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Sample records for radiation budget dataset

  1. The NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget Dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Shashi; Stackhouse, Paul; Cox, Stephen; Mikovitz, Colleen; Zhang, Taiping

    The surface radiation budget (SRB), consisting of downward and upward components of shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiation, is a major component of the energy exchanges between the atmosphere and land/ocean surfaces and thus affects surface temperature fields, fluxes of sensible and latent heat, and every aspect of energy and hydrological cycles. The NASA Global Energy and Water-cycle Experiment (GEWEX) SRB project has recently updated and improved a global dataset of surface radiative fluxes on a 1-degree grid for a 23-year period (July 1983 to June 2006). Both SW and LW fluxes have been produced with two sets of algorithms: one designated as primary and the other as quality-check. The primary algorithms use a more explicit treatment of surface and atmospheric processes while quality-check algorithms use a more parameterized approach. Cloud and surface properties for input to the algorithms have been derived from ISCCP pixel level (DX) data, temperature and humidity profiles from GEOS- 4 reanalysis products, and column ozone from a composite of TOMS, TOVS, and assimilated SBUV-2 datasets. Several top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiation budget parameters have also been derived with the primary algorithms. Surface fluxes from all algorithms are extensively validated with ground-based measurements obtained from the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN), the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA), and the World Radiation Data Center (WRDC) archives. The SRB dataset is a major contributor to the GEWEX Radiative Flux Assessment activity. An overview of the latest version (Release-3.0) of the dataset with global and zonal statistics of fluxes, inferred cloud radiative forcing, and results of the validation activities will be presented. Time series of SRB parameters at the TOA and surface for global, land, ocean, and tropical area means will be presented along with analysis of flux anomalies related to El Nino/La Nina episodes, phases of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO

  2. First global WCRP shortwave surface radiation budget dataset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlock, C. H.; Charlock, T. P.; Staylor, W. F.; Pinker, R. T.; Laszlo, I.; Ohmura, A.; Gilgen, H.; Konzelman, T.; Dipasquale, R. C.; Moats, C. D.

    1995-01-01

    Shortwave radiative fluxes that reach the earth's surface are key factors that influence atmospheric and oceanic circulations as well as surface climate. Yet, information on these fluxes is meager. Surface site data are generally available from only a limited number of observing stations over land. Much less is known about the large-scale variability of the shortwave radiative fluxes over the oceans, which cover most of the globe. Recognizing the need to produce global-scale fields of such fluxes for use in climate research, the World Climate Research Program has initiated activities that led to the establishment of the Surface Radiation Budget Climatology Project with the ultimate goal to determine various components of the surface radiation budget from satellite data. In this paper, the first global products that resulted from this activity are described. Monthly and daily data on a 280-km grid scale are available. Samples of climate parameters obtainable from the dataset are presented. Emphasis is given to validation and limitations of the results. For most of the globe, satellite estimates have bias values between +/- 20 W/sq m and root mean square (rms) values are around 25 W/sq m. There are specific regions with much larger uncertainties however.

  3. First global WCRP shortwave surface radiation budget dataset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlock, C. H.; Charlock, T. P.; Staylor, W. F.; Pinker, R. T.; Laszlo, I.; Ohmura, A.; Gilgen, H.; Konzelman, T.; DiPasquale, R. C.; Moats, C. D.

    1995-01-01

    Shortwave radiative fluxes that reach the Earth's surface are key factors that influence atmospheric and oceanic circulations as well as surface climate. Yet, information on these fluxes is meager. Surface site data are generally available from only a limited number of observing stations over land. Much less is known about the large-scale variability of the shortwave radiative fluxes over the oceans, which cover most of the globe. Recognizing the need to produce global-scale fields of such fluxes for use in climate research, the World Climate Research Program has initiated activities that led to the establishment of the Surface Radiation Budget Climatology Project with the ultimate goal to determine various components of the surface radiation budget from satellite data. In this paper, the first global products that resulted from this activity are described. Monthly and daily data on a 280-km grid scale are available. Samples of climate parameters obtainable from the dataset are presented. Emphasis is given to validation and limitations of the results. For most of the globe, satellite estimates have bias values between +/- 20 W/sq m and rms values are around 25 W/sq m. There are specific regions with much larger uncertainties however.

  4. Charactering the Surface Radiation Budget over the Tibetan Plateau Using Ground Observations, Reanalysis, and Satellite Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Q.; Liang, S.

    2013-12-01

    The importance of the surface radiation budget (SRB) over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) to impact not only the local climate but also the remote area (i.e., the drought and flood in China) attracts increasing attentions in the scientific communities. Observed evidences support a continuous dimming trend with predominant warming, wind stilling, and moistening trends since 1980s. Cautions, however, need to be exercised when using ground observations or satellite retrievals alone, which are limited with large errors and sparse distributions, respectively. This study aims to characterize the monthly SRB at 0.5° over the TP extending two decades by incorporating multiple datasets, including ground-measured datasets, reanalysis datasets, and satellite datasets. The fused SRB was first generated using a multiple linear regression method to synthesize reanalysis and satellite datasets with ground observations from 1984 to 2007, and was then applied not only to analyze the characteristics (spatial distribution, temporal variation, and trend) of the SRB but also to compare with selected atmospheric (cloud cover, precipitation, and water vapor) and surface (temperature, snow cover, and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)) anomalies over the TP. The cross validation results suggested that the fused data lowered the root mean square errors (RMSEs) at the monthly scale (<19 W/m2) by constraining uncertainties from multiple sources (i.e., inputs, preprocessing, and data fusion). The major finding is that the interaction of solar dimming with changes of surface albedo has dominated the marked decrease of all-wave net radiation since the mid-1980s regardless of the increase of downward longwave radiation (that counteracts the increase of upward longwave radiation). Furthermore, the weakening and strengthening of the relationships between the components of SRB and the correlated variables of atmospheric or surface conditions exhibit a seasonal dependency over the TP, where

  5. An Evaluation of Satellite-Based and Re-Analysis Radiation Budget Datasets Using CERES EBAF Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Shashi; Stackhouse, Paul; Wong, Takmeng; Mikovitz, Colleen; Cox, Stephen; Zhang, Taiping

    2016-04-01

    Top-of-atmosphere (TOA) and surface radiative fluxes from CERES Energy Balanced and Filled (EBAF; Loeb et al., 2009; Kato et al. 2013) products are used to evaluate the performance of several widely used long-term radiation budget datasets. Two of those are derived from satellite observations and five more are from re-analysis products. Satellite-derived datasets are the NASA/GEWEX Surface and TOA Radiation Budget Dataset Release-3 and the ISCCP-FD Dataset. The re-analysis datasets are taken from NCEP-CFSR, ERA-Interim, Japanese Re-Analysis (JRA-55), MERRA and the newly released MERRA2 products. Close examination is made of the differences between MERRA and MERRA2 products for the purpose of identifying improvements achieved for MERRA2. Many of these datasets have undergone quality assessment under the GEWEX Radiative Flux Assessment (RFA) project. For the purposes of the present study, EBAF datasets are treated as reference and other datasets are compared with it. All-sky and clear-sky, SW and LW, TOA and surface fluxes are included in this study. A 7-year period (2001-2007) common to all datasets is chosen for comparisons of global and zonal averages, monthly and annual average timeseries, and their anomalies. These comparisons show significant differences between EBAF and the other datasets. Certain anomalies and trends observed in the satellite-derived datasets are attributable to corresponding features in satellite datasets used as input, especially ISCCP cloud properties. Comparisons of zonal averages showed significant differences especially over higher latitudes even when those differences are not obvious in the global averages. Special emphasis is placed on the analysis of the correspondence between spatial patterns of geographical distribution of the above fluxes on a 7-year average as well as on a month-by-month basis using the Taylor (2001) methodology. Results showed that for 7-year average fields correlation coefficients between spatial patterns

  6. Earth radiation budgets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, G. L.; Campbell, G. G.; Vonder Haar, T. H.

    1981-01-01

    The annual and seasonal averaged earth atmosphere radiation budgets, derived from the most complete set of satellite observations available in late 1979, are presented. The budgets are derived using a composite of 48 monthly mean radiation budget maps. The annual, global average emitted infrared flux is 234 W/sq m, the planetary albedo is 0.30, and the net flux is zero within measurement uncertainty. In addition, the annual cycle of net flux is studied in detail, and the observed globally averaged net flux is found to display an annual cycle that is of similar magnitude and phase to the annual cycle imposed by the influence of sun-earth distance variations on solar radiation input into the atmosphere.

  7. Cloudiness and the radiation budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The problem of obtaining data for quantification of the effects of clouds on radiation budget measurements is discussed. Areas considered include the relationship between observed cloud characteristics and model predicted characteristics and selection of an angular distribution function for conversion of scanning radiometer radiance to irradiance. Storage of meteorological satellite data related to cloud-radiation interactions is discussed.

  8. Earth Radiation Budget Science, 1978. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    An earth radiation budget satellite system planned in order to understand climate on various temporal and spatial scales is considered. Topics discussed include: climate modeling, climate diagnostics, radiation modeling, radiation variability and correlation studies, cloudiness and the radiation budget, and radiation budget and related measurements in 1985 and beyond.

  9. Martian atmospheric radiation budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindner, Bernhard Lee

    1994-01-01

    A computer model is used to study the radiative transfer of the martian winter-polar atmosphere. Solar heating at winter-polar latitudes is provided predominately by dust. For normal, low-dust conditions, CO2 provides almost as much heating as dust. Most heating by CO2 in the winter polar atmosphere is provided by the 2.7 micron band between 10 km and 30 km altitude, and by the 2.0 micron band below 10 km. The weak 1.3 micron band provides some significant heating near the surface. The minor CO2 bands at 1.4, 1.6, 4.8 and 5.2 micron are all optically thin, and produce negligible heating. O3 provides less than 10 percent of the total heating. Atmospheric cooling is predominantly thermal emission by dust, although CO2 15 micron band emission is important above 20 km altitude.

  10. Radiation budget measurement/model interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonderhaar, T. H.; Ciesielski, P.; Randel, D.; Stevens, D.

    1983-01-01

    This final report includes research results from the period February, 1981 through November, 1982. Two new results combine to form the final portion of this work. They are the work by Hanna (1982) and Stevens to successfully test and demonstrate a low-order spectral climate model and the work by Ciesielski et al. (1983) to combine and test the new radiation budget results from NIMBUS-7 with earlier satellite measurements. Together, the two related activities set the stage for future research on radiation budget measurement/model interfacing. Such combination of results will lead to new applications of satellite data to climate problems. The objectives of this research under the present contract are therefore satisfied. Additional research reported herein includes the compilation and documentation of the radiation budget data set a Colorado State University and the definition of climate-related experiments suggested after lengthy analysis of the satellite radiation budget experiments.

  11. Earth Radiation Budget Experiment - Preliminary seasonal results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Harrison, Edwin F.; Lee, Robert B., III

    1990-01-01

    Data from the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) and from the operational NOAA-9 satellite being placed in the archive of the earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) are discussed. The results of the ERBE data validation effort are reviewed along with ERBE solar constant observations and earth-viewing results. The latter include monthly average results for July 1985, annual average clear-sky fluxes, and annual average, zonal, and global results.

  12. Radiative Energy Budget Studies Using Observations from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackerman, Steven A.; Frey, R.; Shie, M.; Olson, R.; Collimore, C.; Friedman, M.

    1997-01-01

    Our research activities under this NASA grant have focused on two broad topics associated with the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE): (1) the role of clouds and the surface in modifying the radiative balance; and (2) the spatial and temporal variability of the earth's radiation budget. Each of these broad topics is discussed separately in the text that follows. The major points of the thesis are summarized in section 3 of this report. Other dissertation focuses on deriving the radiation budget over the TOGA COARE region.

  13. Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Harrison, Edwin F.; Smith, G. Louis; Green, Richard N.; Kibler, James F.; Cess, Robert D.

    1990-01-01

    During the past 4 years, data from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) have been undergoing detailed examination. There is no direct source of groundtruth for the radiation budget. Thus, this validation effort has had to rely heavily upon intercomparisons between different types of measurements. The ERBE SCIENCE Team chose 10 measures of agreement as validation criteria. Late in August 1988, the Team agreed that the data met these conditions. As a result, the final, monthly averaged data products are being archived. These products, their validation, and some results for January 1986 are described. Information is provided on obtaining the data from the archive.

  14. Climate and the Earth's Radiation Budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramanathan, V.; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Harrison, Edwin F.

    1989-01-01

    Data from NASA's Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) Experiment instruments carried by the ERB Satellite and by NOAA-9 and -10 are presently evaluated, with a view to the role played by clouds in the global radiation energy balance. While an individual water droplet scatters 85 percent of incident energy in the forward direction, a cloud of such drops can scatter 75 percent or more of the energy backward. The resulting enhancement of surface-atmosphere albedo reduces the solar radiation absorbed by the atmospheric column. Clouds also significantly enhance the long-wave opacity of the atmosphere; like gaseous absorption, this reduces the radiation emitted to space.

  15. Surface radiation budget for climate applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suttles, J. T. (Editor); Ohring, G. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    The Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) consists of the upwelling and downwelling radiation fluxes at the surface, separately determined for the broadband shortwave (SW) (0 to 5 micron) and longwave (LW) (greater than 5 microns) spectral regions plus certain key parameters that control these fluxes, specifically, SW albedo, LW emissivity, and surface temperature. The uses and requirements for SRB data, critical assessment of current capabilities for producing these data, and directions for future research are presented.

  16. Quantifying Recent Changes in Earth's Radiation Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeb, N. G.; Kato, S.; Lyman, J. M.; Johnson, G. C.; Doelling, D.; Wong, T.; Allan, R.; Soden, B. J.; Stephens, G. L.

    2011-12-01

    The radiative energy balance between the solar or shortwave (SW) radiation absorbed by Earth and the thermal infrared or longwave (LW) radiation emitted back to space is fundamental to climate. An increase in the net radiative flux into the system (e.g., due to external forcing) is primarily stored as heat in the ocean, and can resurface at a later time to affect weather and climate on a global scale. The associated changes in the components of the Earth-atmosphere such as clouds, the surface and the atmosphere further alter the radiative balance, leading to further changes in weather and climate. Observations from instruments aboard Aqua and other satellites clearly show large interannual and decadal variability in the Earth's radiation budget associated with the major modes of climate variability (e.g., ENSO, NAO, etc.). We present results from CERES regarding variations in the net radiation imbalance of the planet during the past decade, comparing them with independent estimates of ocean heating rates derived from in-situ observations of ocean heat content. We combine these two data sets to calculate that during the past decade Earth has been accumulating energy at the rate 0.54±0.43 Wm-2, suggesting that while Earth's surface has not warmed significantly during the 2000s, energy is continuing to accumulate in the sub-surface ocean. Our observations do not support previous claims of "missing energy" in the system. We exploit data from other instruments such as MODIS, AIRS, CALIPSO and CloudSat to examine how clouds and atmospheric temperature/humidity vary both at regional and global scales during ENSO events. Finally, we present a revised representation of the global mean Earth radiation budget derived from gridded monthly mean TOA and surface radiative fluxes (EBAF-TOA and EBAF-SFC) that are based on a radiative assimilation analysis of observations from Aqua, Terra, geostationary satellites, CALIPSO and CloudSat.

  17. An Earth radiation budget climate model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartman, Fred L.

    1988-01-01

    A 2-D Earth Radiation Budget Climate Model has been constructed from an OLWR (Outgoing Longwave Radiation) model and an Earth albedo model. Each of these models uses the same cloud cover climatology modified by a factor GLCLC which adjusts the global annual average cloud cover. The two models are linked by a set of equations which relate the cloud albedos to the cloud top temperatures of the OLWR model. These equations are derived from simultaneous narrow band satellite measurements of cloud top temperature and albedo. Initial results include global annual average values of albedo and latitude/longitude radiation for 45 percent and 57 percent global annual average cloud cover and two different forms of the cloud albedo-cloud top temperature equations.

  18. METEOSAT studies of clouds and radiation budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, R. W.

    1982-01-01

    Radiation budget studies of the atmosphere/surface system from Meteosat, cloud parameter determination from space, and sea surface temperature measurements from TIROS N data are all described. This work was carried out on the interactive planetary image processing system (IPIPS), which allows interactive manipulationion of the image data in addition to the conventional computational tasks. The current hardware configuration of IPIPS is shown. The I(2)S is the principal interactive display allowing interaction via a trackball, four buttons under program control, or a touch tablet. Simple image processing operations such as contrast enhancing, pseudocoloring, histogram equalization, and multispectral combinations, can all be executed at the push of a button.

  19. Regional Climatology and Surface Radiation Budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilber, Anne C.; Smith, G. Louis; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The climatology and surface radiation budget (SRB) of a region are intimately related. This paper presents a brief examination of this relationship. An 8-year surface radiation budget data set has been developed based on satellite measurements. In that data set and in this paper a region is defined as a quasi-square 2.5o in latitude and approximately the same physical distance in longitude. A pilot study by Wilber et al. (1998) showed a variety of behaviors of the annual cycles for selected regions. Selected desert regions form a loop in a specific part of the plot, with large NLW and large NSW. Tropical wet regions form much smaller loops in a different part of the plot, with small NLW and large NSW. For regions selected in high latitude the annual cycles form nearly linear figures in another part of the plot. The question arises as to whether these trajectories are characteristic of the climatology of the region or simply the behavior of the few regions selected from the set of 6596 regions. In order to address this question, it is necessary to classify the climatology of the each region, e.g. as classified by Koeppen (1936) or Trenwarthe and Horne (1980). This paper presents a method of classifying climate of the regions on the basis of the surface radiation behavior such that the results are very similar to the classification of Trenwarthe and Horne. The characteristics of the annual cycle of SRB components can then be investigated further, based on the climate classification of each region.

  20. Ozone budget in the upper stratosphere: Model studies using the reprocessed LIMS and the HALOE datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natarajan, Murali; Remsberg, Ellis E.; Gordley, Larry L.

    2002-04-01

    Recently reprocessed LIMS dataset has been used with a contemporary photochemical model to study the balance between photochemical production and destruction of ozone in the upper stratosphere. Model results corresponding to January 1979 indicate that the ozone deficit is less than 15% in the pressure range of 5 to 0.5 mb between 50°S and 50°N latitude. The imbalance at 40 km is much smaller than reported by the earliest studies with the archived LIMS data. The same model, when initialized with HALOE (version 19) data for January, 1996, shows similar results with peak ozone deficits being less than 10%. For both cases, the model shows a near balance in the ozone budget above 1 mb, contrary to recent studies based on balloon-borne measurements. The magnitude of the ozone imbalance seen in this study is within the uncertainties of the data and model.

  1. Nimbus-Earth radiation budget instrument analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maschhoff, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    The Wide Field Of View (WFOV) Earth Flux Channels of the Nimbus Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) instrument are studied with the objective of improving the understanding and confidence in the data. Laboratory tests on flight space Earth flux subassemblies followed by a set of in flight verification procedures are examined to see if the laboratory derived correction factors produced consistent results. Intercomparisons between the WFOV data and integrated scanner data as well as other truth are used in these verificaton procedures. The main source of errors are temperature and temperature gradient related offsets. The findings led to construction of a model for the short wave WFOV channel which use instrument temperatures and temperature differences to predict or establish offsets which need to be applied to data reduction algorithms for maximum final data product accuracy.

  2. MVIRI/SEVIRI TOA Radiation Datasets within the Climate Monitoring SAF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbain, Manon; Clerbaux, Nicolas; Ipe, Alessandro; Baudrez, Edward; Velazquez Blazquez, Almudena; Moreels, Johan

    2016-04-01

    Within CM SAF, Interim Climate Data Records (ICDR) of Top-Of-Atmosphere (TOA) radiation products from the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) instruments on the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellites have been released in 2013. These datasets (referred to as CM-113 and CM-115, resp. for shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiation) are based on the instantaneous TOA fluxes from the GERB Edition-1 dataset. They cover the time period 2004-2011. Extending these datasets backward in the past is not possible as no GERB instruments were available on the Meteosat First Generation (MFG) satellites. As an alternative, it is proposed to rely on the Meteosat Visible and InfraRed Imager (MVIRI - from 1982 until 2004) and the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI - from 2004 onward) to generate a long Thematic Climate Data Record (TCDR) from Meteosat instruments. Combining MVIRI and SEVIRI allows an unprecedented temporal (30 minutes / 15 minutes) and spatial (2.5 km / 3 km) resolution compared to the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) products. This is a step forward as it helps to increase the knowledge of the diurnal cycle and the small-scale spatial variations of radiation. The MVIRI/SEVIRI datasets (referred to as CM-23311 and CM-23341, resp. for SW and LW radiation) will provide daily and monthly averaged TOA Reflected Solar (TRS) and Emitted Thermal (TET) radiation in "all-sky" conditions (no clear-sky conditions for this first version of the datasets), as well as monthly averaged of the hourly integrated values. The SEVIRI Solar Channels Calibration (SSCC) and the operational calibration have been used resp. for the SW and LW channels. For MFG, it is foreseen to replace the latter by the EUMETSAT/GSICS recalibration of MVIRI using HIRS. The CERES TRMM angular dependency models have been used to compute TRS fluxes while theoretical models have been used for TET fluxes. The CM-23311 and CM-23341 datasets will cover a 32 years

  3. The basic thermodynamics of Earth's radiation budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Peter L.

    2015-04-01

    greenhouse gases. There simply is not enough thermal energy absorbed by greenhouse gases to have a major effect on global warming. Computer programs used to quantify greenhouse-gas theory overestimate infrared energies because they assume that thermal energy travels in space as waves, for which energy is a function of amplitude squared, and that energies are additive over bandwidth, both properties that are very different from the observed behavior of radiation in the atmosphere. Heat only flows from hot to cold; it cannot flow from a colder layer in the atmosphere to a warmer Earth, as assumed in many radiation budgets (e.g. Wild et al., 2013); you cannot get warmer by standing next to a cold stove. According to Planck's Law, radiation from a body of matter does not have high enough frequencies or amplitudes to warm the same body, as is assumed by greenhouse-gas theory. Warming radiation must come from a warmer body. Detailed observations of global warming, including the recent hiatus, are explained much more directly and clearly by ozone depletion theory, where less ozone in the stratosphere allows more high-energy, solar ultraviolet radiation to reach Earth, cooling the stratosphere, warming the oceans. More details at ozonedepletiontheory.info plus a video at tinyurl.com/ozone-depletion-theory.

  4. Atlas of the Earth's radiation budget as measured by Nimbus-7: May 1979 to May 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyle, H. Lee; Hucek, Richard R.; Vallette, Brenda J.

    1991-01-01

    This atlas describes the seasonal changes in the Earth's radiation budget for the 13-month period, May 1979 to May 1980. It helps to illustrate the strong feedback mechanisms by which the Earth's climate interacts with the top-of-the-atmosphere insolation to modify the energy that various regions absorb from the Sun. Cloud type and cloud amount, which are linked to the surface temperature and the regional climate, are key elements in this interaction. Annual, seasonal, and monthly maps of the albedo, outgoing longwave and net radiation, noontime cloud cover, and mean diurnal surface temperatures are presented. Annual and seasonal net cloud forcing maps are also given. All of the quantities were derived from Nimbus-7 satellite measurements except for the temperatures, which were used in the cloud detection algorithm and came originally from the Air Force 3-dimensional nephanalysis dataset. The seasonal changes are described. The interaction of clouds and the radiation budget is briefly discussed.

  5. Non-Scanning Radiometer Results for Earth Radiation Budget Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. Louis; Green, Richard N.; Lee, Robert B., III; Bess, T. Dale; Rutan, David

    1992-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) included non-scanning radiometers (Luther, 1986) flown aboard a dedicated mission of Earth Radiation Budget Satellite, and the NOAA-9 and -10 operational meteorological spacecraft (Barkstrom and Smith, 1986). The radiometers first began providing Earth radiation budget data in November 1984 and have remained operational, providing a record of nearly 8 years of data to date for researchers. Although they do not produce measurements with the resolution given by the scanning radiometers, the results from the non-scanning radiometers are extremely useful for climate research involving long-term radiation data sets. This paper discusses the non-scanning radiometers, their stability, the method of analyzing the data, and brief scientific results from the data.

  6. ERBE Wide-Field-of-View Nonscanner Data Reprocessing and revisiting its Radiation dataset from 1985 to 199

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, A. K.; Kato, S.; Wong, T.; Stackhouse, P. W.; Rose, F. G.; Miller, W. F.; Bush, K.; Rutan, D. A.; Minnis, P.; Doelling, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Earth's radiation budget is a fundamental component of the climate system and should reflect the variation in climate. As such, it is critical to know how it has varied over past decades to ensure that climate models are properly representing climate. Broadband shortwave and longwave irradiances were measured by the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) wide-field-of-view (WFOV) nonscanner instrument from 1985 to 1998. These WFOV nonscanner instruments were onboard NASA's Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) and two NOAA's satellites (NOAA-9 and NOAA-10). However, earlier studies showed that the transmissivity of the dome for the WFOV shortwave (SW) nonscanner instrument degraded over time. To account for the degradation, WFOV instruments were calibrated assuming constant spectral degradation (gray assumption). Recent developments from analysis of data from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System project (CERES), which has been measuring the radiation budget since 2000, suggest that transmissivity of shorter wavelength degrades faster. Therefore, a spectrally dependent degradation correction is needed for a better calibration. In addition, accounting for the spectrally dependent degradation may eliminate an additional correction applied to irradiances using a time series of daytime and nighttime longwave irradiance differences. Therefore, we have reprocessed WFOV nonscanner data by characterizing the spectrally dependent degradation of the SW dome transmissivity. Time and spectral dependent degradation of the shortwave filter function is estimated using solar data observed by these instruments during calibration days. Because the spectrum of reflected irradiance depends on scene type, we use Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer AVHRR-derived cloud properties and surface type over the WFOV footprints in addition to time dependent filter function for the unfiltering process. This poster explains the reprocessing approach and discusses the

  7. Amazon forest radiation budget from satellite data

    SciTech Connect

    Calvet, J.C.; Viswanadham, Y. )

    1993-05-01

    The top-of-the-atmosphere net radiation is determined over the Ducke Reserve Forest site, Manaus, Brazil (2[degrees]57 S, 59[degrees]57 W), from GOES-7 visible and infrared data during the 1987 wet season (April--May), for 0900 and 1500 LST. It is shown that a very good correlation exists between the top-of-the-atmosphere net radiation and the net radiation measured at the surface 12 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Cloud types and the tropical Earth radiation budget, revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhuria, Harbans L.; Kyle, H. Lee

    1989-01-01

    Nimbus-7 cloud and Earth radiation budget data are compared in a study of the effects of clouds on the tropical radiation budget. The data consist of daily averages over fixed 500 sq km target areas, and the months of July 1979 and January 1980 were chosen to show the effect of seasonal changes. Six climate regions, consisting of 14 to 24 target areas each, were picked for intensive analysis because they exemplified the range in the tropical cloud/net radiation interactions. The normal analysis was to consider net radiation as the independent variable and examine how cloud cover, cloud type, albedo and emitted radiation varied with the net radiation. Two recurring themes keep repeating on a local, regional, and zonal basis: the net radiation is strongly influenced by the average cloud type and amount present, but most net radiation values could be produced by several combinations of cloud types and amount. The regions of highest net radiation (greater than 125 W/sq m) tend to have medium to heavy cloud cover. In these cases, thin medium altitude clouds predominate. Their cloud tops are normally too warm to be classified as cirrus by the Nimbus cloud algorithm. A common feature in the tropical oceans are large regions where the total regional cloud cover varies from 20 to 90 percent, but with little regional difference in the net radiation. The monsoon and rain areas are high net radiation regions.

  9. CM-SAF surface radiation budget: First results with AVHRR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollmann, R.; Mueller, R. W.; Gratzki, A.

    In the phase of redefinition of the EUMETSAT ground segment seven so called Satellite Application Facilities (SAF) each of them serving dedicated user groups have been established in Europe. The SAF on climate monitoring (CM-SAF) will deliver a comprehensive set of climate variables, including from different cloud products, radiation budget at the top of the atmosphere, surface radiation budget and tropospheric humidity. A consistent dataset of cloud and radiation products in a high spatial resolution on a uniform grid is derived. The CM-SAF is a joint project of the German Meteorological Service, EUMETSAT and five other European Meteorological Services. It is dedicated to produce climate datasets using data from instruments onboard of METEOSAT Second Generation and polar orbiting satellites NOAA and METOP. After the development phase, the CM-SAF has started its initial operational phase in the end of 2003. In this context, the algorithms have been implemented at the processing centres and the processing of satellite data from the polar orbiting satellites of NOAA has commenced. This paper gives an overview of the first products of surface radiative fluxes and their validation with selected surface sites.

  10. 3D modeling of satellite spectral images, radiation budget and energy budget of urban landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gastellu-Etchegorry, J. P.

    2008-12-01

    DART EB is a model that is being developed for simulating the 3D (3 dimensional) energy budget of urban and natural scenes, possibly with topography and atmosphere. It simulates all non radiative energy mechanisms (heat conduction, turbulent momentum and heat fluxes, water reservoir evolution, etc.). It uses DART model (Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer) for simulating radiative mechanisms: 3D radiative budget of 3D scenes and their remote sensing images expressed in terms of reflectance or brightness temperature values, for any atmosphere, wavelength, sun/view direction, altitude and spatial resolution. It uses an innovative multispectral approach (ray tracing, exact kernel, discrete ordinate techniques) over the whole optical domain. This paper presents two major and recent improvements of DART for adapting it to urban canopies. (1) Simulation of the geometry and optical characteristics of urban elements (houses, etc.). (2) Modeling of thermal infrared emission by vegetation and urban elements. The new DART version was used in the context of the CAPITOUL project. For that, districts of the Toulouse urban data base (Autocad format) were translated into DART scenes. This allowed us to simulate visible, near infrared and thermal infrared satellite images of Toulouse districts. Moreover, the 3D radiation budget was used by DARTEB for simulating the time evolution of a number of geophysical quantities of various surface elements (roads, walls, roofs). Results were successfully compared with ground measurements of the CAPITOUL project.

  11. Earth Radiation Budget Research at the NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. Louis; Harrison, Edwin F.; Gibson, Gary G.

    2014-01-01

    In the 1970s research studies concentrating on satellite measurements of Earth's radiation budget started at the NASA Langley Research Center. Since that beginning, considerable effort has been devoted to developing measurement techniques, data analysis methods, and time-space sampling strategies to meet the radiation budget science requirements for climate studies. Implementation and success of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) and the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) was due to the remarkable teamwork of many engineers, scientists, and data analysts. Data from ERBE have provided a new understanding of the effects of clouds, aerosols, and El Nino/La Nina oscillation on the Earth's radiation. CERES spacecraft instruments have extended the time coverage with high quality climate data records for over a decade. Using ERBE and CERES measurements these teams have created information about radiation at the top of the atmosphere, at the surface, and throughout the atmosphere for a better understanding of our climate. They have also generated surface radiation products for designers of solar power plants and buildings and numerous other applications

  12. Earth radiation budget measurements from satellites and their interpretation for climate modeling and studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonderhaar, T. H.; Stephens, G. L.; Campbell, G. G.

    1980-01-01

    The annual and seasonal averaged Earth atmosphere radiation budgets derived from the most complete set of satellite observations available are presented. The budgets were derived from a composite of 48 monthly mean radiation budget maps. Annually and seasonally averaged radiation budgets are presented as global averages and zonal averages. The geographic distribution of the various radiation budget quantities is described. The annual cycle of the radiation budget was analyzed and the annual variability of net flux was shown to be largely dominated by the regular semi and annual cycles forced by external Earth-Sun geometry variations. Radiative transfer calculations were compared to the observed budget quantities and surface budgets were additionally computed with particular emphasis on discrepancies that exist between the present computations and previous surface budget estimates.

  13. First data from the earth radiation budget experiment (ERBE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkstrom, B. R.; Harrison, E. F.; Huck, F. O.; Smith, G. L.; Berroir, A.; Cess, R. D.; Gruber, A.; Hartmann, D. L.; King, M. D.; Mecherikunnel, A. T.

    1986-01-01

    The first data obtained from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) are presented. These data include emitted infrared radiation, albedo, and estimated scene types for Nov. 15, 1984, as well as measurements of the 'solar constant'. Images from the GOES on the same day are included for comparison with the ERBE scene identification. On an instantaneous basis, clouds appear colder and more reflective than seems to have been noted before. The experiment data will be applied to several key studies of cloud-radiation-climate interactions.

  14. Radiation energy budget studies using collocated AVHRR and ERBE observations

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, S.A.; Inoue, Toshiro

    1994-03-01

    Changes in the energy balance at the top of the atmosphere are specified as a function of atmospheric and surface properties using observations from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner. By collocating the observations from the two instruments, flown on NOAA-9, the authors take advantage of the remote-sensing capabilities of each instrument. The AVHRR spectral channels were selected based on regions that are strongly transparent to clear sky conditions and are therefore useful for characterizing both surface and cloud-top conditions. The ERBE instruments make broadband observations that are important for climate studies. The approach of collocating these observations in time and space is used to study the radiative energy budget of three geographic regions: oceanic, savanna, and desert. 25 refs., 8 figs.

  15. Toward a Comprehensive Carbon Budget for North America: Potential Applications of Adjoint Methods with Diverse Datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, A.

