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Sample records for radiata bark pine

  1. Adsorption kinetics and equilibrium study of nitrogen species onto radiata pine (Pinus radiata) sawdust.

    PubMed

    Harmayani, Kadek D; Faisal Anwar, A H M

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen species (NH3-N, NO3-N, and NO2-N) are found as one of the major dissolved constituents in wastewater or stormwater runoff. In this research, laboratory experiments were conducted to remove these pollutants from the water environment using radiata pine (Pinus radiata) sawdust. A series of batch tests was conducted by varying initial concentration, dosage, particle size, pH, and contact time to check the removal performance. Test results confirmed the effectiveness of radiata pine sawdust for removing these contaminants from the aqueous phase (100% removal of NO3-N, and NO2-N; 55% removal of NH3-N). The adsorbent dosage and initial concentration showed a significantly greater effect on the removal process over pH or particle sizes. The optimum dosage for contaminant removal on a laboratory scale was found to be 12 g. Next, the adsorption kinetics were studied using intraparticle diffusion, liquid-film diffusion, and a pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order model. The adsorption of all species followed a pseudo-second order model but NO2-N adsorption followed both models. In addition, the kinetics of NO2-N adsorption showed two-step adsorption following intraparticle diffusion and liquid-film diffusion. The isotherm study showed that NO3-N and NO2-N adsorption fitted slightly better with the Freundlich model but that NH3-N adsorption followed both Freundlich and Langmuir models. PMID:27438245

  2. Amending pine bark with alternative substrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to a number of factors, pine bark supplies have significantly decreased over the past few years. While alternative substrates are being evaluated, many growers are asking if these alternative substrates can be used to stretch existing PB supplies. In this study, two alternative substrates, “Cl...

  3. Production, composition and toxicology studies of Enzogenol® Pinus radiata bark extract.

    PubMed

    Frevel, Mathias A E; Pipingas, Andrew; Grigsby, Warren J; Frampton, Chris M; Gilchrist, Nigel L

    2012-12-01

    Enzogenol® pine bark extract is a dietary supplement and food ingredient produced by water extraction of Pinus radiata. We present production method, composition, and safety data from rat and dog toxicological and human clinical studies. The dry powder contains proanthocyanidins (>80%), taxifolin (1-2%), other flavonoids and phenolic acids (up to 8%), and carbohydrates (5-10%). Reverse mutation assays showed lack of mutagenic activity. Single and 14-day repeat dosing in rats and dogs had no influence on body weight, feed consumption, blood chemistry, and haematology at any dose level. There were no treatment related findings on gross and detailed necroscopy, organ weights, organ weight ratios and histology. The only adverse events were emesis and diarrhoea in dogs occurring mainly in un-fed condition and at the highest dose level in a total of 18% of applications. The MTD and NOAEL in the present rat and dog studies were 2500 and 750 mg/kg/day, respectively. Consumption of 480 mg/day for 6 months and 960 mg/day for 5 weeks in two human studies showed Enzogenol® had no adverse influence on liver and kidney function, haematology, and did not cause any adverse events. Our studies indicate lack of toxicity of Enzogenol® and support safe use as a food ingredient. PMID:22982471

  4. Ophiostoma species (Ascomycetes: Ophiostomatales) associated with bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) colonizing Pinus radiata in northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Romón, Pedro; Zhou, XuDong; Iturrondobeitia, Juan Carlos; Wingfield, Michael J; Goldarazena, Arturo

    2007-06-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) are known to be associated with fungi, especially species of Ophiostoma sensu lato and Ceratocystis. However, very little is known about these fungi in Spain. In this study, we examined the fungi associated with 13 bark beetle species and one weevil (Coleoptera: Entiminae) infesting Pinus radiata in the Basque Country of northern Spain. This study included an examination of 1323 bark beetles or their galleries in P. radiata. Isolations yielded a total of 920 cultures, which included 16 species of Ophiostoma sensu lato or their asexual states. These 16 species included 69 associations between fungi and bark beetles and weevils that have not previously been recorded. The most commonly encountered fungal associates of the bark beetles were Ophiostoma ips, Leptographium guttulatum, Ophiostoma stenoceras, and Ophiostoma piceae. In most cases, the niche of colonization had a significant effect on the abundance and composition of colonizing fungi. This confirms that resource overlap between species is reduced by partial spatial segregation. Interaction between niche and time seldom had a significant effect, which suggests that spatial colonization patterns are rarely flexible throughout timber degradation. The differences in common associates among the bark beetle species could be linked to the different niches that these beetles occupy. PMID:17668036

  5. A functional–structural model for radiata pine (Pinus radiata) focusing on tree architecture and wood quality

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, M. Paulina; Norero, Aldo; Vera, Jorge R.; Pérez, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Backgrounds and Aims Functional–structural models are interesting tools to relate environmental and management conditions with forest growth. Their three-dimensional images can reveal important characteristics of wood used for industrial products. Like virtual laboratories, they can be used to evaluate relationships among species, sites and management, and to support silvicultural design and decision processes. Our aim was to develop a functional–structural model for radiata pine (Pinus radiata) given its economic importance in many countries. Methods The plant model uses the L-system language. The structure of the model is based on operational units, which obey particular rules, and execute photosynthesis, respiration and morphogenesis, according to their particular characteristics. Plant allometry is adhered to so that harmonic growth and plant development are achieved. Environmental signals for morphogenesis are used. Dynamic turnover guides the normal evolution of the tree. Monthly steps allow for detailed information of wood characteristics. The model is independent of traditional forest inventory relationships and is conceived as a mechanistic model. For model parameterization, three databases which generated new information relating to P. radiata were analysed and incorporated. Key Results Simulations under different and contrasting environmental and management conditions were run and statistically tested. The model was validated against forest inventory data for the same sites and times and against true crown architectural data. The performance of the model for 6-year-old trees was encouraging. Total height, diameter and lengths of growth units were adequately estimated. Branch diameters were slightly overestimated. Wood density values were not satisfactory, but the cyclical pattern and increase of growth rings were reasonably well modelled. Conclusions The model was able to reproduce the development and growth of the species based on mechanistic

  6. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) bark composition and degradation by fungi: potential substrate for bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Valentín, Lara; Kluczek-Turpeinen, Beata; Willför, Stefan; Hemming, Jarl; Hatakka, Annele; Steffen, Kari; Tuomela, Marja

    2010-04-01

    The composition of Scots pine bark, its degradation, and the production of hydrolytic and ligninolytic enzymes were evaluated during 90 days of incubation with Phanerochaete velutina and Stropharia rugosoannulata. The aim was to evaluate if pine bark can be a suitable fungal substrate for bioremediation applications. The original pine bark contained 45% lignin, 25% cellulose, and 15% hemicellulose. Resin acids were the most predominant lipophilic extractives, followed by sitosterol and unsaturated fatty acids, such as linoleic and oleic acids. Both fungi degraded all main components of bark, specially cellulose (79% loss by P. velutina). During cultivation on pine bark, fungi also degraded sitosterol, produced malic acid, and oxidated unsaturated fatty acids. The most predominant enzymes produced by both fungi were cellulase and manganese peroxidase. The results indicate that Scots pine bark supports enzyme production and provides nutrients to fungi, thus pine bark may be suitable fungal substrate for bioremediation. PMID:20005699

  7. Family 34 glycosyltransferase (GT34) genes and proteins in Pinus radiata (radiata pine) and Pinus taeda (loblolly pine).

    PubMed

    Ade, Carsten P; Bemm, Felix; Dickson, James M J; Walter, Christian; Harris, Philip J

    2014-04-01

    Using a functional genomics approach, four candidate genes (PtGT34A, PtGT34B, PtGT34C and PtGT34D) were identified in Pinus taeda. These genes encode CAZy family GT34 glycosyltransferases that are involved in the synthesis of cell-wall xyloglucans and heteromannans. The full-length coding sequences of three orthologs (PrGT34A, B and C) were isolated from a xylem-specific cDNA library from the closely related Pinus radiata. PrGT34B is the ortholog of XXT1 and XXT2, the two main xyloglucan (1→6)-α-xylosyltransferases in Arabidopsis thaliana. PrGT34C is the ortholog of XXT5 in A. thaliana, which is also involved in the xylosylation of xyloglucans. PrGT34A is an ortholog of a galactosyltransferase from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) that is involved in galactomannan synthesis. Truncated coding sequences of the genes were cloned into plasmid vectors and expressed in a Sf9 insect cell-culture system. The heterologous proteins were purified, and in vitro assays showed that, when incubated with UDP-xylose and cellotetraose, cellopentaose or cellohexaose, PrGT34B showed xylosyltransferase activity, and, when incubated with UDP-galactose and the same cello-oligosaccharides, PrGT34B showed some galactosyltransferase activity. The ratio of xylosyltransferase to galactosyltransferase activity was 434:1. Hydrolysis of the galactosyltransferase reaction products using galactosidases showed the linkages formed were α-linkages. Analysis of the products of PrGT34B by MALDI-TOF MS showed that up to three xylosyl residues were transferred from UDP-xylose to cellohexaose. The heterologous proteins PrGT34A and PrGT34C showed no detectable enzymatic activity. PMID:24517843

  8. Phototactic Behavior of the Armand Pine Bark Weevil, Pissodes punctatus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, You; Luo, Chang W.; Kuang, Rong P.; Li, Hong W.; Chen, Zheng; Liu, Ying J.

    2013-01-01

    The Armand pine bark weevil, Pissodes punctatus Langor et Zhang (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a destructive bark weevil on the Armand pine, Pinus armandii Franch (Pinales: Pinaceae), an important timbering tree in southern China. This study examined the phototactic behavior ïéP. punctatus through observation of behavioral characteristics, response to nine monochromatic lights (ranging from 340 nm to 689 nm with about 40-nm step), and response to five intensities (ranging from 1 lux to 200 lux) of the most attractive light. The results demonstrated that P. punctatus was most active in the day, and kept still at night (or in a dark room). P. punctatus could be attracted to eight of nine monochromatic lights, the exception being red light (649 nm), which implied broad sensitivity to the spectrum of light. P. punctatus was most sensitive to violet (415 nm), ultraviolet (340 nm), and green (504 nm) light, suggesting there might be at least three types of photoreceptors in the compound eyes of this weevil. Furthermore, low intensities elicited an increased phototactic response, and high intensities a decreased phototactic response, under both violet and UV light. Thus, P. punctatus were found to be phototactic insects, and the phototactic behavior of P. punctatus is both a color and intensity preference. The information provided here provides a basis for the improvement of trapping devices for detection and survey of P. punctatus, as well as a basis for the development of alternate control strategies for this important pest of Armand pine and other pine trees. PMID:23879189

  9. Improved cognitive performance after dietary supplementation with a Pinus radiata bark extract formulation.

    PubMed

    Pipingas, Andrew; Silberstein, Richard B; Vitetta, Luis; Rooy, Cindy Van; Harris, Elizabeth V; Young, Joanna M; Frampton, Christopher M; Sali, Avni; Nastasi, Joseph

    2008-09-01

    Dietary interventions may have the potential to counter age-related cognitive decline. Studies have demonstrated an improvement in age-related cognitive impairment in animals after supplementation with plant extracts containing flavonoids but there are few human studies. This double-blind, controlled study examined the effects on cognitive performance of a 5 week supplementation with Enzogenol Pinus radiata bark extract containing flavonoids, in 42 males aged 50-65 years, with a body mass index >25. Participants were supplemented for 5 weeks either with Enzogenol plus vitamin C, or with vitamin C only. A battery of computerized cognitive tests was administered, and cardiovascular and haematological parameters were assessed prior to and following supplementation. The speed of response for the spatial working memory and immediate recognition tasks improved after supplementation with Enzogenol plus vitamin C, whereas vitamin C alone showed no improvements. A trend in a reduction of systolic blood pressure was observed with Enzogenol plus vitamin C, but not with vitamin C alone. The blood safety parameters were unchanged. The findings suggest a beneficial effect of supplementation with Enzogenol on cognition in older individuals. Larger studies are needed to ascertain its potential as a preventive treatment for age-related cognitive decline. PMID:18683195

  10. Extending pine bark supplies with wholetree and clean chip residual substrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited supplies of pine bark (PB) due to a number of reasons over the past several years has caused concern among many nursery producers. This study was developed to evaluate varying ratios of pine bark (PB) with clean chip residual (CCR) or WholeTree substrate (WT), in order to assist growers with...

  11. Biotransformation of pink water TNT on the surface of a low-cost adsorbent pine bark.

    PubMed

    Chusova, O; Nõlvak, H; Odlare, M; Truu, J; Truu, M; Oopkaup, K; Nehrenheim, E

    2015-09-01

    This two-week anaerobic batch study evaluated 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) removal efficiency from industrial pink water by (1) adsorption on low-cost adsorbent pine bark, and (2) adsorption coupled with TNT biotransformation by specialised microbial communities. Samples of the supernatant and acetonitrile extracts of pine bark were analysed by HPLC, while the composition of the bacterial community of the experimental batches, inocula and pine bark were profiled by high-throughput sequencing the V6 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Integrated adsorption and biotransformation proved to be the most efficient method for TNT removal from pink water. The type of applied inoculum had a profound effect on TNT removal efficiencies and microbial community structures, which were dominated by phylotypes belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. The analysis of acetonitrile extracts of pine bark supported the hypothesis that the microbial community indigenous to pine bark has the ability to degrade TNT. PMID:26142875

  12. Physiological responses of radiata pine roots to soil strength and soil water deficit.

    PubMed

    Zou, Chris; Sands, Roger; Sun, Osbert

    2000-11-01

    We investigated physiological responses of radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) roots to soil strength and soil water deficit by measuring the osmotic potential (Psi(pi)) and yield turgor (Y) in the elongation zone of root segments of seedlings growing (i) in polyethylene glycol 4000-containing rooting solution of different water potentials (Psi(s)) and (ii) in soil of different soil strengths (Q) at the same soil matric potential (Psi(m)). Root elongation rate (Deltal/Deltat) decreased progressively with decreasing Psi(s) and was associated with decreased Psi(pi) and decreased turgor pressure (P). Osmotic adjustment occurred at Psi(s) < -0.2 MPa. Over a range in Psi(s) of -0.01 to -1.0 MPa, Psi(pi) fell 0.3 MPa whereas P fell 0.7 MPa. Mean Psi in the solution experiment was 0.37 MPa and did not differ significantly with Psi(s) (P = 0.10). Root elongation rate decreased exponentially as Q increased from 0 to 3.0 MPa, and was associated with an increase in P of 0.11 MPa as a consequence of Psi(pi) decreasing by the same amount. Mean Y in the soil experiment was 0.49 MPa and did not change significantly with Q (P = 0.87). PMID:12651497

  13. Ecological impacts of long-term application of biosolids to a radiata pine plantation.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jianming; Kimberley, Mark O; Ross, Craig; Gielen, Gerty; Tremblay, Louis A; Champeau, Olivier; Horswell, Jacqui; Wang, Hailong

    2015-10-15

    Assessment of the ecological impact of applying biosolids is important for determining both the risks and benefits. This study investigated the impact on soil physical, chemical and biological properties, tree nutrition and growth of long-term biosolids applications to a radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) plantation growing on a Sandy Raw Soil in New Zealand. Biosolids were applied to the trial site every 3 years from tree age 6 to 19 years at three application rates: 0 (Control), 300 (Standard) and 600 (High) kg nitrogen (N) ha(-1), equivalent to 0, 3 and 6 Mg ha(-1) of dry biosolids, respectively. Tree nutrition status and growth have been monitored annually. Soil samples were collected 13 years after the first biosolids application to assess the soil properties and functioning. Both the Standard and High biosolids treatments significantly increased soil (0-50 cm depth) total carbon (C), N, and phosphorus (P), Olsen P and cation exchange capacity (CEC), reduced soil pH, but had no significant effects on soil (0-20 cm depth) physical properties including bulk density, total porosity and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. The High biosolids treatment also increased concentrations of soil total cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) at 25-50 cm depth, but these concentrations were still considered very low for a soil. Ecotoxicological assessment showed no significant adverse effects of biosolids application on either the reproduction of springtails (Folsomia candida) or substrate utilisation ability of the soil microbial community, indicating no negative ecological impact of bisolids-derived heavy metals or triclosan. This study demonstrated that repeated application of biosolids to a plantation forest on a poor sandy soil could significantly improve soil fertility, tree nutrition and pine productivity. However, the long-term fate of biosolids-derived N, P and litter-retained heavy metals needs to be further monitored in the receiving environment

  14. Enhanced sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from aqueous solution by modified pine bark.

    PubMed

    Li, Yungui; Chen, Baoliang; Zhu, Lizhong

    2010-10-01

    To enhance removal efficiency of natural sorbent with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), single-solute and bi-solute sorption of phenanthrene and pyrene onto raw and modified pine bark were investigated. Pine bark was modified using Soxhlet extraction, saponification and acid hydrolysis, yielding six bark fractions with different chemical compositions. Raw pine bark exhibited high affinities with PAHs, and sorption was dominated by partitioning. The relatively nonlinear sorption isotherms of modified bark were attributed to the specific interaction between sorbate and aromatic core of sorbent. Comparison with lipid and suberin, lignin was the most powerful sorption medium, but which was almost completely suppressed by coexisting polysaccharide. After consuming polysaccharide by acid hydrolysis, sorption of pine bark fractions was notably increased (4-17 folds); and sorption of pyrene just decreased 16-34% with phenanthrene as a competitor. These observations suggest that pine bark is of great potential for PAHs removal and can be significantly promoted by acid hydrolysis for environmental application. PMID:20576561

  15. Enhanced sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from aqueous solution by modified pine bark.

    PubMed

    Li, Yungui; Chen, Baoliang; Zhu, Lizhong

    2010-10-01

    To enhance removal efficiency of natural sorbent with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), single-solute and bi-solute sorption of phenanthrene and pyrene onto raw and modified pine bark were investigated. Pine bark was modified using Soxhlet extraction, saponification and acid hydrolysis, yielding six bark fractions with different chemical compositions. Raw pine bark exhibited high affinities with PAHs, and sorption was dominated by partitioning. The relatively nonlinear sorption isotherms of modified bark were attributed to the specific interaction between sorbate and aromatic core of sorbent. Comparison with lipid and suberin, lignin was the most powerful sorption medium, but which was almost completely suppressed by coexisting polysaccharide. After consuming polysaccharide by acid hydrolysis, sorption of pine bark fractions was notably increased (4-17 folds); and sorption of pyrene just decreased 16-34% with phenanthrene as a competitor. These observations suggest that pine bark is of great potential for PAHs removal and can be significantly promoted by acid hydrolysis for environmental application. PMID:20578284

  16. Preclinical evaluation of rapeseed, raspberry, and pine bark phenolics for health related effects.

    PubMed

    Vuorela, Satu; Kreander, Kari; Karonen, Maarit; Nieminen, Riina; Hämäläinen, Mari; Galkin, Anna; Laitinen, Leena; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Moilanen, Eeva; Pihlaja, Kalevi; Vuorela, Heikki; Vuorela, Pia; Heinonen, Marina

    2005-07-27

    Rapeseed, raspberry, and pine bark are promising bioactive sources of plant phenolics selected from among ca. 100 previously screened plant materials for in vitro preclinical evaluation of health related effects. Phenolic extracts and isolated fractions of the selected materials were investigated for antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, and antimutagenic properties as well as for cell permeability. It was shown that rapeseed and pine bark phenolics and raspberry anthocyanins were good or excellent antioxidants toward oxidation of phosphatidylcholine membrane (liposomes), rapeseed oil (crude) phenolics were effective radical scavengers (DPPH test), and both raspberry and pine bark phenolics inhibited LDL oxidation. Rapeseed oil phenolics, principally vinylsyringol, raspberry anthocyanins, and pinoresinol and matairesinol, the principal components of pine bark phenolic isolate, were effective against formation of the proinflammatory mediator, prostaglandin E(2). Raspberry ellagitannins inhibited the growth of Proteus mirabilis and Klebsiella oxytoca. Pine bark and rapeseed had minor effects on the permeability of model drugs in Caco-2 experiments. None of the tested extracts were mutagenic nor toxic to Caco-2 cells or macrophages. Thus, phenolic isolates from rapeseed, raspberry, and pine bark and are safe and bioactive for possible food applications including functional foods intended for health benefit. PMID:16028975

  17. Effects of compaction and simulated root channels in the subsoil on root development, water uptake and growth of radiata pine.

    PubMed

    Nambiar, E K; Sands, R

    1992-04-01

    Effects of subsoil compaction and simulated root channels (perforations) through the compacted layer on root growth, water uptake, foliar nutrient concentration and growth of radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) were studied in a field experiment where a range of treatments were applied in reconstituted soil profiles. Subsoil compaction adversely affected root penetration in deeper parts of the soil and consequently caused greater water stress in trees. However, the effect of compaction was largely overcome when the subsoil was perforated to render 0.2% of the soil volume into vertical channels. Roots showed a remarkable ability to reach the points of low penetration strength and to travel through them to deeper parts of the profile. Perforations through compacted soil layers at a relatively low frequency may be a practical solution to allow root development into deeper parts of the soil and allow greater soil water exploration by roots. PMID:14969986

  18. Effective pine bark composting with the Dome Aeration Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Trois, Cristina . E-mail: troisc@ukzn.ac.za; Polster, Andreas

    2007-07-01

    In South Africa garden refuse is primarily disposed of in domestic landfills. Due to the large quantities generated, any form of treatment would be beneficial for volume reduction, waste stabilization and resource recovery. Dome Aeration Technology (DAT) is an advanced process for aerobic biological degradation of garden refuse and general waste [Paar, S., Brummack, J., Gemende, B., 1999a. Advantages of dome aeration in mechanical-biological waste treatment. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, Cagliari, 4-8 October 1999; Paar, S., Brummack, J., Gemende, B., 1999b. Mechanical-biological waste stabilization by the dome aeration method. Environment Protection Engineering 25 (3/99). Mollekopf, N., Brummack, J., Paar, S., Vorster, K., 2002. Use of the Dome Aeration Technology for biochemical stabilization of waste prior to landfilling. In: Proceedings of the Wastecon 2002, Waste Congress and Exhibition, Durban, South Africa.]. It is a non-reactor open windrow composting process, with the main advantage being that the input material needs no periodic turning. A rotting time of only 3-4 months indicates the high efficiency. Additionally, the low capital/operational costs, low energy inputs and limited plant requirements provide potential for use in aerobic refuse stabilization. The innovation in the DAT process is the passive aeration achieved by thermally driven advection through open windrows caused by temperature differences between the degrading material and the outside environment. This paper investigates the application of Dome Aeration Technology to pine bark composting as part of an integrated waste management strategy. A full-scale field experiment was performed at the Bisasar Road Landfill Site in Durban to assess the influence of climate, waste composition and operational conditions on the process. A test windrow was constructed and measurements of temperature and airflow through the material were taken. The process

  19. Characterization of the photosynthetic apparatus in cortical bark chlorenchyma of Scots pine.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Alexander G; Krol, Marianna; Sveshnikov, Dimitri; Malmberg, Gunilla; Gardeström, Per; Hurry, Vaughan; Oquist, Gunnar; Huner, Norman P A

    2006-05-01

    Winter-induced inhibition of photosynthesis in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles is accompanied by a 65% reduction of the maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII), measured as Fv/Fm, but relatively stable photosystem I (PSI) activity. In contrast, the photochemical efficiency of PSII in bark chlorenchyma of Scots pine twigs was shown to be well preserved, while PSI capacity was severely decreased. Low-temperature (77 K) chlorophyll fluorescence measurements also revealed lower relative fluorescence intensity emitted from PSI in bark chlorenchyma compared to needles regardless of the growing season. Nondenaturating SDS-PAGE analysis of the chlorophyll-protein complexes also revealed much lower abundance of LHCI and the CPI band related to light harvesting and the core complex of PSI, respectively, in bark chlorenchyma. These changes were associated with a 38% reduction in the total amount of chlorophyll in the bark chlorenchyma relative to winter needles, but the Chl a/b ratio and carotenoid composition were similar in the two tissues. As distinct from winter pine needles exhibiting ATP/ADP ratio of 11.3, the total adenylate content in winter bark chlorenchyma was 2.5-fold higher and the estimated ATP/ADP ratio was 20.7. The photochemical efficiency of PSII in needles attached to the twig recovered significantly faster (28-30 h) then in detached needles. Fluorescence quenching analysis revealed a high reduction state of Q(A) and the PQ-pool in the green bark tissue. The role of bark chlorenchyma and its photochemical performance during the recovery of photosynthesis from winter stress in Scots pine is discussed. PMID:16333639

  20. Nitrogen immobilization in plant growth substrates: clean chip residual, pine bark and peat moss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was undertaken to determine the extent of nitrogen (N) immobilization and microbial respiration in a high wood-fiber content substrate (clean chip residual (CCR)). Control treatments of pine bark (PB) and peat moss (PM) were compared to two screen sizes (0.95 cm and 0.48 cm) of CCR for micro...

  1. Solute transport through a pine-bark based substrate under saturated and unsaturated conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An understanding of how dissolved mineral nutrient ions (solutes) move through pine bark substrates during the application of irrigation water is vital to better understand nutrient transport and leaching from containerized crops during an irrigation event. However, current theories on solute transp...

  2. Change in physical properties of pine bark and switchgrass substrates over time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternatives to pine bark for nursery crop substrates have been proposed, including the use of straw materials such as switchgrass. While straw substrates can be developed with suitable physical properties measured immediately after mixing, little is known about how the physical properties of straw...

  3. Influence of pine bark particle size and pH on cation exchange capacity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cation exchange capacity (CEC) describes the maximum quantity of cations a soil or substrate can hold while being exchangeable with the soil solution. While CEC has been studied for peat-based substrates, relatively little work has documented factors that affect CEC of pine bark substrates. The ob...

  4. Effect of pine bark on the biotransformation of trinitrotoluene and on the bacterial community structure in a batch experiment.

    PubMed

    Chusova, Olga; Nolvak, Hiie; Nehrenheim, Emma; Truu, Jaak; Odlare, Monica; Oopkaup, Kristjan; Truu, Marika

    2014-01-01

    Pine bark, a low-cost industrial residue, has been suggested as a promising substitute for granular activated carbon in the on-site treatment of water contaminated with 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). However, the complex organic structure and indigenous microbial community of pine bark have thus far not been thoroughly described in the context of TNT-contaminated water treatment. This two-week batch study examined the removal efficiency ofTNT from water by (1) adsorption on pine bark and (2) simultaneous adsorption on pine bark and biotransformation by specialized TNT-biotransforming microbial inocula. The bacterial community composition of experimental batches, inocula and pine bark, was profiled by Illumina sequencing of the V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene. The results revealed that the inocula and experimental batches were dominated by phylotypes belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family and that the tested inocula had good potential for TNT biotransformation. The type of applied inocula had the most profound effect on the TNT-transforming bacterial community structure in the experimental batches. The indigenous microbial community of pine bark harboured phylotypes that also have a potential to degrade TNT. Altogether, the combination of a specialized inoculum and pine bark proved to be the most efficient treatment option for TNT-contaminated water. PMID:25145200

  5. Black pine (Pinus nigra) barks as biomonitors of airborne mercury pollution.

    PubMed

    Chiarantini, Laura; Rimondi, Valentina; Benvenuti, Marco; Beutel, Marc W; Costagliola, Pilario; Gonnelli, Cristina; Lattanzi, Pierfranco; Paolieri, Mario

    2016-11-01

    Tree barks are relevant interfaces between plants and the external environment, and can effectively retain airborne particles and elements at their surface. In this paper we have studied the distribution of mercury (Hg) in soils and in black pine (Pinus nigra) barks from the Mt. Amiata Hg district in southern Tuscany (Italy), where past Hg mining and present-day geothermal power plants affect local atmospheric Hg concentration, posing serious environmental concerns. Barks collected in heavily Hg-polluted areas of the district display the highest Hg concentration ever reported in literature (8.6mg/kg). In comparison, barks of the same species collected in local reference areas and near geothermal power plants show much lower (range 19-803μg/kg) concentrations; even lower concentrations are observed at a "blank" site near the city of Florence (5-98μg/kg). Results show a general decrease of Hg concentration from bark surface inwards, in accordance with a deposition of airborne Hg, with minor contribution from systemic uptake from soils. Preliminary results indicate that bark Hg concentrations are comparable with values reported for lichens in the same areas, suggesting that tree barks may represent an additional useful tool for biomonitoring of airborne Hg. PMID:27341111

  6. Aggregation pheromones of bark beetles, pityogenes quadridens and P. bidentatus, colonizing scotch pine: olfactory avoidance of interspecific competition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bark beetles Pityogenes bidentatus and P. quadridens (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae) compete for bark areas on branches of Scotch pine, Pinus sylvestris. Hindguts and head/thoraxes of males and females of both species feeding in hosts were extracted in pentane and analyzed by gas chromat...

  7. Environmental monitoring of trace elements in bark of Scots pine by thick-target PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harju, L.; Saarela, K.-E.; Rajander, J.; Lill, J.-O.; Lindroos, A.; Heselius, S.-J.

    2002-04-01

    Bark samples were taken from Scots pines ( Pinus sylvestris L.) from a polluted area near a metal plant and from a relatively non-polluted site. Thick-target particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) was used for the analyses after different types of prepreparation of the samples. The bark samples were analysed directly by radially scanning from inner to outer bark in order to study the variability of elemental concentrations in different layers. Some clear differences were found in the chemical composition of the inner and outer bark. The lowest detection limits for the analyses of heavy metal ions were obtained by combining dry ashing at 550 °C with the PIXE method. More than 100 times higher concentrations were found for the heavy metal ions Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As and Pb in the bark samples from a polluted area in comparison to samples from a non-polluted area. The work demonstrated that external-beam thick-target PIXE is a sensitive and reliable method for quantitative determination of heavy metals in tree bark samples.

  8. Necrotic bark of common pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) as a bioindicator of environmental quality.

    PubMed

    Chrzan, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the pH and the concentration of lead, cadmium, nickel, copper and zinc in aqueous extracts of necrotic bark Pinus sylvestris L. and in adjacent soil, located in two types of forest habitat in different parts in the Niepołomice Forest in southern Poland. The Niepołomice Forest is located about 35 km east of an urban-industrial agglomeration Kraków. Despite the lack of significant differences in pine bark reaction studied, there was a clear difference in contamination of both bark and soil with heavy metals. There was a correlation between the distribution of pollutants in the forest, and the direction of the prevailing winds. More heavy metals were accumulated in the pine bark and soil from the west than the east. The high content of lead, zinc, cadmium and copper in the soils most likely results from the inflow of gas and dust pollutants from the urban-industrial agglomeration of Kraków. PMID:25106515

  9. Characterization of milled wood lignin (MWL) in Loblolly pine stem wood, residue, and bark.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fang; Singh, Preet M; Ragauskas, Arthur J

    2011-12-28

    Milled wood lignin samples from Loblolly pine stem wood, forest residue, and bark were isolated and characterized by quantitative (13)C and (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) for molecular weight determination. Results from (13)C NMR show the stem wood and forest residue samples have similar functional group contents. However, the bark has fewer methoxyl groups, β-O-4 structures, dibenzodioxocin, and side chains than the other two lignins. The bark lignin has the highest amounts of p-hydroxyphenyl (h) and C-5 condensed lignin, stem wood has the lowest, and the residue lies between. (31)P NMR analysis indicates that bark lignin contains more C-5 substituted phenolics and fewer aliphatic hydroxyl groups than the lignin isolated from stem wood or residue. The molecular weight distribution analysis indicates the bark lignin has higher weight-average molecular weight (M(w)) and polydispersity index than the lignin recovered from stem wood or residue. PMID:22141335

  10. Utilization of flavonoid compounds from bark and wood: a review.

    PubMed

    Yazaki, Yoshikazu

    2015-03-01

    Flavonoid compounds, which are extracted from bark and wood and used commercially, are flavan 3-ols as monomers and their polymers, which are called "condensed tannins". Reactions of the condensed tannins with formaldehyde are the basis for wood adhesives. In the late 1940s, tannin research for wood adhesives was begun and the world-first commercial use of wattle tannin from black wattle (Acacia mearnsii) bark as wood adhesives occurred in Australia in the 1960s. In addition, wattle tannin-based adhesives were further developed in South Africa and the uses of these adhesives have been continuing to date. The success of wattle tannin in wood adhesives is demonstrated by the collaboration of the ACIAR with the CAF in the early 1990s. Although radiata pine bark (Pinus radiata) could be a useful resource for the production of wood adhesives, three problems prevented its use in this application: low extractive yields from the bark, variable quality of the tannin extracts and excessive viscosity of the formulated tannin adhesives. In order to overcome these problems, various extraction methods have been proposed. Studies on tannin adhesives from bark of other pine species are also described. Furthermore, the use of the tannin in the bark without extraction is described as "bark adhesives" from radiata pine and black wattle. The use of radiata tannin without formaldehyde for moulded wood products is also described. Owing to the strong antioxidant activity of flavonoid compounds, bark extracts from French maritime pine (Pinus pinaster, synonym P. maritima) and radiata pine have been commercialized as nutritional supplements: Pycnogenol and Enzogenol, respectively. The background and the development of Pycnogenol and the basic difference in the preparation processes between Pycnogenol and Enzogenol are described. On the basis of the discovery that the SOSA value for wattle tannin is approximately 10 times that of extracts from pine bark supplements (Pycnogenol and Enzogenol

  11. Gene Expression Profiling of Shoot-Derived Calli from Adult Radiata Pine and Zygotic Embryo-Derived Embryonal Masses

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Mendiguren, O.; Montalbán, I. A.; Stewart, D.; Moncaleán, P.; Klimaszewska, K.; Rutledge, R. G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although somatic embryogenesis has an unprecedented potential for large-scale clonal propagation of conifers, the ability to efficiently induce the embryonal cultures required for somatic embryo production has long been a challenge. Furthermore, because early stage zygotic embryos remain the only responsive explants for pines, it is not possible to clone individual trees from vegetative explants at a commercial scale. This is of particular interest for adult trees because many elite characteristics only become apparent following sexual maturation. Findings Shoot explants collected from adult radiata pine trees were cultured on four induction media differing in plant growth regulator composition, either directly after collection or from in vitro-generated axillary shoots. Six callus lines were selected for microscopic examination, which failed to reveal any embryonal masses (EM). qPCR expression profiling of five of these lines indicated that explant type influenced the absolute level of gene expression, but not the type of genes that were expressed. The analysis, which also included three EM lines induced from immature zygotic embryos, encompassed five categories of genes reflective of metabolic, mitotic and meristematic activity, along with putative markers of embryogenicity. Culture medium was found to have no significant impact on gene expression, although differences specific to the explant’s origin were apparent. Expression of transcriptional factors associated with vegetative meristems further suggested that all of the callus lines possessed a substantive vegetative character. Most notable, however, was that they all also expressed a putative embryogenic marker (LEC1). Conclusions While limited in scope, these results illustrate the utility of expression profiling for characterizing tissues in culture. For example, although the biological significance of LEC1 expression is unclear, it does present the possibility that these callus lines possess

  12. Relationships of inside and outside bark diameters for young-growth mixed-conifer species in the Sierra Nevada. Forest Service research note (final). [Firs, cedars, pines

    SciTech Connect

    Dolph, K.L.

    1984-09-01

    The linear relationship of inside to outside bark diameter at breast height provides a basis for estimating diameter inside bark from diameter outside bark. Estimates of diameter inside bark and past diameter outside bark are useful in predicting growth and yield. During field seasons 1979-1982, data were obtained from stem analysis of 931 trees in young-growth stands of the mixed-conifer type on the westside Sierra Nevada of California. Species included were coast Douglas-fir, California white fir, incense-cedar, sugar pine, ponderosa pine, and Jeffrey pine. This note provides equations for estimating inside bark diameters, double bark thickness, and past outside bark diameters for each of the species studied.

  13. Binary metal sorption by pine bark: Study of equilibria and mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Asheh, S.; Duvnjak, Z.

    1998-06-01

    Pine bark was able to sorb cadmium, copper, and nickel ions from aqueous solutions. Binary equilibrium data from the combination of these metals were collected in this work using the sorbent. These data were modeled using three types of binary component equilibrium isotherms, all of which resulted in good fitting of the experimental data, with the Langmuir-Freundlich model resulting in their best representation. In general, the capacity of bark for each metal in the binary system was lower than in the single metal systems. The study also examined the mechanisms of metal biosorption by bark. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive c-ray (EDX) microanalyses revealed that metal ions were sorbed mainly at the cell wall of the bark and only a small amount of ions diffused into the cytoplasm. Both the EDX analysis and the atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) measurements showed that ion exchange was an important mechanism in this sorption process. Electron spin resonance (ESR) tests demonstrated that free radicals from the sorbent also have a significant role in the sorption processes.

  14. Scots pine bark, topsoil and pedofauna as indicators of transport pollutions in terrestrial ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Marko-Worłowska, Maria; Chrzan, Anna; Łaciak, Tomasz

    2011-01-01

    The impact of the motorway on pollution was evaluated by determining chosen heavy metals and acid reaction (pH) in the pine bark, in forest and meadow topsoil. The content of these environmental contaminants was determined in the topsoil and in the bark of around 40 year-old Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing right next to the soil analyzed. The pollutants were examined at localities situated around 5, 200, 1500 m away from the motorway. To evaluate influence of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu and the topsoil pH on pedofauna, five meadows localities situated 1, 20, 40, 150, 1550 m away from the motorway were examined. It was detected that in the forest habitats analyzed the bark was characterized by considerably higher acidity (pH 3.14-3.88) than the topsoil of the pines analyzed (pH 5.45-7.22). Except of Cd at locality 200 m and Cu at 1500 m from motorway, the higher concentration of heavy metals was noted in topsoil. In the meadow soil of the locality 150 m from the motorway the highest concentrations of Cd and Zn were detected. The greatest diversity of the meso and macrofauna and trophic relations the most resembling natural were detected in the area furthest away from the motorway, where the content of the heavy metals was the lowest. The lowest density and diversity of meso- and macrofauna were detected in the area situated 40 m, where the concentration of heavy metals was higher than at 1, 20 and 1550 m from the motorway situated localities. PMID:21170775

  15. Metal retention on pine bark and blast furnace slag--on-site experiment for treatment of low strength landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Nehrenheim, Emma; Waara, Sylvia; Johansson Westholm, Lena

    2008-03-01

    Treatment of landfill leachate using blast furnace slag and pine bark as reactive sorbents was studied in an in situ column experiment at the Lilla Nyby landfill site in Eskilstuna, Sweden. The columns were filled with approximately 101 of each sorbent and leachate was supplied at three different flow rates during a period of 4 months. Samples of inflow and outflow were collected three times a week and were analyzed for physical and chemical parameters, including concentrations of some metals, and toxicity. It was found that pine bark removed metals more efficiently than did the blast furnace slags; that Zn was most efficiently retained in the filters and that both retention time and initial concentration played an important role in the sorption process. It was also observed that the pine bark column did not release COD. No toxicity of the untreated or the treated leachate was found with the test organisms and test responses used. PMID:17462882

  16. Colonization of disturbed trees by the southern pine bark beetle guild (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Flamm, R.O.; Pulley, P.E.; Coulson, R.N. )

    1993-02-01

    The southern pine bark beetle guild [Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, D. terebrans (Olivier), Ips calligraphus (Germar), I. grandicollis (Eichhoff), and I. avulsus (Eichhoff)] uses disturbed hosts as habitat for establishment of within-tree populations. The process of colonization of disturbed hosts was examined. Using a procedure designed to emulate effects of a lightning strike, pines were severely disturbed. Response was characterized by measuring beetle populations that (1) arrived at the trees and (2) successfully attacked the trees. Establishment of within-tree populations was characterized by measuring length of egg gallery excavated by attacking adults. The time delay between arrival and attack for D. frontalis and I. calligraphus was also calculated. Attack densities of both species became asymptotic as arrival increased. The percentage of arriving beetles that attacked ranged from 9 to 41 for D. frontalis and from 8 to 59 for I. calligraphus. Numbers of beetles that arrived at the tree but did not attack ranged from 2.7 to 50.2 beetles per dm[sup 2] for D. frontalis and from 0.2 to 10.0 beetles per dm[sup 2] for I. calligraphus. Most D. frontalis and I. calligraphus attacked on the day they arrived. The delay between arrival and attack was longer for I. calligraphus than the D. frontalis. Egg gallery excavated by D. frontalis increased throughout the study. Eventually, the Ips species were excluded from the lower half of the hole. The low attack densities observed in this study illustrate the significance of disturbed trees in providing refuges for enzootic levels of bark beetles. The aggregation behavior of beetle populations colonizing disturbed hosts supported the contention that these trees serve as foci for initiation of infestations. Furthermore, in disturbed pines, small numbers of beetles were capable of overcoming host defense systems.

  17. Chloroplast DNA Diversity among Trees, Populations and Species in the California Closed-Cone Pines (Pinus Radiata, Pinus Muricata and Pinus Attenuata)

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Y. P.; Hipkins, V. D.; Strauss, S. H.

    1993-01-01

    The amount, distribution and mutational nature of chloroplast DNA polymorphisms were studied via analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms in three closely related species of conifers, the California closed-cone pines-knobcone pine: Pinus attenuata Lemm.; bishop pine: Pinus muricata D. Don; and Monterey pine: Pinus radiata D. Don. Genomic DNA from 384 trees representing 19 populations were digested with 9-20 restriction enzymes and probed with cloned cpDNA fragments from Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] that comprise 82% of the chloroplast genome. Up to 313 restriction sites were surveyed, and 25 of these were observed to be polymorphic among or within species. Differences among species accounted for the majority of genetic (haplotypic) diversity observed [G(st) = 84(+/-13)%]; nucleotide diversity among species was estimated to be 0.3(+/-0.1)%. Knobcone pine and Monterey pine displayed almost no genetic variation within or among populations. Bishop pine also showed little variability within populations, but did display strong population differences [G(st) = 87(+/-8)%] that were a result of three distinct geographic groups. Mean nucleotide diversity within populations was 0.003(+/-0.002)%; intrapopulation polymorphisms were found in only five populations. This pattern of genetic variation contrasts strongly with findings from study of nuclear genes (allozymes) in the group, where most genetic diversity resides within populations rather than among populations or species. Regions of the genome subject to frequent length mutations were identified; estimates of subdivision based on length variant frequencies in one region differed strikingly from those based on site mutations or allozymes. Two trees were identified with a major chloroplast DNA inversion that closely resembled one documented between Pinus and Pseudotsuga. PMID:7905846

  18. French Maritime Pine Bark Extract (Pycnogenol®) Effects on Human Skin: Clinical and Molecular Evidence.

    PubMed

    Grether-Beck, Susanne; Marini, Alessandra; Jaenicke, Thomas; Krutmann, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional strategies to benefit skin health are of growing importance. Current approaches mainly involve nutritional supplements containing antioxidants which were initially designed to protect human skin against ultraviolet radiation-induced damage. Within recent years, however, a growing number of studies suggests that the beneficial effects of these products clearly extend beyond photoprotection. In this review we take the nutritional supplement Pycnogenol®, which is based on an extract prepared from French marine pine bark extract, as an example to illustrate this development. Accordingly, the existing data provide compelling evidence that Pycnogenol® intake does not only provide photoprotection, but may be used to (i) reduce hyperpigmentation of human skin and (ii) improve skin barrier function and extracellular matrix homeostasis. PMID:26492562

  19. The Pine Bark Adelgid, Pineus strobi, Contains Two Novel Bacteriocyte-Associated Gammaproteobacterial Symbionts

    PubMed Central

    Toenshoff, Elena R.; Szabó, Gitta; Gruber, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial endosymbionts of the pine bark adelgid, Pineus strobi (Insecta: Hemiptera: Adelgidae), were investigated using transmission electron microscopy, 16S and 23S rRNA-based phylogeny, and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Two morphologically different symbionts affiliated with the Gammaproteobacteria were present in distinct bacteriocytes. One of them (“Candidatus Annandia pinicola”) is most closely related to an endosymbiont of Adelges tsugae, suggesting that they originate from a lineage already present in ancient adelgids before the hosts diversified into the two major clades, Adelges and Pineus. The other P. strobi symbiont (“Candidatus Hartigia pinicola”) represents a novel symbiont lineage in members of the Adelgidae. Our findings lend further support for a complex evolutionary history of the association of adelgids with a phylogenetically diverse set of bacterial symbionts. PMID:24271164

  20. Southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis, antennal and behavioral responses to nonhost leaf and bark volatiles.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, William P; Sullivan, Brian T

    2013-04-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that bark beetles detect and avoid release points of volatile compounds associated with nonhost species, and thus such nonhost volatiles may have potential utility in the management of bark beetles. We used a coupled gas chromatograph-electroantennographic detector (GC-EAD) to assay the olfactory sensitivity of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, to volatiles from leaves and bark of eight species of nonhost angiosperm trees that are common in the range of D. frontalis. Tree species sampled were red maple (Acer rubrum L.), mockernut hickory [Carya alba (L.) Nutt. ex Ell.], sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), black tupelo (Nyssa sylvatica Marsh.), black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), southern red oak (Quercus falcata Michx.), blackjack oak [Quercus marilandica (L.) Muenchh.], and water oak (Quercus nigra L.). Beetle antennae responded to a total of 28 identifiable compounds in these samples. The relative olfactory responsiveness to 14 of these, as well as to nonanoic acid and four additional volatiles reported to be associated with nonhost angiosperms, was assessed in GC-EAD analyses of synthetic dilutions spanning six orders of magnitude. The largest response voltage amplitudes were obtained with trans-conophthorin, nonanoic acid, terpinen-4-ol, phenylethyl alcohol, and eucalyptol, whereas the lowest response thresholds were to nonanoic acid, nonanal, linalool, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, and phenylethyl alcohol. Funnel traps baited with various combinations of eleven antennally-active angiosperm volatiles along with a standard attractant captured significantly fewer male and female D. frontalis than traps baited with the standard attractant alone. Our data suggest that a diversity of semiochemicals may be involved in host species discrimination by D. frontalis, and several may have utility in their management. PMID:23460417

  1. The biophysical controls on tree defense against attacking bark beetles in managed pine forests of the Southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novick, K. A.; Miniat, C. F.; Denham, S. O.; Ritger, H. M.; Williams, C.; Guldin, J. M.; Bragg, D.; Coyle, D.

    2013-12-01

    Bark beetles are highly damaging pests capable of destroying large areas of southern pine forests, with significant consequences for regional timber supply and forest ecosystem carbon dynamics. A number of recent studies have shown that following bark beetle outbreak, significant effects on ecosystem carbon and water cycling can occur. Relatively few studies have explored how ecosystem carbon and water cycling interact with other factors to control the hazard or risk of bark beetle outbreaks; these interactions, and their representation in conceptual model frameworks, are the focus of this study. Pine trees defend against bark beetle attacks through the exudation of of resin - a viscous compound that deters attacking beetles through a combination of chemical and physical mechanisms. Constitutive resin flow (CRF, representing resin produced before attack) is assumed to be directly proportional to the balance between gross primary productivity (GPP) and net primary productivity (NPP) according to the Growth-Differentiation Balance theory (GDB). Thus, predictions for tree mortality and bark beetle dynamics under different management and climate regimes may be more accurate if a model framework describing the biophysical controls on resin production (e.g., GDB) were employed. Here, we synthesize measurements of resin flow, bark beetle dynamics, and ecosystem C flux from three managed loblolly pine forests in the Southeastern U.S.: the Duke Forest in Durham, NC; the Savannah River DOE site near Aiken, SC; and the Crossett Experimental Forest in southern Arkansas. We also explore the relationship between CRF and induced resin flow (IRF, representing the de novo synthesis of resin following stem wounding) in the latter two sites, where IRF was promoted by a novel tree baiting approach and prescribed fire, respectively. We assimilate observations within a hierarchical Bayesian framework to 1) test whether observations conform to the GDB hypothesis, and 2) explore effects

  2. Near Infrared Spectroscopie Examination of Charred Pine Wood, Bark, Cellulose and Lignin: Implications For the Quantitative Determination of Charcoal In Soils by NIRS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of charring on near-infrared spectra of materials likely to be present in forest fires in order to determine the feasibility of determining charred C in soils. Four materials (cellulose, lignin, pine bark and pine wood) and char from these...

  3. Riparian zones attenuate nitrogen loss following bark beetle-induced lodgepole pine mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biederman, Joel A.; Meixner, Thomas; Harpold, Adrian A.; Reed, David E.; Gutmann, Ethan D.; Gaun, Janelle A.; Brooks, Paul D.

    2016-03-01

    A North American bark beetle infestation has killed billions of trees, increasing soil nitrogen and raising concern for N loss impacts on downstream ecosystems and water resources. There is surprisingly little evidence of stream N response in large basins, which may result from surviving vegetation uptake, gaseous loss, or dilution by streamflow from unimpacted stands. Observations are lacking along hydrologic flow paths connecting soils with streams, challenging our ability to determine where and how attenuation occurs. Here we quantified biogeochemical concentrations and fluxes at a lodgepole pine-dominated site where bark beetle infestation killed 50-60% of trees. We used nested observations along hydrologic flow paths connecting hillslope soils to streams of up to third order. We found soil water NO3 concentrations increased 100-fold compared to prior research at this and nearby southeast Wyoming sites. Nitrogen was lost below the major rooting zone to hillslope groundwater, where dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) increased by 3-10 times (mean 1.65 mg L-1) and NO3-N increased more than 100-fold (3.68 mg L-1) compared to preinfestation concentrations. Most of this N was removed as hillslope groundwater drained through riparian soils, and NO3 remained low in streams. DON entering the stream decreased 50% within 5 km downstream, to concentrations typical of unimpacted subalpine streams (~0.3 mg L-1). Although beetle outbreak caused hillslope N losses similar to other disturbances, up to 5.5 kg ha-1y-1, riparian and in-stream removal limited headwater catchment export to <1 kg ha-1y-1. These observations suggest riparian removal was the dominant mechanism preventing hillslope N loss from impacting streams.

  4. Weaning off Bark

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pine bark is the primary potting component used in container nursery production. Shifts in the forest products industry and economy have resulted in a drastic decline in pine bark availability and increase in pine bark price. Scientists at the USDA-ARS Application Technology Research Unit, Oregon ...

  5. Protective effects of pine bark extract on hexavalent chromium-induced dermatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, In-Chul; Kim, Sung-Hwan; Shin, In-Sik; Moon, Changjong; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Ho; Park, Seung-Chun; Kim, Hyoung-Chin; Kim, Jong-Choon

    2012-10-01

    The present study investigated the protective effects of pine bark extract (PBE) against hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)]-induced dermatotoxicity in rats. Skin reactions were evaluated by visual inspection, histopathological changes and oxidative stress parameters. Topical application of Cr(VI) produced a significant increase in the incidence and severity of erythema and edema upon visual inspection. Histopathological examination showed moderate to severe necrosis and desquamation in the epidermis and inflammation and hemorrhage in the dermis. In addition, an increased malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, and decreased glutathione (GSH), catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase of the skin were observed in the Cr(VI) group. On the contrary, concomitant administration with PBE significantly improved Cr(VI)-induced dermatotoxicity, evidenced by a decrease in the incidence and severity of skin irritation and histopathological lesions in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, PBE treatment reduced MDA concentrations and increased catalase and GST activities in skin tissues, indicating that concomitant administration with PBE effectively prevents Cr(VI)-induced oxidative damage in rats. The results indicate that PBE has a protective effect against Cr(VI)-induced dermatotoxicity and is useful as a protective agent against various dermal lesions induced by oxidative stress. PMID:22344852

  6. Ameliorative effects of pine bark extract on spermatotoxicity by α-chlorohydrin in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Hwan; Lee, In-Chul; Baek, Hyung-Seon; Moon, Changjong; Bae, Chun-Sik; Kim, Sung-Ho; Park, Seung-Chun; Kim, Hyoung-Chin; Kim, Jong-Choon

    2014-03-01

    We investigated the protective effects of pine bark extract (Pycnogenol®, PYC, Horphag Research Ltd., Route de Belis, France) against α-chlorohydrin (ACH)-induced spermatotoxicity in rats. Rats were orally administered ACH (30 mg/kg/day) with or without PYC (20 mg/kg/day) for 7 days. Administration of ACH significantly decreased sperm motility. α-Chlorohydrin also caused histopathological alterations and apoptotic changes in caput epididymides. An increased malondialdehyde concentration and decreased glutathione content, as well as catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were also found. In contrast, PYC treatment significantly prevented ACH-induced spermatotoxicity, including decreased sperm motility, histopathological lesions, and apoptotic changes in the caput epididymis. Pycnogenol® also had an antioxidant benefit by decreasing malondialdehyde and increasing levels of the antioxidant glutathione and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes catalase and peroxidase in epididymal tissues. These results indicate that PYC treatment attenuated ACH-induced spermatotoxicity through antioxidant and antiapoptotic effects. PMID:23788506

  7. Protective effects of pine bark extract on developmental toxicity of cyclophosphamide in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Hwan; Lee, In-Chul; Lim, Jeong-Hyeon; Moon, Changjong; Bae, Chun-Sik; Kim, Sung-Ho; Shin, Dong-Ho; Park, Seung-Chun; Kim, Hyoung-Chin; Kim, Jong-Choon

    2012-02-01

    This study investigated the protective effects of pine bark extract (Pycnogenol®, PYC) against cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced developmental toxicity in rats. A total of 44 mated females were randomly assigned to the following four experimental groups: (1) vehicle control, (2) CP, (3) CP&PYC, or (4) PYC. All dams were subjected to a Caesarean section on day 20 of gestation, and fetuses were examined for morphological abnormalities. Oxidative stress analysis was performed on maternal hepatic tissues. CP treatment caused decreased fetal and placental weights and increased embryonic resorptions and fetal malformations. In addition, an increased malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and decreased reduced glutathione (GSH) content and catalase activity were observed in the hepatic tissues. On the contrary, PYC treatment during pregnancy significantly ameliorated the CP-induced embryo-fetal developmental toxicity in rats. Moreover, MDA and GSH concentrations and catalase activity in hepatic tissues were not affected when PYC was administered in conjunction with CP. These results suggest that repeated administration of PYC has beneficial effects against CP-induced embryo-fetal developmental toxicity in rats, and that the protective effects of PYC may be due to both inhibition of lipid peroxidation and increased antioxidant activity. PMID:22036974

  8. Protective effects of pine bark extract against cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Je-Won; Lee, In-Chul; Park, Sung-Hyuk; Moon, Changjong; Kang, Seong-Soo; Kim, Sung-Ho

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the protective effects of pine bark extract (pycnogenol®, PYC) against cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats. Twenty-four male rats were divided into the following four groups: (1) vehicle control, (2) cisplatin (7.5 mg/kg), (3) cisplatin & PYC 10 (10 mg/kg/day), and (4) cisplatin & PYC 20 (20 mg/kg/day). A single intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin induced hepatotoxicity, as evidenced by an increase in serum aminotransferase and histopathological alterations, including degeneration/necrosis of hepatocytes, vacuolation, and sinusoidal dilation. In addition, an increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and a decrease in the reduced glutathione (GSH) content and catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities were observed in the cisplatin-treated rat hepatic tissues. In contrast, PYC treatment effectively prevented cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity, including the elevation of aminotransferase and histopathological lesions, in a dosedependent manner. Moreover, PYC treatment also induced antioxidant activity by decreasing MDA level and increasing GSH content and SOD and GST activities in liver tissues. These results indicate that PYC has a protective effect against acute hepatotoxicity induced by cisplatin in rats, and that the protective effects of PYC may be due to inhibiting lipid peroxidation and increasing antioxidant activity. PMID:25628728

  9. Facilitated uptake of a bioactive metabolite of maritime pine bark extract (pycnogenol) into human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Kurlbaum, Max; Mülek, Melanie; Högger, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Many plant secondary metabolites exhibit some degree of biological activity in humans. It is a common observation that individual plant-derived compounds in vivo are present in the nanomolar concentration range at which they usually fail to display measurable activity in vitro. While it is debatable that compounds detected in plasma are not the key effectors of bioactivity, an alternative hypothesis may take into consideration that measurable concentrations also reside in compartments other than plasma. We analysed the binding of constituents and the metabolite δ-(3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl)-γ-valerolactone (M1), that had been previously detected in plasma samples of human consumers of pine bark extract Pycnogenol, to human erythrocytes. We found that caffeic acid, taxifolin, and ferulic acid passively bind to red blood cells, but only the bioactive metabolite M1 revealed pronounced accumulation. The partitioning of M1 into erythrocytes was significantly diminished at higher concentrations of M1 and in the presence of glucose, suggesting a facilitated transport of M1 via GLUT-1 transporter. This concept was further supported by structural similarities between the natural substrate α-D-glucose and the S-isomer of M1. After cellular uptake, M1 underwent further metabolism by conjugation with glutathione. We present strong indication for a transporter-mediated accumulation of a flavonoid metabolite in human erythrocytes and subsequent formation of a novel glutathione adduct. The physiologic role of the adduct remains to be elucidated. PMID:23646194

  10. Protective effects of pine bark extract against cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Ko, Je-Won; Lee, In-Chul; Park, Sung-Hyuk; Moon, Changjong; Kang, Seong-Soo; Kim, Sung-Ho; Kim, Jong-Choon

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the protective effects of pine bark extract (pycnogenol®, PYC) against cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats. Twenty-four male rats were divided into the following four groups: (1) vehicle control, (2) cisplatin (7.5 mg/kg), (3) cisplatin & PYC 10 (10 mg/kg/day), and (4) cisplatin & PYC 20 (20 mg/kg/day). A single intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin induced hepatotoxicity, as evidenced by an increase in serum aminotransferase and histopathological alterations, including degeneration/necrosis of hepatocytes, vacuolation, and sinusoidal dilation. In addition, an increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and a decrease in the reduced glutathione (GSH) content and catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities were observed in the cisplatin-treated rat hepatic tissues. In contrast, PYC treatment effectively prevented cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity, including the elevation of aminotransferase and histopathological lesions, in a dosedependent manner. Moreover, PYC treatment also induced antioxidant activity by decreasing MDA level and increasing GSH content and SOD and GST activities in liver tissues. These results indicate that PYC has a protective effect against acute hepatotoxicity induced by cisplatin in rats, and that the protective effects of PYC may be due to inhibiting lipid peroxidation and increasing antioxidant activity. PMID:25628728

  11. Antifeedants and feeding stimulants in bark extracts of ten woody non-host species of the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Carina; Månsson, Per E; Sjödin, Kristina; Schlyter, Fredrik

    2008-10-01

    Bark of ten woody species, known to be rejected as a food source by the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis, were sequentially extracted by a Soxhlet apparatus with pentane followed by methanol. Species were alder (Alnus glutinosa), aspen (Populus tremula), beech (Fagus sylvatica), guelder rose (Viburnum opulus), holly (Ilex aquifolium), horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), lilac (Syringa vulgaris), spindle tree (Evonymus europaeus), walnut (Juglans regia), and yew (Taxus baccata). Bark of each species was collected in southern Scandinavia during the summer. Resulting extracts were tested for antifeedant activity against the pine weevil by a micro-feeding choice assay. At a dose corresponding to that in the bark, methanol extracts from Aesculus, Taxus, Ilex, and Populus were antifeedant active, while pentane extracts of Aesculus, Fagus, Syringa, and Viburnum were stimulatory. Four known antifeedants against H. abietis, the straight-chained carboxylic acids, hexanoic and nonanoic acid (C6 and C9), carvone, and carvacrol were identified by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) in several extracts. The major constituents were identified and tested for feeding deterrence. The aromatic compounds benzyl alcohol and 2-phenylethanol are new non-host plant-derived feeding deterrents for the pine weevil. Additionally, two feeding stimulants, beta-sitosterol and 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde, were identified. One active methanol extract of Aesculus bark was sequentially fractionated by liquid chromatography, and major compounds were tentatively identified as branched alcohols and esters of hexanoic acid. Five commercially available hexanoate esters and two commercially available branched alcohols were identified as new active antifeedants. Both stimulatory and inhibiting compounds were found in the same extracts and co-eluted in the same or adjacent fractions. The mix of semiochemicals of opposite activity in each extract or fraction could explain the stimulatory

  12. Pycnogenol, French maritime pine bark extract, augments endothelium-dependent vasodilation in humans.

    PubMed

    Nishioka, Kenji; Hidaka, Takayuki; Nakamura, Shuji; Umemura, Takashi; Jitsuiki, Daisuke; Soga, Junko; Goto, Chikara; Chayama, Kazuaki; Yoshizumi, Masao; Higashi, Yukihito

    2007-09-01

    Pycnogenol, an extract of bark from the French maritime pine, Pinus pinaster Ait., consists of a concentrate of water-soluble polyphenols. Pycnogenol contains the bioflavonoids catechin and taxifolin as well as phenolcarbonic acids. Antioxidants, such as bioflavonoids, enhance endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase expression and subsequent NO release from endothelial cells. The purpose of this study was to determine Pycnogenol's effects on endothelium-dependent vasodilation in humans. This was a double-blind, randomized, placebo and active drug study. We evaluated forearm blood flow (FBF) responses to acetylcholine (ACh), an endothelium-dependent vasodilator, and to sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an endothelium-independent vasodilator, in healthy young men before and after 2 weeks of daily oral administration of Pycnogenol (180 mg/day) (n=8) or placebo (n=8). FBF was measured by using strain-gauge plethysmography. Neither the placebo nor Pycnogenol altered forearm or systemic hemodynamics. Pycnogenol, but not placebo, augmented FBF response to ACh, from 13.1 +/- 7.0 to 18.5 +/- 4.0 mL/min per 100 mL tissue (p<0.05). SNP-stimulated vasodilation was similar before and after 2 weeks of treatment in the control and Pycnogenol groups. The administration of N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine, an NO synthase inhibitor, completely abolished Pycnogenol-induced augmentation of the FBF response to ACh. These findings suggest that Pycnogenol augments endothelium-dependent vasodilation by increasing in NO production. Pycnogenol would be useful for treating various diseases whose pathogeneses involve endothelial dysfunction. PMID:18037769

  13. Hyperspectral interferometry: Sizing microscale surface features in the pine bark beetle.

    PubMed

    Beach, James M; Uertz, James L; Eckhardt, Lori G

    2015-10-01

    A new method of interferometry employing a Fabry-Perot etalon model was used to locate and size microscale features on the surface of the pine bark beetle. Oscillations in the reflected light spectrum, caused by self-interference of light reflecting from surfaces of foreleg setae and spores on the elytrum, were recorded using white light hyperspectral microscopy. By making the assumption that pairs of reflecting surfaces produce an etalon effect, the distance between surfaces could be determined from the oscillation frequency. Low frequencies of less than 0.08 nm(-1) were observed in the spectrum below 700 nm while higher frequencies generally occupied wavelengths from 600 to 850 nm. In many cases, two frequencies appeared separately or in combination across the spectrum. The etalon model gave a mean spore size of 3.04 ± 1.27 μm and a seta diameter of 5.44 ± 2.88 μm. The tapering near the setae tip was detected as a lowering of frequency. Spatial fringes were observed together with spectral oscillations from surfaces on the exoskeleton at higher magnification. These signals were consistent with embedded multi-layer reflecting surfaces. Possible applications for hyperspectral interferometry include medical imaging, detection of spore loads in insects and other fungal carriers, wafer surface and subsurface inspection, nanoscale materials, biological surface analysis, and spectroscopy calibration. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of oscillations directly observed by microscopy in the reflected light spectra from Coleoptera, and the first demonstration of broadband hyperspectral interferometry using microscopy that does not employ an internal interferometer. PMID:26303206

  14. Effects of wood bark and fertilizer amendment on trace element mobility in mine soils, Broken Hill, Australia: implications for mined land reclamation.

    PubMed

    Munksgaard, N C; Lottermoser, B G

    2010-01-01

    Soil amendments can immobilize metals in soils, reducing the risks of metal exposure and associated impacts to flora, fauna and human health. In this study, soil amendments were compared, based on "closed system" water extracts, for reducing metal mobility in metal-contaminated soil from the Broken Hill mining center, Australia. Phosphatefertilizer (bovine bone meal, superphosphate, triple superphosphate, potassium orthophosphate) and pine bark (Pinus radiata) were applied to two soils (BH1, BH2) contaminated with mining waste. Both soils had near neutral to alkaline pH values, were sulfide- or sulfate-rich, and contained metal and metalloid at concentrations that pose high environmental risks (e.g., Pb = 1.25 wt% and 0.55 wt%, Zn = 0.71 wt% and 0.47 wt% for BH1 and BH2, respectively). The addition of fertilizers and/or pine bark to both soil types increased water extractable metals and metalloids concentrations (As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Sb, Zn) compared with nonamended soils. One or more of the elements As, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn increased significantly in extracts of a range of different soil+pine bark and soil+fertilizer+piner+pine bark tests in response to increased pine bark doses. By contrast, Fe and Sb concentrations in extracts did not change significantly with pine bark addition. Solution pH was decreased by phosphate fertilizers (except for bovine bone meal) and pine bark, and pine bark enhanced dissolved organic carbon. At least in the short-term, the application of phosphate fertilizers and pine bark proved to be an ineffective method for controlling metal and metalloid mobility in soils that contain admixtures of polymetallic, polymineralic mine wastes. PMID:21284303

  15. Localization of cell wall polysaccharides in normal and compression wood of radiata pine: relationships with lignification and microfibril orientation.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Lloyd A; Knox, J Paul

    2012-02-01

    The distribution of noncellulosic polysaccharides in cell walls of tracheids and xylem parenchyma cells in normal and compression wood of Pinus radiata, was examined to determine the relationships with lignification and cellulose microfibril orientation. Using fluorescence microscopy combined with immunocytochemistry, monoclonal antibodies were used to detect xyloglucan (LM15), β(1,4)-galactan (LM5), heteroxylan (LM10 and LM11), and galactoglucomannan (LM21 and LM22). Lignin and crystalline cellulose were localized on the same sections used for immunocytochemistry by autofluorescence and polarized light microscopy, respectively. Changes in the distribution of noncellulosic polysaccharides between normal and compression wood were associated with changes in lignin distribution. Increased lignification of compression wood secondary walls was associated with novel deposition of β(1,4)-galactan and with reduced amounts of xylan and mannan in the outer S2 (S2L) region of tracheids. Xylan and mannan were detected in all lignified xylem cell types (tracheids, ray tracheids, and thick-walled ray parenchyma) but were not detected in unlignified cell types (thin-walled ray parenchyma and resin canal parenchyma). Mannan was absent from the highly lignified compound middle lamella, but xylan occurred throughout the cell walls of tracheids. Using colocalization measurements, we confirmed that polysaccharides containing galactose, mannose, and xylose have consistent correlations with lignification. Low or unsubstituted xylans were localized in cell wall layers characterized by transverse cellulose microfibril orientation in both normal and compression wood tracheids. Our results support the theory that the assembly of wood cell walls, including lignification and microfibril orientation, may be mediated by changes in the amount and distribution of noncellulosic polysaccharides. PMID:22147521

  16. The genome and transcriptome of the pine saprophyte Ophiostoma piceae, and a comparison with the bark beetle-associated pine pathogen Grosmannia clavigera

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ophiostoma piceae is a wood-staining fungus that grows in the sapwood of conifer logs and lumber. We sequenced its genome and analyzed its transcriptomes under a range of growth conditions. A comparison with the genome and transcriptomes of the mountain pine beetle-associated pathogen Grosmannia clavigera highlights differences between a pathogen that colonizes and kills living pine trees and a saprophyte that colonizes wood and the inner bark of dead trees. Results We assembled a 33 Mbp genome in 45 scaffolds, and predicted approximately 8,884 genes. The genome size and gene content were similar to those of other ascomycetes. Despite having similar ecological niches, O. piceae and G. clavigera showed no large-scale synteny. We identified O. piceae genes involved in the biosynthesis of melanin, which causes wood discoloration and reduces the commercial value of wood products. We also identified genes and pathways involved in growth on simple carbon sources and in sapwood, O. piceae’s natural substrate. Like the pathogen, the saprophyte is able to tolerate terpenes, which are a major class of pine tree defense compounds; unlike the pathogen, it cannot utilize monoterpenes as a carbon source. Conclusions This work makes available the second annotated genome of a softwood ophiostomatoid fungus, and suggests that O. piceae’s tolerance to terpenes may be due in part to these chemicals being removed from the cells by an ABC transporter that is highly induced by terpenes. The data generated will provide the research community with resources for work on host-vector-fungus interactions for wood-inhabiting, beetle-associated saprophytes and pathogens. PMID:23725015

  17. Facilitated cellular uptake and suppression of inducible nitric oxide synthase by a metabolite of maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol).

