION TECHNOLOGY Dutch Physical Society  

E-print Network

22nd SYMPOSIUM PLASMA PHYSICS & RADIATION TECHNOLOGY Dutch Physical Society Section Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics & Research school Center for Plasma Physics and Radiation Technology Nederlandse collaboration with the research school `Center for Plasma Physics and Radiation Technology' Members

Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

440

78 FR 5813 - 2013 Assuring Radiation Protection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...include: (1) Responding to radiation accidents or incidents...evaluating the adequacy of State radiation control programs; overseeing radiation laboratory capabilities...decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities; (4)...

2013-01-28

441

The risks of radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The risks of radioactivity are a really complicated matter, yet they are much better known than are the risks relating to thousands of chemical poisons that occur in our environment. The greatest mistakes are probably made in the definition of safety margins. Except for the bombs dropped in Japan and one other case in the Marshall Islands, there has always—luckily—been a wide safety margin between fallout radiation and doses dangerous to health; the margin has actually been about 1000-fold. The Chernobyl dose of 0.5 mGy/year that we received is only 1/1000 of the acute dose of 0.5 Gy which would cause a slight and nonpermanent change in the blood picture. There is no such safety margin with respect to many air pollutants. The safety standards for sulfuric or nitric oxides, ozone and so on, have been set only just below the level that already causes a health hazard, and these standards are exceeded once in a while. Otherwise, traffic would have to be forbidden and many industrial plants, especially power stations using coal, would have to stop working whenever a low-temperature inversion occurred. Environmental radioactivity does not represent a likely health risk in Finland unless a nuclear war breaks out. Air pollutants, on the contrary, are a real and almost daily health risk that should be carefully considered when decisions about our energy production are being made. In spite of what happened at Chernobyl, global consumption of nuclear power will double by the year 2000, since there are about 140 nuclear power plants presently under construction. It is not likely that another catastrophe like Chernobyl will happen, yet nuclear plant accidents are of course possible, even if their likelihood is diminished by improving reactor safety and even if any eventual damage could be expected to be smaller. If a reactor is hooded by a containment structure, no significant release of radioactive materials should be possible even in case of an accident. However, we must be prepared to protect the population with carefully planned civil defense and radiation protection measures.

Miettenen, Jorma K.

1988-01-01

442

Radiation Effects Research at IUCF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of the radiation effects research program at IUCF is to make available precisely calibrated doses of protons, neutrons, or other light ions for the study of radiation effects on technical hardware to be used in radiation environments. This work may include such studies as the observation of single event upsets in computer logic intended for space flight or satellite applications. Beam lines used in this work contain hardware to spread and collimate the beam, and to monitor low doses. Access for outside users is facilitated by joining the Indiana Radiation Effects Research Alliance. Applications of radiation effects also exist in materials science, involving, for example, the creation of pinning centers in superconducting material that trap and hold magnetic field. Radiation effects are studied in biological systems, such as Xenopus embryos, the mushroom Coprinus cinereus, RNase-P enzyme molecules, and human HeLa cells. Here damage and repair mechanisms are compared with comparable doses of gamma and neutron irradiation. Applications exist for this information in the areas of cancer research, radiation safety, and human space travel.

Cameron, J. M.

1996-10-01

443

Radiation-induced genomic instability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Quantitative assessment of the heritable somatic effects of ionizing radiation exposures has relied upon the assumption that radiation-induced lesions were 'fixed' in the DNA prior to the first postirradiation mitosis. Lesion conversion was thought to occur during the initial round of DNA replication or as a consequence of error-prone enzymatic processing of lesions. The standard experimental protocols for the assessment of a variety of radiation-induced endpoints (cell death, specific locus mutations, neoplastic transformation and chromosome aberrations) evaluate these various endpoints at a single snapshot in time. In contrast with the aforementioned approaches, some studies have specifically assessed radiation effects as a function of time following exposure. Evidence has accumulated in support of the hypothesis that radiation exposure induces a persistent destabilization of the genome. This instability has been observed as a delayed expression of lethal mutations, as an enhanced rate of accumulation of non-lethal heritable alterations, and as a progressive intraclonal chromosomal heterogeneity. The genetic controls and biochemical mechanisms underlying radiation-induced genomic instability have not yet been delineated. The aim is to integrate the accumulated evidence that suggests that radiation exposure has a persistent effect on the stability of the mammalian genome.

Kronenberg, A.

1994-01-01

444

Compton Sources of Electromagnetic Radiation  

SciTech Connect

When a relativistic electron beam interacts with a high-field laser beam, intense and highly collimated electromagnetic radiation will be generated through Compton scattering. Through relativistic upshifting and the relativistic Doppler effect, highly energetic polarized photons are radiated along the electron beam motion when the electrons interact with the laser light. For example, X-ray radiation can be obtained when optical lasers are scattered from electrons of tens-of-MeV beam energy. Because of the desirable properties of the radiation produced, many groups around the world have been designing, building, and utilizing Compton sources for a wide variety of purposes. In this review article, we discuss the generation and properties of the scattered radiation, the types of Compton source devices that have been constructed to date, and the prospects of radiation sources of this general type. Due to the possibilities of producing hard electromagnetic radiation in a device that is small compared to the alternative storage ring sources, it is foreseen that large numbers of such sources may be constructed in the future.