    2002-01-01

    A detailed mechanistic understanding of the sources and sinks of CO2 will be required to reliably predict future COS levels and climate. A commonly used technique for deriving information about CO2 exchange with surface reservoirs is to solve an "inverse problem," where CO2 observations are used with an atmospheric transport model to find the optimal distribution of sources and sinks. Synthesis inversion methods are powerful tools for addressing this question, but the results are disturbingly sensitive to the details of the calculation. Studies done using different atmospheric transport models and combinations of surface station data have produced substantially different distributions of surface fluxes. Adjoint methods are now being developed that will more effectively incorporate diverse datasets in estimates of surface fluxes of CO2. In an adjoint framework, it will be possible to combine CO2 concentration data from long-term surface monitoring stations with data from intensive field campaigns and with proposed future satellite observations. A major advantage of the adjoint approach is that meteorological and surface data, as well as data for other atmospheric constituents and pollutants can be efficiently included in addition to observations of CO2 mixing ratios. This presentation will provide an overview of potentially useful datasets for carbon cycle research in general with an emphasis on planning for the North American Carbon Project. Areas of overlap with ongoing and proposed work on air quality/air pollution issues will be highlighted.

  16. Evaluation of linear interpolation method for missing value on solar radiation dataset in Perlis

    SciTech Connect

    Saaban, Azizan; Zainudin, Lutfi; Bakar, Mohd Nazari Abu

    2015-05-15

    This paper intends to reveal the ability of the linear interpolation method to predict missing values in solar radiation time series. Reliable dataset is equally tends to complete time series observed dataset. The absence or presence of radiation data alters long-term variation of solar radiation measurement values. Based on that change, the opportunities to provide bias output result for modelling and the validation process is higher. The completeness of the observed variable dataset has significantly important for data analysis. Occurrence the lack of continual and unreliable time series solar radiation data widely spread and become the main problematic issue. However, the limited number of research quantity that has carried out to emphasize and gives full attention to estimate missing values in the solar radiation dataset.

  17. Radiation budget measurements for the eighties and nineties

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.L.; Barkstrom, B.R.; Harrison, E.F.; Lee, R.B. III; Wielicki, B.A. )

    1994-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) consisted of a scanning radiometer and non-scanning radiometers on each of three spacecraft. These instruments began flying in October 1984. The nonscanning radiometers continue to operate, providing broadband radiation measurements of the Earth's outgoing longwave radiation and reflected solar radiation, in addition to measurements of the solar output. The Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) features a scanning radiometer, which is an improved version of the ERBE scanning radiometer, and will fly on the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission and Earth Observation System platforms in the late nineties. The CERES project will provide not only radiant fluxes at the top of the atmosphere' (TOA), but also at the surface and will compute radiant flux divergence through the atmosphere.

  18. Radiative energy budget estimates for the 1979 southwest summer monsoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackerman, Steven A.; Cox, Stephen K.

    1987-01-01

    A major objective of the summer monsoon experiment (SMONEX) was the determination of the heat sources and sinks associated with the southwest summer monsoon. The radiative component is presented here. The vertically integrated tropospheric radiation energy budget is negative and varies significantly as a function of monsoon activity. The gradient in the latitudinal mean tropospheric cooling reverses between the winter periods and the late spring/early summer periods. The radiative component of the vertical profile of the diabatic heating is derived. These profiles are a strong function of the stage of the monsoon as well as the geographic region. In general, the surface experiences a net gain of radiative energy during the late spring and early summer periods. During the winter periods, areas northward of 25 N display net surface losses, while the remaining areas exhibit net gains.

  19. Observations from the NASA multisatellite Earth Radiation Budget Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, Edwin F.

    1990-01-01

    Satellite measurements from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) are providing new insights into the earth radiation balance. The ERBE results indicate that clouds have more of a cooling effect than a greenhouse warming effect on the earth-atmosphere system. The largest net-radiation cooling appears over the midlatitude oceans in the summer hemisphere where maximum sunlight and maximum cloud cover occur. The ERBE data also have shown that many areas of the earth exhibit significant diurnal variations in both longwave and shortwave radiation. In order to assess future global climatic changes, a follow-on experiment to ERBE, called Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), has been selected to fly on the Earth Observing System in the the 1990's.

  20. Validation and analysis of Earth Radiation Budget active-cavity radiometric data (1985-1999)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paden, Jack; Smith, G. Louis; Lee, Robert B., III; Priestley, Kory J.; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Wilson, Robert S.

    2001-01-01

    On 5 October 1984, the US' first woman in space, Dr. Sally Ride, inserted the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) into a 57 degree inclined orbit using the shuttles remote manipulator arm. The orbital precession period of the satellite was 72 days. The nonscanner instrument aboard the ERBS has acquired earth-emitted and reflected radiant flux data since that time, having exceeded its designed lifetime of three years by a factor of five. During these 15 years, the ERBS nonscanner has become a de-facto standard to which much remotely sensed radiative flux data is compared. This paper compares the fifteen year history of the ERBS wide and medium field-of-view non-scanner detectors with the solar irradiance data acquired by the co-located ERBS solar monitor and with the National Climatic Data Center's earth- surface temperature dataset for the same period.

  1. Annual Cycle of Cloud Forcing of Surface Radiation Budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilber, Anne C.; Smith, G. Louis; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.; Gupta, Shashi K.

    2006-01-01

    The climate of the Earth is determined by its balance of radiation. The incoming and outgoing radiation fluxes are strongly modulated by clouds, which are not well understood. The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (Barkstrom and Smith, 1986) provided data from which the effects of clouds on radiation at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) could be computed (Ramanathan, 1987). At TOA, clouds increase the reflected solar radiation, tending to cool the planet, and decrease the OLR, causing the planet to retain its heat (Ramanathan et al., 1989; Harrison et al., 1990). The effects of clouds on radiation fluxes are denoted cloud forcing. These shortwave and longwave forcings counter each other to various degrees, so that in the tropics the result is a near balance. Over mid and polar latitude oceans, cloud forcing at TOA results in large net loss of radiation. Here, there are large areas of stratus clouds and cloud systems associated with storms. These systems are sensitive to surface temperatures and vary strongly with the annual cycle. During winter, anticyclones form over the continents and move to the oceans during summer. This movement of major cloud systems causes large changes of surface radiation, which in turn drives the surface temperature and sensible and latent heat released to the atmosphere.

  2. Bidirectional Reflectance Functions for Application to Earth Radiation Budget Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manalo-Smith, N.; Tiwari, S. N.; Smith, G. L.

    1997-01-01

    Reflected solar radiative fluxes emerging for the Earth's top of the atmosphere are inferred from satellite broadband radiance measurements by applying bidirectional reflectance functions (BDRFs) to account for the anisotropy of the radiation field. BDRF's are dependent upon the viewing geometry (i.e. solar zenith angle, view zenith angle, and relative azimuth angle), the amount and type of cloud cover, the condition of the intervening atmosphere, and the reflectance characteristics of the underlying surface. A set of operational Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) BDRFs is available which was developed from the Nimbus 7 ERB (Earth Radiation Budget) scanner data for a three-angle grid system, An improved set of bidirectional reflectance is required for mission planning and data analysis of future earth radiation budget instruments, such as the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), and for the enhancement of existing radiation budget data products. This study presents an analytic expression for BDRFs formulated by applying a fit to the ERBE operational model tabulations. A set of model coefficients applicable to any viewing condition is computed for an overcast and a clear sky scene over four geographical surface types: ocean, land, snow, and desert, and partly cloudy scenes over ocean and land. The models are smooth in terms of the directional angles and adhere to the principle of reciprocity, i.e., they are invariant with respect to the interchange of the incoming and outgoing directional angles. The analytic BDRFs and the radiance standard deviations are compared with the operational ERBE models and validated with ERBE data. The clear ocean model is validated with Dlhopolsky's clear ocean model. Dlhopolsky developed a BDRF of higher angular resolution for clear sky ocean from ERBE radiances. Additionally, the effectiveness of the models accounting for anisotropy for various viewing directions is tested with the ERBE along tract data. An area

  3. Effects of cirrus composition on atmospheric radiation budgets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinne, Stefan; Liou, Kuo-Nan

    1988-01-01

    A radiative transfer model that can be used to determine the change in solar and infrared fluxes caused by variations in the composition of cirrus clouds was used to investigate the importance of particle size and shape on the radiation budget of the Earth-atmosphere system. Even though the cloud optical thickness dominates the radiative properties of ice clouds, the particle size and nonsphericity of ice crystals are also important in calculations of the transfer of near-IR solar wavelengths. Results show that, for a given optical thickness, ice clouds composed of larger particles would produce larger greenhouse effects than those composed of smaller particles. Moreover, spherical particles with equivalent surface areas, frequently used for ice crystal clouds, would lead to an overestimation of the greenhouse effect.

  4. Observed perturbations of the Earth's Radiation Budget - A response to the El Chichon stratospheric aerosol layer?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardanuy, P. E.; Kyle, H. L.

    1986-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget experiment, launched aboard the Nimbus-7 polar-orbiting spacecraft in late 1978, has now taken over seven years of measurements. The dataset, which is global in coverage, consists of the individual components of the earth's radiation budget, including longwave emission, net radiation, and both total and near-infrared albedos. Starting some six months after the 1982 eruption of the El Chichon volcano, substantial long-lived positive shortwave irradiance anomalies were observed by the experiment in both the northern and southern polar regions. Analysis of the morphology of this phenomena indicates that the cause is the global stratospheric aerosol layer which formed from the cloud of volcanic effluents. There was little change in the emitted longwave in the polar regions. At the north pole the largest anomaly was in the near-infrared, but at the south pole the near UV-visible anomaly was larger. Assuming an exponential decay, the time constant for the north polar, near-infrared anomaly was 1.2 years. At mid- and low latitudes the effect of the El Chichon aerosol layer could not be separated from the strong reflected-shortwave and emitted-longwave perturbations issuing from the El Nino/Southern Oscillation event of 1982-83.

  5. Simulation and Correction of Triana-Viewed Earth Radiation Budget with ERBE/ISCCP Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Jian-Ping; Minnis, Patrick; Doelling, David R.; Valero, Francisco P. J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the simulation of the earth radiation budget (ERB) as viewed by Triana and the development of correction models for converting Trianaviewed radiances into a complete ERB. A full range of Triana views and global radiation fields are simulated using a combination of datasets from ERBE (Earth Radiation Budget Experiment) and ISCCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project) and analyzed with a set of empirical correction factors specific to the Triana views. The results show that the accuracy of global correction factors to estimate ERB from Triana radiances is a function of the Triana position relative to the Lagrange-1 (L1) or the Sun location. Spectral analysis of the global correction factor indicates that both shortwave (SW; 0.2 - 5.0 microns) and longwave (LW; 5 -50 microns) parameters undergo seasonal and diurnal cycles that dominate the periodic fluctuations. The diurnal cycle, especially its amplitude, is also strongly dependent on the seasonal cycle. Based on these results, models are developed to correct the radiances for unviewed areas and anisotropic emission and reflection. A preliminary assessment indicates that these correction models can be applied to Triana radiances to produce the most accurate global ERB to date.

  6. A radiation and energy budget algorithm for forest canopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunick, A.

    2006-01-01

    Previously, it was shown that a one-dimensional, physics-based (conservation-law) computer model can provide a useful mathematical representation of the wind flow, temperatures, and turbulence inside and above a uniform forest stand. A key element of this calculation was a radiation and energy budget algorithm (implemented to predict the heat source). However, to keep the earlier publication brief, a full description of the radiation and energy budget algorithm was not given. Hence, this paper presents our equation set for calculating the incoming total radiation at the canopy top as well as the transmission, reflection, absorption, and emission of the solar flux through a forest stand. In addition, example model output is presented from three interesting numerical experiments, which were conducted to simulate the canopy microclimate for a forest stand that borders the Blossom Point Field Test Facility (located near La Plata, Maryland along the Potomac River). It is anticipated that the current numerical study will be useful to researchers and experimental planners who will be collecting acoustic and meteorological data at the Blossom Point Facility in the near future.

  7. Characterization of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment radiometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. B., III; Barkstrom, B. R.

    1991-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanning radiometers were used to measure the earth's radiation fields during the period November 1984 through February 1990. The ERBE radiometric packages were placed into orbit aboard the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) and the NOAA-9 and NOAA-10 spacecraft platforms. In each radiometric package, thermistor bolometers were used as detection elements for the broadband total (0,2 - 50,0 microns), shortwave (0,2 - 5,0 microns), and longwave (5,0 - 50,0 microns) spectral regions. Flight calibration facilities were built into each of the spacecraft radiometric packages. The flight facilities consisted of black bodies, tungsten lamps, and silicon photodiodes. The black bodies and tungsten lamps were found to be reliable at precision levels approaching 0,5 percent over a five-year period. The photodiodes were found to degrade more than 2 percent during the first year in orbit. In this paper, the flight calibration systems for the ERBE scanning radiometers are described along with the resultant measurements.

  8. Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner instrument anomaly investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, N. D.; Miller, J. B.; Taylor, L. V.; Lovell, J. B.; Cox, J. W.; Fedors, J. C.; Kopia, L. P.; Holloway, R. M.; Bradley, O. H.

    1985-01-01

    The results of an ad-hoc committee investigation of in-Earth orbit operational anomalies noted on two identical Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) Scanner instruments on two different spacecraft busses is presented. The anomalies are attributed to the bearings and the lubrication scheme for the bearings. A detailed discussion of the pertinent instrument operations, the approach of the investigation team and the current status of the instruments now in Earth orbit is included. The team considered operational changes for these instruments, rework possibilities for the one instrument which is waiting to be launched, and preferable lubrication considerations for specific space operational requirements similar to those for the ERBE scanner bearings.

  9. Large Scale Surface Radiation Budget from Satellite Observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinker, R. T.

    1995-01-01

    During the current reporting period, the focus of our work was on preparing and testing an improved version of our Surface Radiation Budget algorithm for processing the ISCCP D1 data routinely at the SRB Satellite Data Analysis Center (SDAC) at NASA Langley Research Center. The major issues addressed are related to gap filling and to testing whether observations made from ERBE could be used to improve current procedures of converting narrowband observations, as available from ISCCP, into broadband observations at the TOA. The criteria for selecting the optimal version are to be based on results of intercomparison with ground truth.

  10. In-Orbit Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) Battery Switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Anisa; Enciso, Marlon; Rao, Gopalakrishna

    1999-01-01

    This presentation reviews the history of the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) and the problems which were experienced with the batteries. After two cells shorted on the first Battery, the decision was made to take battery 1 of line in late 1992. This left the second battery supporting all loads. The second battery began to experience problems in 1998 into 1999. The decision was made to bring the first battery on line and take the second battery off line. The steps to switching the batteries are reviewed, and the results are discussed.

  11. Grid systems for Earth radiation budget experiment applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    Spatial coordinate transformations are developed for several global grid systems of interest to the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment. The grid boxes are defined in terms of a regional identifier and longitude-latitude indexes. The transformations associate longitude with a particular grid box. The reverse transformations identify the center location of a given grid box. Transformations are given to relate the rotating (Earth-based) grid systems to solar position expressed in an inertial (nonrotating) coordinate system. The FORTRAN implementations of the transformations are given, along with sample input and output.

  12. The effect of clouds on the earth's radiation budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziskin, Daniel; Strobel, Darrell F.

    1991-01-01

    The radiative fluxes from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) and the cloud properties from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) over Indonesia for the months of June and July of 1985 and 1986 were analyzed to determine the cloud sensitivity coefficients. The method involved a linear least squares regression between co-incident flux and cloud coverage measurements. The calculated slope is identified as the cloud sensitivity. It was found that the correlations between the total cloud fraction and radiation parameters were modest. However, correlations between cloud fraction and IR flux were improved by separating clouds by height. Likewise, correlations between the visible flux and cloud fractions were improved by distinguishing clouds based on optical depth. Calculating correlations between the net fluxes and either height or optical depth segregated cloud fractions were somewhat improved. When clouds were classified in terms of their height and optical depth, correlations among all the radiation components were improved. Mean cloud sensitivities based on the regression of radiative fluxes against height and optical depth separated cloud types are presented. Results are compared to a one-dimensional radiation model with a simple cloud parameterization scheme.

  13. Influence of aerosol vertical distribution on radiative budget and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabat, Pierre; Michou, Martine; Saint-Martin, David; Watson, Laura

    2016-04-01

    Aerosols interact with shortwave and longwave radiation with ensuing consequences on radiative budget and climate. Aerosols are represented in climate models either using an interactive aerosol scheme including prognostic aerosol variables, or using climatologies, such as monthly aerosol optical depth (AOD) fields. In the first case, aerosol vertical distribution can vary rapidly, at a daily or even hourly scale, following the aerosol evolution calculated by the interactive scheme. On the contrary, in the second case, a fixed aerosol vertical distribution is generally imposed by climatological profiles. The objective of this work is to study the impact of aerosol vertical distribution on aerosol radiative forcing, with ensuing effects on climate. Simulations have thus been carried out using CNRM-CM, which is a global climate model including an interactive aerosol scheme representing the five main aerosol species (desert dust, sea-salt, sulfate, black carbon and organic matter). Several multi-annual simulations covering the past recent years are compared, including either the prognostic aerosol variables, or monthly AOD fields with different aerosol vertical distributions. In the second case, AOD fields directly come from the first simulation, so that all simulations have the same integrated aerosol loads. The results show that modifying the aerosol vertical distribution has a significant impact on radiative budget, with consequences on global climate. These differences, highlighting the importance of aerosol vertical distribution in climate models, probably come from the modification of atmospheric circulation induced by changes in the heights of the different aerosols. Besides, nonlinear effects in the superposition of aerosol and clouds reinforce the impact of aerosol vertical distribution, since aerosol radiative forcing depends highly upon the presence of clouds, and upon the relative vertical position of aerosols and clouds.

  14. The radiative budget of tropical clouds - A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackerman, T. P.; Pfister, L.; Valero, F. P. J.; Hammer, P.

    1989-01-01

    Data collected during flight 9 of the Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange Project (STEP), in Australia (1987), are used in an attempt to define the nature of one particular cirrus outflow region and its radiative impact. To explore the mechanisms by which air is exchanged between the stratosphere and troposphere, a series of instruments was flown on the NASA ER-2 high-altitude research aircraft to make measurements relevant to the radiative budget of tropical clouds. The data acquired included upwelling infrared radiance at 10.5 and 6.5 microns (spectral bandwidth of 1 micron); net infrared flux (spectral bandwidth of 3 to 40 microns); cloud particle size distribution; water-vapor and total water (vapor plus condensed phase); aerosol particle size distribution; and ambient temperature.

  15. Clouds, surface temperature, and the tropical and subtropical radiation budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhuria, Harbans L.; Kyle, H. Lee

    1980-01-01

    Solar energy drives both the Earth's climate and biosphere, but the absorbed energy is unevenly distributed over the Earth. The tropical regions receive excess energy which is then transported by atmospheric and ocean currents to the higher latitudes. All regions at a given latitude receive the same top of the atmosphere solar irradiance (insolation). However, the net radiation received from the Sun in the tropics and subtropics varies greatly from one region to another depending on local conditions. Over land, variations in surface albedo are important. Over both land and ocean, surface temperature, cloud amount, and cloud type are also important. The Nimbus-7 cloud and Earth radiation budget (ERB) data sets are used to examine the affect of these parameters.

  16. Investigation of scene identification algorithms for radiation budget measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diekmann, F. J.

    1986-01-01

    The computation of Earth radiation budget from satellite measurements requires the identification of the scene in order to select spectral factors and bidirectional models. A scene identification procedure is developed for AVHRR SW and LW data by using two radiative transfer models. These AVHRR GAC pixels are then attached to corresponding ERBE pixels and the results are sorted into scene identification probability matrices. These scene intercomparisons show that there generally is a higher tendency for underestimation of cloudiness over ocean at high cloud amounts, e.g., mostly cloudy instead of overcast, partly cloudy instead of mostly cloudy, for the ERBE relative to the AVHRR results. Reasons for this are explained. Preliminary estimates of the errors of exitances due to scene misidentification demonstrates the high dependency on the probability matrices. While the longwave error can generally be neglected the shortwave deviations have reached maximum values of more than 12% of the respective exitances.

  17. NOAA-9 Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner offsets determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avis, Lee M.; Paden, Jack; Lee, Robert B., III; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Stassi, Joseph C.; Wilson, Robert S.; Tolson, Carol J.; Bolden, William C.

    1994-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) instruments are designed to measure the components of the radiative exchange between the Sun, Earth and space. ERBE is comprised of three spacecraft, each carrying a nearly identical set of radiometers: a three-channel narrow-field-of-view scanner, a two-channel wide-field-of-view (limb-to-limb) non-scanning radiometer, a two-channel medium field-of view (1000 km) non-scanning radiometer, and a solar monitor. Ground testing showed the scanners to be susceptible to self-generated and externally generated electromagnetic noise. This paper describes the pre-launch corrective measures taken and the post-launch corrections to the NOAA-9 scanner data. The NOAA-9 scanner has met the mission objectives in accuracy and precision, in part because of the pre-launch reductions of and post-launch data corrections for the electromagnetic noise.

  18. Science support for the Earth radiation budget experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coakley, James A., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The work undertaken as part of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) included the following major components: The development and application of a new cloud retrieval scheme to assess errors in the radiative fluxes arising from errors in the ERBE identification of cloud conditions. The comparison of the anisotropy of reflected sunlight and emitted thermal radiation with the anisotropy predicted by the Angular Dependence Models (ADM's) used to obtain the radiative fluxes. Additional studies included the comparison of calculated longwave cloud-free radiances with those observed by the ERBE scanner and the use of ERBE scanner data to track the calibration of the shortwave channels of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). Major findings included: the misidentification of cloud conditions by the ERBE scene identification algorithm could cause 15 percent errors in the shortwave flux reflected by certain scene types. For regions containing mixtures of scene types, the errors were typically less than 5 percent, and the anisotropies of the shortwave and longwave radiances exhibited a spatial scale dependence which, because of the growth of the scanner field of view from nadir to limb, gave rise to a view zenith angle dependent bias in the radiative fluxes.

  19. The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment - Early validation results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. L.; Barkstrom, B. R.; Harrison, E. F.; Huck, F. O.; Cess, R.; Coakley, J.; Duncan, C.; King, M.; Mecherikunnel, A.; Gruber, A.

    1986-01-01

    The primary techniques used to obtain and validate the data of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) are described, together with preliminary results of the validation. The ERBE consists of radiometers aboard the ERB Satellite, dedicated to a 57-deg orbit, and each of the two NOAA meteorological spacecraft (NOAA 9 and NOAA G) in near polar orbits. The radiometers include scanning narrow field-of-view (FOV) and nadir-looking wide and medium FOV radiometers, and a solar monitoring channel. Measurements of the solar constant by the solar monitors, and the wide and medium FOV radiometers of the ERB and the NOAA 9 spacecraft agree within a fraction of a percent. Comparison of the wide and medium FOV radiometers with the scanning radiometers showed an agreement of 1 to 4 percent. The multiple ERBE satellites are acquiring the first global measurements of regional scale-diurnal variations in the earth's radiation budget. These were verified by comparison with the high-temporal-resolution geostationary satellite data.

  20. The next step in Earth radiation budget measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiscombe, Warren; Chiu, Christine

    2013-05-01

    Space-based Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) measurements are ready to take their next major evolutionary step beyond the ERBE three-satellite constellation of the 1980s. This step would complete the ERBE vision by using not just three but dozens of satellites, and it would complete the GERB vision by providing global diurnal cycle. Such a large constellation would measure true diurnal cycle, without long chains of assumptions and extrapolations, allowing ERB to take its place alongside the other synoptic variables that are assimilated in weather and climate models, and bringing ERB back to a forefront research area. This constellation approach would make it possible to study ERB for rapidly evolving large-scale phenomena. It would also allow, for the first time, the measurement of the true Earth Radiation Imbalance, a crucial quantity, much in the news of late, for testing climate models and for predicting the future course of global warming. Among many side benefits, the greatest would be that all interested nations could participate. Such nations would merely need to meet the instrument functional requirements and find rides to space, and the system could thus grow with time, allowing continuously improved sampling, rapid deployment of new technologies with minimal damage to data continuity, and economies of scale. This is really the perfect ERB system for a budget-constrained decade.

  1. The Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) experiment - An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobowitz, H.; Soule, H. V.; Kyle, H. L.; House, F. B.

    1984-01-01

    The development of ERB observational systems is traced from its beginnings in the late 1950's through to the current ERB on the Nimbus 7 satellite. The instruments comprising the current 22-channel ERB experiment are described in some detail. Noteworthy are the inclusion in one solar channel, of a self-calibrating cavity to measure the solar constant and the use of biaxial scanning telescopes to determine the angular reflection and emission model required for processing the narrow-angle radiometric data. A fairly detailed description of the prelaunch and in-flight calibrations is given along with an analysis of the radiometric performance of the instruments. The data processing system is traced with the aid of a schematic flow diagram showing the steps required to produce the many tape and microfilm products archived. Future plans for improving the quality and accuracy of the data products are discussed. Finally, the upcoming Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) is briefly mentioned. It will be capable of simultaneously measuring the radiation budget from three satellites, each having a different equator crossing time and angle.

  2. Processes linking the hydrological cycle and the atmospheric radiative budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fueglistaler, Stephan; Dinh, Tra

    2016-04-01

    We study the response of the strength of the global hydrological cycle to changes in carbon dioxide (CO2) using the HiRAM General Circulation Model developed at the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL), with the objective to better connect the well-known energetic constraints to physical processes. We find that idealized model setups using a global slab ocean and annual mean insolation give similar scalings as coupled atmosphere-ocean models with realistic land and topography. Using the surface temperatures from the slab ocean runs, we analyse the response in the atmospheric state and hydrological cycle separately for a change in CO2 (but fixed surface temperature), and for a change in surface temperature (but fixed CO2). The former perturbation is also referred to as the "fast" response, whereas the latter is commonly used to diagnose a model's climate sensitivity. As expected from the perspective of the atmospheric radiative budget, an increase in CO2 at fixed surface temperature decreases the strength of the hydrological cycle, and an increase in surface temperature increases the strength of the hydrological cycle. However, the physical processes that connect the atmospheric radiative energy budget to the sensible and latent heat fluxes at the surface remain not well understood. The responses to the two perturbations are linearly additive, and we find that the experiment with fixed surface temperature and changes in CO2 is of great relevance to understanding the total response. This result points to the importance of local radiative heating rate changes rather than just the net atmospheric radiative loss of energy. Although larger in magnitude, the response to changes in surface temperature is dominated by the temperature dependence of the water vapor pressure, but in both cases changes in near-surface relative humidity are very important.

  3. Urban Surface Radiative Energy Budgets Determined Using Aircraft Scanner Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Rickman, Doug L.; Estes, Maury G.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    the surface energy budget. Knowledge of it is important in any attempt to describe the radiative and mass fluxes which occur at the surface. Use of energy terms in modeling surface energy budgets allows the direct comparison of various land surfaces encountered in a urban landscape, from vegetated (forest and herbaceous) to non-vegetated (bare soil, roads, and buildings). These terms are also easily measured using remote sensing from aircraft or satellite platforms allowing one to examine the spacial variability. The partitioning of energy budget terms depends on the surface type. In natural landscapes, the partitioning is dependent on canopy biomass, leaf area index, aerodynamic roughness, and moisture status, all of which are influenced by the development stage of the ecosystem. In urban landscapes, coverage by man-made materials substantially alters the surface face energy budget. The remotely sensed data obtained from aircraft and satellites, when properly calibrated allows the measurement of important terms in the radiative surface energy budget a urban landscape scale.

  4. Arctic ocean radiative fluxes and cloud forcing estimated from the ISCCP C2 cloud dataset, 1983-1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweiger, Axel J.; Key, Jeffrey R.

    1994-01-01

    Radiative fluxes and cloud forcings for the ocean areas of the Arctic are computed from the monthly cloud product of the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) for 1983-90. Spatially averaged short-wave fluxes are compared well with climatological values, while downwelling longwave fluxes are significantly lower. This is probably due to the fact that the ISCCP cloud amounts are underestimates. Top-of-the-atmosphere radiative fluxes are in excellent agreement with measurements from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). Computed cloud forcings indicate that clouds have a warming effect at the surface and at the top of the atmosphere during winter and a cooling effect during summer. The net radiative effect of clouds is larger at the surface during winter but greater at the top of the atmosphere during summer. Overall the net radiative effect of clouds at the top of the atmosphere is one of cooling. This is in contrast to a previous result from ERBE data showing arctic cloud forcings have a net warming effect. Sensitivities to errors in input parameters are generally greater during winter with cloud amount being the most important paarameter. During summer the surface radiation balance is most sensitive to errors in the measurements of surface reflectance. The results are encouraging, but the estimated error of 20 W/sq m in surface net radiative fluxes is too large, given that estimates of the net radiative warming effect due to a doubling of CO2 are on the order of 4 W/sq m. Because it is difficult to determine the accuracy of results with existing in situ observations, it is recommended that the development of improved algorithms for the retrieval of surface radiative properties be accompanied by the simultaneous assembly of validation datasets.

  5. The earth radiation budget experiment: Early validation results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, G. Louis; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Harrison, Edwin F.

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) consists of radiometers on a dedicated spacecraft in a 57° inclination orbit, which has a precessional period of 2 months, and on two NOAA operational meteorological spacecraft in near polar orbits. The radiometers include scanning narrow field-of-view (FOV) and nadir-looking wide and medium FOV radiometers covering the ranges 0.2 to 5 μm and 5 to 50 μm and a solar monitoring channel. This paper describes the validation procedures and preliminary results. Each of the radiometer channels underwent extensive ground calibration, and the instrument packages include in-flight calibration facilities which, to date, show negligible changes of the instruments in orbit, except for gradual degradation of the suprasil dome of the shortwave wide FOV (about 4% per year). Measurements of the solar constant by the solar monitors, wide FOV, and medium FOV radiometers of two spacecraft agree to a fraction of a percent. Intercomparisons of the wide and medium FOV radiometers with the scanning radiometers show agreement of 1 to 4%. The multiple ERBE satellites are acquiring the first global measurements of regional scale diurnal variations in the Earth's radiation budget. These diurnal variations are verified by comparison with high temporal resolution geostationary satellite data. Other principal investigators of the ERBE Science Team are: R. Cess, SUNY, Stoneybrook; J. Coakley, NCAR; C. Duncan, M. King and A Mecherikunnel, Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA; A. Gruber and A.J. Miller, NOAA; D. Hartmann, U. Washington; F.B. House, Drexel U.; F.O. Huck, Langley Research Center, NASA; G. Hunt, Imperial College, London U.; R. Kandel and A. Berroir, Laboratory of Dynamic Meteorology, Ecole Polytechique; V. Ramanathan, U. Chicago; E. Raschke, U. of Cologne; W.L. Smith, U. of Wisconsin and T.H. Vonder Haar, Colorado State U.

  6. Characteristics of the earth's radiation budget derived from the first year of data from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, G. G.; Denn, F. M.; Young, D. F.; Harrison, E. F.; Minnis, P.; Barkstrom, B. R.

    1990-01-01

    The first year of broadband Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) data is analyzed for top-of-the-atmosphere regional variations of outgoing longwave (LW) flux and planetary albedo for total scene as well as clear-sky conditions. The annual variation of radiative parameters is examined for February 1985 through January 1986 for selected regions, latitude zones, and the entire globe. Results show significant seasonal variations for both LW fluxes and albedo. A broad longwave flux maximum (with a relative minimum corresponding to the intertropical convergence zone in the middle) covers the tropics and the subtropics with its center moving about 20 deg in latitude between seasonal extremes. Minimum albedo (about 20 percent) occurs within 15 deg of the equator. In the tropics and midlatitudes, there is a tendency toward higher albedos during the summer. Larger albedos at the higher latitudes are caused by solar zenith angle effects and by increased snow and ice cover. Net warming occurs between 35 deg N and 35 deg S latitude near the equinoxes and in a 90-deg-wide latitude band at the solstices centered around 35 deg latitude in the summer hemisphere. This energy surplus at lower latitudes coupled with an energy deficit in the poleward regions is the primary driver of atmospheric circulations. For the year, the global net radiation is nearly in balance.

  7. Use of Maple Seeding Canopy Reflectance Dataset for Validation of SART/LEAFMOD Radiative Transfer Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, Barbara J.; Peterson, David L.

    1999-01-01

    This project was a collaborative effort by researchers at ARC, OSU and the University of Arizona. The goal was to use a dataset obtained from a previous study to "empirically validate a new canopy radiative-transfer model (SART) which incorporates a recently-developed leaf-level model (LEAFMOD)". The document includes a short research summary.

  8. Budget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antolovic, Laurie G.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how the implementation of new information technologies or deployment of new information services in higher education institutions pose challenges for budget planners that must be met with a thorough understanding of the nature of communication and information systems infrastructures. Describes these technical considerations and their…

  9. CERES: The Next Generation of Earth Radiation Budget Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Gary G.; Wielicki, Bruce A.

    1999-01-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) is part of an international program for studying the Earth from space using a multiple-instrument, multiple-satellite approach. The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) experiment is designed to monitor changes in the Earth s radiant energy system and cloud systems and to provide these data with sufficient simultaneity and accuracy to examine critical cloud/climate feedback mechanisms which may play a major role in determining future changes in the climate system. The first EOS satellite (Terra), scheduled for launch this year, and the EOS-PM satellite, to be launched in late 2000, will each carry two CERES instruments. The first CERES instrument was launched in 1997 on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. The CERES TRMM data show excellent instrument stability and a factor of 2 to 3 less error than previous Earth radiation budget missions. The first CERES data products have been validated and archived. The data consist of instantaneous longwave and shortwave broadband radiances, top-of-atmosphere fluxes, scene types, and time and space averaged fluxes and albedo. A later data product will combine CERES radiances and high- resolution imager data to produce cloud properties and fluxes throughout the atmosphere and at the surface.