    PubMed

    Uhlenhut, Klaus; Högger, Petra

    2012-07-15

    Many natural products exhibit anti-inflammatory activity by suppressing excessive nitric oxide (NO) production by inducible NO synthase (iNOS). The maritime pine bark extract Pycnogenol has been formerly shown to decrease nitrite generation, taken as an index for NO, but so far it was not clear which constituent of the complex flavonoid mixture mediated this effect. The purpose of this study was to elucidate whether the in vivo generated Pycnogenol metabolite M1 (δ-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-γ-valerolactone) displayed any activity in the context of induction of iNOS expression and excessive NO production. For the first time we show that M1 inhibited nitrite production (IC(50) 1.3 μg/ml, 95% CI 0.96-1.70) and iNOS expression (IC(50) 3.8 μg/ml, 95% CI 0.99-14.35) in a concentration-dependent fashion. This exemplifies bioactivation by metabolism because the M1 precursor molecule catechin is only weakly active. However, these effects required application of M1 in the low-micromolar range, which was not consistent with concentrations previously detected in human plasma samples after ingestion of maritime pine bark extract. Thus, we investigated a possible accumulation of M1 in cells and indeed observed high-capacity binding of this flavonoid metabolite to macrophages, monocytes, and endothelial cells. This binding was distinctly decreased in the presence of the influx inhibitor phloretin, suggesting the contribution of a facilitated M1 transport into cells. In fact, intracellular accumulation of M1 could explain why in vivo bioactivity can be observed with nanomolar plasma concentrations that typically fail to exhibit measurable activity in vitro. PMID:22569413

  18. Testing remote sensing estimates of bark beetle induced mortality in lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce with ground data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, A.; Ewers, B. E.; Sivanpillai, R.; Pendall, E.

    2012-12-01

    Bark beetles have caused widespread regional mortality in both lodgepole and Engelmann spruce forests across western North America, and while studies have addressed the impact on water partitioning caused by the mountain pine beetle, spruce beetle which often occur at high elevations with larger snowpack might have a disproportional impact. Beetle caused mortality can have significant effects on the hydrology of a watershed and therefore needs to be considered when evaluating increased runoff. The objective of this project was to generate maps showing beetle caused mortality for lodgepole pine and spruce fir forests that capture changes to the landscape to improve hydrologic models. Our study area in southeast Wyoming covered an area of approximately 2 by 4 km from 2700 to 2800m elevation range. High spatial resolution (0.5m) aerial imagery acquired by the Airborne Environmental Research Observational Camera (AEROCam) in fall 2011, provided by the Upper Midwest Aerospace Consortium (UMAC), was manually classified into four conifer thematic classes: live and dead lodgepole pine, and live and dead spruce/fir. The classified high resolution image was then verified by tree surveys conducted July-September, 2012 documenting species, tree diameter at breast height (dbh), and the stage of beetle infestation for each tree. After verification the high resolution aerial images were used to train and evaluate the accuracy of a supervised classification of a Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper image from the same time period and area. The preliminary results of a supervised classification show that map accuracy was 57%, 77%, 44%, and 83% for lodgepole live and dead, and spruce/fir live and dead respectively. The highest commission error, 24%, was for dead lodgepole pine being falsely labeled dead spruce/fir. The second highest commission error, 22%, was for live spruce/fir falsely labeled dead spruce/fir. The results indicate high spectral overlap between dead spruce/fir and dead

  19. Effect of pine bark and compost on the biological denitrification process of non-hazardous landfill leachate: focus on the microbiology.

    PubMed

    Trois, Cristina; Coulon, Frédéric; de Combret, Cécile Polge; Martins, Jean M F; Oxarango, Laurent

    2010-09-15

    In an attempt to optimize the cost-efficiency of landfill leachate treatment by biological denitrification process, our study focused on finding low-cost alternatives to traditional expensive chemicals such as composted garden refuse and pine bark, which are both available in large amount in South African landfill sites. The overall objective was to assess the behaviour of the bacterial community in relation to each substrate while treating high strength landfill leachates. Denitrification processes in fixed bed reactors were simulated at laboratory scale using anaerobic batch tests with immature compost and pine bark. High strength leachate was simulated using a solution of water and nitrate at a concentration of 500 mg l(-1). Results suggest that pine bark released large amounts of phenolic compounds and hydroxylated benzene rings, which both can delay the acclimatization time and inhibit the biological denitrification (only 30% efficiency). Furthermore, presence of potential pathogens like Enterobacter and Pantoea agglomerans prevents the applicability of the pine bark in full-scale operations. On the other hand, lightly composted garden refuse (CGR) offered an adequate substrate for the formation of a biofilm necessary to complete the denitrification process (total nitrate removal observed within 7 days). CGR further contributed to a rapid establishment of an active consortium of denitrifiers including Acinetobacter, Rhizobium, Thermomonas, Rheinheimera, Phaeospirillum and Flavobacterium. Clearly the original composition, nature, carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) and degree of maturity and stability of the substrates play a key role in the denitrification process, impacting directly on the development of the bacterial population and, therefore, on the long-term removal efficiency. PMID:20554377

  20. Pine Bark and Green Tea Concentrated Extracts: Antioxidant Activity and Comprehensive Characterization of Bioactive Compounds by HPLC–ESI-QTOF-MS

    PubMed Central

    Cádiz-Gurrea, María de la Luz; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of polyphenols has frequently been associated with low incidence of degenerative diseases. Most of these natural antioxidants come from fruits, vegetables, spices, grains and herbs. For this reason, there has been increasing interest in identifying plant extract compounds. Polymeric tannins and monomeric flavonoids, such as catechin and epicatechin, in pine bark and green tea extracts could be responsible for the higher antioxidant activities of these extracts. The aim of the present study was to characterize the phenolic compounds in pine bark and green tea concentrated extracts using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC–ESI-QTOF-MS). A total of 37 and 35 compounds from pine bark and green tea extracts, respectively, were identified as belonging to various structural classes, mainly flavan-3-ol and its derivatives (including procyanidins). The antioxidant capacity of both extracts was evaluated by three complementary antioxidant activity methods: Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Higher antioxidant activity values by each method were obtained. In addition, total polyphenol and flavan-3-ol contents, which were determined by Folin–Ciocalteu and vanillin assays, respectively, exhibited higher amounts of gallic acid and (+)-catechin equivalents. PMID:25383680

  1. Ophiostoma spp. associated with pine- and spruce-infesting bark beetles in Finland and Russia.

    PubMed

    Linnakoski, R; de Beer, Z W; Ahtiainen, J; Sidorov, E; Niemelä, P; Pappinen, A; Wingfield, M J

    2010-12-01

    The timber and pulp industries of Finland rely heavily on importations from Russia as source of raw timber. These imports raise the risk of accidentally importing forest pests and pathogens, especially bark beetles and their associated fungi, into Finland. Although ophiostomatoid fungi have previously been reported from Finland and Russia, the risks of accidentally moving these fungi has prompted a first survey to compare the diversity of conifer-infesting bark beetles and associated fungi from boreal forests on both sides of the Finnish-Russian border. The aim of the present study was to identify and characterise Ophiostoma species isolated in association with 11 bark beetle species infesting Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies during this survey in the eastern parts of Finland and neighbouring Russia. Fungal isolates were grouped based on morphology and representatives of each morphological group were subjected to DNA sequence comparisons of the internal transcribed spaced region (ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2) and β-tubulin gene region. A total of 15 species of Ophiostoma were identified, including seven known species, five new species, and three species for which the identity remains uncertain. In the O. piceae-complex we identified O. canum, O. floccosum, O. karelicum and O. rachisporum sp. nov., and related to these, some isolates belonging to the European clade of O. minus in the O. minus-complex. Ophiostoma bicolor and O. fuscum sp. nov. were identified in the O. ips-complex, while O. ainoae, O. brunneo-ciliatum, O. tapionis sp. nov. and O. pallidulum sp. nov. were shown to group close to, but not in a strict monophyletic lineage with species of the O. ips-complex. Together with a single O. abietinum-like isolate, the only species that grouped close to the Sporothrix schenckii- O. stenoceras complex, was O. saponiodorum sp. nov. PMID:21339968

  2. Inhibitory effects of French pine bark extract, Pycnogenol®, on alveolar bone resorption and on the osteoclast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Hideki; Watanabe, Kiyoko; Toyama, Toshizo; Takahashi, Shun-suke; Sugiyama, Shuta; Lee, Masaichi-Chang-il; Hamada, Nobushiro

    2015-02-01

    Pycnogenol(®) (PYC) is a standardized bark extract from French maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton). We examined the inhibitory effects of PYC on alveolar bone resorption, which is a characteristic feature of periodontitis, induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) and osteoclast differentiation. In rat periodontitis model, rats were divided into four groups: group A served as the non-infected control, group B was infected orally with P. gingivalis ATCC 33277, group C was administered PYC in the diet (0.025%: w/w), and group D was infected with P. gingivalis and administered PYC. Administration of PYC along with P. gingivalis infection significantly reduced alveolar bone resorption. Treatment of P. gingivalis with 1 µg/ml PYC reduced the number of viable bacterial cells. Addition of PYC to epithelial cells inhibited adhesion and invasion by P. gingivalis. The effect of PYC on osteoclast formation was confirmed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining. PYC treatment significantly inhibited osteoclast formation. Addition of PYC (1-100 µg/ml) to purified osteoclasts culture induced cell apoptosis. These results suggest that PYC may prevent alveolar bone resorption through its antibacterial activity against P. gingivalis and by suppressing osteoclastogenesis. Therefore, PYC may be useful as a therapeutic and preventative agent for bone diseases such as periodontitis. PMID:25336411

  3. Inhibitory effects of Pycnogenol® (French maritime pine bark extract) on airway inflammation in ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Shin, In-Sik; Shin, Na-Rae; Jeon, Chan-Mi; Hong, Ju-Mi; Kwon, Ok-Kyoung; Kim, Jong-Choon; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Hahn, Kyu-Woung; Ahn, Kyung-Seop

    2013-12-01

    Pycnogenol® (PYC) is a standardized extracts from the bark of the French maritime pine (Pinus maritime) and used as a herbal remedy for various diseases. In this study, we evaluated the effects of PYC on airway inflammation using a model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma and RAW264.7 cells. PYC decreased nitric oxide production and reduced the interleukine (IL)-1β and IL-6 levels in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. PYC also reduced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and enhanced the expression of hemeoxygenase (HO)-1. In the in vivo experiment, PYC decreased the inflammatory cell count and the levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and immunoglobulin (Ig) E in BALF or serum. These results are consistent with the histological analysis findings, which showed that PYC attenuated the airway inflammation and mucus hypersecretion induced by OVA challenge. In addition, PYC enhanced the expression of HO-1. In contrast, PYC inhibited the elevated expression of iNOS and MMP-9 proteins induced by OVA challenge. In conclusion, PYC exhibits protective effects against OVA-induced asthma and LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. These results suggest that PYC has potential as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of allergic asthma. PMID:24120901

  4. Oral administration of French maritime pine bark extract (Flavangenol®) improves clinical symptoms in photoaged facial skin

    PubMed Central

    Furumura, Minao; Sato, Noriko; Kusaba, Nobutaka; Takagaki, Kinya; Nakayama, Juichiro

    2012-01-01

    Background French maritime pine bark extract (PBE) has gained popularity as a dietary supplement in the treatment of various diseases due to its polyphenol-rich ingredients. Oligometric proanthocyanidins (OPCs), a class of bioflavonoid complexes, are enriched in French maritime PBE and have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Previous studies have suggested that French maritime PBE helps reduce ultraviolet radiation damage to the skin and may protect human facial skin from symptoms of photoaging. To evaluate the clinical efficacy of French maritime PBE in the improvement of photodamaged facial skin, we conducted a randomized trial of oral supplementation with PBE. Methods One hundred and twelve women with mild to moderate photoaging of the skin were randomized to either a 12-week open trial regimen of 100 mg PBE supplementation once daily or to a parallel-group trial regimen of 40 mg PBE supplementation once daily. Results A significant decrease in clinical grading of skin photoaging scores was observed in both time courses of 100 mg daily and 40 mg daily PBE supplementation regimens. A significant reduction in the pigmentation of age spots was also demonstrated utilizing skin color measurements. Conclusion Clinically significant improvement in photodamaged skin could be achieved with PBE. Our findings confirm the efficacy and safety of PBE. PMID:22956863

  5. A review on biological, nutraceutical and clinical aspects of French maritime pine bark extract.

    PubMed

    Maimoona, Alya; Naeem, Ismat; Saddiqe, Zeb; Jameel, Khalid

    2011-01-27

    Bark extract of Pinus pinaster has a long history of ethnomedicinal use and is available commercially as herbal dietary supplement with proprietary name pycnogenol. It is used as a food supplement to overcome many degenerative disorders. Rohdewald (2002) wrote the first comprehensive review of extract highlighting its antioxidative nature and its role in different diseases. Later, Watson (2003) and Gulati (2005) in their reviews about cardiovascular health, described the extract as a best neutraceutical agent in this regard. The objective of this paper is to review the current research on this extract in terms of extraction methods, its pharmacological, toxicological and nutraceutical effects and clinical studies. Web sites of Google Scholar, Pubmed and Medline were searched for articles written in English and published in peer-reviewed journals from 2006 to 2009 and sixty-nine research articles were extracted. Of these, two are about extraction advancement and analysis while the rest relate to its clinical, biological and nutraceutical aspects. PMID:21044675

  6. Host selection behavior of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) attackingPinus ponderosa, with special emphasis on the western pine beetle,Dendroctonus brevicomis.

    PubMed

    Moeck, H A; Wood, D L; Lindahl, K Q

    1981-01-01

    Detection of weakened hosts from a distance by bark beetles through olfaction was investigated in field experiments. No significant numbers of Scolytidae were attracted to anaerobically treated pine bolts, stem disks, or sugar and ponderosa pine bark including phloem. Treatment of living trees with cacodylic acid induced attacks byDendroctonus brevicomis, D. ponderosae, Ips latidens, Gnathotrichus retusus, andPityophthorus scalptor, beginning two weeks after treatment. There was no significant difference between landing rates ofD. brevicomis andD. ponderosae on screened treated trees and screened controls. There was a significant increase in landing rates ofG. retusus andI. latidens, because both species had penetrated the screen and produced pheromones. Tree frilling alone did not increase the landing rate of bark beetles. Freezing of the lower trunk with dry ice did not increase significantly the landing rate ofD. brevicomis, D. ponderosae, G. retusus, orI. latidens on screened trees, whereas unscreened frozen trees were attacked by all four species. There was no significantly higher landing rate byD. brevicomis, D. ponderosae, I. paraconfusus, I. latidens, G. retusus, orHylurgops subcostulatus on screened trees evidencing symptoms of severe infection by the root pathogenVerticicladiella wagenerii, than on symptornless trees. These experiments show thatD. brevicomis, D. ponderosae, I. paraconfusus, I. latidens, andG. retusus land, apparently indiscriminately, on healthy and stressed hosts. Thus, in these species host discrimination must occur after landing and prior to sustained feeding. PMID:24420427

  7. Decomposition of litter in a dry sclerophyll eucalypt forest and a Pinus radiata plantation in southeastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crockford, R. H.; Richardson, D. P.

    2002-12-01

    This study of litter decomposition was part of an extensive project examining the partitioning of rainfall, the associated chemistry, and litterfall in a dry sclerophyll eucalypt forest and a Pinus radiata plantation in southeastern Australia. The eucalypt species studied were Eucalyptus rossii, E. mannifera and E. dives. The components tested were Pinus radiata needles, leaves of the three eucalypt species, and the bark of E. rossii and E. mannifera.During the first 16 weeks of the decomposition experiment there was a rapid decrease in the concentrations of potassium, magnesium, sodium and phosphorus; this was attributed to leaching. During this period, concentrations of nitrogen and calcium increased for most components. After this period, decomposition became the dominant process, during which the concentrations of most elements increased. By the end of the experiment there was, compared with the initial values, a marked reduction in concentrations of sodium, magnesium and potassium for all eucalypt and pine litter. Calcium concentrations increased through time, with eucalypt bark showing a mid-period decline. Phosphorus concentrations decreased for the eucalypt leaves but increased substantially for the pine needles and the eucalypt bark. For all components of both the eucalypts and pines, total nitrogen concentrations rose consistently throughout the decomposition period. This was attributed to the formation of nitrogen-substituted lignin, which was more resistant to decomposition than the other nitrogen-containing compounds, as well as some nitrogen being stored in the micro-organisms responsible for decomposition. Because of loss of fragmented litter from the litter bags after 16 weeks, the weight changes could not be confidently measured after this period.

  8. Sustainable landfill leachate treatment using refuse and pine bark as a carbon source for bio-denitrification.

    PubMed

    Frank, R R; Trois, C; Coulon, F

    2015-01-01

    Raw and 10-week composted commercial garden refuse (CGR) materials and pine bark (PB) mulch were evaluated for their potential use as alternative and sustainable sources of carbon for landfill leachate bio-denitrification. Dynamic batch tests using synthetic nitrate solutions of 100, 500 and 2000 mg NO3 L(-1) were used to investigate the substrate performance at increasing nitrate concentrations under optimal conditions. Further to this, sequential batch tests using genuine nitrified landfill leachate with a concentration of 2000 mg NO3 L(-1) were carried out to evaluate substrates behaviour in the presence of a complex mixture of chemicals present in leachate. Results showed that complete denitrification occurred in all conditions, indicating that raw and composted CGR and PB can be used as sustainable and efficient media for landfill leachate bio-denitrification. Of the three substrates, raw garden refuse yields the fastest denitrification rate followed by 10-week composted CGR and PB. However, the efficiency of the raw CGR was lower when using genuine leachate, indicating the inhibitory effect of components of the leachate on the denitrification process. Ten-week composted CGR performed optimally at low nitrate concentrations, while poor nitrate removal ability was found at higher nitrate concentrations (2000 mg L(-1)). In contrast, the PB performance was 3.5 times faster than that of the composted garden refuse at higher nitrate concentrations. Further to this, multi-criteria analysis of the process variables provided an easily implementable framework for the use of waste materials as an alternative and sustainable source of carbon for denitrification. PMID:25490954

  9. Time trends in the levels and patterns of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in pine bark, litter, and soil after a forest fire.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sung-Deuk

    2014-02-01

    Forest fires are known as an important natural source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), but time trends of PAH levels and patterns in various environmental compartments after forest fires have not been thoroughly studied yet. In this study, 16 US-EPA priority PAHs were analyzed for pine bark, litter, and soil samples collected one, three, five, and seven months after a forest fire in Pohang, South Korea. At the first sampling event, the highest levels of ∑16 PAHs were measured for the three types of samples (pine bark: 5,920 ng/g, litter: 1,540 ng/g, and soil: 133 ng/g). Thereafter, there were apparent decreasing trends in PAH levels; the control samples showed the lowest levels (pine bark: 124 ng/g, litter: 75 ng/g, and soil: 26 ng/g). The levels of PAHs in the litter and soil samples normalized by organic carbon (OC) fractions also showed decreasing trends, indicating a direct influence of the forest fire. Among the 16 target PAHs, naphthalene was a dominant compound for all types of samples. Light PAHs with 2-4 rings significantly contributed to the total concentration, and their contribution decreased in the course of time. Runoff by heavy precipitation, evaporation, and degradation of PAHs in the summer were probably the main reasons for the observed time trends. The results of principal component analysis (PCA) and diagnostic ratio also supported that the forest fire was indeed an important source of PAHs in the study area. PMID:23972323

  10. Pine bark as bio-adsorbent for Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn: batch-type and stirred flow chamber experiments.

    PubMed

    Cutillas-Barreiro, L; Ansias-Manso, L; Fernández-Calviño, D; Arias-Estévez, M; Nóvoa-Muñoz, J C; Fernández-Sanjurjo, M J; Álvarez-Rodríguez, E; Núñez-Delgado, A

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the retention of five metals on pine bark using stirred flow and batch-type experiments. Resulting from batch-type kinetic experiments, adsorption was rapid, with no significant differences for the various contact times. Adsorption was between 98 and 99% for Pb(2+), 83-84% for Cu(2+), 78-84% for Cd(2+), 77-83% for Zn(2+), and 70-75% for Ni(2+), and it was faster for low concentrations, with Pb suffering the highest retention, followed by Cu, Cd, Ni and Zn. The fitting to the Freundlich and Langmuir models was satisfactory. Desorption increased in parallel to the added concentrations, with Pb always showing the lowest levels. Stirred flow chamber experiments showed strong hysteresis for Pb and Cu, sorption being mostly irreversible. The differences affecting the studied heavy metals are mainly due to different affinity for the adsorption sites. Pine bark can be used to effectively remove Pb and Cu from polluted environments. PMID:24973614

  11. Overshoot in Leaf Development of Ponderosa Pine in Wet Years Leads to Bark Beetle Outbreaks on Fine-Textured Soils in Drier Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterman, W. L.; Waring, R. H.

    2014-12-01

    Frequent outbreaks of insects and diseases have been recorded in forests of western North America during the past few decades, but the distribution of these outbreaks has not been uniform. In some cases, recent climatic variations along with the age and density of forests may explain some spatial variation. Forest managers and policy makers would benefit if areas prone to disturbance could be recognized so that mitigating actions could be taken. In this paper, we used two ponderosa pine-dominated sites in western Montana, U.S.A. to apply a modelling approach that couples information from remote sensing, soil surveys, and local weather stations to assess where bark beetle outbreaks might first occur and why. There was a slight downward trend in precipitation for both sites over the period between 1998 and 2010, and, interannual variability was high. Some years showed large increases followed by sharp decreases. Both sites had similar topography and fire histories, but bark beetle activity occurred earlier and more severely on one site than the other. The initial canopy density of the two sites was also similar, with leaf area indices derived via Landsat imagery ranging between 1.6- 2.0 m2 m-2. We wondered if the difference in bark beetle activity might be related to soils that were fine-textured at site I and coarse-textured at site II. We applied a process-based stand growth model (3-PG) to analyze the data and evaluate the hypotheses.

  12. A Tale of Two Forests: Simulating Contrasting Lodgepole Pine and Spruce Forest Water and Carbon Fluxes Following Mortality from Bark Beetles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewers, B. E.; Peckham, S. D.; Mackay, D. S.; Pendall, E.; Frank, J. M.; Massman, W. J.; Reed, D. E.; Borkhuu, B.

    2014-12-01

    In recent decades, bark beetle infestation in western North America has reached epidemic levels. The resulting widespread forest mortality may have profound effects on present and future water and carbon cycling with potential negative consequences to a region that relies on water from montane and subalpine watersheds. We simulated stand-level ecosystem fluxes of water and carbon at two bark beetle-attacked conifer forests in southeast Wyoming, USA. The lower elevation site dominated by lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) was attacked by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) during 2008-2010. The high elevation Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) dominated site was attacked by the spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) during roughly the same time period. Both beetle infestations resulted in >60% canopy mortality in the footprint of eddy covariance towers located at each site. However, carbon and water fluxes responses to mortality depended on the forest type. Using data collected at the sites, we scaled simulated plant hydraulic conductivity by either percent canopy mortality or loss of live tree basal area during infestation. We also simulated a case of no beetle attack. At the lodgepole site, the no-beetle model best fit the data and showed no significant change in growing season carbon flux and a 15% decrease in evapotranspiration (ET). However, at the spruce site, the simulation that tracked canopy loss agreed best with observations: carbon flux decreased by 72% and ET decreased by 31%. In the lodgepole stand, simulated soil water content agreed with spatially distributed measurements that were weighted to reflect overall mortality in the tower footprint. Although these two forest ecosystems are only 20 km apart, separated by less than 300m in elevation, and have been impacted by similar mortality agents, the associated changes in carbon and water cycling are significantly different. Beetle effects on hydrologic cycling were greatest at high elevation

  13. Relationship of coarse woody debris to arthropod Availability for Red-Cockaded Woodpeckers and other bark-foraging birds on loblolly pine boles.

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, Scott; Hanula, James, L.

    2008-04-01

    Abstract This study determined if short-term removal of coarse woody debris would reduce prey available to red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis Vieillot) and other bark-foraging birds at the Savannah River Site in Aiken and Barnwell counties, SC. All coarse woody debris was removed from four 9-ha plots of mature loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) in 1997 and again in 1998. We sampled arthropods in coarse woody debris removal and control stands using crawl traps that captured arthropods crawling up tree boles, burlap bands wrapped around trees, and cardboard panels placed on the ground. We captured 27 orders and 172 families of arthropods in crawl traps whereas 20 arthropod orders were observed under burlap bands and cardboard panels. The most abundant insects collected from crawl traps were aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) and ants (Hymenoptera: Forrnicidae). The greatest biomass was in the wood cockroaches (Blattaria: Blattellidae), caterpillars (Lepidoptera) in the Family Noctuidae, and adult weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The most common group observed underneath cardboard panels was lsoptera (termites), and the most common taxon under burlap bands was wood cockroaches. Overall, arthropod abundance and biomass captured in crawl traps was similar in control and removal plots. In contrast, we observed more arthropods under burlap bands (mean & SE; 3,021.5 k 348.6, P= 0.03) and cardboard panels (3,537.25 k 432.4, P= 0.04) in plots with coarse woody debris compared with burlap bands (2325 + 171.3) and cardboard panels (2439.75 + 288.9) in plots where coarse woody debris was removed. Regression analyses showed that abundance beneath cardboard panels was positively correlated with abundance beneath burlap bands demonstrating the link between abundance on the ground with that on trees. Our results demonstrate that short-term removal of coarse woody debris from pine forests reduced overall arthropod availability to bark-foraging birds.

  14. Near infrared spectroscopic examination of charred pine wood, bark, cellulose and lignin: Implications for the quantitative determination of charcoal in soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeves, J. B., III; McCarty, G.W.; Rutherford, D.W.; Wershaw, R. L.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of charring on near infrared spectra of materials likely to be present in forest fires in order to determine the feasibility of determining charred carbon in soils. Four materials (cellulose, lignin, pine bark and pine wood) and char from these materials created by charring for various durations (1 to 168 h) and at various temperatures (200 to 450??C) were studied. Near infrared spectra and measures of acidity (total acids, carboxylic acids, lactones and phenols as determined by titration) were available for 56 different samples (Not all samples charred at all temperatures/durations). Results showed spectral changes that varied with the material, temperature and duration of charring. Examination of spectra and correlation plots indicated that changes in the constituents of the materials in question, such as loss of OH groups in carbohydrates, rather than direct determination of typical products produced by charring, such as carboxylic acids, lactones and phenols, were the basis for the spectral changes. Finally, while the spectral changes resulting from charring appeared to be relatively unique to each material, PLS calibrations for total acids, carboxylic acids, lactones and phenols were successfully created (with R2 of 0.991, 0.943, 0.931 and 0.944, respectively) indicating that there is a sufficient commonality in the changes to develop calibrations without the need for unique calibrations for each specific set of charring conditions (i.e. material, temperature and time of heating). ?? IM Publications 2007.

  15. Mid-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopic examination of charred pine wood, bark, cellulose, and lignin: Implications for the quantitative determination of charcoal in soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeves, J. B., III; McCarty, G.W.; Rutherford, D.W.; Wershaw, R. L.

    2008-01-01

    Fires in terrestrial ecosystems produce large amounts of charcoal that persist in the environment and represent a substantial pool of sequestered carbon in soil. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of charring on mid-infrared spectra of materials likely to be present in forest fires in order to determine the feasibility of determining charred organic matter in soils. Four materials (cellulose, lignin, pine bark, and pine wood) and char from these materials, created by charring for various durations (1 to 168 h) and at various temperatures (200 to 450 ??C), were studied. Mid-infrared spectra and measures of acidity (total acids, carboxylic acids, lactones, and phenols as determined by titration) were determined for 56 different samples (not all samples were charred at all temperatures/durations). Results showed spectral changes that varied with the material, temperature, and duration of charring. Despite the wide range of spectral changes seen with the differing materials and length/temperature of charring, partial least squares calibrations for total acids, carboxylic acids, lactones, and phenols were successfully created (coefficient of determination and root mean squared deviation of 0.970 and 0.380; 0.933 and 0.227; 0.976 and 0.120; and 0.982 and 0.101 meq/g, respectively), indicating that there is a sufficient commonality in the changes to develop calibrations without the need for unique calibrations for each specific material or condition of char formation. ?? 2008 Society for Applied Spectroscopy.

  16. Role of plant enemies in the forestry of indigenous vs. nonindigenous pines.

    PubMed

    Lombardero, María J; Vázquez-Mejuto, Patricia; Ayres, Matthew P

    2008-07-01

    Plantations of rapidly growing trees are becoming increasingly common because the high productivity can enhance local economies, support improvements in educational systems, and generally improve the quality of life in rural communities. Landowners frequently choose to plant nonindigenous species; one rationalization has been that silvicultural productivity is enhanced when trees are separated from their native herbivores and pathogens. The expectation of enemy reduction in nonindigenous species has theoretical and empirical support from studies of the enemy release hypothesis (ERH) in the context of invasion ecology, but its relevance to forestry has not been evaluated. We evaluated ERH in the productive forests of Galicia, Spain, where there has been a profusion of pine plantations, some with the indigenous Pinus pinaster, but increasingly with the nonindigenous P. radiata. Here, one of the most important pests of pines is the indigenous bark beetle, Tomicus piniperda. In support of ERH, attacks by T. piniperda were more than twice as great in stands of P. pinaster compared to P. radiata. This differential held across a range of tree ages and beetle abundance. However, this extension of ERH to forestry failed in the broader sense because beetle attacks, although fewer on P. radiata, reduced productivity of P. radiata more than that of P. pinaster (probably because more photosynthetic tissue is lost per beetle attack in P. radiata). Productivity of the nonindigenous pine was further reduced by the pathogen, Sphaeropsis sapinea, which infected up to 28% of P. radiata but was absent in P. pinaster. This was consistent with the forestry axiom (antithetical to ERH) that trees planted "off-site" are more susceptible to pathogens. Fungal infections were positively correlated with beetle attacks; apparently T. piniperda facilitates S. sapinea infections by creating wounds and by carrying fungal propagules. A globally important component in the diminution of indigenous

  17. Inhibitory Effect of a French Maritime Pine Bark Extract-Based Nutritional Supplement on TNF-α-Induced Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Kristine C Y; Li, Xiao-Hong; McRobb, Lucinda S; Heather, Alison K

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation, leading to endothelial dysfunction, contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The popularity of natural product supplements has increased in recent years, especially those with purported anti-inflammatory and/or antioxidant effects. The efficacy and mechanism of many of these products are not yet well understood. In this study, we tested the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of a supplement, HIPER Health Supplement (HIPER), on cytokine-induced inflammation and oxidative stress in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs). HIPER is a mixture of French maritime pine bark extract (PBE), honey, aloe vera, and papaya extract. Treatment for 24 hours with HIPER reduced TNF-α-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation that was associated with decreased NADPH oxidase 4 and increased superoxide dismutase-1 expression. HIPER inhibited TNF-α induced monocyte adhesion to HCAECs that was in keeping with decreased expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 and decreased nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation. Further investigation of mechanism showed HIPER reduced TNF-α induced IκBα and p38 and MEK1/2 MAP kinases phosphorylation. Our findings show that HIPER has potent inhibitory effects on HCAECs inflammatory and oxidative stress responses that may protect against endothelial dysfunction that underlies early atherosclerotic lesion formation. PMID:26664450

  18. Inhibitory Effect of a French Maritime Pine Bark Extract-Based Nutritional Supplement on TNF-α-Induced Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Kristine C. Y.; Li, Xiao-Hong; McRobb, Lucinda S.; Heather, Alison K.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation, leading to endothelial dysfunction, contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The popularity of natural product supplements has increased in recent years, especially those with purported anti-inflammatory and/or antioxidant effects. The efficacy and mechanism of many of these products are not yet well understood. In this study, we tested the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of a supplement, HIPER Health Supplement (HIPER), on cytokine-induced inflammation and oxidative stress in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs). HIPER is a mixture of French maritime pine bark extract (PBE), honey, aloe vera, and papaya extract. Treatment for 24 hours with HIPER reduced TNF-α-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation that was associated with decreased NADPH oxidase 4 and increased superoxide dismutase-1 expression. HIPER inhibited TNF-α induced monocyte adhesion to HCAECs that was in keeping with decreased expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 and decreased nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation. Further investigation of mechanism showed HIPER reduced TNF-α induced IκBα and p38 and MEK1/2 MAP kinases phosphorylation. Our findings show that HIPER has potent inhibitory effects on HCAECs inflammatory and oxidative stress responses that may protect against endothelial dysfunction that underlies early atherosclerotic lesion formation. PMID:26664450

  19. Gastrointestinal Bacterial and Methanogenic Archaea Diversity Dynamics Associated with Condensed Tannin-Containing Pine Bark Diet in Goats Using 16S rDNA Amplicon Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Min, Byeng R.; Solaiman, Sandra; Shange, Raymon

    2014-01-01

    Eighteen Kiko-cross meat goats (n = 6) were used to collect gastrointestinal (GI) bacteria and methanogenic archaea for diversity measures when fed condensed tannin-containing pine bark (PB). Three dietary treatments were tested: control diet (0% PB and 30% wheat straw (WS); 0.17% condensed tannins (CT) dry matter (DM)); 15% PB and 15% WS (1.6% CT DM), and 30% PB and 0% WS (3.2% CT DM). A 16S rDNA bacterial tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing technique was used to characterize and elucidate changes in GI bacteria and methanogenic archaea diversity among the diets. Proteobacteria was the most dominant phylum in goats with mean relative abundance values ranging from 39.7 (30% PB) to 46.5% (control) and 47.1% (15% PB). Other phyla individually accounted for fewer than 25% of the relative abundance observed. Predominant methanogens were Methanobrevibacter (75, 72, and 49%), Methanosphaera (3.3, 2.3, and 3.4%), and Methanobacteriaceae (1.2, 0.6, and 0.7%) population in control, 15, and 30% PB, respectively. Among methanogens, Methanobrevibacter was linearly decreased (P = 0.05) with increasing PB supplementation. These results indicate that feeding PB selectively altered bacteria and methanogenic archaeal populations in the GI tract of goats. PMID:24669219

  20. Association genetics of oleoresin flow in loblolly pine: discovering genes and predicting phenotype for improved resistance to bark beetles and bioenergy potential.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, Jared W; Resende, Marcio F R; Munoz, Patricio; Walker, Alejandro R; Wegrzyn, Jill L; Nelson, C Dana; Neale, David B; Kirst, Matias; Huber, Dudley A; Gezan, Salvador A; Peter, Gary F; Davis, John M

    2013-07-01

    Rapidly enhancing oleoresin production in conifer stems through genomic selection and genetic engineering may increase resistance to bark beetles and terpenoid yield for liquid biofuels. We integrated association genetic and genomic prediction analyses of oleoresin flow (g 24 h(-1)) using 4854 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in expressed genes within a pedigreed population of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) that was clonally replicated at three sites in the southeastern United States. Additive genetic variation in oleoresin flow (h(2) ≈ 0.12-0.30) was strongly correlated between years in which precipitation varied (r(a) ≈ 0.95), while the genetic correlation between sites declined from 0.8 to 0.37 with increasing differences in soil and climate among sites. A total of 231 SNPs were significantly associated with oleoresin flow, of which 81% were specific to individual sites. SNPs in sequences similar to ethylene signaling proteins, ABC transporters, and diterpenoid hydroxylases were associated with oleoresin flow across sites. Despite this complex genetic architecture, we developed a genomic prediction model to accelerate breeding for enhanced oleoresin flow that is robust to environmental variation. Results imply that breeding could increase oleoresin flow 1.5- to 2.4-fold in one generation. PMID:23534834

  1. Remediation of nitrate-nitrogen contaminated groundwater using a pilot-scale two-layer heterotrophic-autotrophic denitrification permeable reactive barrier with spongy iron/pine bark.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guoxin; Huang, Yuanying; Hu, Hongyan; Liu, Fei; Zhang, Ying; Deng, Renwei

    2015-07-01

    A novel two-layer heterotrophic-autotrophic denitrification (HAD) permeable reactive barrier (PRB) was proposed for remediating nitrate-nitrogen contaminated groundwater in an oxygen rich environment, which has a packing structure of an upstream pine bark layer and a downstream spongy iron and river sand mixture layer. The HAD PRB involves biological deoxygenation, heterotrophic denitrification, hydrogenotrophic denitrification, and anaerobic Fe corrosion. Column and batch experiments were performed to: (1) investigate the NO3(-)-N removal and inorganic geochemistry; (2) explore the nitrogen transformation and removal mechanisms; (3) identify the hydrogenotrophic denitrification capacity; and (4) evaluate the HAD performance by comparison with other approaches. The results showed that the HAD PRB could maintain constant high NO3(-)-N removal efficiency (>91%) before 38 pore volumes (PVs) of operation (corresponding to 504d), form little or even negative NO2(-)-N during the 45 PVs, and produce low NH4(+)-N after 10 PVs. Aerobic heterotrophic bacteria played a dominant role in oxygen depletion via aerobic respiration, providing more CO2 for hydrogenotrophic denitrification. The HAD PRB significantly relied on heterotrophic denitrification. Hydrogenotrophic denitrification removed 10-20% of the initial NO3(-)-N. Effluent total organic carbon decreased from 403.44mgL(-1) at PV 1 to 9.34mgL(-1) at PV 45. Packing structure had a noticeable effect on its denitrification. PMID:25747301

  2. Direct assessment by electron spin resonance spectroscopy of the antioxidant effects of French maritime pine bark extract in the maxillofacial region of hairless mice

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Ayaka; Yoshino, Fumihiko; Tsubata, Masahito; Ikeguchi, Motoya; Nakamura, Takeshi; Lee, Masaichi-Chang-il

    2011-01-01

    Flavangenol, one of extract of French maritime pine bark, is a complex mixture of bioflavonoids with oligometric proanthocyanidins as the major constituents. These constituents, catechin and procyanidin B1, are water-soluble derivatives of flavangenol. In this study, we investigated the antioxidant effects of flavangenol on reactive oxygen species such as hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion and singlet oxygen using electron spin resonance and spin trapping. The effect of flavangenol on oxidative stress in the skin from the maxillofacial region of hairless mice was investigated using an in vivo L-band electron spin resonance imaging system. Flavangenol attenuated oxidative stress in the maxillofacial skin by acting as a reactive oxygen species scavenger, as demonstrated by in vitro and in vivo electron spin resonance imaging analysis. The absorption and metabolism of flavangenol were also examined. After oral administration of flavangenol in human and rat, most of the catechin in plasma was in the conjugated form, while 45% to 78% of procyanidin B1 was unconjugated, indicating that non-conjugated procyanidin B1 would be active in the circulation. The ability of flavangenol to reduce reactive oxygen species levels in the circulation of the maxillofacial region suggests that this extract may be beneficial for skin protection from exposure to ultraviolet irradiation. PMID:21980222

  3. Antioxidant and pro-apoptotic effects of marine-derived, multi-mineral aquamin supplemented with a pine bark extract, Enzogenol, and a green tea extract, Sunphenon.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, Yvonne C; Drummond, Elaine; O'Gorman, Denise M; O'Brien, Nora M

    2013-10-01

    A high dietary intake of polyphenols has been associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer, attributed in part to their antioxidant activity and pro-apoptotic effects. Aquamin is a multi-mineral algal extract that enhances bone mineralization, relieves osteoarthritis, and aids digestion; however, Aquamin has not demonstrated antioxidant activity. In the present study, Aquamin was supplemented with 8% Enzogenol, a pine bark extract with a high phenolic content, and 2% Sunphenon, a green tea extract that also has a high phenolic content to produce a mixed product (A:E:S). The antioxidant activity of A:E:S was compared with that of its constituent compounds and also with catechin and epigallocatechin by measuring total phenol content, ferric-reducing antioxidant potential, and 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate. The cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of the compounds were also measured in the U937, human monocytic blood cell line. A:E:S demonstrated an antioxidant activity that was equal to that of the compounds used in its preparation. Aquamin was not cytotoxic in the U937 cell line; however, A:E:S was cytotoxic and the primary mechanism of cell death was apoptosis. The biological effects of Aquamin were enhanced by supplementation with Enzogenol and Sunphenon to include antioxidant effects and the ability to induce apoptosis in U937 cells. PMID:24074358

  4. Factors affecting early seedling development in whole pine tree substrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wood-based materials derived from pine trees, such as processed whole pine tree (WPT), can be a viable option for producers looking to offset pine bark or peatmoss usage in container substrates. Reduced root development of stem cuttings rooted in WPT compared with pine bark (PB) has been observed, b...

  5. Trace gas emissions from a chronosequence of bark beetle-infested lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forest stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, U.; Pendall, E.; Ewers, B. E.; Borkhuu, B.

    2011-12-01

    Severe outbreak of mountain pine beetle (MPB) and associated blue stain fungi have killed millions of hectares of coniferous forests in Western North America. This unprecedented disturbance has critically impacted ecosystem biogeochemistry and net carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) fluxes. However, the effects on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and drivers of biogeochemical processes that trigger GHG emissions following MPB infestations are not well understood. Such information can help assess regional-level changes in ecosystem C and N budgets and large-scale disturbance impacts on gas exchange between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystem. The overall objective of this research was to assess the immediate responses of GHG fluxes and soil C and N mineralization rates along a chronosequence of recently infested (1-yr, 3-yr and 4-yr ago) and uninfested (150-yr, 20-yr and 15-yr old) lodgepole pine stands in Medicine Bow National Forest in southeastern Wyoming. We hypothesize that MPB-induced tree mortality significantly changes stand-level hydrology, soil organic matter quality and chemistry of aboveground and belowground plant inputs. Consequently, these modifications influence nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and methane (CH4) assimilation. Biweekly GHG measurements using static chambers were carried out during three consecutive snow-free growing seasons. Our results suggest that a stand infested within a year already shows a 20% increase in spring N2O production and a small decline in summer CH4 assimilation when compared to uninfested stands. Stands infested three and four years prior to our measurements produce over three times more N2O and assimilate three to five times less CH4 when compared to uninfested stands. In addition, a notable increase in soil moisture content and soil mineral N concentrations following early onset of the MPB infestation was also observed. An overall increase in N2O production and decline in CH4 assimilation following MPB infestation may

  6. Inducibility of chemical defences by two chewing insect herbivores in pine trees is specific to targeted plant tissue, particular herbivore and defensive trait.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Xoaquín; Lundborg, Lina; Zas, Rafael; Carrillo-Gavilán, Amparo; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Sampedro, Luis

    2013-10-01

    There is increasing evidence that plants can react to biotic aggressions with highly specific responses. However, few studies have attempted to jointly investigate whether the induction of plant defences is specific to a targeted plant tissue, plant species, herbivore identity, and defensive trait. Here we studied those factors contributing to the specificity of induced defensive responses in two economically important pine species against two chewing insect pest herbivores. Juvenile trees of Pinus pinaster and P. radiata were exposed to herbivory by two major pest threats, the large pine weevil Hylobius abietis (a bark-feeder) and the pine processionary caterpillar Thaumetopoea pityocampa (a folivore). We quantified in two tissues (stem and needles) the constitutive (control plants) and herbivore-induced concentrations of total polyphenolics, volatile and non-volatile resin, as well as the profile of mono- and sesquiterpenes. Stem chewing by the pine weevil increased concentrations of non-volatile resin, volatile monoterpenes, and (marginally) polyphenolics in stem tissues. Weevil feeding also increased the concentration of non-volatile resin and decreased polyphenolics in the needle tissues. Folivory by the caterpillar had no major effects on needle defensive chemistry, but a strong increase in the concentration of polyphenolics in the stem. Interestingly, we found similar patterns for all these above-reported effects in both pine species. These results offer convincing evidence that induced defences are highly specific and may vary depending on the targeted plant tissue, the insect herbivore causing the damage and the considered defensive compound. PMID:23768645

  7. Willow Bark

    MedlinePlus

    ... reactions. Avoid use. Surgery: Willow bark might slow blood clotting. There is a concern it could cause extra ... Talk with your health provider.Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Willow bark might slow blood ...

  8. Southern Pine Based on Biorefinery Center

    SciTech Connect

    Ragauskas, Arthur J; Singh, Preet

    2014-01-10

    This program seeks to develop an integrated southern pine wood to biofuels/biomaterials processing facility on the Recipient’s campus, that will test advanced integrated wood processing technologies at the laboratory scale, including: • The generation of the bioethanol from pines residues and hemicelluloses extracted from pine woodchips; • The conversion of extracted woodchips to linerboard and bleach grade pulps; and • The efficient conversion of pine residues, bark and kraft cooking liquor into a useful pyrolysis oil.

  9. Incision wound healing activity of pine bark extract containing topical formulations: a study with histopathological and biochemical analyses in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Cetin, E O; Yesil-Celiktas, O; Cavusoglu, T; Demirel-Sezer, E; Akdemir, O; Uyanikgil, Y

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to identify and compare the in vivo wound healing capacity of a bark extract from Pinus brutia and Pycnogenol in an incision wound model in rats. O/W cream formulations were prepared incorporating 2% Pycnogenol and P. brutia bark extract. The rats were divided into three groups (n = 8). Subsequently placebo and test formulations were applied to animals once a day from day "0" until the 9th day. Malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were studied in addition to histopathological examinations. Treatment with F. brutia extract containing cream inhibited lipid peroxidation by a 35% decrease in MDA and 46.8% increase in SOD activity, whereas 19.3% decrease in MDA and 34.7% increase in SOD activity were attained with Pynogenol compared to control. The histological data revealed a better performance of P. brutia extract enriched formulation in terms of degeneration of hair roots, increased vascularization and a decrease in necrotic area. Consequently, a high wound healing activity was observed in animals treated with P. brutia extract significantly accelerating the wound healing process. PMID:23444785

  10. Phytotoxic evaluation of whole pine tree substrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Decreased availability and increased cost of quality substrates are issues facing many horticulture crop producers. Peat moss and pine bark are the most widely used substrate components, yet producers have become more aware of acceptable alternative components. Processed whole pine trees have been i...

  11. Enclosed bark as a pollen trap

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adam, D.P.; Ferguson, C.W.; Lamarch, V.C., Jr.

    1967-01-01

    Counts were made of pollen in traps formed by enclosed bark in two remnants of bristlecone pine, Pinus aristata Engelm., from the White Mountains of east-central California. The traps, dated by tree-rings at A.D. 350 and 1300 B.C., contained a major complex of pine-sagebrush pollen and traces of other species, representing the equivalent of the present vegetation.

  12. Rooting Rose Cuttings in Whole Pine Tree Substrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased demand for alternatives to pine bark (PB) and peat moss (P) has led to extensive research on wood-based substrates, such as processed whole pine trees (WPT), for nursery and greenhouse crop production. Limited information is available on how WPT may perform as a rooting substrate for cutti...

  13. Comparison of Arthropod Prey of Red-Cockaded Woodpeckers on the Boles of Longleaf and Loblolly Pines

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, S.; Hanula, J.

    2002-01-01

    Use of knockdown insecticides to sample arthropods on longleaf and loblolly pine to determine which harbored the greater abundance of potential prey. Alterations of longleaf pine bark surface to determine whether bark structure may affect arthropods residing on a tree's bole. Recovery revealed fewer arthropods from scraped trees. Results suggest the bark structure and not the chemical nature of the bark is responsible for differences in arthropod abundance and biomass. Retaining or restoring longleaf pine in red-cockaded woodpecker habitats should increase arthropod availability for this endangered bird and other back-foraging species.

  14. Assessment of holocellulose for the production of bioethanol by conserving Pinus radiata cones as renewable feedstock.

    PubMed

    Victor, Amudhavalli; Pulidindi, Indra Neel; Gedanken, Aharon

    2015-10-01

    Renewable and green energy sources are much sought. Bioethanol is an environmentally friendly transportation fuel. Pine cones from Pinus radiata were shown to be a potential feedstock for the production of bioethanol. Alkaline (NaOH) pretreatment was carried out to delignify the lignocellulosic material and generate holocellulose (72 wt. % yield). The pretreated biomass was hydrolysed using HCl as catalyst under microwave irradiation and hydrothermal conditions. Microwave irradiation was found to be better than the hydrothermal process. Microwave irradiation accelerated the hydrolysis of biomass (42 wt. % conversion) with the reaction conditions being 3 M HCl and 5 min of irradiation time. Interestingly, even the xylose, which is the major component of the hydrolyzate was found to be metabolized to ethanol using Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) under the experimental conditions. 5.7 g of ethanol could be produced from 100 g of raw pine cones. PMID:26247310

  15. Leptographium tereforme sp. nov. and other Ophiostomatales isolated from the root-feeding bark beetle, Hylurgus ligniperda, in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The redhaired pine bark beetle, Hylurgus ligniperda F., is native to Europe but was discovered in Los Angeles, California in 2003. This root- and stump-feeding bark beetle is a common vector of Ophiostomatales, which are potential tree pathogens or causes of blue-stain of conifer sapwood. In this st...

  16. Coexistence and competition between Tomicus Yunnanensis and T. minor (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in yunnan pine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Competition and cooperation between bark beetles, Tomicus yunnanensis and Tomicus minor (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) were examined when they coexisted together in living Yunnan pine trees (Pinus yunnanensis L.) in Yunnan province in southwest China. T. yunnanensis bark beetles were observed to initiate ...

  17. Two Pine Endo-β-1,4-Glucanases Are Associated with Rapidly Growing Reproductive Structures

    PubMed Central

    Loopstra, Carol A.; Mouradov, Aidyn; Vivian-Smith, Adam; Glassick, Tina V.; Gale, Beth V.; Southerton, Simon G.; Marshall, Heidi; Teasdale, Robert D.

    1998-01-01

    Two cDNA clones encoding endo-β-1,4-glucanases (EGases) were isolated from a radiata pine (Pinus radiata) cDNA library prepared from immature female strobili. The cDNAs PrCel1 (Pinus radiata cellulase 1) and PrCel2 encode proteins 509 and 515 amino acids in length, respectively, including putative signal peptides. Both proteins contain domains conserved in plant and bacterial EGases. The proteins PRCEL1 and PRCEL2 showed strong similarity to each other (76% amino acid identity), and higher similarity to TPP18 (73 and 67%, respectively), an EGase cloned from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) pistils, than to any other reported EGases. Northern-blot analyses indicated that both genes displayed a similar pattern of expression. The only significant difference was in the level of expression. In situ hybridizations were used to demonstrate that, within differentiating pine reproductive structures, PrCel1 expression was greatest in microsporangia in pollen strobili and near the developing ovule in the seed strobili. Expression was also found in vegetative tissues, especially in regions experiencing cell elongation, such as the elongating region of root tips. Both proteins have an ability to degrade carboxymethylcellulose in vitro. Genomic-blot analysis indicated the presence of a family of EGase genes in the radiata pine genome, and that PrCel1 and PrCel2 are transcribed from distinct one-copy genes. PMID:9501128

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyls in tree bark

    SciTech Connect

    Hermanson, M.H.; Hites, R.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in tree bark vary with proximity to a source. Higher total PCB bark/air ratios in areas near contamination show that bark may retain PCB from prior periods of high atmospheric concentrations. Bark is enriched in the more chlorinated PCB homologues relative to air. Congener-specific analyses show that, when compared with air, bark favorably accumulates the less volatile congeners. Lipophilicity is not a good indicator of bark PCB concentrations, but vapor pressure is.

  19. Cutting Propagation of Two Perennial Species in While Pine Tree Substrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wood-based materials, such as processed whole pine trees (WPT), have been identified as possible substitutions or replacements for peat moss (P) and pine bark (PB) in container substrates. Although wood-based substrates can be successfully used for crop production, limited information exists for ste...

  20. Geographic patterns of genetic variation and population structure in Pinus aristata, Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pinus aristata Engelm., Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine, has a narrow core geographic and elevational distribution, occurs in disjunct populations and is threatened by multiple stresses, including rapid climate change, white pine blister rust, and bark beetles. Knowledge of genetic diversity and pop...

  1. Development of a nested PCR detection procedure for Nectria fuckeliana direct from Norway spruce bark extracts.

    PubMed

    Langrell, Stephen R H

    2005-01-01

    A pair of primers specific for Nectria fuckeliana, a bark infecting pathogen predominantly of Norway spruce (Picea abies), were designed from comparisons of nucleotide sequences of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of nine isolates from Norway, Lithuania, Switzerland, Austria, Slovakia, Scotland (Larix sp.) and New Zealand (Pinus radiata), and other closely related nectriaceous species, including Neo. Neomacrospora, and 'N'. mammoidea, to which it exhibits taxonomic similarities. Complete ITS sequence homology was observed between each of the nine N. fuckeliana isolates, regardless of geographic provenance, including a previously published Danish strain. Primers Cct1 and Cct2 consistently amplified a single product of 360 bp from DNA prepared from 20 isolates covering the principle range of the disease from Central and Northern Europe, but not from other Neonectria, 'Nectria' or a range of species commonly encountered in forest ecosystems, as well as P. abies or P. radiata DNA. A quick, simple and efficient mechanical lysis procedure for the extraction of high quality total DNA from bark, coupled with post-extraction polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) chromatography purification, is described to facilitate successful PCR detection of N. fuckeliana direct from bark extracts. Detection of N. fuckeliana from bark preparations was only possible following nested PCR of PVPP purified extracts using universal primers ITS5 and 4 in first round amplification. The identity of products from bark tissues was confirmed by Southern hybridisation and sequencing. Using the above procedure, positive diagnosis of N. fuckeliana was achievable within 5 h and has the potential for full exploitation as both a forest management and ecological research tool. As the DNA extraction procedure described here has been successful in application against other tree species, it has potential for incorporation into other molecular diagnostic systems for other

  2. Biomarker genes highlight intraspecific and interspecific variations in the responses of Pinus taeda L. and Pinus radiata D. Don to Sirex noctilio F. acid gland secretions.

    PubMed

    Bordeaux, John Michael; Lorenz, W Walter; Dean, Jeffrey F D

    2012-10-01

    Sirex noctilio F., a Eurasian horntail woodwasp recently introduced into North America, oviposits in pines and other conifers and in the process spreads a phytopathogenic fungus that serves as a food source for its larvae. During oviposition the woodwasp also deposits mucus produced in its acid (venom) gland that alters pine defense responses and facilitates infection by the fungus. A 26,496-feature loblolly pine cDNA microarray was used to survey gene expression of pine tissue responding to S. noctilio venom. Six genes were selected for further assessment by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), including one that encoded an apparent PR-4 protein and another that encoded a thaumatin-like protein. Expression of both was strongly induced in response to venom, while expression of an apparent actin gene (ACT1) was stable in response to the venom. The pattern of gene response was similar in Pinus taeda L. and Pinus radiata D. Don, but the magnitude of response in P. radiata was significantly stronger for each of the induced genes. The magnitude of the biomarker gene response to venom also varied according to genotype within these two species. The qRT-PCR assay was used to demonstrate that the primary bioactive component in S. noctilio venom is a polypeptide. PMID:23042767

  3. Stem Cutting Propagation in Whole Pine Tree Substrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wood-based substrates have been identified as substitutes for pine bark (PB) and peat moss (P) in container production of ornamental crops. Ideally, these substrates would be used for the propagation and production of such crops. An experiment was conducted to determine the effectiveness of processe...

  4. The use of plants as regular food in ancient subarctic economies: a case study based on Sami use of Scots pine innerbark.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Ingela; Östlund, Lars; Zackrisson, Olle

    2004-01-01

    This study combines ethnological, historical, and dendroecological data from areas north of the Arctic Circle to analyze cultural aspects of Sami use of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) inner bark as regular food. Bark was peeled in June when trees were at the peak of sapping, leaving a strip of undamaged cambium so the tree survived. As a result, it is possible to date bark-peeling episodes using dendrochronology. The paper argues that the use of Scots pine inner bark reflects Sami religious beliefs, ethical concerns, and concepts of time, all expressed in the process of peeling the bark. A well-developed terminology and a set of specially designed tools reveal the technology involved in bark peeling. Consistent patterns with respect to the direction and size of peeling scars found across the region demonstrate common values and standards. Peeling direction patterns and ceremonial meals relating to bark probably reflect ritual practices connected to the sun deity, Biejvve. PMID:21774149

  5. UVB Stimulates the Expression of Endothelin B Receptor in Human Melanocytes via a Sequential Activation of the p38/MSK1/CREB/MITF Pathway Which Can Be Interrupted by a French Maritime Pine Bark Extract through a Direct Inactivation of MSK1

    PubMed Central

    Tagashira, Hideki; Miyamoto, Aki; Kitamura, Sei-ichi; Tsubata, Masahito; Yamaguchi, Kazuya; Takagaki, Kinya; Imokawa, Genji

    2015-01-01

    Melanogenesis is the physiological process by which melanin is synthesized to protect the skin from UV damage. While paracrine interactions between keratinocytes and melanocytes are crucial for regulating epidermal pigmentation, the endothelin (EDN)-endothelin B-receptor (EDNRB) interaction is one of the key linkages. In this study, we found that a single exposure of normal human melanocytes (NHMs) with UVB stimulates the expression of EDNRB and its upstream transcription factor microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) at the transcriptional and translational levels. That stimulation can be abrogated by post-irradiation treatment with a French maritime pine bark extract (PBE). UVB stimulated the phosphorylation of p38 and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), but not ERK, followed by the increased phosphorylation of MSK1 and CREB. The post-irradiation treatment with PBE did not affect the increased phosphorylation of p38 and JNK, but distinctly abrogated the phosphorylation of MSK1 and CREB. Post-irradiation treatment with the MSK1 inhibitor H89 significantly down-regulated the increased gene expression of MITF and EDNRB in UVB-exposed NHMs. Our findings indicate for the first time that the increased expression of MITF that leads to the up-regulation of melanocyte-specific proteins in UVB-exposed NHMs is mediated via activation of the p38/MSK1/CREB pathway but not the ERK/RSK/CREB pathway. The mode of action by PBE demonstrates that interrupting MSK1 activation is a new target for antioxidants including PBE which can serve as anti-pigmenting agents in a reactive oxygen species-depletion-independent manner. PMID:26030901

  6. UVB Stimulates the Expression of Endothelin B Receptor in Human Melanocytes via a Sequential Activation of the p38/MSK1/CREB/MITF Pathway Which Can Be Interrupted by a French Maritime Pine Bark Extract through a Direct Inactivation of MSK1.

    PubMed

    Tagashira, Hideki; Miyamoto, Aki; Kitamura, Sei-Ichi; Tsubata, Masahito; Yamaguchi, Kazuya; Takagaki, Kinya; Imokawa, Genji

    2015-01-01

    Melanogenesis is the physiological process by which melanin is synthesized to protect the skin from UV damage. While paracrine interactions between keratinocytes and melanocytes are crucial for regulating epidermal pigmentation, the endothelin (EDN)-endothelin B-receptor (EDNRB) interaction is one of the key linkages. In this study, we found that a single exposure of normal human melanocytes (NHMs) with UVB stimulates the expression of EDNRB and its upstream transcription factor microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) at the transcriptional and translational levels. That stimulation can be abrogated by post-irradiation treatment with a French maritime pine bark extract (PBE). UVB stimulated the phosphorylation of p38 and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), but not ERK, followed by the increased phosphorylation of MSK1 and CREB. The post-irradiation treatment with PBE did not affect the increased phosphorylation of p38 and JNK, but distinctly abrogated the phosphorylation of MSK1 and CREB. Post-irradiation treatment with the MSK1 inhibitor H89 significantly down-regulated the increased gene expression of MITF and EDNRB in UVB-exposed NHMs. Our findings indicate for the first time that the increased expression of MITF that leads to the up-regulation of melanocyte-specific proteins in UVB-exposed NHMs is mediated via activation of the p38/MSK1/CREB pathway but not the ERK/RSK/CREB pathway. The mode of action by PBE demonstrates that interrupting MSK1 activation is a new target for antioxidants including PBE which can serve as anti-pigmenting agents in a reactive oxygen species-depletion-independent manner. PMID:26030901

  7. Using pheromones to protect heat-injured lodgepole pine from mountain pine beetle infestation. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    Amman, G.D.; Ryan, K.C.

    1994-01-01

    The bark beetle antiaggregative pheromones, verbenone and ipsdienol, were tested in protecting heat-injured lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) from mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) infestation in the Sawtooth National Recreation Area in central Idaho. Peat moss was placed around 70 percent of the basal circumference of lodgepole pines. When the peat moss was ignited, it simulated the smoldering of natural duff, generating temperatures that killed the cambium. The four treatments tested were uninjured tree, heat-injured tree, heat-injured tree treated with verbenone, and heat-injured tree treated with verbenone plus ipsdienol. Treatments were replicated 20 times. Mountain pine beetles were attracted into treatment blocks by placing mountain pine beetle tree baits on metal posts 3 to 5 meters from treated trees. Fisher's Extract Test showed that treatment and beetle infestation were not independent (P < 0.015). Check treatments contained more unattacked and mass-attacked trees, whereas pheromone treatments contained more unsuccessfully attacked trees.

  8. Significance of various soil amendments to borrow pit reclamation with loblolly pine and fescue

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, C.R.; Marx, D.H.

    1980-01-01

    Loblolly pine seedlings with ectomycorrhizae formed by Pisolithus tinctorius (Pt) or naturally occurring Thelephora terrestris (Tt) were planted on a borrow pit in South Carolina in plots with no amendment; with fertilizer plus dolomitic limestone alone and with pine bark or bottom ash or bark and ash together; or with dried sewage sludge alone and with bark or ash or bark and ash together. All plots were subsoiled, disked, and seeded to fescue grass before planting pine seedlings. Naturally occurring Pt formed abundant ectomycorrhizae on all Tt seedlings by the end of the first season, precluding any specific ectomycorrhizal fungus effect for the duration of the study. Sewage sludge alone or with bark or ash amendments dramatically improved pine seedling growth and grass biomass in comparison with other soil treatments. Mean seedling volume (D/sup 2/H) was 28 times greater and grass biomass was five times greater in the sludge plots than on nonsludge plots. Generally, soil amended with sludge contained more N, P, organic matter, and had a higher cation exchange capacity than soil of other treatments. Foliage of pine seedlings in sludge-amended soil also contained more N and less Ca than other seedlings. The significance of these results to reclamation of borrow pits is discussed.

  9. Suppression of 4-coumarate-CoA ligase in the coniferous gymnosperm Pinus radiata.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Armin; Donaldson, Lloyd; Kim, Hoon; Phillips, Lorelle; Flint, Heather; Steward, Diane; Torr, Kirk; Koch, Gerald; Schmitt, Uwe; Ralph, John

    2009-01-01

    Severe suppression of 4-coumarate-coenzyme A ligase (4CL) in the coniferous gymnosperm Pinus radiata substantially affected plant phenotype and resulted in dwarfed plants with a "bonsai tree-like" appearance. Microscopic analyses of stem sections from 2-year-old plants revealed substantial morphological changes in both wood and bark tissues. This included the formation of weakly lignified tracheids that displayed signs of collapse and the development of circumferential bands of axial parenchyma. Acetyl bromide-soluble lignin assays and proton nuclear magnetic resonance studies revealed lignin reductions of 36% to 50% in the most severely affected transgenic plants. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry studies indicated that lignin reductions were mainly due to depletion of guaiacyl but not p-hydroxyphenyl lignin. 4CL silencing also caused modifications in the lignin interunit linkage distribution, including elevated beta-aryl ether (beta-O-4 unit) and spirodienone (beta-1) levels, accompanied by lower phenylcoumaran (beta-5), resinol (beta-beta), and dibenzodioxocin (5-5/beta-O-4) levels. A sharp depletion in the level of saturated (dihydroconiferyl alcohol) end groups was also observed. Severe suppression of 4CL also affected carbohydrate metabolism. Most obvious was an up to approximately 2-fold increase in galactose content in wood from transgenic plants due to increased compression wood formation. The molecular, anatomical, and analytical data verified that the isolated 4CL clone is associated with lignin biosynthesis and illustrated that 4CL silencing leads to complex, often surprising, physiological and morphological changes in P. radiata. PMID:18971431

  10. Two pine endo-beta-1,4-glucanases are associated with rapidly growing reproductive structures.

    PubMed

    Loopstra, C A; Mouradov, A; Vivian-Smith, A; Glassick, T V; Gale, B V; Southerton, S G; Marshall, H; Teasdale, R D

    1998-03-01

    Two cDNA clones encoding endo-beta-1,4-glucanases (EGases) were isolated from a radiata pine (Pinus radiata) cDNA library prepared from immature female strobili. The cDNAs PrCel1 (inus adiata cellulase ) and PrCel2 encode proteins 509 and 515 amino acids in length, respectively, including putative signal peptides. Both proteins contain domains conserved in plant and bacterial EGases. The proteins PRCEL1 and PRCEL2 showed strong similarity to each other (76% amino acid identity), and higher similarity to TPP18 (73 and 67%, respectively), an EGase cloned from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) pistils, than to any other reported EGases. Northern-blot analyses indicated that both genes displayed a similar pattern of expression. The only significant difference was in the level of expression. In situ hybridizations were used to demonstrate that, within differentiating pine reproductive structures, PrCel1 expression was greatest in microsporangia in pollen strobili and near the developing ovule in the seed strobili. Expression was also found in vegetative tissues, especially in regions experiencing cell elongation, such as the elongating region of root tips. Both proteins have an ability to degrade carboxymethylcellulose in vitro. Genomic-blot analysis indicated the presence of a family of EGase genes in the radiata pine genome, and that PrCel1 and PrCel2 are transcribed from distinct one-copy genes. PMID:9501128

  11. Understanding Trichoderma in the root system of Pinus radiata: associations between rhizosphere colonisation and growth promotion for commercially grown seedlings.

    PubMed

    Hohmann, Pierre; Jones, E Eirian; Hill, Robert A; Stewart, Alison

    2011-08-01

    Two Trichoderma isolates (T. hamatum LU592 and T. atroviride LU132) were tested for their ability to promote the growth and health of commercially grown Pinus radiata seedlings. The colonisation behaviour of the two isolates was investigated to relate rhizosphere competence and root penetration to subsequent effects on plant performance. Trichoderma hamatum LU592 was shown to enhance several plant health and growth parameters. The isolate significantly reduced seedling mortality by up to 29%, and promoted the growth of shoots (e.g. height by up to 16%) and roots (e.g. dry weight by up to 31%). The introduction of LU592 as either seed coat or spray application equally improved seedling health and growth demonstrating the suitability of both application methods for pine nursery situations. However, clear differences in rhizosphere colonisation and root penetration between the two application methods highlighted the need for more research on the impact of inoculum densities. When spray-applied, LU592 was found to be the predominant Trichoderma strain in the plant root system, including bulk potting mix, rhizosphere and endorhizosphere. In contrast, T. atroviride LU132 was shown to colonise the root system poorly, and no biological impact on P. radiata seedlings was detected. This is the first report to demonstrate rhizosphere competence as a useful indicator for determining Trichoderma bio-inoculants for P. radiata. High indigenous Trichoderma populations with similar population dynamics to the introduced strains revealed the limitations of the dilution plating technique, but this constraint was alleviated to some extent by the use of techniques for morphological and molecular identification of the introduced isolates. PMID:21802056

  12. Echoes of Bark Lake.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duenkel, Nicky; Hemstreet, Jeff

    1997-01-01

    Two former staff members reflect on their feelings about the August 1995 closing of Bark Lake Leadership Centre (Ontario, Canada), which for 49 years had offered outdoor adventure and environmental education courses to youth and adults. They discuss their experiences as both students and teachers at the center, which helped shape their careers in…

  13. Amate Bark Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by a beautiful bookmark one of the author's students made for him as a gift, he began a lesson exploring the vibrant bark paintings popular all over Mexico. The majority of his students have Mexican ancestry, so exploring the arts of Mexico is always popular and well received. Amate paintings can also be a great way to introduce the…

  14. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    PubMed Central

    Pitt, Caitlin; Carroll, Allan L.; Lindgren, B. Staffan; Huber, Dezene P.W.

    2014-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC), where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle’s historic range (central BC) to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB) in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC) and one population of jack pine (AB) were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels – a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle – were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the insect to

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of mungbean Vigna radiata var. radiata NM92 and a phylogenetic analysis of crops in angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Ping; Lo, Hsiao-Feng; Chen, Chien-Yu; Chen, Long-Fang Oliver

    2016-09-01

    The entire mitogenome of the Vigna radiata var. radiata NM92 was identified as a circular molecule of 401 262 bp length (DDBJ accession number: AP014716). The contents of A, T, C, and G in the NM92 mitogenome were found to be 27.48%, 27.41%, 22.63%, and 22.48%, respectively. The NM92 mitogenome encoded 3 rRNAs, 16 tRNAs and 33 proteins. Eight protein-coding genes (nad1, nad2, nad4, nad5, nad7, rps3, and rps10) centain introns. Among them, three (nad1, nad2, and nad5) are trans-spliced genes. A phylogenetic tree was reconstructed using the 21 protein-coding genes of 16 crops. A species of gymnosperms, Cycas, was selected as the outgroup. This complete mitogenome sequence provides useful information to understand the cultivation of Vigna radiata and other crops. PMID:26469726

  16. Application of composted pulp and paper mill sludge to a young pine plantation

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, M.J.; Line, M.A.; Wilson, S.; Hetherington, S.J.

    2000-04-01

    Disposing of sludge recovered from the effluent stream of pulp and paper mills has traditionally involved landfilling. Shortages in landfill space and increasingly stringent environmental regulations in many countries have forced the industry to seek alternative disposal options. The authors assessed the feasibility of compost-recycling a primary pulp and paper mill sludge (PMS) for use as a nutrient-releasing mulch in plantation forestry. The effects of the composted PMS on the growth, nutrition, water relations, and week suppression in a 3-yr-old plantation of radiata pine (Pinus radiata D.Don) on an infertile sandy soil in southern Tasmania were assessed. Compost was applied to the surface without incorporation in 0.5-m wide bands in tree rows at rates of 0, 20, 40, and 60 metric t ha{sup {minus}1} (dry matter). One year after application of compost, the percentage increase in stem diameter was 40 to 66% greater than that achieved in untreated plots, with better growth at the highest compost application rate. Improved growth of radiata pine after application of compost was primarily attributable to a 17 to 37% increase in the concentration of foliar N and to decreased water stress in amended plots. Nitrogen released from the compost was mostly absorbed by plant roots within the first 20 cm of the soil profile, with no significant movement beyond this depth range. Application of compost prepared from PMS to young stands of radiata pine was found to be acceptable recycling alternative for this material, capable of improving plantation productivity.