Geoffrey Krafft,Gerd Priebe

2011-01-01

445

Radiation-induced cardiovascular effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent epidemiological studies indicate that exposure to ionising radiation enhances the risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in a moderate but significant manner. Our goal is to identify molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cardiovascular disease using cellular and mouse models. Two radiation targets are studied in detail: the vascular endothelium that plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cardiac function, and the myocardium, in particular damage to the cardiac mitochondria. Ionising radiation causes immediate and persistent alterations in several biological pathways in the endothelium in a dose- and dose-rate dependent manner. High acute and cumulative doses result in rapid, non-transient remodelling of the endothelial cytoskeleton, as well as increased lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation of the heart tissue, independent of whether exposure is local or total body. Proteomic and functional changes are observed in lipid metabolism, glycolysis, mitochondrial function (respiration, ROS production etc.), oxidative stress, cellular adhesion, and cellular structure. The transcriptional regulators Akt and PPAR alpha seem to play a central role in the radiation-response of the endothelium and myocardium, respectively. We have recently started co-operation with GSI in Darmstadt to study the effect of heavy ions on the endothelium. Our research will facilitate the identification of biomarkers associated with adverse cardiac effects of ionising radiation and may lead to the development of countermeasures against radiation-induced cardiac damage.

Tapio, Soile

446

Radiation-induced lung injury  

SciTech Connect

The use of radiation therapy is limited by the occurrence of the potentially fatal clinical syndromes of radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis. Radiation pneumonitis usually becomes clinically apparent from 2 to 6 months after completion of radiation therapy. It is characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, and alveolar infiltrates on chest roentgenogram and may be difficult to differentiate from infection or recurrent malignancy. The pathogenesis is uncertain, but appears to involve both direct lung tissue toxicity and an inflammatory response. The syndrome may resolve spontaneously or may progress to respiratory failure. Corticosteroids may be effective therapy if started early in the course of the disease. The time course for the development of radiation fibrosis is later than that for radiation pneumonitis. It is usually present by 1 year following irradiation, but may not become clinically apparent until 2 years after radiation therapy. It is characterized by the insidious onset of dyspnea on exertion. It most often is mild, but can progress to chronic respiratory failure. There is no known successful treatment for this condition. 51 references.

Rosiello, R.A.; Merrill, W.W. (Yale Univ. Medical Center, New Haven, CT (USA))

1990-03-01

447

Test site suitability assessment for radiation measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field and attenuation methods for site suitability assessment for radiation measurements are presented. Attention is given to the IEC procedure for checking the suitability of radiation measurement site.

Borsero, M.; Nano, E.

1980-04-01

448

12.815 Atmospheric Radiation, Fall 2005  

E-print Network

Introduction to the physics of atmospheric radiation and remote sensing including use of computer codes. Radiative transfer equation including emission and scattering, spectroscopy, Mie theory, and numerical solutions. ...

Prinn, Ronald G.

449

Elements of Radiation Mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new rational mechanics is discovered,which includes the Newtonian as a subset and rests on 4 axioms of matter(Only gravitons and void exist in every body;Gravitons are identical,eternal and smallest parts of every body;Gravitons never touch one another;An elementary particle is a perfect turmoil of gravitons of spherical shape and an elementary vortex is a perfect vortex of gravitons of disk shape with gravitons revolving about a central elementary particle in same direction),3 axioms of radiation specifying how an elementary particle and an elementary vortex emit and absorb gravitons,and 3 axioms of motion(Conservation of linear momentum:The linear momentum is conserved in emission and absorption;Equilibrium of linear momentum:The mutual actions of two bodies are always in equilibrium:the forces on each body defined as the rate of unbalanced linear momentum transmitted to a body by emitting and absorbing gravitons,are of same magnitude and in opposite directions;Harmonization of angular momentum:The geometric sum of orbital angular momentums of all the bodies in a steady vortex is equal to the geometric sum of spin angular momentums).86 propositions are deduced.

Zhang, Yikun

2003-03-01

450

Treatment of radiation proctitis.  

PubMed

Late complications of pelvic radiotherapy occur in 5-20% of patients, particularly chronic radiation proctitis (CRP). Rectal bleeding is the most common symptom. Other symptoms include difficulty in defaecation or tenesmus because of loss of distensibility of the rectum or rectal structuring. Treatment options of CRP include oral therapy (5-aminosalicylates, metronidazole), rectal instillation therapy (hydrocortisone, sucralfate, 5-aminosalicylates, formalin), thermal therapy (argon plasma coagulation, heater probe or laser) and hyperbaric oxygen. It is difficult to recommend evidence-based therapy. There are no adequately powered studies of the treatment of CRP and most data are uncontrolled, non-blinded observation studies from single sites. There are no standard evaluation tools (including endoscopic grading, symptom scores and quality-of-life scores), adequate description of preceding radiotherapy dose or adequate follow-up in most studies. Many studies have poor documentation of complications and few are carried out prospectively. A pragmatic approach is to use sucralfate enemas and oral metronidazole. Thermal methods seem to be effective and safe. Simple heater probe treatment or argon plasma coagulation are the preferred methods due to their better safety profile. Intra-rectal formalin seems to be effective, but possibly has a higher rate of complications. For resistant disease, hyperbaric oxygen may be an option. PMID:17728120

Leiper, K; Morris, A I

2007-11-01

451

Ducted auroral kilometric radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Certain discrete, intense wave signals attributed to auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) were observed with ISEE-l while it was within the plasmaspheric shadow zone for direct propagation. It is believed that wave ducting by thin depletions of the plasma density aligned with the magnetic field accounts for such signals, and that their discrete nature is caused by the satellite intercepting individual ducts. These ducts, which were also observed as coincident decreases of the upper hybrid resonance frequency, appeared to be twenty-percent depletions roughly one hundred kilometers across. The AKR, which is emitted approximately perpendicular to the magnetic field, apparently entered these ducts equatorward of the source after the waves had been refracted parallel to the duct axis. A diffuse background was also observed which is consistent with the leakage from similar ducts at lower L-values. These observations establish the existence of ducted AKR, its signature on the satellite wave spectrograms, and new evidence for depletion ducts within the plasmasphere.