  10. Investigation of Next-Generation Earth Radiation Budget Radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, Katherine L.; Mahan, J. R.

    1999-01-01

    The current effort addresses two issues important to the research conducted by the Thermal Radiation Group at Virginia Tech. The first research topic involves the development of a method which can properly model the diffraction of radiation as it enters an instrument aperture. The second topic involves the study of a potential next-generation space-borne radiometric instrument concept. Presented are multiple modeling efforts to describe the diffraction of monochromatic radiant energy passing through an aperture for use in the Monte-Carlo ray-trace environment. Described in detail is a deterministic model based upon Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and the particle theory of light. This method is applicable to either Fraunhofer or Fresnel diffraction situations, but is incapable of predicting the secondary fringes in a diffraction pattern. Also presented is a second diffraction model, based on the Huygens-Fresnel principle with a correcting obliquity factor. This model is useful for predicting Fraunhofer diffraction, and can predict the secondary fringes because it keeps track of phase. NASA is planning for the next-generation of instruments to follow CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System), an instrument which measures components of the Earth's radiant energy budget in three spectral bands. A potential next-generation concept involves modification of the current CERES instrument to measure in a larger number of wavelength bands. This increased spectral partitioning would be achieved by the addition of filters and detectors to the current CERES geometry. The capacity of the CERES telescope to serve for this purpose is addressed in this thesis.

  11. Simulation of a numerical filter for enhancing earth radiation budget measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, R. N.

    1981-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment has the objective to collect the radiation budget data which are needed to determine the radiation budget at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) on a regional scale. A second objective is to determine the accuracy of the results. Three satellites will carry wide and medium field of view radiometers which measure the longwave and shortwave components of radiation. Scanning radiometers will be included to detect small spatial features. A proposal has been made to employ for the nonscanning radiometers a one-dimensional numerical filter which reduces satellite measurements to TOA radiant excitances. The numerical filter was initially formulated by House (1980). It enhances the resolution of the radiation budget along the satellite groundtrack. The accuracy of the numerical filter estimate is studied by simulating the data gathering and measurement inversion process. The results of the study are discussed, taking into account two error sources.

  12. The surface radiation budget over South America in a set of regional climate models from the CLARIS-LPB project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessacg, Natalia L.; Solman, Silvina A.; Samuelsson, Patrick; Sanchez, Enrique; Marengo, José; Li, Laurent; Remedio, Armelle Reca C.; da Rocha, Rosmeri P.; Mourão, Caroline; Jacob, Daniela

    2014-09-01

    The performance of seven regional climate models in simulating the radiation and heat fluxes at the surface over South America (SA) is evaluated. Sources of uncertainty and errors are identified. All simulations have been performed in the context of the CLARIS-LPB Project for the period 1990-2008 and are compared with the GEWEX-SRB, CRU, and GLDAS2 dataset and NCEP-NOAA reanalysis. Results showed that most of the models overestimate the net surface short-wave radiation over tropical SA and La Plata Basin and underestimate it over oceanic regions. Errors in the short-wave radiation are mainly associated with uncertainties in the representation of surface albedo and cloud fraction. For the net surface long-wave radiation, model biases are diverse. However, the ensemble mean showed a good agreement with the GEWEX-SRB dataset due to the compensation of individual model biases. Errors in the net surface long-wave radiation can be explained, in a large proportion, by errors in cloud fraction. For some particular models, errors in temperature also contribute to errors in the net long-wave radiation. Analysis of the annual cycle of each component of the energy budget indicates that the RCMs reproduce generally well the main characteristics of the short- and long-wave radiations in terms of timing and amplitude. However, a large spread among models over tropical SA is apparent. The annual cycle of the sensible heat flux showed a strong overestimation in comparison with the reanalysis and GLDAS2 dataset. For the latent heat flux, strong differences between the reanalysis and GLDAS2 are calculated particularly over tropical SA.

  13. Radiative constraints on the energy budget of the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minschwaner, Kenneth Robert

    An infrared radiative code has been developed and applied to studies of the steady state energy balance of the atmosphere. The model utilizes the correlated-k method to carry out spectral integrations and includes an improved treatment of the finite-difference approximation to the vertical radiative flux integral. Absorption coefficients are calculated directly from archived spectroscopic data. Radiative cooling rates computed with the model agree with benchmark line-by-line calculations to better than 5 percent; top of the atmosphere fluxes agree to within 1 percent. The sensitivity of clear-sky flux components to changes in sea surface temperature, atmospheric lapse rate, and relative humidity are examined. Comparison with satellite measurements indicates that a 6.5 K/km lapse rate model cannot reproduce observed infrared fluxes. Agreement is improved by employing a parameterization in which the static stability is related empirically to the surface temperature. Assumption of a constant profile of relative humidity yields results consistent with observations for surface temperatures less than 298 K, but comparison with measurements at higher temperatures suggests that significant increases in middle and upper tropospheric humidity must accompany warmer ocean temperatures. The enhanced greenhouse forcing at higher temperatures is felt primarily in the atmosphere, rather than at the surface. A simple one-dimensional model is presented to describe the energy budget of the tropical atmosphere. The heating of the tropical atmosphere due to deep cumulus convection is accounted for by clear-sky subsidence acting on a stable lapse rate of temperature. Results suggest that the strength of the subsidence field may be sensitive to changes in atmospheric composition, specifically variations in the altitude distribution of H2O and changes in the abundance of greenhouse gases such as CO2. Buoyancy considerations suggest that there may be an upper limit to the range of

  14. Re-Examination of the Observed Decadal Variability of Earth Radiation Budget Using Altitude-Corrected ERBE/ERBS Nonscanner WFOV Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Takmeng; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Lee, Robert B.; Smith, G. Louis; Bush, Kathryn A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper gives an update on the observed decadal variability of Earth Radiation Budget using the latest altitude-corrected Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE)/Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) Nonscanner Wide Field of View (WFOV) instrument Edition3 dataset. The effects of the altitude correction are to modify the original reported decadal changes in tropical mean (20N to 20S) longwave (LW), shortwave (SW), and net radiation between the 1980s and the 1990s from 3.1/-2.4/-0.7 to 1.6/-3.0/1.4 Wm(sup -2) respectively. In addition, a small SW instrument drift over the 15-year period was discovered during the validation of the WFOV Edition3 dataset. A correction was developed and applied to the Edition3 dataset at the data user level to produce the WFOV Edition3_Rev1 dataset. With this final correction, the ERBS Nonscanner observed decadal changes in tropical mean LW, SW, and net radiation between the 1980s and the 1990s now stand at 0.7/-2.1/1.4 Wm(sup -2), respectively, which are similar to the observed decadal changes in the HIRS Pathfinder OLR and the ISCCP FD record; but disagree with the AVHRR Pathfinder ERB record. Furthermore, the observed interannual variability of near-global ERBS WFOV Edition3_Rev1 net radiation is found to be remarkably consistent with the latest ocean heat storage record for the overlapping time period of 1993 to 1999. Both data sets show variations of roughly 1.5 Wm(sup -2) in planetary net heat balance during the 1990s.

  15. Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) Data Sets for Global Environment and Climate Change Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bess, T. Dale; Carlson, Ann B.; Denn, Fredrick M.

    1997-01-01

    For a number of years there has been considerable interest in the earth's radiation budget (ERB) or energy balance, and entails making the best measurements possible of absorbed solar radiation, reflected shortwave radiation (RSW), thermal outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), and net radiation. ERB data are fundamental to the development of realistic climate models and studying natural and anthropogenic perturbations of the climate. Much of the interest and investigations in the earth's energy balance predated the age of earth-orbiting satellites (Hunt et al., 1986). Beginning in the mid 1960's earth-orbiting satellites began to play an important role in making measurements of the earth's radiation flux although much effort had gone into measuring ERB parameters prior to 1960 (House et al., 1986). Beginning in 1974 and extending until the present time, three different satellite experiments (not all operating at the same time) have been making radiation budget measurements almost continually in time. Two of the experiments were totally dedicated to making radiation budget measurements of the earth, and the other experiment flown on NOAA sun-synchronous AVHRR weather satellites produced radiation budget parameters as a by-product. The heat budget data from the AVHRR satellites began collecting data in June 1974 and have operated almost continuously for 23 years producing valuable data for long term climate monitoring.

  16. El Nino and outgoing longwave radiation: An atlas of Nimbus-7 Earth radiation budget observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyle, H. L.; Ardanuy, P. E.; Hucek, R. R.

    1986-01-01

    Five years of broadband Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) measurements taken by the Nimbus-7 ERB experiment have been archived. This five year period included the 1982 to 1983 El Nino/Southern Oscillation event, which reached its peak in January 1983 (near the beginning of the fifth data year). An outgoing longwave radiation subset of the data, for the period June 1980 to October 1983, was processed to enhance spatial resolution. This atlas contains the analyses of the resultant fields. In addition, a set of anomaly maps, based on a definition of pre-El Nino climatology, is included. Together, these two sets of maps provide the first broadband glimpse of the terrestrial outgoing longwave radiation response to the El Nino event.

  17. History of satellite missions and measurements of the Earth Radiation Budget (1957-1984)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    House, F. B.; Gruber, A.; Hunt, G. E.; Mecherikunnel, A. T.

    1986-01-01

    The history of satellite missions and their measurements of the earth radiation budget from the beginning of the space age until the present time are reviewed. The survey emphasizes the early struggle to develop instrument systems to monitor reflected shortwave and emitted long-wave exitances from the earth, and the problems associated with the interpretation of these observations from space. In some instances, valuable data sets were developed from satellite measurements whose instruments were not specifically designed for earth radiation budget observations.

  18. Evidence for Large Decadal Variability in the Tropical Mean Radiative Energy Budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Wong, Takmeng; Allan, Richard; Slingo, Anthony; Kiehl, Jeffrey T.; Soden, Brian J.; Gordon, C. T.; Miller, Alvin J.; Yang, Shi-Keng; Randall, David R.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    It is widely assumed that variations in the radiative energy budget at large time and space scales are very small. We present new evidence from a compilation of over two decades of accurate satellite data that the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) tropical radiative energy budget is much more dynamic and variable than previously thought. We demonstrate that the radiation budget changes are caused by changes In tropical mean cloudiness. The results of several current climate model simulations fall to predict this large observed variation In tropical energy budget. The missing variability in the models highlights the critical need to Improve cloud modeling in the tropics to support Improved prediction of tropical climate on Inter-annual and decadal time scales. We believe that these data are the first rigorous demonstration of decadal time scale changes In the Earth's tropical cloudiness, and that they represent a new and necessary test of climate models.

  19. A Global Model Simulation of Aerosol Effects of Surface Radiation Budget- Toward Understanding of the "Dimming to Brightening" Transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Mian; Diehl, Thomas; Bian, Huisheng; Yu, Hongbin

    2008-01-01

    We present a global model study on the role aerosols play in the change of solar radiation at Earth's surface that transitioned from a decreasing (dimming) trend to an increasing (brightening) trend. Our primary objective is to understand the relationship between the long-term trends of aerosol emission, atmospheric burden, and surface solar radiation. More specifically, we use the recently compiled comprehensive global emission datasets of aerosols and precursors from fuel combustion, biomass burning, volcanic eruptions and other sources from 1980 to 2006 to simulate long-term variations of aerosol distributions and optical properties, and then calculate the multi-decadal changes of short-wave radiative fluxes at the surface and at the top of the atmosphere by coupling the GOCART model simulated aerosols with the Goddard radiative transfer model. The model results are compared with long-term observational records from ground-based networks and satellite data. We will address the following critical questions: To what extent can the observed surface solar radiation trends, known as the transition from dimming to brightening, be explained by the changes of anthropogenic and natural aerosol loading on global and regional scales? What are the relative contributions of local emission and long-range transport to the surface radiation budget and how do these contributions change with time?

  20. WCRP surface radiation budget shortwave data product description, version 1.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlock, C. H.; Charlock, T. P.; Staylor, W. F.; Pinker, R. T.; Laszlo, I.; Dipasquale, R. C.; Ritchey, N. A.

    1993-01-01

    Shortwave radiative fluxes which reach the Earth's surface are key elements that influence both atmospheric and oceanic circulation. The World Climate Research Program has established the Surface Radiation Budget climatology project with the ultimate goal of determining the various components of the surface radiation budget from satellite data on a global scale. This report describes the first global product that is being produced and archived as part of that effort. The interested user can obtain the monthly global data sets free of charge using e-mail procedures.

  1. The WCRP/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget Project Release 2: First Results at 1 Degree Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.; Cox, Stephen J.; Gupta, Shashi K.; DiPasquale, Roberta C.; Brown, Donald E.

    1999-01-01

    The earth s surface radiative budget in the solar wavelengths (i.e., shortwave) and thermal infrared wavelengths (i.e., longwave) is an important component of Earth s global energy balance and climate. As such, it was identified as a priority need by the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) and thus a program was instituted at NASA to estimate the radiative flux quantities at the surface from space observations. The Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Project was created and later included as a component of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) under the auspices of the WCRP.

  2. Science support for the Earth radiation budget sensor on the Nimbus-7 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingersoll, A. P.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental data supporting the Earth radiation budget sensor on the Nimbus 7 Satellite is given. The data deals with the empirical relations between radiative flux, cloudiness, and other meteorological parameters; response of a zonal climate ice sheet model to the orbital perturbations during the quaternary ice ages; and a simple parameterization for ice sheet ablation rate.

  3. Assessment of Global Cloud Datasets from Satellites: Project and Database Initiated by the GEWEX Radiation Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stubenrauch, C. J.; Rossow, W. B.; Kinne, S.; Ackerman, S.; Cesana, G.; Chepfer, H.; Getzewich, B.; Di Girolamo, L.; Guignard, A.; Heidinger, A.; Maddux, B.; Menzel, P.; Minnis, P.; Pearl, C.; Platnick, S.; Riedi, J.; Sun-Mack, S.; Walther, A.; Winker, D.; Zeng, S.; Zhao, G.

    2012-01-01

    Clouds cover about 70% of the Earth's surface and play a dominant role in the energy and water cycle of our planet. Only satellite observations provide a continuous survey of the state of the atmosphere over the whole globe and across the wide range of spatial and temporal scales that comprise weather and climate variability. Satellite cloud data records now exceed more than 25 years in length. However, climatologies compiled from different satellite datasets can exhibit systematic biases. Questions therefore arise as to the accuracy and limitations of the various sensors. The Global Energy and Water cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Cloud Assessment, initiated in 2005 by the GEWEX Radiation Panel, provided the first coordinated intercomparison of publically available, standard global cloud products (gridded, monthly statistics) retrieved from measurements of multi-spectral imagers (some with multiangle view and polarization capabilities), IR sounders and lidar. Cloud properties under study include cloud amount, cloud height (in terms of pressure, temperature or altitude), cloud radiative properties (optical depth or emissivity), cloud thermodynamic phase and bulk microphysical properties (effective particle size and water path). Differences in average cloud properties, especially in the amount of high-level clouds, are mostly explained by the inherent instrument measurement capability for detecting and/or identifying optically thin cirrus, especially when overlying low-level clouds. The study of long-term variations with these datasets requires consideration of many factors. A monthly, gridded database, in common format, facilitates further assessments, climate studies and the evaluation of climate models.

  4. Assessment of NASA GISS CMIP5 and Post-CMIP5 Simulated Clouds and TOA Radiation Budgets Using Satellite Observations. Part 2; TOA Radiation Budget and CREs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanfield, Ryan E.; Dong, Xiquan; Xi, Baike; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Minnis, Patrick; Doelling, David; Loeb, Norman

    2014-01-01

    In Part I of this study, the NASA GISS Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) and post-CMIP5 (herein called C5 and P5, respectively) simulated cloud properties were assessed utilizing multiple satellite observations, with a particular focus on the southern midlatitudes (SMLs). This study applies the knowledge gained from Part I of this series to evaluate the modeled TOA radiation budgets and cloud radiative effects (CREs) globally using CERES EBAF (CE) satellite observations and the impact of regional cloud properties and water vapor on the TOA radiation budgets. Comparisons revealed that the P5- and C5-simulated global means of clear-sky and all-sky outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) match well with CE observations, while biases are observed regionally. Negative biases are found in both P5- and C5-simulated clear-sky OLR. P5-simulated all-sky albedo slightly increased over the SMLs due to the increase in low-level cloud fraction from the new planetary boundary layer (PBL) scheme. Shortwave, longwave, and net CRE are quantitatively analyzed as well. Regions of strong large-scale atmospheric upwelling/downwelling motion are also defined to compare regional differences across multiple cloud and radiative variables. In general, the P5 and C5 simulations agree with the observations better over the downwelling regime than over the upwelling regime. Comparing the results herein with the cloud property comparisons presented in Part I, the modeled TOA radiation budgets and CREs agree well with the CE observations. These results, combined with results in Part I, have quantitatively estimated how much improvement is found in the P5-simulated cloud and radiative properties, particularly over the SMLs and tropics, due to the implementation of the new PBL and convection schemes.

  5. A new way to Estimate the Earth's Radiation Budget at the top-of-atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ping; Karatekin, Ozgur; van Ruymbeke, Michel; Dewitte, Steven; Meftah, Mustapha

    2014-05-01

    The Earth's Radiation Budget at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) is investigated by combining remote sensing data from different Earth observing satellites and the solar radiation monitoring from dedicated missions. Despite the relatively high precision of each individual instruments, the uncertainties in the current net radiation derived at the TOA is still too large to track small energy imbalance associated with forced climate change. A new method to estimate the net energy balance at the TOA is introduced based on nearly three years space experiments from the Bolometric Oscillation Sensor (BOS) onboard PICARD satellite. PICARD satellite is circling the Earth on a heliocentric orbit, the descending and the ascending nodes of the PICARD are around 6 a.m. and 6 p.m. local time, respectively. The BOS sensor onboard PICARD satellite is sensitive to the radiation coming from both the sun and the Earth. Besides solar shortwave electromagnetic radiation, the black-coated BOS sensor measures also the reflected (visible) and reemitted (infrared) terrestrial radiation. The net radiation of the Earth is described as: fnet = fin - (fvis +fir) (1) Where fnet, the net radiation of the Earth at the TOA, fin, the incoming solar irradiance, fvis, the reflected solar radiation at the TOA, fir infrared radiation of the Earth. The energy absorbed by the main detector of the BOS can be approximately written as: fbos = fsun + (fvis + fir) (2) Where fbos, the measurements of the BOS instruments, fvis, the reflected solar radiation at the TOA, fir infrared radiation of the Earth. Frome equation (1) and (2), we can found a new method to estimate the net radiation: fnet = fsun +fin - fbos (3) BOS/PICARD experiment allows us to employ this new approach to study the Earth's Radiation Budget from a single remote sensing instrument. Here we discuss the BOS data between July 2010 and October 2013 and their implication on Earth's Radiation Budget estimate.

  6. Influence of clouds on the earth's radiation budget determined from GOES data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, E. F.; Minnis, P.

    1983-01-01

    Estimates of the cloud radiative effects on the earth's regional and zonal radiation budgets derived from GOES data during November 1978 are presented. The diurnal cloud cover variability is shown to affect both the radiation-budget measurements and the estimation of the overall effect of clouds on the net flux. For this data set, the cloud cover causes a decrease in the net flux from the clear-sky value. Thus, the cloud albedo effect outweights the greenhouse effect of the clouds. It is found that the value of the change in the radiation balance is closely related to the amount of incident solar radiation and to the zonal distributions of low, middle, and high cloud cover.

  7. Trends in Surface Radiation Budgets at Climatic Time Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinker, R. T.; Zhang, B.; Ma, Y.

    2015-12-01

    For assessment of variability and trends in the Earth Radiation Balance, information is needed at climatic time scales. Satellite observations have been instrumental for advancing the understanding of radiative balance at global scale, however, the length of available satellite records is limited due to the frequent changes in the observing systems. In this paper we report on an effort to synthesize satellite observations from independent sources to estimates shortwave and longwave surface radiative fluxes at climatic time scales and use them to learn about their variability and trends at global scale with a focus on the tropics. An attempt will be made to learn from the comparison about possible causes of observed trends. The radiative fluxes were derived in the framework of the MEaSURES and NEWS programs; they are evaluated against ground observations and compared to independent satellite and model estimates. Attention is given to updated knowledge on radiative balance as compared to what is known from shorter time records.

  8. Trends in Surface Radiation Budgets at Climatic Time Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinker, Rachel T.; Zhang, Banglin; Ma, Yingtao

    2015-04-01

    For assessment of variability and trends in the Earth Radiation Balance, information is needed at climatic time scales. Satellite observations have been instrumental for advancing the understanding of the radiative balance at global scale, however, due to the frequent changes in the observing systems, the length of available satellite records is limited. In this paper we report on an effort to synthesize satellite observations from independent sources to estimates shortwave, longwave and spectral surface radiative fluxes at climatic time scales and use them to learn about their variability and trends. The radiative fluxes were derived in the framework of the MEaSURES and NEWS programs; they are evaluated against ground observations and compared to independent satellite and model estimates. Attention is given to updates on the radiative balance as compared to what is known from shorter time records and from models.

  9. Toward the influence of clouds on the shortwave radiation budget of the earth-atmosphere system estimated from satellite data

    SciTech Connect

    Rieland, M. ); Stuhlmann, R. )

    1993-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of cloudiness on the shortwave radiation budget at the top of the atmosphere, at the surface, and, as a residual, for the atmosphere itself. The data used for this study are derived exclusively from satellite measurements. Calculations for the top of the atmosphere are based entirely on measurements of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). For the solar radiation budget at the surface, the incoming surface solar radiation is derived from Meteosat data and the surface albedo is calculated from ERBE clear-sky planetary albedo measurements by applying an atmospheric correction scheme. As a result, maps of absorbed solar radiation for the total earth-atmosphere system, the surface, and for the atmosphere are presented for the area of investigation, [+-]60[degrees] longitude and latitude. To infer the contribution of clouds, the concept of cloud radiative forcing is applied to these different datasets. It is shown that the solar cloud forcing at the top of the atmosphere (CF[sub TOA]), and at the surface (CF[sub SUR]), are of the same order of magnitude and well correlated with cloud cover (R = 0.83). On the contrary, the solar cloud forcing of the atmosphere itself, CF[sub ATM], is about one order of magnitude less and not very highly correlated with cloud cover (R = 0.37). The mean value of the annual averaged solar cloud forcing for the area of investigation is calculated for the top of the atmosphere to be CF[sub TOA] = 50 [+-] 4 W m[sup [minus]2], for the surface to be CF[sub SUR] = 55 [+-] 6 W m[sup [minus]2], and for the atmosphere to be CF[sub ATM] = [minus]5 [+-] 10 W m[sup [minus]2]. Related to the annual mean solar insolation, the CF[sub ATM] corresponds to an additional contribution of the clouds to atmospheric solar absorption of 1.4%. The uncertainty range for this additional absorption is calculated to be [minus]1.4% to +4.2%. 41 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Spatial autocorrelation of radiation measured by the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment: Scene inhomogeneity and reciprocity violation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Roger

    1994-01-01

    The spatial autocorrelation functions of broad-band longwave and shortwave radiances measured by the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) are analyzed as a function of view angle in an investigation of the general effects of scene inhomogeneity on radiation. For nadir views, the correlation distance of the autocorrelation function is about 900 km for longwave radiance and about 500 km for shortwave radiance, consistent with higher degrees of freedom in shortwave reflection. Both functions rise monotonically with view angle, but there is a substantial difference in the relative angular dependence of the shortwave and longwave functions, especially for view angles less than 50 deg. In this range, the increase with angle of the longwave functions is found to depend only on the expansion of pixel area with angle, whereas the shortwave functions show an additional dependence on angle that is attributed to the occlusion of inhomogeneities by cloud height variations. Beyond a view angle of about 50 deg, both longwave and shortwave functions appear to be affected by cloud sides. The shortwave autocorrelation functions do not satisfy the principle of directional reciprocity, thereby proving that the average scene is horizontally inhomogeneous over the scale of an ERBE pixel (1500 sq km). Coarse stratification of the measurements by cloud amount, however, indicates that the average cloud-free scene does satisfy directional reciprocity on this scale.

  11. Towards a Seamless Global Long-Term Earth Radiation Budget Climate Data Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeb, N. G.; Priestley, K.; Minnis, P.; Smith, W. L., Jr.; Su, W.; Kratz, D. P.; Kato, S.; Doelling, D.

    2015-12-01

    Earth's climate is determined by the exchange of radiant energy between the Sun, Earth and space. The absorbed solar radiation (ASR) fuels the climate system, providing the energy required for atmospheric and oceanic motions, and energy released to space in the form of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) nearly balances ASR, ensuring a relatively stable climate. Owing to human activities, there is currently less emitted thermal radiation than absorbed solar radiation, leading to an accumulation of energy into the Earth's system, which is driving global warming. Achieving an understanding of Earth's energy flows requires an accurate description of how radiant energy at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA), within the atmosphere, and at the surface is distributed spatially, and how this changes with time. A central objective of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project is the production of a long-term global climate data record of Earth's radiation budget from the TOA down to the surface along with the associated atmospheric and surface properties that influence this budget. The CERES team relies on a number of data sources, including broadband radiometers that measure incoming and reflected solar radiation and OLR, high-resolution spectral imagers, meteorological, aerosol and ozone assimilation data, and snow/sea-ice maps based on microwave radiometer data. While TOA radiation budget is determined from accurate broadband radiometer measurements, the surface radiation budget is derived indirectly through radiative transfer model calculations initialized using imager-based cloud and aerosol retrievals and meteorological assimilation data. In order to accurately capture changes in Earth's radiation budget from interannual to decadal timescales, satellite instruments used to produce these data records must be radiometrically stable and the input data stream must be free of artificial discontinuities. Otherwise, distinguishing real climate system changes from

  12. Infrared radiation budget of the Harmattan haze. [West Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, P. M.; Weickmann, H. K.

    1975-01-01

    Infrared in situ observations of the West African Harmaltan Haze during the 1974 GATE field phase were conducted to determine the radiative properties of the tropospheric phenomenon and to develop a calculation model for radiative transfer through the haze. Radiometric observations of the dust haze were analyzed for haze infrared transmission. Infrared and tropospheric cooling rates are given together with the haze volume absorption rate.

  13. The NOAA-9 Earth Radiation Budget Experiment Wide Field-of-View Data Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, Kathryn A.; Smith, G. Louis; Young, David F.

    1999-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) consisted of wide field-of-view (WFOV) radiometers and scanning radiometers for measuring outgoing longwave radiation and solar radiation reflected from the Earth. These instruments were carried by the dedicated Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) and by the NOAA-9 and -10 operational spacecraft. The WFOV radiometers provided data from which instantaneous fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) are computed by use of a numerical filter algorithm. Monthly mean fluxes over a 5-degree equal angle grid are computed from the instantaneous TOA fluxes. The WFOV radiometers aboard the NOAA-9 spacecraft operated from February 1985 through December 1992, at which time a failure of the shortwave radiometer ended the usable data after nearly 8 years. This paper examines the monthly mean products from that data set.

  14. Observing the earth radiation budget from satellites - Past, present, and a look to the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    House, F. B.

    1985-01-01

    Satellite measurements of the radiative exchange between the planet earth and space have been the objective of many experiments since the beginning of the space age in the late 1950's. The on-going mission of the Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) experiments has been and will be to consider flight hardware, data handling and scientific analysis methods in a single design strategy. Research and development on observational data has produced an analysis model of errors associated with ERB measurement systems on polar satellites. Results show that the variability of reflected solar radiation from changing meteorology dominates measurement uncertainties. As an application, model calculations demonstrate that measurement requirements for the verification of climate models may be satisfied with observations from one polar satellite, provided there is information on diurnal variations of the radiation budget from the ERBE mission.

  15. Nimbus-6 and -7 Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) sensor details and component tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soule, H. V.; Kyle, H. L.; Jacobowitz, H.; Hickey, J.

    1983-01-01

    Construction details and operating characteristics are described for the thermopile (used in the solar and fixed-Earth channels) and the pyroelectric detector (used in the Earth-scanning channels) carried on the Nimbus 6 and the Nimbus 7 satellites for gathering Earth radiation budget data. Properties of the black coating for the detectors, and sensor testing and calibration are discussed.

  16. Data analysis and software support for the Earth radiation budget experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmonds, W.; Natarajan, S.

    1987-01-01

    Computer programming and data analysis efforts were performed in support of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) at NASA/Langley. A brief description of the ERBE followed by sections describing software development and data analysis for both prelaunch and postlaunch instrument data are presented.

  17. Impacts of Climate Change and Land use Changes on Land Surface Radiation and Energy Budgets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land surface radiation and energy budgets are critical to address a variety of scientific and application issues related to climate trends, weather predictions, hydrologic and biogeophysical modeling, and the monitoring of ecosystem health and agricultural crops. This is an introductory paper to t...

  18. Radiation budget and soil heat fluxes in different Arctic tundra vegetation types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juszak, Inge; Iturrate Garcia, Maitane; Gastellu-Etchegorry, Jean-Philippe; Schaepman, Michael E.; Schaepman-Strub, Gabriela

    2016-04-01

    While solar radiation is one of the primary energy sources for warming and thawing permafrost soil, the amount of shortwave radiation reaching the soil is reduced by vegetation shading. Climate change has led to greening, shrub expansion and encroachment in many Arctic tundra regions and further changes are anticipated. These vegetation changes feed back to the atmosphere and permafrost as they modify the surface energy budget. However, canopy transmittance of solar radiation has rarely been measured or modelled for a variety of tundra vegetation types. We assessed the radiation budget of the most common vegetation types at the Kytalyk field site in North-East Siberia (70.8°N, 147.5°E) with field measurements and 3D radiative transfer modelling and linked it to soil heat fluxes. Our results show that Arctic tundra vegetation types differ in canopy albedo and transmittance as well as in soil heat flux and active layer thickness. Tussock sedges transmitted on average 56% of the incoming light and dwarf shrubs 27%. For wet sedges we found that the litter layer was very important as it reduced the average transmittance to only 6%. Model output indicated that both, albedo and transmittance, also depend on the spatial aggregation of vegetation types. We found that permafrost thaw was more strongly related to soil properties than to canopy shading. The presented radiative transfer model allows quantifying effects of the vegetation layer on the surface radiation budget in permafrost areas. The parametrised model can account for diverse vegetation types and variation of properties within types. Our results highlight small scale radiation budget and permafrost thaw variability which are indicated and partly caused by vegetation. As changes in species composition and biomass increase can influence thaw rates, small scale patterns should be considered in assessments of climate-vegetation-permafrost feedbacks.

  19. 1999-2003 Shortwave Characterizations of Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS)/Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) Broadband Active Cavity Radiometer Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Robert B., III; Smith, George L.; Wong, Takmeng

    2008-01-01

    From October 1984 through May 2005, the NASA Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS/ )/Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE)ERBE nonscanning active cavity radiometers (ACR) were used to monitor long-term changes in the earth radiation budget components of the incoming total solar irradiance (TSI), earth-reflected TSI, and earth-emitted outgoing longwave radiation (OLR). From September1984 through September 1999, using on-board calibration systems, the ERBS/ERBE ACR sensor response changes, in gains and offsets, were determined from on-orbit calibration sources and from direct observations of the incoming TSI through calibration solar ports at measurement precision levels approaching 0.5 W/sq m , at satellite altitudes. On October 6, 1999, the onboard radiometer calibration system elevation drive failed. Thereafter, special spacecraft maneuvers were performed to observe cold space and the sun in order to define the post-September 1999 geometry of the radiometer measurements, and to determine the October 1999-September 2003 ERBS sensor response changes. Analyses of these special solar and cold space observations indicate that the radiometers were pointing approximately 16 degrees away from the spacecraft nadir and on the anti-solar side of the spacecraft. The special observations indicated that the radiometers responses were stable at precision levels approaching 0.5 W/sq m . In this paper, the measurement geometry determinations and the determinations of the radiometers gain and offset are presented, which will permit the accurate processing of the October 1999 through September 2003 ERBE data products at satellite and top-of-the-atmosphere altitudes.

  20. Angular momentum budget of the radiational S1 ocean tide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindelegger, Michael; Dobslaw, Henryk; Poropat, Lea; Salstein, David; Böhm, Johannes

    2016-04-01

    The balance of diurnal S1 oceanic angular momentum (OAM) variations through torques at the sea surface and the bottom topography is validated using both a barotropic and a baroclinic numerical tide model. This analysis discloses the extent to which atmosphere-driven S1 forward simulations are reliable for use in studies of high-frequency polar motion and changes in length-of-day. Viscous and dissipative torques associated with wind stress, bottom friction, as well as internal tidal energy conversion are shown to be small, and they are overshadowed by gravitational and pressure-related interaction forces. In particular, the zonal OAM variability of S1 is almost completely balanced by the water pressure torque on the local bathymetry, whereas in the prograde equatorial case also the air pressure torque on the seafloor as well as ellipsoidal contributions from the non-spherical atmosphere and solid Earth must be taken into account. Overall, the OAM budget is well closed in both the axial and the equatorial directions, thus allowing for an identification of the main diurnal angular momentum sinks in the ocean. The physical interaction forces are found to be largest at shelf breaks and continental slopes in low latitudes, with the most dominant contribution coming from the Indonesian archipelago.

  1. A new radiometer for earth radiation budget studies

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, P.G.