  17. Penicillium expansum volatiles reduce pine weevil attraction to host plants.

    PubMed

    Azeem, Muhammad; Rajarao, Gunaratna Kuttuva; Nordenhem, Henrik; Nordlander, Göran; Borg-Karlson, Anna Karin

    2013-01-01

    The pine weevil Hylobius abietis (L.) is a severe pest of conifer seedlings in reforested areas of Europe and Asia. To identify minimally toxic and ecologically sustainable compounds for protecting newly planted seedlings, we evaluated the volatile metabolites produced by microbes isolated from H. abietis feces and frass. Female weevils deposit feces and chew bark at oviposition sites, presumably thus protecting eggs from feeding conspecifics. We hypothesize that microbes present in feces/frass are responsible for producing compounds that deter weevils. Here, we describe the isolation of a fungus from feces and frass of H. abietis and the biological activity of its volatile metabolites. The fungus was identified by morphological and molecular methods as Penicillium expansum Link ex. Thom. It was cultured on sterilized H. abietis frass medium in glass flasks, and volatiles were collected by SPME and analyzed by GC-MS. The major volatiles of the fungus were styrene and 3-methylanisole. The nutrient conditions for maximum production of styrene and 3-methylanisole were examined. Large quantities of styrene were produced when the fungus was cultured on grated pine bark with yeast extract. In a multi-choice arena test, styrene significantly reduced male and female pine weevils' attraction to cut pieces of Scots pine twigs, whereas 3-methylanisole only reduced male weevil attraction to pine twigs. These studies suggest that metabolites produced by microbes may be useful as compounds for controlling insects, and could serve as sustainable alternatives to synthetic insecticides. PMID:23297108

  18. Mountain Pine Beetle Host Selection Between Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pines in the Southern Rocky Mountains.

    PubMed

    West, Daniel R; Briggs, Jennifer S; Jacobi, William R; Negrón, José F

    2016-02-01

    Recent evidence of range expansion and host transition by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins; MPB) has suggested that MPB may not primarily breed in their natal host, but will switch hosts to an alternate tree species. As MPB populations expanded in lodgepole pine forests in the southern Rocky Mountains, we investigated the potential for movement into adjacent ponderosa pine forests. We conducted field and laboratory experiments to evaluate four aspects of MPB population dynamics and host selection behavior in the two hosts: emergence timing, sex ratios, host choice, and reproductive success. We found that peak MPB emergence from both hosts occurred simultaneously between late July and early August, and the sex ratio of emerging beetles did not differ between hosts. In two direct tests of MPB host selection, we identified a strong preference by MPB for ponderosa versus lodgepole pine. At field sites, we captured naturally emerging beetles from both natal hosts in choice arenas containing logs of both species. In the laboratory, we offered sections of bark and phloem from both species to individual insects in bioassays. In both tests, insects infested ponderosa over lodgepole pine at a ratio of almost 2:1, regardless of natal host species. Reproductive success (offspring/female) was similar in colonized logs of both hosts. Overall, our findings suggest that MPB may exhibit equally high rates of infestation and fecundity in an alternate host under favorable conditions. PMID:26546596

  19. Pre-visual detection of stress in pine forests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, C. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Pre-visual, or early, detection of forest stress with particular reference to detection of attacks by pine bark beetles is discussed. Preliminary efforts to obtain early detection of attacks by pine bark beetles, using MSS data from the ERIM M-7 scanner, were not sufficiently successful to demonstrate an operational capability, but indicate that joint processing of the 0.71 to 0.73, 2.00 to 2.60, and 9.3 to 11.7 micrometer bands holds some promise. Ratio processing of transformed data from the 0.45 to 0.52, 1.55 to 2.60, and 4.5 to 5.5 or 9.3 to 11.7 micrometer regions appears even more promising.

  20. Effect of species and wood to bark ratio on pelleting of southern woods

    SciTech Connect

    Bradfield, J.; Levi, M.P.

    1984-01-01

    Six common southern hardwoods and loblolly pine were pelleted in a laboratory pellet mill. The pellet furnishes were blended to test the effect of different wood to bark ratios on pellet durability and production rate. Included was a ratio chosen to simulate the wood to bark ratio found in whole-tree chips. This furnish produced good quality pellets for all species tested. Pelleting of the pure wood of hardwoods was not successful; furnish routinely blocked the pellet mill dies. Pure pine wood, however, did produce acceptable pellets. It was noted that, as lignin and extractive content increased above a threshold level, the precentage of fines produced in a pellet durability test increased. Thus, all pine and tupelo wood/bark mixes produces high fines. This reduces the desirability of the pellets in the marketplace. Further research is necessary to confirm this relationship. This study suggests that both tree species and wood/bark ratio affect the durability of pellets and the rate with which they can be produced in a laboratory pellet mill. 9 references.

  1. Nutritional and pathogenic fungi associated with the pine engraver beetle trigger comparable defenses in Scots pine.

    PubMed

    Villari, Caterina; Battisti, Andrea; Chakraborty, Sourav; Michelozzi, Marco; Bonello, Pierluigi; Faccoli, Massimo

    2012-07-01

    Conifer bark beetles are often associated with fungal complexes whose components have different ecological roles. Some associated species are nutritionally obligate fungi, serving as nourishment to the larvae, whereas others are pathogenic blue-stain fungi known to be involved in the interaction with host defenses. In this study we characterized the local and systemic defense responses of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) against Ophiostoma brunneo-ciliatum Math. (a blue-stain pathogen) and Hyalorhinocladiella macrospora (Franke-Grosm.) Harr. (a nutritional fungus). These fungi are the principal associates of the pine engraver beetle, Ips acuminatus (Gyll.). Host responses were studied following inoculation with the fungi, singly and as a fungal complex, and by identifying and quantifying terpenoids, phenolic compounds and lignin. Although the length of the necrotic lesions differed between control (wound) and fungal treatments, only two compounds (pinosylvin monomethyl ether and (+)-α-pinene) were significantly affected by the presence of the fungi, indicating that Scots pine has a generic, rather than specific, induced response. The fact that both nutritional and blue-stain fungi triggered comparable induced defense responses suggests that even a non-pathogenic fungus may participate in exhausting host plant defenses, indirectly assisting in the beetle establishment process. Our findings contribute to the further development of current theory on the role of associated fungal complexes in bark beetle ecology. PMID:22718525

  2. Micronutrient availability from steel slag amendment in pine bark substrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Steel slag is a byproduct of the steel industry that can be used as a liming agent, but also has a high mineral nutrient content. While micronutrients are present in steel slag, it is not known if the mineral form of the micronutrients would render them available for plant uptake. The objective of...

  3. Black bear damage to lodgepole pine in central Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, V.G., Jr.; Engeman, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    Black bear damage to 108 lodgepole pine trees was found in mixed conifer habitat in central Oregon. No trees of three other conifer species were injured. Eighty-nine percent of the damage occurred in the same year. Nearly 20% of the freshly damaged trees had bark removed from more than 75% of the circumference and, judging from the fate of trees damaged in prior years, probably succumbed.

  4. Tree bark as a passive air sampler to indicate atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in southeastern China.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaoxu; Wang, Junxia; Zhou, Xiaoyu; Deng, Jingjing; Liu, Yangcheng; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Lili; Dong, Liang; Lin, Kuangfei

    2014-06-01

    The different barks were sampled to discuss the influence of the tree species, trunk circumference, and bark thickness on the accumulation processes of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) from air into the bark. The results of different PBDE concentrations indicated that barks with a thickness of 0-3 mm collected from weeping willow, Camphor tree, and Masson pine, the trunk circumferences of which were 100 to 150 cm, were better PBDEs passive samplers. Furthermore, tree bark and the corresponding air samples were collected at Anji (AJ), Hangzhou (HZ), Shanghai (SH), and Wenling (WL) to investigate the relationship between the PBDE concentrations in bark and those in air. In addition, the significant correlation (r (2) = 0.906; P < 0.05) indicated that atmospheric PBDEs were the principle source for the accumulation of PBDEs in the barks. In this study, the log K BA (bark-air partition coefficient) of individual PBDE congeners at the four sites were in the range from 5.69 to 6.79. Finally, the total PBDE concentration in WL was 5 to 20 times higher than in the other three cities. The result indicated that crude household workshops contributed a heavy amount of PBDEs pollution to the environment, which had been verified by the spatial distribution of PBDEs levels in barks collected at Wenling (range, 26.53-1317.68 ng/g dw). The good correlation between the PBDE concentrations in the barks and the air samples and the variations of the PBDE concentrations in tree barks collected from different sites reflected that the bark could be used as a passive sampler to indicate the atmospheric PBDEs. PMID:24622985

  5. Climate Change Altered Disturbance Regimes in High Elevation Pine Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, J. A.

    2004-12-01

    Insects in aggregate are the greatest cause of forest disturbance. Outbreaks of both native and exotic insects can be spectacular events in both their intensity and spatial extent. In the case of native species, forest ecosystems have co-evolved (or at least co-adapted) in ways that incorporate these disturbances into the normal cycle of forest maturation and renewal. The time frame of response to changing climate, however, is much shorter for insects (typically one year) than for their host forests (decades or longer). As a result, outbreaks of forest insects, particularly bark beetles, are occurring at unprecedented levels throughout western North America, resulting in the loss of biodiversity and potentially entire ecosystems. In this talk, I will describe one such ecosystem, the whitebark pine association at high elevations in the north-central Rocky Mountains of the United States. White bark pines are keystone species, which in consort with Clark's nutcracker, build entire ecosystems at high elevations. These ecosystems provide valuable ecological services, including the distribution and abundance of water resources. I will briefly describe the keystone nature of whitebark pine and the historic role of mountain pine beetle disturbance in these ecosystems. The mountain pine beetle is the most important outbreak insect in forests of the western United States. Although capable of spectacular outbreak events, in historic climate regimes, outbreak populations were largely restricted to lower elevation pines; for example, lodgepole and ponderosa pines. The recent series of unusually warm years, however, has allowed this insect to expand its range into high elevation, whitebark pine ecosystems with devastating consequences. The aspects of mountain pine beetle thermal ecology that has allowed it to capitalize so effectively on a warming climate will be discussed. A model that incorporates critical thermal attributes of the mountain pine beetle's life cycle was

  6. A population genetic model of evolution of host-mate attraction and nonhost repulsion in a bark beetle Pityogenes bidentatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies have shown that the bark beetle Pityogenes bidentatus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae) avoids volatiles of nonhost trees (Norway spruce, birch, and oak) and healthy host Scotch pine when orienting to aggregation pheromone. A population genetic model of two behavioral genes was hypothe...

  7. Bark beetles, pityogenes bidentatus, orienting to aggregation pheromone avoid conifer monoterpene odors when flying but not when walking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have provided evidence that monoterpene odors from healthy host Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris) and non-host Norway spruce (Picea abies) significantly reduce the attraction of flying bark beetles, Pityogenes bidentatus, to their aggregation pheromone components (grandisol and cis-ver...

  8. Accumulation of cesium-137 and strontium-90 in ponderosa pine and monterey pine seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Entry, J.A.; Rygiewicz, P.T.; Emmingham, W.H.

    1993-10-01

    Because ponderosa pine Pinus ponderosa and Monterey pone (P. radiata D Don) have exceptionally fast growth rates and their abscised needles are not readily dispersed by wind, these species may be valuable for removing radioisotopes from contaminated soils. Ponderosa and Monterey pine seedlings were tested for their ability to accumulate {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr-characteristic radioisotopes of nuclear fallout-from contaminated soil. Seedlings were grown for 3 mo in 165 cm{sup 3} sphagnum peat moss/perlite (1:1 V/V) in a growth chamber. In Exp. 1, seedling accumulation of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr after 1 mo of exposure was measured. In Exp. 2, seedling accumulation of the radioisotopes during different-length exposures was measured. Seedling accumulation of {sup 137}CS and {sup 90}Sr at different concentrations of the radioisotopes in the growth medium was measured in Exp. 3. Ponderosa pine accumulated 6.3% of the {sup 137}Cs and I.5% of the {sup 90}Sr present in the growth medium after 1 mo; Monterey pine accumulated 8.3% of the {sup 137}Cs and 4.5% of the {sup 90}Sr. Accumulation of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr by both coniferous species was curvilinearly related to duration of exposure. Accumulation of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr by both species increased with increasing concentration in the growth medium and correlated curvilinearly with radioisotope concentration in the growth medium. Large areas throughout the world are contaminated with {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr as a result of nuclear weapons testing or atomic reactor accidents. The ability of trees to sequester and store {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr introduces the possibility of using reforestation to remediate contaminated soils.

  9. Coexistence and competition between tomicus yunnanensis and T. minor (Coeoptera: Scolytidae)in yunnan pine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the competition and cooperation between Tomicus yunnanensis and Tomicus minor (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) when they coexist together in living Yunnan pine trees (Pinus yunnanensis L.) growing in Yunnan province in southwest China. We observed that T. yunnanensis bark beetles beg...

  10. Variations in foliar monoterpenes across the range of jack pine reveal three widespread chemotypes: implications to host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle

    PubMed Central

    Taft, Spencer; Najar, Ahmed; Godbout, Julie; Bousquet, Jean; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2015-01-01

    The secondary compounds of pines (Pinus) can strongly affect the physiology, ecology and behaviors of the bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) that feed on sub-cortical tissues of hosts. Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) has a wide natural distribution range in North America (Canada and USA) and thus variations in its secondary compounds, particularly monoterpenes, could affect the host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), which has recently expanded its range into the novel jack pine boreal forest. We investigated monoterpene composition of 601 jack pine trees from natural and provenance forest stands representing 63 populations from Alberta to the Atlantic coast. Throughout its range, jack pine exhibited three chemotypes characterized by high proportions of α-pinene, β-pinene, or limonene. The frequency with which the α-pinene and β-pinene chemotypes occurred at individual sites was correlated to climatic variables, such as continentality and mean annual precipitation, as were the individual α-pinene and β-pinene concentrations. However, other monoterpenes were generally not correlated to climatic variables or geographic distribution. Finally, while the enantiomeric ratios of β-pinene and limonene remained constant across jack pine's distribution, (−):(+)-α-pinene exhibited two separate trends, thereby delineating two α-pinene phenotypes, both of which occurred across jack pine's range. These significant variations in jack pine monoterpene composition may have cascading effects on the continued eastward spread and success of D. ponderosae in the Canadian boreal forest. PMID:26042134

  11. Ponderosa pine resin defenses and growth: metrics matter.

    PubMed

    Hood, Sharon; Sala, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) cause widespread tree mortality in coniferous forests worldwide. Constitutive and induced host defenses are important factors in an individual tree's ability to survive an attack and in bottom-up regulation of bark beetle population dynamics, yet quantifying defense levels is often difficult. For example, in Pinus spp., resin flow is important for resistance to bark beetles but is extremely variable among individuals and within a season. While resin is produced and stored in resin ducts, the specific resin duct metrics that best correlate with resin flow remain unclear. The ability and timing of some pine species to produce induced resin is also not well understood. We investigated (i) the relationships between ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson & C. Lawson) resin flow and axial resin duct characteristics, tree growth and physiological variables, and (ii) if mechanical wounding induces ponderosa pine resin flow and resin ducts in the absence of bark beetles. Resin flow increased later in the growing season under moderate water stress and was highest in faster growing trees. The best predictors of resin flow were nonstandardized measures of resin ducts, resin duct size and total resin duct area, both of which increased with tree growth. However, while faster growing trees tended to produce more resin, models of resin flow using only tree growth were not statistically significant. Further, the standardized measures of resin ducts, density and duct area relative to xylem area, decreased with tree growth rate, indicating that slower growing trees invested more in resin duct defenses per unit area of radial growth, despite a tendency to produce less resin overall. We also found that mechanical wounding induced ponderosa pine defenses, but this response was slow. Resin flow increased after 28 days, and resin duct production did not increase until the following year. These slow induced responses may allow

  12. Anti-pseudomonas activity of essential oil, total extract, and proanthocyanidins of Pinus eldarica Medw. bark

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Masoud; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Jahanian-Najafabadi, Ali; Abtahi, Seyed Reza

    2016-01-01

    Pinus eldarica Medw. (Iranian pine) is native to Transcaucasian region and has been vastly planted in Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. Various parts of this plant have been widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases including infectious conditions (e.g. infectious wounds). In this study we aimed to investigate the antibacterial activity of P. eldarica bark extract, essential oil and proanthocyanidins on three important bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antibacterial analysis was performed using standard disk diffusion method with different concentrations of essential oil, bark total hydroalcoholic extract, and bark proanthocyanidins (0.5, 1, 2 and 3 mg/ml). After incubation at 37°C for 24 h, the antibacterial activity was assessed by measuring the zone of growth inhibition surrounding the disks. The results indicated that the essential oil, total hydroalcoholic extract, and proanthocyanidins of the bark of the P. eldarica were effective against the gram negative bacteria, P. aeruginosa, and significantly inhibited its growth in disk diffusion method (P<0.001) of which the essential oil had the most potent inhibitory effect. However, none of the bark preparations could significantly inhibit the growth of S. aureus or E. coli. Our findings showed that P. eldarica bark components have significant anti-pseudomonas activity having potentials for new sources of antibacterial agents or antibacterial herbal preparations. PMID:27051433

  13. Ion Beam Analyses Of Bark And Wood In Environmental Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lill, J.-O.; Saarela, K.-E.; Harju, L.; Rajander, J.; Lindroos, A.; Heselius, S.-J.

    2011-06-01

    A large number of wood and bark samples have been analysed utilizing particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and particle-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) techniques. Samples of common tree species like Scots Pine, Norway Spruce and birch were collected from a large number of sites in Southern and Southwestern Finland. Some of the samples were from a heavily polluted area in the vicinity of a copper-nickel smelter. The samples were dry ashed at 550 °C for the removal of the organic matrix in order to increase the analytical sensitivity of the method. The sensitivity was enhanced by a factor of 50 for wood and slightly less for bark. The ashed samples were pressed into pellets and irradiated as thick targets with a millimetre-sized proton beam. By including the ashing procedure in the method, the statistical dispersion due to elemental heterogeneities in wood material could be reduced. As a by-product, information about the elemental composition of ashes was obtained. By comparing the concentration of an element in bark ash to the concentration in wood ash of the same tree useful information from environmental point of view was obtained. The obtained ratio of the ashes was used to distinguish between elemental contributions from anthropogenic atmospheric sources and natural geochemical sources, like soil and bedrock.

  14. Characterization of condensed tannins and carbohydrates in hot water bark extracts of European softwood species.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Sauro; Kroslakova, Ivana; Janzon, Ron; Mayer, Ingo; Saake, Bodo; Pichelin, Frédéric

    2015-12-01

    Condensed tannins extracted from European softwood bark are recognized as alternatives to synthetic phenolics. The extraction is generally performed in hot water, leading to simultaneous extraction of other bark constituents such as carbohydrates, phenolic monomers and salts. Characterization of the extract's composition and identification of the extracted tannins' molecular structure are needed to better identify potential applications. Bark from Silver fir (Abies alba [Mill.]), European larch (Larix decidua [Mill.]), Norway spruce (Picea abies [Karst.]), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.]) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris [L.]) were extracted in water at 60°C. The amounts of phenolic monomers, condensed tannins, carbohydrates, and inorganic compounds in the extract were determined. The molecular structures of condensed tannins and carbohydrates were also investigated (HPLC-UV combined with thiolysis, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, anion exchange chromatography). Distinct extract compositions and tannin structures were found in each of the analysed species. Procyanidins were the most ubiquitous tannins. The presence of phenolic glucosides in the tannin oligomers was suggested. Polysaccharides such as arabinans, arabinogalactans and glucans represented an important fraction of all extracts. Compared to traditionally used species (Mimosa and Quebracho) higher viscosities as well as faster chemical reactivities are expected in the analysed species. The most promising species for a bark tannin extraction was found to be larch, while the least encouraging results were detected in pine. A better knowledge of the interaction between the various extracted compounds is deemed an important matter for investigation in the context of industrial applications of such extracts. PMID:26547588

  15. Recent bark beetle outbreaks have little impact on streamflow in the Western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slinski, Kimberly M.; Hogue, Terri S.; Porter, Aaron T.; McCray, John E.

    2016-07-01

    In the Western United States (US), the current mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic has affected more than five million hectares since its start in 1996, including headwater catchments that supply water to much of the Western US. There is widespread concern that the hydrologic consequences of the extensive pine tree die-off will impact water supply across the Western US. While forest disturbance studies have shown that streamflow increases in response to tree harvest, the actual effect of bark beetle infestations on water supply remains widely debated. The current study evaluates watershed-level response following bark beetle outbreak for 33 watersheds in seven western states. Streamflow records were investigated to assess whether the timing and amount of stream discharge during bark beetle outbreak and early recovery periods were significantly different to pre-outbreak conditions. Results show no significant modification in peak flows or average daily streamflow following bark beetle infestation, and that climate variability may be a stronger driver of streamflow patterns and snowmelt timing than chronic forest disturbance.

  16. Evaluating Predators and Competitors in Wisconsin Red Pine Forests for Attraction to Mountain Pine Beetle Pheromones for Anticipatory Biological Control.

    PubMed

    Pfammatter, Jesse A; Krause, Adam; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2015-08-01

    Mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is an irruptive tree-killing species native to pine forests of western North America. Two potential pathways of spread to eastern forests have recently been identified. First, warming temperatures have driven range expansion from British Columbia into Albertan jack pine forests that are contiguous with the Great Lakes region. Second, high temperatures and drought have fostered largescale outbreaks within the historical range, creating economic incentives to salvage killed timber by transporting logs to midwestern markets, which risks accidental introduction. We evaluated the extent to which local predators and competitors that exploit bark beetle semiochemicals would respond to D. ponderosae in Wisconsin. We emulated D. ponderosae attack by deploying lures containing synthetic aggregation pheromones with and without host tree compounds and blank control traps in six red pine plantations over 2 yr. Predator populations were high in these stands, as evidenced by catches in positive control traps, baited with pheromones of local bark beetles and were deployed distant from behavioral choice plots. Only one predator, Thanasimus dubius F. (Coleoptera: Cleridae) was attracted to D. ponderosae's aggregation pheromones relative to blank controls, and its attraction was relatively weak. The most common bark beetles attracted to these pheromones were lower stem and root colonizers, which likely would facilitate rather than compete with D. ponderosae. There was some, but weak, attraction of potentially competing Ips species. Other factors that might influence natural enemy impacts on D. ponderosae in midwestern forests, such as phenological synchrony and exploitation of male-produced pheromones, are discussed. PMID:26314062

  17. Factors Affecting Growth of Pinus radiata in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Munoz, Jose Santos

    The Chilean forestry industry is based on hundreds of thousands of hectares of Pinus radiata plantations that have been established in a variety of soil and climate conditions. This approach has resulted in highly variable plantation productivity even when the best available technology was used. Little information is known about the ecophysiology basis for this variability. We explored the spatial and temporal variation of stand growth in Chile using a network of permanent sample plots from Modelo Nacional de Simulacion de Pino radiata. We hypothesized that the climate would play an important role in the annual variations in productivity. To answer these questions we developed the following projects: (1) Determination of site resource availability from historical data from automatic weather stations (rainfall, temperatures) and a geophysical model for solar irradiation, (2) Determination of peak annual leaf area index (LAI) for selected permanent sample plots using remote sensing technologies, (3) Analysis of soil, climate, canopy and stand factors affecting the Pinus radiata plantation growth and the use efficiency of site resources. For project 1, we estimated solar irradiation using the r.sun , Hargreaves-Samani (HS), and Bristow-Campbell (BC) models and validated model estimates with observations from weather stations. Estimations from a calibrated r.sun model accounted for 94% of the variance (r2=0.94) in monthly mean measured values. The r.sun model performed quite well for a wide range of Chilean conditions when compared with the HS and BC models. Our estimates of global irradiation may be improved with better estimates of cloudiness as they become available. Our model was able to provide spatial estimates of daily, weekly, monthly and yearly solar irradiation. For project 2, we estimated the inter-annual variation of LAI (Leaf Area Index), using remote sensing technologies. We determined LAI using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data covering a 5 year period

  18. Pine Island Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... article title:  Birth of a Large Iceberg in Pine Island Bay, Antarctica     View ... iceberg (42 kilometers x 17 kilometers) broke off Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica (75°S latitude, 102°W longitude) sometime ...

  19. Nitrogen form affects pH and EC of whole pine tree substrate and growth of petunia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wood-based substrates are potential alternatives or amendments to traditional peat-based and pine bark substrates. Undesirable changes in substrate pH may result from the application of supplemental fertilizer required by some crops grown in wood-based substrates. Experiments were conducted to evalu...

  20. Syringyl lignin production in conifers: Proof of concept in a Pine tracheary element system

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Armin; Tobimatsu, Yuki; Phillips, Lorelle; Flint, Heather; Geddes, Barbara; Lu, Fachuang; Ralph, John

    2015-01-01

    Conifers (softwoods) naturally lack syringyl units in their lignins, rendering lignocellulosic materials from such species more difficult to process than syringyl-rich hardwood species. Using a transformable Pinus radiata tracheary element (TE) system as an experimental platform, we investigated whether metabolic engineering can be used to create syringyl lignin in conifers. Pyrolysis-GC/MS and 2D-NMR analysis of P. radiata TE cultures transformed to express ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H) and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) from Liquidambar styraciflua confirmed the production and incorporation of sinapyl alcohol into the lignin polymer. Transformation with F5H was sufficient for the production of syringyl lignin in TEs, but cotransformation with COMT improved its formation. In addition, lower levels of the pathway intermediate 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol were evidenced in cotransformation experiments, indicating that the introduction of the COMT overcame the inefficiency of the native pine methyltransferases for supporting sinapyl alcohol production.Our results provide the proof of concept that it is possible to generate a lignin polymer that contains syringyl units in softwood species such as P. radiata, suggesting that it might be possible to retain the outstanding fiber properties of softwoods while imbuing them with the lignin characteristics of hardwoods that are more favorable for industrial processing. PMID:25902506

  1. Syringyl lignin production in conifers: Proof of concept in a Pine tracheary element system.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Armin; Tobimatsu, Yuki; Phillips, Lorelle; Flint, Heather; Geddes, Barbara; Lu, Fachuang; Ralph, John

    2015-05-12

    Conifers (softwoods) naturally lack syringyl units in their lignins, rendering lignocellulosic materials from such species more difficult to process than syringyl-rich hardwood species. Using a transformable Pinus radiata tracheary element (TE) system as an experimental platform, we investigated whether metabolic engineering can be used to create syringyl lignin in conifers. Pyrolysis-GC/MS and 2D-NMR analysis of P. radiata TE cultures transformed to express ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H) and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) from Liquidambar styraciflua confirmed the production and incorporation of sinapyl alcohol into the lignin polymer. Transformation with F5H was sufficient for the production of syringyl lignin in TEs, but cotransformation with COMT improved its formation. In addition, lower levels of the pathway intermediate 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol were evidenced in cotransformation experiments, indicating that the introduction of the COMT overcame the inefficiency of the native pine methyltransferases for supporting sinapyl alcohol production.Our results provide the proof of concept that it is possible to generate a lignin polymer that contains syringyl units in softwood species such as P. radiata, suggesting that it might be possible to retain the outstanding fiber properties of softwoods while imbuing them with the lignin characteristics of hardwoods that are more favorable for industrial processing. PMID:25902506

  2. Anti-inflammatory activity of root bark and stem bark of Shyonaka

    PubMed Central

    Doshi, Krunal; Ilanchezhian, R; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Patel, B. R.; Ravishankar, B.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Shyonaka (Oroxylum indicum Vent.; Bignoniaceae) root bark is one of the ingredients of dashamoola (a group of 10 roots), and is used for its anti-inflammatory and analgesic action in a number of compound formulations in Ayurveda. Aim: Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (API) recommends using the stem bark instead of root bark. Material and Methods: An attempt has been made to study the anti-inflammatory activity of both root bark and stem bark kashaya (decoction) experimentally. Conclusion Results showed significant anti-inflammatory activity of root bark and stem bark decoction. PMID:23326090

  3. Microstructural Changes of Anterior Corona Radiata in Bipolar Depression

    PubMed Central

    Karababa, I. Fatih; Bayazıt, Huseyin; Kılıçaslan, Nihat; Celik, Mustafa; Cece, Hasan; Karakas, Ekrem

    2015-01-01

    Objective In bipolar disorder, dysregulation of mood may result from white matter abnormalities that change fiber tract length and fiber density. There are few studies evaluating the white matter microstructural changes in bipolar I patients (BD) with depressive episodes. The present study aimed to evaluate anterior corona radiata in BD patients with depressive episode using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). Methods Twenty-one patients with bipolar depression and 19 healthy controls were investigated and groups were matched for age and gender. Diffusion-weighted echoplanar brain images (DW-EPI) were obtained using a 1.5 T MRI scanner. Regions of interest (ROIs) were manually placed on directional maps based on principal anisotropy. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) values of white matter were measured in the anterior corona radiata (ACR) bilaterally by diffusion tensor imaging. Results There was not a significant difference between groups of age and gender (p>0.05). Significantly lower FA was observed in bilateral ACR in bipolar patients with depression compared with healthy individuals. And there is significantly higher ADC values in the left frontal corona radiate in bipolar patients. Conclusion White matter abnormalities can be detected in patients with BD using DTI. The neuropathology of these abnormalities is unclear, but neuronal and axonal loss, myelin abnormalities and reduced white matter fiber density are likely to be relevant. PMID:26207131

  4. Absorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by Pinus bark: analytical method and use for environmental pollution monitoring in the Palermo area (Sicily, Italy).

    PubMed

    Orecchio, Santino; Gianguzza, Antonio; Culotta, Loredana

    2008-07-01

    In the light of using biomaterial as pollutants sorbents for the environmental biomonitoring, we report here the results of the absorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by pine bark. Quantitative analysis of 19 different polycyclic aromatic compounds was performed, after Soxhlet extraction in dichloromethane, by means GC-MS technique. Pinus was chosen due to its wide distribution in the Mediterranean area. The passive absorption of PAH by pine bark in the metropolitan areas allowed us to evaluate the air quality of Palermo. The obtained results showed a very high range of PAHs concentrations, from 33 microg/kg (bark dry weight), as SigmaPAHs, at the control site to 1015 microg/kg along a road with high traffic flow. PMID:18417111

  5. Examining Patterns of Carbon Assimilation and Allocation to Defense Processes in a Restored Southern Pine Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritger, H.; Novick, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    Southern pine forests provide many important ecosystem services, including biodiversity, carbon sequestration, and softwood timber production, which is a vital component of local economies in the American South. However, all southern pine forests are sensitive to damage from infestations of bark beetles and drought events, which can lead to declines in productivity that may cause mortality in extreme cases, and which may increase in frequency in the future due to ongoing climate change. This study explores how southern pine management for restored, old-growth like conditions, in contrast with management for timber production, affects stand scale drought response and tree resistance to bark beetle herbivory by leveraging a suite of data from a new eddy covariance flux monitoring site in a 65-year-old restored loblolly (Pinus taeda) and shortleaf (Pinus echinata) pine forest situated in the Crossett Experimental Forest (Arkansas, USA). The sensitivity of ecosystem scale fluxes of CO2 and H2O to drought is interpreted through a synthesis with other long-running Ameriflux sites located in southern pine forests. The effects of the management regime on resin production, which is the pine trees' main defense against beetle attacks, are assessed by comparing monthly resin flow observations collected over the course of the 2013 growing season in the restored stand and in a co-located stand of even-age planted loblolly pines managed for timber production. Results show that loblolly in the uneven-aged stand consistently produced much larger amounts of resin than loblolly in the even-aged stand, and shortleaf pines were the lowest producers throughout the growing season. No significant relationship between resin flow and diameter at breast height was observed within or across species and sites; thus, species and management effects are independent of their effect on tree size.

  6. Population structure and diversity of an invasive pine needle pathogen reflects anthropogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Irene; Wingfield, Michael J; Carbone, Ignazio; Kirisits, Thomas; Wingfield, Brenda D

    2014-09-01

    Dothistroma septosporum is a haploid fungal pathogen that causes a serious needle blight disease of pines, particularly as an invasive alien species on Pinus radiata in the Southern Hemisphere. During the course of the last two decades, the pathogen has also incited unexpected epidemics on native and non-native pine hosts in the Northern Hemisphere. Although the biology and ecology of the pathogen has been well documented, there is a distinct lack of knowledge regarding its movement or genetic diversity in many of the countries where it is found. In this study we determined the global population diversity and structure of 458 isolates of D. septosporum from 14 countries on six continents using microsatellite markers. Populations of the pathogen in the Northern Hemisphere, where pines are native, displayed high genetic diversities and included both mating types. Most of the populations from Europe showed evidence for random mating, little population differentiation and gene flow between countries. Populations in North America (USA) and Asia (Bhutan) were genetically distinct but migration between these continents and Europe was evident. In the Southern Hemisphere, the population structure and diversity of D. septosporum reflected the anthropogenic history of the introduction and establishment of plantation forestry, particularly with Pinus radiata. Three introductory lineages in the Southern Hemisphere were observed. Countries in Africa, that have had the longest history of pine introductions, displayed the greatest diversity in the pathogen population, indicating multiple introductions. More recent introductions have occurred separately in South America and Australasia where the pathogen population is currently reproducing clonally due to the presence of only one mating type. PMID:25478155

  7. Population structure and diversity of an invasive pine needle pathogen reflects anthropogenic activity

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Irene; Wingfield, Michael J; Carbone, Ignazio; Kirisits, Thomas; Wingfield, Brenda D

    2014-01-01

    Dothistroma septosporum is a haploid fungal pathogen that causes a serious needle blight disease of pines, particularly as an invasive alien species on Pinus radiata in the Southern Hemisphere. During the course of the last two decades, the pathogen has also incited unexpected epidemics on native and non-native pine hosts in the Northern Hemisphere. Although the biology and ecology of the pathogen has been well documented, there is a distinct lack of knowledge regarding its movement or genetic diversity in many of the countries where it is found. In this study we determined the global population diversity and structure of 458 isolates of D. septosporum from 14 countries on six continents using microsatellite markers. Populations of the pathogen in the Northern Hemisphere, where pines are native, displayed high genetic diversities and included both mating types. Most of the populations from Europe showed evidence for random mating, little population differentiation and gene flow between countries. Populations in North America (USA) and Asia (Bhutan) were genetically distinct but migration between these continents and Europe was evident. In the Southern Hemisphere, the population structure and diversity of D. septosporum reflected the anthropogenic history of the introduction and establishment of plantation forestry, particularly with Pinus radiata. Three introductory lineages in the Southern Hemisphere were observed. Countries in Africa, that have had the longest history of pine introductions, displayed the greatest diversity in the pathogen population, indicating multiple introductions. More recent introductions have occurred separately in South America and Australasia where the pathogen population is currently reproducing clonally due to the presence of only one mating type. PMID:25478155

  8. Linking Stream Nitrate to Forest Response and Recovery after Severe Bark Beetle Infestation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhoades, C.; Hubbard, R. M.; Elder, K.

    2013-12-01

    Biogeochemical responses and ecosystem recovery from bark beetle outbreaks are influenced by pre-disturbance forest structure and composition and catchment conditions. Over the past decade, the mountain pine bark beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) has killed mature lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) trees at the Fraser Experimental Forest and throughout the Colorado Rockies. Here we compare stream nitrogen (N) concentrations during the outbreak with data from the previous two decades in four research catchments with distinct forest management history, stand age structure and watershed characteristics. In two old growth forest catchments, stream nitrate concentrations were significantly higher during the infestation in the snowmelt and base flow seasons. The beetle infestation elevated nitrate export 43 and 74% in these two catchments though the amounts of N released in streamwater (0.04 and 0.15 kg N ha-1) were < 2% of annual atmospheric inputs. In contrast, nitrate concentrations were unaffected by beetle infestation in two catchments comprised of a mixture of second-growth (30-60 year old) and old-growth (250-350 year old) forest stands where the density of residual live trees was higher on average. Mortality of overstory trees from bark beetles has stimulated the growth of understory and overstory trees with likely consequences for nutrient demand and retention in recovering forests.

  9. Toxicity of pesticides to Tamarixia radiata, a parasitoid of the Asian citrus psyllid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixteen pesticides including two fungicides were evaluated for toxicity to adult Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a parasitoid of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). Percentage mortality data were evaluated to generally assess IPM-com...

  10. Psychosis post corona radiata and lentiform nucleus infarction.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Khadijah Hasanah Abang; Saini, Suriati Mohamed; Sharip, Shalisah; Rahman, Abdul Hamid Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Complications of stroke can include neuropsychiatric symptoms. However, post-stroke psychosis is rare. We report a case where an acute presentation of psychosis, depression and fluctuating cognitive impairment in a middle-aged man turned out to be related to a silent brain infarction. The patient had a background of poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus with glycated haemoglobin level of 9.0-11.0%, hypertension and ischaemic heart disease. His CT brain results showed multifocal infarct with hypodensities at bilateral lentiform nucleus and bilateral corona radiata. His strong genetic predisposition of psychosis and a history of brief psychotic disorder with complete remission 3 years prior to the current presentation might possibly contribute to his post-stroke atypical neuropsychiatric presentation, and posed diagnostic challenges. He showed marked improvement with risperidone 6 mg nocte, chlorpromazine 50 mg nocte and fluvoxamine of 200 mg nocte. The need of comprehensive treatments to modify his stroke risk factors was addressed. PMID:25837653

  11. Susceptibility to the pinewood nematode (PWN) of four pine species involved in potential range expansion across Europe.

    PubMed

    Nunes da Silva, Marta; Solla, Alejandro; Sampedro, Luis; Zas, Rafael; Vasconcelos, Marta W

    2015-09-01

    The pine wilt disease (PWD), caused by the pinewood nematode (PWN) Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner et Buhrer) Nickle, is one of the most serious threats to pine forests worldwide. Here we studied several components of susceptibility to PWN infection in a model group of pine species widely distributed in Europe (Pinus pinaster Ait., P. pinea L., P. sylvestris L. and P. radiata D. Don), specifically concerning anatomical and chemical traits putatively related to nematode resistance, whole-plant nematode population after experimental inoculation, and several biochemical and physiological traits indicative of plant performance, damage and defensive responses 60 days post inoculation (dpi) in 3-year-old plants. Pinus pinaster was the most susceptible species to PWN colonization, with a 13-fold increase in nematode population size following inoculation, showing up to 35-fold more nematodes than the other species. Pinus pinea was the most resistant species, with an extremely reduced nematode population 60 dpi. Axial resin canals were significantly wider in P. pinaster than in the other species, which may have facilitated nematode dispersal through the stem and contributed to its high susceptibility; nevertheless, this trait does not seem to fully determinate the susceptible character of a species, as P. sylvestris showed similar nematode migration rates to P. pinaster but narrower axial resin canals. Nematode inoculation significantly affected stem water content and polyphenolic concentration, and leaf chlorophyll and lipid peroxidation in all species. In general, P. pinaster and P. sylvestris showed similar chemical responses after infection, whereas P. radiata, which co-exists with the PWN in its native range, showed some degree of tolerance to the nematode. This work provides evidence that the complex interactions between B. xylophilus and its hosts are species-specific, with P. pinaster showing a strong susceptibility to the pathogen, P. pinea being the most

  12. Additive genetic variation in resistance traits of an exotic pine species: little evidence for constraints on evolution of resistance against native herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, X; Zas, R; Sampedro, L

    2013-01-01

    The apparent failure of invasions by alien pines in Europe has been explained by the co-occurrence of native pine congeners supporting herbivores that might easily recognize the new plants as hosts. Previous studies have reported that exotic pines show reduced tolerance and capacity to induce resistance to those native herbivores. We hypothesize that limited genetic variation in resistance to native herbivores and the existence of evolutionary trade-offs between growth and resistance could represent additional potential constraints on the evolution of invasiveness of exotic pines outside their natural range. In this paper, we examined genetic variation for constitutive and induced chemical defences (measured as non-volatile resin in the stem and total phenolics in the needles) and resistance to two major native generalist herbivores of pines in cafeteria bioassays (the phloem-feeder Hylobius abietis and the defoliator Thaumetopoea pityocampa) using half-sib families drawn from a sample of the population of Pinus radiata introduced to Spain in the mid-19th century. We found (i) significant genetic variation, with moderate-to-high narrow-sense heritabilities for both the production of constitutive non-volatile resin and induced total phenolics, and for constitutive resistance against T. pityocampa in bioassays, (ii) no evolutionary trade-offs between plant resistance and growth traits or between the production of different quantitative chemical defences and (iii) a positive genetic correlation between constitutive resistance to the two studied herbivores. Overall, results of our study indicate that the exotic pine P. radiata has limited genetic constraints on the evolution of resistance against herbivores in its introduced range, suggesting that, at least in terms of interactions with these enemies, this pine species has potential to become invasive in the future. PMID:23232833

  13. Additive genetic variation in resistance traits of an exotic pine species: little evidence for constraints on evolution of resistance against native herbivores.

    PubMed

    Moreira, X; Zas, R; Sampedro, L

    2013-05-01

    The apparent failure of invasions by alien pines in Europe has been explained by the co-occurrence of native pine congeners supporting herbivores that might easily recognize the new plants as hosts. Previous studies have reported that exotic pines show reduced tolerance and capacity to induce resistance to those native herbivores. We hypothesize that limited genetic variation in resistance to native herbivores and the existence of evolutionary trade-offs between growth and resistance could represent additional potential constraints on the evolution of invasiveness of exotic pines outside their natural range. In this paper, we examined genetic variation for constitutive and induced chemical defences (measured as non-volatile resin in the stem and total phenolics in the needles) and resistance to two major native generalist herbivores of pines in cafeteria bioassays (the phloem-feeder Hylobius abietis and the defoliator Thaumetopoea pityocampa) using half-sib families drawn from a sample of the population of Pinus radiata introduced to Spain in the mid-19th century. We found (i) significant genetic variation, with moderate-to-high narrow-sense heritabilities for both the production of constitutive non-volatile resin and induced total phenolics, and for constitutive resistance against T. pityocampa in bioassays, (ii) no evolutionary trade-offs between plant resistance and growth traits or between the production of different quantitative chemical defences and (iii) a positive genetic correlation between constitutive resistance to the two studied herbivores. Overall, results of our study indicate that the exotic pine P. radiata has limited genetic constraints on the evolution of resistance against herbivores in its introduced range, suggesting that, at least in terms of interactions with these enemies, this pine species has potential to become invasive in the future. PMID:23232833

  14. CCoAOMT suppression modifies lignin composition in Pinus radiata.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Armin; Tobimatsu, Yuki; Phillips, Lorelle; Flint, Heather; Torr, Kirk; Donaldson, Lloyd; Pears, Lana; Ralph, John

    2011-07-01

    A cDNA clone encoding the lignin-related enzyme caffeoyl CoA 3-O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT) was isolated from a Pinus radiata cDNA library derived from differentiating xylem. Suppression of PrCCoAOMT expression in P. radiata tracheary element cultures affected lignin content and composition, resulting in a lignin polymer containing p-hydroxyphenyl (H), catechyl (C) and guaiacyl (G) units. Acetyl bromide-soluble lignin assays revealed reductions in lignin content of up to 20% in PrCCoAOMT-deficient transgenic lines. Pyrolysis-GC/MS and 2D-NMR studies demonstrated that these reductions were due to depletion of G-type lignin. Correspondingly, the proportion of H-type lignin in PrCCoAOMT-deficient transgenic lines increased, resulting in up to a 10-fold increase in the H/G ratio relative to untransformed controls. 2D-NMR spectra revealed that PrCCoAOMT suppression resulted in formation of benzodioxanes in the lignin polymer. This suggested that phenylpropanoids with an ortho-diphenyl structure such as caffeyl alcohol are involved in lignin polymerization. To test this hypothesis, synthetic lignins containing methyl caffeate or caffeyl alcohol were generated and analyzed by 2D-NMR. Comparison of the 2D-NMR spectra from PrCCoAOMT-RNAi lines and synthetic lignins identified caffeyl alcohol as the new lignin constituent in PrCCoAOMT-deficient lines. The incorporation of caffeyl alcohol into lignin created a polymer containing catechyl units, a lignin type that has not been previously identified in recombinant lignin studies. This finding is consistent with the theory that lignin polymerization is based on a radical coupling process that is determined solely by chemical processes. PMID:21426426

  15. Monoterpene emission rate measurements from a Monterey pine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juuti, Soile; Arey, Janet; Atkinson, Roger

    1990-05-01

    The monoterpenes emitted from a Monterey pine (Pinus radiata) were investigated using a dynamic flow-through enclosure technique. The monoterpenes identified and quantified were α- and β-pinene, d-limonene + β-phellandrene, myrcene, camphene and Δ3-carene, with α- and β-pinene accounting for over 80% of the total monoterpene emissions. The monoterpene emission rate increased with temperature, in good agreement with previous data for other coniferous species. The absence of added CO2 to the synthetic air flow stream, exposure to elevated levels (300-500 ppb mixing ratio) of O3 for 3-4 hours, and increased air movement within the enclosure had no observable effect on the monoterpene emission rate at a given temperature. In contrast, "rough handling" of the pine during the sampling protocol resulted in increases in the monoterpene emission rate by factors of 10-50. These results will be useful to those designing enclosure sampling protocols for the determination of the emission rates of biogenic organic compounds from vegetation.

  16. Monoterpene emission rate measurements from a Monterey pine

    SciTech Connect

    Juuti, S. ); Arey, J.; Atkinson, R. )

    1990-05-20

    The monoterpenes emitted from a Monterey pine (pinus radiata) were investigated using a dynamic flow-through enclosure technique. The monoterpenes identified and quantified were {alpha}- and {beta}-pinene, d-limonene + {beta} phellandrene, myrcene, camphene and {Delta}{sup 3}-carene, with {alpha}- and {beta}-pinene accounting for over 80% of the total monoterpene emissions. The monoterpene emission rate increased with temperature, in good agreement with previous data for other coniferous species. The absence of added CO{sub 2} to the synthetic air flow stream, exposure to elevated levels (300-500 ppb mixing ratio) of O{sub 3} for 3-4 hours, and increased air movement within the enclosure, had no observable effect on the monoterpene emission rate at a given temperature. In contrast, rough handling of the pine during the sampling protocol resulted in increases in the monoterpene emission rate by factors of 10-50. These results will be useful to those designing enclosure sampling protocols for the determination of the emission rates of biogenic organic compounds from vegetation.

  17. Streamwater Chemistry and Nutrient Export During Five Years of Bark Beetle Infestation of Subalpine Watersheds at the Fraser Experimental Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhoades, C.; Elder, K.; Hubbard, R.; Porth, L.

    2008-12-01

    Forested watersheds of western North America are currently undergoing rapid and extensive canopy mortality caused by a variety of insect species. The mountain pine bark beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) began to attack lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) at the USFS Fraser Experimental Forest in central Colorado in 2002. By 2007, bark beetles had killed 78% of the overstory pine in Fraser research watersheds on average. The hydrologic, climatic, biogeochemical and vegetation records at the Fraser Experimental Forest provide a unique opportunity to quantify the impacts of this widespread, but poorly understood forest disturbance relative to a multi-decade pre-disturbance period. Here we compare seasonal streamwater chemistry and annual nutrient export for the five years since the bark beetle outbreak began with the pre- attack record. Patterns in post-outbreak streamwater biogeochemistry are compared to changes is species composition and proportional loss of overstory basal area for four basins. The influence of the outbreak will depend upon an aggregate of short (i.e. halted overstory water and nutrient use) and longer-term (i.e. altered canopy interception, windthrow, and understory growth) processes, so the hydrologic and biogeochemical implications of current beetle activity will not be fully realized for decades.

  18. The Effect of Bark Borer Herbivory on BVOC Emissions in Boreal Forests and Implications for SOA Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faiola, Celia; Joutsensaari, Jorma; Holopainen, Jarmo; Yli-Juuti, Taina; Kokkola, Harri; Blande, James; Guenther, Alex; Virtanen, Annele

    2015-04-01

    Herbivore outbreaks are expected to increase as a result of climate change. These outbreaks can have significant effects on the emissions of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) from vegetation, which contribute to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). We have synthesized the published results investigating changes to BVOC emissions from herbivory by the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis--a bark borer herbivore. Previous lab experiments have shown that bark borer herbivory on Scots pine trees increases monoterpene emissions 4-fold and sesquiterpene emissions 7-fold. Norway spruce exhibits a similar response. The BVOCs most impacted were linalool, beta-phellandrene, limonene, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, myrcene, and sesquiterpenes like beta-farnesene, beta-bourbonene, and longifolene. The quantitative results from these studies were used to estimate potential impacts of bark borer herbivory on BVOC emissions at a regional scale using the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN). MEGAN was run under baseline and herbivore outbreak conditions for a typical boreal forest environment in spring. Emissions output from MEGAN was used to run a microphysical box model to estimate the SOA formation potential under baseline and outbreak conditions. This estimate could provide us with an upper limit to the potential impact of bark borer outbreaks on SOA formation in a boreal forest.

  19. Pheromone production in bark beetles.

    PubMed

    Blomquist, Gary J; Figueroa-Teran, Rubi; Aw, Mory; Song, Minmin; Gorzalski, Andrew; Abbott, Nicole L; Chang, Eric; Tittiger, Claus

    2010-10-01

    The first aggregation pheromone components from bark beetles were identified in 1966 as a mixture of ipsdienol, ipsenol and verbenol. Since then, a number of additional components have been identified as both aggregation and anti-aggregation pheromones, with many of them being monoterpenoids or derived from monoterpenoids. The structural similarity between the major pheromone components of bark beetles and the monoterpenes found in the host trees, along with the association of monoterpenoid production with plant tissue, led to the paradigm that most if not all bark beetle pheromone components were derived from host tree precursors, often with a simple hydroxylation producing the pheromone. In the 1990 s there was a paradigm shift as evidence for de novo biosynthesis of pheromone components began to accumulate, and it is now recognized that most bark beetle monoterpenoid aggregation pheromone components are biosynthesized de novo. The bark beetle aggregation pheromones are released from the frass, which is consistent with the isoprenoid aggregation pheromones, including ipsdienol, ipsenol and frontalin, being produced in midgut tissue. It appears that exo-brevocomin is produced de novo in fat body tissue, and that verbenol, verbenone and verbenene are produced from dietary α-pinene in fat body tissue. Combined biochemical, molecular and functional genomics studies in Ips pini yielded the discovery and characterization of the enzymes that convert mevalonate pathway intermediates to pheromone components, including a novel bifunctional geranyl diphosphate synthase/myrcene synthase, a cytochrome P450 that hydroxylates myrcene to ipsdienol, and an oxidoreductase that interconverts ipsdienol and ipsdienone to achieve the appropriate stereochemistry of ipsdienol for pheromonal activity. Furthermore, the regulation of these genes and their corresponding enzymes proved complex and diverse in different species. Mevalonate pathway genes in pheromone producing male I. pini

  20. Experimental investigation of surface litter ignition by bark firebrands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filkov, Alexander; Kasymov, Denis; Zima, Vladislav; Matvienko, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    Probability and conditions for ignition of surface litter (pine needles) caused by firebrands is studied in the laboratory conditions. For modeling of firebrands, pine bark of various sizes 10×10, 15×15, 20×20, 25×25, 30×30 mm2 and 5 mm in thickness is used. The experiment was conducted in the absence of wind and at different wind velocities: 1, 1.5, 2 and 3 m/s. To conduct investigations, an experimental setup was constructed for generation of firebrands and their impact on surface litter. The results of experiments have shown that the increase in air velocity leads to the increase in probability of surface litter ignition. Thus, wind plays a role of catalyst in the ignition process, bringing an oxidizing agent to firebrands and supporting the process of smoldering. However, if the wind velocity is insufficient for ignition, then there is only the process of smoldering. The area of "uncertainty", where there is smoldering of surface litter without transition to ignition, is found to decrease with increasing the wind velocity. Based on the received results, it can be concluded that the ignition curve of surface liter by firebrands is nonlinear and depends on the wind velocity. At the same time, there is no smoldering and ignition of surface litter for all the wind velocities and the particles with a size of 10 × 10 mm2, regardless of their number.

  1. Hydrophilic compounds in liquids of enzymatic hydrolyzed spruce and pine biomass.

    PubMed

    Sirén, Heli; Riikonen, Päivi; Yang, Guangyu; Petton, Anael; Paarvio, Antti; Böke, Nuran

    2015-09-15

    This study was focused on organic acids and metals in biofluids of wood. Without seasoning, fresh woods from spruce and bark, phloem, and heartwood from pine were used as materials, which were degraded with either microbes of oyster mushroom, baker's yeast, or lactic acid bacteria. Due to neutral pH of the fluids, ambient temperature, atmospheric pressure, and short reaction time, native wood microbe populations were supposed to be present. The water content of the fresh woods was 4 to 20%. The study showed that process methodology and experimental conditions affected the generation of lactic, citric, succinic, and adipic acids, which are considered as source chemicals in the biopolymer industry. In addition to the organic acids and metals, the process produced monosaccharides, polysaccharides, and phenolic acids such as benzoic, salicylic, cinnamic, vanillic, tannic, and conifer (ferulic) acids. Concentrations of total acids and acetic and succinic acids in pine fluids from bark, phloem, and heartwood were 58.4 g/kg and 3.5 to 6.9 g/kg, respectively. In spruce, the most dominant acids were l-lactic and l-malic acids. As for metals, Ag and Cr were detected at 0.01-g/kg quantities in pine bark. Alkali metals K, Mg, Sr, and Ca were detected at 10, 8, 1.3, and 4 g/kg, respectively. PMID:26070851

  2. Barking up the Right Tree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Paul D.

    2006-01-01

    There is a childhood saying about a confused dog who thinks he sees a possum in a tree. The problem is that the possum is actually in a different tree so the dog barks up the wrong tree. American education is constantly playing both dog and possum. Sometimes they are the prey, and sometimes they are just confused about what and where the prey is.…

  3. An experimental demonstration of stem damage as a predictor of fire-caused mortality for ponderosa pine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Mantgem, P.; Schwartz, M.

    2004-01-01

    We subjected 159 small ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex P. & C. Laws.) to treatments designed to test the relative importance of stem damage as a predictor of postfire mortality. The treatments consisted of a group with the basal bark artificially thinned, a second group with fuels removed from the base of the stem, and an untreated control. Following prescribed burning, crown scorch severity was equivalent among the groups. Postfire mortality was significantly less frequent in the fuels removal group than in the bark removal and control groups. No model of mortality for the fuels removal group was possible, because dead trees constituted <4% of subject trees. Mortality in the bark removal group was best predicted by crown scorch and stem scorch severity, whereas death in the control group was predicted by crown scorch severity and bark thickness. The relative lack of mortality in the fuels removal group and the increased sensitivity to stem damage in the bark removal group suggest that stem damage is a critical determinant of postfire mortality for small ponderosa pine.

  4. Fungal Volatiles Can Act as Carbon Sources and Semiochemicals to Mediate Interspecific Interactions Among Bark Beetle-Associated Fungal Symbionts.

    PubMed

    Cale, Jonathan A; Collignon, R Maxwell; Klutsch, Jennifer G; Kanekar, Sanat S; Hussain, Altaf; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2016-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) has killed millions of hectares of pine forests in western North America. Beetle success is dependent upon a community of symbiotic fungi comprised of Grosmannia clavigera, Ophiostoma montium, and Leptographium longiclavatum. Factors regulating the dynamics of this community during pine infection are largely unknown. However, fungal volatile organic compounds (FVOCs) help shape fungal interactions in model and agricultural systems and thus may be important drivers of interactions among bark beetle-associated fungi. We investigated whether FVOCs can mediate interspecific interactions among mountain pine beetle's fungal symbionts by affecting fungal growth and reproduction. Headspace volatiles were collected and identified to determine species-specific volatile profiles. Interspecific effects of volatiles on fungal growth and conidia production were assessed by pairing physically-separated fungal cultures grown either on a carbon-poor or -rich substrate, inside a shared-headspace environment. Fungal VOC profiles differed by species and influenced the growth and/or conidia production of the other species. Further, our results showed that FVOCs can be used as carbon sources for fungi developing on carbon-poor substrates. This is the first report demonstrating that FVOCs can drive interactions among bark beetle fungal symbionts, and thus are important factors in beetle attack success. PMID:27583519

  5. Differences in defence responses of Pinus contorta and Pinus banksiana to the mountain pine beetle fungal associate Grosmannia clavigera are affected by water deficit.

    PubMed

    Arango-Velez, Adriana; El Kayal, Walid; Copeland, Charles C J; Zaharia, L Irina; Lusebrink, Inka; Cooke, Janice E K

    2016-04-01

    We tested the hypotheses that responses to the mountain pine beetle fungal associate Grosmannia clavigera will differ between the evolutionarily co-evolved host lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) and the naïve host jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and that these responses will be influenced by water availability. G. clavigera inoculation resulted in more rapid stem lesion development in lodgepole than in jack pine; water deficit delayed lesion development in both species. Decreased hydraulic conductivity was observed in inoculated lodgepole pine seedlings, likely because of tracheid occlusion by fungal hyphae and/or metabolite accumulation. Drought but not inoculation significantly impacted bark abscisic acid levels. Jasmonic and salicylic acid were implicated in local and systemic responses of both species to G. clavigera, with salicylic acid appearing to play a greater role in jack pine response to G. clavigera than lodgepole pine. Water deficit increased constitutive levels and/or attenuated induced responses to G. clavigera for several monoterpenes in lodgepole but not jack pine. Instead, inoculation of well-watered but not water deficit jack pine resulted in a greater number of xylem resin ducts. These findings reveal mechanisms underlying differences in G. clavigera-induced responses between lodgepole and jack pine hosts, and how water availability modulates these responses. PMID:26205849

  6. Siberian Pine Decline and Mortality in Southern Siberian Mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kharuk, V. I.; Im, S. T.; Oskorbin, P. A.; Petrov, I. A.; Ranson, K. J.

    2013-01-01

    The causes and resulting spatial patterns of Siberian pine mortality in eastern Kuznetzky Alatau Mountains, Siberia were analyzed based on satellite (Landsat, MODIS) and dendrochronology data. Climate variables studied included temperature, precipitation and Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) drought index. Landsat data analysis showed that stand mortality was first detected in the year 2006 at an elevation of 650 m, and extended up to 900 m by the year 2012. Mortality was accompanied by a decrease in MODIS derived vegetation index (EVI).. The area of dead stands and the upper mortality line were correlated with increased drought. The uphill margin of mortality was limited by elevational precipitation gradients. Dead stands (i.e., >75% tree mortality) were located mainly on southern slopes. With respect to slope, mortality was observed within a 7 deg - 20 deg range with greatest mortality occurring on convex terrain. Tree radial incrementmeasurements correlate and were synchronous with SPEI (r sq = 0.37, r(sub s) = 80). Increasing synchrony between tree ring growth and SPEI indicates that drought has reduced the ecological niche of Siberian pine. The results also showed the primary role of drought stress on Siberian pine mortality. A secondary role may be played by bark beetles and root fungi attacks. The observed Siberian pine mortality is part of a broader phenomenon of "dark needle conifers" (DNC, i.e., Siberian pine, fir and spruce) decline and mortality in European Russia, Siberia, and the Russian Far East. All locations of DNC decline coincided with areas of observed drought increase. The results obtained are one of the first observations of drought-induced decline and mortality of DNC at the southern border of boreal forests. Meanwhile if model projections of increased aridity are correct DNC, within the southern part of its range may be replaced by drought-resistant Pinus silvestris and Larix sibirica.

  7. Male-specific conversion of the host plant compound, myrcene, to the pheromone, (+)-ipsdienol, in the bark beetle,Dendroctonus brevicomis.

    PubMed

    Byers, J A

    1982-02-01

    When both sexes of the bark beetle,Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte, were exposed to vapors of myrcene from ponderosa pine, only the male produced (+)-ipsdienol. In the field, racemic ipsdienol significantly reduced the attraction of both sexes in flight to a mixture of myrcene and the aggregation pheromones,exo-brevicomin and frontalin. This suggests that ipsdienol may be involved in regulating colonization density ofD. brevicomis. The implications of the biosynthesis of various enantiomers of ipsdienol byD. brevicomis and the cohabitating bark beetles,Ips paraconfusus andI. pini, in relation to their behavioral responses are discussed in regard to reducing interspecific competition. PMID:24414947

  8. Pine Beetle Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Earth Systems Science Office scientists worked with officials in St. Tammany Parish, La., to detect and battle pine beetle infestation in Fontainebleu State Park. The scientists used a new method of detecting plant stress by using special lenses and modified sensors to detect a change in light levels given off by the plant before the stress is visible to the naked eye.

  9. Water use by Pinus radiata trees in a plantation.

    PubMed

    Teskey, R. O.; Sheriff, D. W.

    1996-01-01

    We used the heat-pulse velocity technique to estimate transpirational water use of trees in an experimental 16-year-old Pinus radiata D. Don plantation in South Australia during a 4-month period from November 1993 to March 1994 (spring-summer). Fertilization and other silvicultural treatments during the first 8 years of the plantation produced trees ranging in diameter at a height of 1.3 m from 0.251 to 0.436 m, with leaf areas ranging from 83 to 337 m(2). Daily water use was greater for large trees than for small trees, but transpiration per unit leaf area was nearly identical. Daily transpiration was highly correlated with available soil water in the upper 1 m of soil and weakly correlated with irradiance and air temperature. For the stand (0.4 ha), estimated rates of transpiration ranged from 6.8 to 1.4 mm day(-1) in wet and dry soil conditions, respectively. Total water use by the plantation during the 4-month study period was 346 mm. Water transpired by the trees was about three times that extracted from the upper 1 m of soil. Large trees extracted water from the same soil volume as small trees and did not exhibit a greater potential to extract water from deeper soil when the upper horizons become dry. PMID:14871772

  10. Modeling productivity and transpiration of Pinus radiata: climatic effects.

    PubMed

    Sheriff, D. W.; Mattay, J. P.; McMurtrie, R. E.

    1996-01-01

    Climatic effects on annual net carbon gain, stem biomass and annual transpiration were simulated for Pinus radiata D. Don at Canberra and Mt. Gambier. Simulations were conducted with an existing process-based forest growth model (BIOMASS, Model 1) and with a modified version of the BIOMASS model (Model 2) in which response functions for carbon assimilation and leaf conductance were replaced with those derived from field gas exchange data collected at Mt. Gambier. Simulated carbon gain was compared with a published report stating that mean annual stem volume increment (MAI) at Mt. Gambier was 1.8 times greater than at Canberra and that the difference could be the result solely of differences in climate. Regional differences in climate resulted in a 20% greater simulated annual transpiration at Canberra than at Mt. Gambier but only small differences in simulated productivity, indicating that climatic differences did not account for the reported differences in productivity. With Model 1, simulated annual net carbon gain and annual increase in stem biomass were greater at Canberra than at Mt. Gambier, whereas Model 2 indicated a similar annual net carbon gain and annual stem biomass increase in both regions. PMID:14871762

  11. Bioassay development using early life stages of the marine macroalga, Ecklonia radiata

    SciTech Connect

    Bidwell, J.R.; Wheeler, K.D.; Roper, J.; Burridge, T.R.

    1995-12-31

    A lack of standard toxicity test methods for species native to Australia has stimulated research to overcome this deficiency. In the present work, germination inhibition was utilized as an endpoint in 48h bioassays with the marine macroalga Ecklonia radiata. E radiata is often a dominant member of temperate subtidal communities in Australia and other parts of the southern hemisphere. The alga fills an ecological niche similar to that of Macrocystis pyrifera, the giant kelp which occurs in the northern hemisphere. In an adaptation of test methods used for M. pyrifera, release of E. radiata zoospores was induced in the laboratory. Settled spores were then exposed to toxicants for 48 h and germination success was determined by scoring the spores for the development of a germination tube. At 20 C, EC{sub 50} values ranging between 53.4 and 77.4 mg/L were generated in tests with hexavalent chromium (potassium chromate). The EC{sub 50} for copper (cupric chloride) was 0.53 mg/L. Sensitivity of E. radiata to metals such as copper may have significance toward assessing the environmental impacts of some antifoulant coatings used on seagoing vessels. In future studies, growth of zoospore germination tubes and comparative sensitivity of different E. radiata populations will be examined.

  12. Chronic effects of Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus globulus kraft mill effluents and phytosterols on Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    López, D; Chamorro, S; Silva, J; Bay-Schmith, E; Vidal, G

    2011-12-01

    Two kraft pulp mill effluents were compared in terms of their chronic toxicity to Daphnia magna. One resulted from pulping Pinus radiata and the other came from a parallel processing of Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus globulus (mixed kraft pulp mill effluent). The concentration of phytosterols found in the mixed kraft pulp mill effluent was higher than in the effluent from Pinus radiata, with values of 0.1082 and 0.02 μg/L, respectively. The phytosterols per se are responsible for 12.9% and 8.1% of the deviation from the natural shape, while the kraft pulp mill effluents account for 25.6%-27.8% of shape deviation. The role of β-sitosterol and stigmasterol is discussed in relation to endocrine disruption. PMID:21979137

  13. Associations between Ectomycorrhizal Fungi and Bacterial Needle Endophytes in Pinus radiata: Implications for Biotic Selection of Microbial Communities.

    PubMed

    Rúa, Megan A; Wilson, Emily C; Steele, Sarah; Munters, Arielle R; Hoeksema, Jason D; Frank, Anna C

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the ecological and evolutionary relationships between plants and their associated microbes have long been focused on single microbes, or single microbial guilds, but in reality, plants associate with a diverse array of microbes from a varied set of guilds. As such, multitrophic interactions among plant-associated microbes from multiple guilds represent an area of developing research, and can reveal how complex microbial communities are structured around plants. Interactions between coniferous plants and their associated microbes provide a good model system for such studies, as conifers host a suite of microorganisms including mutualistic ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi and foliar bacterial endophytes. To investigate the potential role ECM fungi play in structuring foliar bacterial endophyte communities, we sampled three isolated, native populations of Monterey pine (Pinus radiata), and used constrained analysis of principal coordinates to relate the community matrices of the ECM fungi and bacterial endophytes. Our results suggest that ECM fungi may be important factors for explaining variation in bacterial endophyte communities but this effect is influenced by population and environmental characteristics, emphasizing the potential importance of other factors - biotic or abiotic - in determining the composition of bacterial communities. We also classified ECM fungi into categories based on known fungal traits associated with substrate exploration and nutrient mobilization strategies since variation in these traits allows the fungi to acquire nutrients across a wide range of abiotic conditions and may influence the outcome of multi-species interactions. Across populations and environmental factors, none of the traits associated with fungal foraging strategy types significantly structured bacterial assemblages, suggesting these ECM fungal traits are not important for understanding endophyte-ECM interactions. Overall, our results suggest that both biotic species

  14. Associations between Ectomycorrhizal Fungi and Bacterial Needle Endophytes in Pinus radiata: Implications for Biotic Selection of Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Rúa, Megan A.; Wilson, Emily C.; Steele, Sarah; Munters, Arielle R.; Hoeksema, Jason D.; Frank, Anna C.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the ecological and evolutionary relationships between plants and their associated microbes have long been focused on single microbes, or single microbial guilds, but in reality, plants associate with a diverse array of microbes from a varied set of guilds. As such, multitrophic interactions among plant-associated microbes from multiple guilds represent an area of developing research, and can reveal how complex microbial communities are structured around plants. Interactions between coniferous plants and their associated microbes provide a good model system for such studies, as conifers host a suite of microorganisms including mutualistic ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi and foliar bacterial endophytes. To investigate the potential role ECM fungi play in structuring foliar bacterial endophyte communities, we sampled three isolated, native populations of Monterey pine (Pinus radiata), and used constrained analysis of principal coordinates to relate the community matrices of the ECM fungi and bacterial endophytes. Our results suggest that ECM fungi may be important factors for explaining variation in bacterial endophyte communities but this effect is influenced by population and environmental characteristics, emphasizing the potential importance of other factors — biotic or abiotic — in determining the composition of bacterial communities. We also classified ECM fungi into categories based on known fungal traits associated with substrate exploration and nutrient mobilization strategies since variation in these traits allows the fungi to acquire nutrients across a wide range of abiotic conditions and may influence the outcome of multi-species interactions. Across populations and environmental factors, none of the traits associated with fungal foraging strategy types significantly structured bacterial assemblages, suggesting these ECM fungal traits are not important for understanding endophyte-ECM interactions. Overall, our results suggest that both biotic

  15. Black Pine Circle Project

    ScienceCinema

    Mytko, Christine

    2014-09-15

    A group of seventh graders from Black Pine Circle school in Berkeley had the opportunity to experience the Advanced Light Source (ALS) as "users" via a collaborative field trip and proposal project. The project culminated with a field trip to the ALS for all seventh graders, which included a visit to the ALS data visualization room, a diffraction demonstration, a beamline tour, and informative sessions about x-rays and tomography presented by ALS scientists.