Calvert, W.

1982-01-01

452

Radiation Chemistry and the Radiation Preservation of Food.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes common features in the radiation chemistry of food components, and illustrates how product yields are predicted. Presents data that pertain to the radiolysis of the nitrate ion, metmyoglobin, myosin, and tripalmitin. (CS)

Taub, Irwin A.

1981-01-01

453

Ocular neuromyotonia after radiation therapy  

SciTech Connect

Ocular neuromyotonia is a paroxysmal monocular deviation that results from spasm of eye muscles secondary to spontaneous discharges from third, fourth, or sixth nerve axons. We observed this rare disorder in four patients who had been treated with radiation for tumors in the region of the sella turcica and cavernous sinus. Based on these cases and four others identified in the literature it would appear that radiation predisposes to a cranial neuropathy in which ocular neuromyotonia may be the major manifestation. Radiation appears to be the most common cause of ocular neuromyotonia.

Lessell, S.; Lessell, I.M.; Rizzo, J.F. III

1986-12-15

454

Sommerfeld radiation condition at threshold  

E-print Network

We prove Besov space bounds of the resolvent at low energies in any dimension for a class of potentials that are negative and obey a virial condition with these conditions imposed at infinity only. We do not require spherical symmetry. The class of potentials includes in dimension $\\geq3$ the attractive Coulomb potential. There are two boundary values of the resolvent at zero energy which we characterize by radiation conditions. These radiation conditions are zero energy versions of the well-known Sommerfeld radiation condition.

Erik Skibsted

2011-06-23

455

Supportive therapy in radiation oncology.  

PubMed

Measures for supportive care of the radiation therapy patient are presented. These include emotional support prior to and during the course of therapy facilitated by a written interview that allows the radiation oncologist to be a supportive communicator of realistic information. A discussion is made of the support of body tissues affected by combination radiation and chemotherapy. These tissues usually include skin, oral, esophageal and intestinal mucosa, and teeth. Means of maintaining nutritional support following weight loss of patients during therapy are described. PMID:402193

Rotman, M; Rogow, L; DeLeon, G; Heskel, N

1977-02-01

456

Radiation-induced genomic instability: radiation quality and dose response  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Genomic instability is a term used to describe a phenomenon that results in the accumulation of multiple changes required to convert a stable genome of a normal cell to an unstable genome characteristic of a tumor. There has been considerable recent debate concerning the importance of genomic instability in human cancer and its temporal occurrence in the carcinogenic process. Radiation is capable of inducing genomic instability in mammalian cells and instability is thought to be the driving force responsible for radiation carcinogenesis. Genomic instability is characterized by a large collection of diverse endpoints that include large-scale chromosomal rearrangements and aberrations, amplification of genetic material, aneuploidy, micronucleus formation, microsatellite instability, and gene mutation. The capacity of radiation to induce genomic instability depends to a large extent on radiation quality or linear energy transfer (LET) and dose. There appears to be a low dose threshold effect with low LET, beyond which no additional genomic instability is induced. Low doses of both high and low LET radiation are capable of inducing this phenomenon. This report reviews data concerning dose rate effects of high and low LET radiation and their capacity to induce genomic instability assayed by chromosomal aberrations, delayed lethal mutations, micronuclei and apoptosis.

Smith, Leslie E.; Nagar, Shruti; Kim, Grace J.; Morgan, William F.

2003-01-01

457

Medical applications of synchrotron radiation  

SciTech Connect

Ever since the first diagnostic x-ray was done in the United States on February 3, 1896, the application of ionizing radiation to the field of medicine has become increasingly important. Both in clinical medicine and basic research the use of x-rays for diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy is now widespread. Radiography, angiography, CAT and PETT scanning, mammography, and nuclear medicine are all examples of technologies developed to image the human anatomy. In therapeutic applications, both external and internal sources of radiation are applied to the battle against cancer. The development of dedicated synchrotron radiation sources has allowed exciting advances to take place in many of these applications. The new sources provide tunable, high-intensity monochromatic beams over a wide range of energies which can be tailored to specific programmatic needs. This paper surveys those areas of medical research in which synchrotron radiation facilities are actively involved.

Thomlinson, W.

1991-10-01

458

Structural/Radiation-Shielding Epoxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A development effort was directed toward formulating epoxy resins that are useful both as structural materials and as shielding against heavy-ion radiation. Hydrogen is recognized as the best element for absorbing heavy-ion radiation, and high-hydrogen-content polymers are now in use as shielding materials. However, high-hydrogen-content polymers (e.g. polyethylene) are typically not good structural materials. In contrast, aromatic polymers, which contain smaller amounts of hydrogen, often have the strength necessary for structural materials. Accordingly, the present development effort is based on the concept that an ideal structural/ heavy-ion-radiation-shielding material would be a polymer that contains sufficient hydrogen (e.g., in the form of aliphatic molecular groups) for radiation shielding and has sufficient aromatic content for structural integrity.