    1992-01-01

    A critical need for the US Global Change Research Program is to provide continuous, well-calibrated radiometric data for radiation balance studies. This paper describes a new, compact, relatively light-weight, adaptable radiometer which will provide both spectrally integrated measurements and data in selected spectral bands. The radiometer design is suitable for use on (small) satellites, aircraft, or Unmanned Aerospace Vehicles (UAVs). Some considerations for the implementation of this radiometer on a small satellite are given. 17 refs.

  2. A new radiometer for earth radiation budget studies

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, P.G.

    1992-05-01

    A critical need for the US Global Change Research Program is to provide continuous, well-calibrated radiometric data for radiation balance studies. This paper describes a new, compact, relatively light-weight, adaptable radiometer which will provide both spectrally integrated measurements and data in selected spectral bands. The radiometer design is suitable for use on (small) satellites, aircraft, or Unmanned Aerospace Vehicles (UAVs). Some considerations for the implementation of this radiometer on a small satellite are given. 17 refs.

  3. Surface Radiation Budget Variability at Climatic Time Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinker, R. T.; Ma, Y.; Nussbaumer, E.

    2014-12-01

    Information on Earth Radiation Balance is needed at climatic time scales for enabling assessment of variability and trends in the forcing functions of the climate system. Satellite observations have been instrumental for advancing the understanding of such balance at global scale; yet, the length of available records does not meet climatic needs. Major issues hindering such efforts are related to the frequent changes in satellite observing systems, including the specification of the satellite instruments, and changes in the quality of atmospheric inputs that drive the inference schemes. In this paper we report on an effort to synthesize estimates of shortwave, longwave and spectral surface radiative fluxes by fusing observations from numerous satellite platforms that include MODIS observations. This information was obtained in the framework of the MEaSURES and NEWS programs; it will be evaluated against ground observations and compared to independent satellite and model estimates. Attention will be given to updates on our knowledge on the radiative balance as compared to what is known from shorter time records.

  4. Earth radiation budget measurement from a spinning satellite: Conceptual design of detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sromovsky, L. A.; Revercomb, H. E.; Suomi, V. E.

    1975-01-01

    The conceptual design, sensor characteristics, sensor performance and accuracy, and spacecraft and orbital requirements for a spinning wide-field-of-view earth energy budget detector were investigated. The scientific requirements for measurement of the earth's radiative energy budget are presented. Other topics discussed include the observing system concept, solar constant radiometer design, plane flux wide FOV sensor design, fast active cavity theory, fast active cavity design and error analysis, thermopile detectors as an alternative, pre-flight and in-flight calibration plane, system error summary, and interface requirements.

  5. A comparison of radiation budgets in the Fram Strait marginal ice zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, Jennifer A.; Katsaros, Kristina B.; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Lind, Richard J.; Davidson, Kenneth L.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented from calculations of radiation budgets for the sea-ice and the open-water regimes in the marginal ice zone (MIZ) of the Fram Strait, from measurements of surface irradiances and meteorological conditions made during the 1984 Marginal Ice Zone Experiment. Simultaneous measurements on either side of the ice edge allowed a comparison of the open-water and the sea-ice environments. The results show significant differences between the radiation budgets of the two regimes in the MIZ. The open water absorbed twice as much radiation as did the ice, and the mean cooling rate of the atmosphere over water was approximately 15 percent larger than that over ice. Calculated fluxes and atmospheric cooling rates were found to compare well with available literature data.

  6. Impact of Asian Dust on Global Surface Air Quality and Radiation Budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Mian; Diehl, Thomas; Yu, Hongbin; Ginoux, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Dust originating from Asian deserts and desertification areas can be transported regionally and globally to affect surface air quality, visibility, and radiation budget not only at immediate downwind locations (e.g., eastern Asia) but also regions far away from the sources (e.g., North America). Deposition of Asian dust to the North Pacific Ocean basin influences the ocean productivity. In this study, we will use the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model, remote sensing data form satellite and from the ground-based network, and in-situ data from aircraft and surface observations to address the following questions: - What are the effects of Asian dust on the surface air quality and visibility over Asia and North America? - What are the seasonal and spatial variations of dust deposition to the North Pacific Ocean? How does the Asian dust affect surface radiation budget?

  7. Diagnosing ocean energy transports from earth radiation budget measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohn, Byung-Ju; Smith, Eric A.

    1992-01-01

    The maximum energy production (MEP) principle suggested by Paltridge (1975) is applied to separate the satellite-inferred required total transports into the atmospheric and the oceanic components within a two-dimensional (2D) framework. For this purpose, the required 2D energy transports (Sohn and Smith, 1991) are imposed on Paltridge's energy balance model which is then solved as a variational problem. The results provide separated atmospheric and oceanic transports on a 2D basis such that the total divergence is equal to the net radiation measured from a satellite.

  8. Defining Top-of-Atmosphere Flux Reference Level for Earth Radiation Budget Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeb, N. G.; Kato, S.; Wielicki, B. A.

    2002-01-01

    To estimate the earth's radiation budget at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) from satellite-measured radiances, it is necessary to account for the finite geometry of the earth and recognize that the earth is a solid body surrounded by a translucent atmosphere of finite thickness that attenuates solar radiation differently at different heights. As a result, in order to account for all of the reflected solar and emitted thermal radiation from the planet by direct integration of satellite-measured radiances, the measurement viewing geometry must be defined at a reference level well above the earth s surface (e.g., 100 km). This ensures that all radiation contributions, including radiation escaping the planet along slant paths above the earth s tangent point, are accounted for. By using a field-of- view (FOV) reference level that is too low (such as the surface reference level), TOA fluxes for most scene types are systematically underestimated by 1-2 W/sq m. In addition, since TOA flux represents a flow of radiant energy per unit area, and varies with distance from the earth according to the inverse-square law, a reference level is also needed to define satellite-based TOA fluxes. From theoretical radiative transfer calculations using a model that accounts for spherical geometry, the optimal reference level for defining TOA fluxes in radiation budget studies for the earth is estimated to be approximately 20 km. At this reference level, there is no need to explicitly account for horizontal transmission of solar radiation through the atmosphere in the earth radiation budget calculation. In this context, therefore, the 20-km reference level corresponds to the effective radiative top of atmosphere for the planet. Although the optimal flux reference level depends slightly on scene type due to differences in effective transmission of solar radiation with cloud height, the difference in flux caused by neglecting the scene-type dependence is less than 0.1%. If an inappropriate

  9. Interannual variability study of the earth radiation budget from Nimbus 7 monthly data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, L. D.; Vonder Haar, T. H.; Randel, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    The broadband data set on the earth radiation budget recorded by Nimbus-7 instrumentation from 1978-84 is summarized, along with the results of several statistical evaluations. The emitted longwave radiation (W/sq m), albedo and net radiation (W/sq m) are tabulated in terms of yearly means and summer and winter departures from those means. Global maps are also provided for 6-yr averaged values of the same parameters. The largest variabilities were observed over the equatorial Pacific Ocean, the Indian Ocean, and Indonesia, indicating the extent of annual variations of the size of the Intertropical Convergence Zone.

  10. Evaluation of 20-min and Annual Radiation Budget Components and Cloudiness in a Mountainous Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, E.

    2007-05-01

    Logan, Utah (USA) is among cities located in the mountainous valley in the western portion of Rocky Mountains in North America. It is the county seat of Cache Valley, a metropolitan area with a population of about 100,000. The valley had the polluted air in the USA during January 2004. To evaluate the daily and annual radiation budget and cloudiness in this mountainous valley, we set up a radiation station in the middle of the valley to measure the 20- min radiation budget components namely: incoming (Rso) and outgoing (Rso) solar or shortwave radiation, using to CM21 Kipp and Zonen (one inverted) and incoming (Rli) (or atmospheric) and outgoing (Rlo) or terrestrial) longwave radiation using two CG1 Kipp and Zonen Pyrgeometers (one inverted) during the year of 2003. All pyranometers and Pyrgeometers were ventilated with four CV2 Kipp and Zonen ventilation systems throughout the year to prevent deposition of dew, frost and snow, which otherwise would disturb the measurements. We also measured the 2-m air temperature and relative humidity along with surface temperature. All measurements were taken every 2 s, averaged to 20 min, continuously throughout the year 2000. A Met One heated rain gauge measured precipitation. Comparison of the annual radiation budget components indicates that about 25% of the annual Rsi (5848.6 MJ/ (squared m-y)) was reflected back to sky as Rso. Rli and Rlo amounted to 9968.7 and 13303.5 MJ/ (squared m-y)), respectively. This yielded about 1364.9 MJ/ (squared m- y)) available energy (Rn). Having the 2-m air temperature and moisture data and comparison between the theoretical and the measured longwave radiation, we evaluated the 20-m cloudy conditions throughout the year of 2003. The average cloud base height was 587 m (ranged from zero for foggy conditions to about 3000 m). Annual cloudiness contributed about 139.1 MJ/ (squared m-y)) more energy in this valley.

  11. A detailed evaluation of the stratospheric heat budget: 1. Radiation transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Garcia, Rolando R.; Portmann, Robert W.

    1999-03-01

    We present part 1 of a two-part series on a detailed evaluation of the stratospheric heat budget. In part 2 [Mlynczak et al., this issue] we present radiative heating, radiative cooling, net radiative heating, global radiation balance, radiative relaxation times, and diabatic circulations in the stratosphere using temperature and minor constituent data provided by instruments on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) between 1991 and 1993 and by the limb infrared monitor of the stratosphere (LIMS) instrument, which operated on the Nimbus-7 spacecraft in 1978-1979. Here we describe the radiative transfer techniques used to compute the climatology of radiative heating and circulations given in part 2. Included in the radiation transfer calculations are heating due to absorption of solar radiation from the ultraviolet through near-infrared wavelengths and radiative cooling due to emission by carbon dioxide, water vapor, and ozone from 0 to 3000 cm-1 (∞-3.3 μm). Infrared radiative effects of stratospheric aerosols are also considered in detail.

  12. Cloud contribution to the daily and annual radiation budget in a mountainous valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, Esmaiel

    An automated-ventilated radiation station has been set up in a mountainous valley at the Logan Airport in northern Utah, USA, since mid-1995, to evaluate the daily and annual radiation budget components, and develop an algorithm to study cloudiness and its contribution to the daily and annual radiation. This radiation station (composed of pyranometers, pyrgeometers and a net radiometer) provides continuous measurements of downward and upward shortwave, longwave and net radiation throughout the year. The surface temperature and pressure, the 2-m air temperature and humidity, precipitation, and wind at this station were also measured. A heated rain gauge provided precipitation information. Using air temperature and moisture and measured downward longwave (atmospheric) radiation, appropriate formula (among four approaches) was chosen for computation of cloudless-skies atmospheric emissivity. Considering the additional longwave radiation during the cloudy skies coming from the cloud in the waveband which the gaseous emission lacks (from 8-13 μm), an algorithm was developed which provides continuous 20-min cloud information (cloud base height, cloud base temperature, percent of skies covered by cloud, and cloud contribution to the radiation budget) over the area during day and night. On the partly-cloudy day of 3 February, 2003, for instance, cloud contributed 1.34 MJ m - 2 d - 1 out of 26.92 MJ m - 2 d - 1 to the daily atmospheric radiation. On the overcast day of 18 December, 2003, this contribution was 5.77 MJ m - 2 d - 1 out of 29.38 MJ m - 2 d - 1 . The same contribution for the year 2003 amounted to 402.85 MJ m - 2 y - 1 out of 9976.08 MJ m - 2 y - 1 . Observations (fog which yielded a zero cloud base height and satellite cloud imaging data) throughout the year confirmed the validity of the computed data. The nearby Bowen ratio station provided the downward radiation and net radiation data. If necessary, these data could be substituted for the missing data at the

  13. Characterizing the elements of Earth s radiative budget: Applying uncertainty quantification to the CESM

    SciTech Connect

    Archibald, Richard K; Chakoumakos, Madison; Zhuang, Zibo

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and characterizing sources of uncertainty in climate modeling is an important task. Because of the ever increasing sophistication and resolution of climate modeling it is increasing important to develop uncertainty quantification methods that minimize the computational cost that occurs when these methods are added to climate modeling. This research explores the application of sparse stochastic collocation with polynomial edge detection to characterize portions of the probability space associated with the Earth s radiative budget in the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Specifically, we develop surrogate models with error estimates for a range of acceptable input parameters that predict statistical values of the Earth s radiative budget as derived from the CESM simulation. We extend these results in resolution from T31 to T42 and in parameter space increasing the degrees of freedom from two to three.

  14. Intercomparison of scanner and nonscanner measurements for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Richard N.; House, Frederick B.; Stackhouse, Paul W.; Wu, Xiangqian; Ackerman, Steven A.

    1990-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment nonscanner measurements are simulated with the scanner measurements. The error in simulating a single measurement is 1 percent for longwave and 3 percent for shortwave. Errors in simulating the average daily measurements are half these amounts. Four months of Earth Radiation Budget Satellite measurements were analyzed. The results show that changing sun geometry affects the accuracy of the nonscanner measurements. The medium field show that changing sun geometry affects the accuracy of the nonscanner measurements. The medium field of view (MFOV) total channel and scanner agree to within 2 percent on average. The wide field of view (WFOV) total channel and scanner agree to within 1 percent. For the shortwave channels, the agreement with the scanner is 2 percent for the MFOV and 2.5 percent for the WFOV.

  15. The budget of biologically active ultraviolet radiation in the earth-atmosphere system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, John E.; Lubin, Dan

    1988-01-01

    This study applies the concept of a budget to describe the interaction of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation with the earth-atmosphere system. The wavelength ranges of interest are the biologically relevant UV-B between 280 and 320 nm and the UV-A from 32000 to 400 nm. The Nimbus 7 solar backscattered ultraviolet (SBUV) instrument provides measurements of total column ozone and information concerning cloud cover which, in combination with a simple model of radiation transfer, define the fractions of incident solar irradiance absorbed in the atmosphere, reflected to space, and absorbed at the ground. Results for the month of July quantify the contribution of fractional cloud cover and cloud optical thickness to the radiation budget's three components. Scattering within a thick cloud layer makes the downward radiation field at the cloud base more isotropic than is the case for clear skies. For small solar zenith angles, typical of summer midday conditions, the effective pathlength of this diffuse irradiance through tropospheric ozone is greater than that under clear-sky conditions. The result is an enhanced absorption of UV-B radiation in the troposphere during cloud-covered conditions. Major changes in global cloud cover or cloud optical thicknesses could alter the ultraviolet radiation received by the biosphere by an amount comparable to that predicted for long-term trends in ozone.

  16. Radiation Budget Profiles measured through the Atmosphere with a Return Glider Radiosonde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philipona, R.; Kraeuchi, A.; Kivi, R.

    2015-12-01

    Very promising radiation budget profile measurements through the atmosphere were made in 2011 with a balloon borne short- and longwave net radiometer. New and improved radiation sensors from Kipp&Zonen are now used in a glider aircraft together with a standard Swiss radiosonde from Meteolabor AG. This new return glider radiosonde (RG-R), is lifted up with double balloon technique to prevent pendulum motion and to keep the radiation instruments as horizontal as possible during the ascent measuring phase. The RG-R is equipped with a release mechanism and an autopilot that flies the glider radiosonde back to the launch site, or to a predefined open space, where it releases a parachute for landing once it is 100 meter above ground. The RG-R was successfully tested and deployed for tropospheric and stratospheric radiation measurements up to 30 hPa (24 km altitude) at the GRUAN sites Payerne (Switzerland) and Sodankylä (Finland). Radiation profiles and the radiation budget through the atmosphere during different daytimes and under cloud-free and cloudy situations will be shown in relation to temperature and humidity at the surface and in the atmosphere. The RG-R flight characteristics and new measurement possibilities will also be discussed.

  17. Zonal average earth radiation budget measurements from satellites for climate studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, J. S.; Haar, T. H. V.

    1976-01-01

    Data from 29 months of satellite radiation budget measurements, taken intermittently over the period 1964 through 1971, are composited into mean month, season and annual zonally averaged meridional profiles. Individual months, which comprise the 29 month set, were selected as representing the best available total flux data for compositing into large scale statistics for climate studies. A discussion of spatial resolution of the measurements along with an error analysis, including both the uncertainty and standard error of the mean, are presented.

  18. Evaluation of the Arctic Surface Radiation Budget in CMIP5 Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeke, R.; Taylor, P. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic region is warming at a rate nearly double the global average, and this trend is predicted to continue for the coming decades, as simulated in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) climate projections. Despite the consistency in the projected surface warming rate relative to the globe, significant inter-model spread is found in the overall magnitude of Arctic surface temperature change, which leads to large inter-model spread in the simulation of surface radiative properties. The goal of this presentation is to determine the biases in the representation of the Arctic surface radiation budget seasonal cycle and discover the physical processes that explain the significant spread in projected Arctic warming. First, biases in the simulated Arctic surface radiation budget seasonal cycle within several CMIP5 climate models participating in the Historical forcing scenario are evaluated with respect to the CERES-SFC-EBAF and C3M data products. Next, the equations for longwave and shortwave cloud radiative forcing are decomposed using an independent column approximation (ICA) to identify which factors are driving changes to the annual cycle of cloud radiative forcing as well as what terms are contributing to the inter-model spread in the simulation of the surface energy budget. A multiple linear regression methodology is applied to the results of the ICA analysis using four atmospheric state variables as predictors: surface pressure, lower tropospheric stability, sea-ice concentration, and surface temperature. The impact of thermodynamics, atmospheric dynamics, and cloud-sea ice interactions on the annual cycle of cloud radiative effect will be determined.

  19. Effects of clouds on the Earth radiation budget; Seasonal and inter-annual patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhuria, Harbans L.

    1992-01-01

    Seasonal and regional variations of clouds and their effects on the climatological parameters were studied. The climatological parameters surface temperature, solar insulation, short-wave absorbed, long wave emitted, and net radiation were considered. The data of climatological parameters consisted of about 20 parameters of Earth radiation budget and clouds of 2070 target areas which covered the globe. It consisted of daily and monthly averages of each parameter for each target area for the period, Jun. 1979 - May 1980. Cloud forcing and black body temperature at the top of the atmosphere were calculated. Interactions of clouds, cloud forcing, black body temperature, and the climatological parameters were investigated and analyzed.

  20. Study of the effect of cloud inhomogeneity on the earth radiation budget experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Phillip J.

    1988-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) is the most recent and probably the most intensive mission designed to gather precise measurements of the Earth's radiation components. The data obtained from ERBE is of great importance for future climatological studies. A statistical study reveals that the ERBE scanner data are highly correlated and that instantaneous measurements corresponding to neighboring pixels contain almost the same information. Analyzing only a fraction of the data set when sampling is suggested and applications of this strategy are given in the calculation of the albedo of the Earth and of the cloud-forcing over ocean.

  1. Earth radiation budget and cloudiness simulations with a general circulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    HARSHVARDHAN; Randall, David A.; Corsetti, Thomas G.; Dazlich, Donald A.

    1989-01-01

    A GCM with new parameterizations of solar and terrestrial radiation, parameterized cloud optical properties, and a simple representation of the cloud liquid water feedback is used with several observational data sets to analyze the effects of cloudiness on the earth's radiation budget. The January and July results from the model are in reasonable agreement with data from Nimbus-7. It is found that the simulated cloudiness overpredicts subtropical and midlatitude cloudiness. The simulated atmospheric cloud radiative forcing is examined. The clear-sky radiation fields obtained by two methods of Cess and Potter (1987) are compared. Also, a numerical experiment was performed to determine the effects of the water vapor continuum on the model results.

  2. Measurements of the earth radiation budget from satellites during the first GARP global experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonder Haar, T. H.; Campbell, G. G.; Smith, E. A.; Arking, A.; Coulson, K.; Hickey, J.; House, F.; Ingersoll, A.; Jacobowitz, H.; Smith, L.

    1981-01-01

    Radiation budget data (which will aid in climate model development) and solar constant measurements (both to be used for the study of long term climate change and interannual seasonal weather variability) are presented, obtained during Nimbus-6 and Nimbus-7 satellite flights, using wide-field-of-view, scanner, and black cavity detectors. Data on the solar constant, described as a function of the date of measurement, are given. The unweighed mean amounts to 1377 + or - 20 per sq Wm, with a standard deviation of 8 per sq Wm. The new solar data are combined with earlier measurements, and it is suggested that the total absolute energy output of the sun is a minimum at 'solar maximum' and vice versa. Attention is given to the measurements of the net radiation budget, the planetary albedo, and the infrared radiant exitance. The annual and semiannual cycles of normal variability explain most of the variance of energy exchange between the earth and space. Examination of separate ocean and atmospheric energy budgets implies a net continent-ocean region energy exchange.

  3. Microclimate of a desert playa: evaluation of annual radiation, energy, and water budgets components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, Esmaiel

    2003-03-01

    We set up two automatic weather stations over a playa (the flat floor of an undrained desert basin that, at times, becomes a shallow lake), approximately 65 km east-west by 130 km north-south, located in Dugway (40° 08N, 113° 27W, 1124 m above mean sea level) in northwestern Utah, USA, in 1999. These stations measured the radiation budget components, namely: incoming Rsi and outgoing Rso solar or shortwave radiation, using two Kipp and Zonen pyranometers (one inverted), the incoming Rli (or atmospheric) and outgoing Rlo (or terrestrial) longwave radiation, using two Kipp and Zonen pyrgeometers (one inverted) during the year 2000. These sensors were ventilated throughout the year to prevent dew and frost formation. Summation of these components yields the net radiation Rn. We also measured the air temperatures and humidity at 1 and 2 m and the soil moisture and temperature (Campbell Sci., Inc., CSI) to evaluate the energy budget components (latent (LE), sensible (H), and the soil (Gsur) heat fluxes). The 10 m wind speed U10 and direction (R.M. Young wind monitor), precipitation (CSI), and the surface temperature (Radiation and Energy Balance Systems, REBS) were also measured during 2000. The measurements were taken every 2 s, averaged into 20 min, continuously, throughout the year 2000. The annual comparison of radiation budget components indicates that about 34% of the annual Rsi (6937.7 MJ m-2 year-1) was reflected back to the sky as Rso, with Rli and Rlo amounting to 9943.4 MJ m-2 year-1 and 12 789.7 MJ m-2 year-1 respectively. This yields about 1634.3 MJ m-2 year-1 as Rn, which is about 24% of the annual Rsi. Of the total 1634.3 MJ m-2 year-1 available energy, about 25% was used for the process of evaporation (LE) and 77% for heating the air (H). The annual heat contribution from the soil to the energy budget amounted to 2% during the experimental period. Our studies showed that the total annual measured precipitation amounted to 108.0 mm year-1 during the

  4. Toward Improved Solar Irradiance Forecasts: Comparison of Downwelling Surface Shortwave Radiation in Arizona Derived from Satellite with the Gridded Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chang Ki; Holmgren, William F.; Stovern, Michael; Betterton, Eric A.

    2016-08-01

    The downwelling surface shortwave radiation derived from geostationary satellite imagery was compared with the available datasets for the Southwestern United States. The averaged root mean square errors for our instantaneous estimates ranged from 95.0 to 122.7 W m-2, which is lower than those derived from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) products were used to compare the hourly mean solar insolation. The three hourly mean downwelling surface shortwave radiation was evaluated by comparing the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) and the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) products. Our estimates show the better performance than MERRA, NARR and CERES datasets because of coarse resolution that limits determining the solar dimming due to small clouds.

  5. Toward Improved Solar Irradiance Forecasts: Comparison of Downwelling Surface Shortwave Radiation in Arizona Derived from Satellite with the Gridded Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chang Ki; Holmgren, William F.; Stovern, Michael; Betterton, Eric A.

    2016-05-01

    The downwelling surface shortwave radiation derived from geostationary satellite imagery was compared with the available datasets for the Southwestern United States. The averaged root mean square errors for our instantaneous estimates ranged from 95.0 to 122.7 W m-2, which is lower than those derived from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) products were used to compare the hourly mean solar insolation. The three hourly mean downwelling surface shortwave radiation was evaluated by comparing the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) and the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) products. Our estimates show the better performance than MERRA, NARR and CERES datasets because of coarse resolution that limits determining the solar dimming due to small clouds.

  6. Brazilian inland water bio-optical dataset to support carbon budget studies in reservoirs as well as anthropogenic impacts in Amazon floodplain lakes: Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, C.; Novo, E.; Ferreira, R.; Carvalho, L.; Cairo, C.; Lopes, F.; Stech, J.; Alcantara, E.

    2015-04-01

    This work presents ongoing efforts and preliminary results for building a dataset that represents the first and most comprehensive bio-optical information available on Brazilian inland waters to support the development of remote sensing algorithms for monitoring aquatic systems. From 2012 to 2014 optical and limnological data was gathered along thirteen field campaigns in five Brazilian reservoirs, in an irrigation and domestic water supply reservoir located in semi-arid northeast of the country and in Amazonian floodplain lakes, thus covering the diversity of Brazilian inland waters. At each site 20 stations, on average, were sampled to acquire profiles of the following optical variables: absorption, attenuation, scattering, and backscattering coefficients and radiances/irradiances spectra above and in-water. Alongside these measurements, water samples were collected for determining concentrations of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), Total Suspended Solid (TSS), Total Dissolved Carbon (TDC) and its organic/inorganic fractions, CDOM absorption, phytoplankton specific absorption [aph*] and Non-Algal Particles absorption [aNAP*]. Preliminary results show that Chl-a concentrations ranged from 0.6 to 243μg/L in reservoirs and 0.90 to 92μg/L in Amazonian lakes, while TSS concentrations ranged from 0.3 to 31mg/L in reservoirs and 0.5 to 162mg/L in Amazonian lakes. In situ beam attenuation coefficients ranged from 1.4 to 16m-1 in reservoirs and 12.5 to 38m-1 in Amazonian lakes, while diffuse attenuation coefficients of downwelling irradiance over the Photosynthetically Active Radiation (Kd(PAR)) extended from 0.35 to 4.5m-1 in reservoirs and 1.69 to 13.30m-1 in Amazonian lakes. Our research group is building this dataset anticipating future demands for algorithm validation regarding OLI/Landsat8 data and ESA Sentinel missions to be launched as of 2015.

  7. A statistical model for the selection of ground observations of solar radiation: an application in producing a five-year dataset of radiation maps on Italian territory through correction of MSG-derived data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campo, Lorenzo; Castelli, Fabio

    2011-11-01

    The incident solar radiation is one of the component of the land surface energy budget and constitutes an essential input for several applications. An accurate estimation of this variable on large areas requires a dense network of ground sensors and continuous knowledge of the cloud cover, that are rarely available. A valid alternative in this respect is constituted by the remote sensing. In this work a simple algorithm is used in order to integrate the LSA-SAF (Land Surface Analysis Satellite Applications Facility) products of shortwave incident radiation obtained from MSG-SEVIRI imagery with ground radiometers observations. A statistical approach is followed in order to define a criterion for accept or reject the ground sensors observations, by modelling the mean daily error between the observations and a theoretical radiation time series and the cloud cover observations with probability distribution functions. Such distributions is used for the ground sensors selection criterion. The analysis is used to produce a dataset of corrected solar radiation maps on the whole Italian territory for a period of 5 years (2005-2009).

  8. Aspects of Radiation Budget, Subsurface Lateral Moisture Exchange, and Vegetation Function in Areas of Complex Topography.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, V. Y.; Bras, R. L.; Istanbulluoglu, E.; Vivoni, E. R.

    2004-12-01

    There is evidence that topography strongly affects the state, function, and distribution of vegetation by controlling incoming solar radiation and lateral redistribution of soil moisture. However, numerical experiments studying the effects that a topography can have on vegetation have oversimplified the treatment of topography and/or the representation of vegetation. We investigate the control of topography on vegetation state and stress via detailed modeling of radiation and soil moisture budgets across the varied terrain of a watershed. A detailed vegetation-hydrology model parameterizes the processes of canopy radiative transfer and rainfall interception and couples the processes of infiltration and evapotranspiration to photosynthesis via moisture uptake through a root systems with varied profiles. The model is applied on a continuous basis to synthetic watersheds of topography dominated by either convex or concave hillslopes. The numerical analysis is carried out for several plant functional types and soils. Inferences from the spatially-distributed dynamics are used to examine topographic niches favorable to vegetation.

  9. The role of earth radiation budget studies in climate and general circulation research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramanathan, V.

    1987-01-01

    The use of earth radiation budget (ERB) data for climate and general circulation research is studied. ERB measurements obtained in the 1960's and 1970's have provided data on planetary brightness, planetary global energy balances, the greenhouse effect, solar insolation, meridional heat transport by oceans and atmospheres, regional forcing, climate feedback processes, and the computation of albedo values in low latitudes. The role of clouds in governing climate, in influencing the general circulation, and in determining the sensitivity of climate to external perturbations needs to be researched; a procedure for analyzing the ERB data, which will address these problems, is described. The approach involves estimating the clear-sky fluxes from the high spatial resolution scanner measurement and defining a cloud radiative forcing; the global average of the sum of the solar and long-wave cloud forcing yields the net radiative effect of clouds on the climate.

  10. Deconvolution estimation theory applied to Nimbus 6 ERB data. [Earth Radiation Budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, R. N.; Smith, G. L.

    1978-01-01

    It is pointed out that the ERB (Earth Radiation Budget) Experiment aboard the Nimbus 6 spacecraft has provided nearly 3 years of data thus far from its wide field of view (WFOV) radiometers. Each data point is an integral of the irradiance from all points within the field of view of the WFOV sensor, which is an approximately 60 deg diameter circular region on the earth. House (1972) proposed that the data, being a convolution of the flux field at the top of the atmosphere, could be convoluted so as to enhance the resolution. The problem was solved by Smith and Green (1975-76) for the case of earth emitted radiation. A parameter estimation approach to the deconvolution problem was formulated. A description is presented of the deconvolution estimation concept and the results obtained by its application to the Nimbus 6 ERB WFOV data for earth emitted radiation for August 1975.

  11. Possible effects of the El Chichon volcanic cloud on the radiation budget of the northern tropics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, J. B.; Ackerman, T. P.

    1983-01-01

    A series of calculations with a one-dimensional, time-marching, radiative-convective model are performed to assess the impact of the El Chichon volcanic cloud on the radiation budget of the northern tropics during the 6-month period following the injection of volcanic material into the stratosphere. Extensive measurement of the cloud obtained from airborne, spacecraft, and ground platforms were used to define the model parameters and to test the predictions of the model. The El Chichon cloud is predicted to have caused an increase in planetary albedo of 10 percent, a decrease in total solar radiation of 2-3 percent at the ground on cloudless days, and an increase in temperature of 3.5 K at the 24-km (30-mb) level. These predictions are compatible with relevant observations, within their respective error bars.

  12. Evidence for Solar Cycle Influence on the Infrared Energy Budget and Radiative Cooling of the Thermosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mlynczak, Martin G.; Martin-Torres, F. Javier; Marshall, B. Thomas; Thompson, R. Earl; Williams, Joshua; Turpin, TImothy; Kratz, D. P.; Russell, James M.; Woods, Tom; Gordley, Larry L.

    2007-01-01

    We present direct observational evidence for solar cycle influence on the infrared energy budget and radiative cooling of the thermosphere. By analyzing nearly five years of data from the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument, we show that the annual mean infrared power radiated by the nitric oxide (NO) molecule at 5.3 m has decreased by a factor of 2.9. This decrease is correlated (r = 0.96) with the decrease in the annual mean F10.7 solar index. Despite the sharp decrease in radiated power (which is equivalent to a decrease in the vertical integrated radiative cooling rate), the variability of the power as given in the standard deviation of the annual means remains approximately constant. A simple relationship is shown to exist between the infrared power radiated by NO and the F10.7 index, thus providing a fundamental relationship between solar activity and the thermospheric cooling rate for use in thermospheric models. The change in NO radiated power is also consistent with changes in absorbed ultraviolet radiation over the same time period.

  13. Surface energy and radiation budget over a tropical station: An observational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagi, Bhishma; Satyanarayana, A. N. V.; Kumar, Manoj; Mahanti, N. C.

    2012-11-01

    This study attempts to understand the variations in the radiation and surface energy budget parameters during days of occurrence and non occurrence of convective activity such as thunderstorms at Ranchi (23°25'N, 85°26'E), India using the special experimental data sets obtained during pre-monsoon month of May, 2008. For this purpose five continuous thunderstorm days (TD) of varying intensity, along with three non-thunderstorm days (NTD) preceding the TD are considered. Thunderstorms occurred at site are multi-cellular in nature. Change of wind direction and strong gusty winds are noticed in TD cases. Pre-dominant wind direction is south westerly for the TD; it is northwesterly during NTD. Sudden drop of air temperature and rise of relative humidity and rise/drop in atmospheric pressure is noticed during TD are found to be proportional to the intensity of thunderstorm event. More partitioning of net radiation (QN) is in to latent heat flux (QE) and the contribution of sensible heat flux (QH) and soil heat flux (QG) are same during TD. But in the NTD more partitioning of QN is in to QH followed by QG that of QE. Significant differences in radiation and energy budget components are noticed during TD and NTD events.

  14. POMS, Polar Meteorological Satellite: A contribution for global radiation budget measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puls, J.

    1981-01-01

    A proposal for a climate research mission specialized to Earth radiation budget measurements is given. This mission requires daily global coverage established by a system of three orbiting satellites. One of them is represented by the European Space Agency satellite SEOCS that is on a drifting orbit with respect to the Sun with 57 degrees inclination. The two others are polar orbiting satellites (POMS). The mission concept is treated with reference to the payload side requirements, the choice of orbit, orbital analysis, and satellite requirements.