  16. Black Pine Circle Project

    SciTech Connect

    Mytko, Christine

    2014-03-31

    A group of seventh graders from Black Pine Circle school in Berkeley had the opportunity to experience the Advanced Light Source (ALS) as "users" via a collaborative field trip and proposal project. The project culminated with a field trip to the ALS for all seventh graders, which included a visit to the ALS data visualization room, a diffraction demonstration, a beamline tour, and informative sessions about x-rays and tomography presented by ALS scientists.

  17. Mismatch between herbivore behavior and demographics contributes to scale-dependence of host susceptibility in two pine species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ylioja, T.; Slone, D.H.; Ayres, M.P.

    2005-01-01

    The impacts on forests of tree-killing bark beetles can depend on the species composition of potential host trees. Host susceptibility might be an intrinsic property of tree species, or it might depend on spatial patterning of alternative host species. We compared the susceptibility of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and Virginia pine (P. virginiana) to southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis) at two hierarchical levels of geographic scale: within beetle infestations in heterospecific stands (extent ranging from 0.28 to 0.65 ha), and across a forest landscape (extent 72,500 ha) that was dominated by monospecific stands. In the former, beetles preferentially attacked Virginia pine (tree mortality = 65-100% in Virginia pine versus 0-66% in loblolly pine), but in the latter, loblolly stands were more susceptible than Virginia stands. This hierarchical transition in host susceptibility was predicted from knowledge of (1) a behavioral preference of beetles for attacking loblolly versus Virginia pine, (2) a negative correlation between preference and performance, and (3) a mismatch in the domain of scale between demographics and host selection by individuals. There is value for forest management in understanding the processes that can produce hierarchical transitions in ecological patterns. Copyright ?? 2005 by the Society of American Foresters.

  18. Pine Oil Effects on Chemical and Thermal Injury in Mice and Cultured Mouse Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Clark, SP; Bollag, WB; Westlund, KN; Ma, F; Falls, G; Xie, D; Johnson, M; Isales, CM; Bhattacharyya, MH

    2013-01-01

    A commercial resin-based pine oil derived from Pinus palustris and Pinus elliottii was the major focus of this investigation. Extracts of pine resins, needles and bark are folk medicines commonly used to treat skin ailments, including burns. The American Burn Association estimates that 500,000 people with burn injuries receive medical treatment each year; one-half of US burn victims are children, most with scald burns. This systematic study was initiated as follow-up to personal anecdotal evidence acquired over more than 10 years by MH Bhattacharyya regarding pine oil’s efficacy for treating burns. The results demonstrate that pine oil counteracted dermal inflammation in both a mouse ear model of contact irritant-induced dermal inflammation and a 2nd degree scald burn to the mouse paw. Furthermore, pine oil significantly counteracted the tactile allodynia and soft tissue injury caused by the scald burn. In mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuronal cultures, pine oil added to the medium blocked ATP-activated, but not capsaicin-activated, pain pathways, demonstrating specificity. These results together support the hypothesis that a pine-oil-based treatment can be developed to provide effective in-home care for 2nd degree burns. PMID:23595692

  19. Modeling the water balance of a small Pinus radiata catchment.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, D.; Kelliher, F. M.

    1991-01-01

    An hourly biophysical model was used to calculate the water balance over a period of one year for an 8.7-ha catchment with a closed-canopy, 13-year-old Pinus radiata D. Don forest in the central North Island, New Zealand. Components of the model are transpiration from the dry tree canopy, evaporation from the partially wet tree canopy and stems, evaporation from the understory and soil, and drainage from a single-layer root zone. The model requires input of hourly weather data (net radiation, air and wet bulb temperatures, windspeed, and rainfall), tree stand characteristics (average height, tree number, leaf area index), physical characteristics of the site (root zone depth, relationship between root zone matric potential and volumetric water content, the relationship between the rate of drainage from the root zone and volumetric water content, and the area of open-stream channels). A submodel of the response of stomatal conductance to air saturation deficit and root zone matric potential is also required. Tree transpiration (704 mm year(-1) or 50% of annual rainfall) was a dominant component of the catchment water balance. Estimated evaporation from the wet tree canopy was 203 mm year(-1) (15%). Evaporation from the understory was much less, amounting to 94 mm year(-1) (7%) and an increase in water storage for the 3.5 m root zone depth was estimated to be 53 mm year(-1) (4%). Estimated daily rates of drainage generally agreed well with measurements of streamflow, although estimated annual drainage (349 mm year(-1), 24%) exceeded measured streamflow (234 mm year(-1)). The significance of the results is discussed in relation to closure of the hydrologic balance. PMID:14972854

  20. Radiocesium concentrations in the bark, sapwood and heartwood of three tree species collected at Fukushima forests half a year after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Katsushi; Kagawa, Akira; Tonosaki, Mario

    2013-08-01

    Radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) distribution in tree stems of Japanese cedar (aged 40-56 y), red pine (42 y), and oak (42 y) grown in Fukushima Prefecture were investigated approximately half a year after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident. Japanese cedar, red pine, and oak were selected from five sites, one site, and one site, respectively. Three trees at each site were felled, and bark, sapwood (the outer layer of wood in the stem), and heartwood (the inner layer of wood in the stem) separately collected to study radiocesium concentrations measured by gamma-ray spectrometry. The radiocesium deposition densities at the five sites were within the range of 16-1020 kBq m(-2). The radiocesium was distributed in bark, sapwood, and heartwood in three tree species, indicating that very rapid translocation of radiocesium into the wood. The concentration of radiocesium in oak (deciduous angiosperm) bark was higher than that in the bark of Japanese cedar and red pine (evergreen gymnosperms). Both sapwood and heartwood contained radiocesium, and the values were much lower than that in the bark samples. The results suggest that radiocesium contamination half a year after the accident was mainly attributable to the direct radioactive deposition. The radiocesium concentrations in the Japanese cedar samples taken from five sites rose with the density of radiocesium accumulation on the ground surface. To predict the future dynamics of radiocesium in tree stems, the present results taken half a year after the accident are important, and continuous study of radiocesium in tree stems is necessary. PMID:23531497

  1. Sulfur capture in combination bark boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Someshwar, A.V.; Jain, A.K. )

    1993-07-01

    A review of sulfur dioxide emission data for eight combination bark boilers in conjunction with the sulfur contents of the fuels reveals significant sulfur capture ranging from 10% to over 80% within the solid ash phase. Wood ash characteristics similar to activated carbon as well as the significant wood ash alkali oxide and carbonate fractions are believed responsible for the sulfur capture. Sulfur emissions from combination bark-fossil fuel firing are correlated to the sulfur input per ton of bark or wood residue fired.

  2. Transcriptome and full-length cDNA resources for the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, a major insect pest of pine forests.

    PubMed

    Keeling, Christopher I; Henderson, Hannah; Li, Maria; Yuen, Mack; Clark, Erin L; Fraser, Jordie D; Huber, Dezene P W; Liao, Nancy Y; Docking, T Roderick; Birol, Inanc; Chan, Simon K; Taylor, Greg A; Palmquist, Diana; Jones, Steven J M; Bohlmann, Joerg

    2012-08-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are major insect pests of many woody plants around the world. The mountain pine beetle (MPB), Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a significant historical pest of western North American pine forests. It is currently devastating pine forests in western North America--particularly in British Columbia, Canada--and is beginning to expand its host range eastward into the Canadian boreal forest, which extends to the Atlantic coast of North America. Limited genomic resources are available for this and other bark beetle pests, restricting the use of genomics-based information to help monitor, predict, and manage the spread of these insects. To overcome these limitations, we generated comprehensive transcriptome resources from fourteen full-length enriched cDNA libraries through paired-end Sanger sequencing of 100,000 cDNA clones, and single-end Roche 454 pyrosequencing of three of these cDNA libraries. Hybrid de novo assembly of the 3.4 million sequences resulted in 20,571 isotigs in 14,410 isogroups and 246,848 singletons. In addition, over 2300 non-redundant full-length cDNA clones putatively containing complete open reading frames, including 47 cytochrome P450s, were sequenced fully to high quality. This first large-scale genomics resource for bark beetles provides the relevant sequence information for gene discovery; functional and population genomics; comparative analyses; and for future efforts to annotate the MPB genome. These resources permit the study of this beetle at the molecular level and will inform research in other Dendroctonus spp. and more generally in the Curculionidae and other Coleoptera. PMID:22516182

  3. Photosynthetic bark: Use of chlorophyll absorption continuum index to estimate Boswellia papyrifera bark chlorophyll content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girma, Atkilt; Skidmore, Andrew K.; de Bie, C. A. J. M.; Bongers, Frans; Schlerf, Martin

    2013-08-01

    Quantification of chlorophyll content provides useful insight into the physiological performance of plants. Several leaf chlorophyll estimation techniques, using hyperspectral instruments, are available. However, to our knowledge, a non-destructive bark chlorophyll estimation technique is not available. We set out to assess Boswellia papyrifera tree bark chlorophyll content and to provide an appropriate bark chlorophyll estimation technique using hyperspectral remote sensing techniques. In contrast to the leaves, the bark of B. papyrifera has several outer layers masking the inner photosynthetic bark layer. Thus, our interest includes understanding how much light energy is transmitted to the photosynthetic inner bark and to what extent the inner photosynthetic bark chlorophyll activity could be remotely sensed during both the wet and the dry season. In this study, chlorophyll estimation using the chlorophyll absorption continuum index (CACI) yielded a higher R2 (0.87) than others indices and methods, such as the use of single band, simple ratios, normalized differences, and conventional red edge position (REP) based estimation techniques. The chlorophyll absorption continuum index approach considers the increase or widening in area of the chlorophyll absorption region, attributed to high concentrations of chlorophyll causing spectral shifts in both the yellow and the red edge. During the wet season B. papyrifera trees contain more bark layers than during the dry season. Having less bark layers during the dry season (leaf off condition) is an advantage for the plants as then their inner photosynthetic bark is more exposed to light, enabling them to trap light energy. It is concluded that B. papyrifera bark chlorophyll content can be reliably estimated using the chlorophyll absorption continuum index analysis. Further research on the use of bark signatures is recommended, in order to discriminate the deciduous B. papyrifera from other species during the dry season.

  4. Avoidance of nonhost plants by a bark beetle, Pityogenes bidentatus, in a forest of odors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byers, John A.; Zhang, Qing-He; Birgersson, Göran

    The bark beetle, Pityogenes bidentatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), searches in mixed conifer and deciduous forests of northern Europe for suitable branches of its host, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). We tested whether odors from several diverse nonhost trees and plants common in the habitat (e.g., mountain ash, Sorbus aucuparia; oak, Quercus robur; alder buckthorn, Frangula alnus; blueberry, Vaccinium myrtillus; raspberry, Rubus idaeus; and grass, Deschampsia flexuosa) would reduce the attraction of the bark beetle to traps releasing its aggregation pheromone components in the field. Volatiles from the leaves or bark of each of these plants significantly reduced the attraction of the beetles to their pheromone. Odors collected from these nonhosts and analyzed by GC/MS contained monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and ``green-leaf'' alcohols, several of which (e.g., 1-octene-3-ol and β-caryophyllene) reduced the attraction to pheromone in the field and elicited electroantennographic responses. In the laboratory, reproduction by the beetle was marginal in nonhost Norway spruce, Picea abies, and was absent in the other nonhost trees. Olfactory avoidance of unsuitable nonhosts may have evolved due to advantages in avoiding mistakes during host selection.

  5. Changes in bryophyte and lichen communities on Scots pines along an alkaline dust pollution gradient.

    PubMed

    Degtjarenko, Polina; Marmor, Liis; Randlane, Tiina

    2016-09-01

    Dust pollution can cause a significant damage of environment and endanger human health. Our study aimed to investigate epiphytic lichens and bryophytes in relation to long-term alkaline dust pollution and provide new insights into the bioindicators of dust pollution. We measured the bark pH of Scots pines and the species richness and cover of two cryptogam groups in 32 sample plots in the vicinity of limestone quarries (up to ca. 3 km) in northern Estonia. The bark pH decreased gradually with increasing distance from quarries. We recorded the changes in natural epiphytic communities, resulting in diversified artificial communities on pines near the pollution source; the distance over 2 km from the quarries was sufficient to re-establish the normal acidity of the bark and natural communities of both lichens and bryophytes. The cover of lichens and the number of bryophytes are a more promising indicator of environmental conditions than individual species occurrence. We confirmed previously proposed and suggested new bioindicator species of dust pollution (e.g., Lecidella elaeochroma, Opegrapha varia, Schistidium apocarpum). Limestone quarrying activity revealed a "parapositive" impact on cryptogamic communities, meaning that quarrying might, besides disturbances of natural communities, temporarily contribute to the distribution of locally rare species. PMID:27230146

  6. The role of wood-inhabiting bacteria in pine wilt disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Bo Guang; Tao, Jian; Ju, Yun Wei; Wang, Peng Kai; Ye, Jian Ling

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenicity of the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus together with the bacteria isolated from black pine (Pinus thunbergii) bark inoculated to axenic black pine seedlings, significantly exceeded that of the axenic PWNs alone, demonstrating that the bacteria play an important role in pine wilt disease. Inoculation of seedlings with bacteria-free culture filtrates of the seven isolates from the dead seedlings from the above experiment showed that all isolate filtrates killed the seedlings within 8 days. Identification of the bacteria using 16S rDNA sequencing showed that the isolates belonged to strains By253Ydz-fq, S209, 210-50 and 210-50 in Bacillus and the DN1.1 strain of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, respectively. Completing Koch’s postulates using the seven bacterial isolates to inoculate pine seedlings showed that all the seedlings that received aseptic PWNs mixed with the seven bacterial isolates died within 18 days post inoculation, while those inoculated with ‘wild’ PWNs died 16 days post inoculation. No disease symptoms developed on seedlings that received sterile water or aseptic PWNs. The horizontal transfer of the pathogenic bacteria may explain differences in bacterial species carried by PWN in different geographic areas. PMID:23430766

  7. Effects of Nano Silver Oxide and Silver Ions on Growth of Vigna radiata.

    PubMed

    Singh, Divya; Kumar, Arun

    2015-09-01

    Transformation of silver oxide nanoparticles (nano-Ag2O) to silver nanoparticles (nano-Ag) and silver ions in environment is possible which might pose toxicity to plants and other species. The objective of this study was to study effects of nano-Ag2O and silver ions on growth of Mung bean (Vigna radiata) seedlings. V. radiata seeds were exposed to nano-Ag2O and silver ions (concentration range: 4.3 × 10(-7), 4.3 × 10(-6), 4.3 × 10(-5), 4.3 × 10(-4), and 4.3 × 10(-3) mol/L) for 6 days. Root length, shoot length and dry weight of seedlings were found to decrease due to exposure of nano-Ag2O and silver ions. These findings indicate silver ions to be more toxic to V. radiata seeds than nano-Ag2O. Silver content in seedlings was found to increase with increasing concentrations of nano-Ag2O and silver ions. Overall, findings of the present study add to the existing knowledge of phytotoxicity of silver-based nanoparticles of different chemical compositions to V. radiata seeds and need to be considered during use of nanoparticles-contaminated water for irrigation purposes. PMID:26155963

  8. 90SR UPTAKE BY PINUS PONDEROSA AND PINUS RADIATA SEEDLINGS INOCULATED WITH ECOTOMYCORRHIZAL FUNGI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Strontium-90 (90Sr) is a radionuclide characteristic of fallout from nuclear reactor accidents and nuclear weapons testing. rior studies have shown that Pinus ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings can remove appreciable quantities of 90Sr from soil and store it in plant tissue. n th...

  9. Stand variation in Pinus radiata and its relationship with allometric scaling and critical buckling height

    PubMed Central

    Waghorn, Matthew J.; Watt, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Allometric relationships and the determination of critical buckling heights have been examined for Pinus radiata in the past. However, how they relate to more mature Pinus radiata exhibiting a wide range of stem diameters, slenderness and modulus of elasticity (E) at operationally used stand densities is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between Pinus radiata stand structure variables and allometric scaling and critical buckling height. Methods Utilizing a Pinus radiata Nelder trial with stand density and genetic breed as variables, critical buckling height was calculated whilst reduced major axis regression was used to determine scaling exponents between critical height (Hcrit), actual height (H), ground line diameter (D), slenderness (S), density-specific stiffness (E/ρ) and modulus of elasticity (E). Key Results Critical buckling height was highly responsive to decreasing diameter and increasing slenderness. Safety factors in this study were typically considerably lower than previously reported margins in other species. As density-specific stiffness scaled negatively with diameter, the exponent of 0·55 between critical height and diameter did not meet the assumed value of 0·67 under constant density-specific stiffness. E scaled positively with stem slenderness to the power of 0·78. Conclusions The findings suggest that within species density-specific stiffness variation may influence critical height and the scaling exponent between critical height and diameter, which is considered so important in assumptions regarding allometric relationships. PMID:23388878

  10. Extensive haplotype variation in Tamarixia radiata populations from the Americas: multiple groups

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field collected populations of Tamarixia radiata (n=48) were analyzed by a phylogeographic analysis inferred from the partial mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI) (518-bp). Three populations were from North America, one each from the U. S. states of Florida and Texas and one from t...

  11. MODIFYING LIGNIN IN CONIFERS: THE ROLE OF HCT DURING TRACHEARY ELEMENT FORMATION IN PINUS RADIATA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The enzyme hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA: shikimate hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HCT) is involved in the production of methoxylated monolignols that are precursors to guaiacyl and syringyl lignin in angiosperm species. We identified and cloned a putative HCT gene from Pinus radiata, a coniferous gymnosperm, ...

  12. Locating POPs Sources with Tree Bark.

    PubMed

    Peverly, Angela A; Salamova, Amina; Hites, Ronald A

    2015-12-01

    Locating sources of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to the atmosphere can sometimes be difficult. We suggest that tree bark makes an excellent passive atmospheric sampler and that spatial analysis of tree bark POPs concentrations can often pinpoint their sources. This is an effective strategy because tree bark is lipophilic and readily adsorbs and collects POPs from the atmosphere. As such, tree bark is an ideal sampler to find POPs sources globally, regionally, or locally. This article summarizes some work on this subject with an emphasis on kriged maps and a simple power-law model, both of which have been used to locate sources. Three of the four examples led directly to the pollutant's manufacturing plant. PMID:25629888

  13. Analysis, pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification of different fractions of Scots pine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Forestry residues consisting of softwood are a major lignocellulosic resource for production of liquid biofuels. Scots pine, a commercially important forest tree, was fractionated into seven fractions of chips: juvenile heartwood, mature heartwood, juvenile sapwood, mature sapwood, bark, top parts, and knotwood. The different fractions were characterized analytically with regard to chemical composition and susceptibility to dilute-acid pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification. Results All fractions were characterized by a high glucan content (38-43%) and a high content of other carbohydrates (11-14% mannan, 2-4% galactan) that generate easily convertible hexose sugars, and by a low content of inorganic material (0.2-0.9% ash). The lignin content was relatively uniform (27-32%) and the syringyl-guaiacyl ratio of the different fractions were within the range 0.021-0.025. The knotwood had a high content of extractives (9%) compared to the other fractions. The effects of pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification were relatively similar, but without pretreatment the bark fraction was considerably more susceptible to enzymatic saccharification. Conclusions Since sawn timber is a main product from softwood species such as Scots pine, it is an important issue whether different parts of the tree are equally suitable for bioconversion processes. The investigation shows that bioconversion of Scots pine is facilitated by that most of the different fractions exhibit relatively similar properties with regard to chemical composition and susceptibility to techniques used for bioconversion of woody biomass. PMID:24641769

  14. Chemodiversity and biodiversity of fungi associated with the pine weevil Hylobius abietis.

    PubMed

    Azeem, Muhammad; Terenius, Olle; Rajarao, Gunaratna Kuttuva; Nagahama, Kazuhiro; Nordenhem, Henrik; Nordlander, Göran; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2015-08-01

    The pine weevil Hylobius abietis is a severe pest of conifer seedlings in reforestation areas. Weevils lay eggs in the root bark or in the soil near roots of recently dead trees and cover the eggs with frass (feces combined with chewed bark), possibly to avoid conspecific egg predation. The aim of the present investigation focused on isolation, identification, and volatile production of fungi from pine-weevil feces and frass. Fungi were isolated from weevil frass and feces separately, followed by identification based on ITS sequencing. Fifty-nine isolates belonging to the genera Penicillium, Ophiostoma, Mucor, Leptographium, Eucasphaeria, Rhizosphaera, Debaryomyces, and Candida were identified. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by the fungal community and fungal isolates cultured on weevil-frass broth were identified by SPME-GCMS. Major VOCs emitted from the fungal community and pure isolates were species- and strain specific and included isopentylalcohol, styrene, 3-octanone, 6-protoilludene, methyl salicylate, 3-methylanisole, 2-methoxyphenol, and phenol. Some of these are known to influence the orientation of pine weevils when tested among highly attractive newly planted conifer seedlings. PMID:26228562

  15. Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This pair of MISR images of the Pine Island Glacier in western Antarctica was acquired on December 12, 2000 during Terra orbit 5246. At left is a conventional, true-color image from the downward-looking (nadir) camera. The false-color image at right is a composite of red band data taken by the MISR forward 60-degree, nadir, and aftward 60-degree cameras, displayed in red, green, and blue colors, respectively. Color variations in the left (true-color) image highlight spectral differences. In the multi-angle composite, on the other hand, color variations act as a proxy for differences in the angular reflectance properties of the scene. In this representation, clouds show up as light purple. Blue to orange gradations on the surface indicate a transition in ice texture from smooth to rough. For example, the bright orange 'carrot-like' features are rough crevasses on the glacier's tongue. In the conventional nadir view, the blue ice labeled 'rough crevasses' and 'smooth blue ice' exhibit similar coloration, but the multi-angle composite reveals their different textures, with the smoother ice appearing dark purple instead of orange. This could be an indicator of different mechanisms by which this ice is exposed. The multi-angle view also reveals subtle roughness variations on the frozen sea ice between the glacier and the open water in Pine Island Bay.

    To the left of the 'icebergs' label are chunks of floating ice. Additionally, smaller icebergs embedded in the frozen sea ice are visible below and to the right of the label. These small icebergs are associated with dark streaks. Analysis of the illumination geometry suggests that these streaks are surface features, not shadows. Wind-driven motion and thinning of the sea ice in the vicinity of the icebergs is one possible explanation.

    Recently, Robert Bindschadler, a glaciologist at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center discovered in Landsat 7 imagery a newly-formed crack traversing the Pine Island Glacier. This crack

  16. Assessing forest vulnerability and the potential distribution of pine beetles under current and future climate scenarios in the Interior West of the US

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evangelista, P.H.; Kumar, S.; Stohlgren, T.J.; Young, N.E.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our study was to estimate forest vulnerability and potential distribution of three bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) under current and projected climate conditions for 2020 and 2050. Our study focused on the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), western pine beetle (Dendroctonus brevicomis), and pine engraver (Ips pini). This study was conducted across eight states in the Interior West of the US covering approximately 2.2millionkm2 and encompassing about 95% of the Rocky Mountains in the contiguous US. Our analyses relied on aerial surveys of bark beetle outbreaks that occurred between 1991 and 2008. Occurrence points for each species were generated within polygons created from the aerial surveys. Current and projected climate scenarios were acquired from the WorldClim database and represented by 19 bioclimatic variables. We used Maxent modeling technique fit with occurrence points and current climate data to model potential beetle distributions and forest vulnerability. Three available climate models, each having two emission scenarios, were modeled independently and results averaged to produce two predictions for 2020 and two predictions for 2050 for each analysis. Environmental parameters defined by current climate models were then used to predict conditions under future climate scenarios, and changes in different species' ranges were calculated. Our results suggested that the potential distribution for bark beetles under current climate conditions is extensive, which coincides with infestation trends observed in the last decade. Our results predicted that suitable habitats for the mountain pine beetle and pine engraver beetle will stabilize or decrease under future climate conditions, while habitat for the western pine beetle will continue to increase over time. The greatest increase in habitat area was for the western pine beetle, where one climate model predicted a 27% increase by 2050. In contrast, the predicted habitat of the

  17. Decomposition of conifer tree bark under field conditions: effects of nitrogen and phosphorus additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes de Gerenyu, Valentin; Kurganova, Irina; Kapitsa, Ekaterina; Shorokhova, Ekaterina

    2016-04-01

    In forest ecosystems, the processes of decomposition of coarse woody debris (CWD) can contribute significantly to the emission component of carbon (C) cycle and thus accelerate the greenhouse effect and global climate change. A better understanding of decomposition of CWD is required to refine estimates of the C balance in forest ecosystems and improve biogeochemical models. These estimates will in turn contribute to assessing the role of forests in maintaining their long-term productivity and other ecosystems services. We examined the decomposition rate of coniferous bark with added nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizers in experiment under field conditions. The experiment was carried out in 2015 during 17 weeks in Moscow region (54o50'N, 37o36'E) under continental-temperate climatic conditions. The conifer tree bark mixture (ca. 70% of Norway spruce and 30% of Scots pine) was combined with soil and placed in piles of soil-bark substrate (SBS) with height of ca. 60 cm and surface area of ca. 3 m2. The dry mass ratio of bark to soil was 10:1. The experimental design included following treatments: (1) soil (Luvisols Haplic) without bark, (S), (2) pure SBS, (3) SBS with N addition in the amount of 1% of total dry bark mass (SBS-N), and (4) SBS with N and P addition in the amount of 1% of total dry bark mass for each element (SBS-NP). The decomposition rate expressed as CO2 emission flux, g C/m2/h was measured using closed chamber method 1-3 times per week from July to early November using LiCor 6400 (Nebraska, USA). During the experiment, we also controlled soil temperature at depths of 5, 20, 40, and 60 cm below surface of SBS using thermochrons iButton (DS1921G, USA). The pattern of CO2 emission rate from SBS depended strongly on fertilizing. The highest decomposition rates (DecR) of 2.8-5.6 g C/m2/h were observed in SBS-NP treatment during the first 6 weeks of experiment. The decay process of bark was less active in the treatment with only N addition. In this

  18. Fatty Acid Composition of Novel Host Jack Pine Do Not Prevent Host Acceptance and Colonization by the Invasive Mountain Pine Beetle and Its Symbiotic Fungus.

    PubMed

    Ishangulyyeva, Guncha; Najar, Ahmed; Curtis, Jonathan M; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acids are major components of plant lipids and can affect growth and development of insect herbivores. Despite a large literature examining the roles of fatty acids in conifers, relatively few studies have tested the effects of fatty acids on insect herbivores and their microbial symbionts. Particularly, whether fatty acids can affect the suitability of conifers for insect herbivores has never been studied before. Thus, we evaluated if composition of fatty acids impede or facilitate colonization of jack pine (Pinus banksiana) by the invasive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and its symbiotic fungus (Grosmannia clavigera). This is the first study to examine the effects of tree fatty acids on any bark beetle species and its symbiotic fungus. In a novel bioassay, we found that plant tissues (hosts and non-host) amended with synthetic fatty acids at concentrations representative of jack pine were compatible with beetle larvae. Likewise, G. clavigera grew in media amended with lipid fractions or synthetic fatty acids at concentrations present in jack pine. In contrast, fatty acids and lipid composition of a non-host were not suitable for the beetle larvae or the fungus. Apparently, concentrations of individual, rather than total, fatty acids determined the suitability of jack pine. Furthermore, sampling of host and non-host tree species across Canada demonstrated that the composition of jack pine fatty acids was similar to the different populations of beetle's historical hosts. These results demonstrate that fatty acids composition compatible with insect herbivores and their microbial symbionts can be important factor defining host suitability to invasive insects. PMID:27583820

  19. Genome‐wide gene expression dynamics of the fungal pathogen Dothistroma septosporum throughout its infection cycle of the gymnosperm host Pinus radiata

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yanan; Sim, Andre D.; Kabir, M. Shahjahan; Chettri, Pranav; Ozturk, Ibrahim K.; Hunziker, Lukas; Ganley, Rebecca J.; Cox, Murray P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary We present genome‐wide gene expression patterns as a time series through the infection cycle of the fungal pine needle blight pathogen, Dothistroma septosporum, as it invades its gymnosperm host, Pinus radiata. We determined the molecular changes at three stages of the disease cycle: epiphytic/biotrophic (early), initial necrosis (mid) and mature sporulating lesion (late). Over 1.7 billion combined plant and fungal reads were sequenced to obtain 3.2 million fungal‐specific reads, which comprised as little as 0.1% of the sample reads early in infection. This enriched dataset shows that the initial biotrophic stage is characterized by the up‐regulation of genes encoding fungal cell wall‐modifying enzymes and signalling proteins. Later necrotrophic stages show the up‐regulation of genes for secondary metabolism, putative effectors, oxidoreductases, transporters and starch degradation. This in‐depth through‐time transcriptomic study provides our first snapshot of the gene expression dynamics that characterize infection by this fungal pathogen in its gymnosperm host. PMID:25919703

  20. Genome-wide gene expression dynamics of the fungal pathogen Dothistroma septosporum throughout its infection cycle of the gymnosperm host Pinus radiata.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Rosie E; Guo, Yanan; Sim, Andre D; Kabir, M Shahjahan; Chettri, Pranav; Ozturk, Ibrahim K; Hunziker, Lukas; Ganley, Rebecca J; Cox, Murray P

    2016-02-01

    We present genome-wide gene expression patterns as a time series through the infection cycle of the fungal pine needle blight pathogen, Dothistroma septosporum, as it invades its gymnosperm host, Pinus radiata. We determined the molecular changes at three stages of the disease cycle: epiphytic/biotrophic (early), initial necrosis (mid) and mature sporulating lesion (late). Over 1.7 billion combined plant and fungal reads were sequenced to obtain 3.2 million fungal-specific reads, which comprised as little as 0.1% of the sample reads early in infection. This enriched dataset shows that the initial biotrophic stage is characterized by the up-regulation of genes encoding fungal cell wall-modifying enzymes and signalling proteins. Later necrotrophic stages show the up-regulation of genes for secondary metabolism, putative effectors, oxidoreductases, transporters and starch degradation. This in-depth through-time transcriptomic study provides our first snapshot of the gene expression dynamics that characterize infection by this fungal pathogen in its gymnosperm host. PMID:25919703

  1. Patterns and causes of observed piñon pine mortality in the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meddens, Arjan J.H.; Hicke, Jeff H.; Macalady, Alison K.; Buotte, P.C.; Cowles, T.R.; Allen, Craig D.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, widespread piñon pine die-off occurred in the southwestern United States. Here we synthesize observational studies of this event and compare findings to expected relationships with biotic and abiotic factors. Agreement exists on the occurrence of drought, presence of bark beetles and increased mortality of larger trees. However, studies disagree about the influences of stem density, elevation and other factors, perhaps related to study design, location and impact of extreme drought. Detailed information about bark beetles is seldom reported and their role is poorly understood. Our analysis reveals substantial limits to our knowledge regarding the processes that produce mortality patterns across space and time, indicating a poor ability to forecast mortality in response to expected increases in future droughts.

  2. Modification of the semitransparent Prunus serrula bark film: Making rubber out of bark

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, X.; Zaremba, C.; Stucky, G.D.; Schneider, E.; Wudl, F. |

    1998-11-01

    The authors report an extensive structural and mechanical characterization of the semitransparent bark of Prunus serrula. Variations in the properties were observed. Mechanical properties along the fiber axis of these films are strongly related to the cell dimensions. Several trends can be seen with increasing cell length: tensile strength and Young`s modulus increase; ductility decreases. Perpendicular to the fiber axis, similar radial dimensions of the bark cells contributes to similar mechanical properties. Plasticization not only shrinks the dimension of the bulk films along the tangential axis, which is unique, but also dramatically changes the mechanical properties. The authors have shown, for the first time, that the mechanical properties of the Prunus serrula bark can be effectively tailored with different plasticization and modification agents. The plastic bark can be successfully converted to rubberlike material either temporally or permanently, or it can be strengthened by tensile deformation of the plasticized bark.

  3. Green foliage losses from ponderosa pines induced by Abert squirrels and snowstorms: A comparison. [Sciurus aberti; Pinus pondersosa

    SciTech Connect

    Allred, W.S.; Gaud, W.S. )

    1993-01-01

    Abert squirrels (Sciurus aberti) are obligate herbivores on ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa). The inner bark of pine shoots is considered one of the predominant food resources obtained by foraging squirrels. As squirrels forage for this resource they induce green needle losses from chosen feed trees. Amounts of induced green needle losses appear to vary according to the availability of alternative foods and squirrel population densities. Weather also induces green needle losses to ponderosa pines. Results of this study indicate that, at least in some years, heavy snowstorms can induce greater amounts of green needle losses than squirrels. Squirrel herbivory was not indicated as a factor in any tree mortality. However, losses due to snowstorms are more severe since they may cause the actual depletion of trees in the forest because of the tree mortality they inflict.

  4. Disentangling Detoxification: Gene Expression Analysis of Feeding Mountain Pine Beetle Illuminates Molecular-Level Host Chemical Defense Detoxification Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Jeanne A.; Pitt, Caitlin; Bonnett, Tiffany R.; Yuen, Macaire M. S.; Keeling, Christopher I.; Bohlmann, Jörg; Huber, Dezene P. W.

    2013-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a native species of bark beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) that caused unprecedented damage to the pine forests of British Columbia and other parts of western North America and is currently expanding its range into the boreal forests of central and eastern Canada and the USA. We conducted a large-scale gene expression analysis (RNA-seq) of mountain pine beetle male and female adults either starved or fed in male-female pairs for 24 hours on lodgepole pine host tree tissues. Our aim was to uncover transcripts involved in coniferophagous mountain pine beetle detoxification systems during early host colonization. Transcripts of members from several gene families significantly increased in insects fed on host tissue including: cytochromes P450, glucosyl transferases and glutathione S-transferases, esterases, and one ABC transporter. Other significantly increasing transcripts with potential roles in detoxification of host defenses included alcohol dehydrogenases and a group of unexpected transcripts whose products may play an, as yet, undiscovered role in host colonization by mountain pine beetle. PMID:24223726

  5. Potential of Vigna radiata (L.) sprouts in the management of inflammation and arthritis in rats: Possible biochemical alterations.

    PubMed

    Venkateshwarlu, E; Reddy, K Purnima; Dilip, D

    2016-01-01

    Vigna radiata (Fabaceae) is an important pulse crop widespread throughout the tropics and warm temperature regions. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro anti-inflammatory and in vivo antiarthritic activity of Vigna radiata sprouts in rats. The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity was determined by membrane stabilization and protein denaturation method. Whereas, the antiarthritic activity of the ethanolic extract of the sprouts was evaluated by complete Freund's adjuvant model with diclofenac sodium as the standard drug. Body weights, paw volume, biochemical parameters such as lipid peroxidation, total reduced glutathione, myeloperoxidase and lysosomal enzymes like cathepsin-D, N-acetyl β-D-glucosamindase and β-D-glucuronidase were estimated. Treatment with ethanolic extract of V. radiata exhibited significant membrane stabilization activity and protein denaturation activity, and significantly attenuated the biochemical changes induced by administration of complete Freund's adjuvant. The findings of the present study suggest the possible role of Vigna radiata in the therapeutics of arthritis. PMID:26891551

  6. Quantum non-barking dogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imari Walker, Sara; Davies, Paul C. W.; Samantray, Prasant; Aharonov, Yakir

    2014-06-01

    Quantum weak measurements with states both pre- and post-selected offer a window into a hitherto neglected sector of quantum mechanics. A class of such systems involves time dependent evolution with transitions possible. In this paper we explore two very simple systems in this class. The first is a toy model representing the decay of an excited atom. The second is the tunneling of a particle through a barrier. The post-selection criteria are chosen as follows: at the final time, the atom remains in its initial excited state for the first example and the particle remains behind the barrier for the second. We then ask what weak values are predicted in the physical environment of the atom (to which no net energy has been transferred) and in the region beyond the barrier (to which the particle has not tunneled). Thus, just as the dog that didn't bark in Arthur Conan Doyle's story Silver Blaze gave Sherlock Holmes meaningful information about the dog's non-canine environment, here we probe whether the particle that has not decayed or has not tunneled can provide measurable information about physical changes in the environment. Previous work suggests that very large weak values might arise in these regions for long durations between pre- and post-selection times. Our calculations reveal some distinct differences between the two model systems.

  7. An Automated Instrument for the Measurement of Bark Microrelief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Stan, J. T.; Jarvis, M.; Levia, D. F.

    2009-05-01

    Bark microrelief is of importance to the physiological ecology of forested ecosystems because it has been documented to influence the distribution of corticolous lichens, stemflow generation, and forest biogeochemical cycles. Hitherto no instrument existed to characterize the inherent variability of bark microrelief with high spatial resolution. Our newly-designed bark microrelief instrument, the LaserBarkTM, consists of a hinged ring, laser rangefinder, and motor linked to a standard laptop. The LaserBarkTM produces trunk cross- sections at a 0.33 degree horizontal resolution and detects bark ridge-to furrow heights at < 1 mm resolution. The LaserBarkTM was validated by comparing measurements of bark microrelief between the instrument and digital calipers. The mean absolute error of the instrument was 0.83 mm. Our bark microrelief instrument can supply critical requisite information of bark microstructure that be used by researchers to interpret the distribution of lichens and bryophytes on tree surfaces, relate stemflow yield and chemistry to bark microrelief, and provide detailed measurements of the changes of bark microrelief with stem dehydration. In short, the LaserBarkTM can be used to gain a more holistic understanding of the functional ecology of forest ecosystems.

  8. Resource release in lodgepole pine across a chronosequence of mountain pine beetle disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brayden, B. H.; Trahan, N. A.; Dynes, E.; Beatty, S. W.; Monson, R. K.

    2011-12-01

    Over the past decade and a half Western North America has experienced a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak on a scale not previously recorded. Millions of hectares of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) in high elevation forests have been devastated. Although bark beetles are an important part of the endemic disturbance and regeneration regime in this region, the current unprecedented level of tree mortality will have a significant impact on resources and light availability to surviving trees. We established a decade-long chronosequence of mountain pine beetle disturbance, in a lodgepole stand, composed of three age classes: recent, intermediate, and longest (approximately 2-4, 5-7, 8-10 years respectively) time since initial infestation, as well as a control group. The focus of the study was a healthy tree and it's area of influence (1m radius from the bole), each located in a cluster of the respective chronosequence classes. In the 2011 growing season we have looked at rates of photosynthesis, and water potentials for the healthy trees, as well as soil respiration flux and gravimetric moisture in their areas of influence. We are also in the process of analyzing soil extractable dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen, ammonium, nitrate, and inorganic phosphorus, and plan to take hemispherical photographs and analyze tree-ring stable isotopes to determine if there is any reallocation of soil water use by the trees. Our data shows that photosynthetic rates in the youngest infestation class increase 10 percent over the control group and then falls well bellow the control by the oldest class. The mineral soil gravimetric moisture drastically increases between the control and the recent class and then maintains a consistently higher level through the remaining classes. In contrast, moisture in the organic soil significantly declines between the control and recent class before rebounding to pre-infestation levels in the two older classes. Soil

  9. Longleaf Pine Characterists Associated with Arthropods Available for Red-Cockaded Woodpeckers

    SciTech Connect

    Hanula, J.L.; Franzreb, K.E.; Pepper, W.D.

    1999-01-25

    The authors sampled arthropods on 300 longleaf pine under varying stand conditions and ranging in age from 20 to 100 years. The most diverse orders were beetles, spiders, ants, wasps and bees. The most abundant were aphids and Hymenoptera with a large number of ants. Arthropod biomass per tree increased in age up to 65-70 years, but biomass was highest in the youngest stands. Arthropods were positively correlated to bark thickness and tree diameter, but negatively related to the stand basal area. No relationships were found between abundance and ground vegetation conditions.

  10. Delayed conifer mortality after fuel reduction treatments: Interactive effects of fuel, fire intensity, and bark beetles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Youngblood, A.; Grace, J.B.; Mciver, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    Many low-elevation dry forests of the western United States contain more small trees and fewer large trees, more down woody debris, and less diverse and vigorous understory plant communities compared to conditions under historical fire regimes. These altered structural conditions may contribute to increased probability of unnaturally severe wildfires, susceptibility to uncharacteristic insect outbreaks, and drought-related mortality. Broad-scale fuel reduction and restoration treatments are proposed to promote stand development on trajectories toward more sustainable structures. Little research to date, however, has quantified the effects of these treatments on the ecosystem, especially delayed and latent tree mortality resulting directly or indirectly from treatments. In this paper, we explore complex hypotheses relating to the cascade of effects that influence ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) mortality using structural equation modeling (SEM). We used annual census and plot data through six growing seasons after thinning and four growing seasons after burning from a replicated, operational-scale, completely randomized experiment conducted in northeastern Oregon, USA, as part of the national Fire and Fire Surrogate study. Treatments included thin, burn, thin followed by burn (thin+burn), and control. Burn and thin+burn treatments increased the proportion of dead trees while the proportion of dead trees declined or remained constant in thin and control units, although the density of dead trees was essentially unchanged with treatment. Most of the new mortality (96%) occurred within two years of treatment and was attributed to bark beetles. Bark beetle-caused tree mortality, while low overall, was greatest in thin + burn treatments. SEM results indicate that the probability of mortality of large-diameter ponderosa pine from bark beetles and wood borers was directly related to surface fire severity and bole charring, which in

  11. 4. Hopper was used to collect bark from the Chipper ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Hopper was used to collect bark from the Chipper Building. Processed bark was loaded into trucks for disposal at a pit on site. - Pacific Creosoting Plant, Log Peeling Operation, 5350 Creosote Place, Northeast, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  12. The bark, the howl and the bark-howl: Identity cues in dingoes' multicomponent calls.

    PubMed

    Déaux, Éloïse C; Charrier, Isabelle; Clarke, Jennifer A

    2016-08-01

    Dingoes (genus Canis) produce a stereotyped bark-howl vocalisation, which is a unimodal complex signal formed by the concatenation of two call types (a bark and a howl). Bark-howls may function as alarm signals, although there has been no empirical investigation of this vocalisation's structure or function. We quantified the content and efficacy of the bark and howl segments separately and when combined, using 140 calls from 10 individuals. We found that both segments are individually distinctive, although howl segments are more accurately classified, suggesting a higher level of individuality. Furthermore, howls convey signature characteristics that are conserved across different contexts of production, and thus may act as 'identity signals'. The individual distinctiveness of full bark-howls increases above that of isolated segments, which may be a result of selection on improved signal discriminability. Propagation tests revealed that bark-howls are best described as medium-range signals, with both segments potentially allowing for individual discrimination up to 200m regardless of environmental conditions. We discuss our findings regarding the fitness benefits of encoding identity cues in a potential alarm call and propose additional hypotheses for the function(s) of bark and howl segments. PMID:27343622

  13. Surface energy flux consequences of bark beetle outbreaks in the south-central Rockies using MODIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderhoof, M. K.; Williams, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    Changes in canopy cover due to disturbance-related mortality have been shown to profoundly impact parameters within the surface energy balance and water budget. A shift in such fluxes can have consequences for surface temperature, cloudiness, run-off and stream flow, forest regeneration and net primary productivity. Current outbreaks of native bark beetles in western North America are some of the largest and most severe in recorded history. In recent outbreaks, bark beetles have reduced the basal area of host-dominated forests by up to 70%; with over-story mortality often exceeding 90% in mature, even-aged stands. The magnitude, frequency and intensity of recent outbreaks have been attributed to warmer summer and winter temperatures and drought conditions as a result of climate change. However, despite the likelihood that canopy mortality from bark beetle attacks will have profound effects on forest albedo and evapotranspiration, consequences for this disturbance type remain largely un-documented. This study addressed the question: how does a bark beetle outbreak event influence surface albedo and evapotranspiration? Seasonal patterns of surface temperature, albedo, evapotranspiration, and radiative forcing were modeled for lodgepole and ponderosa pine stands by outbreak age using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data within the south-central Rocky Mountains. Beetle damage data was derived from both field-based plots as well as aerial surveys. The prevalence of bark beetle outbreaks in high-elevation environments, which are exceedingly sensitive to climate change, necessitates the importance of understanding the energy and evapotranspiration consequences of such events.

  14. Pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

    PubMed

    Futai, Kazuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    After devastating vast areas of pine forests in Asian countries, the pine wilt disease spread into European forests in 1999 and is causing worldwide concern. This disease involves very complicated interactions between a pathogenic nematode, its vector beetle, host pine species, and fungi in dead hosts. Pathogenicity of the pine wood nematode is determined not only by its physical and chemical traits but also by its behavioral traits. Most life history traits of the pine wood nematode, such as its phoretic relationship with vector beetles, seem to be more effective in virulent than in avirulent isolates or species. As the pathogenicity determinants, secreted enzymes, and surface coat proteins are very important, they have therefore been studied intensively. The mechanism of quick death of a large pine tree as a result of infection by a tiny nematode could be ascribed to the dysfunction of the water-conducting system caused by the death of parenchyma cells, which must have originally evolved as an inherent resistant system. PMID:23663004

  15. 6-benzyladenine metabolism during reinvigoration of mature Pinus radiata buds in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huaibi; Horgan, Kathryn J; Reynolds, Paul H S; Jameson, Paula E

    2010-04-01

    Maturation or phase change is a serious challenge in the deployment of superior trees of Pinus radiata D. Don because of the difficulties associated with propagation of cuttings from mature trees. We used an in vitro system to study 6-benzyladenine (BA)-induced reinvigoration of the fascicle meristems of mature buds during in vitro culture. Anatomical examinations revealed that BA inhibited the development of secondary needle primordia and 'rejuvenated' the fascicle meristems of the mature bud to produce primary needles, which are characteristic of the juvenile phase in P. radiata. Without BA supplement in the culture media, fascicle primordia continued developing secondary needles and quiescent fascicle meristems. BA metabolite analysis showed that the novel cytokinin pathway reported previously in P. radiata (H. Zhang, K.J. Horgan, P.H.S. Reynolds, G.E. Norris and P.E. Jameson. 2001. Novel cytokinins: The predominant forms in mature buds of Pinus radiata. Physiol. Plant. 112: 127-134) was mirrored in vitro, with BA converted into a variety of metabolites including 6-benzylamino-9-glucopyranosylribosyl-purine and its novel phosphorylated form, 6-benzylamino-9-glucopyranosylribosyl-purine. The culture of mature buds in the presence of BA caused a reduction in the level of endogenous cytokinins, suggesting a direct action of BA itself. Similar correlations are noted between levels of certain metabolites and the maturation status of buds from field-grown trees and buds in culture, indicating that this in vitro system may be a good model for studying the processes of maturation and reinvigoration. PMID:20144924

  16. Relationships between nutrient status, carbon assimilation and water use efficiency in Pinus radiata (D. Don) needles.

    PubMed

    Sheriff, D. W.; Nambiar, E. K. S.; Fife, D. N.

    1986-12-01

    The productivity of Pinus radiata D. Don plantations can be increased on many soils by N and P fertilization. Foliar analyses are usually taken as a guide for nutrient management, but there is little information about the relationship of foliar nutrient status to foliar physiology. This paper provides such information from N and P fertilization experiments. The concentrations and contents of N and P in the needles of P. radiata change because of accumulation during needle growth, retranslocation during shoot growth, and replenishment from current uptake during periods of little shoot growth. Up to 60% P and 50% N may be retranslocated in a single growing season from needles less than one year old. Three years after fertilizer application to a 10-year-old thinned P. radiata stand, net carbon assimilation rate per unit leaf area was in the order NP>P>N. There were positive associations between foliar P and assimilation at full sunlight, diffusive conductance and quantum yield. Foliar N was negatively associated with these variables. Higher concentrations of P and N were both accompanied by higher instantaneous water use efficiency by the foliage. Estimated trends in whole tree assimilation were similar to those in aboveground biomass accumulation. The interplay between the dynamic nature of nutrients in the foliage and their influence on the physiology of needles is discussed. PMID:14975843

  17. 90sr uptake by 'pinus ponderosa' and 'pinus radiata' seedlings inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Entry, J.A.; Rygiewicz, P.T.; Emmingham, W.H.

    1994-01-01

    In the study, the authors inoculated P. ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings with one of five isolates of ectomycorrhizal fungi; inoculated and nonincoculated (control) seedlings were compared for their ability to remove Sr90 from an organic growth medium. Seedlings were grown for 3 months in a growth chamber in glass tubes containing 165 cu cm of sphagnum peat moss and perlite and, except in the controls, the fungal inoculum. After 3 months, 5978 Bq of Sr90 in 1 ml of sterile, distilled, deionized water was added. Seedlings were grown for an additional month and then harvested. P. ponderosa seedlings that were inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi accumulated 3.0-6.0% of the Sr90; bioconcentration ratios ranged from 98-162. Inoculated P. radiata seedlings accumulated 6.0-6.9% of the Sr90; bioconcentration ratios ranged from 88-133. Noninoculated P. ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings accumulated only 0.6 and 0.7% of the Sr90 and had bioconcentration ratios of 28 and 27, respectively.

  18. Mountain Pine Beetles Use Volatile Cues to Locate Host Limber Pine and Avoid Non-Host Great Basin Bristlecone Pine

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Curtis A.; Runyon, Justin B.; Jenkins, Michael J.; Giunta, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    The tree-killing mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is an important disturbance agent of western North American forests and recent outbreaks have affected tens of millions of hectares of trees. Most western North American pines (Pinus spp.) are hosts and are successfully attacked by mountain pine beetles whereas a handful of pine species are not suitable hosts and are rarely attacked. How pioneering females locate host trees is not well understood, with prevailing theory involving random landings and/or visual cues. Here we show that female mountain pine beetles orient toward volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from host limber pine (Pinus flexilis James) and away from VOCs of non-host Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva Bailey) in a Y-tube olfactometer. When presented with VOCs of both trees, females overwhelmingly choose limber pine over Great Basin bristlecone pine. Analysis of VOCs collected from co-occurring limber and Great Basin bristlecone pine trees revealed only a few quantitative differences. Noticeable differences included the monoterpenes 3-carene and D-limonene which were produced in greater amounts by host limber pine. We found no evidence that 3-carene is important for beetles when selecting trees, it was not attractive alone and its addition to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs did not alter female selection. However, addition of D-limonene to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs disrupted the ability of beetles to distinguish between tree species. When presented alone, D-limonene did not affect behavior, suggesting that the response is mediated by multiple compounds. A better understanding of host selection by mountain pine beetles could improve strategies for managing this important forest insect. Moreover, elucidating how Great Basin bristlecone pine escapes attack by mountain pine beetles could provide insight into mechanisms underlying the incredible longevity of this tree species. PMID:26332317

  19. Pyrolysis of Wood and Bark in an Auger Reactor: Physical Properties and Chemical Analysis of the Produced Bio-oils

    SciTech Connect

    Ingram, L.; Mohan, D.; Bricka, M.; Steele, P.; Strobel, D.; Crocker, D.; Mitchell, B.; Mohammed, J.; Cantrell, K.; Pittman, C. U. Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Bio-oil was produced at 450C by fast pyrolysis in a continuous auger reactor. Four feed stocks were used: pine wood, pine bark, oak wood, and oak bark. After extensive characterization of the whole bio-oils and their pyrolytic lignin-rich ethyl acetate fractions by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), calorific values, viscosity dependences on shear rates and temperatures, elemental analyses, {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy, water analyses, and ash content, these bio-oils were shown to be comparable to bio-oils produced by fast pyrolysis in fluidized bed and vacuum pyrolysis processes. This finding suggests that portable auger reactors might be used to produce bio-oil at locations in forests to generate bio-oil on-site for transport of the less bulky bio-oil (versus raw biomass) to biorefineries or power generation units. The pyrolysis reported herein had lower heat transfer rates than those achieved in fluidized bed reactors, suggesting significant further improvements are possible.

  20. Bark Beetle-Induced Mortality Impacts on Forest Biogeochemical Cycles are Less than Expected

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewers, B. E.; Pendall, E.; Norton, U.; Millar, D.; Mackay, D. S.; Frank, J. M.; Massman, W. J.; Hyde, K.

    2015-12-01

    Bark beetles increased conifer tree mortality across western North America due to past land use interacting with climate change. For both mountain pine and spruce beetles, the mechanism of mortality is hydraulic failure due to xylem occlusion by beetle-carried blue stain fungi, which causes the trees to die from symptoms that are the same as extreme drought. As the mortality event peaked in the last decade, the hypothesized effects on forest biogeochemical processes were 1) lower forest water use from xylem occlusion, 2) less carbon uptake from limited canopy gas exchange, 3) increased nitrogen cycling from increased litterfall and soil moisture and 4) increased streamflow and organic N and C loading at the watershed scale from the first three consequences. The stand-scale effects during mortality were as predicted with transpiration falling by 10-35% in proportion to the occluded xylem, carbon uptake declining by > 50% due to lack of canopy gas exchange and nitrogen cycling increasing from elevated litter inputs and stimulated organic matter decomposition. Some stands, especially mid-elevation lodgepole pine, did not follow these trends because of residual vegetation taking advantage of the increased resources from the dead trees and rapid succession within 5 years of new grasses, shrubs and tree seedlings as well as increased resource use by surviving canopy trees. In a high elevation spruce stand, the lower water use lasted for only three years while summer carbon uptake was only significantly reduced for a year. At the scale of small to medium-sized watersheds, the impact of mortality was not detectable in stream flow due to the spatial and temporal scale muting of the mortality signal as temporal and spatial scales increase. Current ecosystem and watershed models miss these compensating mechanisms with increasing scale and thus over predict the impact of bark beetle mortality.

  1. Carbon stocks of trees killed by bark beetles and wildfire in the western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hicke, Jeffrey A.; Meddens, Arjan J.H.; Allen, Craig D.; Kolden, Crystal A.

    2013-01-01

    Forests are major components of the carbon cycle, and disturbances are important influences of forest carbon. Our objective was to contribute to the understanding of forest carbon cycling by quantifying the amount of carbon in trees killed by two disturbance types, fires and bark beetles, in the western United States in recent decades. We combined existing spatial data sets of forest biomass, burn severity, and beetle-caused tree mortality to estimate the amount of aboveground and belowground carbon in killed trees across the region. We found that during 1984-2010, fires killed trees that contained 5-11 Tg C year-1 and during 1997-2010, beetles killed trees that contained 2-24 Tg C year-1, with more trees killed since 2000 than in earlier periods. Over their periods of record, amounts of carbon in trees killed by fires and by beetle outbreaks were similar, and together these disturbances killed trees representing 9% of the total tree carbon in western forests, a similar amount to harvesting. Fires killed more trees in lower-elevation forest types such as Douglas-fir than higher-elevation forest types, whereas bark beetle outbreaks also killed trees in higher-elevation forest types such as lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce. Over 15% of the carbon in lodgepole pine and spruce/fir forest types was in trees killed by beetle outbreaks; other forest types had 5-10% of the carbon in killed trees. Our results document the importance of these natural disturbances in the carbon budget of the western United States.

  2. Phenolic glycosides of Paulownia tomentosa bark.

    PubMed

    Sticher, O; Lahloub, M F

    1982-11-01

    The isolation of acteoside and coniferin from Paulownia tomentosa bark along with the previously reported phenolic glucoside syringin is described. The structure of both, acteoside and coniferin, have been assigned by (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectroscopy. PMID:17396961

  3. Metals bioaccumulation mechanism in neem bark

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this work was to define the bioaccumulation mechanism of metals onto the non-living biomaterial prepared from an extensively available plant bark biomass of neem (Azadirachta indica). Based on maximum ultimate fixation capacities (mmol/g) of the product, metals ions could be arranged as H...

  4. Antibacterial activity of Persea cordata stem barks.

    PubMed

    Schlemper, S R; Schlemper, V; da Silva, D; Cordeiro, F; Cruz, A B; Oliveira, A E; Cechinel-Filho, V

    2001-01-01

    The antibacterial effects of extracts obtained from Persea cordata stem bark, employed in Brazil to treat infectious diseases, were studied. The ethyl acetate fraction of the hydroalcoholic extract showed activity against pathogenic bacteria which may justify the popular use of the plant. PMID:11163947

  5. Tappable Pine Trees: Commercial Production of Terpene Biofuels in Pine

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    PETRO Project: The University of Florida is working to increase the amount of turpentine in harvested pine from 4% to 20% of its dry weight. While enhanced feedstocks for biofuels have generally focused on fuel production from leafy plants and grasses, the University of Florida is experimenting with enhancing fuel production in a species of pine that is currently used in the paper pulping industry. Pine trees naturally produce around 3-5% terpene content in the wood—terpenes are the energy-dense fuel molecules that are the predominant components of turpentine. The team aims to increase the terpene storage potential and production capacity while improving the terpene composition to a point at which the trees could be tapped while alive, like sugar maples. Growth and production from these trees will take years, but this pioneering technology could have significant impact in making available an economical and domestic source of aviation and diesel biofuels.

  6. Bioassay conditions for infection of Pinus radiata seedlings with Phytophthora pinifolia zoospores

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora pinifolia is known to cause a devastating disease on Monterey pines in Chile. Although this pathogen is not yet present in the U.S., there is reason for concern. The main source of Monterey pine genetic material is found in California and there is potential for other important tree sp...

  7. Forest soil and water chemistry following bark boiler bottom ash application

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, T.M.; Hollis, C.A.; Smith, B.R.

    1996-09-01

    Ash from the bark-fueled power boiler at International Paper`s Georgetown mill was applied in a column study and a field trial to test land application. Tested application rates were 11, 22, and 44 Mg/ha of ash per rotation. The soil column study found a flush of cations, primarily K and Ca, with the initial 76 cm of 10{sup -5} M oxalic acid leachate. Soils collected after field applications also had higher concentrations of exchangeable K and Ca in the surface soil. Concentrations were disproportionately larger with higher rates. There was little change in concentrations at 45-cm depths and surface soils returned to near control levels on all sites, except those with the highest rate, within 60 wk. Groundwater samples showed very small differences that were only significant and consistent for Ca, K, and SO{sub 4}. Heavy metal levels were near detection levels throughout the study. None of the application rates had an effect on groundwater that would compromise drinking water standards. Bark boiler ash, at application rates tested, appears to be safe on moderately well-drained Atlantic Coastal Plain soils. The soil changes observed suggest ash application could be used to partially replace cations removed during harvest of short rotation pine plantations. 40 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Area burned in the western United States is unaffected by recent mountain pine beetle outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Hart, Sarah J; Schoennagel, Tania; Veblen, Thomas T; Chapman, Teresa B

    2015-04-01

    In the western United States, mountain pine beetles (MPBs) have killed pine trees across 71,000 km(2) of forest since the mid-1990s, leading to widespread concern that abundant dead fuels may increase area burned and exacerbate fire behavior. Although stand-level fire behavior models suggest that bark beetle-induced tree mortality increases flammability of stands by changing canopy and forest floor fuels, the actual effect of an MPB outbreak on subsequent wildfire activity remains widely debated. To address this knowledge gap, we superimposed areas burned on areas infested by MPBs for the three peak years of wildfire activity since 2002 across the western United States. Here, we show that the observed effect of MPB infestation on the area burned in years of extreme fire appears negligible at broad spatial extents. Contrary to the expectation of increased wildfire activity in recently infested red-stage stands, we found no difference between observed area and expected area burned in red-stage or subsequent gray-stage stands during three peak years of wildfire activity, which account for 46% of area burned during the 2002-2013 period. Although MPB infestation and fire activity both independently increased in conjunction with recent warming, our results demonstrate that the annual area burned in the western United States has not increased in direct response to bark beetle activity. Therefore, policy discussions should focus on societal adaptation to the effects of recent increases in wildfire activity related to increased drought severity. PMID:25831541

  9. Lethal and Sublethal Impacts of Acaricides on Tamarixia radiata (Hemiptera: Eulophidae), an Important Ectoparasitoid of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae).

    PubMed

    Lira, A C S; Zanardi, O Z; Beloti, V H; Bordini, G P; Yamamoto, P T; Parra, J R P; Carvalho, G A

    2015-10-01

    The use of synthetic acaricides for management of pest mites may alter the efficacy of the ectoparasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) in biological control of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, the vector of the bacteria associated with huanglongbing (HLB) in citrus orchards. We evaluated the toxicity of 16 acaricides that are recommended for the control of citrus-pest mites to T. radiata. Acrinathrin, bifenthrin, carbosulfan, and fenpropathrin caused high acute toxicity and were considered harmful (mortality >77%) to T. radiata. Abamectin, diflubenzuron, etoxazole, fenbutatin oxide, fenpyroximate, flufenoxuron, hexythiazox, propargite, spirodiclofen, and sulfur caused low acute toxicity and affected the parasitism rate and emergence rate of adults (F1 generation), and were considered slightly harmful to T. radiata. Dicofol and pyridaben did not affect the survival and action of the ectoparasitoid, and were considered harmless. In addition to its acute toxicity, carbosulfan caused mortality higher than 25% for >30 d after application, and was considered persistent. Acrinathrin, bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, fenpyroximate, propargite, and sulfur caused mortalities over 25% until 24 d after application and were considered moderately persistent; abamectin was slightly persistent, and fenbutatin oxide was short lived. Our results suggest that most acaricides used to control pest mites in citrus affect the density and efficacy of T. radiata in the biological control of D. citri. However, further evaluations are needed in order to determine the effect of these products on this ectoparasitoid under field conditions. PMID:26453716

  10. French maritime pine bark extract Pycnogenol reduces thromboxane generation in blood from diabetic male rats.

    PubMed

    Nocun, Marek; Ulicna, Olga; Muchova, Jana; Durackova, Zdenka; Watala, Cezary

    2008-03-01

    The protective effect of Pycnogenol against cardiovascular diseases was clearly demonstrated. Nevertheless, little is known about its antithrombotic effect, especially in diabetes associated with enhanced thromboxane synthesis leading to severe vascular complications. Therefore, the main purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of long-term Pycnogenol intake on synthesis of prothrombotic thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)) in animal model of insulin-dependent diabetes. The levels of main plasma TXA(2) metabolite, thromboxane B(2) (TXB(2)), were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Diabetes was induced in Wistar male rats by single injection of streptozotocin, resulting after 8 weeks in significant body weight reduction, increased plasma glucose concentrations, and decreased plasma C-peptide levels, compared to non-diabetic animals. There was no significant reduction of plasma glucose concentrations after Pycnogenol ingestion. It was found, however, that daily administration of either Pycnogenol (5mg/kg b.wt.) or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, 10mg/kg b.wt.) significantly reduced plasma TXB(2) concentrations, and this inhibitory effect was higher in the latter case. Nonetheless, simultaneous administration of Pycnogenol and ASA did not improve effectiveness of ASA-mediated decrease in TXB(2) generation. The results of the present study suggest that Pycnogenol might have a beneficial antithrombotic effect when administered alone or as a supplementation of standard antiplatelet therapy in diabetic patients. PMID:17698319

  11. Industrial Mineral Aggregate Amendment Affects Physical and Chemical Properties of Pine Bark Substrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nonpoint source effluent containing nitrate N (NO3-N) and phosphorus (P) from containerized nursery production has garnered local, regional, and national concern. Industrial minerals have long been used as absorbents, agrochemical carriers, and barriers to retain heavy metals. Our objective was to d...

  12. Oleoresin, Chemistry and Spectral Reflectance in "Stressed" Lodgepole and White Bark Pine, Mammoth Mountain, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, James C.; Birnie, Richard W.; Zhao, Mei-Xun

    2001-01-01

    Development of methods to identify the physical and chemical character of materials on the earth's surface is one of the foci of hyperspectral remote sensing activities. Enhancing the ability to elucidate changes in foliar chemistry that relate to the health of a plant is a benefit to plant physiologists, foresters, and plant ecologists, as well as geologist and environmental scientists. Vegetation covers the landscape throughout the temperate and tropical regions of the earth. The existence of vegetation in these areas presents special problems to remote sensing systems since geologic bedrock and alteration zones are masked. At times, however, alterations in the soil/sediment geochemical environment result in foliar chemical changes that are detectable via remote sensing. Examples include monitoring of chlorophyll reflectance/fluorescence and equivalent water thickness indices as indicators of drought-induced plant stress. Another processing and interpretation approach used with hyperspectral data has been principal components analysis (PCA). Rowan et al. used PCA to identify absorption feature patterns obtained from vegetated areas with discrete bedrock geology or mineralization as the substrate. Many researchers highlight the need to advance our ability for hyperspectral imaging in vegetated areas as a near-term priority.

  13. Effect of pine-bark mulch on lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) water demand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) growers seeking an alternative and/or a complement to supplemental irrigation require accurate crop-specific information on the water conserving benefits of mulch. Twenty-eight weighing lysimeters equipped with soil moisture monitors were used at 5 sites ...

  14. Liverwort (Marchantia polymorpha) Response to Quinoclamine in a Pine Bark Substrate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quinoclamine is a herbicide under development for control of liverwort, a weed common in nursery crops. With respect to liverwort control, quinoclamine has been viewed as predominately postemergence active. However, some preemergence activity has been reported. Growth media sorption studies with ...

  15. Sorption of arsenic, cadmium, and lead by chars produced from fast pyrolysis of wood and bark during bio-oil production.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Dinesh; Pittman, Charles U; Bricka, Mark; Smith, Fran; Yancey, Ben; Mohammad, Javeed; Steele, Philip H; Alexandre-Franco, Maria F; Gómez-Serrano, Vicente; Gong, Henry

    2007-06-01

    Bio-char by-products from fast wood/bark pyrolyses, were investigated as adsorbents for the removal of the toxic metals (As(3+), Cd(2+), Pb(2+)) from water. Oak bark, pine bark, oak wood, and pine wood chars were obtained from fast pyrolysis at 400 and 450 degrees C in an auger-fed reactor and characterized. A commercial activated carbon was also investigated for comparison. Chars were sieved (>600, 600-250, 250-177, 177-149, and <149 microm) and the particle size fraction from 600 to 250 microm was used without further modification for all studies unless otherwise stated. Sorption studies were performed at different temperatures, pHs, and solid to liquid ratios in the batch mode. Maximum adsorption occurred over a pH range 3-4 for arsenic and 4-5 for lead and cadmium. Kinetic studies yielded an optimum equilibrium time of 24 h with an adsorbent dose of 10 g/L and concentration approximately 100 mg/L for lead and cadmium. Sorption isotherms studies were conducted in broad concentration ranges (1-1000 ppb for arsenic, 1x10(-5)-5x10(-3) M for lead and cadmium). Oak bark out-performed the other chars and nearly mimicked Calgon F-400 adsorption for lead and cadmium. In an aqueous lead solution with initial concentration of 4.8x10(-4) M, both oak bark and Calgon F-400 (10 g/L) removed nearly 100% of the heavy metal. Oak bark (10 g/L) also removed about 70% of arsenic and 50% of cadmium from aqueous solutions. Varying temperatures (e.g., 5, 25, and 40 degrees C) were used to determine the effect of temperatures. The equilibrium data were modeled with the help of Langmuir and Freundlich equations. Overall, the data are well fitted with both the models, with a slight advantage for Langmuir model. The oak bark char's ability to remove Pb(II) and Cd(II) is remarkable when considered in terms of the amount of metal adsorbed per unit surface area (0.5157 mg/m(2) for Pb(II) and 0.213 mg/m(2) for Cd(II) versus that of commercial activated carbon. PMID:17331527

  16. Development of infant baboons' responses to graded bark variants.

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, J; Cheney, D L; Seyfarth, R M

    2000-01-01

    We studied the development of infant baboons' (Papio cynocephalus ursinus) responses to conspecific 'barks' in a free-ranging population in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. These barks grade from tonal, harmonically rich calls into calls with a more noisy, harsh structure. Typically, tonal variants are given when the signaller is at risk of losing contact with the group or a particular individual ('contact barks'), whereas harsh variants are given in response to predators ('alarm barks'). We conducted focal observations and playback experiments in which we presented variants of barks recorded from resident adult females. By six months of age, infants reliably discriminated between typical alarm and contact barks and they responded more strongly to intermediate alarm calls than to typical contact barks. Infants of six months and older also recognized their mothers by voice. The ability to discriminate between different call variants developed with increasing age. At two and a half months of age, infants failed to respond at all, whereas at four months they responded irrespective of the call type that was presented. At six months, infants showed adult-like responses by responding strongly to alarm barks but ignoring contact barks. We concluded that infants gradually learn to attach the appropriate meaning to alarm and contact barks. PMID:11413649

  17. Journey of water in pine cones

    PubMed Central

    Song, Kahye; Yeom, Eunseop; Seo, Seung-Jun; Kim, Kiwoong; Kim, Hyejeong; Lim, Jae-Hong; Joon Lee, Sang

    2015-01-01

    Pine cones fold their scales when it rains to prevent seeds from short-distance dispersal. Given that the scales of pine cones consist of nothing but dead cells, this folding motion is evidently related to structural changes. In this study, the structural characteristics of pine cones are studied on micro-/macro-scale using various imaging instruments. Raindrops fall along the outer scales to the three layers (bract scales, fibers and innermost lignified structure) of inner pine cones. However, not all the layers but only the bract scales get wet and then, most raindrops move to the inner scales. These systems reduce the amount of water used and minimize the time spent on structural changes. The result shows that the pine cones have structural advantages that could influence the efficient motion of pine cones. This study provides new insights to understand the motion of pine cones and would be used to design a novel water transport system. PMID:25944117

  18. Growth of a Pine Tree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollinson, Susan Wells

    2012-01-01

    The growth of a pine tree is examined by preparing "tree cookies" (cross-sectional disks) between whorls of branches. The use of Christmas trees allows the tree cookies to be obtained with inexpensive, commonly available tools. Students use the tree cookies to investigate the annual growth of the tree and how it corresponds to the number of whorls…

  19. Price sensitivity of bioethanol produced in New Zealand from Pinus radiata wood

    SciTech Connect

    Manderson, G.J.; Spencer, K.; Paterson, A.H.J. . Dept. of Biotechnology); Qureshi, N. ); Jansen, D.E. )

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis conducted of designs for industry-scale ethanol production facilities that use both hexoses and pentoses to produce 97 to 107 tonnes of anhydrous ethanol per day from 960 tonnes of Pinus radiata wood of 50% moisture content (480 oven-dried tonnes). Various process options and available technologies were considered for cost comparisons. The base case plant design was used to assess the probable importance of not fermenting thee wood pentose fraction. When pentose sugars were not fermented, the ethanol price increased from $0.71/L to $0.75/L. The influence of various economic factors on selling price is assessed.