Connell, John W.; Smith, Joseph G.; Hinkley, Jeffrey; Blattnig, Steve; Delozier, Donavon M.; Watson, Kent A.; Ghose, Sayata

2009-01-01

459

Previously Undetected Radiation Belt Revealed  

NASA Video Gallery

Since their discovery over 50 years ago, the Earth'??s Van Allen radiation belts have been considered to consist of two distinct zones of trapped, highly energetic charged particles. Observations f...

460

Calculating Risk: Radiation and Chernobyl.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers who is at risk in a disaster such as Chernobyl. Assesses the difficulty in translating information regarding radiation to the public and in determining the acceptability of technological risks. (NKA)

Gale, Robert Peter

1987-01-01

461

FLYCHK Collisional-Radiative Code  

National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

SRD 160 FLYCHK Collisional-Radiative Code (Web, free access)   FLYCHK provides a capability to generate atomic level populations and charge state distributions for low-Z to mid-Z elements under NLTE conditions.

462

Anomalies, Horizons and Hawking radiation  

E-print Network

Hawking radiation is obtained from the Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m blackhole with a global monopole and the Garfinkle-Horowitz-Strominger blackhole falling in the class of the most general spherically symmetric blackholes $(\\sqrt{-g}\

Gangopadhyay, Sunandan

2008-01-01

463

Anomalies, Horizons and Hawking radiation  

E-print Network

Hawking radiation is obtained from the Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m blackhole with a global monopole and the Garfinkle-Horowitz-Strominger blackhole falling in the class of the most general spherically symmetric blackholes $(\\sqrt{-g}\

Sunandan Gangopadhyay

2008-09-26

464

Contact microscopy with synchrotron radiation  

SciTech Connect

Soft x-ray contact microscopy with synchrotron radiation offers the biologist and especially the microscopist, a way to morphologically study specimens that could not be imaged by conventional TEM, STEM or SEM methods (i.e. hydrated samples, samples easily damaged by an electron beam, electron dense samples, thick specimens, unstained low contrast specimens) at spatial resolutions approaching those of the TEM, with the additional possibility to obtain compositional (elemental) information about the sample as well. Although flash x-ray sources offer faster exposure times, synchrotron radiation provides a highly collimated, intense radiation that can be tuned to select specific discrete ranges of x-ray wavelengths or specific individual wavelengths which optimize imaging or microanalysis of a specific sample. This paper presents an overview of the applications of x-ray contact microscopy to biological research and some current research results using monochromatic synchrotron radiation to image biological samples. 24 refs., 10 figs.

Panessa-Warren, B.J.

1985-10-01

465

Radiation damage in optical fibers  

SciTech Connect

While plastic-clad-silica (PCS) fiber shows the greatest radiation resistance, PCS fiber has been difficult to reliably connectorize for routine field operations. For this reason, all-glass fibers have been studied as an alternative to PCS. Based on available literature and some preliminary tests at Los Alamos, we have concentrated on fluorosilicate clad, step index, pure silica core fibers. This paper reviews recent laboratory data for these fibers relative to the PCS fibers. This paper also discusses use of a fiber (or any optical medium) on a Cerenkov radiation-to-light transducer. Since the radiation induces attenuation in the medium, the light output is not proportional to the radiation input. The nonlinearity introduced by this attenuation is calculated.

Lyons, P.B.; Looney, L.D.; Ogle, J.W.

1983-01-01

466

Applied radiation biology and protection  

SciTech Connect

Written by two eminent expects in the field with many years of teaching experience between them, this book presents a concise coverage of the physical and biological basics of radiation biology and protection. The book begins with a description of the methods of particle detection and dosimetric evaluation. The effects of ionizing radiation on man are treated from the initial physico-chemical phase of interaction to their conceivable pathological consequences. Regulations, limits and safeguards on nuclear power plants, radioisotope installations and medical centers which make use of ionizing radiation are given and the risks of exposure to natural, industrial and scientific radiation sources evaluated. The final chapter takes a look at some of the more important nuclear accidents, including Windscale, Three Mile Island, and Chernobyl, and describes basic procedures to be carried out in the eventuality of a nuclear emergency. Twelve chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

Granier, R.; Gambini, D.J.

1990-01-01

467

Survivable pulse power space radiator  

DOEpatents

A thermal radiator system is described for use on an outer space vehicle, which must survive a long period of nonuse and then radiate large amounts of heat for a limited period of time. The radiator includes groups of radiator panels that are pivotally connected in tandem, so that they can be moved to deployed configuration wherein the panels lie largely coplanar, and to a stowed configuration wherein the panels lie in a stack to resist micrometerorite damage. The panels are mounted on a boom which separates a hot power source from a payload. While the panels are stowed, warm fluid passes through their arteries to keep them warm enough to maintain the coolant in a liquid state and avoid embrittlement of material. The panels can be stored in a largely cylindrical shell, with panels progressively further from the boom being of progressively shorter length. 5 figs.

Mims, J.; Buden, D.; Williams, K.

1988-03-11

468

Radiation: Facts, Risks and Realities  

MedlinePLUS

... outweigh the risks. Radiation in Industry and Commerce Nuclear Power Nuclear power reactors, which use uranium as fuel, supply the ... States with about 20 percent of its electricity. Nuclear power plant operations are tightly controlled, making nuclear energy ...

469

Doses from Medical Radiation Sources  

MedlinePLUS

... suggested below for some typical diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine studies. It is important to note that ... the machine used to produce the radiation, in nuclear medicine on the amount of activity administered and ...