  15. Human factors analysis of workstation design: Earth Radiation Budget Satellite Mission Operations Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, L. J.; Murphy, E. D.; Mitchell, C. M.

    1982-01-01

    A human factors analysis addressed three related yet distinct issues within the area of workstation design for the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) mission operation room (MOR). The first issue, physical layout of the MOR, received the most intensive effort. It involved the positioning of clusters of equipment within the physical dimensions of the ERBS MOR. The second issue for analysis was comprised of several environmental concerns, such as lighting, furniture, and heating and ventilation systems. The third issue was component arrangement, involving the physical arrangement of individual components within clusters of consoles, e.g., a communications panel.

  16. Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) orbiting profiles and Ni-Cd use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enciso, Marlon L.

    1987-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) is one of the more recently launched satellites of the Goddard Space Flight Center. The flight data of the two 50 Ah NASA standard batteries that are being flown on the ERBS are presented. Trend characteristics of the batteries were collected over a period of two years. The parameters that were trended are: the battery end-of-discharge voltage, time in peak power track, and time in constant current mode. All were plotted versus mission elapsed time. The slopes exhibited by the trended parameters indicate no adverse trends that would signify any appreciable degradation in the batteries.

  17. Determinability of inter-annual global and regional climatic changes of the earth radiation budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardanuy, P. E.

    1983-01-01

    The degradation characteristics of Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) experiments are examined with reference to the results of recent investigations into the calibration adjustments of the Wide Field of View channels on board the Nimbus 6 and 7 ERB experiments. The mechanisms of degradation are discussed, and changes in the transmissive and reflective properties of radiometers affecting their sensitivities and calibrations are estimated. It is emphasized that in order to observe interannual climate change on a global or a regional scale, calibration adjustments are a necessity.

  18. Earth Radiation Budget Satellite extraterrestrial solar constant measurements - 1986-1987 increasing trend

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Robert B., III; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Harrison, Edwin F.; Gibson, Michael A.; Natarajan, Sudha M.; Edmonds, William L.; Mecherikunnel, Ann T.; Kyle, H. Lee

    1988-01-01

    From June 1986 through Nov 1987, the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) pyrheliometric measurements indicated that the solar constant was increasing approximately +0.02 percent per year. Earlier ERBS measurements indicated that the solar constant was declining approximately -0.03 percent per year during the 1984 through mid-1986 period. Since mid-1986 represents the beginning of solar cycle 22, it is believed that the reversal in the long-term solar constant trend may be linked to increased solar activity associated with the beginning of the 11-year sunspot cycle. The typical value of the solar constant was found to be 1365 Wm-2.

  19. An information theory approach for evaluating earth radiation budget (ERB) measurements - Nonuniform sampling of reflected shortwave radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Direskeneli, Haldun; Halyo, Nesim

    1992-01-01

    An information theory approach to examine the temporal nonuniform sampling characteristics of shortwave (SW) flux for earth radiation budget (ERB) measurements is suggested. The information gain is computed by computing the information content before and after the measurements. A stochastic diurnal model for the SW flux is developed, and measurements for different orbital parameters are examined. The methodology is applied to specific NASA Polar platform and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) orbital parameters. The information theory approach, coupled with the developed SW diurnal model, is found to be promising for measurements involving nonuniform orbital sampling characteristics.

  20. The Effect of Directional Radiation Models on the Interpretation of Earth Radiation Budget Measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Richard N.

    1980-10-01

    A parameter estimation technique is presented to estimate the radiative flux density distribution over the earn from a set of radiometer measurements at satellite altitude. The technique analyzes measurements from a wide field of view, horizon to horizon. nadir pointing sensor with a mathematical technique to derive the radiative flux density estimates at the top of the atmosphere for resolution elements smaller than the sensor field of view. A computer simulation of the data analysis technique is presented for both earth-emitted and reflected radiation.The errors resulting from the assumed directional radiation model, spatial model and random measurement error have little effect an the global mean radiation. Zonal estimates were found to be more sensitive, to the spatial model than to the directional radiation model. Results from analysing medium field of view measurements showed a much greater sensitivity to the directional radiation model, even on a global scale.

  1. Assessment of radiation damage behaviour in a large collection of empirically optimized datasets highlights the importance of unmeasured complicating effects.

    PubMed

    Krojer, Tobias; von Delft, Frank

    2011-05-01

    The radiation damage behaviour in 43 datasets of 34 different proteins collected over a year was examined, in order to gauge the reliability of decay metrics in practical situations, and to assess how these datasets, optimized only empirically for decay, would have benefited from the precise and automatic prediction of decay now possible with the programs RADDOSE [Murray, Garman & Ravelli (2004). J. Appl. Cryst. 37, 513-522] and BEST [Bourenkov & Popov (2010). Acta Cryst. D66, 409-419]. The results indicate that in routine practice the diffraction experiment is not yet characterized well enough to support such precise predictions, as these depend fundamentally on three interrelated variables which cannot yet be determined robustly and practically: the flux density distribution of the beam; the exact crystal volume; the sensitivity of the crystal to dose. The former two are not satisfactorily approximated from typical beamline information such as nominal beam size and transmission, or two-dimensional images of the beam and crystal; the discrepancies are particularly marked when using microfocus beams (<20 µm). Empirically monitoring decay with the dataset scaling B factor (Bourenkov & Popov, 2010) appears more robust but is complicated by anisotropic and/or low-resolution diffraction. These observations serve to delineate the challenges, scientific and logistic, that remain to be addressed if tools for managing radiation damage in practical data collection are to be conveniently robust enough to be useful in real time. PMID:21525647

  2. Stability of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment scanner results for the first two years of multiple-satellite operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staylor, W. Frank

    1993-01-01

    Clear-sky albedos and outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) determined from Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanners on board the earth radiation budget satellite and NOAA-9 spacecraft were analyzed for three target sites for the months February 1985-January 1987. The targets were oceans, deserts, and a multiscene site covering half the earth's surface. Year-to-year ratios of the monthly albedos and OLR were within the 0.98-1.02 range with a standard error of about 1%. The data indicate that ERBE scanner measurements were stable to within a few tenths of a percent for the two-year periods.

  3. Assessing surface albedo change and its induced radiation budget under rapid urbanization with Landsat and GLASS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yonghong; Jia, Gensuo; Pohl, Christine; Zhang, Xiaoxuan; van Genderen, John

    2016-02-01

    Radiative forcing (RF) induced by land use (mainly surface albedo) change is still not well understood in climate change science, especially the effects of changes in urban albedo due to rapid urbanization on the urban radiation budget. In this study, a modified RF derivation approach based on Landsat images was used to quantify changes in the solar radiation budget induced by variations in surface albedo in Beijing from 2001 to 2009. Field radiation records from a Beijing meteorological station were used to identify changes in RF at the local level. There has been rapid urban expansion over the last decade, with the urban land area increasing at about 3.3 % annually from 2001 to 2009. This has modified three-dimensional urban surface properties, resulting in lower albedo due to complex building configurations of urban centers and higher albedo on flat surfaces of suburban areas and cropland. There was greater solar radiation (6.93 × 108 W) in the urban center in 2009 than in 2001. However, large cropland and urban fringe areas caused less solar radiation absorption. RF increased with distance from the urban center (less than 14 km) and with greater urbanization, with the greatest value being 0.41 W/m2. The solar radiation budget in urban areas was believed to be mainly influenced by urban structural changes in the horizontal and vertical directions. Overall, the results presented herein indicate that cumulative urbanization impacts on the natural radiation budget could evolve into an important driver of local climate change.

  4. Optimum satellite orbits for accurate measurement of the earth's radiation budget, summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, G. G.; Vonderhaar, T. H.

    1978-01-01

    The optimum set of orbit inclinations for the measurement of the earth radiation budget from spacially integrating sensor systems was estimated for two and three satellite systems. The best set of the two were satellites at orbit inclinations of 80 deg and 50 deg; of three the inclinations were 80 deg, 60 deg and 50 deg. These were chosen on the basis of a simulation of flat plate and spherical detectors flying over a daily varying earth radiation field as measured by the Nimbus 3 medium resolution scanners. A diurnal oscillation was also included in the emitted flux and albedo to give a source field as realistic as possible. Twenty three satellites with different inclinations and equator crossings were simulated, allowing the results of thousand of multisatellite sets to be intercompared. All were circular orbits of radius 7178 kilometers.

  5. Hemispheric differences in the earth radiation budget derived from Nimbus-7 related to climate studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randel, D. L.; Vonder Haar, T. H.; Campbell, G. G.

    1985-01-01

    Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) data from Nimbus-7 over the period November 1978-June 1980 has consistently shown strong hemispheric differences when analyzed over different temporal and spatial scales. Hemispheric variations in time latitude cross sections of net and emitted radiation were found to be caused by changes in the earth-sun distance and continental effects. Maps of annual range for the entire earth calculated from monthly averages showed areas of high and low variability of the different ERB parameters. The ERB of these regional areas were examined and most of the variability was found to lay in the large amplitude of the annual solar cycle. Variations in the global annual cycle of albedo (Campbell et al. 1980) are studied with respect to differences in latitudinal averaged albedo. The anomaly in the annual cycle of global averaged albedo was found to be caused by tropical albedo changes.

  6. Satellite Remote Sensing of Fires, Smoke and Regional Radiative Energy Budgets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christopher, Sundar A.; Wang, Min; Barbieri, Kristine; Welch, Ronald M.; Yang, Shi-Keng

    1997-01-01

    Using satellite imagery, more than five million square kilometers of the forest and cerrado regions over South America are extensively studied to monitor fires and smoke during the 1985 and 1986 biomass burning season. The results are characterized for four major eco-systems, namely: (1) Tropical Rain Forest (TRF), (2) Tropical Broadleaf Seasonal (TBS), (3) Mild/Warm/Hot Grass/Shrub (MGS), and (4) Savanna/Grass and Seasonal Woods (SGW). Using collocated measurements from the instantaneous scanner Earth Radiation Budget Experiment [ERBE) data, the direct regional radiative forcing of biomass burning aerosols are computed. The results show that more than 70% of the fires occur in the MGS and SGW eco-systems due to agricultural practices. The smoke generated from biomass burning has negative net radiative forcing values for all four major ecosystems within South America. The smoke found directly over the fires have mean net radiative forcing values ranging between -25.6 to -33.9 W/sq m for 1985 and between -12.9 to -40.8 W/sq m for 1986. These results confirm that the regional net radiative impact of biomass burning is one of cooling.

  7. Revisiting Earth Radiation Budget from ERBE Wide-Field-of-View Nonscanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, A. K.; Kato, S.; Wong, T.; Stackhouse, P. W.; Smith, G. L.; Rose, F. G.; Miller, W. F.; Bush, K.; Rutan, D. A.; Minnis, P.; Doelling, D.

    2014-12-01

    Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) wide-field-of-view (WFOV) nonscanner on Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) and NOAA-9/NOAA-10 provided broadband shortwave and longwave irradiances from 1985 to 1998. The observations from nonscanner at satellite altitude are converted to TOA flux by inversion processes, which involve applying so-called shape factors. However, the nonscanner processing used only one partly cloudy scene type to determine the shape factor. In addition, it does not consider spectral dependent shortwave filter degradation. Based on knowledge from recent developments in the CERES process, we propose to revise inversion processes for ERBS, NOAA9, and NoAA10 WFOV nonscanners. We will consider spectral dependent degradation of the shortwave filter transmissivity and apply scene type dependent shape factors. In the proposed inversion process, we will use imager derived cloud fraction to identify the scene type over the field of view of nonscanner instruments. In this presentation, we will present proposed inversion processes and some preliminary results.

  8. CERES FM-5 on the NPP Spacecraft: Continuing the Earth Radiation Budget Climate Data Record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priestly, Kory; Smith, G. Louis

    2009-01-01

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Flight Model-5 (FM-5) instrument will fly on the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) spacecraft, which has a launch-readiness date in June, 2010. This mission will continue the critical Earth Radiation Budget Climate Data Record (CDR) begun by the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) instruments in the mid 1980 s and continued by the CERES instruments currently flying on the EOS Terra and Aqua spacecraft. Ground calibrations have been completed for FM-5 and the instrument has been delivered for integration to the spacecraft Rigorous pre-launch ground calibration is performed on each CERES unit to achieve an accuracy goal of 1% for SW flux and 0.5% for outgoing LW flux. Any ground to flight or in-flight changes in radiometer response is monitored using a protocol employing both onboard and vicarious calibration sources and experiments. Recent studies of FM-1 through FM-4 data have shown that the SW response of space based broadband radiometers can change dramatically due to optical contamination. With these changes having most impact on optical response to blue-to UV radiance, where tungsten lamps are largely devoid of output, such changes are hard to monitor accurately using existing on-board sources. This paper outlines the lessons learned on the existing CERES sensors from 30+ years of flight experience and presents a radiometric protocol to be implemented on the FM-5 instrument to ensure that its performance exceeds the stated calibration and stability goals.

  9. Third generation earth radiation budget measurements; ERBE in the context of earlier systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonderhaar, Thomas H.

    1990-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) observations are just becoming available for scientific use. These represent the third generation of measurements with steadily improving accuracy and resolution. Beginning in the 1960's observations by spherical detectors established the mean albedo of the Earth near 30 percent in substantial variance from presatellite estimates. The Nimbus 6 and 7 wide field of view ERB measurements represent a long-term climatology of measurements at 1000 km resolution. The ERBE measurements introduce higher accuracy and higher space and time resolution result. Comparisons will be presented of several April ERB measurements to illustrate what this improvement in resolution and accuracy can yield. Simultaneous ERBE and Nimbus 7 measurements for April 1985 show nearly identical results on the large scale. Comparison of measurements of direct solar energy from ERBE, Solar Max Mission and Nimbus 7 suggest a 'solar constant' value of 1368 w/sq m for the 1979 to 1986 period. The long-term record of earth radiation budget (Aprils from 1976 to 1985) over large regions is shown to have interannual variation of plus or minus 20 to 30 w/sq. m. The new ERBE data will allow this climate record measurement to continue.

  10. Earth radiation budget from a surface perspective and its representation in CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, M.

    2012-04-01

    The genesis and evolution of Earth's climate is largely regulated by the global energy balance. Despite the central importance of the global energy balance for the climate system and climate change, substantial uncertainties still exist in the quantification of its different components, and their representation in climate models (e.g., Wild et al. 1998 Clim. Dyn., Wild 2008 Tellus). While the net radiative energy flow in and out of the climate system at the top of atmosphere (TOA) is known with considerable accuracy from new satellite programs such as CERES, much less is known about the energy distribution within the climate system and at the Earth surface. Here we use direct surface observations from the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) and the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) to provide better constraints on the surface radiative components as well as to investigate their temporal changes. We analyze radiation budgets of the latest generation of global climate models as used in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) and in the upcoming Fifth IPCC assessment report (IPCCAR5). Compared to a comprehensive set of surface observations, the CMIP5 models overestimate the shortwave radiation incident at the surface by 5-10 Wm-2 on average, due to a lack of absorption in the atmosphere. This suggests that the best estimate for the global mean absorbed shortwave radiation at the surface should be lower than the simulated estimates, which are on average slightly below 170 Wm-2, so that a value of no more than 160 Wm-2 might be the most realistic estimate for the global mean absorbed shortwave radiation at the surface. In contrast, the longwave downward radiation at the surface is underestimated by a similar amount in these models, suggesting that the best estimate for the global mean downward longwave radiation should be rather around 345 Wm-2 than the model average of 338 Wm-2. There is further increasing evidence from the direct

  11. New surface solar radiation and evaporation datasets in Spain: in search of a better understating of the dimming/brightening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Lorenzo, A.; Calbó, J.; Wild, M.

    2012-04-01

    Previous research on the dimming/brightening phenomena in Spain has been limited to the analysis of the long-term series of sunshine duration (Sanchez-Lorenzo et al., 2007) and cloud cover observations (Sanchez-Lorenzo et al., 2009). This work describes the development of a new dataset of surface radiation in Spain based on the 16 longest daily series provided by the Spanish Meteorology Agency, with the first series starting in the early 1970s, and providing global, diffuse and direct radiation. For the Madrid station an additional effort has been made to digitalize monthly records of global radiation since 1958, which provide the longest series available in Spain up to the present. The results of a temporal analysis of this dataset show an overall agreement with the trends observed using sunshine duration series, confirming the suitability of this latter variable to estimate surface radiation on decadal time scales. The important role of surface solar radiation to drive evaporation is well known, and consequently an agreement between the dimming/brightening phases and the trends in potential evaporation has been observed worldwide (Wild, 2009). Therefore, a dataset consisting of monthly series of potential evaporation has been generated by using records from tanks and Piche atmometers. The pan evaporation data consist of 13 series with records since 1981, meanwhile for Piche measurements there are around 100 series with more than 60 years of data, some of them starting in the beginning of the 20th century. The results show a decrease in pan evaporation (1981-2010 period) that cannot be explained by the observed increase in solar radiation, but may be linked to a decrease in the wind speed. On the other hand, evaporation trends estimated by the Piche evaporimeter provide a better agreement with solar radiation and sunshine time trends. This relationship needs special attention, as Piche evaporimeter is exposed inside a meteorological screen, especially regarding

  12. Deconvolution and analysis of wide-angle longwave radiation data from Nimbus 6 Earth radiation budget experiment for the first year

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bess, T. D.; Green, R. N.; Smith, G. L.

    1980-01-01

    One year of longwave radiation data from July 1975 through June 1976 from the Nimbus 6 satellite Earth radiation budget experiment is analyzed by representing the radiation field by a spherical harmonic expansion. The data are from the wide field of view instrument. Contour maps of the longwave radiation field and spherical harmonic coefficients to degree 12 and order 12 are presented for a 12 month data period.

  13. Implications of the Observed Mesoscale Variations of Clouds for Earth's Radiation Budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, William B.; Delo, Carl; Cairns, Brian; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The effect of small-spatial-scale cloud variations on radiative transfer in cloudy atmospheres currently receives a lot of research attention, but the available studies are not very clear about which spatial scales are important and report a very large range of estimates of the magnitude of the effects. Also, there have been no systematic investigations of how to measure and represent these cloud variations. We exploit the cloud climatology produced by the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) to: (1) define and test different methods of representing cloud variation statistics, (2) investigate the range of spatial scales that should be included, (3) characterize cloud variations over a range of space and time scales covering mesoscale (30 - 300 km, 3-12 hr) into part of the lower part of the synoptic scale (300 - 3000 km, 1-30 days), (4) obtain a climatology of the optical thickness, emissivity and cloud top temperature variability of clouds that can be used in weather and climate GCMS, together with the parameterization proposed by Cairns et al. (1999), to account for the effects of small-scale cloud variations on radiative fluxes, and (5) evaluate the effect of observed cloud variations on Earth's radiation budget. These results lead to the formulation of a revised conceptual model of clouds for use in radiative transfer calculations in GCMS. The complete variability climatology can be obtained from the ISCCP Web site at http://isccp.giss.nasa.gov.

  14. Surface energy and radiation budgets in a steppe ecosystem in the Upper Columbia River Gorge

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, C.D.; Allwine, K.J.; Bian, X.

    1994-08-01

    Measurements of radiation and surface energy budget components are presented for a semiarid grassland-steppe ecosystem in the Upper Columbia River Gorge (45{degrees}45`25.6 inches N, 120{degrees}01`39.3 inches W, 190 m) for June 2-27, 1991. Over this period, the ratio of sensible to latent heat flux (the Bowen ratio) averaged 5.0, and mean daily surface energy balance totals were: net radiation, 9.23; ground heat flux, 1.25; latent heat flux, 1.32; and sensible heat flux, 6.66 MJ m{sup {minus}2} d{sup {minus}1}, where the mean daily nonradiative fluxes were directed away from the surface, and the mean daily radiative flux was directed toward the surface. On clear days, the site received from 0.71 to 0.76 of the theoretical extraterrestrial solar radiation. Albedo over the 26-d period varied from 0.17 to 0.21. Daily and daytime average values of the components are summarized, and a plot is presented of the 30-min average values of all components for the entire period.

  15. A study of the thermal and optical characteristics of radiometric channels for Earth radiation budget applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahan, J. R.; Tira, Nour E.

    1991-01-01

    An improved dynamic electrothermal model for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) total, nonscanning channels is formulated. This model is then used to accurately simulate two types of dynamic solar observation: the solar calibration and the so-called pitchover maneuver. Using a second model, the nonscanner active cavity radiometer (ACR) thermal noise is studied. This study reveals that radiative emission and scattering by the surrounding parts of the nonscanner cavity are acceptably small. The dynamic electrothermal model is also used to compute ACR instrument transfer function. Accurate in-flight measurement of this transfer function is shown to depend on the energy distribution over the frequency spectrum of the radiation input function. A new array-type field of view limiter, whose geometry controls the input function, is proposed for in-flight calibration of an ACR and other types of radiometers. The point spread function (PSF) of the ERBE and the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) scanning radiometers is computed. The PSF is useful in characterizing the channel optics. It also has potential for recovering the distribution of the radiative flux from Earth by deconvolution.

  16. The constrained inversion of Nimbus-7 wide field-of-view radiometer measurements for the Earth Radiation Budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hucek, Richard R.; Ardanuy, Philip; Kyle, H. Lee

    1990-01-01

    The results of a constrained, wide field-of-view radiometer measurement deconvolution are presented and compared against higher resolution results obtained from the Earth Radiation Budget instrument on the Nimbus-7 satellite and from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment. The method is applicable to both longwave and shortwave observations and is specifically designed to treat the problem of anisotropic reflection and emission at the top of the atmosphere as well as low signal-to-noise ratios that arise regionally within a field. The procedure is reviewed, and the improvements in resolution obtained are examined. Some minor improvements in the albedo algorithm are also described.

  17. Variability in the Earth Radiation Budget as Determined from the NIMBUS ERB Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardanuy, Philip Edward

    Data taken by the Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) experiments on board the Nimbus-6 and Nimbus-7 satellites is examined. The goal is an understanding of the bounds of variability of the radiation budget components. This variability is examined on daily, monthly, and annual time scales. An in-flight characterization of the instrument is performed, and a set of calibration adjustments for the Nimbus-7 ERB are developed that enable interannual climate studies to be made. A technique for the transfer of this calibration to the Nimbus-6 ERB experiment is derived that enables the creation of a decadal joint ERB data set. For the first time, error bars for the data set are established. These show that the WFOV calibration is accurate to 7 W/m('2) regionally and 3 W/m('2) zonally. Based on a solar calibration transfer, the stability of this data is shown to be better than 1/2% over the entire period. The radiation budget component (albedo and longwave emission) responses to the 1982 eruptions of the El Chichon volcano are examined. Based on the observations, an understanding of the global distribution, evolution, and persistence of the resultant aerosol cloud is achieved. Specific results include evidence that, although the eruptions occurred in the spring of 1982, the maximum optical depths at the higher latitudes in the northern hemisphere were not reached until the winter of 1982-1983. Further evident is the fact that the majority of the aerosols are retained in the northern hemisphere, with the aerosol content of the two hemispheres (as measured by the signal enhancements) not reaching equilibrium until two years after the eruption. The evolution of the major 1982/1983 ENSO event is monitored for the first time by broad-band radiometers. Quasi -stationary, planetary-scale tropical and mid-latitude teleconnection patterns are shown to emerge as the event reaches its peak intensity. The onset, intensification, and withdrawal of drought over Indonesia, Australia, the Pacific

  18. Radiative energy budget reveals high photosynthetic efficiency in symbiont-bearing corals

    PubMed Central

    Brodersen, Kasper Elgetti; Lichtenberg, Mads; Ralph, Peter J.; Kühl, Michael; Wangpraseurt, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The light field on coral reefs varies in intensity and spectral composition, and is the key regulating factor for phototrophic reef organisms, for example scleractinian corals harbouring microalgal symbionts. However, the actual efficiency of light utilization in corals and the mechanisms affecting the radiative energy budget of corals are underexplored. We present the first balanced light energy budget for a symbiont-bearing coral based on a fine-scale study of the microenvironmental photobiology of the massive coral Montastrea curta. The majority (more than 96%) of the absorbed light energy was dissipated as heat, whereas the proportion of the absorbed light energy used in photosynthesis was approximately 4.0% under an irradiance of 640 µmol photons m−2 s−1. With increasing irradiance, the proportion of heat dissipation increased at the expense of photosynthesis. Despite such low energy efficiency, we found a high photosynthetic efficiency of the microalgal symbionts showing high gross photosynthesis rates and quantum efficiencies (QEs) of approximately 0.1 O2 photon−1 approaching theoretical limits under moderate irradiance levels. Corals thus appear as highly efficient light collectors with optical properties enabling light distribution over the corallite/tissue microstructural canopy that enables a high photosynthetic QE of their photosynthetic microalgae in hospite. PMID:24478282

  19. Long-term Radiation Budget Variability in the Northern Eurasian Region: Assessing the Interaction with Fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stackhouse, P. W.; Soja, A. J.; Zhang, T.; Mikovitz, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    In terms of global change, boreal regions are particularly important, because significant warming and change are already evident and significant future warming is predicted. Mean global air temperature has increased by 0.74°C in the last century, and temperatures are predicted to increase by 1.8°C to 4°C by 2090, depending on the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenario. Some of the greatest temperature increases are currently found in the Northern Eurasian winter and spring, which has led to longer growing seasons, increased potential evapotranspiration and extreme fire weather [Groisman et al., 2007]. In the Siberian Sayan, winter temperatures have already exceeded a 2090 Hadley Centre scenario (HadCM3GGa1) [Soja et al., 2007]. There is evidence of climate-induced change across the circumboreal in terms of increased infestations, alterations in vegetation and increased fire regimes (area burned, fire frequency, severity and number of extreme fire seasons). In this paper, we analyzed long-term surface radiation data sets from the NASA/GEWEX (Global Energy and Water Exchanges) Surface Radiation Budget data products, CERES Surface EBAF and SYN data products and also the available surface radiation measurements in the region. First, we show that during overlap years SRB and CERES data products agree very well in terms of anomalies and we'll use this fact to evaluate 30 years of satellite based estimates of the variability of downwelling SW parameters first corresponding to locations of surface measurements and then for the region as a whole. We also show the observed variability of other SW components such as the net SW and the albedo. Next we assess the variability of the downward and LW fluxes over time and compare these to variability observed in the surface temperature and other meteorological measurements. We assess anomalies on various spatial scales. Finally, we assess the correlation of this variability in specific locations to known fire

  20. Atlas of albedo and absorbed solar radiation derived from Nimbus 7 Earth radiation budget data set, November 1978 to October 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. Louis; Rutan, David; Bess, T. Dale

    1990-01-01

    An atlas of monthly mean global contour maps of albedo and absorbed solar radiation is presented. This atlas contains 7 years of continuous data from November 1978 through October 1985. The data were retrieved from measurements made by the second Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) wide field-of-view instrument, which flew on the Nimbus 7 spacecraft in 1978. The deconvolution method used to produce these data is briefly discussed here so that the user may understand their generation and limitations. These geographical distributions of albedo and absorbed solar radiation are provided as a resource for researchers studying the radiation budget of the Earth. This atlas of albedo and absorbed solar radiation complements the atlases of outgoing longwave radiation by Bess and Smith, also based on the Nimbus 6 and 7 ERB data.

  1. Atlas of albedo and absorbed solar radiation derived from Nimbus 6 earth radiation budget data set, July 1975 to May 1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. Louis; Bess, T. Dale; Rutan, David

    1989-01-01

    An atlas of monthly mean global contour maps of albedo and absorbed solar radiation is presented. The atlas is based on 35 months of continuous measurements from July 1975 through May 1978. The data were retrieved from measurements made by the shortwave wide field-of-view radiometer of the first Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) instrument, which flew on the Nimbus 6 spacecraft in 1975. Profiles of zonal mean albedos and absorbed solar radiation are tabulated. These geographical distributions are provided as a resource for studying the radiation budget of the earth. This atlas of albedo and absorbed solar radiation complements the atlases of outgoing longwave radiation by Bess and Smith in NASA-RP-1185 and RP-1186, also based on the Nimbus 6 and 7 ERB data.

  2. Extended Kalman Filter for attitude estimation of the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutschmann, Julie; Bar-Itzhack, I. Y.

    1990-01-01

    The design and testing of an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) for ground attitude determination, misalignment estimation and sensor calibration of the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) are described. Attitude is represented by the quaternion of rotation and the attitude estimation error is defined as an additive error. Quaternion normalization is used for increasing the convergence rate and for minimizing the need for filter tuning. The development of the filter dynamic model, the gyro error model and the measurement models of the sun sensors, the IR horizon scanner and the magnetometers which are used to generate vector measurements are also presented. The filter is applied to real data transmitted by ERBS sensors. Results are presented and analyzed and the EKF advantages as well as sensitivities are discussed. On the whole the filter meets the expected synergism, accuracy and robustness.

  3. Extended Kalman filter for attitude estimation of the earth radiation budget satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutschmann, Julie; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.

    1989-01-01

    The design and testing of an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) for ground attitude determination, misalignment estimation and sensor calibration of the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) are described. Attitude is represented by the quaternion of rotation and the attitude estimation error is defined as an additive error. Quaternion normalization is used for increasing the convergence rate and for minimizing the need for filter tuning. The development of the filter dynamic model, the gyro error model and the measurement models of the Sun sensors, the IR horizon scanner and the magnetometers which are used to generate vector measurements are also presented. The filter is applied to real data transmitted by ERBS sensors. Results are presented and analyzed and the EKF advantages as well as sensitivities are discussed. On the whole the filter meets the expected synergism, accuracy and robustness.

  4. The earth radiation budget derived from the Nimbus 7 ERB experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobowitz, H.; Stowe, L. L.; Tighe, R. J.; Arking, A.; Campbell, G.; Hickey, J. R.; House, F.; Ingersoll, A.; Maschhoff, R.; Smith, G. L.

    1984-01-01

    The earth radiation budget as determined from the ERB experiment aboard the Nimbus-7 polar-orbiting satellite is presented in the form of time-latitude cross sections, hemispherically and globally averaged time plots, and annual global averages for the time period spanning November 1978 through October 1979. Comparisons are made between results derived from the fixed wide-field-of-view (WFOV) radiometers and those derived from the scanning narrow-field-of-view (NFOV) radiometers. While there is excellent agreement in regard to the spatial and temporal variations, the absolute magnitudes differ. The NFOV yields outgoing longwave fluxes and albedos that are about 4W/sq m and 2.5 percent, respectively, greater than those derived from the WFOV sensors. Also, limited simultaneous comparisons are made between ERB results and those from the AVHRR on the NOAA-7 operational satellite.

  5. Exospheric cleaning of the Earth Radiation Budget solar radiometer during solar maximum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Predmore, R. E.; Jacobowitz, H.; Hickey, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    Anomalous behavior of the Earth Sensor Assemblies (ESA) had been observed on the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) 5D/1 satellites and the Tiros-N satellite. The present investigation is concerned with the reasons for the observed phenomena. Degradation of the Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) solar channels and the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet and Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (SBUV/TOMS) diffuser plate is attributed to transmission or reflection loss originating from the growth of an organic film by photolytic polymerization. Simultaneous degradation of the ESA interference filter coated lenses facing the flight direction and the recovery of the ERB solar channels on Nimbus 6 and 7 is caused by a reaction with the increase in the exospheric atmospheric density caused by solar maximum.

  6. Estimating outdoor thermal comfort using a cylindrical radiation thermometer and an energy budget model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R. D.; Gillespie, T. J.

    1986-03-01

    A mathematical model to estimate outdoor thermal comfort for humans from micrometeorological data has been formulated using the energy balance concept and the simultaneous satisfaction of four criteria for comfort from the literature: (a) a comfortable perspiration rate, (b) a comfortable core body temperature, (c) a comfortable skin temperature, and (d) a near-zero energy budget. A cylindrical modification of the globe thermometer is proposed as a simple monitor of outdoor radiation absorption for a person, and the effect of windspeed on the thermal resistance of clothing is considered. Results show a correlation coefficient of 0.91 between model output and subjective comfort ratings of 59 different situations with a variety of temperatures, insolations and windspeeds.

  7. Attitude analysis of the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) yaw turn anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kronenwetter, J.; Phenneger, M.; Weaver, William L.

    1988-01-01

    The July 2 Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) hydrazine thruster-controlled yaw inversion maneuver resulted in a 2.1 deg/sec attitude spin. This mode continued for 150 minutes until the spacecraft was inertially despun using the hydrazine thrusters. The spacecraft remained in a low-rate Y-axis spin of .06 deg/sec for 3 hours until the B-DOT control mode was activated. After 5 hours in this mode, the spacecraft Y-axis was aligned to the orbit normal, and the spacecraft was commanded to the mission mode of attitude control. This work presents the experience of real-time attitude determination support following analysis using the playback telemetry tape recorded for 7 hours from the start of the attitude control anomaly.

  8. Effects of sulfate aerosol on the central Pennsylvania surface shortwave radiation budget. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Guimond, P.W.

    1994-12-01

    Surface radiation measurements are taken simultaneously with measurements of meteorological variables including temperature, pressure, relative humidity, and visibility to evaluate the impact of sulfate haze on the surface radiation budget. A relationship is sought between flux losses due only to aerosol and relative humidity, visibility or both, with the goal of facilitating parameterization of sulfate hazes by climate modelers. At the same time, a rotating shadowband radiometer (RSR) is compared with a more costly sun photometer to determine the feasibility of substituting the former for the latter in future research. It is found that depletion of surface radiation due to aerosol is typically ten to twenty percent of initial insolation, and that the losses can be correlated with zenith angle, relative humidity and optical depth. In the case of flux loss as a function of optical depth, the two are related in a nearly linear fashion. It is also discovered that the RSR has a predictable error owing to a wider field of view than the sun photometer, and can be used as a replacement for the former by correcting for the error.