  20. Metals Bioaccumulation Mechanism in Neem Bark.

    PubMed

    Krishnani, Kishore K; Boddu, Veera M; Moon, Deok Hyun; Ghadge, S V; Sarkar, Biplab; Brahmane, M P; Choudhary, K; Kathiravan, V; Meng, Xiaoguang

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this work was to define the bioaccumulation mechanism of metals onto the non-living biomaterial prepared from an extensively available plant bark biomass of neem (Azadirachta indica). Based on maximum ultimate fixation capacities (mmol/g) of the product, metals ions could be arranged as Hg(2+) < Cd(2+) < Pb(2+) ≅ Cu(2+). Surface properties of the biomaterial were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques for their sorption mechanism. Whewellite (C2CaO4 · H2O) was identified in the biomaterial, which indicated that calcium ions are electrovalently bonded with carboxylate ions facilitating the ion exchange mechanism with metal ions. Bioaccumulation of metal ions was also studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, which indicated the presence of functional groups implicated in adsorbing metal ions. Biomaterial did not adsorb anionic As(III), As(V) and Cr(VI), because of their electrostatic repulsion with carboxylic functional groups. Neem bark can be used as bioindicators, bioaccumulators and biomonitors while determining environmental pressures. Metal bioaccumulative properties and structural investigation of plant bark has potential in providing quantitative information on the metal contamination in the surrounding environment. PMID:26193837

  1. The 'WHY?' files: the case of the barking dog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In this program, students are invited to actively join the tree house detectives as they investigate the 'Case of the Barking Dogs.' The tree house detectives accept the challenge of determining why dogs in the surrounding neighborhoods have unexpectedly started barking early in the morning and late at night. Using scientific inquiry, our detectives discover what is causing the neighborhood dogs to bark. In determining the 'why,' the detectives learn about sound: what it is, how it is transmitted, how people and animals hear, and NASA's research on noise. While solving the case, the tree house detectives learn that determining the source of the barking requires the use of logic and 'sound' reasoning.

  2. Use of tree bark to monitor radionuclide pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Brownridge, J.D.

    1985-08-01

    The outer surface bark of many trees is an excellent monitoring source of fallout radionuclides. The accumulation and retention of these pollutants is evident by the presence of /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 144/Ce and /sup 155/Eu in the outer layer of bark from many trees surveyed during this study. The accumulation and retention of these and other radionuclides suggest that tree bark is an ecosystem monitoring resource that should be exploited for these and possible other environmental pollutants. Therefore, the emphasis of this study was a broad survey of the detectability of gamma-ray emitting radionuclides in and on tree bark rather than a narrow quantitative study.

  3. Towards scaling interannual ecohydrological responses of conifer forests to bark beetle infestations from individuals to landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, D. S.; Ewers, B. E.; Peckham, S. D.; Savoy, P.; Reed, D. E.; Frank, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Widespread epidemics of forest-damaging insects have severe implications for the interconnections between water and ecosystem processes under present-day climate. How these systems respond to future climates is highly uncertain, and so there is a need for a better understanding of the effects of such disturbances on plant hydraulics, and the consequent effects on ecosystem processes. Moreover, large-scale manifestations of such disturbances require scaling knowledge obtained from individual trees or stands up to a regional extent. This requires a conceptual framework that integrates physical and biological processes that are immutable and scalable. Indeed, in Western North America multiple conifer species have been impacted by the bark beetle epidemic, but the prediction of such widespread outbreaks under changing environmental conditions must be generalized from a relatively small number of ground-based observations. Using model-data fusion we examine the fundamental principles that drive ecological and hydrological responses to bark beetles infestation from individuals to regions. The study includes a mid-elevation (2750 m a.s.l) lodgepole pine forest and higher (3190 m a.s.l.) elevation Engelmann spruce - fir forest in southern Wyoming. The study included a suite of observations, comprising leaf gas exchange, non-structural carbon (NSC), plant hydraulics, including sap flux transpiration (E), vulnerability to cavitation, leaf water potentials, and eddy covariance, were made pre-, during-, and post-disturbance, as the bark beetle infestation moved through these areas. Numerous observations tested hypotheses generated by the Terrestrial Regional Ecosystem Exchange Simulator (TREES), which integrates soil hydraulics and dynamic tree hydraulics (cavitation) with canopy energy and gas exchange, and operates at scales from individuals to landscapes. TREES accurately predicted E and NSC dynamics among individuals spanning pre- and post-disturbance periods, with the 95

  4. Distribution of biomass and nutrients in lodgepole pine/bitterbrush ecosystems in central Oregon. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Little, S.N.; Shainsky, L.J.

    1992-09-01

    The authors investigated the distribution of biomass and nutrients in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. murryana Dougl.) ecosystems on pumice soils in south-central Oregon. Sixty-three trees were sampled to develop equations for estimating dry weights of tree crowns, boles, bark, and coarse roots from diameter at breast height and height. The concentrations of total carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur were determined for each of these components. Biomass, nutrient concentrations, and nutrient contents of the associated vegetation, forest floor, woody debris, fine roots, and soil horizons also were determined. An example stand illustrates the use of these data for determining the effects of bole versus whole-tree harvesting on nutrient capital in a lodgepole pine ecosystem.

  5. Pine needle abortion biomarker detected in bovine fetal fluids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pine needle abortion is a naturally occurring condition in free-range cattle caused by the consumption of pine needles from select species of cypress, juniper, pine, and spruce trees. Confirmatory diagnosis of pine needle abortion has previously relied on a combined case history of pine needle cons...

  6. Best Practices Case Study: Pine Mountain Builders - Pine Mountain, GA

    SciTech Connect

    2011-09-01

    Case study of Pine Mountain Builders who worked with DOE’s IBACOS team to achieve HERS scores of 59 on 140 homes built around a wetlands in Georgia. The team used taped rigid foam exterior sheathing and spray foam insulation in the walls and on the underside of the attic for a very tight 1.0 to 1.8 ACH 50 building shell.

  7. Influence of acid-soluble proteins from bivalve Siliqua radiata ligaments on calcium carbonate crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zeng-Qiong; Zhang, Gang-Sheng

    2016-08-01

    In vitro biomimetic synthesis of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in the presence of shell proteins is a heavily researched topic in biomineralization. However, little is known regarding the function of bivalve ligament proteins in the growth of CaCO3 crystals. In this study, using fibrous protein K58 from Siliqua radiata ligaments or coverslips as substrates, we report the results of our study of CaCO3 precipitation in the presence or absence of acid-soluble proteins (ASP) from inner ligament layers. ASP can disturb the controlling function of K58 or a coverslip on the crystalline phase, resulting in the formation of aragonite, calcite, and vaterite. In addition, we identified the following four primary components from ASP by mass spectroscopy: alkaline phosphatase (ALP), ABC transporter, keratin type II cytoskeletal 1 (KRT 1), and phosphate ABC transporter, phosphate-binding protein (PstS). Further analysis revealed that the first three proteins and especially ALP, which is important in bone mineralisation, could affect the polymorphism and morphology of CaCO3 crystals by trapping calcium ions in their domains. Our results indicate that ALP may play an important role in the formation of aragonite in S. radiata ligaments. This paper may facilitate our understanding of the biomineralization process.

  8. A lead isotopic assessment of tree bark as a biomonitor of contemporary atmospheric lead.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Gavin J; Farmer, John G

    2007-12-15

    The outermost bark layer of trees, predominantly Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), was sampled at 82 non-urban locations from six arbitrarily designated areas (Northwest, Northeast, Central Highlands, Central and East, Central and Southwest, Southeast), throughout Scotland during 2002-2003 and analysed for lead concentration and stable lead isotopes by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), respectively. The mean lead concentration and mean (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio (+/-1 standard deviation, SD) for bark samples from the areas were as follows: Northwest (8.0 mg kg(-1), 1.121+/-0.014, n=17), Northeast (8.9 mg kg(-1), 1.117+/-0.012, n=12), Central Highlands (11.3 mg kg(-1), 1.130+/-0.010, n=11), Central and East (35.3 mg kg(-1), 1.120+/-0.007, n=10), Central and Southwest (20.6 mg kg(-1), 1.125+/-0.018, n=22) and Southeast (34.4 mg kg(-1), 1.120+/-0.005, n=10), with an overall mean lead concentration of 18.5 mg kg(-1) (range 0.6-146 mg kg(-1), median 8.4 mg kg(-1)) and an overall mean (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio of 1.122+/-0.014 (range 1.089-1.168, median 1.122). The overall mean (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio for bark was therefore significantly lower (p<0.01, t test) than the mean atmospheric (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio of 1.154+/-0.006 (range 1.144-1.167, n=50) and 1.154+/-0.010 (range 1.134-1.171, n=26) as determined in rainwater collected routinely at Glensaugh, Central Highlands, during 2002 and 2003, respectively. The bark (206)Pb/(207)Pb values, 90% of which lay between 1.10 and 1.14, were more akin to those recorded for the atmosphere (via rainwater, atmospheric particulates, moss, etc.) at various locations throughout Scotland during the 1990s, a decade over which the use of leaded petrol (mean (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio=1.076+/-0.011) declined markedly before its complete withdrawal in 2000. This strongly suggests that the lead content and isotopic composition of tree bark from Scots pine, which reputedly sheds its outer

  9. Changes in aspen bark stored in outdoor piles

    SciTech Connect

    Zoch, E.L.; Rusch, J.J.; Springer, E.L.

    1982-06-01

    Increasing use of bark for fuel has led to questions as to the losses and other changes that occur during outdoor pile storage. The possibility of spontaneous ignition in bark piles is of special concern. This study examined the storage characteristics of aspen bark. Two aspen bark piles, 40 feet by 40 feet by 20 feet high, were built in October of 1974 and 1975 at a northern Wisconsin mill site. The 1974 pile contained bark which came directly from a ring debarker; the 1975 pile was built using bark that had been put through a hammermill after it came from the ring debarker. Temperatures were observed at the centers of the piles using thermistors placed at 5, 10 and 15 feet above the base. Bark substance losses (ovendry material) were determined by placing bark samples contained in nylon mesh bags at each of these locations in each pile and retrieving them after 1 year of storage. Maximum pile tempreatures were attained in about 3 weeks and were about 160 degrees F for both piles. Bark substance losses varied with height above the base of the pile, being greatest at the 15-foot level (about 25%) and least at the 5-foot level (about 5%). Moisture content also varied with the height and was greatest at the 15-foot level. The pH of the bark decreased during storage from an initial value of 4.6 to final values ranging between 2.6 and 3.3. Bark particle size did not significantly affect pile temperatures, weight losses or changes in pH and moisture content. (Refs. 8).

  10. Incidence of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and its parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in Florida citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, vectors the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, one of the causal organisms of the devastating citrus disease “huanglongbing” or citrus greening. In the United States, D. citri was first discovered in Florida, in 1998. Tamarixia radiata Waterston, was imported fro...

  11. INDUCTION OF ZONA RADIATA PROTEINS AND VITELLOGENINS IN ESTRADIOL AND NONYLPHENOL EXPOSED MALE SHEEPSHEAD MINNOWS (CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Knoebl, Iris, Michael J. Hemmer and Nancy D. Denslow. 2004. Induction of Zona Radiata Proteins and Vitellogenins in Estradiol and Nonylphenol Exposed Male Sheepshead Minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus). Mar. Environ. Res. 58(2-5):547-551. (ERL,GB X1059).

    Several genes normall...

  12. Spatial variability of 13C: 12C and D:H in Ecklonia radiata (C.Ag.) J. Agardh (Laminariales)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenton, Gwen E.; Ritz, David A.

    1989-01-01

    The spatial variability of δ 13C and δD in four individual Ecklonia radiata plants was determined and the range compared to the range of individual values obtained for co-occuring macroalga species. Carbon values varied over a range of 3-4‰ in three of the E. radiata individuals, while values within another plant were found to vary by 7·43‰. Overall the carbon values ranged from -14·01 to -21·44‰, with a mean of overlinex = 16.06‰. SD = 1.43 . Hydrogen values however, exhibited a far greater range; within individual plants they ranged from 43·01‰ to 89·43‰. The isotopic range exhibited within E. radiata was half that of the range of carbon and one and a half times that of hydrogen values recorded for the co-occurring species analysed. This reduces the value of the techique for tracing the origin of detrital matter from seaweeds. The pattern of isotopic composition observed in E.radiata suggests differential storage of isotopically distinct compounds.

  13. Design of a Pretreatment and Enzymatic Saccharification Scheme of Understory from Managed Pine Forest for a Biochemical-Refinery Platform: The Example of the Sweetgum Tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djioleu, Angele Mezindjou

    The possibility of using sweetgum from southern pine dominated forests as a biobased refinery feedstock was investigated. First, a baseline hydrolysis scheme for sweetgum wood and bark was designed. Sweetgum wood and bark were pretreated with 0.98% (v/v) sulfuric acid at 140°C for 30, 40, 50, 60 or 70 min and at 160°C for 30, 40, 50 or 60 min. The water insoluble solid (WIS) fraction was hydrolyzed with a cellulase enzyme cocktail. Results showed that maximum xylose and glucose yields from the wood were 82 and 86%, respectively. Similarly, the respective maximum yields of xylose and glucose from the bark were 93 and 24%. Concentrations of detected inhibitory compounds such as furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), formic acid and acetic acid ranged from 0.1 to 32.3 g/ 100 g of raw dry biomass. The second part of this project investigated the effect of adding oak wood, sweetgum bark, or oak bark, to sweetgum wood on xylose and glucose yields obtained from dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Carbohydrate recoveries for each species and mixed biomass samples were obtained by using previously established hydrolysis protocols at 160°C for 20 min. Mixed biomass samples were prepared to reflect real-life forestry harvesting scenario and consisted of 70% sweetgum wood plus 1) 30% sweetgum bark; 2) 30% oak bark; 3) 30% oak wood. 100% sweetgum was the control. Results showed that oak wood yielded 35% of its theoretical xylose content and sweetgum wood, 65%. Both woody species resulted in higher glucose and lower formic acid recoveries than their respective bark material. Analysis of data with the Dunnett Control's test in JMP 10.0 showed contamination of sweetgum wood did not have a significant effect (P > 0.05) on hydrolysis except with sweetgum bark which exhibited a significantly higher xylose concentration than the control. In conclusion, sweetgum wood was a good source of carbohydrate for a biobased refinery, but the removal of bark might be necessary

  14. Trials of mixed-conifer plantings for increasing diversity in the lodgepole pine type. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, D.M.

    1993-03-01

    Greater forest diversity is needed in the lodgepole pine forest cover type--particularly, along and east of the Continental Divide in Montana--if large-scale losses from cyclical bark beetle outbreaks and subsequent wildfires are to be reduced. Three species were compared to lodgepole pine in a test of mixed-species planting in three ecological habitat types of the lodgepole pine type. Differences in seedling survival, condition, and growth were observed among species and among habitat types by the fifth year after planting. The results indicate Englemann spruce and Douglas-fir can be used to attain mixed-species stands by interplanting naturally regenerated lodgepole pine seedling stands. Western larch probably can succeed only when planted in moist Douglas-fir, spruce, or the warmer subalpine fir habitat types east of the Continental Divide. Because of greater frost tolerance, western larch x alpine larch hybrids are promising for increasing forest diversity in some of the colder subalpine fir habitat types.

  15. PINE CREEK ROADLESS AREA, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, George W.; Denton, David K., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Examination of the Pine Creek Roadless Area, Oregon indicates that there is little likelihood for the occurrence of energy or metallic mineral resources in the area. No mines or mineral prospects were identified during the investigation. Although nearby parts of Harney Basin are characterized by higher than normal heat flow, indicating that the region as a whole may have some as yet undefined potential for the occurrence of the geothermal energy resources, no potential for this resource was identified in the roadless area.

  16. Dynamics of leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and stem diameter changes during freezing and thawing of Scots pine seedlings.

    PubMed

    Lindfors, Lauri; Hölttä, Teemu; Lintunen, Anna; Porcar-Castell, Albert; Nikinmaa, Eero; Juurola, Eija

    2015-12-01

    Boreal trees experience repeated freeze-thaw cycles annually. While freezing has been extensively studied in trees, the dynamic responses occurring during the freezing and thawing remain poorly understood. At freezing and thawing, rapid changes take place in the water relations of living cells in needles and in stem. While freezing is mostly limited to extracellular spaces, living cells dehydrate, shrink and their osmotic concentration increases. We studied how the freezing-thawing dynamics reflected on leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and xylem and living bark diameter changes of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) saplings in controlled experiments. Photosynthetic rate quickly declined following ice nucleation and extracellular freezing in xylem and needles, almost parallel to a rapid shrinking of xylem diameter, while that of living bark followed with a slightly longer delay. While xylem and living bark diameters responded well to decreasing temperature and water potential of ice, the relationship was less consistent in the case of increasing temperature. Xylem showed strong temporal swelling at thawing suggesting water movement from bark. After thawing xylem diameter recovered to a pre-freezing level but living bark remained shrunk. We found that freezing affected photosynthesis at multiple levels. The distinct dynamics of photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance reveals that the decreased photosynthetic rate reflects impaired dark reactions rather than stomatal closure. Freezing also inhibited the capacity of the light reactions to dissipate excess energy as heat, via non-photochemical quenching, whereas photochemical quenching of excitation energy decreased gradually with temperature in agreement with the gas exchange data. PMID:26423334

  17. A dynamical model for bark beetle outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Křivan, Vlastimil; Lewis, Mark; Bentz, Barbara J; Bewick, Sharon; Lenhart, Suzanne M; Liebhold, Andrew

    2016-10-21

    Tree-killing bark beetles are major disturbance agents affecting coniferous forest ecosystems. The role of environmental conditions on driving beetle outbreaks is becoming increasingly important as global climatic change alters environmental factors, such as drought stress, that, in turn, govern tree resistance. Furthermore, dynamics between beetles and trees are highly nonlinear, due to complex aggregation behaviors exhibited by beetles attacking trees. Models have a role to play in helping unravel the effects of variable tree resistance and beetle aggregation on bark beetle outbreaks. In this article we develop a new mathematical model for bark beetle outbreaks using an analogy with epidemiological models. Because the model operates on several distinct time scales, singular perturbation methods are used to simplify the model. The result is a dynamical system that tracks populations of uninfested and infested trees. A limiting case of the model is a discontinuous function of state variables, leading to solutions in the Filippov sense. The model assumes an extensive seed-bank so that tree recruitment is possible even if trees go extinct. Two scenarios are considered for immigration of new beetles. The first is a single tree stand with beetles immigrating from outside while the second considers two forest stands with beetle dispersal between them. For the seed-bank driven recruitment rate, when beetle immigration is low, the forest stand recovers to a beetle-free state. At high beetle immigration rates beetle populations approach an endemic equilibrium state. At intermediate immigration rates, the model predicts bistability as the forest can be in either of the two equilibrium states: a healthy forest, or a forest with an endemic beetle population. The model bistability leads to hysteresis. Interactions between two stands show how a less resistant stand of trees may provide an initial toe-hold for the invasion, which later leads to a regional beetle outbreak in the

  18. Abnormal lignin in a loblolly pine mutant

    SciTech Connect

    Ralph, J.; MacKay, J.J.; Hatfield, R.D.

    1997-07-11

    Novel lignin is formed in a mutant loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) severely depleted in cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.1.1.195), which converts coniferaldehyde to coniferyl alcohol, the primary lignin precursor in pines. Dihydroconiferyl alcohol, a monomer not normally associated with the lignin biosynthetic pathway, is the major component of the mutant`s lignin, accounting for {approximately}30 percent (versus {approximately}3 percent in normal pine) of the units. The level of aldehydes, including new 2-methoxybenzaldehydes, is also increased. The mutant pines grew normally indicating that, even within a species, extensive variations in lignin composition need not disrupt the essential functions of lignin.

  19. ACCUMULATION OF CESIUM-137 AND STRONTIUM-90 IN PONDEROSA PINE AND MONTEREY PINE SEEDLINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because Pinus ponderosa (Dougl.ex Laws) and P. radiate (ID.Don) have exceptionally fast growth rates and their abscised needles are not readily dispersed by wind, these species may be valuable for removing radioisotopes from contaminated soils. . ponderosa and P. radiata seedling...

  20. Antinociceptive activity of Maytenus rigida stem bark.

    PubMed

    Dias, Kellyane S; Marques, Maxsuel S; Menezes, Igor A C; Santos, Thiago C; Silva, Aline B L; Estevam, Charles S; Sant'Ana, Antônio E G; Pizza, Cosimo; Antoniolli, Angelo R; Marçal, Rosilene M

    2007-12-01

    Ethanol extract of Maytenus rigida stem bark and its fractions were assessed for antinociceptive activity in tail-flick test in rats. The activity was located in the chloroform, ethyl acetate and aq.methanol fractions. Phytochemical screening revealed that catechin was the only common class of compounds present on the ethanol extract as well as on the active fractions. 4'-Methylepigallocatechin, isolated from the ethyl acetate and aq.methanol fractions, showed antinociceptive effect in the tail-flick test (75 mg/kg; p.o.), which was reversed by the opiate antagonist naloxone (3 mg/kg; i.p.). PMID:17587510

  1. An Experimental Test of Insect-Mediated Colonisation of Damaged Pinus radiata Trees by Sapstain Fungi

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, James K.; Brockerhoff, Eckehard G.; Didham, Raphael K.

    2013-01-01

    Vector-pathogen dynamics play a central role in understanding tree health and forest dynamics. There is substantial evidence that bark beetles act as spore vectors for many species of fungi that cause ‘sapstain’ discolouration of damaged trees and timber. However, the direct quantitative link between vector-mediated spore dispersal and subsequent sapstain colonisation of wood is not fully understood. Here, we used caged versus uncaged experimental logs to test whether the exclusion of bark beetles quantitatively alters the distribution and intensity of sapstain fungal spread within damaged trees. Using generalised linear mixed models, we tested the effect of bark beetle exclusion on sapstain intensity within and among cut logs at two plantation forest sites. Overall, sapstain was found on all logs regardless of caging treatment, indicating that sapstain colonisation can occur (to some degree) without arthropod vectors, probably via wind, rain-splash and, potentially, latent endophytic development. This was supported by the dominance of Diplodia pinea in fungal isolations taken from trees felled at the site, as this fungal species is known to disperse independently of bark beetles. However, the intensity of sapstain within and among experimental logs was significantly greater in uncaged than in caged logs, where beetle colonisation was significantly greater. This appeared to be driven by a significant within-log association between the intensity of staining and the intensity of beetle, and other arthropod, tunnelling and feeding activities. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that the dominant mechanism underlying the role of bark beetles in sapstain development in this study system is not vector-mediated spore dispersal, per se, but rather the facilitation of spore entry and hyphal development through tunnelling and feeding activities. We discuss the implications of these findings for forest management and the effective salvage-harvest of trees

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyl accumulation in tree bark and wood growth rings

    SciTech Connect

    Meredith, M.L.; Hites, R.A.

    1987-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were found in the bark of black walnut and tulip poplar trees growing near a PCB-contaminated landfill. PCBs were also found in the bark of white oak trees growing 14 km away from the landfill. The concentration of individual congeners in the bark averaged 18 ppb at the landfill and 0.5 ppb at the other site. The PCB congeners were accumulated into the bark in proportion to their lipophilicity (as measured by octanol-water partition coefficients). The authors findings suggest that tree bark could be used for biomonitoring of lipophilic organic pollutants in the atmosphere. There is little evidence that PCBs are present in the wood of trees. The signal to blank ratios are always less than 3, and the relative concentrations between 20-year time intervals do not show trends that correlate with the known inputs of PCBs in Bloomington, IN. 2 tables.

  3. Increasing hardwood fiber supplies through improved bark utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Einspahr, D.W.; Harder, M.L.

    1980-09-01

    A promising approach to meeting increased demands for hardwood fiber is through the greater use of logging residues. A method of harvesting and more completely utilizing mixed hardwood stands is discussed. Most species that are difficult to debark contain fiberlike elements in the inner bark. Procedures are suggested for reducing the size of the chipped bark fraction and thus allowing removal of only bark that is low in fiber. The pulping of barks that are high in fiber will result in greater per-acre fiber production. Increases in per-acre pulp production are estimated at 50-90% for the suggested approach. Modest pulp strength increases are anticipated through the use of bark fibers.

  4. Recent mountain pine beetle outbreaks, wildfire severity, and postfire tree regeneration in the US Northern Rockies

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Brian J.; Donato, Daniel C.; Turner, Monica G.

    2014-01-01

    Widespread tree mortality caused by outbreaks of native bark beetles (Circulionidae: Scolytinae) in recent decades has raised concern among scientists and forest managers about whether beetle outbreaks fuel more ecologically severe forest fires and impair postfire resilience. To investigate this question, we collected extensive field data following multiple fires that burned subalpine forests in 2011 throughout the Northern Rocky Mountains across a spectrum of prefire beetle outbreak severity, primarily from mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae). We found that recent (2001–2010) beetle outbreak severity was unrelated to most field measures of subsequent fire severity, which was instead driven primarily by extreme burning conditions (weather) and topography. In the red stage (0–2 y following beetle outbreak), fire severity was largely unaffected by prefire outbreak severity with few effects detected only under extreme burning conditions. In the gray stage (3–10 y following beetle outbreak), fire severity was largely unaffected by prefire outbreak severity under moderate conditions, but several measures related to surface fire severity increased with outbreak severity under extreme conditions. Initial postfire tree regeneration of the primary beetle host tree [lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia)] was not directly affected by prefire outbreak severity but was instead driven by the presence of a canopy seedbank and by fire severity. Recent beetle outbreaks in subalpine forests affected few measures of wildfire severity and did not hinder the ability of lodgepole pine forests to regenerate after fire, suggesting that resilience in subalpine forests is not necessarily impaired by recent mountain pine beetle outbreaks. PMID:25267633

  5. Recent mountain pine beetle outbreaks, wildfire severity, and postfire tree regeneration in the US Northern Rockies.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Brian J; Donato, Daniel C; Turner, Monica G

    2014-10-21

    Widespread tree mortality caused by outbreaks of native bark beetles (Circulionidae: Scolytinae) in recent decades has raised concern among scientists and forest managers about whether beetle outbreaks fuel more ecologically severe forest fires and impair postfire resilience. To investigate this question, we collected extensive field data following multiple fires that burned subalpine forests in 2011 throughout the Northern Rocky Mountains across a spectrum of prefire beetle outbreak severity, primarily from mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae). We found that recent (2001-2010) beetle outbreak severity was unrelated to most field measures of subsequent fire severity, which was instead driven primarily by extreme burning conditions (weather) and topography. In the red stage (0-2 y following beetle outbreak), fire severity was largely unaffected by prefire outbreak severity with few effects detected only under extreme burning conditions. In the gray stage (3-10 y following beetle outbreak), fire severity was largely unaffected by prefire outbreak severity under moderate conditions, but several measures related to surface fire severity increased with outbreak severity under extreme conditions. Initial postfire tree regeneration of the primary beetle host tree [lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia)] was not directly affected by prefire outbreak severity but was instead driven by the presence of a canopy seedbank and by fire severity. Recent beetle outbreaks in subalpine forests affected few measures of wildfire severity and did not hinder the ability of lodgepole pine forests to regenerate after fire, suggesting that resilience in subalpine forests is not necessarily impaired by recent mountain pine beetle outbreaks. PMID:25267633

  6. Incidence of invasive Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and its introduced parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in Florida citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) vectors the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, one of the causal organisms of Huanglongbing or citrus greening, a devastating disease of citrus. A eulophid parasitoid, Tamarixia radiata Waterson, was imported ...

  7. Climate Change Effects on Multiple Disturbance Interactions: Wildland Fire, Mountain Pine Beetles, and Blister Rust Simulations on a Yellowstone National Park Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keane, R. E.; Loehman, R.; Smithwick, E. A.

    2011-12-01

    Complex interactions between disturbance, climate, and vegetation will dramatically alter spatial patterns and ecosystem processes in the future, but the interactions between multiple disturbances may ultimately determine vegetation response and landscape dynamics. The frequency and extent of wildland fire, mountain pine beetles, and blister rust are predicted to increase with global warming, but the interactions and reciprocal feedbacks between these three disturbances could also alter landscape trajectories. We used the mechanistic, spatially explicit, landscape FireBGCv2 model parameterized for Yellowstone National Park to determine the extent to which climate altered ecosystem carbon storage, landscape composition and structure, and interacting disturbance regimes that include wildland fire, mountain pine beetles, and white pine blister rust for lodgepole and whitebark pine forests. Under two simulated future climate scenarios (B2 and A2) and three disturbance scenarios (fire only, fire and beetles/rust, beetles/rust only), it appears fire and bark beetle disturbance events interacted to moderate burn area and decrease insect/disease mortality. Landscape composition and structure was roughly the same across disturbance scenarios except whitebark pine disappears when rust is present in the simulation. Overall, we conclude that disturbance interactions are important to landscape dynamics under future climates and these interactions may overwhelm the direct effects of climate or single disturbances.

  8. Application of hydrothermal treatment to affect the fermentability of Pinus radiata pulp mill effluent sludge.

    PubMed

    Andrews, John; Smit, Anne-Marie; Wijeyekoon, Suren; McDonald, Ben; Baroutian, Saeid; Gapes, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    A hybrid technique incorporating a wet oxidation stage and secondary fermentation step was used to process Pinus radiata pulp mill effluent sludge. The effect of hydrothermal oxidation at high temperature and pressure on the hydrolysis of constituents of the waste stream was studied. Biochemical acidogenic potential assays were conducted to assess acid production resulting from anaerobic hydrolysis of the wet oxidised hydrolysate under acidogenic conditions. Significant degradation of the lignin, hemicellulose, suspended solids, carbohydrates and extractives were observed with wet oxidation. In contrast, cellulose showed resistance to degradation under the experimental conditions. Extensive degradation of biologically inhibitory compounds by wet oxidation did not show a beneficial impact on the acidogenic or methanogenic potential compared to untreated samples. PMID:25125197

  9. Responses of carbon gain and growth of Pinus radiata stands to thinning and fertilizing.

    PubMed

    Sheriff, D W

    1996-06-01

    Thinning of forest stands is widely carried out to minimize the slowing of growth of individual stems that follows from increasing competition among trees as they become bigger. After thinning, there is an increase in the growth rate of remaining trees because of an increase in the availability of resources per tree. Often, there is also an increase in foliar efficiency (biomass increase/foliage amount). On sites where mineral nutrient supply is limiting, fertilizers may be applied, often in association with thinning, to boost productivity. Growth responses to fertilizer application depend on an adequate supply of other resources, but also involve nonlinear interactions among mineral nutrients and between nutrients and other growth-limiting environmental factors. The effects of thinning and fertilizing on the carbon gain and growth responses of Pinus radiata D. Don to availability of resources (light, mineral nutrients and water) and to changes in the canopy are discussed. PMID:14871706

  10. Purification and characterization of high salt-soluble vicilin from mung bean (Vigna radiata).

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, S P; Biswas, B B

    1990-01-01

    We report a method for the purification of vicilin from mung bean (Vigna radiata) mainly on the basis of solubility of mung bean vicilin even in high salt. Mung bean vicilin remains in solution even after 90% relative saturation of ammonium sulphate. The resulting supernatant after dialysis was subjected to gel filtration (Sephadex G-150) to remove other contaminant polypeptides, and finally the protein was purified by DEAE cellulose chromatography. This purified fraction exhibited 3 bands on SDS-PAGE compared with vicilin from other legumes which exhibite more than 3 bands generally. The results raise the possibility that the presence of the two small polypeptides in vicilin preparations is the breakdown product of the major larger one of mol.wt. 52 K and that vicilin may be a tetramer of four subunits of Mr 52000. That the high salt-soluble protein containing 52 K subunit is vicilin has been determined by several criteria. PMID:2241993

  11. 40 CFR 429.20 - Applicability; description of the barking subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... barking subcategory. 429.20 Section 429.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Barking Subcategory § 429.20 Applicability; description of the barking subcategory. This subpart applies... into publicly owned treatment works from the barking of logs by plants in SIC major group 24, and...

  12. 40 CFR 429.20 - Applicability; description of the barking subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... barking subcategory. 429.20 Section 429.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Barking Subcategory § 429.20 Applicability; description of the barking subcategory. This subpart applies... into publicly owned treatment works from the barking of logs by plants in SIC major group 24, and...

  13. 40 CFR 429.20 - Applicability; description of the barking subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... barking subcategory. 429.20 Section 429.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Barking Subcategory § 429.20 Applicability; description of the barking subcategory. This subpart applies... into publicly owned treatment works from the barking of logs by plants in SIC major group 24, and...

  14. High individual variation in pheromone production by tree-killing bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pureswaran, Deepa S.; Sullivan, Brian T.; Ayres, Matthew P.

    2008-01-01

    Aggregation via pheromone signalling is essential for tree-killing bark beetles to overcome tree defenses and reproduce within hosts. Pheromone production is a trait that is linked to fitness, so high individual variation is paradoxical. One explanation is that the technique of measuring static pheromone pools overestimates true variation among individuals. An alternative hypothesis is that aggregation behaviour dilutes the contribution of individuals to the trait under selection and reduces the efficacy of natural selection on pheromone production by individuals. We compared pheromone measurements from traditional hindgut extractions of female southern pine beetles with those obtained by aerating individuals till they died. Aerations showed greater total pheromone production than hindgut extractions, but coefficients of variation (CV) remained high (60-182%) regardless of collection technique. This leaves the puzzle of high variation unresolved. A novel but simple explanation emerges from considering bark beetle aggregation behaviour. The phenotype visible to natural selection is the collective pheromone plume from hundreds of colonisers. The influence of a single beetle on this plume is enhanced by high variation among individuals but constrained by large group sizes. We estimated the average contribution of an individual to the pheromone plume across a range of aggregation sizes and showed that large aggregation sizes typical in mass attacks limit the potential of natural selection because each individual has so little effect on the overall plume. Genetic variation in pheromone production could accumulate via mutation and recombination, despite strong effects of the pheromone plume on the fitness of individuals within the aggregation. Thus, aggregation behaviour, by limiting the efficacy of natural selection, can allow the persistence of extreme phenotypes in nature.

  15. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Insecticides Used on Citrus, on the Ectoparasitoid Tamarixia radiata.

    PubMed

    Beloti, Vitor Hugo; Alves, Gustavo Rodrigues; Araújo, Diogo Feliciano Dias; Picoli, Mateus Manara; Moral, Rafael de Andrade; Demétrio, Clarice Garcia Borges; Yamamoto, Pedro Takao

    2015-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a disease associated with the bacteria "Candidatus Liberibacter spp." and has been devastating citrus orchards around the world. Its management involves control of the insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. However, the indiscriminate use of chemicals has caused pest outbreaks and eliminated the natural enemies of the vector, such as the parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston), the main agent for biological control of D. citri. This study assessed the lethal and sublethal effects of insecticides recommended for integrated production of citrus on the parasitoid T. radiata. When adult parasitoids were exposed to residues of 25 insecticides, 20% of them, i.e., gamma-cyhalothrin, etofenprox, azadirachtin, tebufenozide and pyriproxyfen, were considered as harmless (Class 1), 12% as slightly harmful (Class 2), 12% as moderately harmful (Class 3) and 56% as harmful (Class 4), according to the classification proposed by the IOBC/WPRS. Afterward, 14 insecticides (5 harmless and 9 harmful) were sprayed on the parasitoid pupae. Of the 14 insecticides tested, only the organophosphates dimethoate and chlorpyrifos affected the parasitoid emergence. The effects of insecticides on the parasitism capacity of adults exposed to residues of azadirachtin, etofenprox, gamma-cyhalothrin, pyriproxyfen and tebufenozide (harmless) were also evaluated. Tebufenozide and gamma-cyhalothrin affected the parasitism of the F0 generation, but did not affect the emergence of the F1 and F2 generations. Therefore, for an effective IPM program, selective insecticides or harmful pesticides to adult parasitoids could be used in the field, provided that the adults do not occur naturally and the chemical applications do not coincide with parasitoid releases. PMID:26132327

  16. Macrofauna associated with an introduced oyster, Pinctada radiata: Spatial scale implications of community differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tlig-Zouari, Sabiha; Rabaoui, Lotfi; Cosentino, Andrea; Irathni, Ikram; Ghrairi, Hafedh; Hassine, Oum Kalthoum Ben

    2011-01-01

    The macrozoobenthos associated with the introduced pearl oyster Pinctada radiata has been sampled at two different spatial scales of three sectors (order of hundreds of kilometres) and of eight localities (order of tens of kilometres). Moreover, the NW sector was selected to compare three localities with the presence of P. radiata (low density) and one locality where it was totally absent. The first design was hierarchical, with random localities nested within sectors; the second one was an asymmetrical factorial design, in which the presence/absence of Pinctada and hydrodynamism were considered. Similarity relationships were investigated by means of multivariate clustering, similarity percentage analysis and nm-MDS ordination; the two experimental designs have been tested by permutational MANOVA and analysis of dispersion (PERMDISP). Most of the variability of the associated zoobenthic community appeared to be mainly captured by local environmental factors; the meso-scale variability was more discriminating than differences at larger spatial scale. Large scale NW-SE biogeographic gradient may also have some effects in the assemblage composition. Although the whole arrangement of samples in the MDS plane showed a clear Bray-Curtis distance between the locality without Pinctada and all the remaining sites, pair-wise contrasts were not all significant. The factor "presence/absence" was not significant in this design, whereas the exposure was more indicative of differences in the local assemblage composition. These results may not confirm that the community structure variability is due to the impact of Pincata invasion because the potential and subtle community shift may be masked by the overwhelming influence of just the local environmental gradients. In spite of this, the introduced oyster may play the role of an engineer species at high densities, contributing to the complexity of the benthic habitat and influencing the trophic pattern of its fauna.

  17. Photosynthetic responses of field-grown Pinus radiata trees to artificial and aphid-induced defoliation.

    PubMed

    Eyles, Alieta; Smith, David; Pinkard, Elizabeth A; Smith, Ian; Corkrey, Ross; Elms, Stephen; Beadle, Chris; Mohammed, Caroline

    2011-06-01

    The phloem-feeding aphid Essigella californica represents a potential threat to the productivity of Pinus radiata plantations in south-eastern Australia. Five- and nine-year-old field trials were used to characterize the effects of artificial and natural aphid-induced (E. californica) defoliation, respectively, on shoot photosynthesis and growth. Photosynthetic capacity (A(max)) was significantly greater following a 25% (D25) (13.8 µmol m(-2) s(-1)) and a 50% (D50) (15.9 µmol m(-2) s(-1)) single-event upper-crown artificial defoliation, 3 weeks after defoliation than in undefoliated control trees (12.9 µmol m(-2) s(-1)). This response was consistently observed for up to 11 weeks after the defoliation event; by Week 16, there was no difference in A(max) between control and defoliated trees. In the D50 treatment, this increased A(max) was not sufficient to fully compensate for the foliage loss as evidenced by the reduced diameter increment (by 15%) in defoliated trees 36 weeks after defoliation. In contrast, diameter increment of trees in the D25 treatment was unaffected by defoliation. The A(max) of trees experiencing upper-crown defoliation by natural and repeated E. californica infestations varied, depending on host genotype. Despite clear differences in defoliation levels between resistant and susceptible genotypes (17 vs. 35% of tree crown defoliated, respectively), growth of susceptible genotypes was not significantly different from that of resistant genotypes. The observed increases in A(max) in the lower crown of the canopy following attack suggested that susceptible genotypes were able to partly compensate for the loss of foliage by compensatory photosynthesis. The capacity of P. radiata to regulate photosynthesis in response to natural aphid-induced defoliation provides evidence that the impact of E. californica attack on stem growth will be less than expected, at least for up to 35% defoliation. PMID:21697147

  18. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Insecticides Used on Citrus, on the Ectoparasitoid Tamarixia radiata

    PubMed Central

    Beloti, Vitor Hugo; Alves, Gustavo Rodrigues; Araújo, Diogo Feliciano Dias; Picoli, Mateus Manara; Moral, Rafael de Andrade; Demétrio, Clarice Garcia Borges; Yamamoto, Pedro Takao

    2015-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a disease associated with the bacteria “Candidatus Liberibacter spp.” and has been devastating citrus orchards around the world. Its management involves control of the insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. However, the indiscriminate use of chemicals has caused pest outbreaks and eliminated the natural enemies of the vector, such as the parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston), the main agent for biological control of D. citri. This study assessed the lethal and sublethal effects of insecticides recommended for integrated production of citrus on the parasitoid T. radiata. When adult parasitoids were exposed to residues of 25 insecticides, 20% of them, i.e., gamma-cyhalothrin, etofenprox, azadirachtin, tebufenozide and pyriproxyfen, were considered as harmless (Class 1), 12% as slightly harmful (Class 2), 12% as moderately harmful (Class 3) and 56% as harmful (Class 4), according to the classification proposed by the IOBC/WPRS. Afterward, 14 insecticides (5 harmless and 9 harmful) were sprayed on the parasitoid pupae. Of the 14 insecticides tested, only the organophosphates dimethoate and chlorpyrifos affected the parasitoid emergence. The effects of insecticides on the parasitism capacity of adults exposed to residues of azadirachtin, etofenprox, gamma-cyhalothrin, pyriproxyfen and tebufenozide (harmless) were also evaluated. Tebufenozide and gamma-cyhalothrin affected the parasitism of the F0 generation, but did not affect the emergence of the F1 and F2 generations. Therefore, for an effective IPM program, selective insecticides or harmful pesticides to adult parasitoids could be used in the field, provided that the adults do not occur naturally and the chemical applications do not coincide with parasitoid releases. PMID:26132327

  19. Abundant mitochondrial genome diversity, population differentiation and convergent evolution in pines.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, J; Krutovskii, K V; Strauss, S H

    1998-01-01

    We examined mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms via the analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms in three closely related species of pines from western North America: knobcone (Pinus attenuata Lemm.), Monterey (P. radiata D. Don), and bishop (P. muricata D. Don). A total of 343 trees derived from 13 populations were analyzed using 13 homologous mitochondrial gene probes amplified from three species by polymerase chain reaction. Twenty-eight distinct mitochondrial DNA haplotypes were detected and no common haplotypes were found among the species. All three species showed limited variability within populations, but strong differentiation among populations. Based on haplotype frequencies, genetic diversity within populations (HS) averaged 0.22, and population differentiation (GST and theta) exceeded 0.78. Analysis of molecular variance also revealed that >90% of the variation resided among populations. For the purposes of genetic conservation and breeding programs, species and populations could be readily distinguished by unique haplotypes, often using the combination of only a few probes. Neighbor-joining phenograms, however, strongly disagreed with those based on allozymes, chloroplast DNA, and morphological traits. Thus, despite its diagnostic haplotypes, the genome appears to evolve via the rearrangement of multiple, convergent subgenomic domains. PMID:9832536

  20. A preliminary investigation into the use of Red Pine (Pinus Resinosa) tree cores as historic passive samplers of POPs in outdoor air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauert, Cassandra; Harner, Tom

    2016-09-01

    The suitability of Red Pine trees (Pinus Resinosa) to act as passive samplers for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in outdoor air and to provide historic information on air concentration trends was demonstrated in this preliminary investigation. Red Pine tree cores from Toronto, Canada, were tested for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs), alkylated-PAHs, nitro and oxy-PAHs, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and novel brominated flame retardants (novel BFRs). The PBDEs and novel BFRs demonstrated a similar relative contribution in cores representing 30 years of tree growth, to that reported in contemporary air samples. Analysis of tree ring segments of 5-15 years resulted in detectable concentrations of some PAHs and alk-PAHs and demonstrated a transition from petrogenic sources to pyrogenic sources over the period 1960-2015. A simple uptake model was developed that treats the tree rings as linear-phase passive air samplers. The bark infiltration factor, IFBARK, is a key parameter of the model that reflects the permeability of the bark to allow chemicals to be transferred from ambient air to the outer tree layer (cambium). An IFBARK of about 2% was derived for the Red Pine trees based on tree core and air monitoring data.

  1. Pine Creek Ranch; Annual Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Mark E.

    2003-02-01

    This report gives information about the following four objectives: OBJECTIVE 1--Gather scientific baseline information for monitoring purposes and to assist in the development of management plans for Pine Creek Ranch; OBJECTIVE 2--Complete and implement management plans; OBJECTIVE 3--Protect, manage and enhance the assets and resources of Pine Creek Ranch; and OBJECTIVE 4--Deliverables.

  2. Proceedings organic and fuel uses for bark and wood residues, No. P-80-27

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    The proceedings begin with an introduction by Richard Allison. Papers on organic uses of bark are concerned with the future of the horticultural bark industry, accelerated composting of hardwood bark for use as a growing medium, use of hardwood bark in strip mine reclamation, and physical properties and sizing of bark for horticultural uses. Papers on fuel uses of bark discuss use of wood chips to supplement lignite as boiler fuel, gasification of mill residues with a downdraft gasifier, economics of burning wood, pelletized wood and bark residues for residential fuel, and utilization and disposal of wood ash. (Refs. 41).

  3. Hydrophilic compounds in liquids of enzymatic hydrolyzed spruce and pine biomass

    PubMed Central

    Sirén, Heli

    2015-01-01

    Organic acids are used for starting compounds in material sciences and in biorefinery, food, fuel, pharmaceutical, and medical industry. Here, we provide the data from a biochemical approach made to investigate production of organic acids and isolation of metals from wood, which is the most abundant biomass. Spruce and bark, phloem, and heartwood from pine were fermented with either microbes of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus), baker's yeast, or lactic acid bacteria to improve selective fermentation. Using capillary electrophoresis and liquid chromatography techniques, we identified 14 different organic acids and phenolic acids with good yields. With inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy 11 metals were quantified and further detailed analysis/results from these data are available in Sirén et al. (2015) [1]. PMID:26543881

  4. Antennally mediated negative feedback regulation of pheromone production in the pine engraver beetle, Ips pini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginzel, Matthew D.; Bearfield, Jeremy C.; Keeling, Christopher I.; McCormack, Colin C.; Blomquist, Gary J.; Tittiger, Claus

    2007-01-01

    Bark beetles use monoterpenoid aggregation pheromones to coordinate host colonization and mating. These chemical signals are produced de novo in midgut cells via the mevalonate pathway, and pheromone production may be regulated by a negative feedback system mediated through the antennae. In this study, we explored the effect of antennectomy on pheromone production and transcript levels of key mevalonate pathway genes in juvenile hormone III-treated male pine engraver beetles, Ips pini (Say). Antennectomized males produced significantly greater amounts of pheromone than podectomized males and those with intact antennae. Likewise, mRNA levels of three mevalonate pathway genes important in pheromone biosynthesis were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and found to be induced to a greater extent with antennectomy, suggesting a transcriptional regulation of pheromone production.

  5. Hydrophilic compounds in liquids of enzymatic hydrolyzed spruce and pine biomass.

    PubMed

    Sirén, Heli

    2015-12-01

    Organic acids are used for starting compounds in material sciences and in biorefinery, food, fuel, pharmaceutical, and medical industry. Here, we provide the data from a biochemical approach made to investigate production of organic acids and isolation of metals from wood, which is the most abundant biomass. Spruce and bark, phloem, and heartwood from pine were fermented with either microbes of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus), baker's yeast, or lactic acid bacteria to improve selective fermentation. Using capillary electrophoresis and liquid chromatography techniques, we identified 14 different organic acids and phenolic acids with good yields. With inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy 11 metals were quantified and further detailed analysis/results from these data are available in Sirén et al. (2015) [1]. PMID:26543881

  6. Process for the production of a fertilizer from bark

    SciTech Connect

    Wahlberg, A.O.

    1981-01-20

    The production of a fertilizer from tree bark is improved by a process of the type wherein crushed waste bark is treated together with waste molasses under elevated pressure and at a temperature of 75 to 140/sup 0/C. For a time of 10 min to 2 h. Said time is dependent on the treatment temperature, and the improvement comprises adding yeast to the waste molasses, and maintaining its temperature at 30 to 40/sup 0/C for 35 to 45 hours, whereby its ph value decreases to 3-4, before it is mixed with the ground waste bark.

  7. Bark Beetle Impacts on Ecosystem Processes are Over Quickly and Muted Spatially

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewers, B. E.; Norton, U.; Borkhuu, B.; Reed, D. E.; Peckham, S. D.; Biederman, J. A.; King, A.; Gochis, D. J.; Brooks, P. D.; Harpold, A. A.; Frank, J. M.; Massman, W. J.; Mackay, D. S.; Pendall, E. G.

    2013-12-01

    The recent epidemic of bark beetles across western North America has impacted conifers from low to high elevations from New Mexico to Yukon. The mechanism of mortality is clear, with both mountain pine and spruce beetles killing trees by introducing xylem occluding blue stain fungi which dramatically stops transpiration. The visual impact of this outbreak is stunning, with mortality of canopy trees over 90% in some stands. However, emerging work shows that the impact on ecosystem processes is not as dramatic. We hypothesize that increased soil water and nitrogen sets up rapid succession of plant communities, which quickly restores ecosystem processing of water, carbon and nitrogen, while spatial patchiness of mortality and belowground responses mutes the impact as spatial scale increases from stands to watersheds. In support of our hypothesis we found 1) Soil nitrogen and moisture increase within one growing season but decrease to the same as uninfested stands five years later. 2) Soil respiration is correlated with live tree basal area suggesting a large component of autotrophic respiration. 3) Once stands have more than 50% basal area mortality, seedling density increases up to five fold and total non-tree understory cover increased two fold both within five years after infestation. 4) Ecosystem scale estimates of water vapor fluxes do not decline as rapidly as overstory leaf area. 5) Stable isotopes of snow, soil and stream water suggest that increased below canopy evapotranspiration nearly compensates for reduced canopy transpiration. 6) Nested watershed data shows that precipitation variations are much more important in regulating streamflow than changes in canopies from bark beetle induced mortality. These results were tested in the Terrestrial Regional Ecosystem Exchange Simulator (TREES) model. TREES was able to predict annual changes in the carbon fluxes but had difficulty simulating soil moisture and annual water budgets likely due to inadequate abiotic

  8. Impact of mountain pine beetle induced mortality on forest carbon and water fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, David E.; Ewers, Brent E.; Pendall, Elise

    2014-10-01

    Quantifying impacts of ecological disturbance on ecosystem carbon and water fluxes will improve predictive understanding of biosphere—atmosphere feedbacks. Tree mortality caused by mountain pine bark beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae) is hypothesized to decrease photosynthesis and water flux to the atmosphere while increasing respiration at a rate proportional to mortality. This work uses data from an eddy-covariance flux tower in a bark beetle infested lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forest to test ecosystem responses during the outbreak. Analyses were conducted on components of carbon (C) and water fluxes in response to disturbance and environmental factors (solar radiation, soil water content and vapor pressure deficit). Maximum CO2 uptake did not change as tree basal area mortality increased from 30 to 78% over three years of beetle disturbance. Growing season evapotranspiration varied among years while ecosystem water use efficiency (the ratio of net CO2 uptake to water vapor loss) did not change. Between 2009 and 2011, canopy water conductance increased from 98.6 to 151.7 mmol H2O m-2 s-1. Ecosystem light use efficiency of photosynthesis increased, with quantum yield increasing by 16% during the outbreak as light increased below the mature tree canopy and illuminated remaining vegetation more. Overall net ecosystem productivity was correlated with water flux and hence water availability. Average weekly ecosystem respiration, derived from light response curves and standard Ameriflux protocols for CO2 flux partitioning into respiration and gross ecosystem productivity, did not change as mortality increased. Separate effects of increased respiration and photosynthesis efficiency largely canceled one another out, presumably due to increased diffuse light in the canopy and soil organic matter decomposition resulting in no change in net CO2 exchange. These results agree with an emerging consensus in the literature demonstrating CO2 and H2O dynamics following large

  9. Molecular evidence of facultative intraguild predation by Monochamus titillator larvae (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) on members of the southern pine beetle guild

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoeller, Erich N.; Husseneder, Claudia; Allison, Jeremy D.

    2012-11-01

    The southern pine bark beetle guild (SPBG) is arguably the most destructive group of forest insects in the southeastern USA. This guild contains five species of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae): Dendroctonus frontalis, Dendroctonus terebrans, Ips avulsus, Ips calligraphus, and Ips grandicollis. A diverse community of illicit receivers is attracted to pheromones emitted by the SPBG, including the woodborers Monochamus carolinensis and Monochamus titillator (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). These woodborers have been traditionally classified as resource competitors; however, laboratory assays suggest that larval M. carolinensis may be facultative intraguild predators of SPBG larvae. This study used polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular gut content analyses to characterize subcortical interactions between M. titillator and members of the SPBG. The half-lives of SPBG DNA were estimated in the laboratory prior to examining these interactions in the field. A total of 271 field-collected M. titillator larvae were analyzed and 26 (9.6 %) tested positive for DNA of members of the SPBG. Of these larvae, 25 (96.2 %) tested positive for I. grandicollis and one (3.8 %) for I. calligraphus. Failure to detect D. terebrans and D. frontalis was likely due to their absence in the field. I. avulsus was present, but primers developed using adult tissues failed to amplify larval tissue. Results from this study support the hypothesis that larval Monochamus spp. are facultative intraguild predators of bark beetle larvae. Additionally, this study demonstrates the capabilities of PCR in elucidating the interactions of cryptic forest insects and provides a tool to better understand mechanisms driving southern pine beetle guild population fluctuations.

  10. Monoterpene emission from ponderosa pine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerdau, Manual; Dilts, Stephen B.; Westberg, Hal; Lamb, Brian K.; Allwine, Eugene J.

    1994-01-01

    We explore the variability in monoterpene emissions from ponderosa pine beyond that which can be explained by temperature alone. Specifically, we examine the roles that photosynthesis and needle monoterpene concentrations play in controlling emissions. We measure monoterpene concentrations and emissions, photosynthesis, temperature, and light availability in the late spring and late summer in a ponderosa pine forest in central Oregon. We use a combination of measurements from cuvettes and Teflon bag enclosures to show that photosynthesis is not correlated with emissions in the short term. We also show that needle monoterpene concentrations are highly correlated with emissions for two compounds, alpha-pinene and beta-pinene, but that Delta-carene concentrations are not correlated with emissions. We suggest that direct effects of light and photosynthesis do not need to be included in emission algorithms. Our results indicate that the role of needle concentration bears further investigation; our results for alpha-pinene and beta-pinene are explainable by a Raoult's law relationship, but we cannot yet explain the cause of our results with Delta-carene.

  11. Scientific designs of pine seeds and pine cones for species conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Kahye; Yeom, Eunseop; Kim, Hyejeong; Lee, Sang Joon

    2015-11-01

    Reproduction and propagation of species are the most important missions of every living organism. For effective species propagation, pine cones fold their scales under wet condition to prevent seeds from short-distance dispersal. They open and release their embedded seeds on dry and windy days. In this study, the micro-/macro-scale structural characteristics of pine cones and pine seeds are studied using various imaging modalities. Since the scales of pine cones consist of dead cells, the folding motion is deeply related to structural changes. The scales of pine cones consist of three layers. Among them, bract scales are only involved in collecting water. This makes pine cones reduce the amount of water and minimize the time spent on structural changes. These systems also involve in drying and recovery of pine cones. In addition, pine cones and pine seeds have advantageous structures for long-distance dispersal and response to natural disaster. Owing to these structural features, pine seeds can be released safely and efficiently, and these types of structural advantages could be mimicked for practical applications. This research was financially supported by the Creative Research Initiative of the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (MSIP) and the National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea (Contract grant number: 2008-0061991).

  12. Needle asymmetry, pine vigour and pine selection by the processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Contreras, Tomás; Soler, Juan José; Soler, Manuel

    2008-03-01

    Developmental stability reflects the ability of a genotype to control stable development of a specific phenotype under a wide range of environmental conditions. Developmentally unstable phenotypes can be recognised by deviations from bilateral symmetry in bilaterally symmetrical traits and, because asymmetry might reflect nutritional quality of leaves for phytophagous insects, they therefore may base plant selection depending on leaf asymmetry. In this article we study such hypothetical relationships occurring between Aleppo pine ( Pinus halepensis) and pine-host selection by the pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae). Needle length of Aleppo pines indicated directional asymmetry and, as the hypothesis of developmental stability predicts, relative asymmetry was negatively related to needle length and positively to pine growth in height. Moreover, relative asymmetry proved to be negatively related to concentration of limonene, a defensive monoterpene that affects pine selection by adult female moths. In terms of growth, pine variation in needle length can be explained by the increase in volume of the pines from one to the next year, with smaller needles appearing in the pines that most increased their volume and those that least increased their height. Finally, as expected from a phytophagous insect that selects plants in relation to nutritional characteristics and level of chemical defence against herbivorous, the pine processionary moths selectively oviposited in the trees with the largest and most asymmetric needles. With these results, two of the main hypotheses that explain plant selection, plant-stress and plant-vigour hypotheses are discussed.

  13. Comparison of the protection effectiveness of acrylic polyurethane coatings containing bark extracts on three heat-treated North American wood species: Surface degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocaefe, Duygu; Saha, Sudeshna

    2012-04-01

    High temperature heat-treatment of wood is a very valuable technique which improves many properties (biological durability, dimensional stability, thermal insulating characteristics) of natural wood. Also, it changes the natural color of wood to a very attractive dark brown color. Unfortunately, this color is not stable if left unprotected in external environment and turns to gray or white depending on the wood species. To overcome this problem, acrylic polyurethane coatings are applied on heat-treated wood to delay surface degradations (color change, loss of gloss, and chemical modifications) during aging. The acrylic polyurethane coatings which have high resistance against aging are further modified by adding bark extracts and/or lignin stabilizer to enhance their effectiveness in preventing the wood aging behavior. The aging characteristic of this coating is compared with acrylic polyurethane combined with commercially available organic UV stabilizers. In this study, their performance on three heat-treated North American wood species (jack pine, quaking aspen and white birch) are compared under accelerated aging conditions. Both the color change data and visual assessment indicate improvement in protective characteristic of acrylic polyurethane when bark extracts and lignin stabilizer are used in place of commercially available UV stabilizer. The results showed that although acrylic polyurethane with bark extracts and lignin stabilizer was more efficient compared to acrylic polyurethane with organic UV stabilizers in protecting heat-treated jack pine, it failed to protect heat-treated aspen and birch effectively after 672 h of accelerated aging. This degradation was not due to the coating adhesion loss or coating degradation during accelerated aging; rather, it was due to the significant degradation of heat-treated aspen and birch surface beneath this coating. The XPS results revealed formation of carbonyl photoproducts after aging on the coated surfaces and

  14. Pine nut allergy: clinical features and major allergens characterization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pine nuts, the seeds of pine trees, are widely used for human consumption in Europe, America, and Asia. The aims of this study were to evaluate IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to pine nut in a large number of patients with details of clinical reactions, and to characterize major pine nut allergens. Th...

  15. 27 CFR 9.220 - Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pine Mountain-Cloverdale... Areas § 9.220 Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Pine...

  16. 27 CFR 9.220 - Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pine Mountain-Cloverdale... Areas § 9.220 Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Pine...

  17. Landscape-scale analysis of aboveground tree carbon stocks affected by mountain pine beetles in Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bright, B. C.; Hicke, J. A.; Hudak, A. T.

    2012-12-01

    Bark beetle outbreaks kill billions of trees in western North America, and the resulting tree mortality can significantly impact local and regional carbon cycling. However, substantial variability in mortality occurs within outbreak areas. Our objective was to quantify landscape-scale effects of beetle infestations on aboveground carbon (AGC) stocks using field observations and remotely sensed data across a 5054 ha study area that had experienced a mountain pine beetle outbreak. Tree mortality was classified using multispectral imagery that separated green, red, and gray trees, and models relating field observations of AGC to LiDAR data were used to map AGC. We combined mortality and AGC maps to quantify AGC in beetle-killed trees. Thirty-nine per cent of the forested area was killed by beetles, with large spatial variability in mortality severity. For the entire study area, 40-50% of AGC was contained in beetle-killed trees. When considered on a per-hectare basis, 75-89% of the study area had >25% AGC in killed trees and 3-6% of the study area had >75% of the AGC in killed trees. Our results show that despite high variability in tree mortality within an outbreak area, bark beetle epidemics can have a large impact on AGC stocks at the landscape scale.

  18. Midgut tissue of male pine engraver , Ips pini, synthesizes monoterpenoid pheromone component ipsdienol de novo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Gregory M.; Tittiger, Claus; Andrews, Gracie L.; Mastick, Grant S.; Kuenzli, Marilyn; Luo, Xin; Seybold, Steven J.; Blomquist, Gary J.

    2002-02-01

    For over three decades the site and pathways of bark beetle aggregation pheromone production have remained elusive. Studies on pheromone production in Ips spp. bark beetles have recently shown de novo biosynthesis of pheromone components via the mevalonate pathway. The gene encoding a key regulated enzyme in this pathway, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase ( HMG-R), showed high transcript levels in the anterior midgut of male pine engravers, Ips pini (Say) (Coleoptera:Scolytidae). HMG-R expression in the midgut was sex, juvenile hormone, and feeding dependent, providing strong evidence that this is the site of acyclic monoterpenoid (ipsdienol) pheromone production in male beetles. Additionally, isolated midgut tissue from fed or juvenile hormone III (JH III)-treated males converted radiolabeled acetate to ipsdienol, as assayed by radio-HPLC. These data support the de novo production of this frass-associated aggregation pheromone component by the mevalonate pathway. The induction of a metazoan HMG-R in this process does not support the postulated role of microorganisms in ipsdienol production.

  19. Pheromone Chemistry of the Smaller European Elm Bark Beetle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Keith

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the aggregation pheromone of the smaller European elm bark beetle, Scolytus multistriatus (Marsham), with emphasis on information that could be used in the classroom as a practical application of organic chemistry. (Author/GA)

  20. Antifungal activity of the stem bark of Ailanthus excelsa.

    PubMed

    Joshi, B C; Pandey, Anuj; Chaurasia, Leena; Pal, Mahesh; Sharma, R P; Khare, Anakshi

    2003-12-01

    The methanol extract of stem barks of Alianthus excelsa was partitioned with chloroform. The chloroform extract showed fungistatic and fungicidal activity against Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus, Penicillium frequentence, P. notatum and Botrytis cinerea. PMID:14630175

  1. Chemical constituents from Swietenia macrophylla bark and their antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Falah, S; Suzuki, T; Katayama, T

    2008-08-15

    Chemical constituents of the bark of Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae) was investigated not only to develop further bark utilization but also to understand the biochemical function of the bark in the forest environment. A new phenylpropanoid-substituted catechin, namely, swietemacrophyllanin [(2R*,3S*,7"R*)-catechin-8,7"-7,2"-epoxy-(methyl 4",5"-dihydroxyphenylpropanoate)] (1) was isolated from the bark of S. macrophylla together with two known compounds, catechin (2) and epicatechin (3). The structure of 1 was elucidated by spectroscopic data and by comparison of the NMR data with those of catiguanins A and B, phenylpropanoid-substituted epicatechins. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity of the isolated compounds indicated that all of the three compounds have strong activity compared with trolox as a reference. Swietemacrophyllanin (1) had the strongest activity with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 56 microg mL(-1). PMID:19266907

  2. Bacteria influence mountain pine beetle brood development through interactions with symbiotic and antagonistic fungi: implications for climate-driven host range expansion.

    PubMed

    Therrien, Janet; Mason, Charles J; Cale, Jonathan A; Adams, Aaron; Aukema, Brian H; Currie, Cameron R; Raffa, Kenneth F; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2015-10-01

    Bark beetles are associated with diverse communities of symbionts. Although fungi have received significant attention, we know little about how bacteria, and in particular their interactions with fungi, affect bark beetle reproduction. We tested how interactions between four bacterial associates, two symbiotic fungi, and two opportunistic fungi affect performance of mountain pine beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae) in host tissue. We compared beetle performance in phloem of its historical host, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), and its novel host recently accessed through warming climate, jack pine (Pinus banksiana). Overall, beetles produced more larvae, and established longer ovipositional and larval galleries in host tissue predominantly colonized by the symbiotic fungi, Grosmannia clavigera, or Ophiostoma montium than by the opportunistic colonizer Aspergillus and to a lesser extent, Trichoderma. This occurred in both historical and naïve hosts. Impacts of bacteria on beetle reproduction depended on particular fungus-bacterium combinations and host species. Some bacteria, e.g., Pseudomonas sp. D4-22 and Hy4T4 in P. contorta and Pseudomonas sp. Hy4T4 and Stenotrophomonas in P. banksiana, reduced antagonistic effects by Aspergillus and Trichoderma resulting in more larvae and longer ovipositional and larval galleries. These effects were not selective, as bacteria also reduced beneficial effects by symbionts in both host species. Interestingly, Bacillus enhanced antagonistic effects by Aspergillus in both hosts. These results demonstrate that bacteria influence brood development of bark beetles in host tissue. They also suggest that climate-driven range expansion of D. ponderosae through the boreal forest will not be significantly constrained by requirements of, or interactions among, its microbial associates. PMID:26037523

  3. Machine vision based particle size and size distribution determination of airborne dust particles of wood and bark pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Igathinathane, C; Pordesimo, L.O.

    2009-08-01

    Dust management strategies in industrial environment, especially of airborne dust, require quantification and measurement of size and size distribution of the particles. Advanced specialized instruments that measure airborne particle size and size distribution apply indirect methods that involve light scattering, acoustic spectroscopy, and laser diffraction. In this research, we propose a simple and direct method of airborne dust particle dimensional measurement and size distribution analysis using machine vision. The method involves development of a user-coded ImageJ plugin that measures particle length and width and analyzes size distribution of particles based on particle length from high-resolution scan images. Test materials were airborne dust from soft pine wood sawdust pellets and ground pine tree bark pellets. Subsamples prepared by dividing the actual dust using 230 mesh (63 m) sieve were analyzed as well. A flatbed document scanner acquired the digital images of the dust particles. Proper sampling, layout of dust particles in singulated arrangement, good contrast smooth background, high resolution images, and accurate algorithm are essential for reliable analysis. A halo effect around grey-scale images ensured correct threshold limits. The measurement algorithm used Feret s diameter for particle length and pixel-march technique for particle width. Particle size distribution was analyzed in a sieveless manner after grouping particles according to their distinct lengths, and several significant dimensions and parameters of particle size distribution were evaluated. Results of the measurement and analysis were presented in textual and graphical formats. The developed plugin was evaluated to have a dimension measurement accuracy in excess of 98.9% and a computer speed of analysis of <8 s/image. Arithmetic mean length of actual wood and bark pellets airborne dust particles were 0.1138 0.0123 and 0.1181 0.0149 mm, respectively. The airborne dust particles of

  4. DNA Extraction and Amplification from Contemporary Polynesian Bark-Cloth

    PubMed Central

    Moncada, Ximena; Payacán, Claudia; Arriaza, Francisco; Lobos, Sergio; Seelenfreund, Daniela; Seelenfreund, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Background Paper mulberry has been used for thousands of years in Asia and Oceania for making paper and bark-cloth, respectively. Museums around the world hold valuable collections of Polynesian bark-cloth. Genetic analysis of the plant fibers from which the textiles were made may answer a number of questions of interest related to provenance, authenticity or species used in the manufacture of these textiles. Recovery of nucleic acids from paper mulberry bark-cloth has not been reported before. Methodology We describe a simple method for the extraction of PCR-amplifiable DNA from small samples of contemporary Polynesian bark-cloth (tapa) using two types of nuclear markers. We report the amplification of about 300 bp sequences of the ITS1 region and of a microsatellite marker. Conclusions Sufficient DNA was retrieved from all bark-cloth samples to permit successful PCR amplification. This method shows a means of obtaining useful genetic information from modern bark-cloth samples and opens perspectives for the analyses of small fragments derived from ethnographic materials. PMID:23437166

  5. BOREAS TE-8 Aspen Bark Spectral Reflectance Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor); Spencer, Shannon L.; Rock, Barrett N.