470

Synchrotron radiation — 1873 to 1947  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1873 Maxwell's treatise "Electricity and Magnetism" made it clear that a changing electric current will emit electromagnetic radiation. By the turn of the century, J.J. Thomson was showing that currents in space could be carried by electrons; accordingly, it was reasonable to believe that electrons, when accelerated, would radiate. By 1912, the theory of radiation from accelerated electrons was worked out and buried in the literature. Radiation from accelerated relativistic electrons did not come into prominence again until the 1940's when, finally, it was observed at the Research Laboratory of the General Electric Company. This paper will discuss the early theoretical treatments and will describe the first observations with the G.E. 100 MeV betatron and 75 MeV synchrotron.

Blewett, John P.

1988-04-01

471

Radiation Therapy Side Effects Sheets  

Cancer.gov

Radiation therapy fact sheets that help patients understand their treatment and manage side effects. The fact sheets (also available in audio) have tips from patients and healthcare providers, and questions to ask providers.

472

DCTD — Radiation Research Program (RRP)  

Cancer.gov

Under this initiative, RRP is collaborating with NIAID, the lead institute at NIH for the development of biodefense countermeasures. NIAID’s research portfolio includes many in-depth studies of the immune system, which is especially vulnerable to radiation.

473

The earth's trapped radiation belts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The near-earth charged particle environment is discussed in terms of spacecraft design criteria. Models are presented of the trapped radiation belts and based on in-situ data obtained from spacecraft.

Noll, R. B.; Mcelroy, M. B.

1975-01-01

474

Survivable pulse power space radiator  

DOEpatents

A thermal radiator system is described for use on an outer space vehicle, which must survive a long period of nonuse and then radiate large amounts of heat for a limited period of time. The radiator includes groups of radiator panels that are pivotally connected in tandem, so that they can be moved to deployed configuration wherein the panels lie largely coplanar, and to a stowed configuration wherein the panels lie in a stack to resist micrometeorite damage. The panels are mounted on a boom which separates a hot power source from a payload. While the panels are stowed, warm fluid passes through their arteries to keep them warm enough to maintain the coolant in a liquid state and avoid embrittlement of material. The panels can be stored in a largely cylindrical shell, with panels progressively further from the boom being of progressively shorter length.

Mims, James (Albuquerque, NM); Buden, David (Albuquerque, NM); Williams, Kenneth (Albuquerque, NM)

1989-01-01

475

Chemical Protection Against Radiation Damage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses potential war time and medical uses for chemical compounds giving protection against radiation damage. Describes compounds known to protect, research aimed at discovering such compounds, and problems of toxicity. (EB)

Campaigne, Ernest

1969-01-01

476

Electromagnetic Dissociation and Space Radiation  

E-print Network

Relativistic nucleus-nucleus reactions occur mainly through the Strong or Electromagnetic (EM) interactions. Transport codes often neglect the latter. This work shows the importance of including EM interactions for space radiation applications.

John W. Norbury; Khin Maung Maung

2006-12-08

477

Simple dynamic electromagnetic radiation detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detector monitors gamma dose rate at particular position in a radiation facility where a mixed neutron-gamma environment exists, thus determining reactor power level changes. Device also maps gamma intensity profile across a neutron-gamma beam.

Been, J. F.

1972-01-01

478

MULTI-POINT RADIATION MONITOR  

SciTech Connect

A unique radiation monitor has been developed for performing wide-area field surveys for radiation sources. This device integrates the real-time output of multiple radiation detectors into a hand-held personal computer (e.g., a PDA) containing an intuitive graphical user interface. An independent hardware module supplies high voltage to the detectors and contains a rapid sampling system for transferring the detector count rates through an interface to the PDA. The imbedded firmware can be changed for various applications using a programmable memory card. As presently configured, the instrument contains a series of Geiger-Mueller (GM) tubes in a flexible detector string. This linear array of multiple sensors can be used by US Coast Guard and Customs container inspection personnel to measure radiation intensity in stacks of transport containers where physical access is impeded.

Hofstetter, K; Donna Beals, D; Ken Odell, K; Robert Eakle, R; Russell Huffman, R; Larry Harpring, L

2006-05-12

479

Mossbauer spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation  

SciTech Connect

The principles underlying observation of the Mossbauer effect with synchrotron radiation are explained. The current status of the field is reviewed, and prospects for dedicated experimental stations on third generation machines are discussed.

Alp, E.E.; Mooney, T.M.; Toellner, T.; Sturhahn, W.

1993-07-01

480

Radiation and Human Space Exploration  

NASA Video Gallery

Just outside the protective layer of Earth?s atmosphere and magnetosphere, is a universe full of radiation. What happens to our bodies when we leave the surface of Earth to travel in space or visit...

481

Issues in the Radiation Controversy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the competing claims of safe" radiation levels from nuclear power plants and analyzes some of the arguments used by protagonists and antagonists. Claims that the real question, Why more power?", is becoming obscured. (AL)

Tamplin, Arthur R.

1971-01-01

482

Optical radiation in modern medicine.  