  9. Evaluating the design of an Earth Radiation Budget Instrument with systen simulations. Part 1: Instantaneous estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Stowe, L.; Ardanuy, P.; Hucek, R.; Abel, P.; Jacobowitz, H. ||

    1993-12-01

    A set of system simulations has been performed to evaluate candidate scanner designs for an Earth Radiation Budget Instrument (ERBI) for the Earth Observing System (EOS) of the late 1990s. Five different instruments are considered: (1) the Active Cavity Array (ACA), (2) the Clouds and Earth`s Radiant Energy System-Instrument (CERES-I), (3) the Conically Scanning Radiometer (CSR), (4) the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment Cross-Track Scanner (ERBE), and (5) the Nimbus-7 Biaxial Scanner (N7). Errors in instantaneous, top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) satellite flux estimates are assumed to arise from two measurement problems: the sampling of space over a given geographic domain, and sampling in angle about a given spatial location. When angular sampling errors vanish due to the application of correct angular dependence models (ADMs) during inversion, the accuracy of each scanner design is determined by the instrument`s ability to map the TOA radiance field in a uniform manner. In this regard, the instruments containing a cross-track scanning component (CERES-I and ERBE) do best. As errors in ADMs are encountered, cross-track instruments incur angular sampling errors more rapidly than biaxial instruments (N7, ACA, and CSR) and eventually overtake the biaxial designs in their total error amounts. A latitude bias (north-south error gradient) in the ADM error of cross-track instruments also exists. This would be objectionable when ADM errors are systematic over large areas of the globe. For instantaneous errors, however, cross-track scanners outperform biaxial or conical scanners for 2.5 deg latitude x 2.5 deg longitude target areas, providing that the ADM error is less than or equal to 30%.

  10. Variability of Earth's radiation budget components during 2009 - 2015 from radiometer IKOR-M data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherviakov, Maksim

    2016-04-01

    This report describes a new «Meteor-M» satellite program which has been started in Russia. The first satellite of new generation "Meteor-M» № 1 was put into orbit in September, 2009. The radiometer IKOR-M - «The Measuring instrument of short-wave reflected radiation" was created in Saratov State University. It was installed on Russian hydrometeorological satellites «Meteor-M» № 1 and № 2. Radiometer IKOR-M designed for satellite monitoring of the outgoing reflected short-wave radiation, which is one of the components of Earth's radiation budget. Such information can be used in different models of long-term weather forecasts, in researches of climate change trends and also in calculation of absorbed solar radiation values and albedo of the Earth-atmosphere system. Satellite «Meteor-M» № 1 and № 2 are heliosynchronous that allows observing from North to South Poles. The basic products of data processing are given in the form of global maps of distribution outgoing short-wave radiation (OSR), albedo and absorbed solar radiation (ASR). Such maps were made for each month during observation period. The IKOR-M product archive is available online at all times. A searchable catalogue of data products is continually updated and users may search and download data products via the Earth radiation balance components research laboratory website (http://www.sgu.ru/structure/geographic/metclim/balans) as soon as they become available. Two series of measurements from two different IKOR-M are available. The first radiometer had worked from October, 2009 to August, 2014 and second - from August, 2014 to the present. Therefore, there is a period when both radiometers work at the same time. Top-of-atmosphere fluxes deduced from the «Meteor-M» № 1 measurements in August, 2014 show very good agreement with the fluxes determined from «Meteor-M» № 2. The seasonal and interannual variations of OSR, albedo and ASR were discussed. The variations between SW radiation

  11. Examination of the use of narrowband radiances for earth radiation budget studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, David F.; Doelling, David R.; Minnis, Patrick; Harrison, Edwin F.

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between narrowband and broadband thermal radiances is explored to determine the accuracy of outgoing longwave radiation derived from narrowband data. Infrared window (11.5 microns) data from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite are correlated with longwave (5.0 - 50.0 microns) data from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment. A simple quadratic fit between the narrowband and longwave fluxes results in a standard error of the estimate of 4.5-5.3 percent for data which are matched closely in time and space. Use of matched regional flux data with temporal differences up to a half hour yield standard errors of 4.6-5.9 percent. About one fourth of the magnitude of the error may be attributed to limb-darkening and temporal differences in the matched fluxes. The relationship shows a significant dependence on the relative humidity of the atmosphere above the radiating surface. Although this dependency accounts for only about 2 percent of the standard error, it reduces the monthly mean regional errors by more than 10 percent. Data taken over land produced a slightly different relationship than data taken over water. The differences appear to be due to the higher altitudes of the land radiating surfaces. Cloud amount and height also influence the narrowband-broadband relationship. Inclusion of these parameters does not affect the standard errors but it reduces the montly mean regional errors by another 10 percent. Better humidity and temperature data and knowledge of cloud microphysics may be required to further improve the relationship. Using the best fits, it is concluded that the monthly mean outgoing flux may be determined with an rms uncertainty of 1.7 percent using a single infrared window channel with coincident cloud and humidity data. Regional concentrations of the errors, however, make the use of narrowband data too unreliable for monitoring the longwave flux for climate change studies.

  12. Dynamic Electrothermal Model of a Sputtered Thermopile Thermal Radiation Detector for Earth Radiation Budget Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weckmann, Stephanie

    1997-01-01

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is a program sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) aimed at evaluating the global energy balance. Current scanning radiometers used for CERES consist of thin-film thermistor bolometers viewing the Earth through a Cassegrain telescope. The Thermal Radiation Group, a laboratory in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, is currently studying a new sensor concept to replace the current bolometer: a thermopile thermal radiation detector. This next-generation detector would consist of a thermal sensor array made of thermocouple junction pairs, or thermopiles. The objective of the current research is to perform a thermal analysis of the thermopile. Numerical thermal models are particularly suited to solve problems for which temperature is the dominant mechanism of the operation of the device (through the thermoelectric effect), as well as for complex geometries composed of numerous different materials. Feasibility and design specifications are studied by developing a dynamic electrothermal model of the thermopile using the finite element method. A commercial finite element-modeling package, ALGOR, is used.

  13. Evaluating the design of an Earth Radiation Budget Instrument with systen simulations. Part 1: Instantaneous estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stowe, Larry; Ardanuy, Philip; Hucek, Richard; Abel, Peter; Jacobowitz, Herbert

    1993-01-01

    A set of system simulations has been performed to evaluate candidate scanner designs for an Earth Radiation Budget Instrument (ERBI) for the Earth Observing System (EOS) of the late 1990s. Five different instruments are considered: (1) the Active Cavity Array (ACA), (2) the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System-Instrument (CERES-I), (3) the Conically Scanning Radiometer (CSR), (4) the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment Cross-Track Scanner (ERBE), and (5) the Nimbus-7 Biaxial Scanner (N7). Errors in instantaneous, top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) satellite flux estimates are assumed to arise from two measurement problems: the sampling of space over a given geographic domain, and sampling in angle about a given spatial location. When angular sampling errors vanish due to the application of correct angular dependence models (ADMs) during inversion, the accuracy of each scanner design is determined by the instrument's ability to map the TOA radiance field in a uniform manner. In this regard, the instruments containing a cross-track scanning component (CERES-I and ERBE) do best. As errors in ADMs are encountered, cross-track instruments incur angular sampling errors more rapidly than biaxial instruments (N7, ACA, and CSR) and eventually overtake the biaxial designs in their total error amounts. A latitude bias (north-south error gradient) in the ADM error of cross-track instruments also exists. This would be objectionable when ADM errors are systematic over large areas of the globe. For instantaneous errors, however, cross-track scanners outperform biaxial or conical scanners for 2.5 deg latitude x 2.5 deg longitude target areas, providing that the ADM error is less than or equal to 30%. A key issue is the amount of systematic ADM error (departures from the mean models) that is present at the 2.5 deg resolution of the ERBE target areas. If this error is less than 30%, then the CERES-I, ERBE, and CSR, in order of increasing error, provide the most accurate instantaneous

  14. Wave energy budget analysis in the Earth's radiation belts uncovers a missing energy

    PubMed Central

    Artemyev, A.V.; Agapitov, O.V.; Mourenas, D.; Krasnoselskikh, V.V.; Mozer, F.S.

    2015-01-01

    Whistler-mode emissions are important electromagnetic waves pervasive in the Earth's magnetosphere, where they continuously remove or energize electrons trapped by the geomagnetic field, controlling radiation hazards to satellites and astronauts and the upper-atmosphere ionization or chemical composition. Here, we report an analysis of 10-year Cluster data, statistically evaluating the full wave energy budget in the Earth's magnetosphere, revealing that a significant fraction of the energy corresponds to hitherto generally neglected very oblique waves. Such waves, with 10 times smaller magnetic power than parallel waves, typically have similar total energy. Moreover, they carry up to 80% of the wave energy involved in wave–particle resonant interactions. It implies that electron heating and precipitation into the atmosphere may have been significantly under/over-valued in past studies considering only conventional quasi-parallel waves. Very oblique waves may turn out to be a crucial agent of energy redistribution in the Earth's radiation belts, controlled by solar activity. PMID:25975615

  15. The Langley Parameterized Shortwave Algorithm (LPSA) for Surface Radiation Budget Studies. 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Shashi K.; Kratz, David P.; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.; Wilber, Anne C.

    2001-01-01

    An efficient algorithm was developed during the late 1980's and early 1990's by W. F. Staylor at NASA/LaRC for the purpose of deriving shortwave surface radiation budget parameters on a global scale. While the algorithm produced results in good agreement with observations, the lack of proper documentation resulted in a weak acceptance by the science community. The primary purpose of this report is to develop detailed documentation of the algorithm. In the process, the algorithm was modified whenever discrepancies were found between the algorithm and its referenced literature sources. In some instances, assumptions made in the algorithm could not be justified and were replaced with those that were justifiable. The algorithm uses satellite and operational meteorological data for inputs. Most of the original data sources have been replaced by more recent, higher quality data sources, and fluxes are now computed on a higher spatial resolution. Many more changes to the basic radiation scheme and meteorological inputs have been proposed to improve the algorithm and make the product more useful for new research projects. Because of the many changes already in place and more planned for the future, the algorithm has been renamed the Langley Parameterized Shortwave Algorithm (LPSA).

  16. Wave energy budget analysis in the Earth's radiation belts uncovers a missing energy.

    PubMed

    Artemyev, A V; Agapitov, O V; Mourenas, D; Krasnoselskikh, V V; Mozer, F S

    2015-01-01

    Whistler-mode emissions are important electromagnetic waves pervasive in the Earth's magnetosphere, where they continuously remove or energize electrons trapped by the geomagnetic field, controlling radiation hazards to satellites and astronauts and the upper-atmosphere ionization or chemical composition. Here, we report an analysis of 10-year Cluster data, statistically evaluating the full wave energy budget in the Earth's magnetosphere, revealing that a significant fraction of the energy corresponds to hitherto generally neglected very oblique waves. Such waves, with 10 times smaller magnetic power than parallel waves, typically have similar total energy. Moreover, they carry up to 80% of the wave energy involved in wave-particle resonant interactions. It implies that electron heating and precipitation into the atmosphere may have been significantly under/over-valued in past studies considering only conventional quasi-parallel waves. Very oblique waves may turn out to be a crucial agent of energy redistribution in the Earth's radiation belts, controlled by solar activity. PMID:25975615

  17. The Potential for Collocated AGLP and ERBE Data for Fire, Smoke, and Radiation Budget Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christopher, S. A.; Chou, J.

    1997-01-01

    One month of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Global Area Coverage (GAC) Land Pathfinder (AGLP) data from September 1985 are used to examine the spatial and temporal distribution of fires over four major ecosystems in South America. The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner data are used to examine the top of atmosphere (TOA) shortwave and longwave fluxes over smoke generated from biomass burning. The relationship between the AGLP-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the ERBE-estimated clear sky albedos are also examined as a function of the four ecosystems. This study shows that the grassland areas in South America have the highest number of fires for September 1985. and their corresponding NDVI values are smaller than the tropical rainforest region where the number of fires were comparatively small. Clear sky statistics accumulated during the days when smoke was not present show that clear sky albedos derived from ERBE are higher for grassland areas when compared to the tropical rainforest. The results show that the AGLP can be used to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of fires along with vegetation characteristics, while ERBE data can provide necessary information on broadband albedos and regional top of atmosphere radiative impacts of biomass burning aerosols. Since the AGLP data are available from 1981 to the present day, several climate-related issues can be addressed,

  18. The Potential for Collocated AGLP and ERBE data for Fire, Smoke, and Radiation Budget Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christropher, S. A.; Chou, J.

    1997-01-01

    One month of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Global Area Coverage (GAC) Land Pathfinder (AGLP) data from September 1985 are used to examine the spatial and temporal distribution of fires over four major ecosystems in South America. The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner data are used to examine the top of atmosphere (TOA) shortwave and longwave fluxes over smoke generated from biomass burn- ing. The relationship between the AGLP-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the ERBE-estimated clear sky albedos are also examined as a function of the four ecosystems. This study shows that the grassland areas in South America have the highest number of fires for September 1985, and their corresponding NDVI values are smaller than the tropical rainforest region where the number of fires were comparatively small. Clear sky statistics accumulated during the days when smoke was not present show that clear sky albedos derived from ERBE are higher for grassland areas when compared to the tropical rainforest. The results show that the AGLP can be used to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of fires along with vegetation characteristics, while ERBE data can provide necessary information on broadband albedos and regional top of atmosphere radiative impacts of biomass burning aerosols. Since the AGLP data are available from 1981 to the present day, several climate-related issues can be addressed.

  19. Evaluation and intercomparison of clouds, precipitation, and radiation budgets in recent reanalyses using satellite-surface observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolinar, Erica K.; Dong, Xiquan; Xi, Baike

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric reanalysis datasets offer a resource for investigating climate processes and extreme events; however, their uncertainties must first be addressed. In this study, we evaluate the five reanalyzed (20CR, CFSR, Era-Interim, JRA-25, and MERRA) cloud fraction (CF), precipitation rates (PR), and top-of-atmosphere (TOA) and surface radiation budgets using satellite observations during the period 03/2000-02/2012. Compared to the annual averaged CF of 56.7 % from CERES MODIS (CM) four of the five reanalyses underpredict CFs by 1.7-4.6 %, while 20CR overpredicts this result by 7.4 %. PR from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) is 3.0 mm/day and the reanalyzed PRs agree with TRMM within 0.1-0.6 mm/day. The shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) TOA cloud radiative effects (CREtoa) calculated by CERES EBAF (CE) are -48.1 and 27.3 W/m2, respectively, indicating a net cooling effect of -20.8 W/m2. Of the available reanalysis results, the CFSR and MERRA calculated net CREtoa values agree with CE within 1 W/m2, while the JRA-25 result is ~10 W/m2 more negative than the CE result, predominantly due to the underpredicted magnitude of the LW warming in the JRA-25 reanalysis. A regime metric is developed using the vertical motion field at 500 hPa over the oceans. Aptly named the "ascent" and "descent" regimes, these areas are distinguishable in their characteristic synoptic patterns and the predominant cloud-types; convective-type clouds and marine boundary layer (MBL) stratocumulus clouds. In general, clouds are overpredicted (underpredicted) in the ascent (descent) regime and the biases are often larger in the ascent regime than in the descent regime. PRs are overpredicted in both regimes; however the observed and reanalyzed PRs over the ascent regime are an order of magnitude larger than those over the descent regime, indicating different types of clouds exist in these two regimes. Based upon the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program ground-based and CM

  20. NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget: First Results From The Release 4 GEWEX Integrated Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stackhouse, Paul; Cox, Stephen; Gupta, Shashi; Mikovitz, J. Colleen; zhang, taiping

    2016-04-01

    The NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) project produces shortwave and longwave surface and top of atmosphere radiative fluxes for the 1983-near present time period. Spatial resolution is 1 degree. The current release 3 (available at gewex-srb.larc.nasa.gov) uses the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) DX product for pixel level radiance and cloud information. This product is subsampled to 30 km. ISCCP is currently recalibrating and recomputing their entire data series, to be released as the H product, at 10km resolution. The ninefold increase in pixel number should help improve the RMS of the existing products and allow for future higher resolution SRB gridded product (e.g. 0.5 degree). In addition to the input data improvements, several important algorithm improvements have been made. Most notable has been the adaptation of Angular Distribution Models (ADMs) from CERES to improve the initial calculation of shortwave TOA fluxes, from which the surface flux calculations follow. Other key input improvements include a detailed aerosol history using the Max Planck Institut Aerosol Climatology (MAC), temperature and moisture profiles from HIRS, and new topography, surface type, and snow/ice. Here we present results for the improved GEWEX Shortwave and Longwave algorithm (GSW and GLW) with new ISCCP data, the various other improved input data sets and the incorporation of many additional internal SRB model improvements. As of the time of abstract submission, results from 2007 have been produced with ISCCP H availability the limiting factor. More SRB data will be produced as ISCCP reprocessing continues. The SRB data produced will be released as part of the Release 4.0 Integrated Product, recognizing the interdependence of the radiative fluxes with other GEWEX products providing estimates of the Earth's global water and energy cycle (I.e., ISCCP, SeaFlux, LandFlux, NVAP, etc.).

  1. Nimbus-7 Earth radiation budget calibration history. Part 2: The Earth flux channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyle, H. Lee; Hucek, Douglas Richard R.; Ardanuy, Philip E.; Hickey, John R.; Maschhoff, Robert H.; Penn, Lanning M.; Groveman, Brian S.; Vallette, Brenda J.

    1994-01-01

    Nine years (November 1978 to October 1987) of Nimbus-7 Earth radiation budget (ERB) products have shown that the global annual mean emitted longwave, absorbed shortwave, and net radiation were constant to within about + 0.5 W/sq m. Further, most of the small annual variations in the emitted longwave have been shown to be real. To obtain this measurement accuracy, the wide-field-of-view (WFOV) Earth-viewing channels 12 (0.2 to over 50 micrometers), 13 (0.2 to 3.8 micrometers), and 14 (0.7 to 2.8 micrometers) have been characterized in their satellite environment to account for signal variations not considered in the prelaunch calibration equations. Calibration adjustments have been derived for (1) extraterrestrial radiation incident on the detectors, (2) long-term degradation of the sensors, and (3) thermal perturbations within the ERB instrument. The first item is important in all the channels; the second, mainly in channels 13 and 14, and the third, only in channels 13 and 14. The Sun is used as a stable calibration source to monitor the long-term degradation of the various channels. Channel 12, which is reasonably stable to both thermal perturbations and sensor degradation, is used as a reference and calibration transfer agent for the drifting sensitivities of the filtered channels 13 and 14. Redundant calibration procedures were utilized. Laboratory studies complemented analyses of the satellite data. Two nearly independent models were derived to account for the thermal perturbations in channels 13 and 14. The global annual mean terrestrial shortwave and longwave signals proved stable enough to act as secondary calibration sources. Instantaneous measurements may still, at times, be in error by as much as a few Wm(exp -2), but the long-term averages are stable to within a fraction of a Wm(exp -2).

  2. Atlas of wide-field-of-view outgoing longwave radiation derived from Nimbus 7 Earth radiation budget data set, November 1985 to October 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bess, T. Dale; Smith, G. Louis

    1991-01-01

    An atlas of monthly outgoing longwave radiation global contour maps and associated spherical harmonic coefficients is presented. The atlas contains 23 months of data from November 1985 to October 1987 . The data were derived from the second Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) package, which was flown on the Nimbus 7 Sun-synchronous satellite in 1987. This data set is a companion set and extension to similar atlases that documented 10 years of outgoing longwave radiation results from Nimbus 6 and Nimbus 7 satellites. This atlas and the companion atlases give a data set covering a 12-year time period and will be very useful in studying different aspects of our changing climate. The data set also provides a 3-year overlap with the current Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE).

  3. Evaluation of ECHAM5-HAM simulated Surface, TOA and Atmospheric Radiation Budgets using Global CERES-BSRN Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xiquan; Xi, Baike; Wild, Martin; Folini, Doris; Minnis, Minnis; Loeb, Norman

    2010-05-01

    Atmospheric column absorption of solar radiation (Acol) is a fundamental part of the Earth's energy cycle but is an extremely difficult quantity to measure directly. To investigate Acol, we have collocated satellite-surface observations over the 35 selected BSRN surface sites during the period March 2000-December 2004. The surface radiation budgets are averaged from the BSRN Shortwave (SW) observations over a 1-hour interval centered at the time of the NASA Terra and Aqua satellites overpass, and the TOA radiation budgets are averaged from the closest FOV satellite data to the BSRN stations. Then the atmospheric column SW absorption was inferred from the satellite TOA albedo and BSRN surface absorption. Monthly means of Acol, TOA albedo, and surface absorption are calculated under both clear- and all-sky conditions over the 35 selected BSRN sites which have covered different climate regimes. To evaluate the GCM simulations, we have collected the ECHAM5-HAM simulated surface, TOA and atmospheric radiation budgets by researchers at ETH Zurich and compared those simulations with observations. The preliminary comparisons have shown that the ECHAN5 simulated clear-sky surface absorption, TOA albedo, and Acol agree very well (1-3%) with observations. Under all-sky conditions, they have strong correlations with CERES-derived cloud fraction. The simulated surface absorption is lower and TOA albedo is higher than those under clear skies, but ACOL does not increase too much. However, there are relatively large differences over some regions and months. A further study is needed.

  4. Impacts of cloud overlap assumptions on radiative budgets and heating fields in convective regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, XiaoCong; Liu, YiMin; Bao, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Impacts of cloud overlap assumptions on radiative budgets and heating fields are explored with the aid of a cloud-resolving model (CRM), which provided cloud geometry as well as cloud micro and macro properties. Large-scale forcing data to drive the CRM are from TRMM Kwajalein Experiment and the Global Atmospheric Research Program's Atlantic Tropical Experiment field campaigns during which abundant convective systems were observed. The investigated overlap assumptions include those that were traditional and widely used in the past and the one that was recently addressed by Hogan and Illingworth (2000), in which the vertically projected cloud fraction is expressed by a linear combination of maximum and random overlap, with the weighting coefficient depending on the so-called decorrelation length Lcf. Results show that both shortwave and longwave cloud radiative forcings (SWCF/LWCF) are significantly underestimated under maximum (MO) and maximum-random (MRO) overlap assumptions, whereas remarkably overestimated under the random overlap (RO) assumption in comparison with that using CRM inherent cloud geometry. These biases can reach as high as 100 Wm- 2 for SWCF and 60 Wm- 2 for LWCF. By its very nature, the general overlap (GenO) assumption exhibits an encouraging performance on both SWCF and LWCF simulations, with the biases almost reduced by 3-fold compared with traditional overlap assumptions. The superiority of GenO assumption is also manifested in the simulation of shortwave and longwave radiative heating fields, which are either significantly overestimated or underestimated under traditional overlap assumptions. The study also pointed out the deficiency of constant assumption on Lcf in GenO assumption. Further examinations indicate that the CRM diagnostic Lcf varies among different cloud types and tends to be stratified in the vertical. The new parameterization that takes into account variation of Lcf in the vertical well reproduces such a relationship and

  5. Nimbus-7 Earth radiation budget calibration history. Part 1: The solar channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyle, H. Lee; Hoyt, Douglas V.; Hickey, John R.; Maschhoff, Robert H.; Vallette, Brenda J.

    1993-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) experiment on the Nimbus-7 satellite measured the total solar irradiance plus broadband spectral components on a nearly daily basis from 16 Nov. 1978, until 16 June 1992. Months of additional observations were taken in late 1992 and in 1993. The emphasis is on the electrically self calibrating cavity radiometer, channel 10c, which recorded accurate total solar irradiance measurements over the whole period. The spectral channels did not have inflight calibration adjustment capabilities. These channels can, with some additional corrections, be used for short-term studies (one or two solar rotations - 27 to 60 days), but not for long-term trend analysis. For channel 10c, changing radiometer pointing, the zero offsets, the stability of the gain, the temperature sensitivity, and the influences of other platform instruments are all examined and their effects on the measurements considered. Only the question of relative accuracy (not absolute) is examined. The final channel 10c product is also compared with solar measurements made by independent experiments on other satellites. The Nimbus experiment showed that the mean solar energy was about 0.1 percent (1.4 W/sqm) higher in the excited Sun years of 1979 and 1991 than in the quiet Sun years of 1985 and 1986. The error analysis indicated that the measured long-term trends may be as accurate as +/- 0.005 percent. The worse-case error estimate is +/- 0.03 percent.

  6. Comparison and testing of extended Kalman filters for attitude estimation of the Earth radiation budget satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutschmann, Julie; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.; Rokni, Mohammad

    1990-01-01

    The testing and comparison of two Extended Kalman Filters (EKFs) developed for the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) is described. One EKF updates the attitude quaternion using a four component additive error quaternion. This technique is compared to that of a second EKF, which uses a multiplicative error quaternion. A brief development of the multiplicative algorithm is included. The mathematical development of the additive EKF was presented in the 1989 Flight Mechanics/Estimation Theory Symposium along with some preliminary testing results using real spacecraft data. A summary of the additive EKF algorithm is included. The convergence properties, singularity problems, and normalization techniques of the two filters are addressed. Both filters are also compared to those from the ERBS operational ground support software, which uses a batch differential correction algorithm to estimate attitude and gyro biases. Sensitivity studies are performed on the estimation of sensor calibration states. The potential application of the EKF for real time and non-real time ground attitude determination and sensor calibration for future missions such as the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) and the Small Explorer Mission (SMEX) is also presented.

  7. Observations of the Earth's Radiation Budget in relation to atmospheric hydrology. 4: Atmospheric column radiative cooling over the world's oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Graeme L.; Slingo, Anthony; Webb, Mark J.; Minnett, Peter J.; Daum, Peter H.; Kleinman, Lawrence; Wittmeyer, Ian; Randall, David A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper introduces a simple method for deriving climatological values of the longwave flux emitted from the clear sky atmosphere to the ice-free ocean surface. It is shown using both theory and data from simulations how the ratio of the surface to top-of-atmosphere (TOA) flux is a simple function of water vapor (W) and a validation of the simple relationship is presented based on a limited set of surface flux measurements. The rms difference between the retrieved surface fluxes and the simulated surface fluxes is approximately 6 W/sq m. The clear sky column cooling rate of the atmosphere is derived from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) values of the clear sky TOA flux and the surface flux retrieved using Special Scanning Microwave Imager (SSM/I) measurements of w together with ERBE clear sky fluxes. The relationship between this column cooling rate, w, and the sea surface temperature (SST) is explored and it is shown how the cooling rate systematically increases as both w and SST increase. The uncertainty implied in these estmates of cooling are approximately +/- 0.2 K/d. The effects of clouds on this longwave cooling are also explored by placing bounds on the possible impact of clouds on the column cooling rate based on certain assumptions about the effect of clouds on the longwave flux to the surface. It is shown how the longwave effects of clouds in a moist atmosphere where the column water vapor exceeds approximately 30 kg/sq m may be estimated from presently available satellite data with an uncertainty estimated to be approximately 0.2 K/d. Based on an approach described in this paper, we show how clouds in these relatively moist regions decrease the column cooling by almost 50% of the clear sky values and the existence of significant longitudinal gradients in column radiative heating across the equatorial and subtropical Pacific Ocean.

  8. Studies of radiative transfer in the earth's atmosphere with emphasis on the influence of the radiation budget in the joint institute for advancement of flight sciences at the NASA-Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Earth and solar radiation budget measurements were examined. Sensor calibration and measurement accuracy were emphasized. Past works on the earth's radiation field that must be used in reducing observations of the radiation field were reviewed. Using a finite difference radiative transfer algorithm, models of the angular and spectral dependence of the earth's radiation field were developed.

  9. Air temperature, radiation budget and area changes of Quisoquipina glacier in the Cordillera Vilcanota (Peru)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, Wilson; Macedo, Nicolás; Montoya, Nilton; Arias, Sandro; Schauwecker, Simone; Huggel, Christian; Rohrer, Mario; Condom, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The Peruvian Andes host about 71% of all tropical glaciers. Although several studies have focused on glaciers of the largest glaciered mountain range (Cordillera Blanca), other regions have received little attention to date. In 2011, a new program has been initiated with the aim of monitoring glaciers in the centre and south of Peru. The monitoring program is managed by the Servicio Nacional de Meteorología e Hidrología del Perú (SENAMHI) and it is a joint project together with the Universidad San Antonio Abad de Cusco (UNSAAC) and the Autoridad Nacional del Agua (ANA). In Southern Peru, the Quisoquipina glacier has been selected due to its representativeness for glaciers in the Cordillera Vilcanota considering area, length and orientation. The Cordillera Vilcanota is the second largest mountain range in Peru with a glaciated area of approximately 279 km2 in 2009. Melt water from glaciers in this region is partly used for hydropower in the dry season and for animal breeding during the entire year. Using Landsat 5 images, we could estimate that the area of Quisoquipina glacier has decreased by approximately 11% from 3.66 km2 in 1990 to 3.26 km2 in 2010. This strong decrease is comparable to observations of other tropical glaciers. In 2011, a meteorological station has been installed on the glacier at 5180 m asl., measuring air temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, net short and longwave radiation and atmospheric pressure. Here, we present a first analysis of air temperature and the radiation budget at the Quisoquipina glacier for the first three years of measurements. Additionally, we compare the results from Quisoquipina glacier to results obtained by the Institut de recherche pour le développement (IRD) for Zongo glacier (Bolivia) and Antizana glacier (Ecuador). For both, Quisoquipina and Zongo glacier, net shortwave radiation may be the most important energy source, thus indicating the important role of albedo in the energy balance of the glacier

  10. The WCRP/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget Project Release 2: An Assessment of Surface Fluxes at 1 Degree Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stackhouse, P. W., Jr.; Gupta, S. K.; Cox, S. J.; Chiacchio, M.; Mikovitz, J. C.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) based Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Project in association with the World Climate Research Programme Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (WCRP/GEWEX) is preparing a new 1 deg x 1 deg horizontal resolution product for distribution scheduled for release in early 2001. The new release contains several significant upgrades from the previous version. This paper summarizes the most significant upgrades and presents validation results as an assessment of the new data set.

  11. On the relationship of the earth radiation budget to the variability of atmospheric available potential and kinetic energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randel, David L.; Vonder Haar, Thomas H.

    1990-01-01

    The zonal and eddy kinetics energies and available potential energies are examined for both the Northern and the Southern Hemispheres, using a data set produced by 8 years of continuous simultaneous observations of the circulation parameters and measurements of the earth radiation budget (ERB) from the Nimbus-7 ERB experiment. The relationships between the seasonal cycles in ERB and those of the energetics are obtained, showing that the solar annual cycle accounts for most of the seasonal variability. It was found that the ERB midlatitude gradients of the net balance and the outgoing radiation lead the annual cycle of the energetics by 2-3 weeks.

  12. Quasi-real-time monitoring of SW radiation budget using geostationary satellite for Climate study and Renewable energy. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takenaka, H.; Nakajima, T. Y.; Kuze, H.; Takamura, T.; Pinker, R. T.; Nakajima, T.

    2013-12-01

    Solar radiation is the only source of energy that drives the weather and climate of the Earth's surface. Earth is warmed by incoming solar radiation, and emitted energy to space by terrestrial radiation due to its temperature. It has been kept to the organisms viable environment by the effect of heating and cooling. Clouds can cool the Earth by reflecting solar radiation and also can keep the Earth warm by absorbing and emitting terrestrial radiation. They are important in the energy balance at the Earth surface and the Top of the Atmosphere (TOA) and are connected complicatedly into the Earth system as well as other climate feedback processes. Thus it is important to estimate Earth's radiation budget for better understanding of climate and environmental change. We have shared several topics related to climate change. Energy issues close to the climate change, it is an environmental problems. Photovoltaics is one of the power generation method to converts from solar radiation to electric power directly. It does not emit greenhouse gases during power generation. Similarly, drainage, exhaust, vibration does not emit. PV system can be distributed as a small power supply in urban areas and it can installed to near the power demand points. Also solar thermal is heat generator with high efficiency. Therefor it is an effective energy source that the solar power is expected as one of the mitigation of climate change (IPCC Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation). It is necessary to real-time-monitoring of the surface solar radiation for safety operation of electric power system. We introduce a fusion analysis of renewable energy and Quasi-real-time analysis of SW radiation budget. Sample of estimated PV power mapping using geostationary satellite.

  13. Estimation of SW radiation budget using geostationary satellites and quasi-real-time monitoring of PV power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takenaka, H.; Nakajima, T. Y.; Inoue, T.; Takamura, T.; Pinker, R. T.; Teruyuki, N.

    2012-12-01

    Clouds can cool the Earth by reflecting solar radiation and also can keep the Earth warm by absorbing and emitting terrestrial radiation. They are important in the energy balance at the Earth surface and the Top of the Atmosphere (TOA) and are connected complicatedly into the Earth system as well as other climate feedback processes. Thus it is important to estimate Earth's radiation budget for better understanding of climate and environmental change. In this study, we developed the high speed and accurate algorithm for shortwave (SW) radiation budget and it's applied to five geostationary satellites for global analysis. There are validated by SKYNET and BSRN ground observation data. The analysis results showed a distinctive trend of direct and diffuse component of surface SW fluxes in North Pacific and North Atlantic ocean. Similarly, developed algorithm is applied to quasi-real time analysis synchronous to geostationary satellite observation. It enabled highly accurate monitoring of solar radiation and photo voltaic (PV) power generation. It indicates the possibility of the fusion analysis of climate study and renewable energy.