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-08 team collected in-lab spectral reflectance data for aspen bark and leaves from three sites within the BOREAS SSA from 24-May-1994 to 16-Jun-1994 (IFC 1), 19-Jul-1994 to 08-Aug-1994 (IFC 2), and 30-Aug-1994 to 19-Sep-1994 (IFC 3). One to nine trees from each site were sampled during the three IFCs. Each tree was sampled in five different locations for bark spectral properties: BS, US, BR, BT, and BO. Additionally, a limited number of LV were collected. Bark samples were removed from the stem of the tree and placed in ziplock bags for transport to UNH, where they were scanned with a spectroradiometer in a controlled environment. Each sample was scanned twice: the first set of measurements was made with the bark surface moistened, and the second set was made with the bark surface air-dried for a period of 30 minutes. These data represent continuous spectra of bark reflectance. Each sample was scanned three times, rotating the sample when possible. The reported values for each sample are an average over the three scans. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  6. Bark thickness across the angiosperms: more than just fire.

    PubMed

    Rosell, Julieta A

    2016-07-01

    Global variation in total bark thickness (TBT) is traditionally attributed to fire. However, bark is multifunctional, as reflected by its inner living and outer dead regions, meaning that, in addition to fire protection, other factors probably contribute to TBT variation. To address how fire, climate, and plant size contribute to variation in TBT, inner bark thickness (IBT) and outer bark thickness (OBT), I sampled 640 species spanning all major angiosperm clades and 18 sites with contrasting precipitation, temperature, and fire regime. Stem size was by far the main driver of variation in thickness, with environment being less important. IBT was closely correlated with stem diameter, probably for metabolic reasons, and, controlling for size, was thicker in drier and hotter environments, even fire-free ones, probably reflecting its water and photosynthate storage role. OBT was less closely correlated with size, and was thicker in drier, seasonal sites experiencing frequent fires. IBT and OBT covaried loosely and both contributed to overall TBT variation. Thickness variation was higher within than across sites and was evolutionarily labile. Given high within-site diversity and the multiple selective factors acting on TBT, continued study of the different drivers of variation in bark thickness is crucial to understand bark ecology. PMID:26890029

  7. Management, morphological, and environmental factors influencing Douglas-fir bark furrows in the Oregon Coast Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheridan, Christopher D.; Puettmann, Klaus J.; Huso, Manuela M.P.; Hagar, Joan C.; Falk, Kristen R.

    2013-01-01

    Many land managers in the Pacific Northwest have the goal of increasing late-successional forest structures. Despite the documented importance of Douglas-fir tree bark structure in forested ecosystems, little is known about factors influencing bark development and how foresters can manage development. This study investigated the relative importance of tree size, growth, environmental factors, and thinning on Douglas-fir bark furrow characteristics in the Oregon Coast Range. Bark furrow depth, area, and bark roughness were measured for Douglas-fir trees in young heavily thinned and unthinned sites and compared to older reference sites. We tested models for relationships between bark furrow response and thinning, tree diameter, diameter growth, and environmental factors. Separately, we compared bark responses measured on trees used by bark-foraging birds with trees with no observed usage. Tree diameter and diameter growth were the most important variables in predicting bark characteristics in young trees. Measured environmental variables were not strongly related to bark characteristics. Bark furrow characteristics in old trees were influenced by tree diameter and surrounding tree densities. Young trees used by bark foragers did not have different bark characteristics than unused trees. Efforts to enhance Douglas-fir bark characteristics should emphasize retention of larger diameter trees' growth enhancement.

  8. Transcriptome resources and functional characterization of monoterpene synthases for two host species of the mountain pine beetle, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic has affected lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) across an area of more than 18 million hectares of pine forests in western Canada, and is a threat to the boreal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) forest. Defence of pines against MPB and associated fungal pathogens, as well as other pests, involves oleoresin monoterpenes, which are biosynthesized by families of terpene synthases (TPSs). Volatile monoterpenes also serve as host recognition cues for MPB and as precursors for MPB pheromones. The genes responsible for terpene biosynthesis in jack pine and lodgepole pine were previously unknown. Results We report the generation and quality assessment of assembled transcriptome resources for lodgepole pine and jack pine using Sanger, Roche 454, and Illumina sequencing technologies. Assemblies revealed transcripts for approximately 20,000 - 30,000 genes from each species and assembly analyses led to the identification of candidate full-length prenyl transferase, TPS, and P450 genes of oleoresin biosynthesis. We cloned and functionally characterized, via expression of recombinant proteins in E. coli, nine different jack pine and eight different lodgepole pine mono-TPSs. The newly identified lodgepole pine and jack pine mono-TPSs include (+)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-β-pinene synthases, (+)-3-carene synthases, and (-)-β-phellandrene synthases from each of the two species. Conclusion In the absence of genome sequences, transcriptome assemblies are important for defence gene discovery in lodgepole pine and jack pine, as demonstrated here for the terpenoid pathway genes. The product profiles of the functionally annotated mono-TPSs described here can account for the major monoterpene metabolites identified in lodgepole pine and jack pine. PMID:23679205

  9. Slow pyrolysis of wood barks from Pinus brutia Ten. and product compositions.

    PubMed

    Sensöz, Sevgi

    2003-09-01

    Biomass in the form of pine bark (Pinus brutia Ten.) was pyrolysed in an externally heated fixed-bed reactor. The effects of temperature and heating rate on the yields and compositions of the products were investigated. Pyrolysis runs were performed using reactor temperatures between 300 and 500 degrees C with heating rates of 7 and 40 degrees Cmin(-1). The product yields were significantly influenced by the process conditions. The bio-oil obtained at 450 degrees C, at which the liquid product yield was maximum, was analysed. It was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In addition, the solid and liquid products were analysed to determine their elemental composition and calorific value. Chemical fractionation of bio-oil showed that only low quantities of hydrocarbons were present, while oxygenated and polar fractions dominated. The empirical formula of the bio-oil with heating value of 31.03 MJkg(-1) was established as CH(1.43)O(0.332)N(0.0013). PMID:12798122

  10. Snag characteristics and dynamics following natural and artificially induced mortality in a managed loblolly pine forest.

    SciTech Connect

    Zarnoch, Stanley J.; Vukovich, Mark A.; Kilgo, John C.; Blake, John I.

    2013-06-10

    A 14-year study of snag characteristics was established in 41- to 44-year old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) stands in southeastern USA. During the initial 5.5 years, no stand manipulation or unusually high-mortality events occurred. Afterwards, three treatments were applied consisting of trees thinned and removed, trees felled and not removed, and artificial creation of snags produced by girdling and herbicide injection. The thinned treatments were designed to maintain the same live canopy density as the snag-created treatment, disregarding snags that remained standing.We monitored snag height, diameter, density, volume, and bark percentage; the number of cavities was monitored in natural snags only. During the first 5.5 years, recruitment and loss rates were stable, resulting in a stable snag population. Large snags (≥25 cm diameter) were common, but subcanopy small snags (10 to <25 cm diameter) dominated numerically. Large natural snags survived (90% quantile) significantly longer (6.0–9.4 years) than smaller snags (4.4–6.9 years). Large artificial snags persisted the longest (11.8 years). Cavities in natural snags developed within 3 years following tree death. The mean number of cavities per snag was five times greater in large versus small snags and large snags were more likely to have multiple cavities, emphasizing the importance of mature pine stands for cavity-dependent wildlife species.

  11. Ecological consequences of mountain pine beetle outbreaks for wildlife in western North American forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saab, Victoria A.; Latif, Quresh S.; Rowland, Mary M.; Johnson, Tracey N.; Chalfoun, Anna D.; Buskirk, Steven W.; Heyward, Joslin E.; Dresser, Matthew A.

    2014-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) (MPB) outbreaks are increasingly prevalent in western North America, causing considerable ecological change in pine (Pinus spp.) forests with important implications for wildlife. We reviewed studies examining wildlife responses to MPB outbreaks and postoutbreak salvage logging to inform forest management and guide future research. Our review included 16 studies describing MPB outbreak relationships with 89 bird species and 6 studies describing relationships with 11 mammalian species, but no studies of reptiles or amphibians. We included studies that compared wildlife response metrics temporally (before versus after the outbreak) and spatially (across sites that varied in severity of outbreak) in relation to beetle outbreaks. Outbreaks ranged in size from 20,600 to ≥107 ha and studies occurred 1‐30 years after the peak MPB outbreak, but most studies were conducted over the short-term (i.e., ≤6 years after the peak of MPB-induced tree mortality). Birds were the only taxa studied frequently; however, high variability existed among those studies to allow many inferences, although some patterns were evident. Avian studies concluded that cavity-nesting species responded more favorably to beetle-killed forests than species with open-cup nests, and species nesting in the shrub layer favored outbreak forests compared with ground and open-cup canopy nesters that generally showed mixed relationships. Bark-drilling species as a group clearly demonstrated a positive short-term association with MPB epidemics compared with that of other foraging assemblages. Cavity-nesting birds that do not consume bark beetles (i.e., secondary cavity-nesting species and nonbark-drilling woodpeckers) also exhibited some positive responses to MPB outbreaks, although not as pronounced or consistent as those of bark-drilling woodpeckers. Mammalian responses to MPB outbreaks were mixed. Studies consistently reported negative effects of MPB

  12. Evaluating dead lodgepole pine for products

    SciTech Connect

    Fahey, T.D.

    1980-12-01

    Dead lodgepole pine is a resource in abundance in the intermountain region of the US. Possible uses for dead pine range from small power poles to fuel and fiber. The potential to use significant volumes depends on how well the resource meets specifications for products and the volume of products that the market will accept. In this report values for products that can be produced from dead trees are evaluated based on ovendry tons of fiber for both logs and products.

  13. Oil exploration in Pine Valley, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, C.H.; Chamberlain, A.K.

    1989-03-01

    Three oil fields have already been established in Pine Valley, which is located in north-central Nevada along the late Mesozoic thrust trend. The potential exists for much more future exploration because of excellent reservoir potential, favorable hydrocarbon generating system, and trapping mechanisms. The Devonian is one of the main target reservoirs of Pine Valley. Pine Valley lies near the Devonian shelf edge, and carbonate facies from that period undergo abrupt changes in the Pine Valley region. The Guilmette/Devil's Gate apparently develops into a reefal system along the Uinta-Cortez arch in this area. Fore-reef and basinal facies are found at Cortez Mountain on the west side of Pine Valley. Mississippian sandstones and Tertiary tuffs are two other reservoirs which produce oil. At Blackburn field, upper plate rocks are overmature. Produced oil has been identified as Mississippian. Regional studies show Mississippian source rocks of Pine Valley to be slightly immature to mature oil in the lower plate. Gravity of the oil is approximately 26-30/degree/ API. Oil from the Tomara Ranch and North Willow Creek fields is most probably also from the Mississippian. Its API gravity is similar to the oil produced from Blackburn field. Blackburn field is a Tertiary trap probably generated by shear faulting. Tertiary traps throughout Nevada, including Blackburn, are generally small and hydrocarbon potential is limited. Larger traps associated with the late Mesozoic compressional event have much more potential and hold hundreds of millions of barrels of oil.

  14. Isolation and Characterization of Tonoplast from Chilling-Sensitive Etiolated Seedlings of Vigna radiata L. 12

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Shizuo; Kawata, Takefumi; Uemura, Matsuo; Niki, Teruo

    1986-01-01

    Tonoplasts were isolated in a high purity from etiolated young seedlings of Vigna radiata L. (mung bean) utilizing a sucrose density gradient system. The excised hypocotyls were homogenized in a sorbitol-buffer system and the 3,600 to 156,000g pellets obtained after the differential centrifugations were suspended in a sorbitol medium and loaded on a linear sucrose density gradient. After centrifugation at 89,000g for 2 hours, tonoplasts were banded at the sample load/sucrose interface. Assessed by electron microscopy and marker enzymes, the purity and the quantity were found to be sufficient for biochemical and biophysical analyses. The tonoplasts were associated with NO3−-sensitive and vana-date-insensitive ATPase. The tonoplast ATPase was stimulated by proton ionophores such as carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-hydrazone and gramicidin D, suggesting a proton-pumping enzyme. In the presence of ATP and Mg2+, a proton gradient was formed in the isolated tonoplast vesicles as assessed by fluorescence quenching of quinacrine. The tonoplasts contained several kinds of mannosylated or glycosylated glycoproteins and a major protein (65 kilodaltons) which was unique to the membranes. Images Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:16664574

  15. Centrifugal partition chromatography elution gradient for isolation of sesquiterpene lactones and flavonoids from Anvillea radiata.

    PubMed

    Destandau, Emilie; Boukhris, Meryem Alaoui; Zubrzycki, Sandrine; Akssira, Mohamed; Rhaffari, Lhoucine El; Elfakir, Claire

    2015-03-15

    An innovative procedure coupling pressurized solvent extraction and centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) used in linear gradient elution mode was developed to isolate two pure germacranolides (9α-hydroxyparthenolide and 9β-hydroxyparthenolide) and to separate flavonoids (nepetin, isorhamnetin and jaceosidin) and chlorophyll pigments from aerial parts of Anvillea radiata (Coss.&Durieu). The two main germacranolides recovered using this method represent 2 and 5% of the dried plant material respectively. These molecules were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction with chloroform. After optimization of the CPC method, a two-phase solvent system composed of heptane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (1:5:1:5 v/v/v/v) was employed in descending mode to isolate the germacranolides. Then the lower phase of a heptane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (6:5:6:5 v/v/v/v) system was pumped in descending mode to generate a linear elution gradient, progressively decreasing the mobile phase polarity, that enabled the flavonoid compounds to be separated in the same run. The efficiency of the preparative separation was controlled through RP-HPLC analysis of the obtained fractions using UV, evaporative light scattering and mass spectrometry detection. The structural identification of the two germacranolides purified over 99% was established by (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR. The least abundant flavonoids were identified by mass spectrometry. PMID:25647341

  16. Appraisal of gene action for indeterminate growth in mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Javed; Ahsan, Muhammad; Saleem, Muhammad; Ali, Asghar

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the inheritance pattern of indeterminate growth in Vigna radiata, various related traits were studied. The techniques used for the purpose were generation mean and variance analyses. Narrow sense heritability estimates were also computed. Four out of fifty greengram accessions were selected during preliminary screen trial based on DDd2 and DDh2 values. Two cross combinations were made by utilizing four parents. Generation variance analysis demonstrated the engagement of additive and environmental components, with the pre-pondrance of additive gene action. Narrow sense heritability estimates (>67%) also supported the same. In generation mean analysis both cross combinations manifested non-allelic epistatic digenic interactions for the investigated traits except for plant height at first flower initiation and for seed yield per plant in one cross combination, where only additive and dominance components were important. For pyramiding the additive genes favoring determinate plant growth, higher harvest index and simultaneously purging the genes promoting twining growth habit escorted with low seed yield, any modified breeding scheme which could serve the said purpose may be opted. PMID:26388879

  17. Nutritional Assessment and Antioxidant Activities of Different Varieties of Vigna radiata

    PubMed Central

    Ullah, Zain; Al-Deyab, Salem S.; Adnan, Muhammad; Tariq, Akash

    2014-01-01

    Three cultivars of Vigna radiata, namely, NM-92, NM-98, and NM-06, were analyzed for their proximate composition. The samples were also tested by HPLC for amino acid content. The data showed that all the varieties had same moisture level. The maximum ash content (4.29%) was present in NM-92, and crude fat (2.26%) was highest in NM-98 while NM-06 contained maximum amount of crude protein. About eighteen types of amino acids were detected in each of the three varieties. Acidic amino acids, that is, aspartic and glutamic acids, were in considerable amount ranged from 13 to 23% followed by leucine, isoleucine, alanine, valine, lysine, phenyl alanine, serine, and arginine which fell in the range of 3–8% of total protein. The maximum amount (13.00 and 22.80%) of aspartic and glutamic acids was present in NM-98. Similarly arginine (6.83%) and serine (5.45%) were also in highest amount in this variety. Leucine (7.46%) was maximum in NM-92 variety. NM-06 contained almost all the amino acids in lesser quantity except for few like threonine, proline, glycine, and alanine. It was concluded from the present study that varieties were of different nutritional value and HPLC was a sensitive method for amino acids determination. Antioxidant activities of all three varieties were also assayed and showed significant results. PMID:25401158

  18. Connectivity of the habitat-forming kelp, Ecklonia radiata within and among estuaries and open coast.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Melinda A

    2013-01-01

    With marine protected areas being established worldwide there is a pressing need to understand how the physical setting in which these areas are placed influences patterns of dispersal and connectivity of important marine organisms. This is particularly critical for dynamic and complex nearshore marine environments where patterns of genetic structure of organisms are often chaotic and uncoupled from broad scale physical processes. This study determines the influence of habitat heterogeneity (presence of estuaries) on patterns of genetic structure and connectivity of the common kelp, Ecklonia radiata. There was no genetic differentiation of kelp between estuaries and the open coast and the presence of estuaries did not increase genetic differentiation among open coast populations. Similarly, there were no differences in level of inbreeding or genetic diversity between estuarine and open coast populations. The presence of large estuaries along rocky coastlines does not appear to influence genetic structure of this kelp and factors other than physical heterogeneity of habitat are likely more important determinants of regional connectivity. Marine reserves are currently lacking in this bioregion and may be designated in the future. Knowledge of the factors that influence important habitat forming organisms such as kelp contribute to informed and effective marine protected area design and conservation initiatives to maintain resilience of important marine habitats. PMID:23717648

  19. Accelerated Stem Growth Rates and Improved Fiber Properties of Loblolly Pine: Functional Analysis Of CyclinD from Pinus taeda

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. John Cairney, School of Biology and Institute of Paper Science and Technology @ Georgia Tech, Georgia Institute of Technology; Dr. Gary Peter, University of Florida; Dr. Ulrika Egertsdotter, Dept. of Forestry, Virgina Tech; Dr. Armin Wagner, New Zealand Forest Research Institute Ltd.

    2005-11-30

    divisions in the cambial meristem as expected. We isolated a promoter from a cambial specific gene and commenced development of transformation protocols for loblolly pine. Since our results show that cyclin D expression correlates with increased growth we continued with experiments to demonstrate the effect of cyclin overexpression upon tree growth. Vectors which constitutively express the cyclin D cDNA were constructed and transformed into a transgenic pine system through the collaboration with Forest Research, New Zealand. The transformation system for Pinus radiata is well established and we hoped to gain phenotypic information in a closely related pine, rather than await development of a robust loblolly pine transformation method. Transformation experiments were conducted by a biolistic method developed at Forest Research, NZ. A total of 78 transgenic embryogenic lines were generated and bulked up with a good representation of transgenic lines per construct. Transformed calli were originally identified by resistance to the antibiotic Geneticin contained in the medium. The transgenic nature of the selected lines was subsequently confirmed using histochemical GUS staining. To date, 10 out of 13 selected transgenic lines have produced embryos and we are currently harvesting the first transgenic plantlets. At present time 22 of those plantlets have been moved to GMO facilities. We will soon develop a strategy for assessing potential phenotypic differences between the transclones and non-transformed controls. Transgenic plants are being grown to a stage (approx. 1 year) when meaningful phenotypic evaluation can be conducted. The recent availability of 10,000 element loblolly pine cDNA microarray will permit the evaluation of cyclinD overexpression upon gene expression in transgenic Pinus.

  20. Rates of pyrolysis and combustion of bark by thermogravimetric analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wei-Yin

    1996-10-01

    Bark has been considered a viable renewable energy resource. This paper focuses on our experimental and modeling efforts on the bark combustion kinetics. Combustion and pyrolysis experiments have been conducted by lowering a sample-containing basket into a preheated, 2.5{double_prime} fluidized sand bed. This fluidized bed provides both rapid heating and quenching to the samples. Fluidized sand bed provides a very effective heat transfer medium between the gas (air or nitrogen) and the sand. Rapid quenching has been accomplished by raising the basket into a water-cooled, reversed-nitrogen flow section. The basket is made of a 40 mesh stainless steel screen. Combustion and pyrolysis of 10 mm diameter bark particles have been performed in the temperature ranges 500 to 800{degrees}C, and 750 to 850{degrees}C, respectively. The gas velocity has been in the range of 5.4 to 10.8 cm/s. Weight loss of bark after the experiments has been used as an index of conversion in the kinetic study. The combustion/pyrolysis model contains three dynamic equations: bark pyrolysis, char combustion, and heat transfer to bark particles. It has been assumed that the volatiles disengagement from char is governed by temperature-dependent desorption in an exponential form. By fitting the model to the experimental data, the seven parameters in the model have been recovered. These parameters include the four Arrhenius parameters for pyrolysis and combustion, total volatile at infinite temperature and temperature sensitivity in the volatile desorption equation, and heat of pyrolysis. Good agreement with the experimental data for pyrolysis and combustion demonstrates that the present model is capable of depicting the bark weight remaining in the bed at any time during combustion or pyrolysis. In addition, the kinetic parameters for the pyrolysis and heat of pyrolysis are in good accord with those in the literature.

  1. Severe White Pine Blister Rust Infection in Whitebark Pine Alters Mountain Pine Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Attack Density, Emergence Rate, and Body Size.

    PubMed

    Dooley, Edith M; Six, Diana L

    2015-10-01

    Exotic tree pathogens can cause devastating ecological effects on forests that can be exacerbated when infections increase the likelihood of attack by insects. Current high rates of mortality of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) are due to white pine blister rust caused by the exotic fungus, Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch, and the native mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins). These two mortality agents interact in whitebark pine; mountain pine beetle preferentially selects white pine blister rust-infected whitebark pine over healthy trees, and likelihood of attack has been observed to increase with infection severity. We examined attack and emergence rates, and size and sex ratio of mountain pine beetle in whitebark pines exhibiting varying white pine blister rust infection severities. Mountain pine beetle attack density was lowest on the most severely infected trees, but emergence rates and size of beetles from these trees were greater than those from uninfected and less severely infected trees. Low attack rates on severely infected whitebark pine may indicate these trees have lower defenses and that fewer beetle attacks are needed to kill them. Higher beetle emergence rates from severely infected trees may be due to low intraspecific competition resulting from low attack rates or differences in nutrient quality. PMID:26314009

  2. Antioxidative compounds from Garcinia buchananii stem bark.

    PubMed

    Stark, Timo D; Salger, Mathias; Frank, Oliver; Balemba, Onesmo B; Wakamatsu, Junichiro; Hofmann, Thomas

    2015-02-27

    An aqueous ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Garcinia buchananii showed strong antioxidative activity using H2O2 scavenging, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. Activity-guided fractionation afforded three new compounds, isomanniflavanone (1), an ent-eriodictyol-(3α→6)-dihydroquercetin-linked biflavanone, 1,5-dimethoxyajacareubin (2), and the depsidone garcinisidone-G (3), and six known compounds, (2″R,3″R)-preussianon, euxanthone, 2-isoprenyl-1,3,5,6-tetrahydroxyxanthone, jacareubin, isogarcinol, and garcinol. All compounds were described for the first time in Garcinia buchananii. The absolute configurations were determined by a combination of NMR, ECD spectroscopy, and polarimetry. These natural products showed high in vitro antioxidative power, especially isomanniflavanone, with an EC50 value of 8.5 μM (H2O2 scavenging), 3.50/4.95 mmol TE/mmol (H/L-TEAC), and 7.54/14.56 mmol TE/mmol (H/L-ORAC). PMID:25625705

  3. Hepatoprotective activity of Mammea africana ethanol stem bark extract

    PubMed Central

    Okokon, Jude Efiom; Bawo, Michael Burata; Mbagwu, Herbert Orji

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The stem bark of Mammea africana Sabine (Guttiferae), (M. africana) a common plant that has been traditionally used to treat various diseases and ailments was evaluated for hepatoprotective potentials against paracetamol-induced liver injury in rats. Materials and Methods: The hepatoprotective effect of the stem bark extract (30-90 mg/kg) was evaluated by the assay of liver function parameters, namely total and direct bilirubin, serum protein and albumin, total cholesterol, alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase activities (ALP), antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH) and histopathological study of the liver. Results: Administration of the stem bark extract caused a significant (p<0.05 – 0.001) dose-dependent reduction of high levels of liver enzymes (ALT, AST and ALP), total cholesterol, direct and total bilirubin as well as elevation of serum levels of total protein, albumin and antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GPx and GSH). Histology of the liver sections of extract and silymarin-treated animals showed reductions in the pathological features compared to the paracetamol-treated animals. The chemical pathological changes were consistent with histopathological observations suggesting marked hepatoprotective effect of the stem bark extract of M. africana. Conclusion: The results show that the stem bark extract of M. africana has hepatoprotective potential which may be due to its antioxidant activity. PMID:27222838

  4. Antioxidant Potential of Bark Extracts from Boreal Forest Conifers.

    PubMed

    Legault, Jean; Girard-Lalancette, Karl; Dufour, Dominic; Pichette, André

    2013-01-01

    The bark of boreal forest conifers has been traditionally used by Native Americans to treat various ailments and diseases. Some of these diseases involve reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can be prevented by the consumption of antioxidants such as phenolic compounds that can be found in medicinal plants. In this study, ultrasonic assisted extraction has been performed under various solvent conditions (water:ethanol mixtures) on the bark of seven boreal forest conifers used by Native Americans including: Pinus strobus, Pinus resinosa, Pinus banksiana, Picea mariana, Picea glauca, Larix laricina, and Abies balsamea. The total phenolic content, as well as ORACFL potency and cellular antioxidant activity (IC50), were evaluated for all bark extracts, and compared with the standardized water extract of Pinus maritima bark (Pycnogenol), which showed clinical efficiency to prevent ROS deleterious effects. The best overall phenolic extraction yield and antioxidant potential was obtained with Picea glauca and Picea mariana. Interestingly, total phenolic content of these bark extracts was similar to Pycnogenol but their antioxidant activity were higher. Moreover, most of the extracts did not inhibit the growth of human skin fibroblasts, WS1. A significant correlation was found between the total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity for water extracts suggesting that these compounds are involved in the activity. PMID:26784337

  5. Efficacy and Safety of White Willow Bark (Salix alba) Extracts.

    PubMed

    Shara, Mohd; Stohs, Sidney J

    2015-08-01

    Willow bark extract has been used for thousands of years as an anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic. In spite of its long history of use, relatively few human and animal studies have been published that confirm anecdotal observations. A small number of clinical studies have been conducted that support the use of willow bark extracts in chronic lower back and joint pain and osteoarthritis. Willow bark extracts also are widely used in sports performance and weight loss products presumably because of anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities, although no human studies have been published that specifically and directly document beneficial effects. In recent years, various in vitro and animal studies have demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory activity of willow bark extract is associated with down regulation of the inflammatory mediators tumor necrosis factor-α and nuclear factor-kappa B. Although willow bark extracts are generally standardized to salicin, other ingredients in the extracts including other salicylates as well as polyphenols, and flavonoids may also play prominent roles in the therapeutic actions. Adverse effects appear to be minimal as compared to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs including aspirin. The primary cause for concern may relate to allergic reactions in salicylate-sensitive individuals. PMID:25997859

  6. Reducing hazardous heavy metal ions using mangium bark waste.

    PubMed

    Khabibi, Jauhar; Syafii, Wasrin; Sari, Rita Kartika

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of mangium bark and its biosorbent ability to reduce heavy metal ions in standard solutions and wastewater and to assess changes in bark characteristics after heavy metal absorption. The experiments were conducted to determine heavy metal absorption from solutions of heavy metals alone and in mixtures as well as from wastewater. The results show that mangium bark can absorb heavy metals. Absorption percentages and capacities from single heavy metal solutions showed that Cu(2+) > Ni(2+) > Pb(2+) > Hg(2+), while those from mixture solutions showed that Hg(2+) > Cu(2+) > Pb(2+) > Ni(2+). Wastewater from gold mining only contained Cu, with an absorption percentage and capacity of 42.87 % and 0.75 mg/g, respectively. The highest absorption percentage and capacity of 92.77 % and 5.18 mg/g, respectively, were found for Hg(2+) in a mixture solution and Cu(2+) in single-metal solution. The Cu(2+) absorption process in a single-metal solution changed the biosorbent characteristics of the mangium bark, yielding a decreased crystalline fraction; changed transmittance on hydroxyl, carboxyl, and carbonyl groups; and increased the presence of Cu. In conclusion, mangium bark biosorbent can reduce hazardous heavy metal ions in both standard solutions and wastewater. PMID:27179811

  7. Aromatic biosynthesis in pine tissues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowles, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Pinus elliotti is a woody plant species responsive to gravity and capable of synthesizing large quantities of lignin. Lignification begins very quickly after germination; lignin is detected in the vascular region within 4 days after germination and rapidly progresses up the hypocotyl. Young pine seedlings bend in response to geostimulation for about 10 days after germination, with the most rapid response time occurring in 4- to 5-day-old seedlings. Various chemicals were used to establish their effects on the geotropic response in this gymnosperm species. IAA completely arrests the geotropic response for 18 to 24 hr. Afterward the seedlings respond geostimulation as if they were not treated. The same pattern of response will occur with a second IAA treatment. If the synthetic auxin, 2-4,D, is used, the georesponse is permanently blocked. The method of application does not appear to be critical; addition of auxin to only one side of the seedling gave results similar to those obtained by treating the entire seedling.

  8. Antigenotoxic properties of Terminalia arjuna bark extracts.

    PubMed

    Scassellati-Sforzolini, G; Villarini, L M; Moretti, L M; Marcarelli, L M; Pasquini, R; Fatigoni, C; Kaur, L S; Kumar, S; Grover, I S

    1999-01-01

    Compounds possessing antimutagenic properties (polyphenols, tannins, vitamins, etc.) have been identified in fruits, vegetables, spices, and medicinal plants. Terminalia arjuna (Combretaceae), a tropical woody tree occurring throughout India and known locally as Kumbuk, is a medicinal plant rich in tannins and triterpenes that is used extensively in Ayurvedic medicine as a cardiac tonic. The aim of the present collaborative work was to test six solvent extracts from the bark of Terminalia arjuna for antigenotoxic activity using in vitro short-term tests. Terminalia arjuna extracts were obtained by sequential extraction using acetone, methanol, methanol + HCl, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and ethyl ether. The antigenotoxic properties of these extracts were investigated by assessing the inhibition of genotoxicity of the directacting mutagen 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4NQO) using the "comet" assay and the micronucleus (MN) test. Human peripheral blood leukocytes were incubated with different concentrations of the six extracts (from 5 to 100 microg/ mL) and with 4NQO (1 and 2 microg/mL, for the "comet" assay and MN test, respectively). Each extract/4NQO combination was tested twice; in each experiment, positive control (4NQO alone) and negative control (1% DMSO) were set. "Comet" assay results showed that acetone and methanol extracts were highly effective in reducing the DNA damage caused by 4NQO, whereas the acidic methanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and ethyl ether extracts showed less marked or no antigenotoxic activity. In the MN test, a decrease in 4NQO genotoxicity was observed by testing this mutagen in the presence of acetone, methanol, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts, even though the extent of inhibition was not always statistically significant. PMID:15281223

  9. Effect of bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) attack on bark VOC emissions of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghimire, Rajendra P.; Kivimäenpää, Minna; Blomqvist, Minna; Holopainen, Toini; Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa, Päivi; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    2016-02-01

    Climate warming driven storms are evident causes for an outbreak of the European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) resulting in the serious destruction of mature Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) forests in northern Europe. Conifer species are major sources of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in the boreal zone. Climate relevant BVOC emissions are expected to increase when conifer trees defend against bark beetle attack by monoterpene (MT)-rich resin flow. In this study, BVOC emission rates from the bark surface of beetle-attacked and non-attacked spruce trees were measured from two outbreak areas, Iitti and Lahti in southern Finland, and from one control site at Kuopio in central Finland. Beetle attack increased emissions of total MTs 20-fold at Iitti compared to Kuopio, but decreased the emissions of several sesquiterpenes (SQTs) at Iitti. At the Lahti site, the emission rate of α-pinene was positively correlated with mean trap catch of bark beetles. The responsive individual MTs were tricyclene, α-pinene, camphene, myrcene, limonene, 1,8-cineole and bornyl acetate in both of the outbreak areas. Our results suggest that bark beetle outbreaks affect local BVOC emissions from conifer forests dominated by Norway spruce. Therefore, the impacts of insect outbreaks are worth of consideration to global BVOC emission models.

  10. Determination of nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in tree bark

    SciTech Connect

    Douce, D.S.; Clench, M.R.; Cooke, M.

    1995-12-31

    Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) are released into the environment from a variety of sources, including the combustion of diesel, gasoline and other organic fuels. The most important source or nitro`PAHs, is believed to be the emissions from diesel fuelled vehicles. Monitoring of this class of compound is important due to their carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. Sturaro et al have shown that tree bark acts as a passive absorbent for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). They proposed that the use of a natural and passive sampler such as tree bark might lead to a less complex overall analytical strategy for environmental measurements. It was decided to modify the method proposed by Sturaro et al, in an attempt to monitor nitro-PAH levels absorbed into the tree bark from diesel emissions.

  11. 78 FR 4167 - Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars; Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... COMMISSION Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars; Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments... Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars, DN 2932; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public... electronic bark control collars. The complaint names as respondent Sunbeam Products, Inc. d/b/a...

  12. 40 CFR 429.20 - Applicability; description of the barking subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... barking subcategory. 429.20 Section 429.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TIMBER PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Barking Subcategory § 429.20 Applicability; description of the barking subcategory. This subpart applies to...

  13. Relative density, equilibrium moisture content, and dimensional stability of western hemlock bark

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.W.; Kellogg, R.M.; Warren, W.G.

    1980-04-01

    The measurement of western hemlock bark samples from three coastal sites in British Columbia revealed that inner bark relative density (0.382) is less than that of the adjacent sapwood (0.413) and markedly less than that of outer bark (0.463). The equilibrium moisture content of the inner and outer bark are equivalent at both 70 and 30% relative humidity, and slightly higher than that of the sapwood. The generally higher shrinkage of bark compared with wood is the result of bark cell collapse during drying. In the outer bark, some collapse or crushing takes place in the standing tree. This compacting of tissue reduces the shrinkage of outer bark relative to the inner bark. The actual shrinkage per unit change in moisture content of the inner bark is the same as that for the sapwood. The outer bark appears to be more dimensionally stable. The longitudinal shrinkage of both inner (2.9%) and outer (2.2%) bark is markedly greater than that of the sapwood (0.1-0.2%). (Refs. 10).

  14. 78 FR 12788 - Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars; Notice of Institution of Investigation; Institution of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... COMMISSION Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars; Notice of Institution of Investigation; Institution of... importation of certain electronic bark control collars by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S... the United States after importation of certain electronic bark control collars that infringe claims...

  15. 40 CFR 429.20 - Applicability; description of the barking subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... barking subcategory. 429.20 Section 429.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TIMBER PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Barking Subcategory § 429.20 Applicability; description of the barking subcategory. This subpart applies to...

  16. Do Pine Beetles Fan the Flames in Western Forests?

    NASA Video Gallery

    As mountain pine beetles damage whole regions of Western forests, some worry that the dead trees left behind have created a tinderbox ready to burn. But do pine beetles really increase fire risk? I...

  17. A review of phytochemistry, metabolite changes, and medicinal uses of the common food mung bean and its sprouts (Vigna radiata)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The seeds and sprouts of mung bean (Vigna radiata), a common food, contain abundant nutrients with biological activities. This review provides insight into the nutritional value of mung beans and its sprouts, discussing chemical constituents that have been isolated in the past few decades, such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, organic acids, amino acids, carbohydrates, and lipids. Moreover, we also summarize dynamic changes in metabolites during the sprouting process and related biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, lipid metabolism accommodation, antihypertensive, and antitumor effects, etc., with the goal of providing scientific evidence for better application of this commonly used food as a medicine. PMID:24438453

  18. (BOREAS) BOREAS TE-8 Aspen Bark Chemistry Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor); Spencer, Shannon L.; Rock, Barrett N.

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-8 team collected pigment density data from aspen bark and leaves from four sites within the BOREAS SSA from 24-May-1994 to 16-Jun-1994 (IFC-1), 19-Jul-1994 to 08-Aug- 1994 (IFC-2), and 30-Aug-1994 to 19-Sep-1994 (IFC-3). One to nine trees from each site were sampled during the three IFCs. Each tree was sampled in five different locations for bark pigment properties: basal stem section, which was any bark sample taken below one-half the tree height; upper stem section, which was any bark sample taken from the main stem above one-half the tree height; bark taken from branches up to 3 years old; a 2-year-old branch segment, and a 1-year-old branch segment. Additionally, a limited number of leaves were collected. Bark samples were removed from the stem of the tree, placed in ziplock bags, and transported to UNH, where they were processed and analyzed by a spectrophotometer. In each data file, samples are identified by Site, Date, Tree#, and Sample Location (see I st paragraph above. Pigment density values are normalized to mg/m2. Density values for the following pigments are provided: Chi a, Chi b, Total Chi (Chi a+b), Carotenoids, Chi a to b ratio, and the Total Chi to carotenoids ratio. The data are stored in ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distrobuted Activity Archive Center (DAAC).

  19. Realized gain and prediction of yield with genetically improved Pinus radiata in New Zealand

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, S.D.; Hayes, J.D. ); Garcia, O. . Centro de Investigacions Forestais de Lourizan)

    1999-05-01

    Pinus radiata D. Don seedlots of varying genetic quality were compared in block-plot genetic-gain trials at 10 locations representing most of the site types in New Zealand. Permanent sample plots were measured annually for growth from age 6--8 yr from planting to ages 15--17 (midrotation). Seedlots from first-generation open-pollinated seed orchards and a mix of crosses that all involved the top-performing parent were, respectively, on average 4.5 % and 5.3% taller and had 6% and 11% larger mean diameter, 12% and 30% more basal area, and 15% and 34% more stem volume than seedlots originating from mild mass selection in harvested stands (climbing select). The observed growth increases were quantified as changes in the rate of growth from that predicted by pre-existing growth models in order to account for tree size and stocking differences. Seedlots from first-generation seed orchards and crosses of the top clone, respectively, grew 5.1% and 4.5% faster in height, and functions for basal area and stocking changed 13% and 26.4% faster, respectively, than the baseline growth models, which were based on climbing select. This implies that increased basal area growth must be taken into account in order to obtain accurate prediction of gain in stem volume. The incorporation of these observed increases in growth rates into stand growth models as genetic-gain multipliers in order to extrapolate predictions of growth of genetically improved seedlots beyond the sites, silvicultures, and seedlots represented in the genetic gain trials is discussed.

  20. Scanning proton microprobe analysis applied to wood and bark samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lövestam, N. E. G.; Johansson, E.-M.; Johansson, S. A. E.; Pallon, J.

    1990-04-01

    In this study the feasibility of applying scanning micro-PIXE to analysis of wood and bark samples is demonstrated. Elemental mapping of the analysed sections show the patterns of Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn. Some of these patterns can be related to the annual tree ring structure. It is observed that the variation of elements having an environmental character can be rather large within a single tree ring, thus illuminating possible difficulties when using tree ring sections as a pollution monitor. The variations in elemental concentrations when crossing from bark to wood are also shown to be smooth for some elements but rather abrupt for others.

  1. [The pine processionary caterpillar Thaumetopoea pityocampa].

    PubMed

    Solt, Ido; Mendel, Zvi

    2002-09-01

    The pine processionary caterpillar Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae) is considered to be a serious pest of medical importance. The hair on the dorsum of the last instar larvae of the moth may cause urticarial reactions (erucism) as well as eye problems and temporary blindness. In Israel, the pest occurs in all pine plantations as well as on ornamental pine trees in urban areas. The biology, ecology and management of the moth population are discussed as well as the mechanism of action of the urticarial hairs and their medical significance. Awareness of the life cycle and ecology of the pest may reduce the contact of the population with the urticarial hairs and prevent the morbidity caused by it. PMID:12362487

  2. Evolutionary fire ecology: lessons learned from pines.

    PubMed

    Pausas, Juli G

    2015-05-01

    Macroevolutionary studies of the genus Pinus provide the oldest current evidence of fire as an evolutionary pressure on plants and date back to ca. 125 million years ago (Ma). Microevolutionary studies show that fire traits are variable within and among populations, especially among those subject to different fire regimes. In addition, there is increasing evidence of an inherited genetic basis to variability in fire traits. Added together, pines provide compelling evidence that fire can exert an evolutionary pressure on plants and, thus, shape biodiversity. In addition, evolutionary fire ecology is providing insights to improve the management of pine forests under changing conditions. The lessons learned from pines may guide research on the evolutionary ecology of other taxa. PMID:25814325

  3. 78 FR 52498 - White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... Forest Service White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will meet in Eureka, Nevada. The... Standard Time. All RAC meetings are subject to change or cancellation. For status of the White Pine-Nye...

  4. Pyrolysis of pine and gasification of pine chars--influence of organically bound metals.

    PubMed

    Aho, A; DeMartini, N; Pranovich, A; Krogell, J; Kumar, N; Eränen, K; Holmbom, B; Salmi, T; Hupa, M; Murzin, D Yu

    2013-01-01

    Pyrolysis of pine and gasification of pine chars was studied in this work, focusing on the influence of organically bound metals. Selective leaching of the major ash-forming elements in pine wood was performed with different acids, namely, nitric, sulfuric, hydrochloric and oxalic acids. No other major changes in the chemical composition of the biomass were observed except the removal of the metals. The effect of organically bound sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium was studied in both pyrolysis and gasification. Removal of the metals had a positive effect on the pyrolysis, resulting in higher bio-oil, lower char and gas yields. PMID:23196217

  5. Pine Hollow Watershed Project : FY 2000 Projects.

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman County Soil and Water Conservation District

    2001-06-01

    The Pine Hollow Project (1999-010-00) is an on-going watershed restoration effort administered by Sherman County Soil and Water Conservation District and spearheaded by Pine Hollow/Jackknife Watershed Council. The headwaters are located near Shaniko in Wasco County, and the mouth is in Sherman County on the John Day River. Pine Hollow provides more than 20 miles of potential summer steelhead spawning and rearing habitat. The watershed is 92,000 acres. Land use is mostly range, with some dryland grain. There are no water rights on Pine Hollow. Due to shallow soils, the watershed is prone to rapid runoff events which scour out the streambed and the riparian vegetation. This project seeks to improve the quality of upland, riparian and in-stream habitat by restoring the natural hydrologic function of the entire watershed. Project implementation to date has consisted of construction of water/sediment control basins, gradient terraces on croplands, pasture cross-fences, upland water sources, and grass seeding on degraded sites, many of which were crop fields in the early part of the century. The project is expected to continue through about 2007. From March 2000 to June 2001, the Pine Hollow Project built 6 sediment basins, 1 cross-fence, 2 spring developments, 1 well development, 1 solar pump, 50 acres of native range seeding and 1 livestock waterline. FY2000 projects were funded by BPA, Oregon Watershed Enhancement Board, US Fish and Wildlife Service and landowners. In-kind services were provided by Sherman County Soil and Water Conservation District, USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, USDI Bureau of Land Management, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Pine Hollow/Jackknife Watershed Council, landowners and Wasco County Soil and Water Conservation District.

  6. Mountain pine beetle disturbance effects on soil respiration and nutrient pools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trahan, N. A.; Moore, D. J.; Brayden, B. H.; Dynes, E.; Monson, R. K.

    2011-12-01

    Over the past decade, the mountain pine beetle Dendroctonos ponderosae has infested more than 86 million hectares of high elevation forest in the Western U.S.A. While bark beetles are endemic to western forests and important agents of regeneration, the current mountain pine beetle outbreak is larger than any other on record and the resulting tree mortality has significant consequences for nutrient cycling and regional carbon exchange. We established decade-long parallel disturbance chronosequences in two lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests in Colorado: one composed of mountain pine beetle killed lodgepole stands and one consisting of trees where beetle mortality was simulated by stem girdling. Over the 2010 and 2011 growing season we measured plot level soil respiration fluxes, as well as soil extractable dissolved organic carbon, nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, and pools of ammonium, nitrate and inorganic phosphorus. We show that soil respiration sharply declines with gross primary productivity after tree mortality, but rebounds during the next 4 years, then declines again from 6-8 years post-disturbance. Soil extractable dissolved organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon, and inorganic phosphorous pools follow the pattern observed in soil respiration fluxes across disturbance age classes for both sites, while patterns in total dissolved nitrogen exhibit site specific variation. Levels of detectable soil nitrate were low and did not significantly change across the chronosequence, while soil ammonium increased in a similar pattern with soil moisture in disturbed plots. These patterns in soil respiration and nutrient pools reflect the loss of autotrophic respiration and rhizodeposition immediately after tree mortality, followed by a pulse in soil efflux linked to the decomposition of older, less labile carbon pools. This pulse is likely controlled by the fall rate of litter, coarse woody debris and the relative impact of post-disturbance water

  7. First record of the Kuwana pine mealybug Crisicoccus pini (Kuwana) in Italy: a new threat to Italian pine forests?

    PubMed

    Boselli, Mauro; Pellizzari, Giuseppina

    2016-01-01

    The Asiatic Kuwana pine mealybug, Crisicoccus pini (Kuwana, 1902) (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae), is reported in Italy for the first time. It was detected in September 2015 on maritime pine, Pinus pinaster, and stone pine, Pinus pinea, trees growing in the town of Cervia (Ravenna Province), Northern Italy. The mealybug has caused yellowing and decline of the pine trees. Pinus pinea is recorded here as a new host for C. pini. PMID:27394232

  8. China's Masson pine forests: Cure or curse

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, L.F.

    1993-01-01

    Masson pine, which grows well on rocky montane soil where it can be aerial seeded, has long been one of southern China's better sources for timber, fuel, and various wood products. However, although it has been widely planted in reforestation projects, expected yields will never be realized because of poor quality seed, poor site selection, and aggressive insect attacks. The pine needle scale is discussed in detail. Scale control options are presented: biological control, cultural control, and isolation of infected stands. Also discussed are other forestry approaches such as alternative species and alternative planting systems.

  9. Mechanisms of piñon pine mortality after severe drought: a retrospective study of mature trees.

    PubMed

    Gaylord, Monica L; Kolb, Thomas E; McDowell, Nate G

    2015-08-01

    Conifers have incurred high mortality during recent global-change-type drought(s) in the western USA. Mechanisms of drought-related tree mortality need to be resolved to support predictions of the impacts of future increases in aridity on vegetation. Hydraulic failure, carbon starvation and lethal biotic agents are three potentially interrelated mechanisms of tree mortality during drought. Our study compared a suite of measurements related to these mechanisms between 49 mature piñon pine (Pinus edulis Engelm.) trees that survived severe drought in 2002 (live trees) and 49 trees that died during the drought (dead trees) over three sites in Arizona and New Mexico. Results were consistent over all sites indicating common mortality mechanisms over a wide region rather than site-specific mechanisms. We found evidence for an interactive role of hydraulic failure, carbon starvation and biotic agents in tree death. For the decade prior to the mortality event, dead trees had twofold greater sapwood cavitation based on frequency of aspirated tracheid pits observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), smaller inter-tracheid pit diameter measured by SEM, greater diffusional constraints to photosynthesis based on higher wood δ(13)C, smaller xylem resin ducts, lower radial growth and more bark beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) attacks than live trees. Results suggest that sapwood cavitation, low carbon assimilation and low resin defense predispose piñon pine trees to bark beetle attacks and mortality during severe drought. Our novel approach is an important step forward to yield new insights into how trees die via retrospective analysis. PMID:26048753

  10. Testing phenotypic trade-offs in the chemical defence strategy of Scots pine under growth-limiting field conditions.

    PubMed

    Villari, Caterina; Faccoli, Massimo; Battisti, Andrea; Bonello, Pierluigi; Marini, Lorenzo

    2014-09-01

    Plants protect themselves from pathogens and herbivores through fine-tuned resource allocation, including trade-offs among resource investments to support constitutive and inducible defences. However, empirical research, especially concerning conifers growing under natural conditions, is still scarce. We investigated the complexity of constitutive and induced defences in a natural Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand under growth-limiting conditions typical of alpine environments. Phenotypic trade-offs at three hierarchical levels were tested by investigating the behaviour of phenolic compounds and terpenoids of outer bark and phloem. We tested resource-derived phenotypic correlations between (i) constitutive and inducible defences vs tree ring growth, (ii) different constitutive defence metabolites and (iii) constitutive concentration and inducible variation of individual metabolites. Tree ring growth was positively correlated only with constitutive concentration of total terpenoids, and no overall phenotypic trade-offs between different constitutive defensive metabolites were found. At the lowest hierarchical level tested, i.e., at the level of relationship between constitutive and inducible variation of individual metabolites, we found that different compounds displayed different behaviours; we identified five different defensive metabolite response types, based on direction and strength of the response, regardless of tree age and growth rate. Therefore, under growth-limiting field conditions, Scots pine appears to utilize varied and complex outer bark and phloem defence chemistry, in which only part of the constitutive specialized metabolism is influenced by tree growth, and individual components do not appear to be expressed in a mutually exclusive manner in either constitutive or inducible metabolism. PMID:25194142

  11. Nontarget effects of chemical pesticides and biological pesticide on rhizospheric microbial community structure and function in Vigna radiata.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sunil; Gupta, Rashi; Kumari, Madhu; Sharma, Shilpi

    2015-08-01

    Intensive agriculture has resulted in an indiscriminate use of pesticides, which demands in-depth analysis of their impact on indigenous rhizospheric microbial community structure and function. Hence, the objective of the present work was to study the impact of two chemical pesticides (chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin) and one biological pesticide (azadirachtin) at two dosages on the microbial community structure using cultivation-dependent approach and on rhizospheric bacterial communities involved in nitrogen cycle in Vigna radiata rhizosphere through cultivation-independent technique of real-time PCR. Cultivation-dependent study highlighted the adverse effects of both chemical pesticide and biopesticide on rhizospheric bacterial and fungal communities at different plant growth stages. Also, an adverse effect on number of genes and transcripts of nifH (nitrogen fixation); amoA (nitrification); and narG, nirK, and nirS (denitrification) was observed. The results from the present study highlighted two points, firstly that nontarget effects of pesticides are significantly detrimental to soil microflora, and despite being of biological origin, azadirachtin exerted negative impact on rhizospheric microbial community of V. radiata behaving similar to chemical pesticides. Hence, such nontarget effects of chemical pesticide and biopesticide in plants' rhizosphere, which bring out the larger picture in terms of their ecotoxicological effect, demand a proper risk assessment before application of pesticides as agricultural amendments. PMID:25801369

  12. Recovery of copper through decontamination of synthetic solutions using modified barks

    SciTech Connect

    Gaballah, I.; Goy, D.; Allain, E.; Kilbertus, G.; Thauront, J.

    1997-02-01

    Decontamination of synthetic acetate, chloride, nitrate, and sulfate solutions containing 10, 100, 1,000, 10,000, and 50,000 ppm of copper using chemically treated barks has been studied. Metal percentage removal from solutions depends on the pH, the initial concentration, and, to some extent, the anion. It varies from 40 through 99 pct of the initial metallic ion`s content in the solution. The average retention capacity of the treated bark is about 43 mg of Cu/g of dry modified bark (0.68 mmole/g of dry bark). Extraction of copper cations from the saturated modified bark was made possible with dilute acid. Regeneration of bark for reuse as an ion exchanger was possible. Bark loaded with copper was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Copper was uniformly distributed in the bulk of the bark. No copper segregation was observed. It seems that copper was bound to the acidic (phenolic) sides of the bark. Anions were not detected on the copper-loaded bark with either SEM electron probe microanalysis or IR spectroscopy. Incineration of the bark loaded with copper resulted in ashes containing about 77 pct of copper oxides while pyrolysis of the same sample led to ashes containing 10 pct of metallic copper and about 85 pct carbon.

  13. Recovery of copper through decontamination of synthetic solutions using modified barks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaballah, I.; Goy, D.; Allain, E.; Kilbertus, G.; Thauront, J.

    1997-02-01

    Decontamination of synthetic acetate, chloride, nitrate, and sulfate solutions containing 10, 100, 1,000, 10,000, and 50,000 ppm of copper using chemically treated barks has been studied. Metal percentage removal from solutions depends on the pH, the initial concentration, and, to some extent, the anion. It varies from 40 through 99 pct of the initial metallic ion’s content in the solution. The average retention capacity of the treated bark is about 43 mg of Cu/g of dry modified bark (0.68 mmole/g of dry bark). Extraction of copper cations from the saturated modified bark was made possible with dilute acid. Regeneration of bark for reuse as an ion exchanger was possible. Bark loaded with copper was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Copper was uniformly distributed in the bulk of the bark. No copper segregation was observed. It seems that copper was bound to the acidic (phenolic) sites of the bark. Anions were not detected on the copper-loaded bark with either SEM electron probe microanalysis or IR spectroscopy. Incineration of the bark loaded with copper resulted in ashes containing about 77 pct of copper oxides, while pyrolysis of the same sample led to ashes containing 10 pct of metallic copper and about 85 pct carbon.

  14. The use of tree bark as long term biomonitor of (137)Cs deposition.

    PubMed

    Cosma, Constantin; Iurian, Andra-Rada; Incze, Reka; Kovacs, Tibor; Žunić, Zora S

    2016-03-01

    Airborne (137)Cs originated from the nuclear tests in the atmosphere and from the Chernobyl nuclear disaster was retained by the trees biomass and nowadays it can still be found in various concentrations in tree barks from Romania and other European countries. This study brings the first results of (137)Cs presence in tree bark from Romania on different considerations: (i) data dispersion in spruce and oak bark from NW, SW and central Romania, and the spatial variability of (137)Cs within oak and spruce bark from a natural protected forest area from Balvanyos area (Covasna County), known to be highly affected by the Chernobyl nuclear release; (ii) comparison of (137)Cs content in different tree bark species (oak, spruce, poplar and cherry); (iii) differences in (137)Cs concentrations with the bark depth layers and around the tree trunk; and (iv) comparison of mean (137)Cs values in spruce/oak bark from Romania with data from other European countries. PMID:26771244

  15. A sesquiterpene drimane with antinociceptive activity from Drimys winteri bark.

    PubMed

    Malheiros, A; Filho, V C; Schmitt, C B; Santos ARS; Scheidt, C; Calixto, J B; Monache, F D; Yunes, R A

    2001-05-01

    Along with three known drimanes, polygodial. 1-beta-(p-methoxycinnamoyl) polygodial and mukaadial, the sesquiterpene drimane named drimanial was isolated from the bark of Drimys winteri (Winteraceae). Its structure was elucidated based on spectroscopic evidence. Drimanial exhibited antinociceptive action against acetic acid induced pain, being about 3-fold less active than polygodial. PMID:11336250

  16. Antiinflammatory and analgesic activities of Zizyphus lotus root barks.

    PubMed

    Borgi, W; Ghedira, K; Chouchane, N

    2007-01-01

    The root barks of Zizyphus lotus were extracted with water, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol to determine their antiinflammatory and analgesic activities. Aqueous extract (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) given intraperitoneally (i.p.) showed a significant and dose-dependent antiinflammatory and analgesic activity. PMID:17107758

  17. The proteomics of nitrogen remobilization in poplar bark

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seasonal nitrogen (N) cycling in temperate deciduous trees involves the accumulation of bark storage proteins (BSPs), a class of vegetative storage proteins in phloem parenchyma and xylem ray cells. BSPs are anabolized using recycled N in the form of amino acids after autumn leaf senescence and lat...

  18. Two new tetracyclic triterpenoids from the barks of Melia azedarach.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jun-Jun; Wang, Ling-Tian; Chen, Pian; Zhang, Yan; Lei, Xin-Xiang; Ye, Xiao-Xia

    2016-01-01

    Two new tetracyclic triterpenoids, together with 21 known compounds, were isolated from the barks of Melia azedarach. The structures of new compounds were elucidated by the means of HRESIMS, 1D NMR, 2D NMR, and X-ray crystallography analysis. PMID:26727712

  19. Rates of pyrolysis and combustion of bark by thermogravimetric analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wei-Yin

    1996-12-31

    Wood supplies approximately 3 percent of the U.S. energy consumption. Bark represents about 10-15% of the weight of the trunk cut in the forest. Wood combustion phenomena has been extensively reviewed. Recent technological development is reflected in an article by Barsin et al., and a report published by the Electric Power Research Institute. Fundamental understanding of wood pyrolysis has also grown substantially in the last two decades. Shafizadeh reviewed the wood pyrolysis and combustion kinetics based on weight loss profiles. About the same time, Hajaligol et al. reported the kinetics of the individual product species for rapid pyrolysis of cellulose, Boroson et al. observed that heterogeneous cracking ofwood pyrolysis tars takes place over flesh wood char surface. Pyrolysis kinetics of different lignocellulosic materials have been investigated by Bilbao et al. Heat and mass transfer limitations are inevitable during burning of large particles, and have been the target of a number of modeling efforts. Due to its lower physical strength and less uniform structure than interior wood, bark is usually burned along with wood waste as a fuel, particularly by sawmills and pulp mills. Bark has the heating value of 9,000 to 10,000 Btu/lb, which is higher than that of wood. The objective of this paper is to experimentally acquire information about the bark kinetics during pyrolysis and combustion conditions. A kinetic model is also developed for the comparison.

  20. Nitrogen Availability in Fresh and Aged Douglas Fir Bark

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine if there are growth differences in geranium (Pelargonium ×hortorum Bailey 'Maverick Red') produced in either fresh or aged Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco] bark (DFB). A second objective was to document nitrogen immobilization and deco...

  1. The Bark Myxomycetes--Their Collection, Culture and Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, David W.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a technique for isolating slime molds from tree bark and outlines projects for working with slime molds in the laboratory. Diagrams of 26 of the more common British species and a key to the Orders of Myxomcetes are given. (CS)

  2. Ursane Triterpenoids from the Bark of Terminalia arjuna

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five ursane type triterpene glucosyl esters including a new one, 2a,3ß-dihydroxyurs-12,18-dien-28-oic acid 28-O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl ester (1) were isolated from the bark of Terminalia arjuna, along with two known phenolic compounds. It is the first report of ursane type of triterpenoids from this spi...

  3. Relationship between tree bark surface temperature and selected meteorological elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Středa, Tomáš; Litschmann, Tomáš; Středová, Hana

    2015-12-01

    The results were obtained by measurements in 2014 and 2015 in an apple orchard in Starý Lískovec and Těšetice (South Moravia, Czech Republic, Central Europe) into fertile planting of apple trees. The results show that the bark surface temperature during the year slightly differs from the surrounding air temperature. In addition, it is in average a few tenths of a °C higher in the period before the onset of the vegetation and several tenths of a degree lower during vegetation. Causes of these differences appear to be associated with the flow of sap as well as with foliage. Although it can be reasonably assumed that the temperature of the bark surface on the south side will be significantly affected by the global radiation, our measurements did not demonstrate this dependency. It appears that the wind speed had significantly larger influence on the temperature differences in the non-vegetation period as at speeds over 3.5 m s-1, the drop of temperature is so significant that the bark surface is colder than the surrounding air. Comparison of the development of sums of daily and hourly effective temperatures above 10 °C has shown that where daily values do not show significant differences, hourly values differed so prominently that the calculated date of emergence of adult codling moth in the bark surface was approximately one week earlier than with the use of data for air temperatures.

  4. Uneven-aged management of pine and pine-hardwood mixtures in the Ouachita mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, M.G.; Baker, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    The Ouachita National Forest and the Southern Forest Experiment Station launched a long-term research project in 1988 to study uneven-aged management of shortleaf pine and pine-hardwood mixtures in the Ouachita Mountains. The successful use of uneven-aged management in the southern pines has to date been limited to pure stands. However, the maintenance of a hardwood component is desirable to enhance biological diversity, wildlife habitat, and aesthetics. The study's goals are: (1) to determine the levels at which pine and hardwoods are biologically compatible in uneven-aged stands, and (2) to evaluate the timber, wildlife, water quality, aesthetics and biodiversity associated with each management alternative so that sound decisions concerning the tradeoffs among these resources can be determined.

  5. Food reserves in mountain longleaf pine roots during shoot elongation.

    SciTech Connect

    Walkinshaw, C.H.; W.J. Otrosina

    2001-03-20

    Roots of saplings appear to be models for healthy tissues in longleaf pines. Results show that roots of mountain longleaf pine have a normal anatomy, but also have unusual amounts of starch when compared to loblolly pine roots growing during phenologiexecy equal time periods. Roots appear large in diameter and grow much nearer the soil surface than roots observed from Coastal Plain longleaf pine. Starch grains are large in size and uniformly filled root cells. These results yield methodology potentially useful in assessment of health and productivity of longleaf pine.

  6. Ocean acidification reverses the positive effects of seawater pH fluctuations on growth and photosynthesis of the habitat-forming kelp, Ecklonia radiata.

    PubMed

    Britton, Damon; Cornwall, Christopher E; Revill, Andrew T; Hurd, Catriona L; Johnson, Craig R

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is the reduction in seawater pH due to the absorption of human-released CO2 by the world's oceans. The average surface oceanic pH is predicted to decline by 0.4 units by 2100. However, kelp metabolically modifies seawater pH via photosynthesis and respiration in some temperate coastal systems, resulting in daily pH fluctuations of up to ±0.45 units. It is unknown how these fluctuations in pH influence the growth and physiology of the kelp, or how this might change with OA. In laboratory experiments that mimicked the most extreme pH fluctuations measured within beds of the canopy-forming kelp Ecklonia radiata in Tasmania, the growth and photosynthetic rates of juvenile E. radiata were greater under fluctuating pH (8.4 in the day, 7.8 at night) than in static pH treatments (8.4, 8.1, 7.8). However, pH fluctuations had no effect on growth rates and a negative effect on photosynthesis when the mean pH of each treatment was reduced by 0.3 units. Currently, pH fluctuations have a positive effect on E. radiata but this effect could be reversed in the future under OA, which is likely to impact the future ecological dynamics and productivity of habitats dominated by E. radiata. PMID:27229624

  7. Biological control of Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) in Florida by the parasitoid Tamarixia radiata in urban plantings of orange jasmine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid is an important invasive citrus pest in the United States because it vectors a bacterium responsible for a devastating disease of citrus known as huanglongbing. A parasitoid of the psyllid, Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), was imported from Southeast Asia and re...

  8. Ocean acidification reverses the positive effects of seawater pH fluctuations on growth and photosynthesis of the habitat-forming kelp, Ecklonia radiata

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Damon; Cornwall, Christopher E.; Revill, Andrew T.; Hurd, Catriona L.; Johnson, Craig R.

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is the reduction in seawater pH due to the absorption of human-released CO2 by the world’s oceans. The average surface oceanic pH is predicted to decline by 0.4 units by 2100. However, kelp metabolically modifies seawater pH via photosynthesis and respiration in some temperate coastal systems, resulting in daily pH fluctuations of up to ±0.45 units. It is unknown how these fluctuations in pH influence the growth and physiology of the kelp, or how this might change with OA. In laboratory experiments that mimicked the most extreme pH fluctuations measured within beds of the canopy-forming kelp Ecklonia radiata in Tasmania, the growth and photosynthetic rates of juvenile E. radiata were greater under fluctuating pH (8.4 in the day, 7.8 at night) than in static pH treatments (8.4, 8.1, 7.8). However, pH fluctuations had no effect on growth rates and a negative effect on photosynthesis when the mean pH of each treatment was reduced by 0.3 units. Currently, pH fluctuations have a positive effect on E. radiata but this effect could be reversed in the future under OA, which is likely to impact the future ecological dynamics and productivity of habitats dominated by E. radiata. PMID:27229624

  9. Molecular genetic studies confirm that populations of Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from Texas and Florida area a single species: natural enemies of the Asian citrus psylild

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is a natural enemy of the Asian citrus pysllid [Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae]). D. citri is an important economic world-wide pest of citrus that recently invaded Texas, among several other states in the U. S. D. citri vecto...

  10. Survival of adult Tamarixia radiata subjected to different short-term storage methods prior to field releases for biological control of Asian citrus psyllid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tamarixia radiata is regarded as one of the Asian citrus psyllid’s most important natural enemies and is thus currently being mass-reared and released by a number of laboratories in North America. It may not always be possible to immediately release newly-emerged adults, in which case it would be a...

  11. Bark ecology of twigs vs. main stems: functional traits across eighty-five species of angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Rosell, Julieta A; Castorena, Matiss; Laws, Claire A; Westoby, Mark

    2015-08-01

    Although produced by meristems that are continuous along the stem length, marked differences in bark morphology and in microenvironment would suggest that main stem and twig bark might differ ecologically. Here, we examined: (1) how closely associated main stem and twig bark traits were, (2) how these associations varied across sites, and (3) used these associations to infer functional and ecological differences between twig and main stem bark. We measured density, water content, photosynthesis presence/absence, total, outer, inner, and relative thicknesses of main stem and twig bark from 85 species of angiosperms from six sites of contrasting precipitation, temperature, and fire regimes. Density and water content did not differ between main stems and twigs across species and sites. Species with thicker twig bark had disproportionately thicker main stem bark in most sites, but the slope and degree of association varied. Disproportionately thicker main stem bark for a given twig bark thickness in most fire-prone sites suggested stem protection near the ground. The savanna had the opposite trend, suggesting that selection also favors twig protection in these fire-prone habitats. A weak main stem-twig bark thickness association was observed in non fire-prone sites. The near-ubiquity of photosynthesis in twigs highlighted its likely ecological importance; variation in this activity was predicted by outer bark thickness in main stems. It seems that the ecology of twig bark can be generalized to main stem bark, but not for functions depending on the amount of bark, such as protection, storage, or photosynthesis. PMID:25842297

  12. The true distribution and accumulation of radiocaesium in stem of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

    PubMed

    Thiry, Yves; Goor, Francois; Riesen, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    The radial and vertical distributions of radiocaesium, potassium and calcium were determined in two Scots pine stands (17 and 58 yr old) similarly affected by the Chernobyl fallout. For both age classes, concentrations are always the lowest in the stemwood, highest in the inner bark and intermediary levels were observed for the outer bark. Due to the cumulative character of its biomass. however. stemwood is a long-term major reservoir of 137Cs. With tree development, changes in the 137Cs radial distribution are well described by variations in the sap ascent pattern and reveal an important transfer between tree rings. It is shown that. both the biomass evolution and knowledge of the evolution of the 137Cs radial gradient are important to predicting 137Cs accumulation in wood with time. According to the common transfer factor (TF) approach, one would expect a decrease in radiocaesium accumulation with time (from 0.0047 +/- 0.0013 to 0.0035 +/- 0.0008 m2kg(-1) for the 17 and 58 yr old trees, respectively). With the wood immobilisation potential (WIP) approach, it was, however, clearly shown that additional annual uptake was highest for the older stand (3.12 +/- 0.23 Bq cm(-3) yr(-1) for the 58-year-old stand compared to 1.99 +/- 0.30 Bq cm(-3) yr(-1) for the younger stand). Following the WIP approach, it was moreover possible to distinguish between the 137Cs incorporated via the root uptake process and a possible lasting effect of interception. It is shown that, whereas for the younger stand (5 yr old at the time of the accident) root uptake contributed exclusively to the wood contamination, the former process explained only 48% of the measured total 137Cs content in the wood of the older tree. PMID:11814168

  13. The Mass Loss and Humification of Stumps and Roots in Masson Pine Plantations Based on Log File Records

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiao; Wu, Fuzhong; Yang, Wanqin; Tan, Bo; Xu, Zhenfeng; Zhang, Jian; Duan, Fei; Liu, Hui; Justine, Meta Francis

    2016-01-01

    Stumps account for a large proportion of coarse woody debris in managed forests, but their decay dynamics are poorly understood. The loss of mass and the degree of humification of the above-ground woody debris, below-ground woody debris, bark and root system (R1, 10 mm ≥ diameter > 0 mm; R2, 25 mm ≥ diameter >10 mm; 100 mm ≥ R3 > 25 mm; R4 > 100 mm) of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) stump systems were evaluated in southwestern China in a chronosequence of plantations cut 1–15 years prior to the study. The results indicated that above-ground woody debris decomposed more quickly than below-ground woody debris and bark, whereas the degree of humification followed the opposite trend. Compared with one-year stumps, the mass losses of 15-year stump systems were 60.4% for above-ground woody debris, 42.1% for below-ground woody debris, 47.3% for bark, 69.9% for R1, 47.3% for R2, 51.0% for R3, and 83.2% for R4. In contrast, below-ground woody debris showed a greater degree of humification compared with other components in the stump system. Among the root system, fine roots (R1, diameter ≤ 10 mm) had the largest k value (0.09), whereas the decay rate of coarser roots (R2, R3, R4; diameter > 10 mm) increased with increasing root diameter. However, coarse roots showed a larger degree of humification (0.2–0.6) than fine roots (0.3–0.4). These results suggest that below-ground woody debris and coarse roots may display a higher degree of humification, showing greater short-term contributions to overall humification when compared with the other components in the stump system. PMID:27512999

  14. The Mass Loss and Humification of Stumps and Roots in Masson Pine Plantations Based on Log File Records.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiao; Wu, Fuzhong; Yang, Wanqin; Tan, Bo; Xu, Zhenfeng; Zhang, Jian; Duan, Fei; Liu, Hui; Justine, Meta Francis

    2016-01-01

    Stumps account for a large proportion of coarse woody debris in managed forests, but their decay dynamics are poorly understood. The loss of mass and the degree of humification of the above-ground woody debris, below-ground woody debris, bark and root system (R1, 10 mm ≥ diameter > 0 mm; R2, 25 mm ≥ diameter >10 mm; 100 mm ≥ R3 > 25 mm; R4 > 100 mm) of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) stump systems were evaluated in southwestern China in a chronosequence of plantations cut 1-15 years prior to the study. The results indicated that above-ground woody debris decomposed more quickly than below-ground woody debris and bark, whereas the degree of humification followed the opposite trend. Compared with one-year stumps, the mass losses of 15-year stump systems were 60.4% for above-ground woody debris, 42.1% for below-ground woody debris, 47.3% for bark, 69.9% for R1, 47.3% for R2, 51.0% for R3, and 83.2% for R4. In contrast, below-ground woody debris showed a greater degree of humification compared with other components in the stump system. Among the root system, fine roots (R1, diameter ≤ 10 mm) had the largest k value (0.09), whereas the decay rate of coarser roots (R2, R3, R4; diameter > 10 mm) increased with increasing root diameter. However, coarse roots showed a larger degree of humification (0.2-0.6) than fine roots (0.3-0.4). These results suggest that below-ground woody debris and coarse roots may display a higher degree of humification, showing greater short-term contributions to overall humification when compared with the other components in the stump system. PMID:27512999

  15. Effect of pine mistletoe on radial growth of Crimean pine (Pinus nigra) in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Catal, Yilmaz; Carus, Serdar

    2011-05-01

    In this study, the influence of infection by pine mistletoe (Viscum album L. subsp. austriacum (Wiesb.) Volmann) on the radial growth of crimean pine (Pinus nigra Amold) in Turkey was investigated. We built local residual tree-ring-width chronologies using dendrochronogical techniques. Tree ring chronologies of uninfected (control) crimean pine were used to estimate potential radial growth characteristics in the "infected" crimean pine (light, moderate and severe infection groups). In 2005, increment cores were collected from 26 infected and 19 control dominant or co-dominant trees and annual radial growth indices from 1930-2005 were calculated for each infection group in a 14 point sampling. We compared radial growth in the uninfected trees with mean regional chronology. We found a strong decrease in radial growth in during the 1998-2005 period. The periodic average radial growth reduction (in %) from 1998 to 2005, respectively, were 0 for control, 26 for light, 39 for moderate and 63 for severe infection groups. It can be especially concluded that a severe degree of pine mistletoe attack has a negative effect on radial growth of the infected crimean pine trees. PMID:22167935

  16. Regeneration of different plant functional types in a Masson pine forest following pine wilt disease.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guang; Xu, Xuehong; Wang, Yuling; Lu, Gao; Feeley, Kenneth J; Yu, Mingjian

    2012-01-01

    Pine wilt disease is a severe threat to the native pine forests in East Asia. Understanding the natural regeneration of the forests disturbed by pine wilt disease is thus critical for the conservation of biodiversity in this realm. We studied the dynamics of composition and structure within different plant functional types (PFTs) in Masson pine forests affected by pine wilt disease (PWD). Based on plant traits, all species were assigned to four PFTs: evergreen woody species (PFT1), deciduous woody species (PFT2), herbs (PFT3), and ferns (PFT4). We analyzed the changes in these PFTs during the initial disturbance period and during post-disturbance regeneration. The species richness, abundance and basal area, as well as life-stage structure of the PFTs changed differently after pine wilt disease. The direction of plant community regeneration depended on the differential response of the PFTs. PFT1, which has a higher tolerance to disturbances, became dominant during the post-disturbance regeneration, and a young evergreen-broad-leaved forest developed quickly after PWD. Results also indicated that the impacts of PWD were dampened by the feedbacks between PFTs and the microclimate, in which PFT4 played an important ecological role. In conclusion, we propose management at the functional type level instead of at the population level as a promising approach in ecological restoration and biodiversity conservation. PMID:22563499

  17. Regeneration of Different Plant Functional Types in a Masson Pine Forest Following Pine Wilt Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Guang; Xu, Xuehong; Wang, Yuling; Lu, Gao; Feeley, Kenneth J.; Yu, Mingjian

    2012-01-01

    Pine wilt disease is a severe threat to the native pine forests in East Asia. Understanding the natural regeneration of the forests disturbed by pine wilt disease is thus critical for the conservation of biodiversity in this realm. We studied the dynamics of composition and structure within different plant functional types (PFTs) in Masson pine forests affected by pine wilt disease (PWD). Based on plant traits, all species were assigned to four PFTs: evergreen woody species (PFT1), deciduous woody species (PFT2), herbs (PFT3), and ferns (PFT4). We analyzed the changes in these PFTs during the initial disturbance period and during post-disturbance regeneration. The species richness, abundance and basal area, as well as life-stage structure of the PFTs changed differently after pine wilt disease. The direction of plant community regeneration depended on the differential response of the PFTs. PFT1, which has a higher tolerance to disturbances, became dominant during the post-disturbance regeneration, and a young evergreen-broad-leaved forest developed quickly after PWD. Results also indicated that the impacts of PWD were dampened by the feedbacks between PFTs and the microclimate, in which PFT4 played an important ecological role. In conclusion, we propose management at the functional type level instead of at the population level as a promising approach in ecological restoration and biodiversity conservation. PMID:22563499

  18. PINE Discovery Box, 101 Stimulating Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Phyllis S.

    This manual is intended for use with the PINE (Projects in Imaginative Nature Education) discovery box in elementary school conservation education. The box contains 21 natural specimens which can serve as the starting point for simple student investigations. Specimens and activities are keyed for grade level. For each item, background information…

  19. Agroforestry planting design affects loblolly pine growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of plantation design on resource utilization has not been adequately investigated in agroforestry plantations. An experiment was conducted near Booneville, AR on a silt loam soil with a fragipan. Loblolly pine trees were planted in 1994 in an east-west row orientation in three designs: ...