PubMed

Optical radiation extends between microwaves and X-rays of the electromagnetic radiation and includes ultraviolet (UV), visible light (VL) and infrared (IR) components. The dose of radiation that reaches the skin is influenced by the ozone layer, position of the Sun, latitude, altitude, cloud cover and ground reflections. The photobiological effects of UV, VL and IR bands depend on their wavelength, frequency and mechanism of action. They are modified by the thickness, structure, vasculature and pigmentation of skin's stratum corneum, epidermis and dermis. Following absorption, IR affects the body mainly through transfer of thermal energy to tissues. Visible light and skin interact either thermally or photochemically, whereas UV acts mainly photochemically. Optical radiation in the form of sunlight therapy had been used already in ancient times. Nowadays IR, VL and UV are widely applied in the therapy of allergic, dermatological, cardiovascular, respiratory, rheumatic, neonatal, pediatric and psychiatric disorders. PMID:24278082

Sowa, Pawe?; Rutkowska-Talipska, Joanna; Rutkowski, Krzysztof; Koszty?a-Hojna, Bo?ena; Rutkowski, Ryszard

2013-08-01

483

Radiative-convective instability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

equilibrium (RCE) is a simple paradigm for the statistical equilibrium the earth's climate would exhibit in the absence of lateral energy transport. It has generally been assumed that for a given solar forcing and long-lived greenhouse gas concentration, such a state would be unique, but recent work suggests that more than one stable equilibrium may be possible. Here we show that above a critical specified sea surface temperature, the ordinary RCE state becomes linearly unstable to large-scale overturning circulations. The instability migrates the RCE state toward one of the two stable equilibria first found by Raymond and Zeng (2000). It occurs when the clear-sky infrared opacity of the lower troposphere becomes so large, owing to high water vapor concentration, that variations of the radiative cooling of the lower troposphere are governed principally by variations in upper tropospheric water vapor. We show that the instability represents a subcritical bifurcation of the ordinary RCE state, leading to either a dry state with large-scale descent, or to a moist state with mean ascent; these states may be accessed by finite amplitude perturbations to ordinary RCE in the subcritical state, or spontaneously in the supercritical state. As first suggested by Raymond (2000) and Sobel et al. (2007), the latter corresponds to the phenomenon of self-aggregation of moist convection, taking the form of cloud clusters or tropical cyclones. We argue that the nonrobustness of self-aggregation in cloud system resolving models may be an artifact of running such models close to the critical temperature for instability.

Emanuel, Kerry; Wing, Allison A.; Vincent, Emmanuel M.

2014-03-01

484

Hard Solar Flare Radiations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The space craft measurements during a solar flare demonstrate that electron precipitation with energy up to hundreds keV along the magnetic field lines to solar surface takes place. Precipitation of these particles on the solar surface is analogous with particle precipitation in aurora, but the energy in aurora is not so big. The thermal source of X-ray radiation in the corona appears above an active region. Such scenario of the flare is explained by electrodynamical solar flare model based on 3D MHD numerical simulation that demonstrate the energy accumulated in a current sheet can exceed 1e32 erg. The coronal source appears in the current sheet during fast energy release due to magnetic reconnection. The electron beams are accelerated in the field-aligned currents that generated by the Hall electric field produced in the current sheet. The development of neutron monitor data demonstrates two components of solar cosmic rays. The prompt cosmic ray component is generated during main energy release. This component consists of protons moving along the interplanetary magnetic lines. The exponential spectrum of these protons is in agreement with particle acceleration by the Lorenz electric field along the magnetic singular line in a current sheet. The similar effect has been observed in the laboratory experiments with high power discharge - pinch discharge. The similarity and difference of particle acceleration in a linear pinch effect and in the current sheet is discussed. The flares produce also a delayed component with power spectrum E^{-gamma} with gamma ~ 5. Such big gamma is difficult to explain by acceleration in a shock. Apparently, the delayed component spectrum is formed during particle diffusion in the turbulent magnetic field.

Podgorny, I.; Podgorny, A.; Vashenyuk, E.

2008-09-01

485

Mars Radiator Characterization Experimental Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiators are an enabling technology for the human exploration and development of the moon and Mars. As standard components of the heat rejection subsystem of space vehicles, radiators are used to reject waste heat to space and/or a planetary environment. They are typically large components of the thermal control system for a space vehicle or human habitation facility, and in some cases safety factors are used to oversize them when the operating environment cannot be fully characterized. Over-sizing can impose significant weight and size penalties that might be prohibitive for future missions. Radiator performance depends on the size of the radiator surface, its emittance and absorptance, the radiator temperature, the effective sky temperature surrounding the radiator, solar radiation and atmospheric irradiation levels, convection to or from the atmosphere (on Mars), and other conditions that could affect the nature of the radiator surface, such as dust accumulation. Most particularly, dust is expected to be a major contributor to the local environmental conditions on either the lunar or Martian surface. This conclusion regarding Mars is supported by measurements of dust accumulation on the Mars Sojourner Rover solar array during the Pathfinder mission. This Final Report describes a study of the effect of Martian dust accumulation on radiator performance. It is comprised of quantitative measurements of effective emittance for a range of dust accumulation levels on surfaces of known emittance under clean conditions. The test radiator coatings were Z-93P, NS-43G, and Silver Teflon (10 mil) film. The Martian dust simulant was Carbondale Red Clay. Results were obtained under vacuum conditions sufficient to reduce convection effects virtually to zero. The experiments required the development of a calorimetric apparatus that allows simultaneous measurements of the effective emittance for all the coatings at each set of experimental conditions. A method of adding dust to multiple radiator coupons was developed and shown to be capable of depositing dust on the surfaces with acceptable uniformity. In these experiments, the dust layer accumulates under earth gravity and in the presence of an earth atmosphere. An invention disclosure for the dust deposition apparatus is being filed through NASA and University of Houston.

Witte, Larry C.; Hollingsworth, D. Keith

2004-01-01

486

Radiation source for helium magnetometers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A radiation source (12) for optical magnetometers (10) which use helium isotopes as the resonance element (30) includes an electronically pumped semiconductor laser (12) which produces a single narrow line of radiation which is frequency stabilized to the center frequency of the helium resonance line to be optically pumped. The frequency stabilization is accomplished using electronic feedback (34, 40, 42, 44) to control a current sources (20) thus eliminating the need for mechanical frequency tuning.