  14. Validation of the Archived CERES Surface and Atmosphere Radiation Budget (SARB) at SGP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charlock, Thomas P.; Rose, Fred G.; Rutan, David A.

    2003-01-01

    The CERES Surface and Atmosphere Radiation Budget (SARB) product (Charlock et al, 2002) includes the vertical profile of broadband SW, broadband LW, and 8-12 micron window (WN) fluxes; upwelling and downwelling at TOA, 70 hPa, 200 hPa, 500 hPa, and the surface; and for all-sky and clear-sky conditions. We test the archived CERES TRMM record of SARB for January-August 1998 and focus on discrepancies with ground-based measurements at SGP. The CERES SARB is generated by a highly modified Fu-Liou radiative transfer code (Fu and Liou, 1993). The most critical inputs for this application are cloud optical properties (fractional area, optical depth, particle size and phase, height of top, and estimate of geometrical thickness Minnis et al., 2002) from the narrowband VIRS imager. Numerous VIRS pixels (approx. 2km resolution at nadir) are matched to each of the large (approx. 20km) CERES broadband footprints (Wielicki et al, 1996). Other inputs include temperature and humidity from ECMWF (Rabier et al, 1998) , NCEP ozone profiles from SBUV and TOVS (Yang et al, 2001), aerosol optical thickness (AOT) from the Model for Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry (MATCH) aerosol assimilation (Collins et al., 2001) or alternately from the VIRS imager (Ignatov and Stowe, 2000). VIRS AOT is available for clear and partly cloudy ocean footprints during daylight; and only when viewing geometry renders a contribution from sunglint as unlikely. For other footprints, AOT is taken from MATCH. AOT is apportioned into fractions of dust (Tegan and Lacis, 1996), sea salt, sulfate, dust, soluble organic, insoluble organic, and soot (Hess et al., 1996) using the 6-hourly MATCH output. Tuned fluxes are retrieved by adjusting inputs to nudge computed TOA fluxes toward CERES observations (Rose et al, 1997). In clear conditions, the fields of humidity, surface skin temperature, surface albedo and AOT are adjusted to produce a closer match of computed and observed fluxes at TOA. When CERES footprints

  15. A transitioning Arctic surface energy budget: the impacts of solar zenith angle, surface albedo and cloud radiative forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedlar, Joseph; Tjernström, Michael; Mauritsen, Thorsten; Shupe, Matthew D.; Brooks, Ian M.; Persson, P. Ola G.; Birch, Cathryn E.; Leck, Caroline; Sirevaag, Anders; Nicolaus, Marcel

    2011-10-01

    Snow surface and sea-ice energy budgets were measured near 87.5°N during the Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS), from August to early September 2008. Surface temperature indicated four distinct temperature regimes, characterized by varying cloud, thermodynamic and solar properties. An initial warm, melt-season regime was interrupted by a 3-day cold regime where temperatures dropped from near zero to -7°C. Subsequently mean energy budget residuals remained small and near zero for 1 week until once again temperatures dropped rapidly and the energy budget residuals became negative. Energy budget transitions were dominated by the net radiative fluxes, largely controlled by the cloudiness. Variable heat, moisture and cloud distributions were associated with changing air-masses. Surface cloud radiative forcing, the net radiative effect of clouds on the surface relative to clear skies, is estimated. Shortwave cloud forcing ranged between -50 W m-2 and zero and varied significantly with surface albedo, solar zenith angle and cloud liquid water. Longwave cloud forcing was larger and generally ranged between 65 and 85 W m-2, except when the cloud fraction was tenuous or contained little liquid water; thus the net effect of the clouds was to warm the surface. Both cold periods occurred under tenuous, or altogether absent, low-level clouds containing little liquid water, effectively reducing the cloud greenhouse effect. Freeze-up progression was enhanced by a combination of increasing solar zenith angles and surface albedo, while inhibited by a large, positive surface cloud forcing until a new air-mass with considerably less cloudiness advected over the experiment area.

  16. A study of the earth radiation budget using a 3D Monte-Carlo radiative transer code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okata, M.; Nakajima, T.; Sato, Y.; Inoue, T.; Donovan, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the earth's radiation budget when data are available from satellite-borne active sensors, i.e. cloud profiling radar (CPR) and lidar, and a multi-spectral imager (MSI) in the project of the Earth Explorer/EarthCARE mission. For this purpose, we first developed forward and backward 3D Monte Carlo radiative transfer codes that can treat a broadband solar flux calculation including thermal infrared emission calculation by k-distribution parameters of Sekiguchi and Nakajima (2008). In order to construct the 3D cloud field, we tried the following three methods: 1) stochastic cloud generated by randomized optical thickness each layer distribution and regularly-distributed tilted clouds, 2) numerical simulations by a non-hydrostatic model with bin cloud microphysics model and 3) Minimum cloud Information Deviation Profiling Method (MIDPM) as explained later. As for the method-2 (numerical modeling method), we employed numerical simulation results of Californian summer stratus clouds simulated by a non-hydrostatic atmospheric model with a bin-type cloud microphysics model based on the JMA NHM model (Iguchi et al., 2008; Sato et al., 2009, 2012) with horizontal (vertical) grid spacing of 100m (20m) and 300m (20m) in a domain of 30km (x), 30km (y), 1.5km (z) and with a horizontally periodic lateral boundary condition. Two different cell systems were simulated depending on the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration. In the case of horizontal resolution of 100m, regionally averaged cloud optical thickness, , and standard deviation of COT, were 3.0 and 4.3 for pristine case and 8.5 and 7.4 for polluted case, respectively. In the MIDPM method, we first construct a library of pair of observed vertical profiles from active sensors and collocated imager products at the nadir footprint, i.e. spectral imager radiances, cloud optical thickness (COT), effective particle radius (RE) and cloud top temperature (Tc). We then select a

  17. Atlas of albedo and absorbed solar radiation derived from Nimbus 7 earth radiation budget data set, November 1985 to October 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. Louis; Rutan, David; Bess, T. Dale

    1992-01-01

    An atlas of monthly mean global contour maps of albedo and absorbed solar radiation is presented for 21 months from Nov. 1985 to Oct. 1987. These data were retrieved from measurements made by the shortwave wide-field-of-view radiometer of the Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) instrument aboard the Nimbus 7 spacecraft. Profiles of zonal mean albedos and absorbed solar radiation were tabulated. These geographical distributions are provided as a resource for researchers studying the radiation budget of the Earth. The El Nino/Southern Oscillation event of 1986-1987 is included in this data set. This atlas of albedo and absorbed solar radiation extends to 12 years the period covered by two similar atlases: NASA RP-1230 (Jul. 1975 - Oct. 1978) and NASA RP-1231 (Nov. 1978 - Oct. 1985). These three compilations complement the atlases of outgoing longwave radiation by Bess and Smith in NASA RP-1185, RP-1186, and RP-1261, which were also based on the Nimbus 6 and 7 ERB data.

  18. Toward an Improved Understanding of the Tropical Energy Budget Using TRMM-based Atmospheric Radiative Heating Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L'Ecuyer, T.; McGarragh, G.; Ellis, T.; Stephens, G.; Olson, W.; Grecu, M.; Shie, C.; Jiang, X.; Waliser, D.; Li, J.; Tian, B.

    2008-05-01

    It is widely recognized that clouds and precipitation exert a profound influence on the propagation of radiation through the Earth's atmosphere. In fact, feedbacks between clouds, radiation, and precipitation represent one of the most important unresolved factors inhibiting our ability to predict the consequences of global climate change. Since its launch in late 1997, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) has collected more than a decade of rainfall measurements that now form the gold standard of satellite-based precipitation estimates. Although not as widely advertised, the instruments aboard TRMM are also well-suited to the problem of characterizing the distribution of atmospheric heating in the tropics and a series of algorithms have recently been developed for estimating profiles of radiative and latent heating from these measurements. This presentation will describe a new multi-sensor tropical radiative heating product derived primarily from TRMM observations. Extensive evaluation of the products using a combination of ground and satellite-based observations is used to place the dataset in the context of existing techniques for quantifying atmospheric radiative heating. Highlights of several recent applications of the dataset will be presented that illustrate its utility for observation-based analysis of energy and water cycle variability on seasonal to inter-annual timescales and evaluating the representation of these processes in numerical models. Emphasis will be placed on the problem of understanding the impacts of clouds and precipitation on atmospheric heating on large spatial scales, one of the primary benefits of satellite observations like those provided by TRMM.

  19. Heating, moisture, and water budgets of tropical and midlatitude squall lines - Comparisons and sensitivity to longwave radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, W.-K.; Simpson, J.; Sui, C.-H.; Ferrier, B.; Lang, S.; Scala, J.; Chou, M.-D.; Pickering, K.

    1993-01-01

    A 2D time-dependent and nonhydrostatic numerical cloud model is presently used to estimate the heating, moisture, and water budgets in the convective and stratiform regions for both a tropical and a midlatitude squall line. The model encompasses a parameterized, three-class ice phase microphysical scheme and longwave radiative transfer process. It is noted that the convective region plays an important role in the generation of stratiform rainfall for both cases. While a midlevel minimum in the moisture profile for the tropical case is due to vertical eddy transport in the convective region, the contribution to the heating budget by the cloud-scale fluxes is minor; by contrast, the vertical eddy heat-flux is relatively important for the midlatitude case due to the stronger vertical velocities present in the convective cells.

  20. Long-Term Validation and Variability of the Shortwave and Longwave Radiation Data of the GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Taiping; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.; Gupta, Shashi K.; Cox, Stephan J.; Mikovitz, Colleen; Hinkelman, Laura M.

    2006-01-01

    In this investigation, we make systematic Surface Radiation Budget-Baseline Surface Radiation Network (SRB-BSRN), Surface Radiation Data Centre (SRB-WRDC) and Surface Radiation Budget-Global Energy Balance Archive (SRB-GEBA) comparisons for both shortwave and longwave daily and monthly mean radiation fluxes at the Earth's surface. We first have an overview of all the comparable pairs of data in scatter or scatter density plots. Then we show the time series of the SRB data at grids in which there are ground sites where longterm records of data are available for comparison. An overall very good agreement between the SRB data and ground observations is found. To see the variability of the SRB data during the 21.5 years, we computed the global mean and its linear trend. No appreciable trend is detected at the 5% level. The empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) of the SRB deseasonalized shortwave downward flux are computed over the Pacific region, and the first EOF coefficient is found to be correlated with the ENSO Index at a high value of coefficient of 0.7083.

  1. Use of a GCM to Explore Sampling Issues in Connection with Satellite Remote Sensing of the Earth Radiation Budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fowler, Laura D.; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Randall, David A.; Branson, Mark D.; Gibson, Gary G.; Denn, Fredrick M.

    2000-01-01

    Collocated in time and space, top-of-the-atmosphere measurements of the Earth radiation budget (ERB) and cloudiness from passive scanning radiometers, and lidar- and radar-in-space measurements of multilayered cloud systems, are the required combination to improve our understanding of the role of clouds and radiation in climate. Experiments to fly multiple satellites "in formation" to measure simultaneously the radiative and optical properties of overlapping cloud systems are being designed. Because satellites carrying ERB experiments and satellites carrying lidars- or radars-in space have different orbital characteristics, the number of simultaneous measurements of radiation and clouds is reduced relative to the number of measurements made by each satellite independently. Monthly averaged coincident observations of radiation and cloudiness are biased when compared against more frequently sampled observations due, in particular, to the undersampling of their diurnal cycle, Using the Colorado State University General Circulation Model (CSU GCM), the goal of this study is to measure the impact of using simultaneous observations from the Earth Observing System (EOS) platform and companion satellites flying lidars or radars on monthly averaged diagnostics of longwave radiation, cloudiness, and its cloud optical properties. To do so, the hourly varying geographical distributions of coincident locations between the afternoon EOS (EOS-PM) orbit and the orbit of the ICESAT satellite set to fly at the altitude of 600 km, and between the EOS PM orbit and the orbits of the PICASSO satellite proposed to fly at the altitudes of 485 km (PICA485) or 705 km (PICA705), are simulated in the CSU GCM for a 60-month time period starting at the idealistic July 1, 2001, launch date. Monthly averaged diagnostics of the top-of-the-atmosphere, atmospheric, and surface longwave radiation budgets and clouds accumulated over grid boxes corresponding to satellite overpasses are compared against

  2. The modulation of the low-latitude radiation budget by cloud and surface forcing on interannual time scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohn, Byung-Ju; Smith, Eric A.

    1992-01-01

    Regionally confined interannual perturbations in the tropical radiation budget associated with east-west circulations are examined along with the forcing mechanisms of these perturbations in relation to surface and cloudiness variability. A zonal harmonic analysis of emitted longwave radiation emphasizes that these variations are largely controlled at the planetary wave scale. The overall effect leads to an approximately 50 deg/yr propagation phase speed that is considerably slower than the oceanic Kelvin wave capable of driving east-west longwave (LW) anomalies through SST feedback. Examination of the time-dependent radiative energetics over the tropics reveals that the aforementioned anomaly LW propagation is mainly due to cloud forcing associated with east-west circulation changes. Diabatic heating associated with coupled ocean-atmosphere feedback appears to be larger responsible for the LW anomaly propagation.

  3. Effect of cloud cover and surface type on earth's radiation budget derived from the first year of ERBE data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, G. G.; Denn, F. M.; Young, D. F.; Harrison, E. F.; Minnis, P.; Barkstrom, B. R.

    1990-01-01

    One year of ERBE data is analyzed for variations in outgoing LW and absorbed solar flux. Differences in land and ocean radiation budgets as well as differences between clear-sky and total scenes, including clouds, are studied. The variation of monthly average radiative parameters is examined for February 1985 through January 1986 for selected study regions and on zonal and global scales. ERBE results show significant seasonal variations in both outgoing LW and absorbed SW flux, and a pronounced difference between oceanic and continental surfaces. The main factors determining cloud radiative forcing in a given region are solar insolation, cloud amount, cloud type, and surface properties. The strongest effects of clouds are found in the midlatitude storm tracks over the oceans. Over much of the globe, LW warming is balanced by SW cooling. The annual-global average net cloud forcing shows that clouds have a net cooling effect on the earth for the year.

  4. Global Observations of Aerosols and Clouds from Combined Lidar and Passive Instruments to Improve Radiation Budget and Climate Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winker, David M.

    1999-01-01

    Current uncertainties in the effects of clouds and aerosols on the Earth radiation budget limit our understanding of the climate system and the potential for global climate change. Pathfinder Instruments for Cloud and Aerosol Spaceborne Observations - Climatologie Etendue des Nuages et des Aerosols (PICASSO-CENA) is a recently approved satellite mission within NASA's Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) program which will address these uncertainties with a unique suite of active and passive instruments. The Lidar In-space Technology Experiment (LITE) demonstrated the potential benefits of space lidar for studies of clouds and aerosols. PICASSO-CENA builds on this experience with a payload consisting of a two-wavelength polarization-sensitive lidar, an oxygen A-band spectrometer (ABS), an imaging infrared radiometer (IIR), and a wide field camera (WFC). Data from these instruments will be used to measure the vertical distributions of aerosols and clouds in the atmosphere, as well as optical and physical properties of aerosols and clouds which influence the Earth radiation budget. PICASSO-CENA will be flown in formation with the PM satellite of the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) to provide a comprehensive suite of coincident measurements of atmospheric state, aerosol and cloud optical properties, and radiative fluxes. The mission will address critical uncertainties iin the direct radiative forcing of aerosols and clouds as well as aerosol influences on cloud radiative properties and cloud-climate radiation feedbacks. PICASSO-CENA is planned for a three year mission, with a launch in early 2003. PICASSO-CENA is being developed within the framework of a collaboration between NASA and CNES.

  5. The direct effect of aerosols on the radiation budget and climate of the Earth-atmosphere system: its variability in space and time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzianastassiou, N.

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosols, these tiny particles suspended in the air, play a very important role for the Earth-atmosphere climate system on both global and regional scales through various mechanisms and physical processes. The climatic effects of aerosols are determined by modifications they induce on the various components of the Earth's radiation budget. Despite the progress that has been made lately, there is still much to learn about the climatic role of aerosols in various aspects. One of the most important issues that has to be addressed is the spatial and temporal variability, especially the temporal variability of aerosol properties and their consequent radiative effects. For example, there is uncertainty with regard to aerosol radiative properties and whether or not aerosol loads are increasing or decreasing with time, and what the consequences are. Moreover, the extent to which aerosols cool or warm the planet is not clear, as well as the contribution to this cooling/warming by aerosols of natural and anthropogenic origin. Given that the aerosol radiative effects, especially on radiation reaching the Earth's surface and in the atmosphere, cannot be directly measured/observed, models are necessary to overcome this problem. Specifically, radiative transfer models (RTMs) are able to calculate the radiation fluxes within the entire Earth-atmosphere system from regional to planetary scale, and the flux changes caused by aerosols. Yet, what is more interesting for models is that they allow us to study in detail the space and time resolved aerosol radiative effects and their sensitivity to various physical parameters. Using RTMs the aerosol direct effect on solar radiation can be determined at the top of the atmosphere (DRETOA) in the atmosphere (DREatm) and at the Earth's surface (DREsurf). Using a detailed radiative transfer model together with climatological input data for surface and atmospheric variables, the direct radiative effects of aerosols (DREs) were

  6. Evaluation of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) shortwave channel's stability using in-flight calibration sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Michael A.; Lee, Robert B., III; Thomas, Susan

    1992-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) radiometers were designed to make absolute measurements of the incoming solar, earth-reflected solar, and earth-emitted fluxes for investigations of the earth's climate system. Thermistor bolometers were the sensors used for the ERBE scanning radiometric package. Each thermistor bolometer package consisted of three narrow field of view broadband radiometric channels measuring shortwave, longwave, and total (0.2 micron to 50 microns) radiation. The in-flight calibration facilities include Mirror Attenuator Mosaics, shortwave internal calibration source, and internal blackbody sources to monitor the long-term responsivity of the radiometers. This paper describes the in-flight calibration facilities, the calibration data reduction techniques, and the results from the in-flight shortwave channel calibrations. The results indicate that the ERBE shortwave detectors were stable to within +/- 1 percent for up to five years of flight operation.

  7. Summary of along-track data from the earth radiation budget satellite for several representative ocean regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, David R.; Fenn, Marta A.

    1988-01-01

    For several days in January and August 1985, the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite, a component of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), was operated in an along-track scanning mode. A survey of radiance measurements taken in this mode is given for five ocean regions: the north and south Atlantic, the Arabian Sea, the western Pacific north of the Equator, and part of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. Each overflight contains information about the clear scene and three cloud categories: partly cloudy, mostly cloudy, and overcast. The data presented include the variation of longwave and shortwave radiance in each scene classification as a function of viewing zenity angle during each overflight of one of the five target regions. Several features of interest in the development of anisotropic models are evident, including the azimuthal dependence of shortwave radiance that is an essential feature of shortwave bidirectional models. The data also demonstrate that the scene classification algorithm employed by the ERBE results in scene classifications that are a function of viewing geometry.

  8. Summary of along-track data from the Earth radiation budget satellite for several major desert regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, David R.; Fenn, Marta A.

    1988-01-01

    For several days in January and August 1985, the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite, a component of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), was operated in an along-track scanning mode. A survey of radiance measurements is given for four desert areas in Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Australia, and the Sahel region of Africa. Each overflight provides radiance information for four scene categories: clear, partly cloudy, mostly cloudy, and overcast. The data presented include the variation of radiance in each scene classification as a function of viewing zenith angle during each overflight of the five target areas. Several features of interest in the development of anisotropic models are evident, including day-night differences in longwave limb darkening and the azimuthal dependence of short wave radiance. There is some evidence that surface features may introduce thermal or visible shadowing that is not incorporated in the usual descriptions of the anisotropic behavior of radiance as viewed from space. The data also demonstrate that the ERBE scene classification algorithms give results that, at least for desert surfaces, are a function of viewing geometry.

  9. Some characteristic differences in the earth's radiation budget over land and ocean derived from the Nimbus-7 ERB experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyle, H. L.; Vasanth, K. L.

    1986-01-01

    Broad spectral band data derived from the Nimbus-7 Earth Radiation Budget experiment are analyzed for the top-of-the-atmosphere noon vs. midnight variations in the exitant longwave flux density, spectral variations in the regional albedos, and differences in land and ocean net radiation budgets. The data were studied for a year (June 1979 to May 1980) on a global scale and for five selected study areas. The annual global total, near-UV visible, and near-IR albedo values, obtained were 30.2, 34.6, and 25.9, respectively, with marked differences in behavior between oceanic and continental regions. Over the continents, clouds and snow sharply decreased the near-IR albedo. The over-the-continent noon-emitted flux density averages were 15-25 W/sq m larger than the midnight values, with large regional and seasonal variations. Over the oceans, the average noon and midnight outgoing longwave-flux densities were nearly identical, with regional aqnd seasonal differences of several watts per square meter.

  10. Modelling canopy radiation budget through multiple scattering approximation: a case study of coniferous forest in Mexico City Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silván-Cárdenas, Jose L.; Corona-Romero, Nirani

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we describe some results from a study on hyperspectral analysis of coniferous canopy scattering for the purpose of estimating forest biophysical and structural parameters. Georeferenced airborne hyperspectral measurements were taken from a flying helicopter over a coniferous forest dominated by Pinus hartweguii and Abies religiosa within the Federal District Conservation Land in Mexico City. Hyperspectral data was recorded in the optical range from 350 to 2500 nm at 1nm spectral resolution using the FieldSpec 4 (ASD Inc.). Spectral measurements were also carried out in the ground for vegetation and understory components, including leaf, bark, soil and grass. Measurements were then analyzed through a previously developed multiple scattering approximation (MSA) model, which represents above-canopy spectral reflectance through a non-linear combination of pure spectral components (endmembers), as well as through a set of photon recollision probabilities and interceptance fractions. In this paper we provide an expression for the canopy absorptance as the basis for estimating the components of canopy radiation budget using the MSA model. Furthermore, since MSA does not prescribe a priori the endmembers to incorporate in the model, a multiple endmember selection method (MESMSA) was developed and tested. Photon recollision probabilities and interceptance fractions were estimated by fitting the model to airborne spectral reflectance and selected endmembers where then used to estimate the canopy radiation budget at each measured location.

  11. The 1985 Biomass Burning Season in South America: Satellite Remote Sensing of Fires, Smoke, and Regional Radiative Energy Budgets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christopher, Sundar A.; Wang, Min; Berendes, Todd A.; Welch, Ronald M.; Yang, Shi-Keng

    1998-01-01

    Using satellite imagery, more than five million square kilometers of the forest and cerrado regions over South America are extensively studied to monitor fires and smoke during the 1985 biomass burning season. The results are characterized for four major ecosystems, namely: (1) tropical rain forest, (2) tropical broadleaf seasonal, (3) savannah/grass and seasonal woods (SGW), and (4) mild/warm/hot grass/shrub (MGS). The spatial and temporal distribution of fires are examined from two different methods using the multispectral Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Local Area Coverage data. Using collocated measurements from the instantaneous scanner Earth Radiation Budget Experiment data, the direct regional radiative forcing of biomass burning aerosols is computed. The results show that more than 70% of the fires occur in the MGS and SGW ecosystems due to agricultural practices. The smoke generated from biomass burning has negative instantaneous net radiative forcing values for all four major ecosystems within South America. The smoke found directly over the fires has mean net radiative forcing values ranging from -25.6 to -33.9 W m(exp -2). These results confirm that the regional net radiative impact of biomass burning is one of cooling. The spectral and broadband properties for clear-sky and smoke regions are also presented that could be used as input and/or validation for other studies attempting to model the impact of aerosols on the earth-atmosphere system. These results have important applications for future instruments from the Earth Observing System (EOS) program. Specifically, the combination of the Visible Infrared Scanner and Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission and the combination of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer and CERES instruments from the EOS morning crossing mission could provide reliable estimates of the direct radiative forcing of aerosols on a global scale

  12. Improvement in Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System/Surface and Atmosphere Radiation Budget Dust Aerosol Properties, Effects on Surface Validation of Clouds and Radiative Swath

    SciTech Connect

    Rutan, D.; Rose, F.; Charlock, T.P.

    2005-03-18

    Within the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) science team (Wielicki et al. 1996), the Surface and Atmospheric Radiation Budget (SARB) group is tasked with calculating vertical profiles of heating rates, globally, and continuously, beneath CERES footprint observations of Top of Atmosphere (TOA) fluxes. This is accomplished using a fast radiative transfer code originally developed by Qiang Fu and Kuo-Nan Liou (Fu and Liou 1993) and subsequently highly modified by the SARB team. Details on the code and its inputs can be found in Kato et al. (2005) and Rose and Charlock (2002). Among the many required inputs is characterization of the vertical column profile of aerosols beneath each footprint. To do this SARB combines aerosol optical depth information from the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument along with aerosol constituents specified by the Model for Atmosphere and Chemical Transport (MATCH) of Collins et al. (2001), and aerosol properties (e.g. single scatter albedo and asymmetry parameter) from Tegen and Lacis (1996) and OPAC (Hess et al. 1998). The publicly available files that include these flux profiles, called the Clouds and Radiative Swath (CRS) data product, available from the Langley Atmospheric Sciences Data Center (http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/). As various versions of the code are completed, publishable results are named ''Editions.'' After CRS Edition 2A was finalized it was found that dust aerosols were too absorptive. Dust aerosols have subsequently been modified using a new set of properties developed by Andy Lacis and results have been released in CRS Edition 2B. This paper discusses the effects of changing desert dust aerosol properties, which can be significant for the radiation budget in mid ocean, a few thousand kilometers from the source regions. Resulting changes are validated via comparison of surface observed fluxes from the Saudi Solar Village surface site (Myers et al. 1999), and the E13 site

  13. Global model simulations of the impact of ocean-going ships on aerosols, clouds, and the radiation budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauer, A.; Eyring, V.; Hendricks, J.; Jöckel, P.; Lohmann, U.

    2007-07-01

    International shipping contributes significantly to the fuel consumption of all transport related activities. Specific emissions of pollutants such as sulfur dioxide (SO2) per kg of fuel emitted are higher than for road transport or aviation. Besides gaseous pollutants, ships also emit various types of particulate matter. The aerosol impacts the Earth's radiation budget directly by scattering and absorbing incoming solar radiation and indirectly by changing cloud properties. Here we use ECHAM5/MESSy1-MADE, a global climate model with detailed aerosol and cloud microphysics, to show that emissions from ships significantly increase the cloud droplet number concentration of low maritime water clouds. Whereas the cloud liquid water content remains nearly unchanged in these simulations, effective radii of cloud droplets decrease, leading to cloud optical thickness increase up to 5-10%. The sensitivity of the results is estimated by using three different emission inventories for present day conditions. The sensitivity analysis reveals that shipping contributes with 2.3% to 3.6% to the total sulfate burden and 0.4% to 1.4% to the total black carbon burden in the year 2000. In addition to changes in aerosol chemical composition, shipping increases the aerosol number concentration, e.g. up to 25% in the size range of the accumulation mode (typically >0.1 μm) over the Atlantic. The total aerosol optical thickness over the Indian Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico and the Northeastern Pacific increases up to 8-10% depending on the emission inventory. Changes in aerosol optical thickness caused by the shipping induced modification of aerosol particle number concentration and chemical composition lead to a change of the net top of the atmosphere (ToA) clear sky radiation of about -0.013 W/m2 to -0.036 W/m2 on global annual average. The estimated all-sky direct aerosol effect calculated from these changes ranges between -0.009 W/m2 and -0.014 W/m2. The indirect aerosol effect of ships

  14. A detailed evaluation of the stratospheric heat budget: 2. Global radiation balance and diabatic circulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlynczak, Martin G.; Mertens, Christopher J.; Garcia, Rolando R.; Portmann, Robert W.

    1999-03-01

    We present a detailed evaluation of radiative heating, radiative cooling, net heating, global radiation balance, radiative relaxation times, and diabatic circulations in the stratosphere using temperature and minor constituent data provided by instruments on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) between 1991 and 1993 and by the limb infrared monitor of the stratosphere (LIMS) instrument which operated on the Nimbus-7 spacecraft in 1978-1979. Included in the calculations are heating due to absorption of solar radiation from ultraviolet through near-infrared wavelengths and radiative cooling due to emission by carbon dioxide, water vapor, and ozone from 0 to 3000 cm-1 (∞ - 3.3 μm). Infrared radiative effects of Pinatubo aerosols are also considered in some detail. In general, we find the stratosphere to be in a state of global mean radiative equilibrium on monthly timescales to within the uncertainty of the satellite-provided measurements. Radiative relaxation times are found to be larger in the lower stratosphere during UARS than LIMS because of the presence of Pinatubo aerosols. The meridional circulations in the upper stratosphere as diagnosed from the calculated fields of net heating are generally stronger in the UARS period than during the LIMS period, while the lower stratosphere meridional circulations are stronger during the LIMS period. A climatology of these calculations is available to the community via a World Wide Web interface described herein.

  15. Atlas of wide-field-of-view outgoing longwave radiation derived from Nimbus 6 Earth radiation budget data set, July 1975 to June 1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bess, T. Dale; Smith, G. Louis

    1987-01-01

    An atlas of monthly mean outgoing longwave radiation global contour maps and associated spherical harmonic coefficients is presented. The atlas contains 36 months of continuous data from July 1975 to June 1978. The data were derived from the first Earth radiation budget experiment, which was flown on the Nimbus-6 Sun-synchronous satellite in 1975. Only the wide-field-of-view longwave measurements are cataloged in this atlas. The contour maps along with the associated sets of spherical harmonic coefficients form a valuable data set for studying different aspects of our changing climate over monthly, annual, and interannual scales in the time domain, and over regional, zonal, and global scales in the spatial domain.

  16. Atlas of wide-field-of-view outgoing longwave radiation derived from Nimbus 7 Earth radiation budget data set - November 1978 to October 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bess, T. Dale; Smith, G. Louis

    1987-01-01

    An atlas of monthly mean outgoing longwave radiation global contour maps and associated spherical harmonic coefficients is presented. The atlas contains 84 months of continuous data from November 1978 to October 1985. The data were derived from the second Earth radiation budget experiment, which was flown on the Nimbus 7 Sun-synchronous satellite in 1978. This data set is a companion set and extension to a similar report of the Nimbus 6 satellite. Together these two reports give a data set covering a 10 year time period and will be very valuable in studying different aspects of our changing climate over monthly, annual, and interannual scales in the time domain and over regional, zonal, and global scales in the spatial domain.

  17. The effect of clouds on the earth's solar and infrared radiation budgets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, G. F.; Wu, M.-L. C.; Johnson, W. T.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of global cloudiness on the solar and infrared components of the earth's radiation balance is studied in general circulation model experiments. A wintertime simulation is conducted in which the cloud radiative transfer calculations use realistic cloud optical properties and are fully interactive with model-generated cloudiness. This simulation is compared to others in which the clouds are alternatively non-interactive with respect to the solar or thermal radiation calculations. Other cloud processes (formation, latent heat release, precipitation, vertical mixing) were accurately simulated in these experiments. It is concluded that on a global basis clouds increase the global radiation balance by 40 W/sq m by absorbing longwave radiation, but decrease it by 56 W/sq m by reflecting solar radiation to space. The net cloud effect is therefore a reduction of the radiation balance by 16 W/sq m, and is dominated by the cloud albedo effect. Changes in cloud frequency and distribution and in atmospheric and land temperatures are also reported for the control and for the non-interactive simulations. In general, removal of the clouds' infrared absorption cools the atmosphere and causes additional cloudiness to occur, while removal of the clouds' solar radiative properties warms the atmosphere and causes fewer clouds to form. It is suggested that layered clouds and convective clouds over water enter the climate system as positive feedback components, while convective clouds over land enter as negative components.

  18. Validation of monthly surface solar radiation over Europe derived from the CM SAF dataset against homogenized GEBA series (1983-2005)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo; Trentmann, Joerg; Wild, Martin

    2013-05-01

    This work presents a validation of the solar surface radiation (SSR) derived from the Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF) over Europe for a 23-years period of records on monthly basis. The derived SSR is based on the visible channel of the Meteosat First Generation satellites, providing a dataset with a high spatial resolution (0.03° × 0.03°) covering the 1983-2005 period. The CM SAF SSR dataset is compared against 47 of the longterm SSR monthly series recently homogenized from the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) over Europe. The results show an excellent agreement between both datasets (r = 0.93, p < 0.01), with only a slight overestimation (bias of +5.20 Wm-2) of the CM SAF records as compared to the surface observations. Equally, there is a mean absolute bias (MAB) of 8.19 Wm-2 that is below the accuracy threshold defined by the CM SAF. There is a clear maximum and minimum MAB during the summer and winter, respectively, with an opposite cycle if the relative MAB values are considered.

  19. Tropical Trends in Surface Radiation Budgets in the Context of Global Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinker, Rachel T.; Zhang, Banglin; Ma, Yingtao

    2016-04-01

    For assessment of variability and trends in the Earth Radiation Balance, information is needed at climatic time scales. Satellite observations have been instrumental for advancing the understanding of radiative balance at global scale, however, the length of available satellite records is limited due to the frequent changes in the observing systems. In this paper we report on an effort to synthesize satellite observations from independent sources to estimates shortwave and longwave surface radiative fluxes at climatic time scales and use them to learn about their variability and trends with a focus on the tropics. From a comparison with similar global trends an attempt will be made to learn about possible causes of what is observed. The radiative fluxes were derived in the framework of the MEaSURES and NEWS programs; they are evaluated against ground observations and compared to independent satellite and model estimates. Attention is given to updates of knowledge on the radiative balance as compared to what is known from shorter time records.