  20. Ecology and evolution of pine life histories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, Jon E.

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion - Understanding the current pattern of pine distribution requires interpreting their evolution in terms of climate, geology, and fire. All three of these factors have played a role since the Mesozoic origin of the genus. All are important to the appropriate management of these resources.

  1. LONG LEAF PINE RESTORATION PROJECT MX974390

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are two primary goals for managing the Dantzler Coastal Preserve: 1) Protect and enhance the flora and fauna of the estuarine marsh; and 2) Manage the upland portion by restoring the long leaf pine ecosystem. Results from this project will improve the wetlands and water...

  2. SUSTAINABLE HOUSING AT PINE RIDGE RESERVATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pine Ridge Reservation, located in rural South Dakota is plagued with deteriorating infrastructure, poverty, lack of local employment, and high utility bills. Many of the residents, the Oglala Lakota Nation, live in mobile homes or substandard housing and spend nearly 25% of...

  3. The value of Leucaena leucocephala bark in leucaena-grass hay diets for Thai goats.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Brian; Jones, Raymond J; Poathong, Somsak; Chobtang, Jeerasak

    2010-12-01

    The study assessed the value of Leucaena leucocephala bark in leucaena-grass hay diets fed to Thai goats. Thai goats in metabolism pens were fed diets containing leucaena leaf (55%) + pangola grass hay (hay, 45%); leucaena leaf (48%) + leucaena bark (9%) + hay (43%); leucaena bark (57%) + hay (43%); and hay only. Feed percentages are expressed on a dry weight basis. The digestibilities of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) were measured for the four diets. Leucaena bark had lower CP concentration than the leaf (11.7 vs. 25.9), and the leucaena bark + hay diet had lower DM and CP digestibility than the other diets. The calculated bark digestibilities of DM and CP of 44.1% and 38.2%, respectively, were much lower than the values for the leucaena leaf of 62.9% and 89.1%, respectively. The lower than expected CP digestibility was attributed to higher tannin levels in the bark compared to the leaves. Despite this, the bark was well accepted by the goats and was often preferred to the hay. Stripping of the bark by goats also results in stems that dry quicker and have higher calorific value as fuel. However, if leucaena branches are fed as a sole diet, the goats may consume up to 30% of bark on a DM basis and this would reduce nutritive value and animal productivity. PMID:20563643

  4. Quantitative metabolome, proteome and transcriptome analysis of midgut and fat body tissues in the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, and insights into pheromone biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Keeling, Christopher I; Li, Maria; Sandhu, Harpreet K; Henderson, Hannah; Yuen, Macaire Man Saint; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2016-03-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) are pests of many forests around the world. The mountain pine beetle (MPB), Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a significant pest of western North American pine forests. The MPB is able to overcome the defences of pine trees through pheromone-assisted aggregation that results in a mass attack of host trees. These pheromones, both male and female produced, are believed to be biosynthesized in the midgut and/or fat bodies of these insects. We used metabolite analysis, quantitative proteomics (iTRAQ) and transcriptomics (RNA-seq) to identify proteins and transcripts differentially expressed between sexes and between tissues when treated with juvenile hormone III. Juvenile hormone III induced frontalin biosynthesis in males and trans-verbenol biosynthesis in females, as well as affected the expression of many proteins and transcripts in sex- and tissue-specific ways. Based on these analyses, we identified candidate genes involved in the biosynthesis of frontalin, exo-brevicomin, and trans-verbenol pheromones. PMID:26792242

  5. Potency of Massoia Bark in Combating Immunosuppressed-related Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hertiani, Triana; Pratiwi, Sylvia Utami Tunjung; Yuswanto, Agustinus; Permanasari, Prisci

    2016-01-01

    Background: As part of our search for new potential natural resources to eradicate infection, we have revealed the prominent potency of massoia bark (Massoia aromatica Becc, Lauraceae) in combating immunosuppressed-related infection. Materials and Methods: The extract was prepared by macerating the pulverized dried bark in ethanol 95%, followed by solvent evaporation. The oil was extracted from the dried bark by steam-hydrodistillation of which preparative thin-layer chromatography was performed on the oil to isolate the active constituent, C-10 massoia lactone (ML). Anti-biofilm assay against Candida albicans was conducted on polystyrene 96 wells microtiter plates, followed by a confocal laser scanning microscope observation to get three-dimensional profiles of the affected biofilms. Effects on the hyphae development inoculated on RPMI-1640 agar plates were observed for 7 days. Influences of samples on mice macrophage phagocytosis were examined by an in vitro technique. Samples concentration tested were in the range of 2.0–0.0625 mg/mL and done in triplicate. Results: Massoia bark extracts (oil and solid phase) and ML exhibited promising activities as anti-biofilm against C. albicans at IC50 0.074% v/v, 271 μg/mL and 0.026 μg/mL, respectively. The ML did not inhibit the hyphae development at the concentration tested; however, the extracts showed inhibition at 62.5 μg/mL. Macrophage phagocytosis stimulation was correlated to the ML content. Conclusion: Massoia bark is potential to be developed as anti-infective in immunosuppressed condition of which the C10 ML (C10H16O2) plays a major role in exerting activity. SUMMARY Massoia bark extracts (oily and solid phase) and C-10 Massoia lactone exhibited promising activities as antibiofilm against Candida albicans at IC50 are 0.074 %v/v, 271 μg/mL and 0.026 μg/mL respectively. The major constituent, C-10 Massoia lactone (C10H16O2) plays major role in exerting anticandida activity and potentially acts as an

  6. Oleic Acid Metabolism via a Conserved Cytochrome P450 System-Mediated ω-Hydroxylation in the Bark Beetle-Associated Fungus Grosmannia clavigera

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Metka; Lah, Ljerka; Šala, Martin; Stojan, Jure; Bohlmann, Joerg; Komel, Radovan

    2015-01-01

    The bark beetle-associated fungus Grosmannia clavigera participates in the large-scale destruction of pine forests. In the tree, it must tolerate saturating levels of toxic conifer defense chemicals (e.g. monoterpenes). The fungus can metabolize some of these compounds through the ß-oxidation pathway and use them as a source of carbon. It also uses carbon from pine triglycerides, where oleic acid is the most common fatty acid. High levels of free fatty acids, however, are toxic and can cause additional stress during host colonization. Fatty acids induce expression of neighboring genes encoding a cytochrome P450 (CYP630B18) and its redox partner, cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR2). The aim of this work was to study the function of this novel P450 system. Using LC/MS, we biochemically characterized CYP630 as a highly specific oleic acid ω-hydroxylase. We explain oleic acid specificity using protein interaction modeling. Our results underscore the importance of ω-oxidation when the main ß-oxidation pathway may be overwhelmed by other substrates such as host terpenoid compounds. Because this CYP-CPR gene cluster is evolutionarily conserved, our work has implications for metabolism studies in other fungi. PMID:25794012

  7. The Rocky Mountain Epidemic of Bark Beetles and Blue Stain Fungi Cause Cascading Effects on Coupled Water, C and N cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewers, B. E.; Pendall, E.; Norton, U.; Reed, D.; Franks, J.; Aston, T.; Whitehouse, F.; Barnard, H. R.; Brooks, P. D.; Angstmann, J.; Massman, W. J.; Williams, D. G.; Harpold, A. A.; Biederman, J.; Edburg, S. L.; Meddens, A. J.; Gochis, D. J.; Hicke, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    The ongoing epidemic of bark beetles and their associated xylem blocking blue-stain fungi is unprecedented in Rocky Mountain subalpine forests. As this epidemic continues, we seek to improve our predictive understanding of coupled water, C and N cycles by quantifying how these cycles may become uncoupled in response to the outbreak. Our specific questions are 1) how does the rapid drop in individual tree transpiration impact the temporal and spatial extent of evapotranspiration and 2) how does the subsequent increase in soil moisture and lower C inputs and N uptake impact soil C and N fluxes? We address these questions in two forest ecosystems using eddy covariance, sap flux, leaf gas exchange, plant hydraulic conductance, vegetation characteristics and soil trace gas measurements. We applied two sampling designs 1) subdivide the lodgepole pine forest spatially into varying degrees of bark beetle and blue stain infection and 2) follow the fluxes as the outbreak continues at a point in space encompassing the range of spatial variability in mortality. The first order impact of the bark beetle and blue stain fungi is dramatic in all tree species with a greater than 50% reduction in transpiration per tree within a month of infection. This change occurs even before the characteristic red tinge occurs in the needles or before the sapwood is stained blue. Leaf stomatal conductance declines more than either the biochemical or light harvesting components of photosynthesis immediately after infestation. The annual C sink at the spruce/fir forest has declined from -2.88 to -0.57 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 from 2006 to 2009. Annual evapotranspiration (ET) over the last five years at the spruce/fir forest now has an inverse relationship with precipitation because the last two years have seen a dramatic decrease (from 73 to 59 cm/year) in ET while precipitation has increased (from ~100 to 140 cm/year). Soil moisture in both forests has increased up to 100% within one growing season in

  8. Identification and field activity of a male-produced aggregation pheromone in the pine sawyer beetle, Monochamus galloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Pajares, Juan A; Alvarez, Gonzalo; Ibeas, Fernando; Gallego, Diego; Hall, David R; Farman, Dudley I

    2010-06-01

    The pine sawyer beetle, Monochamus galloprovincialis, is a pest of pine trees in Europe and North Africa. Previously considered a secondary pest of stressed and dying trees, it is now receiving considerable attention as a vector of the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the causal agent of a lethal wilting disease in susceptible species of pines. Adult beetles are attracted to traps baited with a kairomone blend consisting of a host volatile, alpha-pinene, and two bark beetle pheromone components, ipsenol and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol. More recently it has been shown that mature male M. galloprovincialis produce a pheromone that attracts mature females in a laboratory bioassay. Here, volatiles were collected from mature male and female M. galloprovincialis, and a compound produced specifically by mature males was identified as 2-undecyloxy-1-ethanol from its gas chromatographic retention times, its mass spectrum, and by comparison with synthetic standards. The naturally-derived and synthetic compounds elicited electroantennographic responses from both females and males. Sealed polyethylene vials and polyethylene sachets were shown to be effective dispensers with zero-order release, the latter giving a higher release rate than the former. In two field tests, multiple-funnel traps baited with synthetic 2-undecyloxy-1-ethanol caught both female and male M. galloprovincialis, with higher catches at the higher release rate. This compound also synergized the attractiveness of the kairomone blend, the combined mixture catching 80-140% more beetles than the sum of the catches to each bait separately and luring up to two beetles/trap/d in a moderate-density population. We conclude that 2-undecyloxy-1-ethanol is a male-produced aggregation pheromone of M. galloprovincialis. This is the first example of a sex-specific compound in the cerambycid subfamily Lamiinae with significant behavioral activity in the field at a range sufficient to make it a useful trap bait

  9. Evidence that (+)-endo-brevicomin is a male-produced component of the Southern pine beetle aggregation pheromone.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Brian T; Shepherd, William P; Pureswaran, Deepa S; Tashiro, Takuya; Mori, Kenji

    2007-08-01

    Previous research indicated that the aggregation pheromone of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis, is produced only by females, the sex that initiates attacks. We provide evidence indicating that secondarily arriving males augment mass aggregation by releasing the attractive synergist (+)-endo-brevicomin. Healthy pines artificially infested with both sexes of D. frontalis were significantly more attractive to conspecifics than trees infested solely with females. Coupled gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analyses of volatiles isolated from male beetles revealed substantially greater olfactory sensitivity by D. frontalis to endo-brevicomin than to any other component. The threshold of detection of both sexes for (+)-endo-brevicomin was four orders of magnitude lower than for its antipode and at least one order of magnitude lower than for either enantiomer of frontalin, the major female-produced aggregation pheromone component. Pairing with a female in a gallery stimulated individual male beetles to produce hundreds of nanograms of (+)-endo-brevicomin. (+)-endo-Brevicomin was detected in a small percentage of female D. frontalis, whereas (-)-endo-brevicomin was never detected in either sex. In field trapping bioassays, we confirmed that (+)-endo-brevicomin is a potent synergist for attractive combinations of frontalin and pine turpentine. However, (+)-endo-brevicomin failed to attract D. frontalis either when presented alone or in combination with turpentine. We postulate that mass colonization of host trees by D. frontalis is mediated by distinct semiochemicals from both sexes rather than females alone. Our discovery of a key aggregation pheromone component in such an apparently well-studied species implies that the pheromone models of other bark beetles could benefit from systematic reexamination using newer technologies. Additionally, baits fortified with (+)-endo-brevicomin may enhance pest management strategies that exploit

  10. The gut microbiota of the pine weevil is similar across Europe and resembles that of other conifer-feeding beetles.

    PubMed

    Berasategui, Aileen; Axelsson, Karolin; Nordlander, Göran; Schmidt, Axel; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Terenius, Olle; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2016-08-01

    The pine weevil (Hylobius abietis, Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an important pest of conifer seedlings in Europe. Despite its economic importance, little is known about the composition of its gut microbial community and the role it plays in mediating the weevil's ability to utilize conifers as a food source. Here, we characterized the gut bacterial communities of different populations of H. abietis across Europe and compared them to those of other beetles that occupy similar ecological niches. We demonstrate that the microbial community of H. abietis is similar at higher taxonomic levels (family and genus) across locations in Europe, with Wolbachia as the dominant microbe, followed by Enterobacteria and Firmicutes. Despite this similarity, we observed consistent differences between countries and locations, but not sexes. Our meta-analysis demonstrates that the gut bacterial community of the pine weevil is very similar to that of bark beetles that also exploit conifers as a food source. The Enterobacteriaceae symbionts of both host taxa are especially closely related phylogenetically. Conversely, the microbiota of H. abietis is distinct from that of closely related weevils feeding on nonconifer food sources, suggesting that the microbial community of the pine weevil is determined by the environment and may be relevant to host ecology. Furthermore, several H. abietis-associated members of the Enterobacteriaceae family are known to contain genes involved in terpenoid degradation. As such, we hypothesize that the gut microbial community is important for the utilization of conifer seedlings as a food source, either through the detoxification of plant secondary metabolites or through the supplementation of essential nutrients. PMID:27199034

  11. Climate and weather influences on spatial temporal patterns of mountain pine beetle populations in Washington and Oregon.

    PubMed

    Preisler, Haiganoush K; Hicke, Jeffrey A; Ager, Alan A; Hayes, Jane L

    2012-11-01

    Widespread outbreaks of mountain pine beetle in North America have drawn the attention of scientists, forest managers, and the public. There is strong evidence that climate change has contributed to the extent and severity of recent outbreaks. Scientists are interested in quantifying relationships between bark beetle population dynamics and trends in climate. Process models that simulate climate suitability for mountain pine beetle outbreaks have advanced our understanding of beetle population dynamics; however, there are few studies that have assessed their accuracy across multiple outbreaks or at larger spatial scales. This study used the observed number of trees killed by mountain pine beetles per square kilometer in Oregon and Washington, USA, over the past three decades to quantify and assess the influence of climate and weather variables on beetle activity over longer time periods and larger scales than previously studied. Influences of temperature and precipitation in addition to process model output variables were assessed at annual and climatological time scales. The statistical analysis showed that new attacks are more likely to occur at locations with climatological mean August temperatures >15 degrees C. After controlling for beetle pressure, the variables with the largest effect on the odds of an outbreak exceeding a certain size were minimum winter temperature (positive relationship) and drought conditions in current and previous years. Precipitation levels in the year prior to the outbreak had a positive effect, possibly an indication of the influence of this driver on brood size. Two-year cumulative precipitation had a negative effect, a possible indication of the influence of drought on tree stress. Among the process model variables, cold tolerance was the strongest indicator of an outbreak increasing to epidemic size. A weather suitability index developed from the regression analysis indicated a 2.5x increase in the odds of outbreak at locations

  12. Influence of CO/sub 2/ enrichment and phosphorus deficiency on chlorophyll A fluorescence, photosynthesis and growth of Pinus Radiata

    SciTech Connect

    Conroy, J.; Smillie, R.; Kuppers, M.; Barlow, S.

    1987-04-01

    Needles from phosphorus (P) deficient seedlings of P.radiata grown for 8 weeks at either 330 or 660 ul CO/sub 2/1/sup -1/ displayed chlorophyll fluorescence induction kinetics characteristic of structural changes within the chloroplast thylakoid membrane. The effect was greatest in plants grown at 660 ul CO/sub 2/1/sup -1/. By week 22, at 330 ul CO/sub 2/1/sup -1/, acclimation to P deficiency had occurred as shown by the similarity between the deficient and adequate P plants in their fluorescence and photosynthetic characteristics. Acclimation did not occur at 660 ul CO/sub 2/1/sup -1/. The light saturated rate of photosynthesis was higher at 660 ul CO/sub 2/1/sup -1/ when P was adequate but not when it was deficient. Similarly, growth was only enhanced by high CO/sub 2/ when P was adequate.

  13. Complete genome sequence of Habenaria mosaic virus, a new potyvirus infecting a terrestrial orchid (Habenaria radiata) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Hideki; Maeda, Takanori; Gara, I Wayan; Chiba, Sotaro; Maruyama, Kazuyuki; Tamada, Tetsuo; Suzuki, Nobuhiro

    2014-01-01

    The complete genomic sequence of Habenaria mosaic virus (HaMV), which infects terrestrial orchids (Habenaria radiata), has been determined. The genome is composed of 9,499 nucleotides excluding the 3'-terminal poly(A) tail, encoding a large polyprotein of 3,054 amino acids with the genomic features typical of a potyvirus. Putative proteolytic cleavage sites were identified by sequence comparison to those of known potyviruses. The HaMV polyprotein showed 58 % amino acid sequence identity to that encoded by the most closely related potyvirus, tobacco vein banding mosaic virus. Phylogenetic analysis of the polyprotein amino acid sequence and its coding sequences confirmed that HaMV formed a cluster with the chilli veinal mottle virus group, most of which infect solanaceous plants. These results suggest that HaMV is a distinct member of the genus Potyvirus. PMID:23857506

  14. The influences of perinatal challenge persist into the adolescent period in socially housed bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata).

    PubMed

    Laudenslager, Mark L; Natvig, Crystal; Corcoran, Christopher A; Blevins, Maria W; Pierre, Peter J; Bennett, Allyson J

    2013-04-01

    Social challenges during the perinatal period influence the mother-infant relationship in nonhuman primates and may affect the offspring's response to later social challenge(s). Relocation of a breeding colony of monkeys (Macaca radiata) created two groups of infants: one group experienced social group relocation to a new housing facility during the perinatal period (ATYPICAL) and the second group developed within a constant environment (TYPICAL). At a mean age of 25 months, all animals were removed from their natal group and placed in same sex adolescent social groups. Behavioral observations were collected after group formation or introduction to a new group. ATYPICAL subjects showed increased aggression and reduced affiliation compared to TYPICAL subjects. Hair cortisol in male subjects collected 6 months after introduction was elevated in the ATYPICAL subjects compared to TYPICAL subjects. These findings demonstrate that early life challenges affect behavior as well as stress hormone responses to social challenge in adolescence. PMID:22488164

  15. Whitebark pine vulnerability to climate-driven mountain pine beetle disturbance in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Logan, Jesse A; MacFarlane, William W; Willcox, Louisa

    2010-06-01

    Widespread outbreaks of mountain pine beetles (MPB) are occurring throughout the range of this native insect. Episodic outbreaks are a common occurrence in the beetles' primary host, lodgepole pine. Current outbreaks, however, are occurring in habitats where outbreaks either did not previously occur or were limited in scale. Herein, we address widespread, ongoing outbreaks in high-elevation, whitebark pine forests of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, where, due to an inhospitable climate, past outbreaks were infrequent and short lived. We address the basic question: are these outbreaks truly unprecedented and a threat to ecosystem continuity? In order to evaluate this question we (1) present evidence that the current outbreak is outside the historic range of variability; (2) examine system resiliency to MPB disturbance based on adaptation to disturbance and host defenses to MPB attack; and (3) investigate the potential domain of attraction to large-scale MPB disturbance based on thermal developmental thresholds, spatial structure of forest types, and the confounding influence of an introduced pathogen. We conclude that the loss of dominant whitebark pine forests, and the ecological services they provide, is likely under continuing climate warming and that new research and strategies are needed to respond to the crisis facing whitebark pine. PMID:20597278

  16. The bark beetle, Ips grandicollis, disrupts biological control of the woodwasp, Sirex noctilio, via fungal symbiont interactions.

    PubMed

    Yousuf, Fazila; Gurr, Geoff M; Carnegie, Angus J; Bedding, Robin A; Bashford, Richard; Gitau, Catherine W; Nicol, Helen I

    2014-04-01

    The corticoid fungus, Amylostereum areolatum, is deposited in pine trees by the woodwasp, Sirex noctilio, at the time of oviposition. This fungus is essential in S. noctilio larval growth and it is also a food source for Beddingia siricidicola, the nematode used for S. noctilio biological control. In recent years, the historically successful biological control programme has been disrupted in Australia by the bark beetle, Ips grandicollis. This study investigated whether the mechanism of this disruption involves a fungus, Ophiostoma ips, which I. grandicollis introduces into trees. In artificial and wood media, A. areolatum was unable to grow in areas occupied by O. ips. The latter fungus was faster growing, especially at 25 °C rather than 20 °C. Larval galleries of S. noctilio in field-collected samples were strongly associated with wood infested by A. areolatum and absent from areas affected by O. ips. The nematode failed to survive and reproduce on O. ips as it can on A. areolatum. Competitive interactions between O. ips and A. areolatum within the trap trees are demonstrated to be key factors in the negative effect of I. grandicollis on S. noctilio biological control programmes. PMID:24308452

  17. Understanding Boswellia papyrifera tree secondary metabolites through bark spectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girma, Atkilt; Skidmore, Andrew K.; de Bie, C. A. J. M.; Bongers, Frans

    2015-07-01

    Decision makers are concerned whether to tap or rest Boswellia Papyrifera trees. Tapping for the production of frankincense is known to deplete carbon reserves from the tree leading to production of less viable seeds, tree carbon starvation and ultimately tree mortality. Decision makers use traditional experience without considering the amount of metabolites stored or depleted from the stem-bark of the tree. This research was designed to come up with a non-destructive B. papyrifera tree metabolite estimation technique relevant for management using spectroscopy. The concentration of biochemicals (metabolites) found in the tree bark was estimated through spectral analysis. Initially, a random sample of 33 trees was selected, the spectra of bark measured with an Analytical Spectral Device (ASD) spectrometer. Bark samples were air dried and ground. Then, 10 g of sample was soaked in Petroleum ether to extract crude metabolites. Further chemical analysis was conducted to quantify and isolate pure metabolite compounds such as incensole acetate and boswellic acid. The crude metabolites, which relate to frankincense produce, were compared to plant properties (such as diameter and crown area) and reflectance spectra of the bark. Moreover, the extract was compared to the ASD spectra using partial least square regression technique (PLSR) and continuum removed spectral analysis. The continuum removed spectral analysis were performed, on two wavelength regions (1275-1663 and 1836-2217) identified through PLSR, using absorption features such as band depth, area, position, asymmetry and the width to characterize and find relationship with the bark extracts. The results show that tree properties such as diameter at breast height (DBH) and the crown area of untapped and healthy trees were strongly correlated to the amount of stored crude metabolites. In addition, the PLSR technique applied to the first derivative transformation of the reflectance spectrum was found to estimate the

  18. Constituents of twig bark of pear cultivars (Pyrus species).

    PubMed

    Tomosaka, Hideyuki; Tamimoto, Hideaki; Tsukagoshi, Yuki; Suzuki, Yasutsugu; Ooka, Hisako; Ota, Michiya

    2012-08-01

    Organic solvent extracts from fresh twig bark of Japanese pear cultivars (Pyrus serotina) Shinko and Nijisseiki, and European pear cultivar (P. communis) Le Lectier were obtained by maceration with n-hexane and EtOAc, and analyzed in GC-EIMS experiments. In these two Japanese cultivars, the lupeol, betulin, epifriedelinol, friedelin and arbutin contents of Nijisseiki were higher than those of Shinko. In the case of the lupane-type triterpenes, lupeol and betulin, the lupeol content of Japanese pears Shinko and Nijisseiki was higher than that of European pear Le Lectier. The betulin content of Le Lectier was higher than those of Shinko and Nijisseiki. Friedelane-type triterpenes, epifriedelinol and friedelin, were not detected in twig bark of Le Lectier. Quantitative and qualitative differences in the constituents of these three pear cultivars were observed. PMID:22978211

  19. Vacuum pyrolysis of bark residues and primary sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Pakdel, H.; Couture, G.; Roy, C. )

    1994-07-01

    Black spruce bark residues and primary sludges derived from the operation of the Daishowa pulp and paper plant in Quebec City, PQ, were processed by vacuum pyrolysis in a laboratory-scale batch reactor. The pyrolysis oil, water, charcoal, and gas were recovered and analyzed. The bark residues yielded 30.6% oil and 34.1% charcoal, and the primary sludges gave 40.1% oil and 30.1% charcoal on a feedstock air-dry basis. The oil phases recovered from the two pyrolysis experiments were fractionated into eight fractions; they were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Both pyrolysis oil samples had a high content of phenolic compounds. These oils contained various fine chemicals that have possible commercial potential. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, as well as long- and short-chain carboxylic acids, are also present in both pyrolysis oils.

  20. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Pinus eldarica Bark Extract

    PubMed Central

    Iravani, Siavash; Zolfaghari, Behzad

    2013-01-01

    Recently, development of reliable experimental protocols for synthesis of metal nanoparticles with desired morphologies and sizes has become a major focus of researchers. Green synthesis of metal nanoparticles using organisms has emerged as a nontoxic and ecofriendly method for synthesis of metal nanoparticles. The objectives of this study were production of silver nanoparticles using Pinus eldarica bark extract and optimization of the biosynthesis process. The effects of quantity of extract, substrate concentration, temperature, and pH on the formation of silver nanoparticles are studied. TEM images showed that biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (approximately in the range of 10–40 nm) were predominantly spherical in shape. The preparation of nano-structured silver particles using P. eldarica bark extract provides an environmentally friendly option, as compared to currently available chemical and/or physical methods. PMID:24083233

  1. Cell differentiation, secondary cell-wall formation and transformation of callus tissue of Pinus radiata D. Don.

    PubMed

    Möller, Ralf; McDonald, Armando G; Walter, Christian; Harris, Philip J

    2003-09-01

    Tracheid and sclereid differentiation was induced in callus cultures of Pinus radiata D. Don by culturing on a basal medium containing activated charcoal but no phytohormones; sclereids differentiated in callus derived from xylem strips, but not in callus derived from hypocotyl segments. The tracheids differentiated in hypocotyl-derived callus had helical, scalariform, reticulated or pitted secondary cell-wall patterns, but those differentiated in xylem-derived callus had a reticulate or pitted pattern. The thickened tracheid and sclereid walls contained lignin as indicated by the red colour reaction given with phloroglucinol-HCl. The presence of lignin in the cell walls of differentiated callus was confirmed using pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry by the detection of phenylpropanoid components derived from lignin. Lignin was also detected using solid-state (13)C cross-polarisation/magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and quantified as thioglycolic acid lignin. Monosaccharide analyses of the cell walls isolated from differentiated and undifferentiated calli showed that the cell walls of the differentiated calli contained higher proportions of glucose and mannose, consistent with the presence of greater proportions of gluco- and/or galactogluco-mannans in the secondary cell walls of the differentiated cells. A protocol for the stable transformation of undifferentiated, xylem-derived cultures was successfully developed. Transgenic cell lines were established following Biolistic particle bombardment with a plasmid containing the coding region of the nptII gene and the coding region of the cad gene from P. radiata. Expression of the nptII gene in transgenic lines was confirmed by an NPTII-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The overexpression of cad in the transgenic lines resulted in a down-regulation of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.195) expression. PMID:12811558

  2. Modelling Environmental Variation in Young's Modulus for Pinus radiata and Implications for Determination of Critical Buckling Height

    PubMed Central

    WATT, MICHAEL S.; MOORE, JOHN R.; FAÇON, JEAN-PHILIPPE; DOWNES, GEOFF M.; CLINTON, PETER W.; COKER, GRAHAM; DAVIS, MURRAY R.; SIMCOCK, ROBYN; PARFITT, ROGER L.; DANDO, JOHN; MASON, EUAN G.; BOWN, HORACIO E.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Although density-specific stiffness, E/ρ, (where E is Young's modulus and ρ is wood density) is often assumed constant by the elastic similarity model, and in determination of critical buckling height (Hcrit), few studies have tested this assumption within species. Here this assumption is tested for Pinus radiata growing across an environmental gradient, and theory is combined with data to develop a model of Young's modulus. • Methods Analyses use an extensive series of environmental plots covering the range of climatic and edaphic conditions over which P. radiata is grown in New Zealand. Reduced major axis regression was used to determine scaling exponents between log–log plots of Hcrit vs. groundline diameter (D), and E/ρ vs. D. Path analysis was used to identify significant direct and indirect (through stem slenderness) edaphic and climatic influences on E. • Key Results Density-specific stiffness exhibited 3-fold variation. As E/ρ scaled positively with D, the exponent of 0·95 between Hcrit and D exceeded the assumed value of 0·67 under constant E/ρ. The final path analysis model included mean air temperature in early autumn (Taut) and slenderness as significant (P < 0·05) positive direct influences on E. Tree leaf area index and Taut were indirectly associated with E through their significant (P < 0·05) positive direct relationship with stem slenderness. Young's modulus was most sensitive to Taut, followed by stem slenderness then leaf area index, and the final model explained 76 % of the variance in E. • Conclusions The findings suggest that within species E/ρ variation may influence Hcrit and the scaling exponent between D and Hcrit so important in assumptions regarding allometric relationships. The model presented may provide a useful means of determining variation in E, E/ρ and Hcrit across environmental gradients. PMID:16868003

  3. Extracting DNA from submerged pine wood.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, M Megan; Williams, Claire G

    2004-10-01

    A DNA extraction protocol for submerged pine logs was developed with the following properties: (i) high molecular weight DNA, (ii) PCR amplification of chloroplast and nuclear sequences, and (iii) high sequence homology to voucher pine specimens. The DNA extraction protocol was modified from a cetyltrimehtylammonium bromide (CTAB) protocol by adding stringent electrophoretic purification, proteinase K, RNAse, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), and Gene Releaser. Chloroplast rbcL (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase) could be amplified. Nuclear ribosomal sequences had >95% homology to Pinus taeda and Pinus palustris. Microsatellite polymorphism for PtTX2082 matched 2 of 14 known P. taeda alleles. Our results show DNA analysis for submerged conifer wood is feasible. PMID:15499414

  4. Acousto-Convective Drying of Pine Nuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhilin, A. A.; Fedorov, A. V.

    2014-07-01

    An experimental investigation of the process of drying pine nut grains has been carried out by three methods: acousto-convective, thermoconvective, and thermal. A qualitative and a quantitative comparison of the dynamics of the processes of moisture extraction from the nut grains for the considered drying methods have been made. To elucidate the mechanism of moisture extraction from the pine nut grains, we carried out a separate investigation of the process of drying the nut shell and the kernel. The obtained experimental data on the acousto-convective drying of nuts are well described by the relaxation model, the data on the thermoconvective drying are well described by the bilinear law, and the data on the thermal drying are well described by the combined method consisting of three time steps characterized by different kinetic regimes of drying.

  5. Whitebark pine, grizzly bears, and red squirrels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattson, D.J.; Kendall, K.C.; Reinhart, D.P.

    2001-01-01

    Appropriately enough, much of this book is devoted to discussing management challenges and techniques. However, the impetus for action—the desire to save whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis)—necessarily arises from the extent to which we cherish it for its beauty and its connections with other things that we value. Whitebark pine is at the hub of a fascinating web of relationships. It is the stuff of great stories (cf. Quammen 1994). One of the more interesting of these stories pertains to the dependence of certain grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) populations on its seeds, and the role that red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) play as an agent of transfer between tree and bear.

  6. [Chemical constituents from the bark of Hibiscus syriacus L].

    PubMed

    Zhang, E J; Kang, Q S; Zhang, Z

    1993-01-01

    Seven constituents (I-VII) were isolated from the bark of Hibiscus syriacus and identified as nonanedioic acid (I), suberic acid (II), 1-octarcosanol (III), beta-sitosterol (IV), 1,22-docosanediol (V), betulin (VI) and erythrotriol (VII). VII was obtained from the plant for the first time, I, II, III and VI were isolated from Malvaceae plants for the first time. PMID:8323683

  7. A new bixanthone derivative from the bark of Garcinia oblongifolia.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shixiu; Jiang, Yuyang; Li, Jiong; Qiu, Shengxiang; Chen, Tao

    2014-01-01

    A new bixanthone derivative, garciobioxanthone (1), was isolated from the EtOH extract of the bark of Garcinia oblongifolia, together with 11 known compounds. The structure of 1 was elucidated on the basis of 1D NMR, 2D NMR and other spectroscopic analysis. The structures of the known compounds were identified by comparison of their spectroscopic data with those reported in the references. PMID:24079308

  8. Phenolic glycosides from sugar maple (Acer saccharum) bark.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Tao; Wan, Chunpeng; González-Sarrías, Antonio; Kandhi, Vamsikrishna; Cech, Nadja B; Seeram, Navindra P

    2011-11-28

    Four new phenolic glycosides, saccharumosides A-D (1-4), along with eight known phenolic glycosides, were isolated from the bark of sugar maple (Acer saccharum). The structures of 1-4 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis. All compounds isolated were evaluated for cytotoxicity effects against human colon tumorigenic (HCT-116 and Caco-2) and nontumorigenic (CCD-18Co) cell lines. PMID:22032697

  9. Bioactive Constituents of the Stem Bark of Mitrephora glabra

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chen; Lee, Dongho; Graf, Tyler N.; Phifer, Sharnelle S.; Nakanishi, Yuka; Riswan, Soedarsono; Setyowati, Fransisca M.; Saribi, Achmad M.; Soejarto, Djaja D.; Farnsworth, Norman R.; Falkinham, Joseph O.; Kroll, David J.; Kinghorn, A. Douglas; Wani, Mansukh C.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.

    2009-01-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the stem bark of Mitrephora glabra yielded nine compounds, comprising three ent-kaurenoids (1–3), five polyacetylenic acids/esters (4–8), and one aporphine alkaloid, liriodenine (9). The structures of the six new compounds (1–3, 5, 7, and 8) were determined by spectroscopic data interpretation. All compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory activities against a panel of cancer cell lines and a battery of microorganisms. PMID:19874044

  10. New sucrose derivatives from the bark of Securidaca longipedunculata.

    PubMed

    De Tommasi, N; Piacente, S; De Simone, F; Pizza, C

    1993-01-01

    Two new bitter principles were isolated from the bark of Securidaca longipedunculata (Polygalaceae) and identified as beta-D-(3,4-disinapoyl)fructofuranosyl-alpha-D-(6-sinapoyl)g lucopyranoside and beta-D-(3-sinapoyl)fructofuranosyl-alpha-D-(6-sinapoyl)gluco pyranoside. The structures were elucidated by a combination of 1H nmr (1D, 2D COSY, 2D HOHAHA), 13C-nmr, and fabms spectra. PMID:8450315

  11. [Testate amoebas of pine forests in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Bobrov, A A; Krasil'nikov, P A

    2011-01-01

    The population of testate amoebas in the soils of pine forests in Mexico has been studied. In total, 68 species, varieties, and types of testate amoebas with cosmopolite distribution were found. The species diversity of the testate population includes hygrophilous species that differ from hygrophilous species with luvisols in higher andosols. Comparative analysis using the results of one available study of soil testate amoebas from Mexico has been carried out [Bonnet, 1977]. PMID:21870497

  12. Pine Creek Ranch, FY 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Mark E.

    2001-11-01

    Pine Creek Ranch was purchased in 1999 by the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs using Bonneville Power Administration Fish and Wildlife Habitat Mitigation funds. The 25,000 acre property will be managed in perpetuity for the benefit of fish and wildlife habitat. Major issues include: (1) Restoring quality spawning and rearing habitat for stealhead. Streams are incised and fish passage barriers exist from culverts and possibly beaver dams. In addition to stealhead habitat, the Tribes are interested in overall riparian recovery in the John Day River system for wildlife habitat, watershed values and other values such as recreation. (2) Future grazing for specific management purposes. Past grazing practices undoubtedly contributed to current unacceptable conditions. The main stem of Pine Creek has already been enrolled in the CREP program administered by the USDA, Natural Resource Conservation Service in part because of the cost-share for vegetation restoration in a buffer portion of old fields and in part because of rental fees that will help the Tribes to pay the property taxes. Grazing is not allowed in the riparian buffer for the term of the contract. (3) Noxious weeds are a major concern. (4) Encroachment by western juniper throughout the watershed is a potential concern for the hydrology of the creek. Mark Berry, Habitat Manager, for the Pine Creek Ranch requested the Team to address the following objectives: (1) Introduce some of the field staff and others to Proper Functioning Condition (PFC) assessments and concepts. (2) Do a PFC assessment on approximately 10 miles of Pine Creek. (3) Offer management recommendations. (4) Provide guidelines for monitoring.

  13. Neuropharmacological activities of Taxus wallichiana bark in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Hitender; Garg, Munish

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The bark of Taxus wallichiana is widely used for preparing a decoction and consumed as a tea by several tribal communities of the Indian subcontinent. The sedative, motor coordination, anxiolytic, and antidepressant effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of T. wallichiana bark and its ethylacetate fraction were evaluated in mice models of behavior analysis. Materials and Methods: The effects were evaluated on diazepam-induced sleeping time, elevated plus maze and light and dark box, and on the forced swimming test. General locomotor activity and motor coordination effects were evaluated in the actophotmeter and rota-rod tests respectively. Statistical Analysis: Results are expressed as mean ± standard error of the mean. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA, followed by post-hoc Dunnett's test. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001 were considered as significant. Results: Both the hydroalcoholic extract and ethylacetate fraction showed a marked decrease in latency of sleep onset, prolonged the diazepam-induced sleeping time, decreased spontaneous locomotor activity; whereas ethylacetate fraction produced anxiolytic and antidepressant activity. Conclusions: Both hydroalcoholic extract and its ethylacetate fraction of the bark of T. wallichiana have bioactive principles, which induce neuropharmacological changes. PMID:26069368

  14. Coffee Berry Borer Joins Bark Beetles in Coffee Klatch

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Torto, Baldwyn; Mwenda, Dickson; Troeger, Armin; Borgemeister, Christian; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Francke, Wittko

    2013-01-01

    Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and α-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms. PMID:24073204

  15. Antibacterial Effect of Juglans Regia Bark against Oral Pathologic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Zakavi, Faramarz; Golpasand Hagh, Leila; Daraeighadikolaei, Arash; Farajzadeh Sheikh, Ahmad; Daraeighadikolaei, Arsham; Leilavi Shooshtari, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background. In this study antimicrobial effect of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Juglans regia bark in Iran was evaluated on four different oral bacteria, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Methods. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of Juglans regia bark were prepared by using disk diffusion technique and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) methods. Tetracycline 30 μg and Erythromycin 15 μg were used as positive control and water as negative control in disk diffusion and MIC methods. Data were analyzed by ANOVA test. Results. The results showed that S. sanguis and S. mutans were the most sensitive and the most resistant bacteria against ethanolic and aqueous extracts, respectively. Ethanolic extract had significant antibacterial effect against all tested bacteria. Aqueous extract did not show antibacterial effect on S. mutans, in contrast to ethanolic extract. Aqueous extract had significantly antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus, S. salivarius, and S. sanguis compared to control (P < 0.0001), but it did not show effect on S. mutans when compared with Erythromycin. According to the obtained MIC values, ethanol extract of Juglans regia bark had the lowest rate. Conclusion. The results may provide the basis for using natural antimicrobial substance for oral hygiene prophylaxis purposes. PMID:23878540

  16. Molluscicidal activity of Punica granatum bark and Canna indica root.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, S M; Singh, D K

    2000-11-01

    The molluscicidal activity of Punica granatum Linn. (Punicaceae) and Canna indica Linn. (Cannaceae) against the snail Lymnaea acuminata was studied. The molluscicidal activity of P. granatum bark and C. indica root was found to be both time and dose dependent. The toxicity of P. granatum bark was more pronounced than that of C. indica. The 24 h LC(50) of the column-purified root of C. indica was 6.54 mg/l whereas that of the column-purified bark of P. granatum was 4.39 mg/l. The ethanol extract of P. granatum (24 h LC(50): 22.42 mg/l) was more effective than the ethanol extract of C. indica (24 h LC(50): 55.65 mg/l) in killing the test animals. P. granatum and C. indica may be used as potent molluscicides since the concentrations used to kill the snails were not toxic for the fish Colisa fasciatus, which shares the same habitat with the snail L. acuminata. PMID:11050667

  17. Phenolic extracts from Acacia mangium bark and their antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liangliang; Chen, Jiahong; Wang, Yongmei; Wu, Dongmei; Xu, Man

    2010-05-01

    Phenolic compounds are present at very high concentrations in the bark of Acacia mangium. These compounds are known to have strong antioxidant activity and thus different beneficial effects on human health. Phenolic compounds in bark of A. mangium were extracted and their antioxidant activities were investigated using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. A central composite design has been employed to optimize the experimental conditions for a high total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The desirability function approach has been employed to simultaneously optimize the three responses: total phenols, antiradical activity and FRAP. An extraction time of 90 min, liquid-solid ratio of 5, and temperature of 50 degrees C was predicted for the optimum experimental conditions using the desirability function. A significant linear relationship between antioxidant potency, antiradical activity and the content of phenolic compounds of bark extracts was observed. The structures of condensed tannins isolated from A. mangium were characterized by MALDI-TOF MS analyses. Condensed tannin oligomers from A. mangium were shown to be heterogeneous mixtures consisting of procyanidin and prodelphinidin structural units with polymerization degrees up to 9. PMID:20657499

  18. Antibacterial Effect of Juglans Regia Bark against Oral Pathologic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zakavi, Faramarz; Golpasand Hagh, Leila; Daraeighadikolaei, Arash; Farajzadeh Sheikh, Ahmad; Daraeighadikolaei, Arsham; Leilavi Shooshtari, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background. In this study antimicrobial effect of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Juglans regia bark in Iran was evaluated on four different oral bacteria, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Methods. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of Juglans regia bark were prepared by using disk diffusion technique and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) methods. Tetracycline 30  μ g and Erythromycin 15  μ g were used as positive control and water as negative control in disk diffusion and MIC methods. Data were analyzed by ANOVA test. Results. The results showed that S. sanguis and S. mutans were the most sensitive and the most resistant bacteria against ethanolic and aqueous extracts, respectively. Ethanolic extract had significant antibacterial effect against all tested bacteria. Aqueous extract did not show antibacterial effect on S. mutans, in contrast to ethanolic extract. Aqueous extract had significantly antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus, S. salivarius, and S. sanguis compared to control (P < 0.0001), but it did not show effect on S. mutans when compared with Erythromycin. According to the obtained MIC values, ethanol extract of Juglans regia bark had the lowest rate. Conclusion. The results may provide the basis for using natural antimicrobial substance for oral hygiene prophylaxis purposes. PMID:23878540

  19. Pine Gene Discovery Project - Final Report - 08/31/1997 - 02/28/2001

    SciTech Connect

    Whetten, R. W.; Sederoff, R. R.; Kinlaw, C.; Retzel, E.

    2001-04-30

    Integration of pines into the large scope of plant biology research depends on study of pines in parallel with study of annual plants, and on availability of research materials from pine to plant biologists interested in comparing pine with annual plant systems. The objectives of the Pine Gene Discovery Project were to obtain 10,000 partial DNA sequences of genes expressed in loblolly pine, to determine which of those pine genes were similar to known genes from other organisms, and to make the DNA sequences and isolated pine genes available to plant researchers to stimulate integration of pines into the wider scope of plant biology research. Those objectives have been completed, and the results are available to the public. Requests for pine genes have been received from a number of laboratories that would otherwise not have included pine in their research, indicating that progress is being made toward the goal of integrating pine research into the larger molecular biology research community.

  20. exo-Brevicomin biosynthesis in the fat body of the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae.

    PubMed

    Song, Minmin; Gorzalski, Andrew; Nguyen, Trang T; Liu, Xibei; Jeffrey, Christopher; Blomquist, Gary J; Tittiger, Claus

    2014-02-01

    exo-Brevicomin (exo-7-ethyl-5-methyl-6,8-dioxabicyclo[3.2.1]octane) is an important semiochemical for a number of beetle species, including the highly destructive mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae. It also has been found in other insects and even in the African elephant. Despite its significance, little is known about its biosynthesis. In order to fill this gap and to identify new molecular targets for potential pest management methods, we performed gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of cell cultures and in vitro assays of various D. ponderosae tissues with exo-brevicomin intermediates, analogs, and inhibitors. We confirmed that exo-brevicomin was synthesized by "unfed" males after emerging from the brood tree. Furthermore, in contrast to the paradigm established for biosynthesis of monoterpenoid pheromone components in bark beetles, exo-brevicomin was produced in the fat body, and not in the anterior midgut. The first committed step involves decarboxylation or decarbonylation of ω-3-decenoic acid, which is derived from a longer-chain precursor via β-oxidation, to (Z)-6-nonen-2-ol. This secondary alcohol is converted to the known precursor, (Z)-6-nonen-2-one, and further epoxidized by a cytochrome P450 to 6,7-epoxynonan-2-one. The keto-epoxide is stable at physiological pH, suggesting that its final cyclization to form exo-brevicomin is enzyme-catalyzed. exo-Brevicomin production is unusual in that tissue not derived from ectoderm apparently is involved. PMID:24532213

  1. Investigation into the lignin decomposition mechanism by analysis of the pyrolysis product of Pinus radiata.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Min; Jae, Jungho; Myung, Soyoung; Sung, Bong Hyun; Dong, Jong-In; Park, Young-Kwon

    2016-11-01

    Lignin pyrolysis chemistry was investigated via the analysis of the products obtained from the fast pyrolysis of a pine wood at different temperatures. Methoxy phenols, such as guaiacols and eugenols, were produced mainly at 375 and 475°C, while non-methoxy phenols, such as alkyl phenols and pyrocatechols were dominant at 525 and 575°C. At 575°C, aromatic hydrocarbons were formed together with larger amounts of light hydrocarbon gases. When the temperature was increased from 375 and 475°C, the yield of pyrolytic lignin was increased, whereas its average molecular weight was decreased. At 525°C, smaller molecular pyrolytic lignin with a maximum concentration of phenolic hydroxyl groups was produced due to the increased secondary cracking of the reaction intermediates. On the other hand, at 575°C, larger molecular pyrolytic lignin with smaller amounts of phenolic hydroxyl groups was produced due to the increased condensation activity of the pyrolysis reaction intermediates. PMID:27501034

  2. Bioaccessibility in vitro of nutraceuticals from bark of selected Salix species.

    PubMed

    Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Sugier, Danuta; Dziki, Dariusz; Sugier, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and to compare the extractability, bioaccessibility, and bioavailability in vitro of antioxidative compounds from bark of selected Salix species: S. alba (SA), S. daphnoides (SD), S. purpurea (SP), and S. daphnoides x purpurea (SDP) hybrid willow clones originating from their natural habitats and cultivated on the sandy soil. The highest amount of phenolic glycosides was found in the bark of SDP and SD. The best source of phenolics was bark of SDP. The highest content of flavonoids were found in SD bark samples, whereas the highest concentration of bioaccessible and bioavailable phenolic acids was determined in SDP bark. Bark of all tested Salix species showed significant antiradical activity. This properties are strongly dependent on extraction system and genetic factors. Regardless of Salix genotypes, the lowest chelating power was found for chemically-extractable compounds. Bark of all Salix species contained ethanol-extractable compounds with reducing ability. Besides this, high bioaccessibility and bioavailability in vitro of Salix bark phytochemicals were found. Obtained results indicate that extracts from bark tested Salix genotypes can provide health promoting benefits to the consumers; however, this problem requires further study. PMID:24696660

  3. Spatially distinct responses within willow to bark stripping by deer: effects on insect herbivory.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Motonobu; Nakamura, Masahiro

    2015-10-01

    Within individual plants, cervid herbivory may cause positive or negative plant-mediated effects on insect herbivores, depending on where it occurs. Using a combination of field observations and artificial bark-stripping experiments in Hokkaido, Japan, we examined the plant-mediated effects of bark stripping by sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) on insect herbivory in two spatially distinct parts of willow (Salix udensis) trees: resprouting leaves below bark-stripping wounds and canopy leaves above. Natural and artificial bark stripping stimulated resprouting from trunks below wounds. Resprouting leaves on bark-stripped trees had lower total phenolics, condensed tannin, and C/N ratios than did canopy leaves on control trees. Herbivory rates were higher in resprouting leaves on bark-stripped trees than in canopy leaves on controls. Conversely, above-wound canopy leaves on bark-stripped trees had higher total phenolics than did those on controls, while herbivory rates were lower in the canopy leaves of bark-stripped trees than in those on controls. These results demonstrate that plant-mediated effects of bark stripping diverge between plant tissues below and above wounds in individual willow trees. We submit that focusing on multiple plant parts can elucidate plant-mediated effects at the whole-plant scale. PMID:26253347

  4. Spatially distinct responses within willow to bark stripping by deer: effects on insect herbivory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Motonobu; Nakamura, Masahiro

    2015-10-01

    Within individual plants, cervid herbivory may cause positive or negative plant-mediated effects on insect herbivores, depending on where it occurs. Using a combination of field observations and artificial bark-stripping experiments in Hokkaido, Japan, we examined the plant-mediated effects of bark stripping by sika deer ( Cervus nippon yesoensis) on insect herbivory in two spatially distinct parts of willow ( Salix udensis) trees: resprouting leaves below bark-stripping wounds and canopy leaves above. Natural and artificial bark stripping stimulated resprouting from trunks below wounds. Resprouting leaves on bark-stripped trees had lower total phenolics, condensed tannin, and C/N ratios than did canopy leaves on control trees. Herbivory rates were higher in resprouting leaves on bark-stripped trees than in canopy leaves on controls. Conversely, above-wound canopy leaves on bark-stripped trees had higher total phenolics than did those on controls, while herbivory rates were lower in the canopy leaves of bark-stripped trees than in those on controls. These results demonstrate that plant-mediated effects of bark stripping diverge between plant tissues below and above wounds in individual willow trees. We submit that focusing on multiple plant parts can elucidate plant-mediated effects at the whole-plant scale.

  5. Bioaccessibility In Vitro of Nutraceuticals from Bark of Selected Salix Species

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and to compare the extractability, bioaccessibility, and bioavailability in vitro of antioxidative compounds from bark of selected Salix species: S. alba (SA), S. daphnoides (SD), S. purpurea (SP), and S. daphnoides x purpurea (SDP) hybrid willow clones originating from their natural habitats and cultivated on the sandy soil. The highest amount of phenolic glycosides was found in the bark of SDP and SD. The best source of phenolics was bark of SDP. The highest content of flavonoids were found in SD bark samples, whereas the highest concentration of bioaccessible and bioavailable phenolic acids was determined in SDP bark. Bark of all tested Salix species showed significant antiradical activity. This properties are strongly dependent on extraction system and genetic factors. Regardless of Salix genotypes, the lowest chelating power was found for chemically-extractable compounds. Bark of all Salix species contained ethanol-extractable compounds with reducing ability. Besides this, high bioaccessibility and bioavailability in vitro of Salix bark phytochemicals were found. Obtained results indicate that extracts from bark tested Salix genotypes can provide health promoting benefits to the consumers; however, this problem requires further study. PMID:24696660

  6. AmeriFlux US-Vcp Valles Caldera Ponderosa Pine

    DOE Data Explorer

    Litvak, Marcy [University of New Mexico

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Vcp Valles Caldera Ponderosa Pine. Site Description - The Valles Caldera Ponderosa Pine site is located in the 1200km2 Jemez River basin of the Jemez Mountains in north-central New Mexico at the southern margin of the Rocky Mountain ecoregion. The Ponderosa Pine forest is the warmest and lowest (below 2700m) zone of the forests in the Valles Caldera National Preserve. Its vegetation is composed of a Ponderosa Pine (Pinus Ponderosa) overstory and a Gambel Oak (Quercus gambelii) understory.

  7. Cryptically patterned moths perceive bark structure when choosing body orientations that match wing color pattern to the bark pattern.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chang-Ku; Moon, Jong-Yeol; Lee, Sang-Im; Jablonski, Piotr G

    2013-01-01

    Many moths have wing patterns that resemble bark of trees on which they rest. The wing patterns help moths to become camouflaged and to avoid predation because the moths are able to assume specific body orientations that produce a very good match between the pattern on the bark and the pattern on the wings. Furthermore, after landing on a bark moths are able to perceive stimuli that correlate with their crypticity and are able to re-position their bodies to new more cryptic locations and body orientations. However, the proximate mechanisms, i.e. how a moth finds an appropriate resting position and orientation, are poorly studied. Here, we used a geometrid moth Jankowskia fuscaria to examine i) whether a choice of resting orientation by moths depends on the properties of natural background, and ii) what sensory cues moths use. We studied moths' behavior on natural (a tree log) and artificial backgrounds, each of which was designed to mimic one of the hypothetical cues that moths may perceive on a tree trunk (visual pattern, directional furrow structure, and curvature). We found that moths mainly used structural cues from the background when choosing their resting position and orientation. Our findings highlight the possibility that moths use information from one type of sensory modality (structure of furrows is probably detected through tactile channel) to achieve crypticity in another sensory modality (visual). This study extends our knowledge of how behavior, sensory systems and morphology of animals interact to produce crypsis. PMID:24205118

  8. Bionomics of Asian Citrus Psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae) Associated with Orange Jasmine Hedges in Southeast Central Florida, with Special Reference to Biological Control by Tamarixia radiata.

    PubMed

    Hall, David G; Rohrig, Eric

    2015-06-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is an important pest in Florida because it transmits bacteria responsible for citrus huanglongbing disease. In addition to infesting citrus, orange jasmine (Murraya exotica L.) is one of Asian citrus psyllid's preferred host plants and is widely grown as an ornamental hedge. We report on Asian citrus psyllid bionomics over three years at five urban plantings of orange jasmine and on biological control of Asian citrus psyllid by a parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston). T. radiata had been released in Florida shortly after Asian citrus psyllid was first found, and the parasitoid was known to be established at each planting. Additionally, three new T. radiata haplotypes were released every 3 wk at three plantings during the first study year (one haplotype per planting, over all releases an average of 17 parasitoids per linear meter of hedge); all three haplotypes were released at a fourth planting beginning midway through the study (over all releases, an average combined total of 202 parasitoids per linear meter of hedge). Asian citrus psyllid populations were present year-round at each planting, often at large levels. Such plantings may pose risk to commercial citrus as Asian citrus psyllid reservoirs. Releases of the new haplotypes did not cause any measurable reduction in Asian citrus psyllid population levels during the study, and ironically percentage parasitism was generally highest at a planting where no releases were made. Higher release rates might have been more effective. The probability is discussed that repetitive pruning of orange jasmine reduced the full potential of T. radiata against Asian citrus psyllid in this study. PMID:26470246

  9. Aerobic moving bed bioreactor performance: a comparative study of removal efficiencies of kraft mill effluents from Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus globulus as raw material.

    PubMed

    Villamar, C A; Jarpa, M; Decap, J; Vidal, G

    2009-01-01

    A Moving Bed Bioreactor (MBBR) was operated during 333 days. Two different effluents were fed in six different phases. Phases I and II were fed with effluent where Pinus radiata was used as raw material, while phases III to VI were fed with effluent where Eucalyptus globulus was used as raw material. The HRT was reduced from 85 to 4 h, and the BOD(5):N:P ratio (100:5:1, 100:3:1 and 100:1:1) was also simultaneously evaluated as an operation strategy. When MBBR was operated with Pinus radiata influent, the performance presents a high BOD(5) removal level (above 95%), although COD removal is below 60%. Most of the recalcitrant COD contained in the effluent has a molecular weight higher than 10,000 Da. When MBBR was operated with Eucalyptus globulus influent, the performance is around 97.9-97.6% and 68.6-65.1% for BOD(5) and COD, respectively (with HRT up to 17 h). In the Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus globus effluents, the color was mainly found in the molecular weight fraction up to 10,000 Daltons. PMID:19214005

  10. Detoxification potential and expression analysis of eutypine reducing aldehyde reductase (VrALR) during progressive drought and recovery in Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek roots.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Debashree; Mudalkar, Shalini; Reddy, Attipalli R

    2012-10-01

    Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants is an inevitable consequence of adverse environmental cues and the ability to detoxify deleterious by-products of ROS-mediated oxidation reactions reflect an important defence strategy to combat abiotic stress. Here, we have cloned the eutypine reducing aldehyde reductase gene (VrALR) from Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek roots. We have expressed and purified the VrALR protein and analyzed its enzyme kinetic parameters and catalytic efficiency with three different substrates to confirm its identity. The functional characterization of this enzyme was unravelled through heterologous expression of the gene in Escherichia coli BL21 and an oxidative stress-sensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant strain, W3O3-1-A. Finally, the endogenous VrALR enzyme activity and the mRNA expression patterns of the VrALR gene in the roots of V. radiata in response to progressive drought stress in vivo was studied to correlate the ROS-detoxifying role of this important enzyme under the influence of progressive drought stress. Our results, for the first time, demonstrate that eutypine reducing VrALR provides varying degree of stress tolerance in bacteria, yeast systems and also plays a promising protective role against oxidative stress in V. radiata roots during gradual water deprivation. The present study provides an unequivocal evidence to understand the crucial role of aldehyde reductase ROS-detoxifying system which is highly essential for developing stress tolerance in economically important crop plants. PMID:22837052

  11. EuroPineDB: a high-coverage web database for maritime pine transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pinus pinaster is an economically and ecologically important species that is becoming a woody gymnosperm model. Its enormous genome size makes whole-genome sequencing approaches are hard to apply. Therefore, the expressed portion of the genome has to be characterised and the results and annotations have to be stored in dedicated databases. Description EuroPineDB is the largest sequence collection available for a single pine species, Pinus pinaster (maritime pine), since it comprises 951 641 raw sequence reads obtained from non-normalised cDNA libraries and high-throughput sequencing from adult (xylem, phloem, roots, stem, needles, cones, strobili) and embryonic (germinated embryos, buds, callus) maritime pine tissues. Using open-source tools, sequences were optimally pre-processed, assembled, and extensively annotated (GO, EC and KEGG terms, descriptions, SNPs, SSRs, ORFs and InterPro codes). As a result, a 10.5× P. pinaster genome was covered and assembled in 55 322 UniGenes. A total of 32 919 (59.5%) of P. pinaster UniGenes were annotated with at least one description, revealing at least 18 466 different genes. The complete database, which is designed to be scalable, maintainable, and expandable, is freely available at: http://www.scbi.uma.es/pindb/. It can be retrieved by gene libraries, pine species, annotations, UniGenes and microarrays (i.e., the sequences are distributed in two-colour microarrays; this is the only conifer database that provides this information) and will be periodically updated. Small assemblies can be viewed using a dedicated visualisation tool that connects them with SNPs. Any sequence or annotation set shown on-screen can be downloaded. Retrieval mechanisms for sequences and gene annotations are provided. Conclusions The EuroPineDB with its integrated information can be used to reveal new knowledge, offers an easy-to-use collection of information to directly support experimental work (including microarray hybridisation), and

  12. 77 FR 45331 - White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of two meetings. SUMMARY: The White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Eureka, Nevada....

  13. 77 FR 58095 - White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice meeting. SUMMARY: The White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Eureka, Nevada....

  14. 76 FR 48800 - White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting cancellation. SUMMARY: The White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee meeting scheduled in...

  15. Boston Fern Prodcution in Whole Pine Tree Substrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate processed whole pine trees as an alternative container substrate for Boston fern production. Three whole pine tree (WPT) substrates and a commercial peat-lite mix (PL) were each amended per cubic meter with 0.59 kg micromax, 2.37 kg Harrell’s 16-6-12 Plus (4-5...

  16. 1. VIEW, LOOKING WEST, AT THE SITE OF THE PINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW, LOOKING WEST, AT THE SITE OF THE PINE LOG MILL. THE STONE RETAINING WALL ON THE RIGHT MARKS THE LOCATION OF THE 1896 20-STAMP FACILITY, EXPANDED SOUTH TO INCLUDE 20 ADDITIONAL STAMPS BY 1899 - Pine Log Mill, Southern Edge of Salt Spring Valley, Copperopolis, Calaveras County, CA

  17. Modeling Pine Plantation NEP Using Landsat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wynne, R. H.; Potter, C. S.; Blinn, C. E.

    2008-12-01

    The CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) ecosystem process model predicts terrestrial ecosystem fluxes using satellite-based inputs at a maximum geographic resolution of 30 meters to infer variability in forest carbon fluxes. We are using CASA to model pine plantation net ecosystem production (NEP) under a range of standard silvicultural prescriptions, primarily thinning by fertilization interactions. Landsat scenes from WRS path/row 14/35, 21/37, and 16/34 are being used. Within each frame, all available cloud-free scenes within a two- to three-year period have been obtained from the USGS EROS Data Center processed to L1T, and subsequently converted to top-of-atmosphere reflectance using standard methods and the latest calibration parameter files. Atmospheric amelioration started with dark object subtraction (band minimum) and only proceeded to more complex techniques as necessary. Subsequent to preprocessing, the reduced simple ratio (RSR; using global min/max) was calculated for all images for each WRS path/row. Pure pine pixels in each frame were identified using unsupervised classification of the most recent leaf-off scene. We developed four age classes using two decades of Landsat data over each WRS path/row. CASA runs, which require soil parameters, and gridded climate/solar radiation in addition to satellite-derived vegetation indices, are now complete. Soil respiration and productivity estimates are being evaluated using a regionwide network of validation sites spanning the range of loblolly pine (Texas to Virginia). Preliminary results indicate that Landsat-based process modeling (1) is necessary for the scale at which land is actually managed and (2) produces estimates with an accuracy and precision affording improved understanding and management of forest ecosystems.

  18. Nitrogen cycling responses to mountain pine beetle disturbance in a high elevation whitebark pine ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keville, Megan P.; Reed, Sasha C.; Cleveland, Cory C.

    2013-01-01

    Ecological disturbances can significantly affect biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, but the biogeochemical consequences of the extensive mountain pine beetle outbreak in high elevation whitebark pine (WbP) (Pinus albicaulis) ecosystems of western North America have not been previously investigated. Mountain pine beetle attack has driven widespread WbP mortality, which could drive shifts in both the pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N) within these ecosystems. Because N availability can limit forest regrowth, understanding how beetle-induced mortality affects N cycling in WbP stands may be critical to understanding the trajectory of ecosystem recovery. Thus, we measured above- and belowground N pools and fluxes for trees representing three different times since beetle attack, including unattacked trees. Litterfall N inputs were more than ten times higher under recently attacked trees compared to unattacked trees. Soil inorganic N concentrations also increased following beetle attack, potentially driven by a more than two-fold increase in ammonium (NH4+) concentrations in the surface soil organic horizon. However, there were no significant differences in mineral soil inorganic N or soil microbial biomass N concentrations between attacked and unattacked trees, implying that short-term changes in N cycling in response to the initial stages of WbP attack were restricted to the organic horizon. Our results suggest that while mountain pine beetle attack drives a pulse of N from the canopy to the forest floor, changes in litterfall quality and quantity do not have profound effects on soil biogeochemical cycling, at least in the short-term. However, continuous observation of these important ecosystems will be crucial to determining the long-term biogeochemical effects of mountain pine beetle outbreaks.

  19. Microscopic and UPLC-UV-MS analyses of authentic and commercial yohimbe (Pausinystalia johimbe) bark samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yohimbine is the major alkaloid found in the stem-bark of yohimbe, Pausinystalia johimbe (Rubiaceae), an evergreen tree native to Africa. A number of yohimbe products are sold in USA as dietary supplements. Hand-sections of the stem-bark were prepared and the anatomical features were studied by ligh...