Slocum, Robert E. (Inventor)

1991-01-01

487

Oral complications in radiation therapy.  

PubMed

The dentist is integral to managing care for patients with head and neck cancer. Oral complications may manifest during and/or following radiation therapy and can last for the lifetime of the individual. This article reviews a number of these complications as well as the resources available to dentists for managing care of radiation oncology patients and improving their quality of life. PMID:15055655

Harrison, Jody S; Dale, Robert A; Haveman, Carl W; Redding, Spencer W

2003-01-01

488

Forms of Approximate Radiation Transport  

SciTech Connect

Photon radiation transport is described by the Boltzmann equation. Because this equation is difficult to solve, many different approximate forms have been implemented in computer codes. Several of the most common approximations are reviewed, and test problems illustrate the characteristics of each of the approximations. This document is designed as a tutorial so that code users can make an educated choice about which form of approximate radiation transport to use for their particular simulation.

BRUNNER, THOMAS A.

2002-06-01

489

Two Radiative/Thermochemical Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of absorption and emission complement thermal measurements. Two laboratory instruments for research in combustion and pyrolysis equipped for radiative as well as thermal measurements. One instrument essentially differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) modified to detect radiation emitted by flames. Provides means to evaluate limits of flammability of materials exhibiting exothermic reactions in DSC's. Other instrument used to determine pyrolysis properties of specimens exposed to various gases by measurement of infrared absorption spectra of pyrolysis products.

Tapphorn, Ralph M.; Janoff, Dwight D.; Shelley, Richard M.

1990-01-01

490

Radiation-Associated Liver Injury  

SciTech Connect

The liver is a critically important organ that has numerous functions including the production of bile, metabolism of ingested nutrients, elimination of many waste products, glycogen storage, and plasma protein synthesis. The liver is often incidentally irradiated during radiation therapy (RT) for tumors in the upper- abdomen, right lower lung, distal esophagus, or during whole abdomen or whole body RT. This article describes the endpoints, time-course, and dose-volume effect of radiation on the liver.

Pan, Charlie C., E-mail: cpan@umich.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Kavanagh, Brian D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO (United States); Dawson, Laura A. [Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Li, X. Allen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Das, Shiva K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Miften, Moyed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO (United States); Ten Haken, Randall K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

2010-03-01

491

Radiation friction vs ponderomotive effect  

E-print Network

The concept of ponderomotive potential is upgraded to a regime in which radiation friction becomes dominant. The radiation friction manifests itself in novel features of long-term capturing of the particles released at the focus and impenetrability of the focus from the exterior. We apply time scales separation to the Landau-Lifshitz equation splitting the particle motion into quivering and slow drift of a guiding center. The drift equation is deduced by averaging over fast motion.

Fedotov, A M; Gelfer, E G; Narozhny, N B; Ruhl, H

2014-01-01

492

Cosmic radiation in commercial aviation.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the current knowledge of cosmic radiation and its applicability to commercial aviation. Galactic cosmic radiation emanates from outside the solar system, while occasionally a disturbance in the suns' atmosphere leads to a surge in radiation particles. Protection is provided by the suns' magnetic field, the earths' magnetic field, and the earths' atmosphere. Dose rates are dependent on the altitude, the geomagnetic latitude and the solar cycle. For occupational exposure to ionising radiation, which includes aircrew, the International Commission on Radiological Protection recommends maximum mean body effective dose limits of 20mSv/yr (averaged over 5 years, with a maximum in any 1 year of 50mSv). Radiation doses can be measured during flight or may be calculated using a computer-modelling program such as CARI, EPCARD, SIEVERT or PCAIRE. Mean ambient equivalent dose rates are consistently reported in the region of 4-5microSv/h for long-haul pilots and 1-3microSv/h for short-haul, giving an annual mean effective exposure of the order 2-3mSv for long-haul and 1-2mSv for short-haul pilots. Epidemiological studies of flight crew have not shown conclusive evidence for any increase in cancer mortality or cancer incidence directly attributable to ionising radiation exposure. Whilst there is no level of radiation exposure below which effects do not occur, current evidence indicates that the probability of airline crew or passengers suffering adverse health effects as a result of exposure to cosmic radiation is very low. PMID:18486066

Bagshaw, Michael

2008-05-01

493

Cataractogenic effects of proton radiation  

E-print Network

CATARACTOGENIC EFFECTS OF PROTON RADIATION A Thesis by James Ronald Kyzar Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1972 Major Subject...: Veterinary Physiology CATARACTOGENIC EFFECTS OF PROTON RADIATION A Thesis by James Ronald Kyzar Approved as to style and content by: (Char of Committee) (Head of Depar ent) (Membei / (Member (Member ) May 1972 ABSTRACT Cataractogenic Effects...

Kyzar, James Ronald

2012-06-07

494

Radiation hazards in scoliosis management  

SciTech Connect

Safe radiography in scoliosis management is based on a sound knowledge of 1) the radiographic imaging process, 2) the degree of risk to the patient from radiation exposure, and 3) the radiographic requirements to both evaluate and follow patients with spine deformity. This paper is a current review of the subject and work done at the authors' centers. It includes recommendations for reducing the radiation risk while maintaining necessary diagnostic information.

Drummond, D.; Ranallo, F.; Lonstein, J.; Brooks, H.L.; Cameron, J.

1983-10-01

495

Fluoroscopy-associated radiation dermatitis.  