  20. Surface radiation budget in the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) effort and in the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charlock, Thomas P.; Smith, G. L.; Rose, Fred G.

    1990-01-01

    The surface radiation budget (SRB) and the atmospheric radiative flux divergence (ARD) are vital components of the weather and climate system. The importance of radiation in a complex international scientific endeavor, the GEWEX of the World Climate Research Programme is explained. The radiative transfer techniques and satellite instrumentation that will be used to retrieve the SRB and ARD later in this decade with the CERES are discussed; CERES is a component of the Earth Observing System satellite program. Examples of consistent SRB and ARD retrievals made with Nimbus-7 and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project data from July 1983 are presented.

  1. Radiometer offsets and count conversion coefficients for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) spacecraft for the years 1984, 1985, and 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Shivakumar, Netra D.; Stassi, Joseph C.; Wilson, Robert; Bolden, William; Thomas, Susan; Gibson, M. Alan

    1991-01-01

    A compendium is presented of the ground and inflight scanner and nonscanner offsets and count conversion (gain) coefficients used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) production processing of data from the ERBS, NOAA-9, and NOAA-10 satellites for the 1 Nov. 1984 to 31 Dec. 1986.

  2. Orbital measurements of the Earth's radiation budget during the first decade of the space program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandeen, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    The instrumentation and data analysis methods applied to data from the Explorer 7, TIROS 2, 3, 4, and 7, and Nimbus 2 and 3 experimental satellites are summarized. Problems encountered in analyzing these data included: determining the value of the solar constant, inaccuracies introduced by degradation of the sensors in orbit, the need to infer the total reflected and emitted radiation from filtered measurements, the development of corrections for anisotropy in order to determine the outgoing flux densities at the moment of measurement, and the development of corrections to account for diurnal variability. The corrections for long- and shortwave anisotropy and historical determinations of the solar constant and albedo are treated in detail. These early measurements indicated that the planetary albedo was lower, the emitted radiation higher, and the equator-to-pole gradient of net radiation greater than previously supposed.

  3. Longwave radiation budget parameters computed from ISCCP and HIRS2/MSU products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Man L. C.; Chang, Lang-Ping

    1992-01-01

    The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) retrieved cloud fields and the high-resolution radiation sounder 2 (HIRS2) retrieved cloud fields yield similar outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) due to the cancelation effect of cloud-top altitudes and cloud amount on OLR. For the large regional discrepancies of the order of 30 W/sq m found over northern Africa are largely due to surface temperature differences, and extensive discrepancies over the ocean are due to humidity differences. Harmonic analysis is applied to OLR, clear-sky OLR, and cloud-radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere using the ISCCP products. The diurnal variations of these parameters from 60 deg S to 60 deg N are larger over land than over the ocean. The clear-sky OLR peaks around 1500 LST, usually over land areas, and is associated with the surface/air temperature maximum. The OLR over cloudy regions shows a similar diurnal phase as the cloud top pressure. The cloud radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere has maximum value near 2100 LST mountain areas and near 0000 and 0300 LST over equatorial regions. The ISCCP-computed longwave cloud radiative forcing has smaller diurnal variations over the ocean than the HIRS2-computed longwave cloud radiative forcing. The global mean bias of OLR is around 0.74 W/sq m, and locally, the bias can be as large as 5 to 10 W/sq m. This appears to indicate that the twice-a-day measurements of the HIRS2/MSU (around 0315 and 1515 LST, which are the equatorial cross times at nadir track) can be used to derive monthly mean OLR without significant bias.

  4. Effects of aerosol from biomass burning on the global radiation budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penner, Joyce E.; Dickinson, Robert E.; O'Neill, Christine A.

    1992-01-01

    An analysis is made of the likely contribution of smoke particles from biomass burning to the global radiation balance. These particles act to reflect solar radiation directly; they also can act as cloud condensation nuclei, increasing the reflectivity of clouds. Together these effects, although uncertain, may add up globally to a cooling effect as large as 2 watts per square meter, comparable to the estimated contribution to sulfate aerosols. Anthropogenic increases of smoke emission thus may have helped weaken the net greenhouse warming from anthropogenic trace gases.

  5. The NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget: Integrated Data Product With Reprocessed Radiance, Cloud, and Meteorology Inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stackhouse, P. W.; Gupta, S. K.; Cox, S. J.; Mikovitz, J. C.; Zhang, T.

    2015-12-01

    The NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) project produces shortwave and longwave surface and top of atmosphere radiative fluxes for the 1983-near present time period. Spatial resolution is 1 degree. The current release 3.0 (available at gewex-srb.larc.nasa.gov) uses the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) DX product for pixel level radiance and cloud information. This product is subsampled to 30 km. ISCCP is currently recalibrating and recomputing their entire data series, to be released as the H product, at 10km resolution. The ninefold increase in pixel number will allow SRB a higher resolution gridded product (e.g. 0.5 degree), as well as the production of pixel-level fluxes. Other key input improvements include a detailed aerosol history using the Max Planck Institut Aerosol Climatology (MAC), temperature and moisture profiles from HIRS, and new topography, surface type, and snow/ice. At the time of abstract submission, results from the year 2007 have been produced. More years will be added as ISCCP reprocessing occurs. Here we present results for the improved GEWEX Shortwave and Longwave algorithm (GSW and GLW) with new ISCCP data, the various other improved input data sets and the incorporation of many additional internal SRB model improvements. Improvements in GSW include an expansion of the number of wavelength bands from five to eighteen, and the inclusion of ice cloud vs. water cloud radiative transfer. The SRB data produced will be released as part of the Release 4.0 Integrated Product, recognizing the interdependence of the radiative fluxes with other GEWEX products providing estimates of the Earth's global water and energy cycle (I.e., ISCCP, SeaFlux, LandFlux, NVAP, etc.).

  6. Changes in radiative forcing in Amazonia: the influence of clouds and aerosols controlling carbon budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artaxo, Paulo

    2016-07-01

    Surface radiation fluxes are critically important in photosynthetic processes that controls carbon assimilation and losses in tropical forests. Clouds and aerosols control the surface radiation fluxes in Amazonia, and the ratio of diffuse and direct radiation directly affects photosynthetic plant processes. Biomass burning emissions changes the atmosphere aerosol loading. The background aerosol optical thickness in wet season Amazonia is about 0.1 at 550 nm, while during the dry season AOT can reach values as high as 3-4 over large areas. The increase in diffuse radiation significantly enhance photosynthesis. Remote sensing measurements using MODIS and AERONET were used to measure the large scale aerosol distribution over Amazonia, and LBA flux towers provided the carbon balance over several sites. The enhancement in carbon uptake for AOD between 0.1 and 1 can reach 45%. For AOD above 1, the reduction in the direct flux starts to dominate and a strong reduction in carbon uptake is observed. Cloud cover also has a huge impact on carbon balance in Amazonia, but it is more difficult to quantify. These effects controls carbon balance in Amazonia.

  7. Development and Implementation of a Comprehensive Radiometric Validation Protocol for the CERES Earth Radiation Budget Climate Record Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priestley, K. J.; Matthews, G.; Thomas, S.

    2006-01-01

    The CERES Flight Models 1 through 4 instruments were launched aboard NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua Spacecraft into 705 Km sun-synchronous orbits with 10:30 a.m. and 1:30 p.m. equatorial crossing times. These instruments supplement measurements made by the CERES Proto Flight Model (PFM) instrument launched aboard NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) into a 350 Km, 38-degree mid-inclined orbit. CERES Climate Data Records consist of geolocated and calibrated instantaneous filtered and unfiltered radiances through temporally and spatially averaged TOA, Surface and Atmospheric fluxes. CERES filtered radiance measurements cover three spectral bands including shortwave (0.3 to 5 microns), total (0.3 to 100 microns) and an atmospheric window channel (8 to 12 microns). The CERES Earth Radiation Budget measurements represent a new era in radiation climate data, realizing a factor of 2 to 4 improvement in calibration accuracy and stability over the previous ERBE climate records, while striving for the next goal of 0.3-percent per decade absolute stability. The current improvement is derived from two sources: the incorporation of lessons learned from the ERBE mission in the design of the CERES instruments and the development of a rigorous and comprehensive radiometric validation protocol consisting of individual studies covering different spatial, spectral and temporal time scales on data collected both pre and post launch. Once this ensemble of individual perspectives is collected and organized, a cohesive and highly rigorous picture of the overall end-to-end performance of the CERES instrument's and data processing algorithms may be clearly established. This approach has resulted in unprecedented levels of accuracy for radiation budget instruments and data products with calibration stability of better than 0.2-percent and calibration traceability from ground to flight of 0.25-percent. The current work summarizes the development, philosophy

  8. Shortwave surface radiation budget network for observing small-scale cloud inhomogeneity fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhavan, B. L.; Kalisch, J.; Macke, A.

    2015-03-01

    As part of the High Definition Clouds and Precipitation for advancing Climate Prediction Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE), a high spatial density network of 99 silicon photodiode pyranometers was set up around Jülich (10 km x 12 km area) from April to July 2013, to capture the variability in the radiation field at the surface induced by small-scale cloud inhomogeneity. Each of these autonomously operated pyranometer stations was equipped with weather sensors for simultaneous measurements of ambient air temperature and relative humidity. In this paper, we provide the details of this unique setup of the pyranometer network and the data analysis with initial quality screening procedure we adopted. We also present some exemplary cases consisting of the days with clear, broken cloudy and overcast skies to assess our spatio-temporal observations from the network, and validate their consistency with other collocated radiation measurements available during the HOPE period.

  9. The radiation budget of a Cirrus layer deduced from simultaneous aircraft observations and model calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackerman, Thomas P.; Kinne, Stefan A.; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Valero, Francisco P. J.

    1990-01-01

    Several aircraft were employed during the FIRE Cirrus IFO in order to make nearly simultaneous observations of cloud properties and fluxes. A segment of the flight data collected on 28 October 1988 during which the NASA Ames ER-2 overflew the NCAR King Air was analyzed. The ER-2 flew at high altitude making observations of visible and infrared radiances and infrared flux and cloud height and thickness. During this segment, the King Air flew just above the cloud base making observations of ice crystal size and shape, local meteorological variables, and infrared fluxes. While the two aircraft did not collect data exactly coincident in space and time, they did make observations within a few minutes of each other. For this case study, the infrared radiation balance of the cirrus layer is of primary concern. Observations of the upwelling 10 micron radiance, made from the ER-2, can be used to deduce the 10 micron optical depth of the layer. The upwelling broadband infrared flux is also measured from the ER-2. At the same time, the upwelling and downwelling infrared flux at the cloud base is obtained from the King Air measurements. Information on cloud microphysics is also available from the King Air. Using this data in conjunction with atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles from local radiosondes, the necessary inputs for an infrared radiative transfer model can be developed. Infrared radiative transfer calculations are performed with a multispectral two-stream model. The model fluxes at the cloud base and at 19 km are then compared with the aircraft observations to determine whether the model is performing well. Cloud layer heating rates can then be computed from the radiation exchange.

  10. Earth's Radiation Budget Variability During 2015 El Nino From CERES FLASHFlux and EBAF Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawaengphokhai, P.; Stackhouse, P. W.; Kratz, D. P.; Gupta, S. K.; Wilber, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Fast Longwave And SHortwave Radiative Fluxes (FLASHFlux) data products were introduced at the NASA Langley Research Center to address the need of the agricultural, renewable energy management, and science communities for global surface and top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes on a near real-time basis. This has been accomplished by enhancing the speed of CERES processing using simplified calibration and averaging techniques and fast radiation parameterizations to produce fluxes within a week of real-time. While the resulting products are not considered to be sufficiently accurate for studying long-term climate trends, they satisfy the needs for many near real-time scientific data analyses and societal applications. One of the uses of FLASHFlux data is for the evaluation of flux variability and extremes relative to climatological means. Normalizing FLASHFlux TOA fluxes with CERES Energy Balance And Filled (EBAF) TOA fluxes on a global scale, we are able to provide one-year flux change and flux anomalies relative to the EBAF TOA climatology for the "State of the Climate" report (published annually as a BAMS supplement). In this presentation, we extend our analysis to assess the seasonal variability and extremes for most of the year 2015 on a 1-degree regional scale. We also highlight the differences between FLASHFlux surface fluxes compared to the Surface EBAF flux products and assess the feasibility of normalizing the FLASHFLux surface fluxes to surface EBAF to provide surface flux anomalies on a regional scale. Using these anomalies for the TOA and possibly surface fluxes, we assess the radiative flux anomalies of the currently evolving 2015 El Nino on global and regional scales.

  11. Influence of penetrating solar radiation on the heat budget of the equatorial Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Marlon R.; Carr, Mary-Elena; Feldman, Gene C.; Esaias, Wayne; Mcclain, Chuck

    1990-01-01

    Recent satellite observations of ocean transparency, coupled with climatological surface heat fluxes and ocean density profiles, are used here to show that solar radiation in visible frequencies, usually assumed to be absorbed at the sea surface, in fact penetrates to a significant degree to below the upper mixed layer of the ocean which interacts actively with the atmosphere. The net effect is a reduction of the heat input into the upper layer; for a 20 m-thick mixed layer this is equivalent to an annual reduction in temperature of about 5-10 K. The results provide a natural explanation for the discrepancy between the SSTs predicted by models and those observed.

  12. Calculation of TIR Canopy Hot Spot and Implications for Earth Radiation Budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. A.; Ballard, J. R., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Using a 3-D model for thermal infrared exitance and the Lowtran 7 atmospheric radiative transfer model, we compute the variation in brightness temperature with view direction and, in particular, the canopy thermal hot spot. We then perform a sensitivity analysis of surface energy balance components for a nominal case using a simple SVAT model given the uncertainty in canopy temperature arising from the thermal hot spot effect. Canopy thermal hot spot variations of two degrees C lead to differences of plus or minus 24% in the midday available energy.

  13. SUMO: solar ultraviolet monitor and ozone nanosatellite for spectral irradiance, ozone and Earth radiative budget simultaneous evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damé, Luc

    SUMO is an innovative proof-of-concept nano-satellite which aims to measure on the same platform the different components of the Earth radiation budget, the solar energy input and the energy reemitted at the top of the Earth atmosphere, with a particular focus on the UV part of the spectrum and on the ozone layer, which are the most sensitive to the solar variability. The far UV (FUV) is the only wavelength band with energy absorbed in the high atmosphere (stratosphere), in the ozone (Herzberg continuum, 200-220 nm) and oxygen bands, and its high variability is most probably at the origin of a climate influence (UV affects stratospheric dynamics and temperatures, altering interplanetary waves and weather patterns both poleward and downward to the lower stratosphere and tropopause regions). Recent measurements at the time of the last solar minimum suggest that variations in the UV may be larger than previously assumed what implies a very different response in both stratospheric ozone and temperature. A simultaneous observation of the incoming FUV and of the ozone (O _{3}) production, would bring an invaluable information on this process of solar-climat forcing. Space instruments have already measured the different components of the Earth radiative budget but this is, to our knowledge, the first time that all instruments are operated on the same platform. This characteristic guarantees by itself obtaining original scientific results. SUMO is a 10x10x30 cm (3) nanosatellite (``3U"), the payload occupying ``1U", i.e. a cube of 10x10x10 cm (3) for 1 kg and 1 W of power. Orbit is polar since a further challenge in understanding the relation between solar UV variability and stratospheric ozone on arctic and antarctic regions. SUMO definition has been completed (platform and payload assembly integration and tests are possible in 24 months) and it is now intended to be proposed to CNES for a flight in 2017. Mission is expected to last up to 1 year. Follow-up is 2 fold: on

  14. Analysis of the radiative budget of Venus atmosphere based on infrared Net Exchange Rate formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebonnois, S.; Eymet, V.; Lee, C.; Vatant d'Ollone, J.

    2015-10-01

    The thick cloud cover present in the atmosphere of Venus between roughly 47 and 70 km of altitude plays a crucial role in the radiative balance of this system,by reflecting more than 75 % of the incoming solar flux back to space, absorbing half of the remaining flux, and being also optically thick over most of the infrared spectral range. The temperature profile of the atmosphere of Venus is characterized by a very hot troposphere from the surface (˜735 K) to roughly 60 km altitude, in the middle clouds. The strong greenhouse effect is provided by the 92 bars of CO2 that is the main constituent of the atmosphere and by the thick cloud layer.

  15. Consistency of Earth Radiation Budget Experiment bidirectional models and the observed anisotropy of reflected sunlight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Daniel G.; Coakley, James A., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The anisotropy of the radiance field estimated from bidirectional models derived from Nimbus 7 ERB scanner data is compared with the anisotropy observed with the ERB Experiment (ERBE) scanner aboard the ERB satellite. The results of averaging over groups of 40 ERBE scanner scan lines for a period of a month revealed significant differences between the modeled and the observed anisotropy for given scene types and the sun-earth-satellite viewing geometries. By comparing the radiative fluxes derived using the observed anisotropy with those derived assuming isotropic reflection, it is concluded that a reasonable estimate for the maximum error due to the use of incorrect bidirectional models is a bias of about 4 percent for a typical 2.5 deg latitude-longitude monthly mean, and an rms error of 15 percent.

  16. Integrated Campaign for Aerosols, gases and Radiation Budget (ICARB): An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorthy, K. Krishna; Satheesh, S. K.; Babu, S. Suresh; Dutt, C. B. S.

    2008-07-01

    During March-May 2006, an extensive, multi-institution, multi-instrument, and multi-platform integrated field experiment ‘Integrated Campaign for Aerosols, gases and Radiation Budget’ (ICARB) was carried out under the Geosphere Biosphere Programme of the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO-GBP). The objective of this largest and most exhaustive field campaign, ever conducted in the Indian region, was to characterize the physico-chemical properties and radiative effects of atmospheric aerosols and trace gases over the Indian landmass and the adjoining oceanic regions of the Arabian Sea, northern Indian Ocean, and Bay of Bengal through intensive, simultaneous observations. A network of ground-based observatories (over the mainland and islands), a dedicated ship cruise over the oceanic regions using a fully equipped research vessel, the Sagar Kanya, and altitude profiling over selected regions using an instrumented aircraft and balloonsondes formed the three segments of this integrated experiment, which were carried out in tandem. This paper presents an overview of the ICARB field experiment, the database generated, and some of its interesting outcomes though these are preliminary in nature. The ICARB has revealed significant spatio-temporal heterogeneity in most of the aerosol characteristics both over land and ocean. Observed aerosol loading and optical depths were comparable to or in certain regions, a little lower than those reported in some of the earlier campaigns for these regions. The preliminary results indicate: low (< 0.2) aerosol optical depths (AOD) over most part of the Arabian Sea, except two pockets; one off Mangalore and the other, less intense, in the central Arabian Sea at ˜18°N latitude

  17. Wavenumber dependent investigation of the terrestrial infrared radiation budget with two versions of the LOWTRAN5 band model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charlock, T. P.

    1984-01-01

    Two versions of the LOWTRAN5 radiance code are used in a study of the earth's clear sky infrared radiation budget in the interval 30 per cm (333.3 microns) to 3530 per cm (2.8 microns). One version uses 5 per cm resolution and temperature dependent molecular absorption coefficients, and the second uses 20 per cm resolution and temperature independent molecular absorption coefficients. Both versions compare well with Nimbus 3 IRIS spectra, with some discrepancies at particular wavenumber intervals. Up and downgoing fluxes, calculated as functions of latitude, are displayed for wavenumbers at which the principle absorbers are active. Most of the variation of the fluxes with latitude is found in the higher wavenumber intervals for both clear and cloudy skies. The main features of the wavenumber integrated cooling rates are explained with reference to calculations in more restricted wavenumber intervals. A tropical lower tropospheric cooling maximum is produced by water vapor continuum effects in the 760-1240 per cm window. A secondary upper tropospheric cooling maximum, with wide meridional extent, is produced by water vapor rotational lines between 30-430 per cm. Water vapor lines throughout the terrestrial infrared spectrum prevent the upflux maximum from coinciding with the surface temperature maximum.

  18. Evaluating the design of satellite scanning radiometers for earth radiation budget measurements with system simulations. Part 1: Instantaneous estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stowe, Larry; Ardanuy, Philip; Hucek, Richard; Abel, Peter; Jacobowitz, Herbert

    1991-01-01

    A set of system simulations was performed to evaluate candidate scanner configurations to fly as a part of the Earth Radiation Budget Instrument (ERBI) on the polar platforms during the 1990's. The simulation is considered of instantaneous sampling (without diurnal averaging) of the longwave and shortwave fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). After measurement and subsequent inversion to the TOA, the measured fluxes were compared to the reference fluxes for 2.5 deg lat/long resolution targets. The reference fluxes at this resolution are obtained by integrating over the 25 x 25 = 625 grid elements in each target. The differences between each of these two resultant spatially averaged sets of target measurements (errors) are taken and then statistically summarized. Five instruments are considered: (1) the Conically Scanning Radiometer (CSR); (2) the ERBE Cross Track Scanner; (3) the Nimbus-7 Biaxial Scanner; (4) the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System Instrument (CERES-1); and (5) the Active Cavity Array (ACA). Identical studies of instantaneous error were completed for many days, two seasons, and several satellite equator crossing longitudes. The longwave flux errors were found to have the same space and time characteristics as for the shortwave fluxes, but the errors are only about 25 pct. of the shortwave errors.

  19. Evaluating the design of satellite scanning radiometers for earth radiation budget measurements with system simulations. Part 1: Instantaneous estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stowe, Larry; Ardanuy, Philip; Hucek, Richard; Abel, Peter; Jacobowitz, Herbert

    1991-10-01

    A set of system simulations was performed to evaluate candidate scanner configurations to fly as a part of the Earth Radiation Budget Instrument (ERBI) on the polar platforms during the 1990's. The simulation is considered of instantaneous sampling (without diurnal averaging) of the longwave and shortwave fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). After measurement and subsequent inversion to the TOA, the measured fluxes were compared to the reference fluxes for 2.5 deg lat/long resolution targets. The reference fluxes at this resolution are obtained by integrating over the 25 x 25 = 625 grid elements in each target. The differences between each of these two resultant spatially averaged sets of target measurements (errors) are taken and then statistically summarized. Five instruments are considered: (1) the Conically Scanning Radiometer (CSR); (2) the ERBE Cross Track Scanner; (3) the Nimbus-7 Biaxial Scanner; (4) the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System Instrument (CERES-1); and (5) the Active Cavity Array (ACA). Identical studies of instantaneous error were completed for many days, two seasons, and several satellite equator crossing longitudes. The longwave flux errors were found to have the same space and time characteristics as for the shortwave fluxes, but the errors are only about 25 pct. of the shortwave errors.

  20. Comparison of the Highly Reflective Cloud and Outgoing Longwave Radiation datasets for use in estimating tropical deep convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waliser, Duane E.; Graham, Nicholas E.; Gautier, Catherine

    1993-01-01

    Two currently existing long-term satellite-derived data sets (the Highly Reflective Cloud (HRC) and the Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) data sets) were compared for the accuracy in estimating tropical deep convection, in terms of their climatological and frequency-dependent characteristics, their consistency in identifying deep tropical convection, and their relationship to local sea surface temperature (SST). The results reveal some important differences between the HRC and OLR data sets in terms of their temporal and spatial scales of variability, their relationships to other geophysical fields, and the logistics of their use. It was found that, for many applications, the HRC data set represents the characteristics of the cloud cluster-scale tropical convection more accurately than the OLR data set.

  1. Recent Changes in Earth's Energy Budget As Observed By CERES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeb, N. G.

    2014-12-01

    A central objective of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is to produce a long-term climate data record of Earth's radiation budget at the top-of-atmosphere, within-atmosphere and surface together with coincident cloud, aerosol and surface properties. CERES relies on a number of data sources, including broadband CERES radiometers on Terra, Aqua, and Suomi-NPP, high-resolution spectral imagers (MODIS and VIIRS), geostationary visible/infrared imagers, meteorological, aerosol and ozone assimilation data, and snow/sea-ice maps based on microwave radiometer data. The many input data sets are integrated and cross-calibrated to provide a consistent climate data record that accurately captures variations in Earth's radiation budget and associated cloud, aerosol and surface properties over a range of time and space scales. The CERES datasets are primarily used for climate model evaluation, process studies and climate monitoring. This presentation will review some of the ways in which the CERES record along with other datasets have been used to improve our understanding Earth's energy budget. At the top-of-atmosphere, we will show how Earth's energy imbalance, a critical indictor of climate change, has varied during the past 15 years relative to what is observed by in-situ observations of ocean heat content by the Argo observing system. We will use these results to place the so-called global warming hiatus into a larger context that takes Earth's energy budget into account. We will also discuss how recent advances in surface radiation budget estimation by the CERES group is reshaping the debate on why the surface energy budget cannot be closed to better than 15 Wm-2 using state-of-the-art observations. Finally, we will highlight the dramatic changes that have been observed by CERES over the Arctic Ocean, and discuss some of the yet unresolved observational challenges that limit our ability document change in this unique part of the planet.

  2. User's guide: Nimbus-7 Earth radiation budget narrow-field-of-view products. Scene radiance tape products, sorting into angular bins products, and maximum likelihood cloud estimation products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyle, H. Lee; Hucek, Richard R.; Groveman, Brian; Frey, Richard

    1990-01-01

    The archived Earth radiation budget (ERB) products produced from the Nimbus-7 ERB narrow field-of-view scanner are described. The principal products are broadband outgoing longwave radiation (4.5 to 50 microns), reflected solar radiation (0.2 to 4.8 microns), and the net radiation. Daily and monthly averages are presented on a fixed global equal area (500 sq km), grid for the period May 1979 to May 1980. Two independent algorithms are used to estimate the outgoing fluxes from the observed radiances. The algorithms are described and the results compared. The products are divided into three subsets: the Scene Radiance Tapes (SRT) contain the calibrated radiances; the Sorting into Angular Bins (SAB) tape contains the SAB produced shortwave, longwave, and net radiation products; and the Maximum Likelihood Cloud Estimation (MLCE) tapes contain the MLCE products. The tape formats are described in detail.

  3. Our contaminated atmosphere: The danger of climate change, phases 1 and 2. [effect of atmospheric particulate matter on surface temperature and earth's radiation budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cimorelli, A. J.; House, F. B.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of increased concentrations of atmospheric particulate matter on average surface temperature and on the components of the earth's radiation budget are studied. An atmospheric model which couples particulate loading to surface temperature and to changes in the earth's radiation budget was used. A determination of the feasibility of using satellites to monitor the effect of increased atmospheric particulate concentrations is performed. It was found that: (1) a change in man-made particulate loading of a factor of 4 is sufficient to initiate an ice age; (2) variations in the global and hemispheric weighted averages of surface temperature, reflected radiant fluz and emitted radiant flux are nonlinear functions of particulate loading; and (3) a black satellite sphere meets the requirement of night time measurement sensitivity, but not the required day time sensitivity. A nonblack, spherical radiometer whose external optical properties are sensitive to either the reflected radiant fluz or the emitted radiant flux meets the observational sensitivity requirements.

  4. Long Term Cloud Property Datasets From MODIS and AVHRR Using the CERES Cloud Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnis, Patrick; Bedka, Kristopher M.; Doelling, David R.; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Yost, Christopher R.; Trepte, Qing Z.; Bedka, Sarah T.; Palikonda, Rabindra; Scarino, Benjamin R.; Chen, Yan; Hong, Gang; Bhatt, Rajendra

    2015-01-01

    Cloud properties play a critical role in climate change. Monitoring cloud properties over long time periods is needed to detect changes and to validate and constrain models. The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project has developed several cloud datasets from Aqua and Terra MODIS data to better interpret broadband radiation measurements and improve understanding of the role of clouds in the radiation budget. The algorithms applied to MODIS data have been adapted to utilize various combinations of channels on the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the long-term time series of NOAA and MetOp satellites to provide a new cloud climate data record. These datasets can be useful for a variety of studies. This paper presents results of the MODIS and AVHRR analyses covering the period from 1980-2014. Validation and comparisons with other datasets are also given.

  5. The measurement of the earth's radiation budget as a problem in information theory - A tool for the rational design of earth observing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkstrom, B. R.

    1983-01-01

    The measurement of the earth's radiation budget has been chosen to illustrate the technique of objective system design. The measurement process is an approximately linear transformation of the original field of radiant exitances, so that linear statistical techniques may be employed. The combination of variability, measurement strategy, and error propagation is presently made with the help of information theory, as suggested by Kondratyev et al. (1975) and Peckham (1974). Covariance matrices furnish the quantitative statement of field variability.

  6. Radiometer offsets and count conversion coefficients for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) spacecraft for the years 1987, 1988, and 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Stassi, Joseph C.; Wilson, Robert; Bolden, William; Thomas, Susan; Gibson, M. Alan

    1993-01-01

    This document contains a compendium of the ground and in-flight scanner and non-scanner offsets and count conversion (gain) coefficients used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) production processing of data from the ERBS satellite for the period from 1 January 1987 to 31 December 1989; for the NOAA-9 satellite, for the month of January 1987; and for the NOAA-10 satellite, for the period from 1 January 1987 to 31 May 1989.

  7. The Role of Clear Sky Identification in the Study of Cloud Radiative Effects: Combine Analysis from ISCCP and the Scanner of Radiation Budget (ScaRaB)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, W. B.; Stubenrauch, C. J.; Briand, V.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Since the effect of clouds on the earth's radiation balance is often estimated as the difference of net radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere between all situations and monthly averaged clear sky situations of the same regions, a reliable identification of clear sky is important for the study of cloud radiative effects. The Scanner for Radiation Balance (ScaRaB) radiometer on board the Russian Meteor-3/7 satellite provided earth radiation budget observations from March 1994 to February 1995 with two ERBE-Re broad-band longwave and shortwave channels. Two narrow-band channels, in the infrared atmospheric window and in the visible band, have been added to the ScaRaB instrument to improve the cloud scene identification. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) method for cloud detection and determination of cloud and surface properties uses the same narrow-band channels as ScaRaB, but is employed to a collection of measurements at a better spatial resolution of about 5 km. By applying the original ISCCP algorithms to the ScaRaB data, the clear sky frequency is about 5% lower than the one over quasi-simultaneous original ISCCP data, an indication that the ISCCP cloud detection is quite stable. However, one would expect an about 10 to 20% smaller clear sky occurrence over the larger ScaRaB pixels. Adapting the ISCCP algorithms to the reduced spatial resolution of 60 km and to the different time sampling of the ScaRaB data leads therefore to a reduction of a residual cloud contamination. A sensitivity study with time-space collocated ScaRaB and original ISCCP data at a spatial resolution of 1deg longitude x 1deg latitude shows that the effect of clear sky identification method plays a higher role on the clear sky frequency and therefore on the statistics than on the zonal mean values of the clear sky fluxes. Nevertheless, the zonal outgoing longwave fluxes corresponding to ERBE clear sky are in general about 2 to 10 W/sq m higher than those

  8. Budget Thoughts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bialostosky, Don

    2001-01-01

    Addresses budget issues in terms of "getting" and "spending." Notes that educators should not lay waste their powers in exchange for getting and spending. Notes that careful budget management is a necessary virtue, but it is not a sufficient virtue to win additional support. Suggests what to take to an annual budget hearing. (SG)

  9. Program Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagen, John

    Literature on program budgeting is synthesized. Program budgeting has progressed considerably in development and use, but only recently has it been used by the public schools. Program budgeting is practiced differently, depending on the mission of an organization or school district. With regard to schools, literature on the subject is mainly…

  10. Theoretical and Observational Determination of Global and Regional Radiation Budget, Forcing and Feedbacks at the Top-of-Atmosphere and Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeb, Norman G.

    2004-01-01

    Report consists of: 1. List of accomplishments 2. List of publications 3. Abstracts of published or submitted papers and 4. Subject invention disclosure. The accomplishments of the grant listed are: 1. Improved the third-order turbulence closure in cloud resolving models to remove the liquid water oscillation. 2. Used the University of California-Los Angeles (UCLA) large-eddy simulation (LES) model to provide data for radiation transfer testing. 3. Revised shortwave k-distribution models based on HITRAN 2000. 4. Developed a gamma-weighted two-stream radiative transfer model for radiation budget estimate applications. 5. Estimated the effect of spherical geometry to the earth radiation budget. 6. Estimated top-of-atmosphere irradiance over snow and sea ice surfaces. 7. Estimated the aerosol direct radiative effect at the top of the atmosphere. 8. Estimated the top-of-atmosphere reflectance of the clear-sky molecular atmosphere over ocean. 9. Developed and validated new set of Angular Distribution Models for the CERES TRMM satellite instrument (tropical) 10. Developed and validated new set of Angular Distribution Models for the CERES Terra satellite instrument (global) 11. Quantified the top-of-atmosphere direct radiative effect of aerosols over global oceans from merged CERES and MODIS observations 12 Clarified the definition of TOA flux reference level for radiation budget studies 13. Developed new algorithm for unfaltering CERES measured radiances 14. Used multiangle POLDER measurements to produce narrowband angular distribution models and examine the effect of scene identification errors on TOA albedo estimates 15. Developed and validated a novel algorithm called the Multidirectional Reflectance Matching (MRM) model for inferring TOA albedos from ice clouds using multi-angle satellite measurements. 16. Developed and validated a novel algorithm called the Multidirectional Polarized Reflectance Matching (MPRM) model for inferring particle shapes from ice clouds