  20. Co-occurence of Two Invasive Species: The Banded and European Elm Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The invasive European elm bark beetle, Scolytus multistriatus (Marsham), was first detected a century ago and now occurs in most of the continental United States. The invasive banded elm bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov, native to Asia, was discovered in the United States in 2003 and is now...

  1. Toxicity and antioxidant capacity of Frangula alnus Mill. bark and its active component emodin.

    PubMed

    Brkanac, Sandra Radić; Gerić, Marko; Gajski, Goran; Vujčić, Valerija; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera; Kremer, Dario; Domijan, Ana-Marija

    2015-12-01

    In the present study toxicity of Frangula alnus Mill. bark, widely used as laxative, was investigated. Human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBLs) were treated with F. alnus bark extract or emodin (emodin is bark component with laxative property), and cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and parameters of oxidative stress were assessed. Also, polyphenol content of bark extract and antioxidant activity of the extract and emodin measured by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP methods were examined. The bark extract (500 μg/ml) produced cell death and DNA damage, while level of ROS changed at 250 μg/ml. Emodin induced cell death and DNA damage at 150 μg/ml and 200 μg/ml, respectively, and the increase of ROS was observed at 25 μg/ml. These results suggest that both, bark extract and emodin, are cyto/genotoxic to HPBLs and that oxidative stress is involved in the mechanism of their toxicity. The results on antioxidant activity showed that, unlike emodin, bark extract possess moderate antioxidant capacity (44.6%, 46.8% and 2.25 mmol Fe(2+)/g measured by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assay, respectively) that can be related to relatively high phenolic content (116.07 mg/g). However, due to toxicological properties use of F. alnus bark as well as emodin-containing preparations should be taken with caution. PMID:26399165

  2. Divergence among barking frogs (Eleutherodactylus augusti) in the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, C.S.; Sullivan, B.K.; Malone, J.H.; Schwalbe, C.R.

    2004-01-01

    Barking frogs (Eleutherodactylus augusti) are distributed from southern Mexico along the Sierra Madre Occidental into Arizona and the Sierra Madre Oriental into Texas and New Mexico. Barking frogs in Arizona and most of Texas live in rocky areas in oak woodland, while those in New Mexico and far western Texas live in rodent burrows in desertscrub. Barking frogs in each of the three states have distinct coloration and differ in sexually dimorphic characters, female vocalization, and skin toxicity. We analyzed advertisement call variation and conducted a phylogenetic analysis using mitochondrial DNA sequences (ND2 and tRNA regions) for barking frogs from these three states. Advertisement calls of frogs from Arizona were significantly longer in duration, higher in frequency, and had longer duration pulses than those of frogs from either New Mexico or Texas; frogs from these latter two sites were indistinguishable in these call variables. Phylogenetic analysis showed deep divisions among barking frogs from the three states. Differences in call structure, coloration, and mitochondrial DNA sequences strongly suggest that barking frogs in Arizona are reproductively isolated from those in New Mexico and Texas. Our results indicate that either northern populations are connected via gene flow through southern Mexico (i.e., they are subspecies as currently recognized), or represent independent lineages as originally described (i.e., western barking frogs, E. cactorum in AZ, and the eastern barking frogs, E. latrans in NM, TX).

  3. Parasiticidal effects of Morus alba root bark extracts against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infecting grass carp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) is an important fish parasite that can result in significant losses in aquaculture. In order to find efficacious drugs to control Ich, the root bark of Morus alba, a traditional Chinese medicine, was evaluated for its antiprotozoal activity. The M. alba root bark w...

  4. Nutrient Availability from Douglas Fir Bark in Response to Substrate pH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two studies were conducted to determine the influence of substrate pH on nutrient availability in douglas fir bark (DFB). Douglas fir bark was amended with either calcium carbonate (CaCO3) or calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] at 13 rates to generate substrates with low to high pH. A non-amended control ...

  5. Bark water uptake promotes localized hydraulic recovery in coastal redwood crown.

    PubMed

    Mason Earles, J; Sperling, Or; Silva, Lucas C R; McElrone, Andrew J; Brodersen, Craig R; North, Malcolm P; Zwieniecki, Maciej A

    2016-02-01

    Coastal redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), the world's tallest tree species, rehydrates leaves via foliar water uptake during fog/rain events. Here we examine if bark also permits water uptake in redwood branches, exploring potential flow mechanisms and biological significance. Using isotopic labelling and microCT imaging, we observed that water entered the xylem via bark and reduced tracheid embolization. Moreover, prolonged bark wetting (16 h) partially restored xylem hydraulic conductivity in isolated branch segments and whole branches. Partial hydraulic recovery coincided with an increase in branch water potential from about -5.5 ± 0.4 to -4.2 ± 0.3 MPa, suggesting localized recovery and possibly hydraulic isolation. As bark water uptake rate correlated with xylem osmotic potential (R(2)  = 0.88), we suspect a symplastic role in transferring water from bark to xylem. Using historical weather data from typical redwood habitat, we estimated that bark and leaves are wet more than 1000 h per year on average, with over 30 events being sufficiently long (>24 h) to allow for bark-assisted hydraulic recovery. The capacity to uptake biologically meaningful volumes of water via bark and leaves for localized hydraulic recovery throughout the crown during rain/fog events might be physiologically advantageous, allowing for relatively constant transpiration. PMID:26178179

  6. Gniditrin is the main diterpenoid constituent in the bark of Daphne mezereum L.

    PubMed

    Görick, C; Melzig, M F

    2013-07-01

    The bark of Daphne mezereum L. is known as toxic drug due to the presence of diterpene esters. The phytochemical analysis of the bark used for preparation of homeopathic mother tinctures showed that gniditrin was the main diterpene constituent, only in the fruits of D. mezereum mezerein could be detected. The complete NMR data of gniditrin are published for the first time. PMID:23923651

  7. Contemporary use of bark for medicine by two Salishan native elders of southeast Vancouver Island, Canada.

    PubMed

    Turner, N J; Hebda, R J

    1990-04-01

    Elders of the Saanich and Cowichan Coast Salish people of southern Vancouver Island treat, or have treated in the recent past, many ailments with bark preparations. Interviews with two elder Salishan women revealed that: respiratory ailments were treated with bark of Abies grandis, Arbutus menziesii, Cornus nuttallii, Prunus emarginata, Pseudotsuga menziesii and Quercus garryana; digestive tract ailments with the bark of Abies grandis, Alnus rubra, Arbutus menziesii, Malus fusca. Oemleria cerasiformis, Populus tremuloides, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Rhamnus purshianus and Rubus spectabilis; gynaecological problems with bark of Abies grandis, Arbutus menziesii, Populus tremuloides, Prunus emarginata, Pseudotsuga menziesii and Sambucus racemosa; and dermatological complaints with the bark of Mahonia spp., Rubus spectabilis, and Symphoricarpos albus. Tree barks have also been used to treat fevers, diabetes, kidney problems, sore eyes, and haemorrhaging, and also as general tonics. Two recipes for general-purpose multi-bark medicines are provided. In most cases, infusions or decoctions of barks are used. The medicines are drunk or applied externally as a wash. PMID:2345461

  8. Dendrochronology of bristlecone pine: a progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, C.W.; Graybill, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    Dendrochronological studies of bristlecone pine, Pinus longaeva, have produced a continuous tree-ring sequence back to 6700 BC for the White Mountains of California and to 3258 BC for east-central Nevada. The primary focus of the project is to provide dendrochronolgically-dated decade samples for an interlaboratory calibration of the /sup 14/C time scale. The primary climatic signal that can be isolated in both the California and Nevada series is annual moisture variability. Current efforts are directed at calibration of the tree-ring series with instrumented climatic series.

  9. Phytochemical Analysis and Biological Activities of Cola nitida Bark

    PubMed Central

    Dah-Nouvlessounon, Durand; Adoukonou-Sagbadja, Hubert; Diarrassouba, Nafan; Sina, Haziz; Adjanohoun, Adolphe; Inoussa, Mariam; Akakpo, Donald; Gbenou, Joachim D.; Kotchoni, Simeon O.; Dicko, Mamoudou H.; Baba-Moussa, Lamine

    2015-01-01

    Kola nut is chewed in many West African cultures and is used ceremonially. The aim of this study is to investigate some biological effects of Cola nitida's bark after phytochemical screening. The bark was collected, dried, and then powdered for the phytochemical screening and extractions. Ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of C. nitida were used in this study. The antibacterial activity was tested on ten reference strains and 28 meat isolated Staphylococcus strains by disc diffusion method. The antifungal activity of three fungal strains was determined on the Potato-Dextrose Agar medium mixed with the appropriate extract. The antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS methods. Our data revealed the presence of various potent phytochemicals. For the reference and meat isolated strains, the inhibitory diameter zone was from 17.5 ± 0.7 mm (C. albicans) to 9.5 ± 0.7 mm (P. vulgaris). The MIC ranged from 0.312 mg/mL to 5.000 mg/mL and the MBC from 0.625 mg/mL to >20 mg/mL. The highest antifungal activity was observed with F. verticillioides and the lowest one with P. citrinum. The two extracts have an excellent reducing free radical activity. The killing effect of A. salina larvae was perceptible at 1.04 mg/mL. The purified extracts of Cola nitida's bark can be used to hold meat products and also like phytomedicine. PMID:25767723

  10. The layer-flame method of bark burning

    SciTech Connect

    Fincker, F.Z.; Rundygin, Y.A.; Kubyshkin, I.B.

    1995-11-01

    At the present time many countries including Russia have at their disposal a considerable number of abled boiler installations designed for an utilization of different biomasses and wastes of the timber industry (such as peat, bark, sawdust, chips and so on). The traditional technology of burning with the application of layer or flame processes, especially in case of unstable heat-technical characteristics of a fuel to be used does not guarantee a reliable and economical performance of a boiler installation. For example, dampness of bark used in enterprises of the pulp and paper industry as an energetic fuel may vary from 50 till 70 per cent during a short period of time. Operation of the boiler installation is also complicated by variable composition of a fuel. Fuel particles may be either very small or very coarse, that is, they may differ from one another, according to their sizes, by thousand times. To flatten the heat-technical and fractional characteristics of a fuel there is used a difficult and cumbersome equipment the performance of which is complicated by the possibility that some of coarse metallic or mineral fractions can penetrate together with a fuel into the process. There is needed a search for new ways of updating the efficiency of energetic application of such fuels. Investigations of this problem are being carried out in a few directions including different variations of thermal treatment of the described material (pyrolysis, gasification and so on). A lot of works is connected with the exploration of boiler installations equipped with diverse modifications of the fluid bed furnaces. However, as a result of their having proven to be too expensive, difficult to create, unreliable and for they also take too much electricity on their own needs, these furnaces have not yet found wider spreading as for the burning of such hard-combustible fuels as bark and other highly damp wastes of timber industry.

  11. Anticomplement monoterpenoid glucosides from the root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa.

    PubMed

    Song, Wei-Hua; Cheng, Zhi-Hong; Chen, Dao-Feng

    2014-01-24

    Six new (1-6) and 19 known monoterpenoid glucosides were isolated from the root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa. The monoterpenoid glucosides 1, 2, 7, 10-19, and 22 exhibited anticomplement effects with CH50 and AP50 values ranging from 0.14 to 2.67 mM and 0.25 to 3.67 mM, respectively. In a mechanistic study, suffrupaeoniflorin A (1) interacted with C1q, C3, C5, and C9, while galloylpaeoniflorin (12) and galloyloxypaeoniflorin (19) acted on C1q, C3, and C5 components in the complement activation cascade. PMID:24377852

  12. Iridoid glucosides from leaves and stem barks of Parkia javanica.

    PubMed

    Dinda, Biswanath; Chandra Mohanta, Bikas; Debnath, Sudhan; Ghosh, Biplab; Arima, Shiho; Sato, Noriko; Harigaya, Yoshihiro

    2009-01-01

    Two new iridoid glucosides, javanicosides A (1) and B (2) along with the known compounds, ursolic acid and beta-sitosterol were isolated from the leaf and stem bark of Parkia javanica and the structures were established on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis (MS, 1D, and 2D NMR experiments). The new compounds were identified as 8-O-p-hydroxybenzoyl-6'-O-p-coumaroyl-mussaenosidic acid (1) and 7-O-E-3,4-dimethoxycinnamoyl-6'-O-beta-D-glucopyranosylloganic acid (2). PMID:19408146

  13. Bioactive constituents of the bark of Parkia biglobosa.

    PubMed

    Tringali, C; Spatafora, C; Longo, O D

    2000-04-01

    In the frame of a systematic analysis of African plants used for the 'cure salée', from the bark of Parkia biglobosa, a long-chain ester of trans-ferulic acid (1) has been isolated together with an unseparable mixture of long-chain cis-ferulates (2a-e). In addition, lupeol, 4-O-methyl-epi-gallocatechin, epi-gallocatechin, epi-catechin 3-O-gallate, and epi-gallocatechin 3-O-gallate were isolated. PMID:10727806

  14. Two new phenylbutanoids from inner bark of Betula pendula.

    PubMed

    Liimatainen, Jaana; Sinkkonen, Jari; Karonen, Maarit; Pihlaja, Kalevi

    2008-02-01

    Two phenylbutanoids, 7-{3R-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)butyl] beta-glucopyranosid-O-6-yl} 4-O-beta-glucopyranosylvanillin and 3-beta-glucopyranosyloxy-1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-butanone were isolated from an aqueous methanol extract of the inner bark of Betula pendula. Their structures were determined by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The complete assignment of proton and carbon signals was achieved by 1D and 2D NMR experiments: selective 1D TOCSY, HSQC, HMBC and DQF-COSY. PMID:18098157

  15. Procyanidin xylosides from the bark of Betula pendula.

    PubMed

    Liimatainen, Jaana; Karonen, Maarit; Sinkkonen, Jari

    2012-04-01

    A procyanidin dimer xyloside, catechin-(4α→8)-7-O-β-xylopyranosyl-catechin, was isolated from the inner bark of Betula pendula and its structure was determined using 1D and 2D NMR, CD and high-resolution ESIMS. Interestingly, the 7-O-β-xylopyranose unit was found to be present in the lower terminal unit of the dimer. In addition to this procyanidin dimer xyloside, an entire series of oligomeric and polymeric procyanidin xylosides was detected. Their structures were investigated by hydrophilic interaction HPLC-HRESIMS. Procyanidin glycosides are still rarely found in nature. PMID:22273040

  16. Hot water extraction and steam explosion as pretreatments for ethanol production from spruce bark.

    PubMed

    Kemppainen, Katariina; Inkinen, Jenni; Uusitalo, Jaana; Nakari-Setälä, Tiina; Siika-aho, Matti

    2012-08-01

    Spruce bark is a source of interesting polyphenolic compounds and also a potential but little studied feedstock for sugar route biorefinery processes. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of spruce bark sugars to ethanol were studied after three different pretreatments: steam explosion (SE), hot water extraction (HWE) at 80 °C, and sequential hot water extraction and steam explosion (HWE+SE), and the recovery of different components was determined during the pretreatments. The best steam explosion conditions were 5 min at 190 °C without acid catalyst based on the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of the material. However, when pectinase was included in the enzyme mixture, the hydrolysis rate and yield of HWE bark was as good as that of SE and HWE+SE barks. Ethanol was produced efficiently with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae from the pretreated and hydrolysed materials suggesting the suitability of spruce bark to various lignocellulosic ethanol process concepts. PMID:22613888

  17. Feast and famine: previous defoliation limiting survival of pine processionary caterpillar Thaumetopoea pityocampa in Scots pine Pinus sylvestris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hódar, José A.; Zamora, Regino; Castro, Jorge; Baraza, Elena

    2004-12-01

    This study analyses the consequences of previous defoliation on the survival of the larvae of the pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Denis and Schiffermüller) feeding on relict Scots pine Pinus sylvestris (L.) ssp. nevadensis Christ in the Sierra Nevada mountains (SE Spain). Egg batches of the pine processionary moth were placed on four groups of Scots pines that underwent different periods of herbivory. The larval survival was related to the nitrogen content, fibre, phenolics and terpenes in the needles. Larval survival was higher in undefoliated pines, lower in pines defoliated two consecutive years, and intermediate in pines defoliated only one year, suggesting a direct relationship between previous defoliation and larval survival. In contrast, none of the characteristics of the needles showed a clear relationship with larval survival. The resulting reduction in larval number also affects the capacity of the larvae to develop during winter, because it hampered nest warming. Thus, previous defoliation limits, although it does not impede, the possibility of repeated defoliation on Scots pine.

  18. Suitability of Pines and Other Conifers as Hosts for the Invasive Mediterranean Pine Engraver (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The invasive Mediterranean pine engraver, Orthotomicus erosus (Wollaston), was detected in North America in 2004 and is currently distributed in the southern Central Valley of California. It originates from the Mediterranean region, the Middle East, and Asia, and reproduces on pines. To identify p...

  19. Characterizing the physical and genetic structure of the lodgepole pine × jack pine hybrid zone: mosaic structure and differential introgression.

    PubMed

    Cullingham, Catherine I; James, Patrick M A; Cooke, Janice E K; Coltman, David W

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the physical and genetic structure of hybrid zones can illuminate factors affecting their formation and stability. In north-central Alberta, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb) form a complex and poorly defined hybrid zone. Better knowledge of this zone is relevant, given the recent host expansion of mountain pine beetle into jack pine. We characterized the zone by genotyping 1998 lodgepole, jack pine, and hybrids from British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Ontario, and Minnesota at 11 microsatellites. Using Bayesian algorithms, we calculated genetic ancestry and used this to model the relationship between species occurrence and environment. In addition, we analyzed the ancestry of hybrids to calculate the genetic contribution of lodgepole and jack pine. Finally, we measured the amount of gene flow between the pure species. We found the distribution of the pine classes is explained by environmental variables, and these distributions differ from classic distribution maps. Hybrid ancestry was biased toward lodgepole pine; however, gene flow between the two species was equal. The results of this study suggest that the hybrid zone is complex and influenced by environmental constraints. As a result of this analysis, range limits should be redefined. PMID:23346232

  20. Characterizing the physical and genetic structure of the lodgepole pine × jack pine hybrid zone: mosaic structure and differential introgression

    PubMed Central

    Cullingham, Catherine I; James, Patrick M A; Cooke, Janice E K; Coltman, David W

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the physical and genetic structure of hybrid zones can illuminate factors affecting their formation and stability. In north-central Alberta, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb) form a complex and poorly defined hybrid zone. Better knowledge of this zone is relevant, given the recent host expansion of mountain pine beetle into jack pine. We characterized the zone by genotyping 1998 lodgepole, jack pine, and hybrids from British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Ontario, and Minnesota at 11 microsatellites. Using Bayesian algorithms, we calculated genetic ancestry and used this to model the relationship between species occurrence and environment. In addition, we analyzed the ancestry of hybrids to calculate the genetic contribution of lodgepole and jack pine. Finally, we measured the amount of gene flow between the pure species. We found the distribution of the pine classes is explained by environmental variables, and these distributions differ from classic distribution maps. Hybrid ancestry was biased toward lodgepole pine; however, gene flow between the two species was equal. The results of this study suggest that the hybrid zone is complex and influenced by environmental constraints. As a result of this analysis, range limits should be redefined. PMID:23346232

  1. 75 FR 23666 - Huron-Manistee National Forests, White Pines Wind Farm Project, Mason County, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... Forest Service Huron-Manistee National Forests, White Pines Wind Farm Project, Mason County, MI AGENCY... Pines Wind Farm Project on National Forest System (NFS) lands managed by the Huron-Manistee National... process for the White Pines Wind Farm Project. DATES: The Notice of Intent to prepare the White Pines...

  2. 75 FR 7470 - Pine Prairie Energy Center, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Pine Prairie Energy Center, LLC; Notice of Application February 3, 2010. Take notice that on January 26, 2010, Pine Prairie Energy Center, LLC (Pine Prairie), 333 Clay Street... Pine Prairie to: (1) Install six 5,750 hp electric motor drive compressor units instead of the four...

  3. 75 FR 65310 - Pine Prairie Energy Center, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Pine Prairie Energy Center, LLC; Notice of Application October 15, 2010. Take notice that on October 4, 2010, Pine Prairie Energy Center, LLC (Pine Prairie), 333 Clay Street... convenience and necessity to construct and operate its Phase III Expansion Project. Pine Prairie's Phase...

  4. 76 FR 81924 - Pine Prairie Energy Center, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Pine Prairie Energy Center, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on December 15, 2011, Pine Prairie Energy Center, LLC (Pine Prairie), 333 Clay Street, Suite 1500, Houston, TX... necessity to amend its certificate authority previously granted in CP04-379-000, et al. Pine...

  5. Excavation of red squirrel middens by grizzly bears in the whitebark pine zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattson, D.J.; Reinhart, D.P.

    1997-01-01

    7. Grizzly bears would benefit from the minimization of roads and other human facilities in the whitebark pine zone and from increases in the availability of whitebark pine seeds, potentially achieved by increasing the numbers of cone-producing whitebark pine trees, especially in lower elevations of the whitebark pine zone where red squirrels are more abundant.

  6. Pharmaceutical and nutraceutical effects of Pinus pinaster bark extract.

    PubMed

    Iravani, S; Zolfaghari, B

    2011-01-01

    In everyday life, our body generates free radicals and other reactive oxygen species which are derived either from the endogenous metabolic processes (within the body) or from external sources. Many clinical and pharmacological studies suggest that natural antioxidants can prevent oxidative damage. Among the natural antioxidant products, Pycnogenol(®) (French Pinus pinaster bark extract) has been received considerable attention because of its strong free radical-scavenging activity against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. P. pinaster bark extract (PBE) contains polyphenolic compounds (these compounds consist of catechin, taxifolin, procyanidins of various chain lengths formed by catechin and epicatechin units, and phenolic acids) capable of producing diverse potentially protective effects against chronic and degenerative diseases. This herbal medication has been reported to have cardiovascular benefits, such as vasorelaxant activity, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibiting activity, and the ability to enhance the microcirculation by increasing capillary permeability. Moreover, effects on the immune system and modulation of nitrogen monoxide metabolism have been reported. This article provides a brief overview of clinical studies describing the beneficial and health-promoting effects of PBE. PMID:22049273

  7. Sequential anaerobic/aerobic biotreatment of bark leachate.

    PubMed

    Frigon, J C; Cimpoia, R; Guiot, S R

    2003-01-01

    Bark leachate is generated from sawmill operations such as log storage sites and contains polymeric tannins, carbohydrates, organic acids, phenolic and resin compounds. The present study was aimed at assessing the performance of a sequential anaerobic and aerobic treatment, for both chemical oxygen demand (COD) and phenol removal, under various combinations of operational conditions, in the continuous mode. After anaerobic treatment in a five litres upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor, the leachate was directed into two parallel aerobic reactors, either an activated sludge unit or a fixed film submerged filter (packed with polyethylene Flexirings), both of a volume of one litre and oxygenated by air diffusion. For a leachate of 22 gCOD/l, an overall COD removal of 96-98% was achieved at an hydraulic residence time (HRT) of 4 days for the anaerobic reactor and one day for either aerobic systems. The phenol concentration generally increased after anaerobic treatment but was below the detection limit (50 ppb) after aerobic polishing. Radiorespirometric microcosms with 14C-labelled phenol confirmed that phenol was mineralized in the aerobic reactors. The performances of both aerobic systems were similar for COD and phenol removal. Thus, a sequential anaerobic/aerobic treatment was able to effectively address the contamination of a bark leachate discharge, including phenols. PMID:14640219

  8. Anticonvulsant properties of saponins from Ficus platyphylla stem bark.

    PubMed

    Chindo, Ben A; Anuka, Joseph A; McNeil, Lilly; Yaro, Abdullahi H; Adamu, Simon S; Amos, Samson; Connelly, William K; Lees, George; Gamaniel, Karniyus S

    2009-03-30

    Preparations of Ficus platyphylla have been used in Nigerian traditional medicine for the management of epilepsy for many years and their efficacy is widely acclaimed among the Hausa communities of northern Nigeria. The anticonvulsant properties of the saponin rich fraction (SFG) obtained from the methanol extract of F. platyphylla stem bark were studied on pentylenetetrazole-, strychnine- and maximal electroshock seizures in mice. Effects of SFG were also examined in murine models for neurological disease and on relevant in vitro targets for anticonvulsant drugs. SFG protected mice against pentylenetetrazole- and strychnine-induced seizures; and significantly delayed the onset of myoclonic jerks and tonic seizures. SFG failed to protect mice against maximal electroshock seizures at doses tested. SFG neither abolished the spontaneous discharges induced by 4-aminopyridine in a neonatal rat brain slice model of tonic-clonic epilepsy nor could it modulate chloride currents through GABA(A) receptor channel complex in cultured cortical cells. However, it was able to non-selectively suppress excitatory and inhibitory synaptic traffic, blocked sustained repetitive firing (SRF) and spontaneous action potential firing in these cultured cells. Our results provide scientific evidence that F. platyphylla stem bark may contain psychoactive principles with potential anticonvulsant properties. SFG impaired membrane excitability; a property shared by most anticonvulsants particularly the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) blocking drugs, thus supporting the isolation and development of the saponin components of this plant as anticonvulsant agents. PMID:19111909

  9. Characterisation of Polyphenols in Terminalia arjuna Bark Extract.

    PubMed

    Saha, Anumita; Pawar, V M; Jayaraman, Sujatha

    2012-07-01

    The bark of Terminalia arjuna is known for its heart-health benefits in ayurvedic literature. This has been further supported by in vivo studies on animal and human volunteers. But there is no detailed study on identification of the active ingredients such as polyphenols. Polyphenols possesses antioxidant properties and are well-known health actives, it is important to characterise polyphenols in Terminalia arjuna. Aqueous extract of Terminalia arjuna bark was analysed for its composition and molecular weight distribution by dialysis. Compositional analysis revealed that it has 44% polyphenols and dialysis study showed that 70% of the polyphenols have molecular weight greater than 3.5 kDa. High performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of Terminalia arjuna, confirmed that it contains flavon-3-ols such as (+)-catechin, (+)-gallocatechin and (-)-epigallocatechin. Phenolic acids such as gallic acid, ellagic acid and its derivatives were also found in Terminalia arjuna extract. Ellagic acid derivatives were isolated and their spectral studies indicated that isolated compounds were 3-O-methyl-ellagic acid 4-O-β-D-xylopyranoside, ellagic acid and 3-O-methyl ellagic acid 3-O-rhamnoside. Hydrolysis and thiolysis studies of high molecular weight polyphenols indicated that they are proanthocyanidins. Given these results, it may be possible to attribute the heart-health effects of Terminalia arjuna to these polyphenols which may be responsible for the endothelial benefit functions like tea. PMID:23626389

  10. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using medicinal Zizyphus xylopyrus bark extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumi Maria, Babu; Devadiga, Aishwarya; Shetty Kodialbail, Vidya; Saidutta, M. B.

    2015-08-01

    In the present paper, biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Zizyphus xylopyrus bark extract is reported. Z. xylopyrus bark extract is efficiently used for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. UV-Visible spectroscopy showed surface plasmon resonance peaks in the range 413-420 nm confirming the formation of silver nanoparticles. Different factors affecting the synthesis of silver nanoparticles like methodology for the preparation of extract, concentration of silver nitrate solution used for biosynthesis and initial pH of the reaction mixture were studied. The extract prepared with 10 mM AgNO3 solution by reflux extraction method at optimum initial pH of 11, resulted in higher conversion of silver ions to silver nanoparticles as compared with those prepared by open heating or ultrasonication. SEM analysis showed that the biosynthesized nanoparticles are spherical in nature and ranged from 60 to 70 nm in size. EDX suggested that the silver nanoparticles must be capped by the organic components present in the plant extract. This simple process for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous extract of Z. xylopyrus is a green technology without the usage of hazardous and toxic solvents and chemicals and hence is environment friendly. The process has several advantages with reference to cost, compatibility for its application in medical and drug delivery, as well as for large-scale commercial production.

  11. Bacterial and fungal symbionts of parasitic Dendroctonus bark beetles.

    PubMed

    Dohet, Loïc; Grégoire, Jean-Claude; Berasategui, Aileen; Kaltenpoth, Martin; Biedermann, Peter H W

    2016-09-01

    Bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are one of the most species-rich herbivorous insect groups with many shifts in ecology and host-plant use, which may be mediated by their bacterial and fungal symbionts. While symbionts are well studied in economically important, tree-killing species, little is known about parasitic species whose broods develop in living trees. Here, using culture-dependent and independent methods, we provide a comprehensive overview of the associated bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi of the parasitic Dendroctonus micans, D. punctatus and D. valens, and compare them to those of other tree-inhabiting insects. Despite inhabiting different geographical regions and/or host trees, the three species showed similar microbial communities. Enterobacteria were the most prevalent bacteria, in particular Rahnella, Pantoea and Ewingella, in addition to Streptomyces Likewise, the yeasts Candida/Cyberlindnera were the most prominent fungi. All these microorganisms are widespread among tree-inhabiting insects with various ecologies, but their high prevalence overall might indicate a beneficial role such as detoxification of tree defenses, diet supplementation or protection against pathogens. As such, our results enable comparisons of symbiont communities of parasitic bark beetles with those of other beetles, and will contribute to our understanding of how microbial symbioses facilitate dietary shifts in insects. PMID:27387908

  12. Characterisation of Polyphenols in Terminalia arjuna Bark Extract

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Anumita; Pawar, V. M.; Jayaraman, Sujatha

    2012-01-01

    The bark of Terminalia arjuna is known for its heart-health benefits in ayurvedic literature. This has been further supported by in vivo studies on animal and human volunteers. But there is no detailed study on identification of the active ingredients such as polyphenols. Polyphenols possesses antioxidant properties and are well-known health actives, it is important to characterise polyphenols in Terminalia arjuna. Aqueous extract of Terminalia arjuna bark was analysed for its composition and molecular weight distribution by dialysis. Compositional analysis revealed that it has 44% polyphenols and dialysis study showed that 70% of the polyphenols have molecular weight greater than 3.5 kDa. High performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of Terminalia arjuna, confirmed that it contains flavon-3-ols such as (+)-catechin, (+)-gallocatechin and (−)-epigallocatechin. Phenolic acids such as gallic acid, ellagic acid and its derivatives were also found in Terminalia arjuna extract. Ellagic acid derivatives were isolated and their spectral studies indicated that isolated compounds were 3-O-methyl-ellagic acid 4-O-β-D-xylopyranoside, ellagic acid and 3-O-methyl ellagic acid 3-O-rhamnoside. Hydrolysis and thiolysis studies of high molecular weight polyphenols indicated that they are proanthocyanidins. Given these results, it may be possible to attribute the heart-health effects of Terminalia arjuna to these polyphenols which may be responsible for the endothelial benefit functions like tea. PMID:23626389

  13. Polysaccharides with immunomodulating properties from the bark of Parkia biglobosa.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yuan-Feng; Zhang, Bing-Zhao; Inngjerdingen, Kari Tvete; Barsett, Hilde; Diallo, Drissa; Michaelsen, Terje Einar; El-Zoubair, Elnour; Paulsen, Berit Smestad

    2014-01-30

    The bark of Parkia biglobosa is used in traditional medicine to cure a wide range of illnesses. Polysaccharides were extracted from the bark with 50% ethanol-water, 50°C and 100°C water, and seven active fractions obtained by anion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The complement fixation and macrophage stimulating activities of the different fractions were determined. The acidic fractions PBEII-I and PBEII-IV were the most active in the complement fixation assay, but the other fractions were also potent compared to the positive control BPII from Biophytum petersianum. Fractions PBEII-I and PBEII-IV were also the most potent fractions in stimulating macrophages to release nitric oxide. Structural studies showed that PBEII-I and PBEII-IV were pectic type polysaccharides, containing arabinogalactan type II structures. The observed differences in biological activities among the seven purified polysaccharide sub-fractions are probably due to differences in monosaccharide compositions, linkage types and molecular sizes. PMID:24299798

  14. Strong seed-specific protein expression from the Vigna radiata storage protein 8SGα promoter in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mo-Xian; Zheng, Shu-Xiao; Yang, Yue-Ning; Xu, Chao; Liu, Jie-Sheng; Yang, Wei-Dong; Chye, Mee-Len; Li, Hong-Ye

    2014-03-20

    Vigna radiata (mung bean) is an important crop plant and is a major protein source in developing countries. Mung bean 8S globulins constitute nearly 90% of total seed storage protein and consist of three subunits designated as 8SGα, 8SGα' and 8SGβ. The 5'-flanking sequences of 8SGα' has been reported to confer high expression in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds. In this study, a 472-bp 5'-flanking sequence of 8SGα was identified by genome walking. Computational analysis subsequently revealed the presence of numerous putative seed-specific cis-elements within. The 8SGα promoter was then fused to the gene encoding β-glucuronidase (GUS) to create a reporter construct for Arabidopsis thaliana transformation. The spatial and temporal expression of 8SGα∷GUS, as investigated using GUS histochemical assays, showed GUS expression exclusively in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds. Quantitative GUS assays revealed that the 8SGα promoter showed 2- to 4-fold higher activity than the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. This study has identified a seed-specific promoter of high promoter strength, which is potentially useful for directing foreign protein expression in seed bioreactors. PMID:24503210

  15. Genes Expressed in Pinus radiata Male Cones Include Homologs to Anther-Specific and Pathogenesis Response Genes1

    PubMed Central

    Walden, Adrian R.; Walter, Christian; Gardner, Richard C.

    1999-01-01

    We describe the isolation and characterization of 13 cDNA clones that are differentially expressed in male cones of Pinus radiata (D. Don). The transcripts of the 13 genes are expressed at different times between meiosis and microspore mitosis, timing that corresponds to a burst in tapetal activity in the developing anthers. In situ hybridization showed that four of the genes are expressed in the tapetum, while a fifth is expressed in tetrads during a brief developmental window. Six of the seven cDNAs identified in database searches have striking similarity to genes expressed in angiosperm anthers. Seven cDNAs are homologs of defense and pathogen response genes. The cDNAs identified are predicted to encode a chalcone-synthase-like protein, a thaumatin-like protein, a serine hydrolase thought to be a putative regulator of programmed cell death, two lipid-transfer proteins, and two homologs of the anther-specific A9 genes from Brassica napus and Arabidopsis. Overall, our results support the hypothesis that many of the reproductive processes in the angiosperms and gymnosperms were inherited from a common ancestor. PMID:10594098

  16. The mitochondrial genome of the legume Vigna radiata and the analysis of recombination across short mitochondrial repeats.

    PubMed

    Alverson, Andrew J; Zhuo, Shi; Rice, Danny W; Sloan, Daniel B; Palmer, Jeffrey D

    2011-01-01

    The mitochondrial genomes of seed plants are exceptionally fluid in size, structure, and sequence content, with the accumulation and activity of repetitive sequences underlying much of this variation. We report the first fully sequenced mitochondrial genome of a legume, Vigna radiata (mung bean), and show that despite its unexceptional size (401,262 nt), the genome is unusually depauperate in repetitive DNA and "promiscuous" sequences from the chloroplast and nuclear genomes. Although Vigna lacks the large, recombinationally active repeats typical of most other seed plants, a PCR survey of its modest repertoire of short (38-297 nt) repeats nevertheless revealed evidence for recombination across all of them. A set of novel control assays showed, however, that these results could instead reflect, in part or entirely, artifacts of PCR-mediated recombination. Consequently, we recommend that other methods, especially high-depth genome sequencing, be used instead of PCR to infer patterns of plant mitochondrial recombination. The average-sized but repeat- and feature-poor mitochondrial genome of Vigna makes it ever more difficult to generalize about the factors shaping the size and sequence content of plant mitochondrial genomes. PMID:21283772

  17. Reproductive toxicity of chromium in adult bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata Geoffrey). Reversible oxidative stress in the semen

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, Senthivinayagam . E-mail: subbi100@yahoo.co.uk; Rajendiran, Gopalakrishnan; Sekhar, Pasupathi; Gowri, Chandrahasan; Govindarajulu, Pera; Aruldhas, Mariajoseph Michael

    2006-09-15

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that oxidative stress mediates chromium-induced reproductive toxicity. Monthly semen samples were collected from adult monkeys (Macaca radiata), which were exposed to varying doses (50, 100, 200 and 400 ppm) of chromium (as potassium dichromate) for 6 months through drinking water. Chromium treatment decreased sperm count, sperm forward motility and the specific activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, and the concentration of reduced glutathione in both seminal plasma and sperm in a dose- and duration-dependent manner. On the other hand, the quantum of hydrogen peroxide in the seminal plasma/sperm from monkeys exposed to chromium increased with increasing dose and duration of chromium exposure. All these changes were reversed after 6 months of chromium-free exposure period. Simultaneous supplementation of vitamin C (0.5 g/L; 1.0 g/L; 2.0 g/L) prevented the development of chromium-induced oxidative stress. Data support the hypothesis and show that chronic chromium exposure induces a reversible oxidative stress in the seminal plasma and sperm by creating an imbalance between reactive oxygen species and antioxidant system, leading to sperm death and reduced motility of live sperm.

  18. Assessment of microbial communities in mung bean (Vigna radiata) rhizosphere upon exposure to phytotoxic levels of Copper.

    PubMed

    Sharaff, Murali; Archana, G

    2015-11-01

    Pollution of agricultural soils by Cu is of concern as it could bring about alterations in microbial communities, ultimately eliminating certain plant beneficial bacteria thus disturbing soil fertility and plant growth. To understand the response of rhizobacterial communities upon Cu perturbation, mung bean (Vigna radiata) plants were grown in agricultural soil amended with CuSO4 (0-1000 mg kg(-1) ) under laboratory conditions. Culture-independent and -dependent Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (CI-DGGE and CD-DGGE) fingerprinting techniques were employed to monitor rhizobacterial community shifts upon Cu amendment. In group specific PCR-DGGE, a negative impact was seen on α-Proteobacteria followed by β-Proteobacteria resulting in a concomitant decrease in diversity indices with increased Cu concentration. No significant changes were observed in Firmicutes and Actinomycetes populations. In CD-DGGE rhizobacterial community shift was observed above 500 mg kg(-1) (CuSO4 ), however certain bands were predominantly present in all treatments. Plants showed toxic effects by reduction in growth and elevated Cu accumulation, with root system being affected prominently. From this study it is evident that above 250 mg kg(-1) , rhizobacterial communities are adversely affected. α-Proteobacteria was found to be a sensitive bio-indicator for Cu toxicity and is of particular significance since this group includes majority of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. PMID:26073767

  19. Dataset of UV induced changes in nuclear proteome obtained by GeLC-Orbitrap/MS in Pinus radiata needles.

    PubMed

    Alegre, Sara; Pascual, Jesús; Nagler, Matthias; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Cañal, María Jesús; Valledor, Luis

    2016-06-01

    Although responses to UV stress have been characterised at system and cellular levels, the dynamics of the nuclear proteome triggered in this situation are still unknown, despite its essential role in regulating gene expression and in last term plant physiology. To fill this gap, we characterised the variations in the nuclear proteome after 2 h and 16 h (8 h/day) of UV irradiation by using state-of-the-art mass spectrometry-based shotgun proteomics methods combined with novel bioinformatics workflows that were employed in the manuscript entitled "The variations in the nuclear proteome reveal new transcription factors and mechanisms involved in UV stress response in Pinus radiata" (Pascual et al., 2016) [1]. We employed in-gel digestion followed by a 120 min gradient prior to MS analysis. Data was processed following two approaches: a database dependent employing the SEQUEST algorithm and custom databases, and a database independent by mass accuracy precursor alignment (MAPA). 388 proteins were identified by SEQUEST search and 9094 m/z were quantified by MAPA. Significant m/z were de novo sequenced using the Novor algorithm. We present here the complete datasets and the analysis workflow. PMID:27182543

  20. The relationship between physical variables on topographically simple and complex reefs and algal assemblage structure beneath an Ecklonia radiata canopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toohey, Benjamin D.

    2007-01-01

    Limestone reefs in South-Western Australia range in topographic complexity at the 1-10 m scale from simple, flat, planar reef structures to topographically complex reefs with many rock walls, overhangs and channels. Algal assemblage structure is known to differ between topographically simple and complex reefs. This research assessed if differences in algal assemblage structure could be associated with the physical environment present on each reef type. Sampling of the physical environment and algal assemblage was carried out on simple, planar reefs and complex, rugose reefs. The physical environment described almost 80% of the algal assemblage structure under an Ecklonia radiata canopy. It was found that topographically simple reefs had greater sediment cover and water depth than adjacent reefs with more complex topography which had more downwelling light, stronger and more turbulent water motion and a greater range of substrate slopes. Greater variation in most physical variables on topographically complex reef shows a greater diversity of microenvironments on that reef type. It is argued that these differences in physical environment between reef types have a considerable influence on algal assemblages by altering key biological processes such as recruitment and interspecific competition.

  1. Fourier transform infrared imaging and microscopy studies of Pinus radiata pulps regarding the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Rosario del P; Araya, Juan; Troncoso, Eduardo; Vinet, Silenne; Freer, Juanita

    2015-03-25

    The distribution and chemical patterns of lignocellulosic components at microscopic scale and their effect on the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process (SSF) in the production of bioethanol from Pinus radiata pulps were analyzed by the application of diverse microscopical techniques, including scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) - Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy. This last technique was accompanied with multivariate methods, including principal component analysis (PCA) and multivariate curve resolution with alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) to evaluate the distribution patterns and to generate pure spectra of the lignocellulosic components of fibers. The results indicate that the information obtained by the techniques is complementary (ultrastructure, confocality and chemical characterization) and that the distribution of components affects the SSF yield, identifying lignin coalescence droplets as a characteristic factor to increase the SSF yield. Therefore, multivariate analysis of the infrared spectra enabled the in situ identification of the cellulose, lignin and lignin-carbohydrates arrangements. These techniques could be used to investigate the lignocellulosic components distribution and consequently their recalcitrance in many applications where minimal sample manipulation and microscale chemical information is required. PMID:25732688

  2. The Mitochondrial Genome of the Legume Vigna radiata and the Analysis of Recombination across Short Mitochondrial Repeats

    PubMed Central

    Alverson, Andrew J.; Zhuo, Shi; Rice, Danny W.; Sloan, Daniel B.; Palmer, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    The mitochondrial genomes of seed plants are exceptionally fluid in size, structure, and sequence content, with the accumulation and activity of repetitive sequences underlying much of this variation. We report the first fully sequenced mitochondrial genome of a legume, Vigna radiata (mung bean), and show that despite its unexceptional size (401,262 nt), the genome is unusually depauperate in repetitive DNA and "promiscuous" sequences from the chloroplast and nuclear genomes. Although Vigna lacks the large, recombinationally active repeats typical of most other seed plants, a PCR survey of its modest repertoire of short (38–297 nt) repeats nevertheless revealed evidence for recombination across all of them. A set of novel control assays showed, however, that these results could instead reflect, in part or entirely, artifacts of PCR-mediated recombination. Consequently, we recommend that other methods, especially high-depth genome sequencing, be used instead of PCR to infer patterns of plant mitochondrial recombination. The average-sized but repeat- and feature-poor mitochondrial genome of Vigna makes it ever more difficult to generalize about the factors shaping the size and sequence content of plant mitochondrial genomes. PMID:21283772

  3. Allelic Variation in Cell Wall Candidate Genes Affecting Solid Wood Properties in Natural Populations and Land Races of Pinus radiata

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, S. K.; Nolan, M.; Li, W.; Bell, C.; Wu, H. X.; Southerton, S. G.

    2010-01-01

    Forest trees are ideally suited to association mapping due to their high levels of diversity and low genomic linkage disequilibrium. Using an association mapping approach, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers influencing quantitative variation in wood quality were identified in a natural population of Pinus radiata. Of 149 sites examined, 10 demonstrated significant associations (P < 0.05, q < 0.1) with one or more traits after accounting for population structure and experimentwise error. Without accounting for marker interactions, phenotypic variation attributed to individual SNPs ranged from 2 to 6.5%. Undesirable negative correlations between wood quality and growth were not observed, indicating potential to break negative correlations by selecting for individual SNPs in breeding programs. Markers that yielded significant associations were reexamined in an Australian land race. SNPs from three genes (PAL1, PCBER, and SUSY) yielded significant associations. Importantly, associations with two of these genes validated associations with density previously observed in the discovery population. In both cases, decreased wood density was associated with the minor allele, suggesting that these SNPs may be under weak negative purifying selection for density in the natural populations. These results demonstrate the utility of LD mapping to detect associations, even when the power to detect SNPs with small effect is anticipated to be low. PMID:20498299

  4. Biotic and abiotic factors affecting stemflow variability in downy oak and Scots pine stands in Mediterranean conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cayuela, Carles; Garcia-Estringana, Pablo; Latron, Jérôme; Llorens, Pilar

    2015-04-01

    Although stemflow is only a small portion of rainfall, it may represent an important local input of water and nutrients at the plant stem. Previous studies have shown that stemflow has a significant influence on hydrological and biogeochemical processes. Stemflow volume is affected by many biotic factors as species, age, branch or bark characteristics. Moreover, the seasonality of the rainfall regime in Mediterranean areas, which includes both frontal rainfall events and short convective storms, can add complexity to the rainfall-stemflow relationship. This work investigates stemflow dynamics and the influence of biotic and abiotic factors on stemflow rates in two Mediterranean stands during the leafed period - from May to October. The monitored stands are a Downy oak forest (Quercus pubescens) and a Scots pine forest (Pinus sylvestris), both located in the Vallcebre research catchments (NE Spain, 42° 12'N, 1° 49'E). The monitoring design of each plot consists of 7 stemflow rings connected to tipping-buckets, bulk rainfall measured in a nearby clearing and meteorological conditions above the canopies. All data were recorded at 5 min interval. Biometric characteristics of the measured trees were also measured. The analysis of 39 rainfall events (65% smaller than 10 mm) shows that stemflow accounted for less than 1% of the bulk rainfall in both stands. Results also show that, on average, the rainfall amount required for the start of the stemflow and the time delay between the beginning of the precipitation and the start of stemflow are higher in the Downy oak forest. As suggested by stemflow funneling ratios, these differences might be linked to the canopy structure and bark water storage capacity of the trees, indicating that during low magnitude events, oaks have more difficulty to reach storage capacity. The role of other biotic and abiotic parameters on stemflow variability in both stands is still under investigation.

  5. Biogeochemistry of lead in McDonalds Branch Watershed, New Jersey Pine Barrens

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R.S.; Johnson, A.H.; Wang, D.

    1985-01-01

    Lead concentrations, fluxes, and storage were measured in the vegetation, forest floor, and acid, sandy mineral soil (Quartzip-samments) of a forested watershed in the New Jersey Pine Barrens. Atmospherically deposited Pb at the McDonalds Branch Watershed was 140 g ha/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/ (8 ..mu..g L/sup -1/ in bulk precipitation) in 1980 to 1982, a substantial reduction from 350 g ha/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/ (17 ..mu..g L/sup -1/ in bulk precipitation) in 1978 to 1979. Virtually all Pb falling on the uplands was retained - 75% by the organic forest floor and 25% by mineral soils, especially in B and C soil horizons. Total Pb content of the forest floor was 7.6 kg ha/sup -1/, with an accumulation rate of 100 g ha/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/ (1980-1982), or 1.3% of the forest floor pool. Estimated mean residence time of Pb in the forest floor was 220 yr. About 35 g Pb ha/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/ moved out of the forest floor in solution through the E horizon and was correlated strongly with dissolved organic matter. Approximately 30 g Pb ha/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/ accumulated in the B and C soil horizons. Less than 1 g Pb ha/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/ percolated past a depth of 2 m. Lowland muck soils and vegetation accumulated 98% of incoming Pb, with only 3.2 g Pb ha/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/ exported in the stream. Lead concentrations in the stream were correlated positively with dissolved organic matter and water level in the swamps. Lead in biota was contained mainly in the bark, fine roots, and foliage. Concentrations were: fine roots (18 mg kg/sup -1/) > bark (15 mg kg/sup -1/) > foliage (4 mg kg/sup -1/) > wood (0.5 mg kg/sup -1/). Although Pb concentrations in herbs, mosses, and lichens ranged from 10 to 60 mg kg/sup -1/, these plants accounted for very little biomass. Total Pb content of biota was 335 g ha/sup -1/, about 4% of the forest floor Pb content.

  6. The oldest know Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines (Pinus aristata Engelm. )

    SciTech Connect

    Brunstein, F.C. ); Yamaguchi, D.K. )

    1992-08-01

    We have found 12 living Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines (Pinus aristata) more than 1600 yr old, including four that are more than 2 1 00 yr old, on Black Mountain, near South Park, and on Almagre Mountain, in the southern Front Range, Colorado. A core from the oldest of these trees has an inner-ring date of 442 B.C. This tree is therefore at least 2435 yr old and exceeds the age of the oldest previously reported Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine by 846 yr, The ages of these trees show that Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines, under arid environmental conditions, achieve much older ages than have been previously reported. The ages also show that previously inferred trends in bristlecone pine ages, where maximum ages in the eastern range of Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines are much less than maximum ages in the western range of Great Basin bristlecone pines (Pinus longaea), are less strong than previously supposed. Ancient Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines, such as those found in this study, have the potential to expand our knowledge of late Holocene climatic conditions in western North America.

  7. The lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in Alberta, Canada: a stepping stone for the mountain pine beetle on its journey East across the boreal forest?

    PubMed

    Lusebrink, Inka; Erbilgin, Nadir; Evenden, Maya L

    2013-09-01

    Historical data show that outbreaks of the tree killing mountain pine beetle are often preceded by periods of drought. Global climate change impacts drought frequency and severity and is implicated in the range expansion of the mountain pine beetle into formerly unsuitable habitats. Its expanded range has recently reached the lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in central Alberta, Canada, which could act as a transition from its historical lodgepole pine host to a jack pine host present in the boreal forest. This field study tested the effects of water limitation on chemical defenses of mature trees against mountain pine beetle-associated microorganisms and on beetle brood success in lodgepole × jack pine hybrid trees. Tree chemical defenses as measured by monoterpene emission from tree boles and monoterpene concentration in needles were greater in trees that experienced water deficit compared to well-watered trees. Myrcene was identified as specific defensive compound, since it significantly increased upon inoculation with dead mountain pine beetles. Beetles reared in bolts from trees that experienced water deficit emerged with a higher fat content, demonstrating for the first time experimentally that drought conditions benefit mountain pine beetles. Further, our study demonstrated that volatile chemical emission from tree boles and phloem chemistry place the hybrid tree chemotype in-between lodgepole pine and jack pine, which might facilitate the host shift from lodgepole pine to jack pine. PMID:23955061

  8. The origins of tannins and flavonoids in black-wattle barks and heartwoods, and their associated `non-tannin' components

    PubMed Central

    Saayman, H. M.; Roux, D. G.

    1965-01-01

    1. The distributions of flavonoid, carbohydrate, amino acid and imino acid components in the leaves, twig bark, stem bark, root bark and heartwoods of the black-wattle tree were compared by paper chromatography after their isolation from specific portions of the tree. 2. Wattle leaves contain mainly myricitrin, (+)-gallocatechin, an unknown myricetin glycoside and leuco-delphinidin tannins, together with smaller amounts of (+)-catechin, quercitrin and other flavonol glycosides. These are prominent in the twig bark, but decline progressively with age in the stem bark and are absent from root bark. 3. The non-phenolic components of the mature stem bark were shown to be (+)-pinitol, sucrose, glucose, fructose, l(−)-pipecolic acid, trans-4-hydroxy-l(−)-pipecolic acid, α-alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, l(−)-proline, serine, a `steroid' alcohol and a long-chain β-diketone. 4. Wattle bark and heartwood `tannins' consist of the analogues of closely related prototypes with common origins in the vascular tissues of the bark. Leaf `tannins' are superimposed on the bark components mainly during the initial stages of bark growth. 5. Origins of the pipecolic acids and the transformations of carbohydrates in the sap- and heart-woods are discussed. PMID:5881667

  9. Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Bark and Ambrosia Beetles in a Brazilian Tropical Dry Forest

    PubMed Central

    de Novais, Samuel Matos Antunes; Monteiro, Graziela França; Flechtmann, Carlos Alberto Hector; de Faria, Maurício Lopes; Neves, Frederico de Siqueira

    2016-01-01

    Bark and the ambrosia beetles dig into host plants and live most of their lives in concealed tunnels. We assessed beetle community dynamics in tropical dry forest sites in early, intermediate, and late successional stages, evaluating the influence of resource availability and seasonal variations in guild structure. We collected a total of 763 beetles from 23 species, including 14 bark beetle species, and 9 ambrosia beetle species. Local richness of bark and ambrosia beetles was estimated at 31 species. Bark and ambrosia composition was similar over the successional stages gradient, and beta diversity among sites was primarily determined by species turnover, mainly in the bark beetle community. Bark beetle richness and abundance were higher at intermediate stages; availability of wood was the main spatial mechanism. Climate factors were effectively non-seasonal. Ambrosia beetles were not influenced by successional stages, however the increase in wood resulted in increased abundance. We found higher richness at the end of the dry and wet seasons, and abundance increased with air moisture and decreased with higher temperatures and greater rainfall. In summary, bark beetle species accumulation was higher at sites with better wood production, while the needs of fungi (host and air moisture), resulted in a favorable conditions for species accumulation of ambrosia. The overall biological pattern among guilds differed from tropical rain forests, showing patterns similar to dry forest areas. PMID:27271969

  10. Physiological resistance of grasshopper mice (Onychomys spp.) to Arizona bark scorpion (Centruroides exilicauda) venom.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Ashlee H; Rowe, Matthew P

    2008-10-01

    Predators feeding on toxic prey may evolve physiological resistance to the preys' toxins. Grasshopper mice (Onychomys spp.) are voracious predators of scorpions in North American deserts. Two species of grasshopper mice (Onychomys torridus and Onychomys arenicola) are broadly sympatric with two species of potentially lethal bark scorpion (Centruroides exilicauda and Centruroides vittatus) in the Sonoran and Chihuahuan deserts, respectively. Bark scorpions produce toxins that selectively bind sodium (Na(+)) and potassium (K(+)) ion channels in vertebrate nerve and muscle tissue. We previously reported that grasshopper mice showed no effects of bark scorpion envenomation following natural stings. Here we conducted a series of toxicity tests to determine whether grasshopper mice have evolved resistance to bark scorpion neurotoxins. Five populations of grasshopper mice, either sympatric with or allopatric to bark scorpions, were injected with bark scorpion venom; LD50s were estimated for each population. All five populations of grasshopper mice demonstrated levels of venom resistance greater than that reported for non-resistant Mus musculus. Moreover, venom resistance in the mice showed intra- and interspecific variability that covaried with bark scorpion sympatry and allopatry, patterns consistent with the hypothesis that venom resistance in grasshopper mice is an adaptive response to feeding on their neurotoxic prey. PMID:18687353

  11. Enhancing the hydrophobicity of mangrove bark by esterification for oil adsorption.

    PubMed

    Asadpour, Robabeh; Sapari, Nasiman Bin; Isa, Mohamed Hasnain; Orji, Kalu Uka

    2014-01-01

    Oil spills generally cause worldwide concern due to their detrimental effects on the environment and the economy. An assortment of commercial systems has been developed to control these spills, including the use of agricultural wastes as sorbents. This work deals with raw and modified mangrove barks (Rhizophora apiculata), an industrial lignocellulosic waste, as a low cost adsorbent for oil-product-spill cleanup in the aquatic environment. Mangrove bark was modified using fatty acids (oleic acid and palmitic acid) to improve its adsorption capacity. The oil sorption capacity of the modified bark was studied and compared with that of the raw bark. Kinetic tests were conducted with a series of contact times. The influence of particle size, oil dosage, pH and temperature on oil sorption capacity was investigated. The results showed that oleic acid treated bark has a higher sorption capacity (2,860.00 ± 2.00 mg/g) than untreated bark for Tapis crude oil. A correlation between surface functional groups, morphology and surface area of the adsorbent was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectrum, field emission scanning electron microscopy images and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis. Isotherm study was conducted using the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The result showed that adsorption of crude oil on treated mangrove bark could be best described by the Langmuir model. PMID:25325547

  12. Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Bark and Ambrosia Beetles in a Brazilian Tropical Dry Forest.

    PubMed

    Macedo-Reis, Luiz Eduardo; Novais, Samuel Matos Antunes de; Monteiro, Graziela França; Flechtmann, Carlos Alberto Hector; Faria, Maurício Lopes de; Neves, Frederico de Siqueira

    2016-01-01

    Bark and the ambrosia beetles dig into host plants and live most of their lives in concealed tunnels. We assessed beetle community dynamics in tropical dry forest sites in early, intermediate, and late successional stages, evaluating the influence of resource availability and seasonal variations in guild structure. We collected a total of 763 beetles from 23 species, including 14 bark beetle species, and 9 ambrosia beetle species. Local richness of bark and ambrosia beetles was estimated at 31 species. Bark and ambrosia composition was similar over the successional stages gradient, and beta diversity among sites was primarily determined by species turnover, mainly in the bark beetle community. Bark beetle richness and abundance were higher at intermediate stages; availability of wood was the main spatial mechanism. Climate factors were effectively non-seasonal. Ambrosia beetles were not influenced by successional stages, however the increase in wood resulted in increased abundance. We found higher richness at the end of the dry and wet seasons, and abundance increased with air moisture and decreased with higher temperatures and greater rainfall. In summary, bark beetle species accumulation was higher at sites with better wood production, while the needs of fungi (host and air moisture), resulted in a favorable conditions for species accumulation of ambrosia. The overall biological pattern among guilds differed from tropical rain forests, showing patterns similar to dry forest areas. PMID:27271969

  13. Hexachlorocyclohexanes in tree bark across Chinese agricultural regions: spatial distribution and enantiomeric signatures.

    PubMed

    Niu, Lili; Xu, Chao; Xu, Yang; Zhang, Chunlong; Liu, Weiping

    2014-10-21

    The environmental issue caused by atmospheric hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) has been a worldwide concern due to their long-range transport potential. Tree bark is an excellent passive sampler for monitoring atmospheric pollutants. In this study, bark samples from agricultural regions across China were collected and analyzed to elucidate the contamination status of atmospheric HCHs and the enantiomeric composition of chiral α-HCH. Average contents of α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH, δ-HCH, and ∑HCHs in bark were 1.16, 2.51, 1.67, 0.368, and 5.71 ng/g (dry basis), respectively. Jing-Jin-Tang region was identified as the "hot-spot" of bark HCHs in China. Their residues were likely from the combined sources of historical applications of technical HCHs and lindane through long-distance transport. HCH contents were found inversely correlated with annual precipitation and temperature, but positively correlated with PM10 or PM2.5 due to the bioaccumulation of both vapor- and particle-phase HCHs by tree bark. Most bark samples preferentially accumulated (+)-α-HCH, and the enantiomeric fractions (EFs) of α-HCH were positively correlated with α-HCH concentrations and the elevations of sampling locations. Compared to atmospheric analysis, tree bark analysis and enantiomeric signatures provide valuable time-integrated information on the spatial distribution and transport pathways of atmospheric HCHs on the national scale in China. PMID:25252210

  14. Host Deception: Predaceous Fungus, Esteya vermicola, Entices Pine Wood Nematode by Mimicking the Scent of Pine Tree for Nutrient

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Feng; Ye, Jianling; Wang, Huaguang; Zhang, Aijun; Zhao, Boguang

    2013-01-01

    Background A nematophagous fungus, Esteya vermicola, is recorded as the first endoparasitic fungus of pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, in last century. E. vermicola exhibited high infectivity toward PWN in the laboratory conditions and conidia spraying of this fungus on Japanese red pine, Pinus densiflora, seedlings in the field protected the pine trees from pine wilt disease to some extent, indicating that it is a potential bio-control agent against PWN. Previous research had demonstrated that the living fungal mycelia of E. vermicola continuously produced certain volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which were responsible for the PWN attraction. However, identity of these VOCs remains unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we report the identification of α-pinene, β-pinene, and camphor produced by living mycelia of E. vermicola, the same volatile compounds emitted from PWN host pine tree, as the major VOCs for PWN attraction using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In addition, we also confirmed the host deception behavior of E. vermicola to PWN by using synthetic VOCs in a straightforward laboratory bioassay. Conclusions/Significance This research result has demonstrated that the endoparasitic nematophagous fungus, E. vermicola, mimics the scent of PWN host pine tree to entice PWN for the nutrient. The identification of the attractive VOCs emitted from the fungus E. vermicola is of significance in better understanding parasitic mechanism of the fungus and the co-evolution in the two organisms and will aid management of the pine wilt disease. PMID:23990972

  15. Litterfall, litter and associated chemistry in a dry sclerophyll eucalypt forest and a pine plantation in south-eastern Australia: 2. Nutrient recycling by litter, throughfall and stemflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crockford, R. H.; Richardson, D. P.

    1998-03-01

    This paper concerns recycling of the major nutrients (N, P, Ca, Mg, Na and K) by litterfall, throughfall and stemflow in a dry sclerophyll eucalypt forest and a nearby Pinus radiata plantation of similar tree density and basal area. With the exception of Mg, the concentration of these nutrients in eucalypt leaf-fall were substantially higher than in pine needlefall. The eucalypt nutrient input was greater owing to larger mass of litterfall, as well as higher concentrations. There were inverse relationships between N and P concentrations and amount of leaf-fall for the eucalypts and needlefall for the pines. Mg was positively correlated with eucalypt leaf-fall. For the other components and elements the relationships were random.The proportion of particular nutrients recycled by litterfall, and throughfall and stemflow, varied for both forests. For Ca, only 6 and 12%, for eucalypts and pines respectively, was recycled by throughfall and stemflow, compared with 52 and 68% of potassium. The amount of nitrogen recycled differed between the forests, in a way that was consistent with the eucalypts being native to a nitrogen-poor environment. Amounts of floor-litter collected in the eucalypt forest from two fairly distinct layers, the loose and cohesive litter, were similar. The concentrations of Mg and Na were similar in both layers, but the other elements varied substantially. The N concentration of the cohesive litter was more than double that of the loose layer, whereas its P concentration was only 10% of the loose layer value.Selected chemical analyses on the total tree biomass of the eucalypt forest showed that the concentration of elements increased in the order; wood, twigs, fine twigs and leaf, and from large diameter wood to fine twigs. However, the concentration in fine twig and leaf components varied between the elements. For Ca, P and K, the fine twig values were greater than the leaf values, but the reverse applied to the other elements. The concentrations of

  16. Cork Oak Vulnerability to Fire: The Role of Bark Harvesting, Tree Characteristics and Abiotic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Catry, Filipe X.; Moreira, Francisco; Pausas, Juli G.; Fernandes, Paulo M.; Rego, Francisco; Cardillo, Enrique; Curt, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Forest ecosystems where periodical tree bark harvesting is a major economic activity may be particularly vulnerable to disturbances such as fire, since debarking usually reduces tree vigour and protection against external agents. In this paper we asked how cork oak Quercus suber trees respond after wildfires and, in particular, how bark harvesting affects post-fire tree survival and resprouting. We gathered data from 22 wildfires (4585 trees) that occurred in three southern European countries (Portugal, Spain and France), covering a wide range of conditions characteristic of Q. suber ecosystems. Post-fire tree responses (tree mortality, stem mortality and crown resprouting) were examined in relation to management and ecological factors using generalized linear mixed-effects models. Results showed that bark thickness and bark harvesting are major factors affecting resistance of Q. suber to fire. Fire vulnerability was higher for trees with thin bark (young or recently debarked individuals) and decreased with increasing bark thickness until cork was 3–4 cm thick. This bark thickness corresponds to the moment when exploited trees are debarked again, meaning that exploited trees are vulnerable to fire during a longer period. Exploited trees were also more likely to be top-killed than unexploited trees, even for the same bark thickness. Additionally, vulnerability to fire increased with burn severity and with tree diameter, and was higher in trees burned in early summer or located in drier south-facing aspects. We provided tree response models useful to help estimating the impact of fire and to support management decisions. The results suggested that an appropriate management of surface fuels and changes in the bark harvesting regime (e.g. debarking coexisting trees in different years or increasing the harvesting cycle) would decrease vulnerability to fire and contribute to the conservation of cork oak ecosystems. PMID:22787521

  17. Morphological and niche divergence of pinyon pines.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Medrano, Alejandra; Scantlebury, Daniel Patrick; Vázquez-Lobo, Alejandra; Mastretta-Yanes, Alicia; Piñero, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    The environmental variables that define a species ecological niche should be associated with the evolutionary patterns present in the adaptations that resulted from living in these conditions. Thus, when comparing across species, we can expect to find an association between phylogenetically independent phenotypic characters and ecological niche evolution. Few studies have evaluated how organismal phenotypes might mirror patterns of niche evolution if these phenotypes reflect adaptations. Doing so could contribute on the understanding of the origin and maintenance of phenotypic diversity observed in nature. Here, we show the pattern of niche evolution of the pinyon pine lineage (Pinus subsection Cembroides); then, we suggest morphological adaptations possibly related to niche divergence, and finally, we test for correlation between ecological niche and morphology. We demonstrate that niche divergence is the general pattern within the clade and that it is positively correlated with adaptation. PMID:27092235

  18. Freshwater resources of Big Pine Key, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, Chris E.

    1980-01-01

    The principal freshwater-bearing unit underlying Big Pine Key, Fla, is a layer of oolitic limestone averaging 19 feet in thickness. The freshwater exists in two separate lenses, one in the northern half of the island and one in the southern half. The slightly larger north lens is separated from the south lens by a low-lying land area 1 to 3 feet above mean sea level. The lenses float on saltwater in the aquifer and are affected by tidal fluctuations. The areal and depth configuration of the lenses fluctuate in response to rainfall, evapotranspiration, lateral and vertical losses, and pumpage from local wells. The lenses are not a major source of freshwater. Only a small amount of the freshwater in the lenses can be removed before saltwater intrusion will occur. (USGS)

  19. The impact of bark beetle infestations on monoterpene emissions and secondary organic aerosol formation in western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, A. R.; Heald, C. L.; Huff Hartz, K. E.; Hallar, A. G.; Meddens, A. J. H.; Hicke, J. A.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Tilmes, S.

    2013-03-01

    Over the last decade, extensive beetle outbreaks in western North America have destroyed over 100 000 km2 of forest throughout British Columbia and the western United States. Beetle infestations impact monoterpene emissions through both decreased emissions as trees are killed (mortality effect) and increased emissions in trees under attack (attack effect). We use 14 yr of beetle-induced tree mortality data together with beetle-induced monoterpene emission data in the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Earth System Model (CESM) to investigate the impact of beetle-induced tree mortality and attack on monoterpene emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in western North America. Regionally, beetle infestations may have a significant impact on monoterpene emissions and SOA concentrations, with up to a 4-fold increase in monoterpene emissions and up to a 40% increase in SOA concentrations in some years (in a scenario where the attack effect is based on observed lodgepole pine response). Responses to beetle attack depend on the extent of previous mortality and the number of trees under attack in a given year, which can vary greatly over space and time. Simulated enhancements peak in 2004 (British Columbia) and 2008 (US). Responses to beetle attack are shown to be substantially larger (up to a 3-fold localized increase in summertime SOA concentrations) in a scenario based on bark-beetle attack in spruce trees. Placed in the context of observations from the IMPROVE network, the changes in SOA concentrations due to beetle attack are in most cases small compared to the large annual and interannual variability in total organic aerosol which is driven by wildfire activity in western North America. This indicates that most beetle-induced SOA changes are not likely detectable in current observation networks; however, these changes may impede efforts to achieve natural visibility conditions in the national parks and wilderness areas of the

  20. The impact of bark beetle infestation on monoterpene emissions and secondary organic aerosol formation in Western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, A. R.; Heald, C. L.; Huff Hartz, K. E.; Hallar, A. G.; Meddens, A. J. H.; Hicke, J. A.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Tilmes, S.

    2012-11-01

    Over the last decade, extensive beetle outbreaks in Western North America have destroyed over 100 000 km2 of forest throughout British Columbia and the Western United States. Beetle infestations impact monoterpene emissions through both decreased emissions as trees are killed (mortality effect) and increased emissions in trees under attack (attack effect). We use 14 yr of beetle mortality data together with beetle-induced monoterpene concentration data in the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Earth System Model (CESM) to investigate the impact of beetle mortality and attack on monoterpene emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in Western North America. Regionally, beetle infestations may have a significant impact on monoterpene emissions and SOA concentrations, with up to a 4-fold increase in monoterpene emissions and up to a 40% increase in SOA concentrations in some years (following a scenario where the attack effect is based on observed lodgepole pine response). Responses to beetle attack depend on the extent of previous mortality and the number of trees under attack in a given year, which can vary greatly over space and time. Simulated enhancements peak in 2004 (British Columbia) and 2008 (US). Responses to beetle attack are shown to be substantially larger (up to a 3-fold localized increase in SOA concentrations) when following a scenario based on bark-beetle attack in spruce trees. Placed in the context of observations from the IMPROVE network, the changes in SOA concentrations due to beetle attack are in most cases small compared to the large annual and interannual variability in total organic aerosol which is driven by wildfire activity in Western North America. This indicates that most beetle-induced SOA changes are not likely detectable in current observation networks; however these changes may impede efforts to achieve natural visibility conditions in the national parks and wilderness areas of the Western United