PubMed

We present a 67-year-old man with an ulcerated, indurated plaque on the right mid back with a presumed diagnosis of morphea that was complicated by an allergic contact dermatitis. Further clinical and histopathologic data elucidated the diagnosis of fluoroscopy-induced radiation dermatitis. We present a brief review of the common locations, clinical characteristics, pathophysiology, and management options for fluoroscopy-induced radiation dermatitis. PMID:24365003

Mundi, Jyoti P; Kanchanapoomi, Melissa; Boyd, Kevin P; Patel, Rishi R; Kamino, Hideko; Cohen, David E

2013-12-01

496

Advances in applied radiation chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Applied radiation chemistry seems to take position between pure radiation chemistry and radiation processing. APPLIED means, by the dictionary such as Larouse, "related or turned to practical knowledge or use" and is differentiated from the pure one and its application. Pure science, however, stretches on a continuous line and becomes "turned to practical use" in the way of research, frequently far to the application over through the applied one. These continuities between the pure, the applied and the application of sciences may easily be connected over each other, sometimes by a scientific enthusiasm. Here the importance is correct distinction, but not simple discrimination. To-day in my presentation I would like to put main emphasis on APPLIED radiation chemistry but not exclude out simply PURE radiation chemistry and radiation PROCESSING. In addition, the word of ADVANCES means the progresses in the past, including some expectations in the future. The expectation is looked forward by the selection, connected with future applicability and with strongly individual character. The topics related to advances here in my talk shall be focused mainly for the works investigated in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) Laboratories from standpoint of my short experience.

Okamura, Seizo

497

Space radiation health program plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Radiation Health Program intends to establish the scientific basis for the radiation protection of humans engaged in the exploration of space, with particular emphasis on the establishment of a firm knowledge base to support cancer risk assessment for future planetary exploration. This document sets forth the technical and management components involved in the implementation of the Space Radiation Health Program, which is a major part of the Life Sciences Division (LSD) effort in the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). For the purpose of implementing this program, the Life Sciences Division supports scientific research into the fundamental mechanisms of radiation effects on living systems and the interaction of radiation with cells, tissues, and organs, and the development of instruments and processes for measuring radiation and its effects. The Life Sciences Division supports researchers at universities, NASA field centers, non-profit research institutes and national laboratories; establishes interagency agreements for cooperative use and development of facilities; and conducts a space-based research program using available and future spaceflight vehicles.

1991-01-01

498

Solar radiation potential in Turkey  

SciTech Connect

The primary input in solar energy applications is the solar radiation data. In places of interest, the long term correlations can be developed using the other meterological parameters. Bright sunshine hours are the mostly applied parameter. In this work, a quadratic equation of modified Angstrom type is used to estimate the global irradiances of the fifty stations in the country. These stations are located between 36/sup 0/ and 42/sup 0/ N latitudes. Moreover, the information of the beam and diffuse components of radiation on both the hourly and daily basis are necessary for the detailed system analyses. The general approach is to split the daily medium global radiation to its components, and to predict their hourly variations during a day. These values can also be converted to non-horizontal surfaces with the given inclination and orientation. To this end, there exist important relations deducted from the measured data. Among them the interrelationships of Liu and Jordon are applied to predict the hourly radiation components on any plane for the same fifty locations. The most significant computer output tables are collected to form a ''Solar Radiation Handbook of Turkey''. Any required information on solar radiation can be obtained in detail from these tables.

Tasdemiroglu, E.

1983-12-01

499

Radiation energy detector and analyzer  

SciTech Connect

A radiation detector array and a method for measuring the spectral content of radiation. The radiation sensor or detector is an array or stack of thin solid-electrolyte batteries. The batteries, arranged in a stack, may be composed of independent battery cells or may be arranged so that adjacent cells share a common terminal surface. This common surface is possible since the polarity of the batteries with respect to an adjacent battery is unrestricted, allowing a reduction in component parts of the assembly and reducing the overall stack length. Additionally, a test jig or chamber for allowing rapid measurement of the voltage across each battery is disclosed. A multichannel recorder and display may be used to indicate the voltage gradient change across the cells, or a small computer may be used for rapidly converting these voltage readings to a graph of radiation intensity versus wavelength or energy. The behavior of the batteries when used as a radiation detector and analyzer are such that the voltage measurements can be made at leisure after the detector array has been exposed to the radiation, and it is not necessary to make rapid measurements as is now done.

Roberts, T.G.

1981-09-15

500

Radiation Reaction and Thomson Scattering  

SciTech Connect

In recent years high power high irradiance lasers of peta-watt order have been or are under construction. In addition, in the next 10 years lasers of unprecedented powers, exa-watt, could be built If lasers such as these are focused to very small spot sizes, extremely high laser irradiances will be achieved. When electrons interact with such a laser, they become highly relativistic over very short time and spatial scales. Usually the motion of an electron under the influence of electromagnetic fields is influenced to a small extent by radiation emission from acceleration. However, under such violent acceleration the amount of radiation emitted by electrons can become so large that significant damping of the electron motion by the emission of this radiation can occur. In this lecture note we will study this problem of radiation reaction by first showing how the equations of motion are obtained. Then, we will examine the problems with such equations and what approximations are made. We will specifically examine the effects of radiation reaction on the Thomson scattering of radiation from counter-streaming laser pulses and high energy electrons through the numerical integration of the equations of motion. We will briefly address the fundamental physics, which can be addressed by using such high irradiance lasers interacting with high energy electrons.

Koga, James [Advanced Photon Research Center Japan Atomic Energy Agency Umemidai 8-1, Kizugawa City, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan)

2007-07-11